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Sample records for alto orinoco venezuela

  1. Nutrient content of earthworms consumed by Ye'Kuana Amerindians of the Alto Orinoco of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, M G; Buscardo, E; VanderJagt, D J; Pastuszyn, A; Pizzoferrato, L; Huang, Y-S; Chuang, L-T; Millson, M; Cerda, H; Torres, F; Glew, R H

    2003-02-07

    For the Makiritare (Ye'Kuana) native people of the Alto Orinoco (Venezuela), earthworms (Anellida: Glossoscolecidae) are an important component of the diet. Two species in particular are widely consumed: 'kuru' (Andiorrhinus kuru n. sp.) and 'motto' (Andiorrhinus motto). We analysed eviscerated kuru body proper, and whole and smoked preparations of motto for their content of protein and amino acids, fatty acids and 20 minerals and trace elements. The samples contained large amounts of protein (64.5-72.9% of dry weight), essential amino acids, calcium and iron together with notable quantities of other important elements, indicating that these earthworms contain potentially useful quantities of many nutrients that are critical to the health of the humans who consume them.

  2. Sporotrichosis in the Orinoco river basin of Venezuela and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer-Romero, P; Rodríguez-Ochoa, G; Angulo, R; Cabrera, S; Yarzábal, L

    1989-01-01

    Six cases of sporotrichosis from the Orinoco river basin of Venezuela and Colombia are described; two are of the localized cutaneous type and four are lymphocutaneous. Diagnosis was based on the patient's clinical history and mycological culture. Epidemiology and distinctive cultural habits of the patients are discussed in connection with disease etiology.

  3. Evaluation of Venezuela's Orinoco bitumen as an MHD fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.N.; Ziritt, J.L.; Jimenez, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Orinoco Belt in Venezuela contains huge deposits of a bitumen that is complex to handle and refine into lighter hydrocarbon fractions. These deposits are in the early commercialization stage, being marketed as an emulsion with 30% water as a boiler fuel. The fuel is similar to oil in heating value (about 18,100 BTU/lbm) and ash (less than 0.4%). It has an extremely high carbon to hydrogen ratio, a parameter that is important in MHD for electrical conductivity. In this paper, the authors evaluate the potential for this bitumen as a fuel for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. An experimental program to demonstrate the merit of the bitumen as an MHD fuel and validate the calculations is suggested

  4. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  5. Tectonic controls on the capture of the Orinoco river and formation of the Casiquiare canal, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Carlos; Riccomini, Claudio; Sawakuchi, André O.

    2017-01-01

    Presentation of: Grohmann, C.H., Riccomini, C., Sawakuchi, A.O., 2012. Tectonic controls on the capture of the Orinoco river and formation of the Casiquiare canal, Venezuela.GSA Annual Meeting 2012, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.http://carlosgrohmann.com/downloads/Grohmann_eatl_2012_GSA_Casiquiare.pdfPresented at the GSA Annual Meeting of 2012

  6. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A. G.; White, W. A.; Guevara, E. H.; Smyth, R. C.; Raney, J. A.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins.

  7. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A.G.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Smyth, R.C.; Raney, J.A.; Gibeaut, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  9. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  10. Larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in the Upper Orinoco, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmánková, E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Villegas, L

    1999-12-01

    Survey of larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes was conducted in Ocamo in the State of Amazonas, southern Venezuela. The sampled habitats belonged to three different hydrological types: lagoons (26 habitats), forest pools including flooded forest (16 habitats), and forest streams (4 habitats). Out of 46 habitats surveyed, 31 contained anopheline larvae. Six species were found: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles peryassui, Anopheles punctimacula, and Anopheles mediopunctatus. Anopheles triannulatus was the most abundant species. Significantly higher numbers of anopheline larvae, in general, and of An. triannulatus specifically were found in lagoons with submersed macrophytes and sparse emergent graminoids than in forest pools with detritus.

  11. Dentectus barbarmatus, a new genus and species of mailed catfish from the Orinoco Basin of Venezuela (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Salazar, F.J.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1982-01-01

    Dentectus barbarmatus, a new genus and species of mailed catfish of the subfamily Loricariinae, tribe Loricariini, is described from tributaries of the northern margin of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic data of several specimens are presented and illustrations are given.

  12. The in situ combustion pilot project in Bare field, Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perozo, H.A.; Mendoza, A.J.; Teixeira, J.; Alvarez, A.; Vasquez, P. [PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil fields, in-situ combustion technology can be used as a means to enhance oil recovery. This process consists of burning some part of the oil present in the reservoir to produce heat that allow increased oil displacement. The aim of this study is to present an in situ combustion pilot project (ISCPP). This project will be conducted by PDVSA Intevep and its partners in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela, to assess the effect of in situ combustion in increasing recovery factors from heavy crude oil reservoirs. The laboratory combustion test analyses, the static and dynamic reservoir simulations, the design, construction and completion of all wells and the study, analysis and development of surface facilities are discussed. The ISCPP is expected to be running by the end of 2011.

  13. [Characteristics of canopy plant substratum in a low land humid tropical forest (Upper Orinoco, Venezuela)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rosas, José Ibrahin

    2004-01-01

    By international agreement (Austria-Venezuela) a tower crane was installed near Surumoni river, Upper Orinoco, for canopy research in a tropical rain forest. From the 1.5 ha crane-accessible area of the forest, an experimental plot was selected for assessment of the canopy plants' aerial substrates and to determine their relationship with spatial distribution, presence or absence of vascular plants, and some of the strategies used in their ecological space. In the middle and lower canopy strata myrmecophytic associations appear, where the conformation of the aerial substrates determines the establishment and maintenance of these associations. The high content of nutrients of these aerial substrata represents a reservoir for the forest, where the mirmecophytic activity is determining. A higher fertility of aerial substrates of the ants gardens can be related to a higher number of vascular epiphytes present in these gardens.

  14. Retrieval of suspended sediment concentrations using Landsat-8 OLI satellite images in the Orinoco River (Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez, Santiago; Laraque, Alain; Martinez, Jean-Michel; De Sa, Jose; Carrera, Juan Manuel; Castellanos, Bartolo; Gallay, Marjorie; Lopez, Jose L.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, 81 Landsat-8 scenes acquired from 2013 to 2015 were used to estimate the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Orinoco River at its main hydrological station at Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela. This gauging station monitors an upstream area corresponding to 89% of the total catchment area where the mean discharge is of 33,000 m3·s-1. SSC spatial and temporal variabilities were analyzed in relation to the hydrological cycle and to local geomorphological characteristics of the river mainstream. Three types of atmospheric correction models were evaluated to correct the Landsat-8 images: DOS, FLAASH, and L8SR. Surface reflectance was compared with monthly water sampling to calibrate a SSC retrieval model using a bootstrapping resampling. A regression model based on surface reflectance at the Near-Infrared wavelengths showed the best performance: R2 = 0.92 (N = 27) for the whole range of SSC (18 to 203 mg·l-1) measured at this station during the studied period. The method offers a simple new approach to estimate the SSC along the lower Orinoco River and demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of remote sensing images to map the spatiotemporal variability in sediment transport over large rivers.

  15. Water control wells methodology, applied in Orinoco Belt Morichal district, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcano, B.; Ramos, M.; Brown, J.; Lagrave, G.; Lista, H.; Ugas, L. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2006-07-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt is located next to the lower Orinoco River in eastern Venezuela, and contains large deposits of extra heavy oil. Water cut is a significant problem in the area due to aquifer activity and the fact that many wells are drilled in close proximity to the aquifer. This paper provided details of a pilot test conducted in the Carabobo and Morichal oilfield to evaluate a water control technique designed for use with horizontal wells. The method drained water through the horizontal wells that reached a water cut of higher than 80 per cent in order to protect neighbouring wells from potential water breakthrough in cases where the wells were completed close to aquifers. Results of the 2 pilot tests demonstrated that the method reduced water cut in the wells by 45 per cent. Total expected production increases were estimated at 542 bpd for a 4 well cluster. It was concluded that simulation and reservoir characterization studies are needed to optimize the methodology. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  16. Archaeology in the Átures Rapids of the Middle Orinoco, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lozada Mendieta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reports on the initial results of a new Leverhulme-sponsored four-year archaeological project (RPG 234- 2014 centred on the Átures Rapids area of the Middle Orinoco River, Amazonas State, Venezuela (Fig. 1. The Cotúa Island Reflexive Archaeology Project seeks to establish the longue durée historical processes that by early colonial times culminated in the region’s reputation for being a key crossroads – where diverse ethno-linguistic groups from far-flung regions converged to trade (Oliver et al. 2014. Harnessing new evi- dence, it aims to elucidate how interaction between such diverse indigenous groups unfolded and the role it played in forg- ing ethnogenesis. Through archaeological research, it seeks to gain new insights into its history and elucidate regional patterns of exchange through the study of technical andstylisticdimensionsofmaterialculture. It also aims to investigate the abundant pre-colonial rock art and its relationships to the landscape and aboriginal oral tradi- tions. Finally, it seeks to understand how Western and Non-western archaeological knowledge is produced by engaging with the current indigenous groups as partners in (reconstructing history.

  17. Experiences and best practices in the use of PCPs in Orinoco Belt, Carabobo area, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M.A.; Brown, J.C.; Quijada, M.; Parra, R.; Romero, J. [Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Seince, L. [PCM, Vanves (France)

    2008-07-01

    Artificial lift methods used to produce heavy oil in Venezuela's Orinoco oil belt were discussed. Progressive cavity pumps (PCPs) have been used in the region since the 1990s as an alternative method of producing the region's heavy oil. Artificial lift is now used in over 50 per cent of the region's producing wells, and accounts for approximately 45 per cent of current production. This paper discussed modifications made to the PCP implementation process, new designs, improvements to fluid handling capabilities, and reduced costs. The region has developed artificial lift systems as well as new horizontal and multi-lateral wells. PCP production methods have reduced the lifting cost and increased the reliability of the system. Modifications included pump capacity, downhole pressure sensors, top drives and variable speeds. The use of PCP in vertical and deviated wells. Gas separators have been designed to increase pumping efficiencies, reduced carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and corrosion. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Geochemical dispersion associated with uranium deposits in sandstone roll front type and its relationship to the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, J.

    2014-01-01

    In Venezuela, there is a potential for the formation of uranium deposits in areas such as the Guiana Shield, the south of the Eastern Basin, the Andes and the massif of Baúl, among other areas. Especially great interest is the exploration of uranium redox interface type (roll front), in areas such as the southern part of the Orinoco Oil Belt, north and northwest of the Guiana Shield, where groundwater uranium collecting the weathering shield flowing northward in the sandstones and mudstones of the Cretaceous to Quaternary formations, which constitute the southern boundary of the Eastern basin Venezuela. The presence of gas, extra-heavy crude oil, bitumen and lignite of the Orinoco Oil Belt can be an effective barrier for uranium in solution, which may have precipitated at the redox interface of this groundwater. This process certainly was more effective before the Orinoco river take its course to the east and the waters of small rivers and large draining shield contributed to uranium aquifers became more deep north. This work was based on a qualitative model describing geochemical dispersion associated with uranium deposits in sandstone, roll front type, which indicates that the daughter isotopes 238 U, which can migrate extensively are: 222 Rn, 4 He, and in a smaller proportion: 226 Ra and 222 Rn daughters ( 214 Bi, 210 Pb). The main exploration methods were established, which can be applied in areas of the Orinoco Oil Belt, north of the Guiana Shield, and areas west of this, among the most important are: soil measurements of radon and helium near faults, sampling soils with gamma spectrometry analysis, log interpretation of oil wells in the area of interest to establish gamma – lithological anomalies, ground water analysis of uranium, radon, radium, helium, vanadium, selenium, molybdenum, analysis of samples oil drilling cores to locate anomalous stratigraphic levels. This research will provide the basis to establish methodologies for uraniferous exploration

  19. [A new species of frog of the genus Hyalinobatrachium (Anura: Centrolenidae) of the Delta of the Orinoco River, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celsa Señaris, J; Ayarzagüena, J

    2001-01-01

    A new species of Hyalinobatrachium of the fleischmanni group, H. mondolfii, is described from the Orinoco delta floodplains in Venezuela. This new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the following combination of characters: parietal peritoneum clear, pericardium white, visceral and hepatic peritoneum white, color in life pale green with diminute yellow spots and, in preservative, cream with small dark melanophores (visible only under magnification), bones white in life, extense webbing, snout round in dorsal view and inclinate in lateral view, dorsal skin granulate and a advertisement call with a fundamental frequency greater than 5000 Hz.

  20. New own design an application of electric heating cable for the Orinoco oil belt wells in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada, A; Jorge, L [PDVSA PETROLEOS S.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal recovery processes are common methods to reduce oil viscosity and the oil steaking factor. One of these methods consists of using a heating element to increase the well's temperature.. A new heating system, the down hole electric heating system (CEF), has been developed where the hold cable for the horizontal section is heated and used as a resistive heating element; the aim of this paper is to present this new technology system and its application. The system was installed one of PDVSA's wells in the Zuata Field in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and has now been in use for 8 months. Results showed a production increase of 20% with the use of the down hole electric heating system. Through successful application in a well in Venezuela, this paper showed that the down hole electric heating system can be a good alternative to produce oil from heavy oil reservoirs.

  1. Onchocerciasis in Venezuela: prevalence of microfilaraemia in Amerindians and morphological characteristics of the microfilariae from the Upper Orinoco Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, C; Arango, M; Yarzábal, L

    1984-09-01

    Data are presented on microfilaraemia in 191 Yanomami Amerindians from two areas of Venezuela's Upper Orinoco Basin, where an endemic focus of onchocerciasis has been recently detected. Onchocerca microfilariae were found in the blood of 12.6% of the persons examined. In the village with the higher number of examined individuals (N = 162), the prevalence of microfilaraemia in the age groups covaried with the prevalence of microfilariae in the skin and with the parasite load (mf/mg of skin). A positive correlation was found between age and these three variables. The prevalence of Onchocerca microfilaraemia in the Upper Orinoco focus is high, and may be related to the ability of the strain to invade the blood stream. Morphobiometric characteristics of the Onchocerca microfilariae isolated from human blood are similar to those of O. volvulus fixed in formalin from skin and from the uterus of female O. volvulus worms. All have a very short cephalic space. Comparisons with the entity from the Upper Caura river designated as Microfilaria bolivarensis were also made. It was concluded that there are no valid biometric differences in thick blood smears between microfilaria bolivarensis and microfilaria of O. volvulus from the Upper Orinoco deme. A more striking difference may be in the concentration of microfilariae observed in the blood, which in one case of mf. bolivarensis was more than forty times the highest number recorded for microfilaria O. volvulus in Parima.

  2. Evaluation of thermal performance in fields subjected to steam injection (SW-SAGD mode), Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, F.; Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The first well to operate the SW-SAGD process in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela was built in 2006 by Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA). SW-SAGD is a thermal recovery process consisting in the injection of steam through a horizontal well pipe insulation. In order to follow the behavior of steam and the movement of heated fluids in such a process better, PDVSA installed a monitoring system composed of high temperature fiber optic and thermocouple type sensors. The aim of this paper is to assess the thermal behavior of reservoirs in wells under the SW-SAGD process. A pilot test has been conducted over the last 3 years. Results show an increase in production and estimations show a recovery factor twice as high as in other wells. This study demonstrated that SW-SAGD is an excellent alternative solution to stimulate reservoirs in the Orinoco oil belt and valuable information on the reservoir's thermal behavior was established.

  3. Regional controls on geomorphology, hydrology, and ecosystem integrity in the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Meade, R.H.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Gibeaut, J.; Smyth, R.C.; Aslan, A.; Tremblay, T.

    2002-01-01

    Interacting river discharge, tidal oscillation, and tropical rainfall across the 22,000 km2 Orinoco delta plain support diverse fresh and brackish water ecosystems. To develop environmental baseline information for this largely unpopulated region, we evaluate major coastal plain, shallow marine, and river systems of northeastern South America, which serves to identify principal sources and controls of water and sediment flow into, through, and out of the Orinoco Delta. The regional analysis includes a summary of the geology, hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, and geomorphic characteristics of the Orinoco drainage basin, river, and delta system. Because the Amazon River is a major source of sediment deposited along the Orinoco coast, we summarize Amazon water and sediment input to the northeastern South American littoral zone. We investigate sediment dynamics and geomorphology of the Guiana coast, where marine processes and Holocene history are similar to the Orinoco coast. Major factors controlling Orinoco Delta water and sediment dynamics include the pronounced annual flood discharge; the uneven distribution of water and sediment discharge across the delta plain; discharge of large volumes of water with low sediment concentrations through the Rio Grande and Araguao distributaries; water and sediment dynamics associated with the Guayana littoral current along the northeastern South American coast; inflow of large volumes of Amazon sediment to the Orinoco coast; development of a fresh water plume seaward of Boca Grande; disruption of the Guayana Current by Trinidad, Boca de Serpientes, and Gulf of Paria; and the constriction at Boca de Serpientes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Domestication process of two Solanum section Lasiocarpa species among Amerindians in the Upper Orinoco, Venezuela, with special focus on Piaroa Indians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Marcucci, R.; Tornadore, N.; Paoletti, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Two semi-cultivated Solanum species (S. sessiliflorum Dunal and S. stramonifolium Jacq.) are utilized by the Amazonian Indians of the Upper Orinoco Basin in Venezuela. The manner in which they have become partially domesticated by the Piaroas and other native tribes of this rain forest region is

  5. Geostatistical modeling of a fluviodeltaic reservoir in the Huyapari Field, Hamaca area, in the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ascencao, Erika M.; Munckton, Toni; Digregorio, Ricardo [Petropiar (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Huyapari field, situated within the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco (FPO) of Venezuela presents unique problems in terms of modeling. This field is spread over a wide area and is therefore subject to variable oil quality and complex fluvial facies architecture. Ameriven and PDVSA have been working on characterizing the ld's reservoirs in this field since 2000 and the aim of this paper is to present these efforts. Among others, a 3-D seismic survey completed in 1998 and a stratigraphic framework built from 149 vertical wells were used for reservoir characterization. Geostatistical techniques such as sequential Gaussian simulation with locally varying mean and cloud transform were also used. Results showed that these geostatistical methods accurately represented the architecture and properties of the reservoir and its fluid distribution. This paper showed that the application of numerous different techniques in the Hamasca area permitted reservoir complexity to be captured.

  6. Karyotypic characterization of Prochilodus mariae, Semaprochilodus kneri and S. laticeps(Teleostei: Prochilodontidae from Caicara del Orinoco, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Oliveira

    Full Text Available Fish of the family Prochilodontidae are considered one of the most important components of commercial and subsistence fishery in freshwater environments in South America. This family consists of 21 species and three genera. In the present study, the karyotypes of Prochilodus mariae, Semaprochilodus kneri, and S. laticeps from Caicara del Orinoco, Bolivar State, Venezuela were studied. The species P. mariae, S. kneri and S. laticeps exhibited 2n=54 chromosomes (40 metacentric and 14 submetacentric, a single chromosome pair with nucleolus organizer regions, and a large amount of heterochromatin found at centromeric and pericentromeric positions in almost all chromosomes. The P. mariae specimens studied displayed 0 to 3 supernumerary microchromosomes. The data obtained here confirm the conservative nature of the chromosome number and morphology of Prochilodontidae and reinforce the hypothesis that small structural chromosome rearrangements were the main cause of the karyotypic diversification seen in this group.

  7. Characterization, origin and hierarchy of lateral shale-barriers in the Petrocedeno heavy oil field, Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegner, J. [Petrocedeno, Total E and P (Venezuela); Bejarano, C. [Petrocedeno, PDVSA, CVP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Petrocedeno heavy oil field located in the western part of the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela, is in its last stages of primary recovery with over 10 years of production and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are now being considered. A better reservoir characterization is required to implement those EOR projects and thus the aim of the study is to improve understanding of the reservoir barriers and baffles. Based on available data, core description and wire-line pressure depletion data from the Petrocedeno field, a shale barrier model was developed. It was found that thick mudstone may provide shale barriers and interact with production. In addition a hierarchy for the Petrocedeno area was proposed. This study provided a better understanding of shale barriers in the Petrocedeno heavy oil field but further research should be undertaken to refine the recognition of shale origin.

  8. Acid phosphatase patterns in microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus s.l. from the Upper Orinoco Basin, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarzàbal, L; Petralanda, I; Arango, M; Lobo, L; Botto, C

    1983-06-01

    The patterns of acid phosphatase in strains of Onchocerca volvulus s.l. which parasitize an Amerindian population (Yanomami) in Venezuela's Upper Orinoco Basin were examined by using the naphthol AS-TR phosphate method. The study sample consisted of 40 Yanomami inhabiting a savannah area at 950 m above sea level and 21 Yanomami residents of a tropical rainforest area at an altitude of 250 m. Stained intrauterine microfilariae, still within the egg case, exhibited a diffuse distribution of the enzyme in the early stages of embryonic development and a negative reaction at a more developed stage. Four of the five enzyme staining patterns described by Omar (1978) were found in the 3157 microfilariae examined from skin snips. Their distribution was: Type I--17.2%, Type III--0.5%, Type IV--75.6% and Type V--6.6%. No examples of Type II were observed. The results indicate that acid phosphatase patterns of the Upper Orinoco Onchocerca strain most resemble those of strains from Guatemala and Yemen, and are different from the African strains found in Upper Volta and Liberia. The relative frequency of acid phosphatase patterns was modified by cryopreservation of microfilariae.

  9. 3a static model of Oligocene and lower Miocene oil reservoirs, Junin 5 block, Orinoco heavy oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, G.; Simon, C.; Capoferri, E.; Redaelli, M.; Marcano, E. [Eni Venezuela B.V., Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Solorzano, E. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). CVP

    2009-07-01

    The presence of oil in Venezuela's Orinoco heavy oil belt has been known since the 1930's, but the first rigorous evaluation of the resource was only made in the 1980's and revised in 2005. The Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco (FPO) has been divided into 4 areas, namely the Boyaca (6 blocks), Junin (11 blocks), Ayacucho (7 blocks) and Carabobo (4 blocks). The Junin 5 block covers a surface area of 672 km{sup 2} and consists of extra-heavy oil accumulations with an average API gravity of 8. Field static and dynamic models were generated as part of a joint study agreement between PDVSA and Eni Venezuela that included the quantification and the certification of stock tank oil initially in place (STOIIP). A reservoir analysis was performed based on original geophysical, petrophysical, stratigraphic and sedimentological studies. The Cretaceous to Oligo-Miocene reservoir sequence consists of a complex mix of fluvial and tidal delta facies interbedded with alluvial and coastal plain non-reservoir intervals. Structurally, the sequence consists of a faulted monocline dipping north-northeast and onlapping southwards onto Paleozoic meta-sediments. The 6 petrophysical facies include coarse-medium sand, fine-medium sand, heterolithic deposits, coal, tight facies and shale. A relationship between petrophysical facies derived from electric logs and sedimentological facies described from bottom-hole cores was found. At least 15 hydraulic units were defined in the whole sequence. All the results of the reservoir analysis were integrated into a geo-cellular model of the whole Junin 5 block. The STOIIP of the Junin 5 block, which was computed taking into account all the pay facies, was found to be 39,416 MMSTB. The most important reservoirs are the Arenas Basales and the Oligocene which contain more than 85 per cent of the oil volume. 12 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  10. SAGD pilot project, wells MFB-772 (producer) / MFB-773 (injector), U1,3 MFB-53 reservoir, Bare Field. Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Armas, F.; Vasquez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil and extra heavy oil fields, steam assisted gravity drainage is a thermal recovery method used to reduce oil viscosity and thus increase oil recovery. For SAGD to be successfully applied in deep reservoirs, drilling and completion of the producer and injector wells are critical. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently assessing the feasibility of SAGD in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and this paper aims at presenting the methodology used to ensure optimal drilling and completion of the project. This method was divided in several stages: planning, drilling and completion of the producer, injector and then of the observer wells and cold information capture. It was found that the use of magnetic guidance tools, injection pipe pre-insulated and pressure and temperature sensors helps optimize the drilling and completion process. A methodology was presented to standardize operational procedures in the drilling and completion of SAGD projects in the Orinoco oil belt.

  11. Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The background notes by the U.S. State Department on Venezuela emphasize the unique economic conditions in this oil-rich nation, and include information on its people, geography, history, government politics, defense and foreign relations. Venezuela, located on the north coast of South America, has 17,791,000 people, growing at a rate of 2.7%. Infant mortality is 2.7/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Geography ranges from the scarcely populated highlands between the Orinoco river and Guyana, the Orinoco plains, to the populated Andes mountains and coast. 80% of the population is urban. Literacy is a priority at 88.4%; Technical and university education is increasing; emigration from other countries is common because of relatively good working conditions. Venezuela has a long history of self government, having become independent in 1921. Now the democratic constitutional government is effective in improving both internal and regional development and human rights. The economy is based on oil production and refining, as well as steel and aluminum, all nationalized industries. Self-sufficiency in agriculture is a national goal. Because of the rapid population growth rate, however, per capita income and GNP are stagnating.

  12. Data from sediment studies of the Rio Orinoco, Venezuela, August 15-25, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Carl F.; Meade, R.H.; Curtis, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    Water and suspended-sediment discharges were measured and bed-material samples were collected during August, 1982, at 9 cross sections along a 800-kilometer reach of the Rio Orinoco. Flows varied from approximately 31,000 to 72,000 cubic meters per second, and sediment discharge varied from approximately 1,600 to 8,000 kilograms per second. The bed material is mostly fine to medium sand and almost one-third of the suspended sediment is sand.

  13. Morphodynamic change analysis of bedforms in the Lower Orinoco River, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Yepez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Orinoco River has the third largest discharge in the world, with an annual mean flow of 37 600 m3 s−1 at its outlet to the Atlantic Ocean. Due to the presence of the Guiana Shield on the right bank, the lower reach of the Orinoco has a plan form characterized by contraction and expansion zones. Typical 1–1.5 km wide narrow reaches are followed by 7–8 km wide reaches. A complex pattern of bed aggradation and degradation processes takes place during the annual hydrological regime. A series of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP transects were collected on an expansion channel in the Orinoco River, specifically over a fluvial island, representative of the lower Orinoco. In this study, temporal series of bathymetric cartography obtained by ADCP profiles combined with Differential Global Position System (DGPS measurements (with dual-frequency, were used to recover the local displacement of bed forms in this island. The principal aims of this analysis were: (1 to understand the dynamics and evolution of sand waves and bars at this section and (2 to quantify the volume (erosion vs. accretion of a mid-channel bar with dunes by applying DEM of Difference (DoD maps on time series of bathymetric data. This required sampling with ADCP transects during the months of: May 2016; November 2016 and April 2017. Each bathymetric transect was measured twice, 1 day apart and on the same trajectory obtained by a GPS receptor. The spatial analysis of these ADCP transects is presented as a novel tool in the acquisition of time series of bathymetry for a relatively deep section ( ∼ 20 m and under variable flow conditions.

  14. Petrophysical and sedimentological characterization of the Zuata field in Orinoco Oil Belt. Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.; Baena, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Zuata field is in the middle of the Jun in block in Orinoco Oil Belt and its production is handled by the district of Cabrutica which planning to develop a comprehensive reservoir model that allows leverage a correct management of hydrocarbon reserves. The purpose of this study is to generate a sedimentological and petrophysical model to know the architecture and quality of the rocks

  15. [Iron and copper in Plagioscion squamosissimus (Piscis: Sciaenidae) from the Orinoco river, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A R; Márquez, A; Chung, K S

    2000-12-01

    Bauxite explotation of the Orinoco River in recent years is an important source of heavy metals discharge in the ecosystem, changing the natural biochemical flow of these elements and their concentrations in water, sediment and organisms. Iron and copper concentrations were measured in the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus in the Orinoco river, by sampling the fish population for three months (September-November 1998) in the main channel of the middle Orinoco (07 degrees 38' 21.2" N; 66 degrees 19' 10.9" W) and in Castillero lagoon (7 degrees 39' 09" N; 66 degrees 09' 00" W) with 2 and 4 cm mesh sizes. The internal organs of 30 fishes per month and site were stove-dried at 80 degrees C, pulverized and dried in disecator for 30 min to use as indicators with the acid digestion method for predicting the effect of heavy metals. We found relatively high values of iron and copper concentrations in fishes of the lagoon, and high seasonal variations in the iron concentration.

  16. Reservoir characterization of hydraulic flow units in heavy-oil reservoirs at Petromonagas, eastern Orinoco belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merletti, G.D.; Hewitt, N.; Barrios, F.; Vega, V.; Carias, J. [BP Exploration, Houston, TX (United States); Bueno, J.C.; Lopez, L. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    An accurate integrated reservoir description is necessary in extra-heavy oil prospects where pore throat geometries are the ultimate control on hydrocarbon primary recovery. The key element in producing accurate oil reservoir descriptions and improving productivity is to determine relationships between core-derived pore-throat parameters and log-derived macroscopic attributes. This paper described the use of the flow zone indicator technique (FZI) to identify hydraulic units within depositional facies. It focused on a petrophysical analysis aimed at improving the description of reservoir sandstones containing heavy or extra heavy oil in the eastern Orinoco belt in Venezuela. The Petromonagas license area contains large volumes of crude oil in-place with an API gravity of 8. Production comes primarily from the lowermost stratigraphic unit of the Oficina Formation, the Miocene Morichal Member. Facies analysis has revealed various depositional settings and core measurements depict a wide range in reservoir quality within specific depositional facies. The reservoir is divided into 4 different rock qualities and 5 associated non-reservoir rocks. The use of the FZI technique provides a better understanding of the relationship between petrophysical rock types and depositional facies. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. Drilling fluids engineering to drill extra-heavy oil reservoir on the Orinoco Oil Belt, eastern Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pino, R.; Gonazalez, W. [Proamsa, Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    Petrocedeno is an exploration and development company operating in Venezuela. As part of a multidisciplinary group, Proamsa has been working with Petrocedeno to drill horizontal wells while minimizing issues related to the handling of drilling fluids. Proamsa is the only 100 per cent Venezuelan Company involved in drilling extra-heavy oil wells. The drilling plan for Petrocedeno was divided into two campaigns. More than 400 horizontal wells were drilled during the first campaign from 1999 to 2003 which represented over 2,500,000 drilled feet into the Oficina Formation (pay zone of the field). From 2006, during the second drilling campaign, and another 154 horizontal wells having been drilled until 2006 utilizing the xantam gum viscoelastic fluid. This paper discussed the field geology of the Orinoco oil belt. Well design was also explained and discussed and drilling fluid design and new fluid formations were presented. The benefits of xantam gum viscoelastic fluid were also discussed. It was concluded that recycling of drilling fluid from well to well minimized volume and reduced costs. In addition, centrifugation of drilling fluids either on intermediate or horizontals sections while the rig was skidding was always a very good practice avoiding mixing additional volumes. It was also demonstrated that the initial idea to provide a drilling fluid service company with a 100 per cent national value was a success, as demonstrated by the high performance shown by Proamsa during the second drilling campaign with external technologic support. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossini, Mario; Blanco, P.A.; Marin, E.

    2012-01-01

    .7 109/L, TC 5.4 109/L, PCV 35.6%, PP 4.2 g/dL, Hgb 11.8 g/dL, MCV 411 fL. The differential leukocyte count comprised: 71% heterophils, 23% lymphocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1.6% basophils, and 1% monocytes. The reports of reference haematology values for the wild P. expansa are limited; therefore......, the results presented herein contrast with those values obtained in captivity. This study represents a contribution to the referential haematological values of the wild P. expansa.......The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during postlaying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal...

  19. Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, M; Blanco, P A; Marín, E; Comerma-Steffensen, S; Zerpa, H

    2012-02-01

    The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during post-laying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus in lithium heparin tubes. Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), thrombocytes (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), plasmatic protein (PP), haemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and differential leukocyte count were determined. Haematological values were: RBC 0.9×10(9)/L, WBC 5.7×10(9)/L, TC 5.4×10(9)/L, PCV 35.6%, PP 4.2g/dL, Hgb 11.8g/dL, MCV 411fL. The differential leukocyte count comprised: 71% heterophils, 23% lymphocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1.6% basophils, and 1% monocytes. The reports of reference haematology values for the wild P. expansa are limited; therefore, the results presented herein contrast with those values obtained in captivity. This study represents a contribution to the referential haematological values of the wild P. expansa. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of extra-heavy oil reservoirs in block MPE-3 in the Orinoco Belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.; Xu, G.; Liu, D.; Liu, Y.; Yang, J. [CNPC America Ltd., Caracas (Venezuela); Reina, E.; Serna, C.; Torres, A.; Salazar, O. [PDVSA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described development plans for an extra heavy oil reservoir in Venezuela. The reservoir was principally comprised of non-consolidated sandstones. Development plans were based on an initial reservoir description that used detailed subdivisions and correlations, accurate reservoir seismic-structural interpretations, lithographical analyses and seismic-petrophysical inversions. The analyses were used to develop a detailed geological model which served as a guide for horizontal well drilling in the region. The plan was made with consideration of the geological features and the extra heavy oil reservoir characteristics in the region. The technology was implemented in the MPE-3 block of a heavy oil field in Venezuela. A high quality 3-D simulation tool was used to separate the block into several different sections. Main productions layers were developed simultaneously in order to reduce costs. As a result of the model, the development included 3D horizontal well cluster drilling, advanced low-rate washout coring and core cooling techniques, and sand control using electric submersible pump and progressive cavity pumps. It was concluded that 95 wells are now achieving production rates of 123,500 barrels per day, and have achieved an additional $2 billion in income per year. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. "Muy poco se sabe de los resultados": Francis E. Bond's expedition to the Paria Peninsula and delta of the Orinoco, Venezuela (1911).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, L J

    2010-01-01

    The natural history expedition of the American banker and stock broker Francis E. Bond and companions to the Paria Peninsula and delta of the Orinoco, Venezuela, in early 1911 is described. Biographical details are provided for the three principles: Francis E. Bond, Stewardson Brown and Thomas S. Gillin. The itinerary of their three and a half month expedition is elaborated, and notes are provided on the collection of plants, animals, and artefacts that they gathered in South America and deposited in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia on their return.

  2. Una nueva especie de rana de cristal del género Hyalinobatrachium (Anura: Centrolenidae) del Delta del Río Orinoco, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    J. Celsa Señaris; José Ayarzagüena

    2001-01-01

    Se describe una nueva especie de Hyalinobatrachium del grupo fleischmanni, H. mondolfii, de las planicies inundables del delta del río Orinoco, Venezuela. Hyalinobatrachium mondolfii se distingue del resto de las especies del grupo por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: peritoneo parietal translúcido, pericardio y peritoneos visceral y hepático blancos, coloración dorsal en vida verde claro con diminutos puntos amarillos y en preservativo crema uniforme con diminutos melanóforos oscuros ...

  3. Una nueva especie de rana de cristal del género Hyalinobatrachium (Anura: Centrolenidae) del Delta del Río Orinoco, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Señaris, J Celsa; Ayarzagüena, José

    2015-01-01

    Se describe una nueva especie de Hyalinobatrachium del grupo fleischmanni, H. mondolfii, de las planicies inundables del delta del río Orinoco, Venezuela. Hyalinobatrachium mondolfii se distingue del resto de las especies del grupo por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: peritoneo parietal translúcido, pericardio y peritoneos visceral y hepático blancos, coloración dorsal en vida verde claro con diminutos puntos amarillos y en preservativo crema uniforme con diminutos melanóforos oscuros ...

  4. Vector bionomics and malaria transmission in the Upper Orinoco River, Southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magris, Magda; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Menares, Cristóbal; Villegas, Leopoldo

    2007-06-01

    A longitudinal epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Ocamo, Upper Orinoco River, between January 1994 and February 1995 to understand the dynamics of malaria transmission in this area. Malaria transmission occurs throughout the year with a peak in June at the beginning of the rainy season. The Annual Parasite Index was 1,279 per 1,000 populations at risk. Plasmodium falciparum infections accounted for 64% of all infections, P. vivax for 28%, and P. malariae for 4%. Mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections were diagnosed in 15 people representing 4% of total cases. Children under 10 years accounted for 58% of the cases; the risk for malaria in this age group was 77% higher than for those in the greater than 50 years age group. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant anopheline species landing on humans indoors with a biting peak between midnight and dawn. A significant positive correlation was found between malaria monthly incidence and mean number of An. darlingi caught. There was not a significant relationship between mean number of An. darlingi and rainfall or between incidence and rainfall. A total of 7295 anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite (CS) protein. Only An. darlingi (55) was positive for CS proteins of P. falciparum (0.42%), P. malariae (0.25%), and P. vivax-247 (0.1%). The overall estimated entomological inoculation rate was 129 positive bites/person/year. The present study was the first longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study conducted in this area and set up the basic ground for subsequent intervention with insecticide-treated nets.

  5. Integrated reservoir characterization and oil in place estimation for Ayacucho area, Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, E.; Bauza, I.; Cadena, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the reservoir rock and fluid properties of the main formations in the Orinoco Oil Belt. The four major areas of the basin include the Boyaca, Junin, Ayacucho and Carabobo. An integrated reservoir model based on geological analysis, petrophysics, 2D seismic, fluid analysis, 3D Geocellular modeling was developed to characterize the Ayacucho area, in which oil traps are mainly stratigraphic in the lowermost sand-bodies of Oficina Formation. The main oil bearing intervals are sand beds of the basal part of the formation. Five major geological zones have been identified in the Oficina Formation based on sequence stratigraphy, lithology and facies change, core description, and log-derived properties. The uppermost part of the Oficina Formation (zone A) has the most extensive indications of marine influence in its strata succession. The sandstone beds of the middle part (zone B) are massive to cross bedded and have been deposited in shoreline. Zones C and D are composed of shale, siltstone, mudstone, coaly beds, and sand-bodies, and are the depositional product of tide-dominated coastal plain settings. The main reservoir is located in the lowermost sand-bodies of the formation. The main oil bearing intervals are sand beds of the basal part of the formation, namely zones E. These sand-bodies were deposited in a braided fluvial setting. The oil bearing zones thicknesses are variable and most of the faults are normal and oriented east-west. It was concluded that the Oficina Formation in Ayacucho contains 166 MMMSTB of original oil in place. The average viscosity value for Ayacucho is estimated at 5000 cp. decreasing from south to north. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  6. Vector bionomics and malaria transmission in the Upper Orinoco River, Southern Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Magris

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Ocamo, Upper Orinoco River, between January 1994 and February 1995 to understand the dynamics of malaria transmission in this area. Malaria transmission occurs throughout the year with a peak in June at the beginning of the rainy season. The Annual Parasite Index was 1,279 per 1,000 populations at risk. Plasmodium falciparum infections accounted for 64% of all infections, P. vivax for 28%, and P. malariae for 4%. Mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections were diagnosed in 15 people representing 4% of total cases. Children under 10 years accounted for 58% of the cases; the risk for malaria in this age group was 77% higher than for those in the greater than 50 years age group. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant anopheline species landing on humans indoors with a biting peak between midnight and dawn. A significant positive correlation was found between malaria monthly incidence and mean number of An. darlingi caught. There was not a significant relationship between mean number of An. darlingi and rainfall or between incidence and rainfall. A total of 7295 anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite (CS protein. Only An. darlingi (55 was positive for CS proteins of P. falciparum (0.42%, P. malariae (0.25%, and P. vivax-247 (0.1%. The overall estimated entomological inoculation rate was 129 positive bites/person/year. The present study was the first longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study conducted in this area and set up the basic ground for subsequent intervention with insecticide-treated nets.

  7. [Gradients, stability and conservation status of fishes in the Andean mountain streams of the Orinoco versant, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Olarte, Douglas; Barrios Gómez, Margenny

    2014-09-01

    Most Andean mountain streams of the Orinoco Basin in Venezuela, had been suffering various disturbances. In spite of this, fish communities have been poorly evaluated in terms of spatial and temporal gradients. Thus, the generation of information about these communities is a priority, since it may support conservation of regional hydrobiological resources. For this, six sites were monthly evaluated in tributaries of upper Turbio River in Sierra de Portuguesa (770-1,305 msnm), during the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season (January-April 2012); we characterized stream dimensions, substrate and water physicochemical variables. Electrofishing was used to determine the number and abundance of fish species. The fish communities and their stability were evaluated by exploring the changes in richness and abundance, coefficients of variation, hierarchical classification and non-metrical multidimensional scaling analysis. The sites conservation status was estimated with a habitat integrity index. Our results showed that richness of the 12 species found varied accord- ing to the mountain elevation, the tributaries and the conservation status of the sites. Chaetostoma dorsale, Creagrutus taphorni and Chaetostoma milesi comprised 90.8% of the relative abundance, and maintained the first ranks during the study period. The communities had little spatio-temporal variation which was associated with a gradient signed principally by the amount of shadow, rocks and gravel cover, water temperature and conductivity. Stability was moderate but varied with elevation and according to site conservation status. The tributaries in upper Turbio River were found to be under severe impacts and their fishes were found impoverished and at risk.

  8. ORINOCO CROCODILE CROCODYLUS INTERMEDIUS

    OpenAIRE

    Seijas, Andrés E.; Antelo , Rafael; Thorbjarnarson, John B.; Ardila Robayo, María Cristina

    1992-01-01

    The Orinoco crocodile is a large, relatively long-nosed crocodile restricted to the middle and lower reaches of the Orinoco River and its tributaries in Venezuela and Colombia Although this crocodile was found in a wide variety of habitats, including rivers in tropical evergreen forest and piedmont streams in the foothills of the Andes, it reached its greatest numbers in the seasonal rivers of the Llanos savanna region

  9. Evaluation of downhole electrical heating in heavy oil of the Orinoco belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfissi, S.; Campos, F.; Osuna, C.; Brown, J. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Exploration and Production

    2009-07-01

    The study analyzed the benefits of using downhole electrical heating technologies at extra-heavy and heavy oil fields in Venezuela. A method of simulating artificial lift methods using a nodal analysis technique for rod pumping and progressive cavity pumps was presented. Wells were configured in relation to pump type, lengths and tubing and casing diameters. Vertical and horizontal multiphase flow correlations were used for heavy and extra-heavy oil production. The fluid characteristics of fluids, water cut, oil rates and well productivity indices from wells located in the oil fields were used in the artificial lift simulations. Current and predictive oil production rates were analyzed. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were conducted in order to determine the influence of the electrical heating system on the pay zone and reservoir formation. The study showed that heating generated a significant reduction in oil viscosity and reduced frictional pressure drops, which in turn allowed the pumps to handle a greater amount of fluids. Higher flow rates reduced heat losses. Oil temperatures at the pump inlet did not influence elastomer properties in progressive cavity pumps. It was concluded that productivity increases when wells are shut down for a period of 7 days during the heating process. 6 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  10. Horizontal alternating steam drive process for the Orinoco heavy oil belt in eastern Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar A. Fernandez R.; Bashbush, J.L. [Schlumberger, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Horizontal alternating steam drive (HASD) processes use single horizontal wells that cyclically switch between injection and production phases. The steam chambers generated by the wells are laterally driven by the pressure differentials created by adjacent producers to form a sweeping front between the wells. This feasibility study assessed the use of HASD processes at a heavy oil reservoir in Venezuela. The study used numerical simulations from a representative reservoir with a 5-horizontal well array to asses the HASD recovery technique under various scenarios. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to consider the positioning of the horizontal well placement in the reservoir column; different injection sequences; variations in the duration of injection cycles; injection rates; and the lengths of the horizontal reach of the wells. Results of the study suggested that HASD is a suitable alternative for reservoirs with sands in the 20 foot to 50 foot thickness range. HASD achieved average recovery factors of above 20 per cent over a 15 year period, and required fewer wells than steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. It was concluded that the wells must be designed to consider the additional thermal stresses resulting the repeated injection and production cycles associated with HASD processes. The 6 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  11. Una nueva especie de rana de cristal del género Hyalinobatrachium (Anura: Centrolenidae del Delta del Río Orinoco, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Celsa Señaris

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Hyalinobatrachium del grupo fleischmanni, H. mondolfii, de las planicies inundables del delta del río Orinoco, Venezuela. Hyalinobatrachium mondolfii se distingue del resto de las especies del grupo por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: peritoneo parietal translúcido, pericardio y peritoneos visceral y hepático blancos, coloración dorsal en vida verde claro con diminutos puntos amarillos y en preservativo crema uniforme con diminutos melanóforos oscuros (visibles solo bajo magnificación, huesos blancos en vida, palmeadura de manos y pies extensa, cabeza redondeada en vista dorsal e inclinada en vista lateral, piel dorsal granular y un canto con frecuencia fundamental superior a los 5 000 HzA new species of Hyalinobatrachium of the fleischmanni group, H. mondolfii, is described from the Orinoco delta floodplains in Venezuela. This new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the following combination of characters: parietal peritoneum clear, pericardium white, visceral and hepatic peritoneum white, color in life pale green with diminute yellow spots and, in preservative, cream with small dark melanophores (visible only under magnification, bones white in life, extense webbing, snout round in dorsal view and inclinate in lateral view, dorsal skin granulate and a advertisement call with a fundamental frequency greater than 5000 Hz

  12. The vectoral role of several blackfly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) in relation to human onchocerciasis in the Sierra Parima and Upper Orinoco regions of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basáñez, M G; Yarzábal, L; Takaoka, H; Suzuki, H; Noda, S; Tada, I

    1988-12-01

    Experimental and natural infections with Onchocerca volvulus were studied in several anthropophilic blackfly species present in the endemic area of the Upper Orinoco region of Venezuela. When fed on four different Yanomami volunteers in the Sierra Parima, the total infection rate was 31.4% for Simulium guianense in comparison with 7.5% for S. limbatum. The proportion of ingested microfilariae that entered the thorax during the first 24 hours and completed development to the infective stage was also much lower in the latter than in the former species. There was no larval development of O. volvulus in S. antillarum, but one female harboured in its head six infective larvae of a zoonotic filaria. When S. oyapokense s.l. was fed on an infected volunteer in the Upper Orinoco most flies ingested few microfilariae, and further development reached only the L1 stage. Natural infection and infectivity rates for S. guianense in two localities of the Sierra Parima were 0.2-4.0% and 1.3-10.2%, respectively, more than 50% of the L3 larvae being in the head. The corresponding data for S. oyapockense s.l. in the Upper Orinoco were 0.1-0.5%, although the only L3 larva found did not correspond to O. volvulus. It is suggested that S. guianense is the main vector of onchocerciasis in the Sierra Parima and that S. limbatum could play a secondary role. Simulium oyapockense s.l. replaces them in the Upper Orinoco and may maintain a degree of transmission, but its epidemiological importance remains to be assessed.

  13. Seasonal distribution of nutrients and primary productivity on the eastern continental shelf of Venezuela as influenced by the Orinoco River

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Bonilla; William Senior; John Bugden; Oliver Zafiriou; Ronald Jones

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogenous nutrients, dissolved silicate, and salinity were measured in surface waters and shallow hydrocasts along similar cruise tracks during the spring (dry season) and fall (wet season) of 1988. Both cruises transected the eastern Caribbean, transited the Gulf of Paria, ran parallel to the Orinoco Delta and into the main channel of the Orinoco River. Trends in primary productivity were also measured by daily carbon 14 incubations. In both seasons, samples covered the range f...

  14. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Lafferriere, Natalia A; Antelo, Rafael; Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ayarzagüena, José; Ginsberg, Joshua R; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

  15. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Rossi Lafferriere

    Full Text Available The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%, leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

  16. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ginsberg, Joshua R.; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. PMID:26982578

  17. Fluvial geochemistry of the eastern slope of the northeastern Andes and its foredeep in the drainage of the Orinoco in Colombia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, J. M.; Palmer, M. R.; Measures, C. I.; Brown, E. T.; Huh, Y.

    1996-08-01

    The fluvial geochemistry of the tributaries of the Orinoco draining the eastern branch of the northern Andes in Colombia and Venezuela is determined by lithology and ranges from rivers dominated by aluminosilicate weathering, mainly of shales and mafic rocks, to those bearing the signatures of dissolution of marine limestones and evaporites and of continental playa deposits. These left bank tributaries of the Orinoco provide the overwhelming proportion of the suspended and dissolved loads transported by the main stem although feeding only half the discharge. However, due to the extreme severity of weathering on the Guayana Shield, the right bank tributaries supply about half the silica and 40% of the K carried by the Orinoco. There is a similar partitioning between the Andes and the lowlands in the Amazon drainage. In contrast the Mackenzie, which drains the northern extremity of the continental arc of the Western Americas, is completely dominated by the weathering of limestones and evaporites and transports very little silica. This, again, appears to be a reflection of lithology since the Yukon, in similar latitudes and terrain, has silica concentrations comparable to the Tropical systems. In addition, a conservative deconvolution of the data gives estimates of the net consumption of atmospheric CO 2 by aluminosilicate weathering that follows the same pattern. Thus, the available evidence from the Western Americas indicates that exposure and lithology, rather than the climatic variables, temperature, and runoff, dominate the weathering yields in active orogenic belts. These observations contradict the conventional view of weathering processes and their controls and are at complete variance with the assumptions parameterised in most models of the geochemical cycle.

  18. Temporal variation and fluxes of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the Apure, Caura and Orinoco rivers, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, A.; Laraque, Alain; Moreira Turcq, Patricia; Alfonso, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of total suspended sediments (TSS), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) were measured in water samples taken monthly in the Apure, Caura and Orinoco rivers during a hydrological cycle (between Sept. 2007 and Aug. 2008). The DOC concentration values ranged between 1.5 and 6.8 mgC l(-1) in the Apure River; 2.07 and 4.9 mgC l(-1) in the Caura River and 1.66 and 5.35 mgC l(-1) in the Orinoco River. The mean concentration of DOC was 3.9 mgC l-1 in...

  19. Technical feasibility assessment of horizontal alterning steam drive (HASD) implementation as a thermal recovery option for the Junin 8 block in Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, R.G.; Figueroa, Y.; Pinto, L.R. [PDVSA CVP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, Venezuela, is the largest accumulation field in the world, extraction is mainly achieved with cold production and recovery factors are around 10%. Thus the implementation of new technologies such as thermal recovery methods is needed to increase oil production through better recovery factors. This study aimed at assessing the technical feasibility of applying the horizontal alternate steam drive (HASD) method which consists of 3 or more parallel horizontal wells acting alternately as injectors and producers. Simulations, sensitivity analyses, uncertainty assessments and optimizations were conducted on a base case of 4 well pad in the Junin 8 block. Parameters influencing the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio were found as well as the optimal operational conditions; under those conditions, a recovery factor of more than 30% was observed. This study suggested that HASD could be technically feasible but an economical assessment should be undertaken.

  20. Optimization of stimulation and cleaning works with coiled tubing equipments in low productivity wells of the Zuata Field, Junin Block Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, H.; Amaya, R.; Bernard, J. St. [PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Zuata Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela, has important recoverable reserves but faces sand production and low reservoir pressures in many cases. Thus solid removal and cleaning are necessary and increase stimulation time and cost. The aim of this paper is to present a new technique for minimizing the rig time/cost. This new scheme of completion uses a cleaning technology with CCTU WellVac SandVac to clean the filling and remove formation damage from low pressure wells. Field tests were conducted in the Zuata Field on two wells operated by PDVSA. The new methodology proved successful in stimulating low pressure reservoirs and results showed that sediments were removed without significant loss of fluids, the CAPEX/OPEX per well was reduced and profitability in low and medium production wells increased. The methodology proposed herein was shown to be a good alternative for stimulating and cleaning low productivity wells.

  1. Ecological and spatial modeling : mapping ecosystems, landscape changes, and plant species distribution in Llanos del Orinoco, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, E.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The transformation of Llanos del Orinoco, focused on the flooding savanna, is evaluated in terms of the change and replacement of the savanna ecosystem and the plant species distribution under a Landscape Ecological approach. This research is carried out at three spatial scales: sub-continental,

  2. An environmentally safe treatment scheme for gases to be produced in the in situ combustion pilot project (Mucura District, Orinoco belt, Venezuela)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perozo, H.; Sena, A.; Vasquez, P.; Harner, R. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP

    2009-07-01

    The in situ combustion pilot project (ISCPP) to be conducted in the Bare field, in the Orinoco oil belt of Venezuela is a technological project lead by Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) Intevep together with the Exploration and Production Division of Faja. The project is expected to increase the recovery factor to values between 20 and 60 per cent. By its execution, it is expected that relevant quantities of gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), and carbon monoxide (CO) will be produced. These gases require proper treatment to meet Venezuelan environmental standards. It was therefore necessary to develop a taylor made scheme in order to adjust the process for the environmentally safe management of noxious gases according to a non-producing-waste approach. This paper described the experimental methodology and laboratory results that led to the development of an environmentally sound flue gas treatment system that could be scaled up for the ISCPP. The paper discussed the thermal oxidation process and flue gas desulphurization. The laboratory tests regarding thermal oxidation were also discussed. The preparation of the gas mixture and results were then presented. The laboratory tests conducted by PDVSA Intevep demonstrated that at 300 degrees Celsius or more, a high yield of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} conversion can be achieved. 5 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs., 1 appendix.

  3. Weathering processes and the composition of inorganic material transported through the orinoco river system, Venezuela and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R.F.; Koehnken, L.; Johnsson, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of river-borne material in the Orinoco River system is related primarily to erosion regime, which in turn is related to tectonic setting; especially notable is the contrast between material derived from tectonically active mountain belts and that from stable cratonic regions. For a particular morpho-tectonic region, the compositional suites of suspended sediment, bed material, overback deposits, and dissolved phases are fairly uniform are are typically distinct from whose of other regions. For each region, a consistent set of chemical weathering reactions can be formulated to explain the composition of dissolved and solid loads. In developing these formulations, erosion on slopes and storage of solids in soils and alluvial sediments are important considerations. Compositionally verymature sediment is derived from areas of thick soils where erosion is transport limited and from areas where sediments are stored for extended periods of time in alluvial deposits. Compositionally immature sediments are derived from tectonically active mountain belts where erosion is weathering limited. Weathering-limited erosion also is important in the elevated parts of the Guayana Shield within areas of sleep topography. Compared to the mountain belts, sediments derived from elevated parts of the Shield are more mature. A greater degree of chemical weathering seems to be needed to erode the rock types typical of the Shield. The major-element chemistry and mineral composition of sediment delivered by the Orinoco River to the ocean are controlled by rivers that have their headwaters in mountain belts and cross the Llanos, a region of alluvial plains within the foreland basin. The composition of sediments in rivers that drain the Shield seems to be established primarily at the site of soil formation, whereas for rivers that drain the mountain belts, additional weathering occurs during s episodes of storage on alluvial plains as sediments are transported across the Llanos

  4. Optimization of the recovery factor by implementing a continuous steam injection pilot in the Huyapari Field located in the Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; Munckton, T.; Armas, F.; Johan, J.; Barrios, A. [PDVSA PetroPiar (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Located in Venezuela, the Orinoco heavy oil belt (Faja) is one of the world's biggest accumulations of extra heavy crude oil. Recovery rates in the Faja are relatively low and so one of the key objectives is to increase it. The thermal recovery process could be a way to increase production as it has been proven in other heavy oil fields and PDVSA has started a pilot project to test the process on the Faja reservoirs. This paper aimed at providing an overview of the project. The different steps of the Huyapari thermal pilot project are discussed: the objectives and challenges of the project, project design, uncertainty management, site selection, modeling of the site subsurface and optimization planning in terms of well configuration and constraints. This project is under development and further steps will be required before there are results but when there are, it is expected that they will provide valuable information on the technical and economic feasibility of thermal recovery projects in the Faja area.

  5. Simulation study for designing an in-situ combustion pilot in the Orinoco belt of Venezuela : from laboratory studies to the field scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anaya, I.; La Cruz, R.E.; Alvarez, A.J. [Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gutierrez, D.; Skoreyko, F.A.; Card, C. [Computer Modelling Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described a computerized simulation used to design an in-situ combustion pilot program in the Orinoco belt of Venezuela. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the technical feasibility of in-situ combustion techniques for the recovery of heavy oil in the region. A simulation tool was then built to select optimum well locations and recovery strategies. The model included a tool designed to characterize foamy oil behaviour as well as a kinetic model developed to model the combustion process. Oil was characterized by matching pressure-volume-temperature data into the same pseudo-components utilized by the kinetic model. A dispersed gas foamy oil model was used to obtain a match with field-measured data. History matching with the combustion tube test was achieved using an assisted history matching tool. Results obtained from the test were then applied to the developed field model. Various pilot configurations were studied in order to determine the most appropriate locations for vertical and horizontal wells. Results of the study indicated that the pilot program should be operated at a variable injection rate, and that injectors should be located 100 meters from the toe of the horizontal producers. 12 refs., 8 tabs., 21 figs.

  6. Experimental and natural infection of Simulium sanchezi by Mansonella ozzardi in the Middle Orinoco region of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarzábal, L; Basáñez, M G; Ramírez-Pérez, J; Ramírez, A; Botto, C; Yarzábal, A

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and natural infections of Simulium sanchezi by Mansonella ozzardi were studied in the area of Síquita, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. The microfilariae developed synchronously in the blackflies, reaching stage L3 in seven to eight days at temperatures between 23 degrees and 27 degrees C. Larvae in different stages of development, including infective forms, were found in 0.6% of 662 unfed wild-caught females. These results confirm that simuliids are the main vectors of M. ozzardi in the American continent.

  7. Tertiary stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of the oil bearing sands of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, C. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2006-07-01

    Core studies and seismic stratigraphic analyses were used to characterize the tertiary stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of oil sands in the Orinoco Oil Belt. Structural data and maps of seismic reflectors were integrated with seismic-stratigraphic correlations used to characterize the Hato Viejo fault system. The study determined that 3 transgressive-regressive cycles belonging to the Oligocene and Miocene periods. Transgression peaks occurred in the shales of the Roblecito formation. Myocene cycles corresponded to the clastics of the Oficina formation. The Oligocene transgressive sheetsands of the Chaguaramas formation were cored in several wells. The coring study demonstrated that the formation consisted of fine-grained poor, consolidated sandstones with weak sedimentary cross-stratification. Miocene sediments in the region were characterized by sand, shale, and coal facies. Lithofacies associations and electrofacies correlations demonstrated that the lower transgressive Oficina formation was comprised of stacked sand bars formed in a braided fluvial system with channels, delta front deposits, crevasse splays, and flood plains swamps. It was concluded that the stratigraphic and sedimentary model developed using the data will be used to create a regional chronostratigraphic geological model of the region. However, dating of the different maximum flooding surfaces is needed in order to correlate sedimentary bodies in time and space. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Venezuela nationalises oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertheim, Peter Howard; Abrantes, Dayse

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela President Hugo Chavez has stated he will nationalise the Orinoco belt's extra-heavy oil operations and ask for 'special powers' to rule the country. Since last year, the government has been negotiating with international consortia currently operating in the Orinoco area, so that Venezuela state-owned Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) attains a majority stake in each project (ml)

  9. [The phorophyte occupation patterns by vascular epiphyte species in the High Orinoco tropical humid forest, Amazonas State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rosas, J

    2001-01-01

    By international agreement (Austria-Venezuela), an experimental area was selected for canopy ecology studies. A tower crane was installed that allows direct access to the canopy of 1.5 ha area of the forest. This is a quantitative study of the phorophyte occupation patterns by vascular epiphyte species in an Amazon tropical humid forest. The forest of Surumoni consists roughly of four arboreal strata, i.e., emergent (conspicuous), superior, middle and lower. The largest proportion of trees occurs in the lower diametric classes (smaller DBH), and the total distribution approaches an "inverted J" curve. The most abundant tree species in the three strata is Goupia glabra (Celastraceae); making this forest a case where a single arboreal species dominants. Mean of epiphyte individuals per occupied phorophyte is too variable, depending on phorophyte species and showing no correlation with occupied tree percentage. The species Eschweleira parviflora (Lecythidaceae) represented in the study area by a single individual of the superior stratum with high density of vascular epiphytes, indicates that this support species is particularly favorable for the establishment epiphytic flora.

  10. Gradientes, estabilidad y estado de conservación de peces en la cuenca alta del río Turbio, vertiente andina del Orinoco, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de los ríos en las montañas andinas de Venezuela en la cuenca del Orinoco sufren variadas perturbaciones. A pesar de esto, sus comunidades de peces han sido poco evaluadas en términos de sus gradientes espaciales y temporales. La generación de información sobre estas comunidades es prioritaria, y puede impulsar la conservación de los recursos hidrobiológicos regionales. Con este fin, seis localidades fueron evaluadas mensualmente en tributarios de la cuenca alta del río Turbio en la Sierra de Portuguesa (770-1 305msnm durante el período de sequía y el inicio del período de lluvias (enero-abril de 2012, se caracterizaron las dimensiones del cauce, el sustrato y las variables físico-químicas del agua. Se utilizó electropesca para determinar el número y abundancia de especies de peces. Las comunidades de peces y su estabilidad se evaluaron explorando los cambios en la riqueza y abundancia y por coeficientes de variación, clasificación jerárquica y análisis de escalamiento multidimensional no métrico. El estado de conservación de las localidades se estimó con un índice de integridad del hábitat. La riqueza de 12 especies varió según la elevación, los tributarios y el estado de conservación de las localidades. Chaetostoma dorsale, Creagrutus taphorni y Chaetostoma milesi comprendieron el 90.8% de la abundancia relativa y mantuvieron los primeros rangos durante el período. Las comunidades tuvieron poca variación espacio-temporal y esta se expresó en un gradiente asociado principalmente por las coberturas de sombra, rocas y grava, la temperatura del agua y la conductividad. La estabilidad fue moderada, variando con la elevación y el estado de conservación de las localidades. Los tributarios en la cuenca alta del río Turbio se encuentran bajo impactos severos y sus ictiofaunas son empobrecidas y en situación de riesgo.

  11. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments Altos níveis de Mercúrio e Chumbo detectados pela análise de cabelo em dois ambientes venezuelanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Marcano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon state, whereas automobile activity is responsible for high levels of Lead in hair in Caracas.Concentrações de mercúrio e chumbo obtidas pela análise ICP-OAS de amostras de cabelo humano de comunidades ribeirinhas ao longo do rio Orinoco no estado de Amazonas (Venezuela foram comparadas com outras de Caracas, Venezuela. Levando em consideração as características desses dois ambientes e os valores das concentrações médias de mercúrio e chumbo, foram estabelecidas linhas basais que sugerem que as atividades de minério de ouro próximo ao rio Orinoco são responsáveis pelos altos conteúdos de mercúrio em cabelo no estado de Amazonas. Entretanto, a indústria automotriz é responsável pelo alto conteúdo de chumbo em cabelo em Caracas.

  12. Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revetti, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    A food irradiation programme has recently been started in Venezuela. Radiation disinfestation of black beans and corn was studied as well as sprout inhibition of onions and radiation preservation of pepper, tomatoes and papayas. Studies have begun on radiopreservation of potatoes. (MG) [de

  13. Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    extra-heavy oil Orinoco River Basin projects. Subsequent bilateral agreements for the development of additional Orinoco Belt resources have involved...Venezuela’s Orinoco belt region. Venezuela’s proven natural gas reserves are estimated to be 198 trillion cubic feet (the second largest in the...processing plants), car and tractor factories, energy initiatives (including petrochemicals and oil exploration in the Orinoco region of Venezuela

  14. New designed device allows significant savings in PCP completions, in the Zuata Field, Junin block of the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, T.; Brunings, C. [PDVSA (Venezuela); Grisoni, J. [TIET, C.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the Zuata principal field in the Orinoco oil belt, PDVSA has implemented a new device named FMB-TIET. This device is a retrievable mechanically activated tool designed with a torque anchor which converts a tubular PCP into an insertable PCP. In the Zuata principal field, the insertable PCPs have been used since 2001 but, given the intent of PDVSA to increase its oil production rates and decrease its operational expenditure, the FMB-TIET device was tried in well ZPZ0047 in February, 2010. This implementation along with Flush by unit resulted in a considerable saving: the operational expenditure for replacement service was reduced by 63%, rig time was reduced by two days and production delays were also reduced by two days. The test of the FMB-TIET device in one well of the Orinoco oil belt has proved to be successful and PDVSA is planning to install twenty devices in the short term.

  15. Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    This discussion of Venezuela reviews the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; statistical systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in realizing development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Over the 1920-1961 period Venezuela's level of fertility was high and continued to rise gradually. The crude birth rate was around 40.0/1000 population in 1920, 44.0/1000 in 1950, and 45.0/1000 in 1961, and thereafter began to decline, dropping to a level of 38.4/1000 by 1971. During the same period, mortality underwent a steady decline, with the crude death rate falling from 30.0/1000 population in 1920 to 13.7 in 1950, 7.4 in 1961, and to 6.6 by 1971. Venezuela's government has no policy of intervention to modify fertility or population growth but has relied primarily on the benefits of rapid economic growth to achieve a rate of demographic growth that is compatible with its development objectives. Since 1920, 7 modern censuses have been conducted. The most recent census was in 1971. The registration data are classified as incomplete. Multiround sample household surveys were conducted in 1976-1977 and 1978. The government has not established a special unit for population policies. It assigned this function to the Central Planning Agency in 1975. The government has not announced a comprehensive population policy, but it has been moving in the direction of formulating more comprehensive policies in 2 areas of concern--international migration and spatial distribution. The government considers the current rate of population growth to be satisfactory despite the fact that it is rather high by Latin American standards. The government also considers

  16. Pseudobunocephalus, a new genus of banjo catfish with the description of a new species from the Orinoco River system of Colombia and Venezuela (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Friel

    Full Text Available Pseudobunocephalus, a new genus of small banjo catfishes (< 80 mm SL, is distinguished from all other aspredinid genera by the following unique features: mandibular teeth restricted to a patch near symphysis of lower jaw; no contact between the metapterygoid and quadrate; autopalatine posteriorly forked with two separate cartilages; absence of the fourth pharyngobranchial; absence of gill rakers on all branchial arches; and lack of bifid hemal spines on vertebrae that articulate with anal-fin pterygiophores. As defined Pseudobunocephalus contain a new species, P. lundbergi from the Orinoco River basin, along with five other species previously assigned to the genus Bunocephalus: P. amazonicus, P. bifidus, P. iheringii, P. quadriradiatus, and P. rugosus.

  17. Orinoco bitumen. Orimulsion; Tennen orinoko. Orimarujon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    Orinoco bitumen is natural bitumen depositing underground over an area 50 thousand kilometer square in the north basin of Orinoco River in Venezuela, and this area zone is called Orinoco belt. It is said that origin deposit is about one trillion 200 million barrels (about 190 million tons), and minable deposit amount reaches about 267 billion barrels (about 42.4 billion tons) according to a recovery rate (22%) achievable by current mining technology, and this amount is equivalent to the crude oil deposit in Saudi Arabia. Orimulsion, which is formed by adding water (about 30%) and a trace quantity of a surfactant into orinoco bitumen (about 70%) and emulsifying the mixture, is used as a fuel for power generation. In this paper, a development plan of Venezuela government relating to natural bitumen resources, properties and handling methods of orimulsion, production process of orimulsion and present situation of commercialization of orimulsion are described. Total import quantity to Japan was 840 thousand tons in 1996. (NEDO)

  18. Composición proximal, ácidos grasos y características fisicoquímicas de aceite de harina artesanal de caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus Pisces: Characidae proveniente de Caicara del Orinoco-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granados, Ángel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Caribe (Serrasalmus rhoembeus is a Characidae fish that lives in the basins of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. It is an  underutilized specie although in the last years has been marketed in the form of of a meal which is obtained through a handmade process but without information about its chemical composition. This research was conducted to evaluate the proximate composition of commercial caribe meal, the fatty acids profile and some physicochemical properties of its lipidic extract. Three aleatory samples of meal were selected in Caicara del Orinoco shops, Bolívar state –Venezuela. Moisture (6.00 ± 0.45 %, crude protein (N x 6.25: 52.78 ± 2.36 %, crude fat (22.47 ± 1.08 % and total ash (24.58 ± 3.12 % were determined in each sample. The fat was extracted with nhexane and it was analyzed for free fatty acids (5.66 ± 0.15 % as oleic acid, peroxide value (23.50 ± 1.02 meq O2/kg, iodine value (152.2 ± 0.5, saponification value (186.5 ± 0.3 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 ± 0.4 g/kg. The fatty acids profile showed an unsaturated acids/ saturated acids ratio of 5.62 with 59.9 % of monounsaturated fatty acids and 25.0 % of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Caribe meal is an important source of nutrients and a potential raw material for human food.El caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus es un pez de la familia Characidae de la cuenca de los ríos Orinoco y Amazonas, de poco valor comercial debido a su estructura espinosa y a creencias relacionadas con su hábito alimentario, pero que en años recientes los pobladores de las zonas donde existe naturalmente le han dado utilidad mediante la obtención artesanal de una harina que es expendida para consumo humano; sin embargo, no se dispone de información referente a su composición química. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química proximal del producto comercializado como harina de caribe y algunas características fisicoquímicas del extracto lipídico de la misma

  19. Molecular systematics of the freshwater stingrays (myliobatiformes: potamotrygonidae) of the Amazon, Orinoco, Magdalena, Esequibo, Caribbean, and Maracaibo basins (Colombia - Venezuela): evidence from three mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David Alejandro; Lasso, Carlos Andres; Morales, Monica; Caballero, Susana Josefina

    2016-11-01

    Lack of adequate information about the taxonomic and evolutionary relationships, ecology, biology, and distribution of several species belonging to the family Potamotrygonidae makes these species vulnerable to anthropic activities, including commercial overexploitation for the ornamental fish market. The aim of this study was to investigate the systematic relationships among genera and species belonging to this family by analyses of three mitochondrial gene regions. Samples were collected from the main river basins in Colombia and Venezuela for four genera and seven species of the family, as well as for what appear to be unidentified species. Three mitochondrial molecular markers COI, Cytb, and ATP6 were amplified and sequenced. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis were performed to obtain topologies for each marker and for a concatenated dataset including the three genes. Small dataset may compromise some methods estimations of sequence divergence in the ATP6 marker. Monophyly of the four genera in Potamotrygonidae was confirmed and phylogenetic relationships among members of the Potamotrygon genus were not clearly resolved. However, results obtained with the molecular marker Cytb appear to offer a good starting point to differentiate among genera and species as a tool that could be used for barcoding. The application of this gene as a barcode could be applied for management and regulation of extraction practices for these genera. Sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes would be the next step for testing evolutionary hypothesis among these genera. Population structure analyses should be undertaken for Paratrygon, Potamotrygon magdalenae and motoro.

  20. First deep azimuthal electromagnetic resistivity and rotary steerable system geonavigation project result in complex sands for Bare field in Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, P.; Guzman, R.; Rojas, C.; Ache, A. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Hazboun, N.K.; Gonzalez, K. [Schlumberger, Piso (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) in the Mucura District has been evaluating the use of new technologies that facilitate reaching reservoirs with complex geologies, such as thin sands, uncertain dip changes, and unconsolidated sands. The objective was to improve overall operational efficiency. PDVSA carried out a pilot project in a thin and unconsolidated package where a very high drilling rate was expected. The selected sand, known as TL sand in the Oficina formation of the Bare field, was initially planned for cold production, with expected implementation of thermal enhanced oil recovery processes in the future. This paper discussed the pilot project, with particular reference to geology; well placement for thermal processes; planning; and objectives and challenges of the high viscosity of the oil contained in the Bare field. Details of the pre-job modelling were presented along with updates of the geological model. Achievements were also presented. It was concluded that the greatest value that this technology brings resides in the ability to measure the boundary distance in real time, allowing for appropriate action to be taken. 3 refs., 19 figs.

  1. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    assets in a compensation dispute for its Orinoco oil investments. A week later, however, Chávez said on February 17 that he would only stop sending...ConocoPhillips and ExxonMobil, would be leaving their Orinoco belt oil projects after not being able to negotiate new terms for their minority partnership...with the Venezuelan government. Venezuela’s state-owned oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PdVSA) announced the signing of new Orinoco

  2. New developments in Orinoco oil belt projects reflect a positive effect on the areas reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, T. [PDVSA, La Campina, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    The Orinoco oil belt is located in the eastern Venezuela basin, parallel to the Orinoco River. The area is divided into four zones which include four projects that convert crude oil to synthetic crudes. Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) believes that the extra heavy oil reserve scenario of this area is extremely promising. This paper discussed several positive effects that recent developments have had on the reserve numbers within the area. Reserve numbers of the five joint venture projects currently operating in the area were presented. The paper discussed the location of the Orinoco oil belt and presented the general geology of the region. Basic reservoir properties and ongoing projects in the Orinoco heavy oil belt were described. Production methods for extra heavy oils were also explained. It was concluded that huge investment opportunities existed in the area, especially for those interested in participating in mixed enterprises with the Venezuelan government. 6 refs., 16 figs.

  3. LDC nuclear power: Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    1982-01-01

    Venezuela had an aggressive nuclear program when it was under a dictatorship in the 1950s, but it is currently assuming a wait-and-see stance. The country has one small research reactor, but it may have a reactor on-line in the mid-1990s. CONADIN, Venezuela's nuclear energy planning agency, has commissioned feasibility studies and requested proposals for a reactor-siting survey. A recent study for the Venezuelan state oil company suggests tha a natural-uranium, gas-cooled reactor could provide process steam to extract oil from the bituminous tar sands of the Orinoco Basin. Venezuela is also exploring for uranium reserves. 23 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  4. Arms Production in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    566. 70. Requena, J. "La Investigacion Cientifica, El Desarrollo y La Seguridad Nacional," Paper Presented at the Instituto de Altos Estudios de La...Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5100 5. Director de Educacion de La Armada 1 Comandancia General de La Armada Av. Vollmer, Urb. San...Bernardino Caracas, Venezuela 6. Escuela Superior de Guerra Naval 1 Direccion de Educacion de La Armada Av. Vollmer, Urb. San Bernardino Caracas, Venezuela

  5. Venezuelas Pursuit of Caribbean Basin Interests: Implications for United States National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Caracas. Because of the tiny island’s strategic location potentially • commanding the mouth of the Orinoco River , Venezuelan concern mounted as the new...and Venezuela both claimed territory between the mouth of the Orinoco River and Georgetown, the capital of the colony of British Guiana. Under pressure...received the coveted mouth of the Orinoco River , but most of the rest of the disputed territory, largely swamp and -S jungle, was awarded to British

  6. Contribution to Early Holocene vegetation and climate history of Eastern Orinoco Llanos, Venezuela, from a paleoecological record of a Mauritia L.f. swamp Contribuição para a história da vegetação e clima durante o Holoceno Temprano do Llanos Orientais do Orinoco, Venezuela, a partir de um registro paleoecológico de um pântano Mauritia L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Leal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A palynological analysis of an organic paleosol found at 150-125 cm depth in a Mauritia swamp from the Eastern Orinoco Llanos is presented. The 25 cm pollen record summarizes the vegetation history during the Early Holocene, from 10,225 to 7,800 calendar yr BP. The vegetation was characterized by a Poaceae marsh, where Asteraceae, Melastomataceae, Schefflera-type and Phyllanthus were the most abundant shrubs and trees. Pollen-types richness was lower than that recorded today in similar environments, and Mauritia pollen was absent. Results suggest that climate was as humid as present during the beginning of the Holocene, with a decreasing trend in humidity from around 8,000-7,000 yr BP, in coincidence with the beginning of the "Early-Mid-Holocene Dryness" that affected deeply the Amazon Basin and neighboring areas. Dry climatic conditions could have existed in the study site until the Mid-Late Holocene when a Mauritia swamp developed, and humid conditions similar to present established. Main climate phases inferred in our study site fit well with regional trends recorded in other places located north Amazon Basin. However, conclusions are still limited by the lack of additional Quaternary records in the Orinoco Llanos area, avoiding regional correlations.Realizou-se uma análise de pólen amostrada em paleossolos orgânicos, entre 150-125 cm de profundidade, em um pântano Mauritia os lhanos do Orinoco. O registro de pólen dessa amostra resumiu a história da vegetação durante o Holoceno Temprano, entre 10,225-7,800 cal. anos AP. A vegetação durante esse período foi caracterizada por um pântano de Poaceae, com maior abundância de arbustos e árvores de Asteraceae, Melastomataceae, tipo-Schefflera e Phyllanthus. Encontrou-se que a riqueza de tipos polínicos no Holoceno Temprano foi menor do que a riqueza atualmente encontrada em ambientes similares; o pólen de Mauritia esteve ausente de todas as amostras. Os resultados deste estudo

  7. Una nueva especie de Centrosema (DC. Benth. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae del Orinoco Una nueva especie de Centrosema (DC. Benth. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae del Orinoco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultze Kraft Rainer

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Centrosema is described and named C. tetragonolobum. It occurs in the region of the Orinoco river between latitudes 4° and 6° N in the Comisaría del Vichada, Colombia, and the Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Characteristic features of the species are winged pods, chartaceous to coriaceous leaves, and an erect-climbing growth habit. Una nueva especie de Centrosema es descrita como C. tetragonolobum. Su distribución está limitada a la región del río Orinoco entre latitudes 4° y 6° N en la Comisaría del Vichada, Colombia, y el Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Son características de la especie las legumbres aladas, hojas cartáceas a coriáceas, y un hábito de crecimiento erecto-trepador.

  8. Aspectos Musicales del Joropo de Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Calderón Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Joropo es una expresión de arte popular en permanente evolución, originalmente una fiesta campesina o pueblerina que integra poesía, canto, música y danza en un sistema de creatividad improvisatoria sobre estructuras establecidas y parámetros definidos de estilo. El Joropo se caracteriza por un sistema de estructuras cristalizadas a lo largo de la historia a partir de canciones y danzas tradicionales que se erigieron en formas musicales, sirviendo como base para a variantes en la letra, o convirtiéndose en formas puramente instrumentales. El Joropo es una tradición que abarca casi la totalidad del territorio venezolano y al menos la cuarta parte del territorio colombiano. En Venezuela el Joropo es considerado el baile nacional por excelencia y existen tres tipos de Joropo clasificados por regiones con importantes variantes de instrumentación y estilo: el Joropo Oriental, el Joropo Central y el Joropo Llanero. Solamente el Joropo Llanero, extendido alrededor de la cuenca central del Orinoco, es común a Colombia y Venezuela, siendo el más difundido de todos, tanto por la amplia discografía y radiodifusión como por la abundancia de festivales, concursos y torneos que involucran a ambos países. Además es notable el auge y desarrollo urbano que ha tenido esta música en los últimos años en las respectivas capitales. Sus orígenes se remontan a las músicas ibéricas del Siglo XVII y XVIII, tales como el múltiple Fandango, las Folías, Peteneras, Jotas y Malagueñas andaluzas, sazonadas con la influencia de ocho siglos de dominación árabe y posteriormente transformadas en América con el mestizaje de elementos africanos e indígenas, bajo el sol abrasador de la Cuenca del Orinoco y la vastedad infinita de sus horizontes y llanuras. Los antecesores del Joropo incluyen la música de marineros y trovadores que llega en los galeones provenientes de España, transformándose en música arraigada en el suelo americano y dando lugar a

  9. Unbekannte Venezuela-Karten Alexander von Humboldts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Leitner

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and German.During his American journey Humboldt was mainly interested in geosciences, as the later published geographical folio atlasses and an enormous number of drawings in his diaries indicate. The following gives three almost unknown examples of how Humboldt enriched the geographical and geological knowledge about Venezuela:1. a profile map of Venezuela’s coast. Only in 1853 Humboldt sent this result of the American journey to the editor Julius Ewald who published it in his important geological journal.2. Humboldt’s manuscript map of the Orinoco, which has not been published until today;3. a geographical map (published in 1812 of the river Casiquiare, which connects the Orinoco and the Rio Negro. Humboldt studied the Casiquiare during his Orinoco boat trip to show this connection (this was of high economic interest at the time and, furthermore, the bifurcation of the Orinoco (one of the most important geographical results of Humboldt’s American journey.

  10. Auguste morisot, un pintor en el orinoco, 1886-1887. diario de auguste morisot, 1886-1887: exploración de dos franceses a las fuentes del orinoco.

    OpenAIRE

    León Vargas, Karim

    2011-01-01

    Entre 1886 y 1887, el pintor Auguste Morisot acompaño a su compatriota Jean Chaffajon, quién había estado antes en Venezuela, a buscar las fuentes del río Orinoco, uno de los ríos mas largos del mundo, sorprendentemente el registro pictórico de aquel viaje, realizado hace 113 años, apenas se dio a conocer al público en el 2002.

  11. Redescription of Odontostilbe pulchra (Gill, 1858) (Teleostei: Characidae: Cheirodontinae), and description of two new species from the río Orinoco basin

    OpenAIRE

    Bührnheim, Cristina M.; Malabarba, Luiz R.

    2007-01-01

    Odontostilbe pulchra, anteriormente considerada como species inquirenda em Cheirodontinae e registrada com dúvidas para a bacia do río Orinoco, é redescrita com a redescoberta de dois síntipos. Descrita originalmente para a ilha de Trinidad, O. pulchra apresenta-se largamente distribuída na Venezuela, incluindo a bacia do río Orinoco, pequenas bacias costeiras do norte da América do Sul, no sistema do lago Valencia e bacia do río Essequibo. Uma ocorrência pontual na região superior do rio Neg...

  12. Pneumococcal carriage among indigenous Warao children in Venezuela: serotypes, susceptibility patterns, and molecular epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera-Olivero, I.A.; Bogaert, D.; Bello, T.; Nogal, B. del; Sluijter, M.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Waard, J.H. de

    2007-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to pneumococcal carriage and disease in Amerindians from Latin America. The Warao people, an indigenous population from Venezuela, live in the delta of the Orinoco River in geographically isolated communities with difficult access to medical care. To obtain insight

  13. The history of a continent from U-Pb ages of zircons from Orinoco River sand and Sm-Nd isotopes in Orinoco basin river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S.L.; Arndt, N.T.; Stallard, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    We report SHRIMP U-Pb ages of 49 zircons from a sand sample from the lower Orinoco River, Venezuela, and Nd model ages of the fine sediment load from the main river and tributaries. The U-Pb ages reflect individual magmatic or metamorphic events, the Sm-Nd model ages reflect average crustal-residence ages of the sediment sources. Together they allow delineation of the crust-formation history of the basement precursors of the sediments. The U-Pb ages range from 2.83 to 0.15 Ga, and most are concordant or nearly so. Discrete age groupings occur at ??? 2.8, ??? 2.1, and ??? 1.1 Ga. The oldest group contains only three samples but is isolated from its closest neighbors by a ??? 600 Ma age gap. Larger age groupings at ??? 2.1 and ??? 1.1 Ga make up about a third and a quarter of the total number of analyses, respectively. The remaining analyses scatter along concordia, and most are younger than 1.6 Ga. The ??? 2.8 and ??? 2.1 Ga ages correspond to periods of crust formation of the Imataca and Trans-Amazonian provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, and record intervals of short but intensive continental growth. These ages coincide with ??? 2.9 and ??? 2.1 Ga Nd model ages of sediments from tributaries draining the Archean and Proterozoic provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, indicating that the U-Pb ages record the geological history of the crystalline basement of the Orinoco basin. Zircons with ages corresponding to the major orogenies of the North Atlantic continents (the Superior at ??? 2.7 Ga and Hudsonian at 1.7-1.9 Ga) were not found in the Orinoco sample. The age distribution may indicate that South and North America were separated throughout their history. Nd model ages of sediments from the lower Orinoco River and Andean tributaries are ??? 1.9 Ga, broadly within the range displayed by major rivers and dusts. This age does not coincide with known thermal events in the region and reflects mixing of sources with different crust-formation ages. The

  14. A new species of Peckoltia from the Upper Orinoco (Siluriformes, Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Jonathan W; Lujan, Nathan K

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the suckermouth armored catfish genus Peckoltia is described from the lower Ventuari River, a tributary of the upper Orinoco River in Amazonas State, Venezuela. Specimens of this species were formerly included in the wide-ranging Amazonian species Peckoltia vittata, but a recent molecular phylogeny found Orinoco individuals to be distantly related to Amazon Basin individuals spanning the range of Peckoltia vittata syntypes. Detailed morphological examination confirmed distinctiveness of Orinoco specimens, and found them to be diagnosable from true Peckoltia vittata by having generally greater than 25 teeth (vs. less), spots on the nape (vs. nape lacking spots), the upper lip with two to three black bar-shaped markings in a line like a moustache (vs. lips generally with a hyaline wash), and by the snout having a medial black line disconnected from the moustache markings (vs. medial snout stripe connected to a bar just above the lip). Peckoltia wernekei displays remarkable genetic similarity to its sister species, Peckoltia lujani, but differs morphologically by having dentary tooth rows meet at an angle less than 90° (vs. >90°), by having large faint blotches on the abdomen (vs. abdomen with no blotches), by a smaller internares width (21.2-26.6% vs. 28.5-46.5% of interorbital width), and a larger dorsal spine (148.1-178.6% vs. 80.1-134.5% of abdominal length).

  15. More than 200 multilateral wells drilled in the Faja Del Orinoco extra-heavy oil recovery reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fipke, S.R. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Reduced drilling costs, lower environmental impacts, increased recovery and improved well production are some of the benefits offered by multilateral wells over conventional horizontal wells. In the Faja Del Orinoco of Venezuela, multilateral technology has been successfully incorporated into heavy oil development. In order to achieve the maximum reservoir exposure and the best production rates per well, hundreds of wells have been drilled by heavy oil producers in the Orinoco area. The PetroAnzoategui is a project to produce, upgrade, and commercialize extra heavy crude oil from the San Diego field, located in the Anzoategui region of the Orinoco Belt in eastern Venezuela. This paper described the on-going successes of multilateral well design in this heavy oil development project, as well as many technical details of the multilateral technology that has been extensively utilized. The paper also discussed the variety of different well designs and unique applications for multilateral well architecture in heavy oil reservoirs. The paper discussed level 4 multilateral technology and the key features of the operational steps and technical specifications of the level 4 junction construction system, including recent improvement and innovations to improve operation and the quality of the junctions. The reliability of multilateral technology was also discussed. It was concluded that multilateral wells can be a more practical way to improve the recovery factor of interbedded heavy oil reservoirs. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Baseline air quality evaluation for the Venezuelan Orinoco Bitumen Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrocha, A.; Octavio, K.H.; Cedeno, A.L.; Sanhueza, E.

    1991-01-01

    To achieve a harmonic relationship between oil exploration and production activities and the environment, Petroleos de Venezuela and its affiliated companies conducted environmental evaluations of the physical and bionic media in the Orinoco Bitumen Belt. This region covers an area of approximately 42000 km 2 with estimated bitumen reserves on the order of 3 x 10 12 barrels, one of the largest bitumen reservoirs in the world. This paper presents the results of a study of baseline air quality conditions: an emissions inventory, surface and upper layer meteorological conditions and measurements of air quality parameters of interest (CO, HC, NO x , SO 2 , H 2 S and T.S.P.) taken by a network of automated air quality stations using standard international reference techniques. The temporal (hourly and daily basis) and spatial air quality variability and the variables/activities that might determine the observed trends are discussed. NO, NO 2 , SO 2 and H 2 S concentrations were lower than the detection limits of the analytical methods, while O 3 and CO 1-hour average levels ranged from 5-30 ppb and 0.5-1.8 ppm, respectively, and T.S.P. daily means varied from 10-50 μg/m 3 , all of which is close to natural background concentrations. Maximum hourly average reactive hydrocarbon concentrations of 0.37 ppm were found near a producing oil field

  17. Biogeographic analysis of the characiformes fishes of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla Rivero, Ana; Lopez Rojas, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Based on the information available on fishes of the order characiforms of Venezuela a biogeographical analysis was performed to explore the relative importance of the processes that may have contributed to the establishment of current distribution patterns of the Venezuelan continental ichthyofauna. Geographic and phylogenetic information available for this group of fishes was analyzed by parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) and brooks parsimony analysis (BPA). PAE uncovered the western plains and southern Amazonas as areas of endemism. BPA, using the phylogenetic information of seven genera, showed a general pattern with two major clades (Caribbean + Maracaibo) and (Rio Negro + Orinoco river) + Paria + Valencia) + Cuyuni), where the proposed hypothesis highlights a dispersion event from the Rio Negro basin to the Orinoco river. The results indicate that the plains-Amazonas region, where the amazon biota mixed with that of the incipient Orinoco s biota, contains the largest species richness, areas of endemism, and well as many speciation events with posterior dispersion to other regions of Venezuela. The biota of the northern coastal region in turn seems rather governed by punctual vicariant speciation processes, which may have been conditioned by the historical isolation of the basins draining this region.

  18. Geological development of amazon and orinoco basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Hoorn, C.; Albert, J.S.; Reis, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the geological development of the Orinoco and Amazon River basins. It analyzes the evolution of aquatic Amazonian ecosystems from the Late Cretaceous to the Quaternary period and provides and considers the potential impacts on the development of modern Amazonian fish faunas. It

  19. Preceramic occupations in the orinoco river valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barse, W P

    1990-12-07

    Two sites in the Orinoco Valley containing preceramic from excavated contexts are described. Radiocarbon dating and stylistic comparisons indicate that the northern tropical lowlands were inhabited at the onset of the Holocene, suggesting a time depth of 9000 years before the present for tropical forest-savanna adaptations in northern South America.

  20. Optimization of diluent use for extra-heavy oil production in a field of the Orinoco belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valderrama-Loyola, F.J. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The primary challenge for extra-heavy oil production is its high viscosity. In order to obtain a diluted crude oil with reduced viscosity for transport purposes, all operators in the Orinoco oil belt have used a dilution scheme by mixing the Orinoco crude with lighter hydrocarbons. Bare field is an extra-heavy oil field located in the Orinoco region and operated by Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA). This paper discussed a study that examined the way in which diluent is used in the field. The purpose was to determine the impact it has on the production system and to identify possible actions to use diluent more efficiently. The paper discussed a review of past studies on the topic as well as the five options that were identified. These included improvement of the pressure distribution in the existing diluent network; use of viscosity reducers; use of oil-in-water emulsions as an alternative to dilution; and increasing the diluent temperature and injecting diluent downhole. Each option was simulated using multiphase flow simulation software, and compared in terms of effect on pressure distribution on the flowline network and volume of diluent required at the wellhead. The simulation results showed that the use of oil-in-water emulsions could have a great effect on wellhead pressure reduction. The emulsions could facilitate the dilution process needed before commercialization, since it could be performed at the main facilities instead of at the wellheads. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix.

  1. Energy sources for aquatic animals in the Orinoco River floodplain: evidence from stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S K; Lewis, W M; Sippel, S J

    1992-03-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in autotrophs, aquatic invertebrates and fishes from the Orinoco River floodplain of Venezuela reveal that microalgae, including both phytoplankton and epiphytic (attached) forms, are predominant energy sources for many aquatic animals, even though aquatic vascular plants are much more abundant. Floating mats of the grass Paspalum repens and the water hyacinth Eichhornia spp. harbor particularly high densities of aquatic animals, but isotopic evidence indicates that few species are dependent on organic carbon originating from these plants. The stable isotopic evidence for the trophic importance of algae contradicts traditional interpretations of food webs in freshwater wetlands, which are generally thought to be based largely on detritus originating from vascular plants.

  2. SAGD or cold production : a case study for an Orinoco heavy oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granado, C.E.; Velasquez, A.J.; Serna, A.J. [Computer Modelling Group, Calgary, AB (Canada); Barrios, J.R.; Zambrano, A. [PDVSA-CVP, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    This paper examined the potential of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technology for increasing productivity in the Orinoco heavy oilfields of Venezuela. A computerized simulation tool was used to generate a matrix of parameters needed to compare SAGD processes with cold production techniques in the Carabobo region of the Orinoco belt. Parameters included vertical connectivity, oil saturation, and net pay. Monte Carlo simulations and uncertainty assessments were used to generate cold production scenarios. Optimized SAGD scenarios were then designed for each case. Results of the study suggested that vertical local connectivity was an important parameter for the identification of suitable areas for EOR and SAGD. Unfavorable conditions for the application of SAGD during early production stages were identified. SAGD behaviour improved through the adjustment of injection rates during different stages of the process. It was concluded that the simulation run times were improved through the use of the design and uncertainty assessment tool. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that cold production techniques were suitable in some cases. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 16 figs.

  3. Comparison of steam-based processes for the Orinoco heavy oil belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, J.; Gonzalez, K.; Bashbush, J.L.; Cova, J. [Schlumberger, Piso (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    A workflow comparison of different oil recovery methods suitable for use in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela were presented. The aim of the engineering study was to determine the economic feasibility and process performance of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), horizontal alternating steam drive (HASD) and single well steam assisted gravity drainage (SW-SAGD). The workflow study included a technical screening of the methods as well as an economic evaluation model that considered energy requirements, incremental oil production and production costs. The effect of steam displacement and gravity segregation was considered. Each of the methods was then linked to an optimization routine in order to evaluate influential parameters related to the net present value (NPV). Recovery methods were then compared using the optimized response for the reservoir conditions of 2 sand thicknesses typically found in the Orinoco belt. The study showed that all steam-based methods increased oil at the end of a 10-year period. The percentage of oil recovery increased in thicker reservoirs. It was concluded that carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration costs will increase the cost of all enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. 8 refs., 10 tabs., 27 figs.

  4. Life-history characteristics of Pseudoplatystoma metaense (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from the northwestern Orinoco River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pérez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The tiger shovelnose catfish (Pseudoplatystoma metaense identified in literature prior to 2007 as P. tigrinum is the most important catfish species in the Orinoco River fishery, because of its abundance and high market price. The aim of this study was to obtain age, growth and population parameters of the of tiger shovelnose catfish. A total of 2,183 catfish, were sampled during 1996-2003 from the commercial fishery of the northwestern Orinoco River Basin in Venezuela, and were aged by examination of otoliths. Validation of otolith annuli was achieved with marginal increment analysis. Results suggest that, the opaque and translucent zones of otoliths were formed once per year. Length-weight relation and the von Bertalanffy growth model parameters were used to evaluate growth and other population parameters. A strong link between the annual flood pulse and opaque zone formation was confirmed in tiger shovelnose catfish. The total mortality (Z and natural mortality (M were estimated. Based in the reference points for optimal and limit fishing mortality rates (F opt and F limit this species is exploited above optimum levels. We thus recommend a closed fishing season during their seasonal reproduction, and establishment of a system of fish refuges to help sustain the population.

  5. Fish assemblages of the Casiquiare River, a corridor and zoogeographical filter for dispersal between the Orinoco and Amazon basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winemiller, K.O.; Lopez-Fernandez, H.; Taphorn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Duque, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the Casiquiare River functions as a free dispersal corridor or as a partial barrier (i.e. filter) for the interchange of fish species of the Orinoco and Negro/Amazon basins using species assemblage patterns according to geographical location and environmental features. Location: The Casiquiare, Upper Orinoco and Upper Negro rivers in southern Venezuela, South America. Methods: Our study was based on an analysis of species presence/absence data and environmental information (11 habitat characteristics) collected by the authors and colleagues between the years 1984 and 1999. The data set consisted of 269 sampled sites and 452 fish species (> 50,000 specimens). A wide range of habitat types was included in the samples, and the collection sites were located at various points along the entire length of the Casiquiare main channel, at multiple sites on its tributary streams, as well as at various nearby sites outside the Casiquiare drainage, within the Upper Orinoco and Upper Rio Negro river systems. Most specimens and field data used in this analysis are archived in the Museo de Ciencias Naturales in Guanare, Venezuela. We performed canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) based on species presence/absence using two versions of the data set: one that eliminated sites having Orinoco) and blackwater conditions nearer to its mouth (junction with the Rio Negro). The second CCA axis was most strongly associated with habitat size and structural complexity. Species associations derived from the unweighted pair-group average clustering method and pair-wise squared Euclidean distances calculated from species loadings on CCA axes 1 and 2 showed seven ecological groupings. Cluster analysis of species assemblages according to watershed revealed a stronger influence of local environmental conditions than of geographical proximity. Main conclusions: Fish assemblage composition is more consistently associated with local environmental

  6. Venezuela 1976: the meeting of Odin Teatret with the Yanomamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Berenice De Sanctis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available – In 1976, Odin Teatret was invited to the Festival of Caracas (Venezuela to present the performance Come! And the day will be ours. That journey is a landmark in the history of Odin since it was the first time the whole group went to Latin America. The Odin Teatret group remained six weeks in Venezuela. In this period, the group organized a barter with the Yanomamis, an indigenous community of the Upper Orinoco in the Amazonian Rainforest. This barter is the main topic of our analysis; it is of particular relevance for studying the phenomena related to learning and sensoriality. Our study is based on selected material from the CTLS’ archive (Hölstebro, Denmark and on interviews with the Odin Teatret’s actors. We analysed our material from an ethnoscenological point of view.

  7. Movimientos etnopolíticos contemporáneos y sus raíces organizacionales en el Sistema de Interdependencia Regional del Orinoco

    OpenAIRE

    Arvelo-Jiménez, Nelly

    2018-01-01

    Este artigo focaliza na compreensão das características estruturais e funcionais dos movimentos indígenas da Venezuela que surgiram no cenário político do país e na mídia, protagonizados inicialmente pelos índios Yekuana, durante a década de 1990. A partir dos conhecimentos etnológicos sobre os povos que habitam a bacia do Orinoco, e tendo como referência a matriz cultural orinoco-amazonense, analisam-se as conexões entre esses movimentos indígenas contemporâneos e os movimentos de resistênci...

  8. Embarazo de alto riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Conde Agudelo, Afustín; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2001-01-01

    Factores de riesgo/ Identificación de la embarazada de alto riesgo/ Principales factores de riesgo/ Asociación entre algúnos factores de riesgo y aumento de la morbimortalidad materno-perinatal/ Asesoramiento preconcepcional/ Manejo del embarazo de alto riesgo.

  9. Upgrading the extra heavy oil from Orinoco petroleum belt : a global energy development opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Acurero, I.G.; Quijada Alvarado, T.J.; Guzman-Garcia Marin, C. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) plans to construct 2 extra heavy crude oil (XHO) upgrader complexes in the Orinoco Petroleum Belt (OPB) in order to enhance Venezuela's large reserves of XHO. Each complex will consist of at least 2 upgraders, 1 Industrial Hub and the associated infrastructure for handling, transporting and dispatching the liquid and solids products. Each Upgrader will have a minimum capacity of processing 200 MBD of crude oil of about 8.5 API from the Carabobo and Junin areas of the OPB, to produce a better quality oil with more than 30 API and less than 0.1 per cent sulfur by weight. The oil can be used as diluent in the preparation of mixtures that can be processed at existing refineries. PDVSA has conducted several studies on the upgrading process, some of which consider new technologies like hydrogen addition instead of carbon rejection. It was concluded that the use of HDHPLUS technology offers the best advantages because it has the best profitability indicators and higher dilution capacity. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  10. A new species of Acestrocephalus (Characiformes: Characidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Lasso

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Acestrocephalus is described from 60 specimens collected in the Río Orinoco and Río Negro drainages, Venezuela. This species is distinguished from all other Acestrocephalus by the combination of the following characters: anal rays, 29-36; 63-71 perforated scales on the lateral line; 10-12 scales above and 9-12 below the lateral line; 39-52 teeth on the maxillary; 9-12 premaxillary teeth; 8-12 teeth in the inner row on the dentary; 5-7 gill rakers on the lower part of the first gill arch; humeral, peduncular and caudal blotch absent.Se describe una nueva especie, Acestrocephalus ginesi, con base a 60 ejemplares recolectados en las cuencas del Río Orinoco y Río Negro, Venezuela. Esta especie difiere de otros miembros del género por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: aleta anal, 29-36 radios; 63-71 escamas con poro en la línea lateral; escamas transversales 10-12 / 9-12; 39-52 dientes en el maxilar; 9-12 dientes en el premaxilar; 8-12 dientes en la fila interna del dentario; 5-7 branquispinas en la parte inferior del primer arco branquial; mancha humeral, peduncular y caudal, ausentes.

  11. Redescription of Astyanax guianensis Eigenmann 1909 (Characiformes: Characidae), a poorly known and widespread fish from the Amazon, Orinoco and Guiana Shield drainages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Manoela M F; Camelier, Priscila; Birindelli, José L O

    2015-03-16

    Astyanax guianensis is redescribed based on the holotype, paratypes, and additional specimens from the rio Essequibo in Guyana, rio Orinoco in Venezuela and from several localities in the Amazon river basin in Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia. Astyanax guianensis is diagnosed by having five to 10 maxillary teeth, 31 to 35 pored lateral-line scales, 21 to 25 branched anal-fin rays, and a dark vertical humeral blotch followed by a clear area and then by a dark longitudinal stripe, ending before the caudal-fin rays. In addition, comments on the importance of revisionary studies on the species of the Characidae are provided.

  12. Conservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A; Espinosa-Blanco, Ariel S; Morales-Betancourt, Mónica A; Seijas, Andrés E; Lasso, Carlos A; Antelo, Rafael; Densmore, Llewellyn D

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of large predator species has historically been a challenge because they often overlap in resource utilization with humans; furthermore, there is a general lack of in-depth knowledge of their ecology and natural history. We assessed the conservation status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius), defining regional habitat priorities/crocodile conservation units (RHP/CCU) and regional research priorities (RRP) for this species. We also estimated a species distribution model (SDM) to define current suitable areas where the species might inhabit and/or that might be successfully colonized. The SDM area obtained with a suitable habitat probability ≥ 0.5 was 23,621 km2. Out of 2,562 km2 are included within protected areas in both Colombia (1,643 km2) and Venezuela (919 km2), which represents only 10.8% of C. intermedius' potential range. Areas such as Laguna de Chigüichigüe (flood plain lagoon) exhibited an increase in population abundance. In contrast, localities such as the Cojedes and Manapire Rivers reported a significant reduction in relative abundance values. In Colombia, disparity in previous survey methods prevented accurate estimation of population trends. Only one study in this country described an increase over a 13 years span in the Ele, Lipa, and Cravo Norte River populations based on nest surveys. We defined 34 critical areas (16 in Colombia, 17 in Venezuela, and one covering both countries) where we need to preserve/research/monitor and/or generate management actions, 10 RHP/CCU (six from Venezuela and four from Colombia) and 24 RRP (11 from Venezuela, 12 from Colombia, and one in both countries). Caño Guaritico (Creek) and the Capanaparo River in Venezuela and the Ele, Lipa, Cravo Norte River System and the Guayabero River in Colombia were defined as areas with the most optimal conditions for long-term preservation and maintenance of C. intermedius populations. We conclude that the conservation status of this species is still

  13. Conservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Balaguera-Reina

    Full Text Available Conservation of large predator species has historically been a challenge because they often overlap in resource utilization with humans; furthermore, there is a general lack of in-depth knowledge of their ecology and natural history. We assessed the conservation status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius, defining regional habitat priorities/crocodile conservation units (RHP/CCU and regional research priorities (RRP for this species. We also estimated a species distribution model (SDM to define current suitable areas where the species might inhabit and/or that might be successfully colonized. The SDM area obtained with a suitable habitat probability ≥ 0.5 was 23,621 km2. Out of 2,562 km2 are included within protected areas in both Colombia (1,643 km2 and Venezuela (919 km2, which represents only 10.8% of C. intermedius' potential range. Areas such as Laguna de Chigüichigüe (flood plain lagoon exhibited an increase in population abundance. In contrast, localities such as the Cojedes and Manapire Rivers reported a significant reduction in relative abundance values. In Colombia, disparity in previous survey methods prevented accurate estimation of population trends. Only one study in this country described an increase over a 13 years span in the Ele, Lipa, and Cravo Norte River populations based on nest surveys. We defined 34 critical areas (16 in Colombia, 17 in Venezuela, and one covering both countries where we need to preserve/research/monitor and/or generate management actions, 10 RHP/CCU (six from Venezuela and four from Colombia and 24 RRP (11 from Venezuela, 12 from Colombia, and one in both countries. Caño Guaritico (Creek and the Capanaparo River in Venezuela and the Ele, Lipa, Cravo Norte River System and the Guayabero River in Colombia were defined as areas with the most optimal conditions for long-term preservation and maintenance of C. intermedius populations. We conclude that the conservation status of this species

  14. Fishes and aquatic habitats of the Orinoco River Basin: diversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso, C A; Machado-Allison, A; Taphorn, D C

    2016-07-01

    About 1000 freshwater fishes have been found so far in the Orinoco River Basin of Venezuela and Colombia. This high ichthyological diversity reflects the wide range of landscapes and aquatic ecosystems included in the basin. Mountain streams descend from the high Andes to become rapid-flowing foothill rivers that burst out upon vast savannah flatlands where they slowly make their way to the sea. These white-water rivers are heavily laden with sediments from the geologically young Andes. Because their sediment deposits have formed the richest soils of the basin, they have attracted the highest density of human populations, along with the greatest levels of deforestation, wildfires, agricultural biocides and fertilizers, sewage and all the other impacts associated with urban centres, agriculture and cattle ranching. In the southern portion of the basin, human populations are much smaller, where often the only inhabitants are indigenous peoples. The ancient rocks and sands of the Guiana Shield yield clear and black water streams of very different quality. Here, sediment loads are miniscule, pH is very acid and fish biomass is only a fraction of that observed in the rich Andean tributaries to the north. For each region of the basin, the current state of knowledge about fish diversity is assessed, fish sampling density evaluated, the presence of endemic species and economically important species (for human consumption or ornamental purposes) described and gaps in knowledge are pointed out. Current trends in the fishery for human consumption are analysed, noting that stocks of many species are in steep decline, and that current fishing practices are not sustainable. Finally, the major impacts and threats faced by the fishes and aquatic ecosystems of the Orinoco River Basin are summarized, and the creation of bi-national commissions to promote standardized fishing laws in both countries is recommended. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. La calidad de vida urbana en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo Mora, María Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    En las últimas décadas Venezuela se ha caracterizado por un crecimiento alto que supera el 3% interanual, el cual al ser extrapolado al año 2005, refleja una tendencia a situarse alrededor del 2%, catalogado como crecimiento moderado, que de seguir a este ritmo de crecimiento la población tiende a quintuplicarse en la segunda mitad del siglo XX (Camargo, M., 1996). Dicho crecimiento poblacional ha estado acompañado de cambios en la distribución de la población, como resulta ser la concentraci...

  16. Integrated 3D geology modeling constrained by facies and horizontal well data for Block M of the Orinoco heavy oil belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longxin, M.; Baojun, X.; Shancheng, Z.; Guoqing, H. [CNPC America Ltd., Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-10-15

    Horizontal well drilling with cold production were used to develop most of heavy oil fields in Venezuela's Orinoco heavy oil belt. This study interpreted the horizontal well logs of Block M of the Orinoco heavy oil belt in an effort to improve production from this highly porous and permeable reservoir. The reservoir is comprised primarily of non-consolidated sandstones. A porosity calculation formula for the horizontal well without porosity logs was established based on the study of horizontal well logging data of block M in the Orinoco heavy oil belt. A high quality 3-D simulation tool was used to separate the block into several different sections. A set of methods were presented in order to identify if the well track was approaching an adjacent formation, to estimate the distance between the well track and the adjacent formation, and to correct the deep resistivity of the horizontal section affected by the adjacent formation. A set of interpretation techniques were established, based on the combination of well logging data, seismic data and the oilfield development performance data. It was concluded that the development of the precise 3D geological model helped to establish a solid foundation for guiding the well position design and the drilling of the horizontal well. It also contributed to the reservoir numerical simulation and the effective development of the oil field. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  17. Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Provenzano R.

    Full Text Available Harttia merevari, a new species of loricariid catfish, is described from eight specimens captured in the upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. The new species is recognized by the following combination of characters: abdomen naked; two or three preanal plates; a bony plate before each branchial opening; seven lateral plates between the pectoral and pelvic fins; maxillary barbel short and attached to the oral disk by a fleshy fold; head dorsal surface and anterior portion of the body light or dark yellow with numerous, round black spots; posterior region of the body light or dark yellow with five black transverse bands, dorsal central area of the two anterior bands diffused. The discovery of this new species extends the distribution of the genus northwest to include the Orinoco River basin on the northern slope of the Guyana shield.

  18. Distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Correa-Viana, Martín; Ludlow, Mark E.; Robinson, John G.

    1988-01-01

    Aerial and interview surveys were conducted in 1986 to determine the current distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela. Aerial surveys provided just eight tentative sightings in 73 hours of searching. These discouraging results may have been due to poor visibility, small populations, and perhaps reduced dry season manatee activity. Results of interview surveys, however, permitted a number of important generalizations. A remnant manatee population exists in Lake Maracaibo, but none occur along the more than 1500 km of Caribbean coastline. Abundance is greatest in eastern Venezuela bordering the Golfo de Paria, in the Orinoco Delta, and in the middle Orinoco and tributaries. Local market hunting in the middle of this century probably greatly reduced manatee populations in these areas. Recent protection laws, education efforts, and manatee scarcity have resulted in a declining interest in manatee hunting. Much excellent manatee habitat persists in these regions, and a continued decline in hunting could result in an optimistic outlook for future manatee populations if the incidental take in net fisheries is controlled. Traditional beliefs and legends concerning manatees in Venezuela, including hunting taboos, show that these animals remain a colorful part of the folk culture. However, manatee protection does not pose economic hardships or infringe upon traditional spiritual beliefs.

  19. Effects of induced inter-bedded shale breakage on SAGD performance in the Orinoco belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashbush, J.L.; Fernandez, E.; Rodriguez, A.; Pina, J.A.; Ruiz, J. [Schlumberger, Piso (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Venezuela's Orinoco oil belt (Faja) which covers an area of 13 MM acres is being developed using primary recovery techniques that render recovery factors below 6 per cent. The national oil and gas company Petroleos de Venezuela SA is seeking to increase recovery factors to at least 20 per cent. Sandshale sequences in the oil belt vary from a few feet thick to hydrocarbon impregnated sand packages of 100 feet or more. Shales act as barriers to vertical flow and have to be considered when selecting an enhanced recovery mechanism to increase the recovery factor. This study assessed the effect of having inter-bedded shales in 2 possible scenarios for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), namely as permanent barriers or as temporary barriers amenable to be breakage as a function of temperature and thickness; and comparing steam chamber generation/propagation and its impact on production in the model before and after a potentially induced shale bed breach as a response to the thermal stresses during a SAGD process. Steam condensation will generate fresh water which can produce shale swelling and a change in permeability of the shales. This paper presented a numerical simulation study analyzing the behavior of a series of shale beds lamination schemes in a 100-foot reservoir. Recovery was compared by considering the shales as permanent barriers to vertical flow and the potential generation of flow paths of varying conductivities through the thinner shale beds as a function of thermal stress, length of exposure to steam and its condensate and pressure differentials. The study showed that breaching the vertical seals to allow flow through inter-bedded shales and shale stringers will increase the oil production rates and the recovery factors for the Faja type reservoir. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs.

  20. Estimating technically recoverable reserves in the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco : FPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusseault, M.B. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Zambrano, A.; Barrios, J.R.; Guerra, C. [PDVSA, La Campina, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    In Venezuela, the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco (FPO) is the largest hydrocarbon accumulation. This paper reported on a methodology to determine the proportion that was technically recoverable with existing production methods. The approach was described using an example from Carabobo region and was based on geophysical, geological and log data. The paper discussed technology suitability for the FPO including field trial recommendations; a review and rationale for PPT trials; a review and rationale for cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) trials; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) potential in the FPO; and rationale for horizontal steam stimulation (HCS) to SAGD trials. Stratigraphy of the Carabobo area and sedimentation and facies summary were presented. Last, the paper discussed a technology screening exercise. It was concluded that a reasonable recoverable reserves estimate for the Venezuelan FPO was an overall recovery for the entire FPO of approximately 20 per cent and that pilot tests in the FPO have shown good responses. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Technological challenges in the integral development of the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, T.; Zambrano, A.; Enernandez, J. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). CVP; Lugo, R.G. [Repsol, Madrid (Spain); Martorano, P. [Arc Solutions, Durham, NC (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviewed the technologies that are needed for the successful exploitation of Venezuela's Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco (FPO). Developers in the FPO must consider a combination of production schemes and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes in order to account for reservoir heterogeneities. A regional geological model is being prepared and updated with new well and seismic data. Geochemistry and rock-fluid studies are needed in order to characterize the reservoir system. New well completion and well servicing technologies are needed to improve pumping and horizontal drain completions. A high water handling capacity is required in order to enhance water management for multiphase pumps and pipeline systems in areas with strong aquifer influxes. Wellbore hydraulics studies are needed to ensure the economic recovery of the high viscosity oil. New surfactant products are needed to reduce the damage to wells and increase productivity. Unconventional well architectures will include highly deviated, stair-shaped, u-shaped, and snake-shaped wells. Waste management techniques must also be developed to ensure the disposal of drilling muds and cuttings. It was concluded that the principal technological challenge for the region is the development of an accurate asset characterization method. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  2. Hemiancistrus guahiborum, a new suckermouth armored catfish from Southern Venezuela (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Werneke

    Full Text Available Hemiancistrus guahiborum, new species, is described from the Orinoco River drainage of Venezuela. Hemiancistrus guahiborum can be separated from all other Hemiancistrus and all Peckoltia except P. braueri and P. cavatica by having an orange edge to the dorsal and caudal fins. Hemiancistrus guahiborum can be separated from Peckoltia cavatica and P. braueri by having the dorsal fin with separated light spots or uniformly colored (vs. with dark spots forming bands and the sides either solidly colored or with tan blotches (vs. with dark dorsal saddles.

  3. The opisthobranch gastropods (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) from Venezuela: an annotated and illustrated inventory of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Caballer; Ortea, Jesús; Rivero, Nelsy; Tucker, Gabriela Carias; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Narciso, Samuel

    2015-10-29

    The Caribbean waters of Venezuela are composed by a large variety of habitats, with over 2800 km of coastline, islands, and islets. This area is a transitional zone between two main biogeographic provinces, the Caribbean and the Brazilian, separated by the fresh water outflows of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers, and is therefore expected to be an area of high species diversity. However, concerning the study of molluscs, Venezuela is probably the poorest known region in the Caribbean. The best compilation of opisthobranch species known in Venezuela was produced almost a decade ago, mentioning the occurrence of 57 species, plus seven determined only to genus level. In this work, 134 species are reported for Venezuela (71 are illustrated), representing about 40 % of the entire diversity of opisthobranchs known in the Caribbean. Among the species occurring in Venezuela, 49 have here the southern limit of their distribution range and only one the northern limit. Forty-six species are recorded for the first time to the country and one is a new record for the Caribbean Sea, namely Placida cremoniana. In addition, the distribution and ecology of the species are given based in literature and new data.

  4. Hematologic values among Warao indians with tuberculosis from the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Zaida; Fernández de Larrea, Carlos; López, Diana; Fandiño, Cecil; Chirinos, Merlin; Convit, Jacinto; Debora, Iraida; de Waard, Jacobus

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem in Venezuelan indian communities. This study describes differences in hematological parameters in TB patients from two populations, Warao indians (WP) and creoles (CP). Control groups included Warao adults (WC) and children (WCh) as well as creole adults (CC). The results showed that the WP and WCh had significantly lower hemoglobin (Hb) levels than the WC and CC groups. Warao patients and two Warao control groups had significantly lower concentrations of median corpuscular Hb (MCHC) than the CP and CC groups. Regarding leucocyte indices, we observed a significant increament in the monocytes percentage in WP, WC and WCh, compared to CP and CC. In contrast, the neutrophils percentage was significantly reduced in all the Warao groups compared with the creole groups. Both WP and CP patient groups had higher platelet counts than those of the WC and CC groups. In relation to the body mass index (BMI), used as nutritional status indicator in Warao indians, we observed that the highest BMI was obtained in the adolescent group; with a continuous decreased with age. In conclusion, both WP and WCh presented decreased levels of Hb with erythrocytic hypochromia. Similar to the WCh, indian adults, even in the absence of the disease, presented a formula of white blood cells characterized by monocytosis, high percentage of lymphocytes and low percentage of neutrophils.

  5. A Surface Water Model for the Orinoco river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, P.P.; Poot, A.; Vonk, G.; Peeters, W.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the surface water model developed for the Orinoco river basin. In the next chapter hydrology and climate of the study area are presented. In the third chapter the general model concept is described. The fourth chapter describes the effects of various processes in the model

  6. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  7. Two new Bryconamericus: B. cinarucoense n. sp. and B. singularis n. sp. (Characiformes, Characidae from the Cinaruco River, Orinoco Basin, with keys to all Venezuelan species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-Valencia, C.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe for the first time Bryconamericus cinarucoense n. sp. and Bryconamericus singularis n. sp., two new species of Characiformesfrom the Cinaruco River, Orinoco Basin in Venezuela. B. cinarucoense n. sp. is distinguished from all other species of the genus in having: upper jaw extending beyond lower, maxilla short with only one or two teeth, cartilaginous rhinosphenoid extending to anterior part of prevomer, pelvic bone with cartilage along anterior edge, lateral line pores in straight line. B. singularis n. sp. is distinguished from congeners by having top of head flat, dentary with six or seven small unicuspid teeth, a dark lateral band extending from posterior edge of humeral spot to midbase of caudal fin which widens behind dorsal-fin origin, and in having five supraneurals which lack cartilage on the upper and lower extremities. Keys to aid identification of all known Venezuela species are included. Bryconamericus motatanensis is placed in the synonymy of B. alpha. Previous reports of B. breviceps and B. heteresthes from Venezuela are misidentifications, and are here considered as either B. cinarucoense n. sp., or another as yet undescribed species.

  8. Limnological Characterization of Wetlands of the Floodplain of the Orinoco River (Orinoco, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera Rondon, Carlos Alberto; Zapata, Angela Maria; Perez, Diana; Morales, Yennifer; Ovalle, Hernando; Alvarez, Juan Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a physical and chemical characterization of the major rivers, streams and wetlands of the surrounding area of the town of Puerto Carreno (Vichada, Colombia) in the flooding and dry seasons, as well as a biological characterization in the dry season. Most of the studied systems showed an acid pH and low ion and nutrient concentrations. The hydrologic regime has an important impact on aquatic ecosystems: during the flooding season, transparency and the concentration of some nutrients increased but conductivity and chlorophyll-a levels decreased. During the dry season, the dominant algal groups were Bacillariophyceae and Zygnemaphyceae, and the taxonomic composition of zooplankton was similar to those found in other systems of the Amazon-Orinoco complex. Macroinvertebrate communities were dominated by Coleoptera, Odonata and Ephemeroptera, and the greatest diversity of functional groups and morphotypes was recorded in litter substrates. Results suggest that the bank vegetation plays a very important role in providing a source of energy and shelter to aquatic communities during the dry season, but at the same time the low mineralization of these ecosystems renders them very susceptible to pollution from urban, agricultural and cattle ranching sources.

  9. Dynamic characterization of the M19 area, Cerro Negro Field, corresponding to Carabobo Block, Orinoco oil belt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). E and P Orinoco Belt Division

    2009-07-01

    The Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela is divided into the Boyaca, Junin, Ayacucho and Carabobo areas. This study characterized the M19 area of the Cerro Negro Field, corresponding to Carabobo Block, one of the most prospective areas in the Orinoco oil belt. This small section of Carabobo Block involves a stock tank original oil in place of 11,000 MMSTB with an API gravity between 7.8 and 8. The initial reservoir pressure is about 1,200 psia and solution gas drive is the predominant primary production mechanism. The range of viscosities varies from 2,000 to 6,000 cps. The average porosity is 30 per cent and permeability varies from 2 to 7 Darcies. This study focused on obtaining a better understanding of the reservoir behaviour. Results from geophysics, petrophysics, sedimentology, and reservoir engineering analysis were integrated in order to characterize the area with a simulation model and to address many uncertainties which have affected exploitation of the oil field since 1980. These issues are related to vertical drainage, horizontal well spacing, and horizontal well length. The pressure model did not reveal any evidence of main compartments within the reservoir. The petrophysical properties and fluid model honours the production behaviour of the whole field. The critical gas saturation that is needed to achieve a production gas match is approximately 3 per cent. The optimum horizontal length should not exceed 4600 feet and vertical drainage suggests a well spacing of 80 ft in order to minimize interference. The cold recovery factor would increase by reducing the horizontal spacing up to 200 mts. The need for implementing a thermal and chemical process to increase the recovery factor was reinforced. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 47 figs.

  10. Venezuela recasts itself as a new frontier in the Americas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    In January of this year, Venezuela captured the attention of the international energy community by welcoming back the foreign oil companies that, 20 years earlier, it had shut out of the country by nationalizing the hydrocarbon sector. The tool used to attract that attention, a new exploration bidding round, is the most publicized event staged to date in the country's aperture process. However, it is only the latest in a series of steps taken by officials to bring international oil and gas companies back to Caracas. Venezuela's physical attraction is easily understood. The country possesses roughly one-half of Latin America's (including Mexico) 125 billion bbl of established, conventional crude oil reserves, plus an estimated 300 billion bbl of additional, nonconventional reserves in the ultra-heavy crude belt of the Orinoco basin. Averaging 2.8 million bpd in 1996, Venezuelan crude production represents over 35% of regional oil output. Natural gas reserves total 138 Tcf, or just over one-half of the region's total reserves of 274 Tcfg. Annual gas output averages just under 5 Tcf, of which roughly 30% is reinjected as part of tertiary oil recovery schemes. This paper reviews the incentives, deregulation, and government policies to restore the oil and gas industry to the country

  11. Common Distribution Patterns of Marsupials Related to Physiographical Diversity in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained. PMID:24806452

  12. Common distribution patterns of marsupials related to physiographical diversity in Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacint Ventura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs. We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I; ii the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV; and those south to the river (OBU II. Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii species exclusively from the Andes; and iii species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained.

  13. Common distribution patterns of marsupials related to physiographical diversity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained.

  14. Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Todd, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of 224 Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on 224 Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of 228 Ra in the estuary and produced the highest 228 Ra/ 226 Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the 228 Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of 224 Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, 224 Ra and 228 Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the 232 Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Venezuela: Issues in the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    extra-heavy oil Orinoco River Basin projects. Six foreign companies had been involved in the projects—U.S.- based ConocoPhillips, Chevron, and...However, Statoil-Hydro, Total, and Italy’s Eni subsequently signed agreements that could result in additional investments in the Orinoco Belt projects...such as Gazprom, TNK-BP, and Lukoil have also signed agreements for exploration in the Orinoco region

  16. Suspended sediments of the modern Amazon and Orinoco rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Amazon and Orinoco Rivers are massive transcontinental conveyance systems for suspended sediment. They derive about 90% of their sediment from the Andes that support their western headwaters, transport it for thousands of kilometers across the breadth of the continent and deposit it in the coastal zones of the Atlantic. At their points of maximum suspended-sediment discharge, the Amazon transports an average of 1100-1300 ?? 106 tons per year and the Orinoco transports about 150 ?? 106 tons per year. Relations of sediment discharge to water discharge are complicated by unusual patterns of seasonal storage and remobilization, increased storage and reduced transport of sediment in the middle Orinoco during periods of peak water discharge, and storage of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon during rising discharge and resuspension during falling discharge. Spatial distributions of suspended sediment in cross-sections of both rivers are typically heterogeneous, not only in the vertical sense but also in the lateral. The cross-channel mixing of tributary inputs into the mainstem waters is a slow process that requires several hundred kilometers of downriver transport to complete. Considerable fine-grained sediment is exchanged between rivers and floodplains by the combination of overbank deposition and bank erosion. ?? 1994.

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF Pseudogonatodes lunulatus (Roux, 1927 (SAURIA, SPHAERODACTYLIDAE IN VENEZUELA | VARIACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA Y DISTRIBUCIÓN GEOGRÁFICA DE Pseudogonatodes lunulatus (Roux, 1927 (SAURIA, SPHAERODACTYLIDAE EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Esqueda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudogonatodes lunulatus (Roux, 1927 was described from a single specimen collected in the village El Mene, Acosta municipality, northeastern Falcón state, Venezuela. Although the species has been reported for other Venezuelan and Colombian localities, an extensive study on taxonomy and geographic distribution in the country had not been performed. In this sense, we examined and compared a larger sample of 20 specimens deposited in several national and foreign museums. Additionally, we substantially expand the known distribution of the species to the north of the Orinoco River.

  18. Approaching viscosity control: electrical heating of extra heavy oil as alternative to diluent injection in down hole in Cerro Negro Field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Manuel [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Electrical heating is a method used to enhance oil recovery in extra heavy oil reservoirs. This method can be used when diluent injection or other methods are not able to reduce oil viscosity sufficiently or when problems of product quality or quantity arise. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of electrical heating, individually and simultaneously with injection of diluents. For this purpose, simulations were undertaken in one well with integrated electrical heating and diluent injection in Cerro Negro Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela. Results have shown that the application of both methods together is more profitable than the application of electrical heating alone. This paper demonstrated that the use of electrical heating and diluent injection combined is a valid alternative to diluent injection alone, reducing production loss.

  19. Lessons learned from Orinoco belt's first developments : the impact of meteoritic waters on fields' development plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulon, D. [Total E and P Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dal, M.; Brousse, R.; Bois, M. [Total, Calgary, AB (Canada); Draoui, E [Petrocedeno, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Despite the huge oil accumulations in Venezuela's Orinoco oil belt, the current recoveries are below 2 per cent in all 4 areas developed thus far, which is typical of a low maturity, high stakes basin with a steep learning curve. This paper reported on a study of the Petrocedeno field in the Junin region of the oil belt to determine key parameters for development. One of the main lessons learned was the importance of contemporary low-salinity meteoritic water invasions flushing parts of the reservoir, with first-order consequences on water production profiles and oil quality. Large volumes of oil were found to be dynamically connected to the flushed zone, which can be efficiently developed through cold production. The large volumes of oil located directly above the flushed zone cannot be recovered through cold production because of lower extra heavy oil quality and because of the larger impact of unfavourable oil/water mobility ratios so close to mobile water. The flushed zone itself is hydrocarbon bearing, with oil saturation as high as 70 per cent. Continuous progress has been made in terms of understanding the nature and spatial distribution of flushed areas, and assessing their impact on natural depletion schemes. It was concluded that this study may help new developments to benefit from previously learned lessons and optimize the recovery strategy on the Orinoco basin assets. 11 refs., 14 figs.

  20. El IDRC en Venezuela

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pios de la transparencia gubernamental, la rendición de cuentas y las consultas públicas. Como parte de un estudio mayor sobre temas tales como regulación de utilidades, lavado de dinero y acceso a medicamentos básicos, los investigadores están comparando las leyes de competencia en Venezuela, China, Sudáfrica.

  1. Maximizing reservoir exposure with proactive well placement in high geological complexity field of Venezuelan Orinoco Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Luis; Leon, Maryesther; Meunier, Antoine [Schlumberger, Caracas (Venezuela); Lara, Manuel; Herrera, Yoanna; Granado, Miguel [Petrolera Indovenezolana S.A. (PIV), El Tigre (Venezuela)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, Petrolera Indovenezolana S.A. (PIV), a joint venture between Corporacion Venezolana del Petroleo (CVP) and the Indian company ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL), started planning for two horizontal wells in the Norte Zuata (San Cristobal) field in the Orinoco belt of eastern Venezuela. The focus for this campaign was to evaluate the productivity of horizontal wells in thin sands and avoid areas of complex geology because of the high uncertainty in the structural behavior, applying technology that provided absolute control of the drilling process into the Oficina formation. Within the Oficina formation, thin sand reservoirs with variations in thickness and dip, geologically facies changes and sub seismic faults presented the main challenge to geosteering a horizontal well. Because the project faced high geological uncertainties, a pilot hole was drilled as the first stage in the first well to verify the structural levels and the continuity of the sand bodies. To achieve the above challenges, the combination of a rotary steerable system (RSS) 'point-the-bit' and a deep azimuthal electromagnetic resistivity tool (DAEMR) was used. The measurements provided accurate information to the well-placement engineers for proactive decisions in real time, mitigating the possible loss of the target by these geologic uncertainties. High-quality and valuable data for real time geological model update were the expected results obtained from the effort made by PIV in the Norte Zuata (San Cristobal) field, and the data showed the oil-producing potential of one of the main reservoir (Sand F,G). This application of high-tier technologies demonstrated that drilling and data measurements can be improved and optimized to yield added value for reservoir development and 100% net to gross (NTG) targets. This reduces operational cost, makes it possible to drill in the right place the first time, and pushes forward the limit of the achievable in terms of reservoir exposure. (author)

  2. A new approach to the oil business in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradas, F.; Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1993-02-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) has been meeting during the past two years with a considerable number of companies (groups) with a view to possible associations for the reactivation of known fields, joint activities in barely explored areas and the exploitation, refining, upgrading and marketing of crudes from the Orinoco Belt holder of immense reserves of extra-heavy crudes and bitumens. In Venezuela, a new approach to the oil business is under way. On January 1976, the law nationalizing the Venezuelan oil industry became effective establishing that the government retains the sole rights to the country's petroleum industry. However, Article 5 of the law made provision for associations in cases considered to be of [open quotes]National Interest.[close quotes] PDVSA became the wholly government-owned holding entity, encompassing 26 subsidiaries and affiliates. Other energy segments, particularly coal and petrochemicals, were not included in the law and since 1984 several associations with non-governmental entities have been established in Venezuela and very valuable experience has been garnered. Similarly, partnerships and acquisitions have been made in Europe and USA, mostly in refining, through PDVSA. The international petroleum industry foresees a modest, but steady increase in production during the coming decade, particularly in the second half of the nineties. This effect, added to the globalization concept, is making the traditional vertically integrated oil companies look for diverse [open quotes]lateral[close quotes] associations between groups, private and/or state owned with common interests, that will give greater security to sources of supply and market share.

  3. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...... draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...... against the US and how China is considered a valuable ally to acquire more independence. However, this situation of interdependence can paradoxically lead to a new kind of dependence, in this case on China. To analyze these relations, I propose a conceptual framework consisting of three dimensions: 1...

  4. Venezuela takes responsabilidad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.

    1992-01-01

    No federal government officials showed up at the Oct. 29 ceremony to lauch the Responsabilidad Integral program of Asoquim, the Venezuelan chemical industry association. But that did not discourage industry representatives. Industry has tried to keep the Ministry of Environment Affairs involved as much as possible, says Danay Zoppi de Perez, corporate v.p. with Grupo Quimico. But industry was proud to be doing it anyway, despite the absence of government. It's a private, proactive initiative. Asoquim's program is based on the six Responsible Care codes. At the ceremony, 56 companies from Asoquim's membership of 150, which represents 90% of chemicals production in the country, signed on. Signatories include stateowned Petroquimica de Venezuela (Pequiven), domestic private-sector firms, and most of the multinationls operating in Venezuela. The ceremony drew officials from the fire service and civil defense authorities who have to deal with spills and accidents

  5. Venezuela: oil and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, R.

    1978-01-01

    Venezuela's struggle to develop its economic and political independence separate from the colonialism of foreign oil companies and free from the authoritarian dictatorships of other developing countries is described by one who has been intimately involved in the nation's political life and is knowledgeable in the relationships of oil, economics, and politics during the bid for democracy and economic egalitarianism. First published in 1956, the treatise has been revised and updated to show how strong party organization was responsible for developing demoncratic programs and how this new strength allowed Venezuela to domesticate much of the foreign involvement in oil production. Historical facts, though acknowledged to have a bias, are documented. 88 references. (DCK)

  6. Estimating Venezuelas Latent Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Bencomo; Hugo J. Montesinos; Hugo M. Montesinos; Jose Roberto Rondo

    2011-01-01

    Percent variation of the consumer price index (CPI) is the inflation indicator most widely used. This indicator, however, has some drawbacks. In addition to measurement errors of the CPI, there is a problem of incongruence between the definition of inflation as a sustained and generalized increase of prices and the traditional measure associated with the CPI. We use data from 1991 to 2005 to estimate a complementary indicator for Venezuela, the highest inflation country in Latin America. Late...

  7. El IDRC en Venezuela

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    El IDRC comenzó a apoyar la investi- gación en Venezuela en 1973. El financiamiento creció en la década de 1980 cuando se estudiaron vías para fortalecer la calidad de servicios públicos tales como salud, educación, ciencia y tecnología. Por ejemplo, la información sobre el impacto socio económico de la acuicultura y ...

  8. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  9. H2S and CO2 generation mechanisms on a steam injection project on Petrocedeno Field, Orinoco belt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzcategui, D. [PDVSA, Petrocedeno (Venezuela); Lamoureux-Var, V (IFP-Energies nouvelles (France)); Berger, E. (PDVSA Petrocedeno seconded by TOTAL (France))

    2011-07-01

    The Petrocedeno field situated in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela contains high volumes of extra heavy oil. Due to the oil's nature, the recovery factor is low and an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) Pilot Project is underway to determine how continuous steam injection techniques could improve the recovery. The aim of this paper is to present this project and the experiments carried out to study the H2S and CO2 generation. Characterization of different oil sand cores from the EOR pilot area was conducted as well as aquathermolysis experiments in IFPEn laboratories to reproduce the contact between reservoir rocks and steam. Results showed an important production of both CO2 and H2S, and determined that H2S is mainly generated by heavy oil while the matrix could be the main source for CO2 generation. This study determined the sources of H2S and CO2 generation and its results were used in the design of Petrocedeno EOR project.

  10. Thin sand modeling based on geostatistic, uncertainty and risk analysis in Zuata Principal field, Orinoco oil belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, W.; Aranaga, R.; Siu, P.; Perez, L. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The geological modelling of the Zuata Principal field in Venezuela, particularly the Junin Block 2 belonging to Orinoco oil belt, is a challenge because of the presence of thin sand bodies in an unexploited zone. This paper presented the results obtained from a horizontal well that contacted 96 per cent of pay count sand in the field. Geostatistical modelling and sensibility analysis were used for planning the well. The model was generated by processing and interpreting information from production and exploratory fishbones. Information provided by nearby wildcat wells suggested that the proposed area was not prospective. However, information provided by several exploratory fishbones offered some possibility of draining additional reserves. From available information, facies models and uncertainty analysis were made to statistically determine the best option, notably to drill additional stratwells to obtain a more accurate characterization or apply the already obtained model for drilling a production well in the investigated area. The study showed that geological uncertainty does not only depend on how much information is available, but also on how this information can be processed and interpreted. Decision analysis provides a rational basis for dealing with risk and uncertainties. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs., 1 appendix.

  11. Integrated rock properties and fluid distribution determination using core and log data, Oficina Formation, Ayacucho area, Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Useche, F.; Bejarano, C. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (Venezuela); Didanloo, A.; Shahbazian, S. [Petropars Ltd. (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented the results of an integrated study of the Ayacucho area in the southern flank of Eastern Venezuela Basin in which the flow behaviour in different parts of the central Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt was investigated. The thickest and most extensive oil bearing sand bodies were studied in an effort to maximize the recovery of hydrocarbons in the area. The sedimentology of the Oficina Formation was presented along with a review of pore types and sizes, core descriptions, thin-sections and SEM photomicrographs. Three-dimensional modeling of the Oficina Formation in Ayacucho area was carried out through geological and reservoir engineering studies. All core description information was digitized and taken quantitatively into account during the studies, particularly the lithotyping. All relevant core and log data were loaded and analyzed in Geolog6 software, which was also used for the geological correlation and petrophysical evaluation. Eleven major lithofacies were identified in the lower to middle sections of the Oficina Formation. Three additional lithofacies were only observed in the middle to upper sections. The Flow Zone Indicator method was used to predict permeability. Seven different flow units were compared and further validated with the capillary measurements and pore throat size distributions. All the relevant properties were propagated in the 3D geological models, through most representative relationships established between the core and log data. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  12. Thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide associated to a petroleum reservoir submitted to in-situ combustion in the Orinoco oil belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perozo, H.A.; Belandria, V. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP

    2009-07-01

    This paper described an in-situ combustion (ISC) pilot project that is being developed by Venezuela's state oil company in the Orinoco oil belt. Thermal oxidation is commonly used to remove contaminants from waste gases. Petroleos de Venezuela SA examined the effectiveness of this process for eliminating hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from flue gas associated with heavy oil thermal upgrading projects, with particular focus on the effect of temperature on H{sub 2}S oxidation. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted in an isothermal batch reactor at temperatures between 200 and 500 degrees C. A synthetic gas stream was prepared. The experimental results showed that it is feasible to oxidize 100 per cent of the H{sub 2}S at temperatures as low as 300 degrees C by optimizing excess air and residence time in the reactor. Compared to the minimum required temperature of 760 degrees C to reach 98 per cent oxidation efficiency of H{sub 2}S in the conventional thermal oxidation process of most sour gases, this study found a lower temperature that satisfactorily eliminates H{sub 2}S for the desired application. The results confirmed the feasibility of using thermal oxidation to deal with H{sub 2}S in the flue gas stream during the application of ISC. 5 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  14. Diabetes Care in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; González-Rivas, Juan P; Lima-Martínez, Marcos; Stepenka, Victoria; Rísquez, Alejandro; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its economic burden have increased in Venezuela, posing difficult challenges in a country already in great turmoil. The aim of this study was to review the prevalence, causes, prevention, management, health policies, and challenges for successful management of diabetes and its complications in Venezuela. A comprehensive literature review spanning 1960 to 2015 was performed. Literature not indexed also was reviewed. The weighted prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was estimated from published regional and subnational population-based studies. Diabetes care strategies were analyzed. In Venezuela, the weighted prevalence of diabetes was 7.7% and prediabetes was 11.2%. Diabetes was the fifth leading cause of death (7.1%) in 2012 with the mortality rate increasing 7% per year from 1990 to 2012. In 2012, cardiovascular disease and diabetes together were the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years.T2D drivers are genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle, including unhealthy dietary patterns and physical inactivity. Obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome are present at lower cutoffs for body mass index, homeostatic model assessment, and visceral or ectopic fat, respectively. Institutional programs for early detection and/or prevention of T2D have not been established. Most patients with diabetes (∼87%) are cared for in public facilities in a fragmented health system. Local clinical practice guidelines are available, but implementation is suboptimal and supporting information is limited. Strategies to improve diabetes care in Venezuela include enhancing resources, reducing costs, improving education, implementing screening (using Latin America Finnish Diabetes Risk Score), promoting diabetes care units, avoiding insulin levels as diagnostic tool, correct use of oral glucose tolerance testing and metformin as first-line T2D treatment, and reducing health system fragmentation. Use of the Venezuelan adaptation of

  15. Undocumented migration to Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, R

    1984-01-01

    "In 1980 Venezuela took...steps to regularize the undocumented migrant population. While the number responding to the amnesty was small relative to expectations, the majority of illegals appeared to have regularized their status. For the first time it was possible to assess objectively the characteristics of the undocumented population. Moreover, the problem of illegal migrants seems to have been temporarily solved, a result of both the amnesty and the country's declining economic activity." Topics covered in the present article include the nationality, geographic distribution, sex and age distribution, educational status, and occupations of undocumented migrants. excerpt

  16. Venezuela y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Cardozo de da Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela es uno de los principales actores económicos de América Latina, de allí la importancia de conocer las características de su política exterior. Los desarreglos de la política exterior hacia el caribe pueden ser resueltos si se les comprende en su dimensión local y global. En este sentido es necesario avanzar del espacio "inter-societal" de la preocupación estrictamente comercial a los espacios culturales y de cooperación técnica.

  17. ANÁLISIS BIOGEOGRÁFICO DE LOS PECES CHARACIFORMES DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Leonor Bonilla Rivero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis biogeográfico basado en los peces Characiformes de Venezuela con el objetivo de explorar la importancia relativa de los procesos que han contribuido con el establecimiento de los patrones de distribución actuales de la ictiofauna continental venezolana. La información geográfica y filogenética disponible se analizó siguiendo los métodos de Análisis de Parsimonia de Endemismos (PAE y Análisis de Parsimonia de Brooks (BPA. El PAE señaló fundamentalmente a los Llanos Occidentales y el sur del Amazonas como áreas de endemismo. El BPA realizado con la información filogenética de siete géneros mostró un patrón generalizado con los clados (Caribe + Maracaibo y ((((Río Negro+Orinoco + Paria + Valencia + Cuyuní, donde se destaca un evento de dispersión desde la cuenca del río Negro hacia el río Orinoco. Los resultados de ambos métodos biogeográficos indican que la región de los llanos - amazonas, donde se conjugó la biota del incipiente Orinoco con la biota amazónica, contiene el mayor número de especies, las áreas de endemismo mejor sustentadas, así como distintos eventos de especiación y posterior dispersión hacia otras regiones. La biota de la región nortecostera del país parece más bien gobernada por procesos de especiación vicariante de carácter puntual por el aislamiento histórico de sus drenajes.

  18. Baryancistrus demantoides and Hemiancistrus subviridis, two new uniquely colored species of catfishes from Venezuela (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Werneke

    Full Text Available Baryancistrus demantoides and Hemiancistrus subviridis are two new species of loricariids from southern Venezuela with an olive ground coloration and white to cream-colored or golden-yellow spots. Baryancistrus demantoides is known only from the upper río Orinoco drainage while H. subviridis is also known from the río Casiquiare drainage. In addition to its coloration, B. demantoides can be distinguished from all other ancistrins by having the dorsal and adipose fins connected by an expanded posterior section of the dorsal-fin membrane, golden-yellow spots confined to the anterior portion of the body, and greater than 30 teeth per jaw ramus. Hemiancistrus subviridis can be separated from all other ancistrins by coloration, lacking a connection between the dorsal and adipose fins and having less than 30 teeth per jaw ramus.

  19. HIV-1 epidemic in Warao Amerindians from Venezuela: spatial phylodynamics and epidemiological patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Julian A; Bello, Gonzalo; Maes, Mailis; Sulbaran, Yoneira F; Garzaro, Domingo; Loureiro, Carmen L; Rangel, Hector R; de Waard, Jacobus H; Pujol, Flor H

    2013-07-17

    We previously reported HIV-1 infection in Warao Amerindians from Venezuela. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent and the dynamic of HIV-1 dissemination in eight Warao communities. HIV-1 infection was evaluated in 576 Warao Amerindians from the Orinoco Delta. Partial HIV-1 pol sequences were analyzed to reconstruct the spatiotemporal and demographic dynamics of the epidemic. HIV-1 antibodies were present in 9.55% of Warao Amerindians, ranging from 0 to 22%. A significantly higher prevalence was found in men (15.6%) compared with women (2.6%), reaching up to 35% in men from one community. All but one isolates were classified as subtype B. Warao's HIV-1 subtype-B epidemic resulted from a single viral introduction at around the early 2000s. After an initial phase of slow growth, the subtype B started to spread at a fast rate (0.8/year) following two major routes of migration within the communities. A dramatic high prevalence was documented in almost all the communities of Warao Amerindians from the Orinoco Delta tested for HIV-1 infection. This epidemic resulted from the dissemination of a single HIV-1 subtype B founder strain introduced about 10 years ago and its size is probably doubling every year, creating a situation that can be devastating for this vulnerable Amerindian group.

  20. The radioactive beam facility ALTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essabaa, Saïd; Barré-Boscher, Nicole; Cheikh Mhamed, Maher; Cottereau, Evelyne; Franchoo, Serge; Ibrahim, Fadi; Lau, Christophe; Roussière, Brigitte; Saïd, Abdelhakim; Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Verney, David

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Research at the ALTO TNA-facility. • R and D on radioactive ion sources. • R and D on the lanthanide beam production by fluorination. • Recent developments on uranium carbide targets. -- Abstract: The Transnational Access facility ALTO (TNA07-ENSAR/FP7) has been commissioned and received from the French safety authorities, the operation license. It is allowed to run at nominal intensity to produce 10 11 fissions/s in a thick uranium carbide target by photo-fission using a 10 μA, 50 MeV electron beam. In addition the recent success in operating the selective laser ion source broadens the physics program with neutron-rich nuclear beams possible at this facility installed at IPN Orsay. The facility also aims at being a test bench for the SPIRAL2 project. In that framework an ambitious R and D program on the target ion source system is being developed

  1. Venezuela: illegal immigration from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, A

    1984-01-01

    The influx of illegal Colombian immigrants into Venezuela is studied using data from a variety of sources, including the 1971 census and several studies conducted in 1979-1980. The author examines the origins and destinations of migrants; age, sex, educational status, and occupational data; reasons for migration; and geographic distribution of the migrating population. Tables from Venezuela's General Foreign-Born Register of December 1980 are presented in an appendix.

  2. Petrochemical development in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkenborn, A.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation highlighted the evolution of the petrochemical industry in Venezuela. Comparative advantages for the industry such as (1) abundant low cost energy, (2) attractive geographical position, (3) good infrastructure, (4) skilled, low cost labour force, and (5) regional integration, were reviewed. A summary of national production, refining, and marketing facts for petrochemicals, coal, orimulsion, and marine transportation were presented, along with financial information concerning revenues from sales, and profits and investments. Future plans to maximize the creation of value for the nation through increased oil production and partial privatization of state petroleum enterprises, were reviewed. The current state and future plans for focused development of fertilizers, olefins and olefin derivatives, and methanol products were outlined. Production statistics for three large petrochemical complexes, - El Tablazo, Moron and Jose - were also presented. 9 figs

  3. Venezuela: una ley punitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cañizalez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor, alineado en la oposición hace una crítica a la Ley de Responsabilidad Social en Radio y Televisión (LRSRT adjetivándola de "punitiva" porque busca castigar, agrega lo que denomina la crítica internacional y algunas voces a favor de la ley. Concibe el autor que en Venezuela la Ley de Responsabilidad Social en Radio y Televisión (LRSRTV es una retaliación política contra los medios privados, alineados éstos políticamente contra Chávez. Dice que el discurso oficial señala que la prensa venezolana necesita un freno para no desviarse políticamente. Menciona las entidades castigadoras, se interroga si la Ley es inaplicable, resalta las voces a favor y la crítica internacional.

  4. Venezuela: una ley punitiva

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Cañizalez; Felipe Gaytán; Juliana Fregoso

    2015-01-01

    El autor, alineado en la oposición hace una crítica a la Ley de Responsabilidad Social en Radio y Televisión (LRSRT) adjetivándola de "punitiva" porque busca castigar, agrega lo que denomina la crítica internacional y algunas voces a favor de la ley. Concibe el autor que en Venezuela la Ley de Responsabilidad Social en Radio y Televisión (LRSRTV) es una retaliación política contra los medios privados, alineados éstos políticamente contra Chávez. Dice que el discurso oficial señala que la pren...

  5. Metamorfosis del delito de secuestro en el Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Añez Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El delito de secuestro es un flagelo social que ha experimentado mutaciones en el tiempo. El año 2009 terminó con una cifra sin precedentes en cuanto a los secuestros reportados en Venezuela. Los datos aportados por los organismos oficiales revelan que durante el 2008 hubo 537 secuestros, lo cual representa un aumento de 52% respecto al total del 2007, mientras que en el 2009 la cifra se incrementó en un 62,82%, en relación con el año anterior. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo describir el delito de secuestro en Venezuela, con especial referencia al Estado Zulia, población fronteriza limítrofe con Colombia. Para ello se emplea una metodología de tipo documental- descriptiva. Se revela que no existen esquemas predefinidos que permitan caracterizar este tipo penal, pues, tal y como ha venido sucediendo, es susceptible de llevarse a cabo en cualquier momento y circunstancia, no de modo exclusivo en sujetos de alto estatus socioeconómico, sino con mínimos medios para responder a las exigencias de los plagiarios; de aquí la proliferación de la modalidad del llamado secuestro exprés. El delito de secuestro en Venezuela ha cambiado en forma notable sus patrones: de ser un delito predominantemente político, fronterizo y ejecutado por grupos organizados, ha pasado a ser uno de objetivos sobre todo económicos, urbano, y ejecutado con un fin de lucro por la delincuencia común. En verdad, el Estado Zulia sigue repuntando en la lista de los estados con mayor incidencia de este delito en Venezuela, pero no es el principal, pues ha sido desplazado en posicionamiento por otras urbes del país, encabezadas en la actualidad por la ciudad capital de Caracas.

  6. Mochima, estado Sucre (Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Elisa Requena Mago

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En tiempos de recesión, los expertos nos bombardean con cifras relacionadas a la caída del producto interno bruto, al desempleo, entre otras. Dada la situación que presenta hoy en día Venezuela, aunado a la alta inflación y la devaluación de la moneda; el escenario resulta bastante complicado para el consumidor y las empresas proveedoras de bienes y servicios. En este sentido, las PyMES turísticas de Mochima, ubicadas en el Estado Sucre, Venezuela, se presentan como una alternativa para de alguna manera ayudar a disipar ese triste escenario, mediante sus bondades y en combinación con Internet. De allí que el presente artículo aborde desde los aspectos teóricos del turismo hasta las bondades naturales y culturales que ofrece esta zona oriental del país. Se utilizó una metodología de carácter descriptiva y una combinación de estrategia documental y de campo. Se aplicó un muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional, seleccionando los elementos con base en criterios de los investigadores. De acuerdo al estudio, se diseñó la página web y se concluyó, que la implementación de la misma ayudaría en gran medida a mejorar los ingresos de la región y darse a conocer tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

  7. Venezuela paneb kokku regionaalset energeetikaliitu / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela pealinnas toimus organisatsiooni Petrocaribe kolmas tippkohtumine. Petrocaribe, mis liidab peamiselt Kariibi mere riike ja tegeleb energeetikaküsimustega, algatas 2 aastat tagasi Venezuela president Hugo Chavez. Organisatsiooni kuulub 16 riiki

  8. Venezuela: A Full-Year Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higdon, Melody

    2006-01-01

    This Country Climatology Digest is a climatological study of Venezuela. After describing the geography and major meteorological features of the entire region, the study discusses in detail the climatic controls of Venezuela's weather...

  9. Kaos. Venezuelas top flirter med Hizbollah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelardi, Maiken

    2017-01-01

    Terrororganisationen Hizbollah har længe brugt Venezuela som base i det ekstremt lukrative narkotikamarked.......Terrororganisationen Hizbollah har længe brugt Venezuela som base i det ekstremt lukrative narkotikamarked....

  10. Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu juht kuulutas sõja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu direktor Fernando Baez kuulutas, et tema juhtimisel püüab Venezuela rahvusraamatukogu saavutada juhirolli Ladina-Ameerikas, kuna USA Kongressi Raamatukogust on saanud raamatukogude suurimaid vaenlasi ajaloos

  11. Protracted outbreak of severe delta hepatitis: experience in an isolated Amerindian population of the Upper Orinoco basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J R; Mondolfi, A

    1991-01-01

    In an investigation of a 21-year-old epidemic of severe hepatitis, 80 serum samples were studied from two isolated Yanomami Amerindian populations of the Upper Orinoco basin in Venezuela. Of the assayed samples, 30.6% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 53.7% were considered to reflect immunity to infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and only 16.2% were believed to reflect susceptibility to HBV infection; 82.5% of the samples tested positive for any marker of HBV infection. Thirty-one (39.7%) of 78 samples were also positive for antibody to delta antigen, including 91.6% of those positive for HBsAg and 20.9% of those immune to HBV. Our findings provide evidence of a high prevalence of HBV infection in this population. Furthermore, the high prevalence of antibody to delta antigen strongly suggests that coinfections with HBV or superinfections with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) in HBV carriers may be an important factor in the occurrence of an unusually high number of cases of fulminant hepatitis and of chronic liver disease. Serum samples obtained at the beginning of the outbreak 13 years earlier from 36 selected cases in the same population revealed a high rate of HBV infection (96.5%). All six HBsAg carriers from whom enough serum remained to be assayed were positive for antibody to delta antigen. Our findings indicate that the outbreak coincided with the introduction of HDV into a population with an already-high prevalence of HBV infection.

  12. Evidence of at least two introductions of HIV-1 in the Amerindian Warao population from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Héctor R; Maes, Mailis; Villalba, Julian; Sulbarán, Yoneira; de Waard, Jacobus H; Bello, Gonzalo; Pujol, Flor H

    2012-01-01

    The Venezuelan Amerindians were, until recently, free of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, in 2007, HIV-1 infection was detected for the first time in the Warao Amerindian population living in the Eastern part of Venezuela, in the delta of the Orinoco river. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of the HIV-1 circulating in this population. The pol genomic region was sequenced for 16 HIV-1 isolates and for some of them, sequences from env, vif and nef genomic regions were obtained. All HIV-1 isolates were classified as subtype B, with exception of one that was classified as subtype C. The 15 subtype B isolates exhibited a high degree of genetic similarity and formed a highly supported monophyletic cluster in each genomic region analyzed. Evolutionary analyses of the pol genomic region indicated that the date of the most recent common ancestor of the Waraos subtype B clade dates back to the late 1990s. At least two independent introductions of HIV-1 have occurred in the Warao Amerindians from Venezuela. The HIV-1 subtype B was successfully established and got disseminated in the community, while no evidence of local dissemination of the HIV-1 subtype C was detected in this study. These results warrant further surveys to evaluate the burden of this disease, which can be particularly devastating in this Amerindian population, with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, hepatitis B, among other infectious diseases, and with limited access to primary health care.

  13. Energy sector developments in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantin, R.

    1997-01-01

    The current state and future development of the oil, gas and coal sector in Venezuela was discussed. Venezuela has oil reserves of 73 billion barrels, gas reserves of 143 TCF and coal reserves of 6 billion BOE. The country has a refining capacity of 2.9 million barrels per day, a petrochemical capacity of 7.7 million tons per year, and a coal capacity of 4.6 million tons per year. The largest refiners in Venezuela are Shell, Exxon, PDVSA, Mobil, BP, Chevron and Texaco. In 1996 the total oil and derivatives exports for Venezuela were 2.8 million barrels per day. Fifty-eight companies from 14 countries participate in the Venezuelan upstream market. Fifteen operating agreements have been awarded to 27 companies from nine countries. Third round operating agreements have been awarded to 26 companies and profit sharing agreements are in force involving 14 companies. Four vertically integrated projects (Maraven-Conoco, Maraven-Total, Corpoven-Arco-Texaco-Phillips, and Lagoven-Mobil-Veba) are currently underway. The Orimulsion(R) project, the refining system, the natural gas production, marketing and transmission system, associated future projects for the 1997-2006 time frame, and developments in the field of petrochemicals also have been reviewed. 21 figs

  14. International Commercial Arbitration in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the above article author describes evolution of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Venezuela. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Venezuela activities. In past two decades many Latin American countries have reformed their arbitration law. In an effort to modernize its arbitral institutions several Latin American countries adopted Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL. In addition, many Latin American countries have adopted the monistic system. Author pays detailed attention to this issue, discusses concept of a monistic system - a system in which a unique set of rules governs both domestic and international arbitration. Author argues that legal system of Venezuela fits this definition. Venezuelan law on arbitration in 1998 makes no distinction between domestic and international arbitration. Arbitration was included in judicial system under the Constitution of Venezuela of the 1999. Art. 258 of the Venezuelan Constitution states that arbitration, conciliation and mediation are alternative ways of resolving disputes.

  15. Health Physics Education in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanas, J.

    1979-01-01

    Training courses on health physics have been organized regularly in Venezuela since 1962. The basic course consists of 20 hours for theoretical tuition and 10 hours for laboratory practice. Post-graduate courses have been organized by the Central University since 1965. Radiological technicians receive their training through the courses organized by the Ministry of Health. (author)

  16. A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, C.

    2005-01-01

    enjoying a fresh pool of talent from Venezuela, including the petrochemist Pedro Pereira-Almao, who was recently made co-director of the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy. Because of the similarities between the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela and Alberta's oil sands, the technologies are transferable. Alberta is now enjoying the expertise of about 2000 technically skilled Venezuelans. 2 figs

  17. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  18. Biological Ocean Margins Program. Active Microbes Responding to Inputs from the Orinoco River Plume. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge E. Corredor

    2013-01-28

    The overall goal of the proposed work is to identify the active members of the heterotrophic community involved in C and N cycling in the perimeter of the Orinoco River Plume (ORP), assess their spatial distribution, quantify their metabolic activity, and correlate these parameters to plume properties such as salinity, organic matter content and phytoplankton biomass.

  19. Mapping savanna ecosystems of the Llanos del Orinoco using multitemporal NOAA satellite imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacon Moreno, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Monthly composites NOAA-advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images (June 1992¿October 1993) were used to analyze the phenology of savanna ecosystems in the Llanos del Orinoco region. The objective was to elaborate an ecosystems map of the

  20. Protected Areas legislation and the conservation of the Colombian Orinoco Basin natural ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has shown a strong commitment to the achievement of the CBD´s biodiversity target, by promoting the conservation of at least 10% of its natural ecosystems. Protected Area categories in Colombia are undergoing a standardization process that should enhance the country´s capacity to protect its natural ecosystems. In this study we use a spatial analysis to examine how the legislation and the civil society´s initiatives help in the conservation of natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin. We found that differentiation in use restriction legislation limits the conservation potential of some Protected Area categories. The only fully Protected Areas in Colombia are the Natural National Parks System Areas, which protect only 10% of the area of natural ecosystems and less than 50% of the natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin. Indigenous Reserves help significantly in the conservation of the natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin, but are not a Protected Area category, making it difficult for indigenous groups to aid in the accomplishment of conservation goals in Colombia.A small percentage of ecosystems of the Colombian Orinoco Basin fall outside of any Protected Area or Indigenous Reserve and urgent actions may be needed to protect them. Future similar studies should use current and updated information on Protected Areas and take into account changes in land cover, for a better understanding of the role of different categories of Protected Areas in the achievement of conservation objectives in Colombia.

  1. Los archivos Universitarios de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Enrique López Bohórquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es hacer un balance sobre los Archivos de las principales Universidades de Venezuela, se incluyen consideraciones acerca del Archivo Universitario como gestión administrativa e investigaci ón histórica, antecedentes sobre propuestas sobre la situación actual de algunos repositorios documentales universitarios, la necesidad de un Sistema Nacional de Archivos Universitarios en Venezuela, el mecanismo para la formulación del SINARU y la comisión encargada de ponerlo en práctica. Todo ello dentro de la perspectiva que un historiador de la Universidad tiene acerca de la importancia de los Archivos Universitarios, así como la necesidad de compartir la experiencia al frente del Archivo Histórico de la Universidad de Los Andes (Mérida-Venezuela, 1996-2000, para lo cual se hace uso tanto de la historia como de la archivística, áreas del conocimiento estrechamente vinculadas y necesarias en el momento de explicar el papel que en el tiempo han cumplido las instituciones de educación superior de nuestro país. El artículo está acompañado del documento aprobadosobre. El Sistema Nacional de Archivos Universitarios Venezolanos.

  2. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Essayag, Sofia; Delgado, Alejandro; Colella, Maria T; Landaeta-Nezer, Maria E; Rosello, Arantza; Perez de Salazar, Celina; Olaizola, Carolina; Hartung, Claudia; Magaldi, Sylvia; Velasquez, Etna

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycoses in Venezuela. It is a granulomatous chronic infection with cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue lesions. Regional lymphatic involvement may be present; extracutaneous disease is rare. The causal fungus Sporothrix schenckii has been isolated from soil, vegetation, and animals on numerous occasions and in many localities throughout the world. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and epidemiological features of cases of sporotrichosis observed in Venezuela and review of the literature. We included the demographic data, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment, and follow-up of patients with sporotrichosis from 1963 to 2009, diagnosed at the Department of Medical Mycology. One-hundred and thirty-three sporotrichosis cases were diagnosed. Most patients were under the age of 30 years (66.15%). In 61.6% of them, the mode of transmission was not identified. The predominant clinical form in this population was lymphocutaneous (63.15%). Direct microscopic diagnosis was performed in 123 cases, and 57.9% yielded positive results for asteroid body. Sporotrichosis is an endemic subcutaneous mycosis in Venezuela. There are no reports to this date of disseminated forms of the disease, even amongst patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Direct microscopic examination of wet mount slides with saline solution or distilled water in the search for asteroid bodies is paramount. Saturated sodium and potassium iodine solutions continue to be extremely efficacious and affordable to most of our patients, therefore our treatment of choice. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Venezuela opens up to explorers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, M.

    1995-01-01

    The opening of Venezuela's first exploration bidding round since oil nationalisation in 1976 was a turning-point in the country's energy policy. The state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA), has said that the bidding round could generate investment of some $11 billion eventually in development investment and that over the next 10 years, nearly 20 percent of a planned $55 billion, 10-year state oil company investment programme could also come from foreign or private sector oil investment. Should this optimistic prediction materialise, Venezuela, whose 2.75 million b/d oil production in October was some 400,000 b/d over its Opec quota, will remain both the dominant oil producer in Latin America and the top-ranking oil exporter to the US market. In May this year, Venezuelan oil exports topped 1.43 million b/d, or some 16.8 percent of the US market, compared with Saudi Arabia's 15.7 percent. (author)

  4. First record of the miniature catfish Malacoglanis gelatinosus Myers & Weitzman, 1966 (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae) in the Orinoco river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Ospina,Diana; Albornoz-Garzón,Juan; García-Melo,Jorge; Villa,Francisco; DoNascimiento,Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Malacoglanis gelatinosus, a species of miniature catfish of the family Trichomycteridae, is only known from 4 specimens from the Amazon basin. Recently, we collected 3 specimens from the upper basin of the Meta River, a tributary of the Orinoco. This is the first record of M. gelatinosus from the Orinoco river basin, which significantly expands the known geographic distribution of this species, making it one of the most broadly distributed species within the subfamily Sarcoglanidinae. High-re...

  5. Dynamics of dissolved major (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Si) and trace (Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cr) elements along the lower Orinoco River

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, A.; Mahlknecht, J.; Baquero, J. C.; Laraque, Alain; Alfonso, J. A.; Pisapia, D.; Balza, L.

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the changes in dissolved major and trace element concentrations along the Orinoco River, including the mixing zone between the Orinoco and Apure Rivers. Water samples from the Apure and Orinoco Rivers were collected monthly in four sectors over a period of 15months. Auxiliary parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and temperature), total suspended sediments, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and major (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Si) and trace (Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cr) e...

  6. A major food web component in the orinoco river channel: evidence from planktivorous electric fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, J G; Lewis, W M; Saunders, J F; Mago-Leccia, F

    1987-07-03

    Deep-water sampling of the Orinoco River main channel resulted in the collection of an unexpectedly high abundance and diversity of specialized fishes. Twenty-eight of the more than 60 species collected belong to the Gymnotiformes(New World electric or knife fishes). One of the more numerous of these, a recently described species of the genus Rhabdolichops, consumes large numbers of very small planktonic Crustacea and insect larvae. These items are captured in the very swift, turbid, and deep waters of the Orinoco. Although the strong dependence of the river food web on terrestrial and floodplain food sources is well known, the specialized capabilities of Rhabdolichops and of other fishes that occur with it indicate a significant extension of the river food web into the main channel.

  7. Peinamine, a new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from arrow tips (pei-namô) of the Upper Orinoco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeffi, C; Scarpetti, P; Marini-Bettolo, G B

    1977-09-01

    A new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid has been isolated from a curare of the Upper Orinoco region. The curare is made by Indians from an unknown plant (probably Menispermacea) and is kept on arrow tips. The structure of the alkaloid, named peinamine, has been elucidated on the basis of its chemical reactions and spectroscopic data (N.M.R., M.S. and O.R.D.).

  8. Arthropod-borne agents in wild Orinoco geese (Neochen jubata) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, Karin; Luzzi, Mayara de Cássia; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; de Oliveira, Juliana Paula; Alves Junior, José Roberto Ferreira; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2017-12-01

    Although Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) is an anatid species widely distributed in South America, scarce are the reports on the occurrence of arthropod-borne pathogens in this avian species. The present work aimed to verify, by serological and molecular methods, the occurrence of haemosporida piroplasmids and Anaplasmataceae agents in wild Orinoco geese captured in Brazil. Between 2010 and 2014, 62 blood samples were collected from free-living geese captured in the Araguaia River, Goiás State, Brazil. Six geese (10%) were seropositive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, showing titers ranging from 40 and 80. Twenty out of 62 blood samples (32.25%) were positive in nested PCR for hemosporidia (cytochrome b gene). Fifteen and five sequences shared identity with Haemoproteus and Plasmodium, respectively. Six out of 62 blood samples (9.68%) were positive in nested PCR for Babesia spp. (18S rRNA gene); one sequence showed to be closely related to Babesia vogeli. Thirty (48.38%) out of 62 Orinoco geese blood samples were positive in nested cPCR assays for Anaplasmataceae agents (16S rRNA gene): three for Anaplasma spp. and 27 for Ehrlichia. Six geese were simultaneously positive to Haemoproteus and Ehrlichia; three animals were co-positive to different Ehrlichia species/genotypes; and one goose sample was positive for both Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. The present work showed the occurrence of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Babesia, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus species in free-living N. jubata in Brazil. The threat of these arthropod-borne pathogens in Orinoco goose's fitness, especially during the breading season, should be assessed in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface Freshwater Storage Variations in the Orinoco Floodplains Using Multi-Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Frappart

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations in surface water extent and storage are poorly characterized from regional to global scales. In this study, a multi-satellite approach is proposed to estimate the water stored in the floodplains of the Orinoco Basin at a monthly time-scale using remotely-sensed observations of surface water from the Global Inundation Extent Multi-Satellite (GIEMS and stages from Envisat radar altimetry. Surface water storage variations over 2003–2007 exhibit large interannual variability and a strong seasonal signal, peaking during summer, and associated with the flood pulse. The volume of surface water storage in the Orinoco Basin was highly correlated with the river discharge at Ciudad Bolivar (R = 0.95, the closest station to the mouth where discharge was estimated, although discharge lagged one month behind storage. The correlation remained high (R = 0.73 after removing seasonal effects. Mean annual variations in surface water volume represented ~170 km3, contributing to ~45% of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE-derived total water storage variations and representing ~13% of the total volume of water that flowed out of the Orinoco Basin to the Atlantic Ocean.

  10. Evidence of at Least Two Introductions of HIV-1 in the Amerindian Warao Population from Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Héctor R.; Maes, Mailis; Villalba, Julian; Sulbarán, Yoneira; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Bello, Gonzalo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Venezuelan Amerindians were, until recently, free of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, in 2007, HIV-1 infection was detected for the first time in the Warao Amerindian population living in the Eastern part of Venezuela, in the delta of the Orinoco river. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of the HIV-1 circulating in this population. Methodology/Principal Findings The pol genomic region was sequenced for 16 HIV-1 isolates and for some of them, sequences from env, vif and nef genomic regions were obtained. All HIV-1 isolates were classified as subtype B, with exception of one that was classified as subtype C. The 15 subtype B isolates exhibited a high degree of genetic similarity and formed a highly supported monophyletic cluster in each genomic region analyzed. Evolutionary analyses of the pol genomic region indicated that the date of the most recent common ancestor of the Waraos subtype B clade dates back to the late 1990s. Conclusions/Significance At least two independent introductions of HIV-1 have occurred in the Warao Amerindians from Venezuela. The HIV-1 subtype B was successfully established and got disseminated in the community, while no evidence of local dissemination of the HIV-1 subtype C was detected in this study. These results warrant further surveys to evaluate the burden of this disease, which can be particularly devastating in this Amerindian population, with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, hepatitis B, among other infectious diseases, and with limited access to primary health care. PMID:22808212

  11. Evidence of at least two introductions of HIV-1 in the Amerindian Warao population from Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor R Rangel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Venezuelan Amerindians were, until recently, free of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. However, in 2007, HIV-1 infection was detected for the first time in the Warao Amerindian population living in the Eastern part of Venezuela, in the delta of the Orinoco river. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of the HIV-1 circulating in this population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The pol genomic region was sequenced for 16 HIV-1 isolates and for some of them, sequences from env, vif and nef genomic regions were obtained. All HIV-1 isolates were classified as subtype B, with exception of one that was classified as subtype C. The 15 subtype B isolates exhibited a high degree of genetic similarity and formed a highly supported monophyletic cluster in each genomic region analyzed. Evolutionary analyses of the pol genomic region indicated that the date of the most recent common ancestor of the Waraos subtype B clade dates back to the late 1990s. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: At least two independent introductions of HIV-1 have occurred in the Warao Amerindians from Venezuela. The HIV-1 subtype B was successfully established and got disseminated in the community, while no evidence of local dissemination of the HIV-1 subtype C was detected in this study. These results warrant further surveys to evaluate the burden of this disease, which can be particularly devastating in this Amerindian population, with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, hepatitis B, among other infectious diseases, and with limited access to primary health care.

  12. Pediatric multiple sclerosis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Venezuelan pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: Database records from the National Program for MS were searched for patients with an established diagnosis of MS whose first symptoms appeared before age 18. RESULTS: The national database held records of 1.710 patients; 3.8% had onset of the first symptoms before age 18. 46.7% were boys, yielding an F:M ratio of 1.13:1. Many children had a disease onset characterized by motor impairment (30.7%, brainstem/cerebellum and spinal cord affectation (27.6%, headache (26%. Less frequent symptoms were sensory symptoms (8% and optic neuritis (7%. DISCUSSION: Pediatric MS patients in Venezuela represent a significant proportion of all MS cases. The clinical pattern is characterized by motor symptoms at onset, and predominantly monosymptomatic presentation with a relapsing-remitting pattern. This is the first systematic attempt to estimate the prevalence of pediatric MS in Venezuela.

  13. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other

  14. Consideraciones sobre la produccion de frutas en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Aular

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se presenta información sobre superficie, producción, y rendimiento de los frutales en Venezuela. Además se hacen consideraciones sobre los sistemas de producción, destacando limitaciones, avances y sugerencias. La fruticultura en Venezuela ocupa el 3er. lugar dentro del sector agrícola vegetal. Existen 167.691 Ha de frutales y una producción 2.232.088 TM por año. Se producen comercialmente una docena de rubros frutícolas, siendo los principales: plátano, banano, naranjo y piña. Las áreas de producción van desde zonas bajas y áridas, en donde se obtienen uvas y piñas; hasta zonas altas y húmedas donde se hallan duraznos y fresas. Ha habido reducción de la superficie plantada, con excepción de lechosa, piña y aguacate. El manejo hortícola de los huertos frutícolas es heterogéneo, ya que se observa desde bajo hasta alto nivel de tecnología. La incorrecta aplicación de las prácticas hortícolas origina baja productividad y calidad de fruta. La poscosecha podría mejorarse a través del desarrollo e implementación de normas de clasificación, empaque, embalaje, y cadena de frío. La exportación de frutas venezolanas se ha reducido en los últimos años y se concentra en mango, naranja y lima Tahití. Los principales destinos son Colombia, Europa, Norteamérica y las islas del Caribe. Sólo la naranja se procesa de manera importante en Venezuela. Las perspectivas para la fruticultura venezolana es continuar como una actividad dirigida al mercado interno, no se vislumbra una mayor participación del país en el mercado internacional.

  15. Heavy water. A production alternative for Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of heavy water production methods is made. Main facts about isotopic and distillation methods, reforming and coupling to a Hydrogen distillation plant are presented. A feasibility study on heavy water production in Venezuela is suggested

  16. Radioactive wastes handling problems in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, R.; Venegas, R.

    1984-07-01

    A brief description of the radioactive wastes problem in Venezuela is presented. The origins of the problem are shown in a squematic form. The requirements for its solution are divided into three parts: information system, control system, radioactive wastes hadling system. A questionnaire summarizing factors to be considered when looking for a solution to the problem in Venezuela is included, as well as conclusions and recomendations for further discussion

  17. Nuclear power planning study for Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The optimum capacity for nuclear power plants that might be built in Venezuela in the period 1985-2000 and the best time for incorporating them into the electric system is defined. The most recent forecasts regarding growth of the population and demand, and of the economy in general, and the taking into account the costs for the fossil-fuel and hydroelectric resources known to exist in Venezuela, as compared with the costs of importing uranium, are discussed

  18. Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    fear that the government is stalling to delay such a vote until after January 10, 2017. A recall on or prior to that date would yield a new presidential...news/ peace_publications/election_reports/venezuela-final-rpt-2013-elections-spanish.pdf. 25 William Neuman, “Court Rejects Vote Challenge in...2016. 70 Joshua Goodman, “Chinese Bullet Train in Venezuela Stalls as Alliance Derails,” Associated Press, May 14, 2016. 71 Margaret Myers

  19. [Experiences of the urbanization process in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Tirado, N

    1985-01-01

    The process of urbanization and urban growth in relation to economic development in Venezuela is analyzed. Four periods are considered: the period prior to the discovery of oil in Venezuela, which ended in the early 1940s; from the 1940s to the early 1970s; from the 1970s to 1983; and the present. Information is provided for the period 1936-1981 on total and urban population growth and on the size and number of urban centers.

  20. DAMPAK PENERAPAN SUCRE TERHADAP PEREKONOMIAN VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    LATIEF, BASRI HASANUDDIN

    2016-01-01

    2016 ABSTRAKSI Basri Hasanuddin Latief, E131 11 258, dengan skripsi berjudul ???Dampak Penerapan SUCRE terhadap Perekonomian Venezuela???, dibawah bimbingan Drs. H. M. Imran Hanafi, MA., M.Ec. selaku Pembimbing I dan Nur Isdah, S.Ip., MA. selaku Pembimbing II pada Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik, Universitas Hasanuddin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak SUCRE terhadap perekonomian Venezuela yang telah menggunak...

  1. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  2. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo León Ganatios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una reforma constitucional en Venezuela, en el año 1999 se introdujeron mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo o el plebiscito. A pesar de que este proceso amplió las vías de participación ciudadana en la vida política, hubo importantes retrocesos en libertades y derechos civiles y políticos básicos. La finalidad de este artículo consiste en medir la calidad de la democracia en Venezuela con base en una serie de indicadores derivados de la concepción de poliarquía de Robert Dahl (1993.Palabras Clave: Calidad de la democracia; Venezuela; Indicadores; estudio comparado; poliarquía.Quality of Democracy in VenezuelaAbstractSince 1999 a constitutional reform in Venezuela introduced some mechanisms of direct democracy such as the referendum and the plebiscite. Although this process broadened the means for citizens’ participation in the political system, there were important setbacks in political and civil liberties. The goal of this paper is to measure the quality of democracy according to a series of indicators that draw upon Robert Dahl’s conception of polyarchy.Keywords: Quality of democracy; Venezuela; indicators; comparative studies; polyarchy.

  3. Radioactivity concentration and heavy metal content in fuel oil and oil-ashes in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, H.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Abril, J.M.; Greaves, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years an intensive national program was developed to determine the environmental radioactivity levels in Venezuela. Gamma dose and the radon concentrations indoors, in drinking water, in caves and in artificial cavities including the effect of radon transported to the surface with the earth gas have been studied. To continue this project the oil and other natural energy resource should be considered. It is expected that the environmental radiation level is modified in regions where the oil industrial activity is more aggressive such as in the Zulia State and the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, (Central Region). In these regions Venezuela is producing 1.750 thousand barrels of oil from the near-to-the- surface or deep oil drilling. Petroleum constitutes an important source of energy and as the majority of natural source contains radionuclides and their disintegration products, being U, Ra, Pb, Bi, Po and K the most often encountered. The combustion of petroleum concentrate in the ashes those radioelements, and later enter the environment by different ways producing adverse effects on the quality of man life. The concentration of radioelements varies greatly between oil fields, then we still requiring local survey studies in this area. Moreover due to the recent national interest in recycling processes, it becomes important to take precaution in the selection of materials that may contain by-products of industrial origin, including oil. In fact the oil ashes, oil slurry and other mining by-products are thought to be employable in the building industry. The concentration of radioactivity in the ash from thermoelectric power plants that use petroleum as a primary energy source was determined. The analysis include the two major thermoelectric power plants in Venezuela, Ricardo Zuluaga on the northern sea side of Caracas and Planta Centro on the littoral of Carabobo State. The study cover different samples: fuel oil No 6, ashes, heavy and medium petroleum

  4. Gestión sostenible de los recursos ambientales en el Alto Orinoco: identificación y evaluación de alternativas productivas

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Calderón, Diego Estiben

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio se pregunta por las alternativas para los sistemas de producción agrícola en un modelo de gestión sostenible para la Alta Orinoquia colombiana, para lo cual se aplicó la metodología delphi con un grupo de 30 expertos, a los cuales se les solicitó que validaran una matriz de criterios para evaluar sistemas productivos utilizando un enfoque de sostenibilidad, y que identificaran sistemas productivos viables según la oferta ambiental y cultural de la región. El...

  5. FRESHWATER SHRIMPS OF THE COLOMBIAN TRIBUTARIES OF THE AMAZON AND ORINOCO RIVERS (PALAEMONIDAE, EURYRHYNCHIDAE, SERGESTIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Diego

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of freshwater shrimps belonging to the genera Palaemonetes,Pseudopalaemon, Euryrhynchus and Acetes of the Colombian tributaries of theAmazon and Orinoco Rivers is presented. The species found in this work arerecorded for the fi rst time for Colombia: Palaemonetes ivonicus Holthuis, 1950,Palaemonetes mercedae Pereira, 1986, Pseudopalaemon amazonensis Ramos-Porto,1979, Pseudopalemon chryseus Kensley & Walker, 1982, Euryrhynchus amazoniensisTiefenbacher, 1978 and Acetes paraguayensis Hansen, 1919. Diagnoses, illustrations,distributional data and a key to the families, genera and species are presented.

  6. Muuga joodab Venezuela naftaga Valgevene tehaseid / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Venezuela toornaftat veetakse Valgevenesse Muuga sadama kaudu. Riia sadam loodab suurema osa Venezuela nafta transiidist endale saada, samas peaks sadam selleks tegema mitmeid töid, nt. süvendama akvatooriumi

  7. El Fenomeno Chavez: Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, Modern Day Bolivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Venezuela’s state owned oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela. Ever seeking opportunities to provoke the giant United States, Chavez agreed to provide...controlled joint “El Fenomeno Chavez” . . . 9 venture, Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA). Exxon Mobil Corporation decided to sell their stakes among...exploited. 9. Major oil companies in Venezuela: 1. Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA) – government-owned; generates 1/3 of national GDP; monopolized the

  8. 78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on imports of silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to... Venezuela. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on October 1, 2012 (77 FR 59970) and...

  9. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50, 7202.21.75, 7202.21.90, and... with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela. Accordingly...

  10. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R H

    2000-01-01

    The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.

  11. Democracia y conflicto en Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Romero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo aborda el tema de la democracia en Venezuela desde una perspectiva múltiple y variada. Parte de la consideración de un conjunto de variables (papel del Estado en la sociedad globalizada, la política y el ejercicio del poder, la economía, la política social, los movimientos sociales y las protestas colectivas, medio ambiente y grupos étnicos para realizar una ponderación del curso y los retos de la sociedad democrática venezolana en el período 1988-2008. El trabajo maneja el análisis desde la óptica de la comparación histórica, la historia crítica, la sociología histórica y el pensamiento político para establecer las principales tendencias que ha adquirido la democracia venezolana en cada una de esas variables en el período estudiado, así como la prospectiva que pueden adquirir en los próximos años.

  12. Low child survival index in a multi-dimensionally poor Amerindian population in Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Villalba

    Full Text Available Warao Amerindians, who inhabit the Orinoco Delta, are the second largest indigenous group in Venezuela.  High Warao general mortality rates were mentioned in a limited study 21 years ago. However, there have been no comprehensive studies addressing child survival across the entire population.To determine the Child Survival-Index (CSI (ratio: still-living children/total-live births in the Warao population, the principal causes of childhood death and the socio-demographic factors associated with childhood deaths.We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 688 women from 97 communities in 7 different subregions of the Orinoco Delta. Data collected included socio-demographic characteristics and the reproductive history of each woman surveyed. The multidimensional poverty index (MPI was used to classify the households as deprived across the three dimensions of the Human Development Index. Multivariable linear regression and Generalized Linear Model Procedures were used to identify socioeconomic and environmental characteristics statistically associated with the CSI.The average CSI was 73.8% ±26. The two most common causes of death were gastroenteritis/diarrhea (63% and acute respiratory tract Infection/pneumonia (18%.  Deaths in children under five years accounted for 97.3% of childhood deaths, with 54% occurring in the neonatal period or first year of life.  Most of the women (95.5% were classified as multidimensionally poor.  The general MPI in the sample was 0.56.   CSI was negatively correlated with MPI, maternal age, residence in a traditional dwelling and profession of the head of household other than nurse or teacher.The Warao have a low CSI which is correlated with MPI and maternal age.  Infectious diseases are responsible for 85% of childhood deaths.  The low socioeconomic development, lack of infrastructure and geographic and cultural isolation suggest that an integrated approach is urgently needed to

  13. The Rio Orinoco and the haven - two major cases from a legal point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    1993-01-01

    The International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC Fund), an inter-governmental organization with 49 member states, has recently been involved in two major oil spills of great interest from both a legal and a technical point of view. The Rio Orinoco incident occurred in Canada and the Haven incident took place in Italy. The Rio Orinoco was carrying asphalt when it grounded in the Gulf of St Lawrence. The grounding led to extensive salvage and cleanup operations carried out on behalf of the Canadian authorities. The claims for compensation, totalling 15 million Canadian dollars (12.5 million US dollars), were settled out of court. This paper discusses the main legal problems that arose, for example, the reasonableness of certain operations and the relationship between pollution prevention and salvage. The Haven exploded off Genoa with 144,000 metric tons of crude oil on board. A large quantity of oil escaped, necessitating extensive cleanup operations in Italy, France, and Monaco. Over 1,300 claims for compensation have been submitted totalling US$1.4 billion. This paper deals with some of the main legal problems that have arisen as a result of this incident, for example, the admissibility of claims relating to non-economic damage to the marine environment and the method to be applied for the conversion of the maximum amount payable by the IOPC Fund into Italian lire

  14. Distribution of the cyanophyte Trichodesmium (Oscillatoriaceae) in the eastern Caribbean Sea: influence of the Orinoco River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, A; Corredor, J E; Morell, J; Armstrong, R A

    2000-12-01

    Orinoco River influence in the Caribbean Sea, characterized by high nutrient input, causes a decrease of Trichodesmium populations. The Caribbean Time Series (CaTS) station, south of Puerto Rico (17 degrees 36'N 67 degrees 00'W), was monitored for 25 months in order to observe the Trichodesmium abundance pattern and the presence of the river plume. In general, mean Trichodesmium abundance was higher at the surface and decreased with depth. The mean upper water column (surface to 20 m) abundance was 54.1 +/- 32.6 col/m3. Within the sampling period, abundance was highly variable (1-700 col/m3). Correlation between Trichodesmium abundance and wind speed (p=0.002), chlorophyll a concentration (p=0.001), nitrate (p=0.02) and silicate (p=0.003) concentrations were statistically significant. However, Trichodesmium abundance was not correlated with salinity (p=0.70), temperature (p=0.16) and seawater density (p=0.71) variations at CaTS. Eastern Caribbean regions highly influenced by the Orinoco River discharge were devoid of Trichodesmium colonies.

  15. [Growth of the Orinoco Caiman (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) under two captivity conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Aldeima T T

    2008-03-01

    Growth of the Orinoco Caiman (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) under two captivity conditions. In order to determine the growth of Caiman of the Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius) under two conditions of captivity, 40 specimens were raised during 11 months and 15 days in two circular tanks, with 28.3 m2 of surface area and a volume of 62.2 m3 in each tank. The tanks were built with concrete walls and guarded blocks covered internally with sheets of myrrhlike resin, and a roof of galvanized sheets. One tank was covered partially with the galvanized sheets (tank I), the other was totally covered (tank II). Twenty caimans were placed in each tank, and both groups were fed with 85% beef, 10% fresh fish, 5% hen eggs and a mixture of minerals and vitamins. The length and weight differed significantly between the groups (p < 0.001). Mean growth (103.0 +/- 6.81 cm) and weight (3 987 +/- 0.98 g) were higher in tank II, (tank I: 88.9 +/- 7.58 cm; 2 705 +/- 0.69 g). The greater growth in tank II reflects higher air and water temperatures. The survival rate was 97.5%. These results can be used for rearing caimans in captivity for conservation and commercial purposes.

  16. Rating curve estimation using Envisat virtual stations on the main Orinoco river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan León

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rating curve estimation (height-stream relation made by hydrometric stations representing cross-sections of a river is one of hydrometrics’ fundamental tasks due to the fact that it leads to deducing a river’s average daily flow on that particular section. This information is fundamental in any attempt at hydrological modelling. However, the number of hydrological control stations monitoring large hydrological basins has been reduced worldwide. Space hydrology studies during the last five years have shown that satellite radar altimetry means that hydrological monitoring networks’ available information can be densified due to the introduction of so-called virtual stations and the joint use of such information along with in-situ measured flow records for estimating expenditure curves at these stations. This study presents the rating curves for 4 Envisat virtual stations located on the main stream of the Orinoco River. Virtual stations’ flows were estimated by using the Muskingum- Cunge 1D model. There was less than 1% error between measured and estimated flows. The methodology led to reducing average zero flow depth; in this case, it led to depths ranging from 11 to 20 meters being found along the 130 km of the Orinoco River represented by the virtual stations being considered.

  17. Spatial and temporal length distribution of Zungaro zungaro caught in the Orinoco River Basin of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Ramírez-Gil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the effect of fishing on capture size of both male and female Zungaro zungaro catfish, historical records of size and spatial distribution of the species were analyzed from the Orinoco Basin in Colombian. Materials and methods. Information was collected by sampling fishing port landings in the region between 1979 and 2011. Each specimen was measured, weighed and sexed. With 5411 records, the average size at capture were compared in time and among the different ports. Size at 50% maturity was estimated by quinquennium. Results. The average commercial capture sizes of Z. zungaro ranged from 35 to 161 cm standard length, with differences between males and females. From 1979 to 2011, in Puerto Lopez, the size at sexual maturity decreased from 123.8 to 83.4 cm in females and from 93.3 to 61 in males. In the annual cycle the greater average capture size in females was from April to July and for males from May to June. Average annual length is higher in the higher parts of the Meta and Guaviare river drainages. In the last quinquennium the size at 50% maturity had fallen 10 cm in females and 5 cm in males and it is higher than the average capture size. Conclusions. Populations of Z. zungaro in the Colombian Orinoco River Basin have been affected by overfishing and selective fishing of females.

  18. Methane and carbon monoxide production, oxidation, and turnover times in the Caribbean Sea as influenced by the Orinoco River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.D.; Amador, J.A. (Florida International Univ., Miami (United States))

    1993-02-15

    The surface distribution of CH[sub 4], photoproduction capacity of seawater for CO, and CH[sub 4] and CO microbial oxidation rates and turnover times were determined for the surface waters of the southeastern Carribean Sea and Gulf of Paria as affected by the Orinoco River. Measurements were made during the spring (low river flow) and the fall (high river flow) in order to determine the influence of Orinoco River discharge on these parameters. Methane concentrations were generally lower in the fall than in the spring. Low CH[sub 4] oxidation rates and similar surface distributions were observed during both seasons. Methane oxidation in the river plume was significantly higher in the fall. Potential CO photoproduction and CO oxidation rates were generally higher during the fall. Possible effects of the Orinoco River on potential CO photoproduction capacity were observed as far as Puerto Rico. Turnover times for CH[sub 4] were in the order of years, whereas CO turnover times were in the order of hours. The Orinoco River has a significant impact on the consumption of CO and CH[sub 4] and the photoproduction of CO in the southeastern Caribbean Sea, presumably resulting from inputs of riverine carbon and nutrients. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Venezuela slates second oil field revival round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week

  20. Venezuela electoral 2012: escenarios y perspectivas

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    Juan Manuel Trak Vásquez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de estas líneas es reflexionar sobre los posibles escenarios que se pueden dar en Venezuela a partir de las elecciones presidenciales del 7 de octubre, en donde se juega la reelección de Hugo Chávez Frías (HCF. Para ello es necesario hacer un breve recorrido por la historia política reciente de Venezuela, cómo llega HCF al poder y los hitos más importantes que han marcado sus mandatos desde 1998.

  1. Muffins con aceite de girasol alto estearico

    OpenAIRE

    González Procopio, Gimena

    2015-01-01

    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen una de las causas más importantes de discapacidad y muerte prematura en nuestro país y en todo el mundo, a su vez la modificación de los factores de riesgo puede reducir los episodios cardiovasculares y la muerte prematura tanto en las personas con enfermedad cardiovascular establecida como en aquellas con alto riesgo cardiovascular debido a uno o más factores de riesgo Objetivo: Identificar la variación en el perfil lipídico de una...

  2. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF THE VENEZUELA ROUND STINGRAY UROTRYGON VENEZUELAE SCHULTZ FROM THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELLY ACEVEDO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As for most batoid species, little is known about the basic biology of the Venezuela round stingray Urotrygon venezuelae (Urotrygonidae. This study presents information about the reproductive biology of the species, including fecundity, embryonic development stage, relationship between maternal size and fecundity, gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices, sex ratios, maturity size and size at birth. With all this information, a preliminary reproductive cycle is proposed. A total of 269 specimens were caught with beach seine in Salguero beach, Colombian Caribbean Sea, between August 2005 and October 2006. We propose for U. venezuelae a biological cycle with three reproductive peaks: November-December, March-April and August. Size at sexual maturity was calculated in 176 mm (total length for females and 227 mm for males; fecundity ranged between one and six embryos per female. We found that cloacal diameter and liver weight were better predictors for fecundity than total length for U. venezuelae.

  3. Sistema de salud de Venezuela The health system of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle Bonvecchio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Venezuela, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos humanos y materiales con los que cuenta, y las actividades de rectoría que en él se desarrollan. Este sistema cuenta con un sector público y un sector privado. El sector público está constituido por el Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Salud (MS y diversas instituciones de seguridad social, dentro de las que destaca el Instituto Venezolano de los Seguros Sociales (IVSS. El MS se financia con recursos del gobierno central, estados y municipios. El IVSS se financia con cotizaciones patronales, cotizaciones de los trabajadores y con aportes del gobierno. Ambas instituciones cuentan con su propia red de atención ambulatoria y hospitalaria. El sector privado está constituido por prestadores de servicios que reciben pagos de bolsillo y por compañías aseguradoras. El sistema de salud venezolano atraviesa por un proceso de reforma desde la aprobación de la Constitución de 1999 que plantea la creación de un Sistema Público Nacional de Salud cuya punta de lanza hoy es el programa Barrio Adentro.This paper describes the Venezuelan health system, including its structure and coverage, financial sources, human and material resources and its stewardship functions. This system comprises a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Popular Power for Health (MS and several social security institutions, salient among them the Venezuelan Institute for Social Security (IVSS. The MH is financed with federal, state and county contributions. The IVSS is financed with employer, employee and government contributions. These two agencies provide services in their own facilities. The private sector includes providers offering services on an out-of-pocket basis and private insurance companies. The Venezuelan health system is undergoing a process of reform since the adoption of the 1999

  4. Recurrent wheezing is associated with intestinal protozoan infections in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Marcella M A; Verhagen, Lilly M; Hermans, Peter W M; del Nogal, Berenice; Sánchez, Adriana Márquez; Acevedo, Natacha Martinez; Murga, Rosalicia Ramirez; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Pinelli, Elena; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2014-05-29

    While in developed countries the prevalence of allergic diseases is rising, inflammatory diseases are relatively uncommon in rural developing areas. High prevalence rates of helminth and protozoan infections are commonly found in children living in rural settings and several studies suggest an inverse association between helminth infections and allergies. No studies investigating the relationship between parasitic infections and atopic diseases in rural children of developing countries under the age of 2 years have been published so far. We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association of helminth and protozoan infections and malnutrition with recurrent wheezing and atopic eczema in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela. From August to November 2012, 229 children aged 0 to 2 years residing in the Orinoco Delta in Venezuela were enrolled. Data were collected through standardized questionnaires and physical examination, including inspection of the skin and anthropometric measurements. A stool sample was requested from all participants and detection of different parasites was performed using microscopy and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed high prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing, respectively 19% and 23%. The prevalence of helminth infections was 26% and the prevalence of protozoan infections was 59%. Atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing were more frequently observed in stunted compared with non-stunted children in multivariable analysis (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 - 13.6, p = 0.015 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 0.97 - 21.2, p = 0.055). Furthermore, recurrent wheezing was significantly more often observed in children with protozoan infections than in children without protozoan infections (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.5 - 30.5). High prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing in Warao Amerindian children under 2 years of age were related to stunting and intestinal protozoan infections respectively. Helminth

  5. Response to the Rio Orinoco incident: A small-scale indicent that lasted a whole year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audet, A.

    1993-01-01

    When the tanker Rio Orinoco ran aground on October 16, 1990, in the Gulf of St Lawrence near Anticosti Island, approximately 200 metric tons, or 200,000 liters, of fuel oil were spilled. Most of the pollution drifted onto the shores of Anticosti Island, which is considered a hunting and fishing paradise. The island is a controlled provincial reserve that is home to more than 100,000 deer and many species of sea birds. It provides ideal grazing for deer and feeding grounds for sea birds. Within hours of the grounding, the Canadian Coast Guard set its emergency system in motion and dispatched a team of experts to the site. Since Anticosti Island is located in the middle of the Gulf of St Lawrence, the only way to reach the area quickly was to charter a plane. The first to arrive established a command post in the municipal offices of the small community of Port Meunier. During the first few days, experts hired by the insurance company devised a salvage plan. Unfortunately, it could not be carried out owing to bad weather, and all five attempts made in the weeks that followed were also futile. All this time, cleanup operations on the shoreline continued, with about a hundred men deployed over more than 60 kilometers. Getting to the shore proved to be a challenge since roads are nonexistent on most of the island. The Canadian Coast Guard turned to an air cushion vehicle to solve a tricky problem in an isolated area. Here in Canada, the elements are a constant challenge when trying to recover oil and clean up a shoreline. On December 21, 1990, Mother Nature got the upper hand, and there was no choice but to abandon, for the winter, the idea of removing the wreck of the Rio Orinoco. All winter long, it continued to pose a serious pollution threat. In June 1991, restoration and cleanup work on the shoreline resumed and this was completed in late July. The wreck of the Rio Orinoco was removed on August 6, 1991

  6. La actividad económica informal y el negocio de franquicia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Prieto Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se plantea el negocio de franquicia como una alternativa viable para canalizar la problemática de la informalidad laboral en Venezuela. Con base a un análisis documental-bibliográfico, semuestra la aplicabilidad de dichomodelo en un proceso de reconversión de la actividad económica informal en el país. Para lograrlo, se ha considerado la articulación entre diferentes conceptos económicos: el modelo de franquicia de conversión y la problemática de la economía informal en Venezuela, flagelo económico social presente en la realidad venezolana. Se concluye que un modelo de reconversión de la actividad económica informal representaría una alternativa para transformar esta actividad en el país, planteándose la conformación de una PYME con fortalezas financiera y operacional, con altos niveles de racionalidad, cuya actividad principal es ejecutada por otros individuos de manera informal; de esta forma se estructura una estrategia de crecimiento en función de la absorción de los ejecutores informales quienes, a través del financiamiento público o privado, concretan la conformación de una microempresa y la firma de un contrato tipo franquicia con la PYME.

  7. Mastery: A Lesson from Maria in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sandra Anez; Powell, Norman W.

    2012-01-01

    Children who have been born into poverty or into at-risk circumstances are often considered "disposable" and not a societal priority. These youngsters have few advocates and limited successful options in life. In the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, there is a large population of Amerindians who are called Guajiros. These indigenous people…

  8. The recent evolution of immigration in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, A

    1985-09-01

    Recent trends in immigration to Venezuela are reviewed. Data are from official sources, including the 1981 census and a 1981 survey of migrants. An analysis of migrants by major country or region of origin is presented that includes consideration of geographic distribution, migrant characteristics, and the characteristics of illegal immigration.

  9. Venezuela: Higher education, neoliberalism and socialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhr, T.; Verger, A.; Hill, David; Rosskam, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we analyse the Higher Education For All (HEFA) policies and practices in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. In the construction of a 21st Century Socialism, universal access to higher education has not only become a constitutional right but assumes a pivotal role in both the

  10. Diplomacia transfronteriza en tiempos de revolución: el Alto Río Negro iberoamericano, 1815-1820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Brito

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudia los impactos de la guerra de independencia en la frontera regional del Alto Río Negro, teniendo como objeto de análisis las múltiples conexiones existentes entre los habitantes de ambos lados de la imaginaria línea fronteriza. A partir de julio de 1817, la guerra de independencia en Venezuela cambió de coordenadas: las luchas entre patriotas republicanos y realistas, fieles a la restauración de Fernando VII, alcanzaron la extensa región de frontera, e influenciaron las dinámicas políticas y sociales locales, principalmente las relaciones transfronterizas entre ambos lados, lo que impactó en la vida cotidiana de las poblaciones y afectó la diplomacia entre las autoridades portuguesas e hispanoamericanas, tanto realistas como patriotas.

  11. Nave de montaje Volkswagen, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhorst, D.

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available To assemble Volkswagen cars for the Venezuela market, a large hall has been built, which is fitted with full facilities for its purpose, such as painting and greasing installations, and large parking area for the finished vehicles. The siting of this hall was carefully studied, and such factors as nearness to industrial zones, climate, and ease of access were decisive aspects that were taken into account. The final choice was a site near Morón, in the Carabobo Department, close to the sea. The main constructional item is the roof of the large hall. It is made of a series of hyperbolic-parabolic reinforced concrete thin shells, of rectangular planform, and slightly inclined towards the north, to produce a saw edge profile. Each of these shells is supported by a central column. The hollow spaces along the saw edge profile have been used for ventilation. The enclosing walls consist of trellice material, which also provide ample facility for additional ventilation.Para el montaje de los coches Volkswagen destinados al mercado venezolano, se ha construido una gran nave dotada de todos los servicios necesarios: pintura, engrases, aparcamiento de los vehículos terminados, etc. La elección del lugar más apropiado para la situación de la nave y edificios anexos fue motivo de un detenido estudio, en el que la proximidad a zonas industriales, clima, fácil entrada de materiales procedentes de ultramar y salida para los acabados, fueron los factores decisivos. Definitivamente se eligió un solar en las cercanías de Morón, del departamento de Carabobo, y próximo al mar. Lo más notable es la cubierta de la gran nave, formada por una serie de láminas parabólico-hiperbólicas de hormigón armado, de planta rectangular, inclinadas ligeramente hacia el norte para formar un perfil en diente de sierra. Cada una de estas láminas se soporta por un montante central. Los huecos que dichos dientes de sierra dejan se han aprovechado para la ventilación. Los

  12. Occupational Safety and Health in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, Yohama

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela has pioneered a preventive-focused and comprehensive movement for Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in Latin America. However, despite being an oil-rich country, it has some of the lowest salaries for their workers and highest levels of hyperinflation, devaluation, crime, and violence of the world. Review the current status and challenges on relevant aspects of OSH in Venezuela. Review of literature and documents from national governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and the Venezuelan government concerning OSH and related topics since 1986. Reformed in 2005, the Organic Law on Prevention, Conditions and Environment (LOPCYMAT) was a fundamental moment of change for OSH. Factors which have impacted OSH the strongest are (i) the creation of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (INPSASEL) and (ii) the socioeconomic crisis Venezuela is going through. Venezuela's laws are innovative and yet non-compliance is enormous. Almost half of the population works in the informal sector. Following the International Labor Office projections, 5 people die per day in Venezuela due to occupational accidents or diseases, making health and safety at work a luxury rather than a right. The quality of life for the average worker has deteriorated, affecting not only health but the overall well-being of all Venezuelans. The political and socio-economic situation has led to a mass exodus of more than 1.6 million highly qualified and talented professionals. Many statistics concerning OSH are not updated and are unreliable regarding occupational accidents and diseases. There is a substantial difference between what is written to protect individual Venezuelans in the workplace and the reality of workplace conditions. Substantial governmental actions are needed in the immediate future to improve occupational safety and health of Venezuelan workers. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos Navarro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera

  14. Main design aspects of an advanced nuclear plant for the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal-Osorio, H.

    1991-01-01

    The main design aspects of a steam-supply advanced nuclear plant proposed for both the extraction and the preprocessing of extra-heavy oil from the Orinoco Oil Belt are presented. The model consists of a nuclear power plant in cogeneration mode able to supply a large fraction of the energy demand of an oil field producing 100,000 barrels of oil per day. Three 1200 MW(th) high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, built successively, supply a great portion of the process heat, the injection steam and the electricity required. Steam conditions are: for process heat, a pressure of 10 MPa at 500 0 C, and for injection steam, pressure between 12 and 17 MPa at saturation temperatures. (author)

  15. YURUPARÍ, MASKS AND POWER AMONG THE PIAROA FROM THE ORINOCO BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Antonio Mansutti Rodriguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In northwest Amazonia, among other kinds, two celebrations occur: one with masks dedicated to the harvest of Bactris gasipaes and other fruits, and another with sacred flutes that evoke extraordinary beings. When both coincide in a same village they occur at different moments. However, to the Piaroa and the Wirö peoples of the Orinoco basin, both ceremonies occur simultaneously at the same place. This paper shall describe participants and procedures of the ceremony and evaluate the gender and age based power game that comes to light during it. This ceremony consolidates alliances between the shamans and their communities with the masters who control animals and plants exploited by the Piaroa people, facilitates men’s expropriations and limits women power to the domestic sphere, and shifts a society with no major hierarchical organizations into a highly hierarchical one as long as the ceremony is occuring.

  16. Frequency and clinical and molecular aspects of familial hypercholesterolemia in an endocrinology unit in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Paoli, Mariela; Vázquez-Cárdenas, Alejandra; Magaña-Torres, María Teresa; Guevara, Ornella; Muñoz, María Carolina; Parrilla-Alvarez, Alberto; Márquez, Yuliangelys; Medeiros, Ana; Bourbon, Mafalda

    2017-10-01

    To assess the frequency and the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in subjects attending an endocrinology unit. An observational, descriptive study evaluating 3,140 subjects attending the endocrinology unit of Centro Médico Orinoco in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, from 7 January 2013 to 9 December 2016. The index cases were selected using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. Plasma lipid levels were measured, and a molecular analysis was performed by DNA sequencing of the LDLR and APOB genes. Ten (0.32%) of the 3,140 study patients had clinical and biochemical characteristics consistent with FH. All but one were female. Three had first-degree relatives with prior premature coronary artery; and none had a personal history of this condition. Three patients were obese; three had high blood pressure; and no one suffered from diabetes. Three patients had a history of tendon xanthomas, and one of corneal arcus. LDL-C levels ranged from 191 to 486mg/dL. Two patients were on statin therapy. The genetic causes of FH were identified in four patients, and were LDLR gene mutations in three of them and an APOB gene mutation in exon 26 in the other. Approximately, one out of every 300 people attending this endocrinology unit in those four years had FH, and LDLR gene mutations were the most prevalent cause. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes, Characidae) from the upper Guaviare River, Orinoco River Basin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alzate, Carlos A; Urbano-Bonilla, Alexander; Taphorn, Donald C

    2017-01-01

    Hyphessobrycon klausanni sp. n. is described from small drainages of the upper Guaviare River (Orinoco River Basin) in Colombia. It differs from all congeners by having a wide, conspicuous, dark lateral stripe extending from the anterior margin of the eye across the body and continued through the middle caudal-fin rays, and that covers (vertically) three or four horizontal scale rows. It also differs by having an orange-yellow stripe extending from the anterosuperior margin of the eye to the caudal peduncle above the lateral line in life. It differs from all other species of Hyphessobrycon that have a similar dark lateral stripe: H. cyanotaenia , H. loretoensis , H. melanostichos , H. nigricinctus , H. herbertaxelrodi , H. eschwartzae , H. montogoi , H. psittacus , H. metae , H. margitae , H. vanzolinii , and H. peruvianus in having only three or four pored scales in the lateral line, 21 to 24 lateral scales and six teeth in the inner premaxillary row. Hyphessobrycon klausanni differs from H. loretoensis in having seven to eight maxillary teeth (vs. three to four) and in having a longer caudal peduncle (12.4-17.0% SL vs. 4.6-8.0% SL). Additionally Hyphessobrycon klausanni can be distinguished from the other species of Hyphessobrycon with a dark lateral stripe from the Orinoco River Basin ( H. metae and H. acaciae ) in having two teeth in the outer premaxillary row (vs. three to four) and 10 branched pectoral-fin rays (vs. 11 to 12). It further differs from H. metae by the length of the snout (17.6-22.8% HL vs. 9.9-15.2% HL) and by the length of the caudal peduncle (12.4-17.0% SL vs. 7.3-11.8% SL).

  18. A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes, Characidae from the upper Guaviare River, Orinoco River Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. García-Alzate

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyphessobrycon klausanni sp. n. is described from small drainages of the upper Guaviare River (Orinoco River Basin in Colombia. It differs from all congeners by having a wide, conspicuous, dark lateral stripe extending from the anterior margin of the eye across the body and continued through the middle caudal-fin rays, and that covers (vertically three or four horizontal scale rows. It also differs by having an orange-yellow stripe extending from the anterosuperior margin of the eye to the caudal peduncle above the lateral line in life. It differs from all other species of Hyphessobrycon that have a similar dark lateral stripe: H. cyanotaenia, H. loretoensis, H. melanostichos, H. nigricinctus, H. herbertaxelrodi, H. eschwartzae, H. montogoi, H. psittacus, H. metae, H. margitae, H. vanzolinii, and H. peruvianus in having only three or four pored scales in the lateral line, 21 to 24 lateral scales and six teeth in the inner premaxillary row. Hyphessobrycon klausanni differs from H. loretoensis in having seven to eight maxillary teeth (vs. three to four and in having a longer caudal peduncle (12.4–17.0% SL vs. 4.6–8.0% SL. Additionally Hyphessobrycon klausanni can be distinguished from the other species of Hyphessobrycon with a dark lateral stripe from the Orinoco River Basin (H. metae and H. acaciae in having two teeth in the outer premaxillary row (vs. three to four and 10 branched pectoral–fin rays (vs. 11 to 12. It further differs from H. metae by the length of the snout (17.6–22.8% HL vs. 9.9–15.2% HL and by the length of the caudal peduncle (12.4–17.0% SL vs. 7.3–11.8% SL.

  19. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis Violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.O presente artigo analisa as mudanças na violência ocorridas na Venezuela nos últimos quarenta anos, relacionadas com os altos e baixos da renda petroleira e com a crise política no país, fatos que contribuíram para um aumento nas taxas de homicídios: de 7 por cada cem mil habitantes em 1970 a 12 em 1990, 19 em 1998 e 50 no ano de 2003. O artigo caracteriza a Venezuela como sociedade rentista e, a partir daí, faz uma retrospecção cobrindo desde a violência rural até os inícios da violência urbana, o movimento guerrilheiro dos anos sessenta, a criminalidade resultando da abundância dos recursos petroleiros e a violência em decorrência da revolta popular e dos saques ocorridos em 1989 em Caracas. Em seguida são analisados os golpes de Estado de 1992 e o impacto que a violência política exerceu

  20. First commercial HDHPLUS{sup R}/SHP plant in Puerto La Cruz refinery, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negretti, V. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Rivas, G. [INTEVEP, Caracas, (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Funatsu, S. [JGC Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Plans are underway to upgrade Petroleos de Venezuela SA's Puerto La Cruz (PLC) refinery by installing the first commercial HDHPLUS/SHP unit licensed by INTEVEP. This paper presented the main features of the HDHPLUS/SHP technology; a description of the overall project, including the process flow scheme and plot plan; and achievements during the Front-end Engineering and Design (FEED) stage. HDHPLUS is a hydroconversion process that converts vacuum residue (VR) of Orinoco extra heavy crude oil into lighter materials. A two-train HDHPLUS/SHP complex has been incorporated into the PLC refinery to process a total of 50,000 BPSD of VR with more than a 85 per cent VR conversion rate. The PLC refinery will be able to process much heavier crude and improve the product slate without depending on products imported from other PDVSA refineries. HDHPLUS uses slurry bed technology to achieve deep hydrocracking of the heavy residue. Most of the hydroconverted materials are sent to the SHP unit for further hydrotreating and hydrocracking while unconverted residue in the HDHPLUS unit is sent to the flaker unit for solidification via a vacuum flash tower. This process enables converting almost any type of feedstock without any limitation on metals, conradson carbon and asphaltene levels. Most of the facilities and equipment, such as piping, pumps, valves, furnaces, heat exchangers and vessels in the HDHPLUS unit, reactors and high-pressure-high-temperature separator, must be designed for slurry service, because the HDHPLUS process uses slurry bed reaction technology and coke particles are present in the feed. Up to 114 volume per cent liquid yield can be obtained. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Controls on the composition of fluvial sands from a tropical weathering environment: sands of the Orinoco River drainage basin, Venezuela and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, M.J.; Stallard, R.F.; Lundberg, N.

    1991-01-01

    On the alluvial plains of the western Llanos, storage of orogenically derived sediment allows time for substantial chemical weathering. Through reworking of the alluvial sequences, freshly eroded sediment is exchanged for older, compositionally more mature material. The chemically weathered component increases as rivers cross the Llanos, resulting in an increase in overall compositional maturity of bed-load sand away from the orogenic terranes. -from Authors

  2. Asian genotype of Chikungunya virus circulating in Venezuela during 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Daría; Reyes, Jesús; Negredo, Ana; Hernández, Lourdes; Sánchez-Seco, María; Comach, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    Chikungunya virus emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean in late 2013. Since then in July of 2104 Venezuela reported autochthonous cases. This study reports the first phylogenetic characterization of CHIKV autochthonous cases in Venezuela, 2014. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV circulating in Venezuela (Aragua state) belong to the Asian genotype (Caribbean clade) and it is related to viruses that circulated in the same year in the Caribbean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Losing Influence: Regional Effects of U.S. Foreign Policy with Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    often at the expense of the United States. On May 1, 2007, Chávez forced out two significant U.S. oil companies that had been working on Orinoco River...thanks to the inclusion of heavy Orinoco Belt oil, Chávez was forced to modify their exchange rate for the second time in as many years

  4. Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976

  5. Stratigraphic model deposit Ofi Inf SDZ-2X A1, Jun in block in Orinoco Oil belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, E.; Sandoval, D.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the Stratigraphic model deposit O fi I nf SDZ-2X A1, Junin block in Orinoco Oil belt.This model was based on a chrono stratigraphic interpretation and was defined the correlation between the main and secondary surfaces. The wells of the study area pass through the Cambrian, Cretaceous and Miocene sediments. The last is more interesting for the study because of the stratigraphic and sand body surface presence

  6. Analisis de las relaciones bilaterales entre Cuba y Venezuela en materia política y económica. Periodo de estudio 2000-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Tapias Perdomo, Linda Ian

    2010-01-01

    A partir del año 2000 las relaciones entre la República de Cuba y la Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela están constituidas sobre una fuerte base ideologica (socialismo)y una dinamica economica dirigida al desarrollo y al progreso de cada nacion mediante las ventajas cooperativas. Lo anterior evidencia a la region y al mundo un alto interes por cambiar el actual orden mundial. En efecto una relacion muy criticada, preocupada por problemas reales pero dispuesta a solucionarlos de manera general...

  7. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  8. Area Handbook Series: Venezuela; A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    la Economia Venezolana. (2d ed.) Caracas: Edime, 1963. Arnove, Robert F. Student Alienation. A Venezuelan Study. New York: Praeger, 1971. Banks, Arthur...1987. Uslar Pietri, Arturo. Sumario de Economia Venezolana. Caracas: Fun- daci6n Mendoza, 1958. Venezuela. Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social... Latinoamericana [Buenos Aires], 12, No. 127, September 1987, 20-48. Echevarra, Oscar A. Opportunities from Debt: A rrimer on Venezuelan Investments and Debt

  9. The Casiquiare river acts as a corridor between the Amazonas and Orinoco river basins: biogeographic analysis of the genus Cichla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S C; Nunes, M; Montaña, C G; Farias, I P; Ortí, G; Lovejoy, N R

    2010-03-01

    The Casiquiare River is a unique biogeographic corridor between the Orinoco and Amazonas basins. We investigated the importance of this connection for Neotropical fishes using peacock cichlids (Cichla spp.) as a model system. We tested whether the Casiquiare provides a conduit for gene flow between contemporary populations, and investigated the origin of biogeographic distributions that span the Casiquiare. Using sequences from the mitochondrial control region of three focal species (C. temensis, C. monoculus, and C. orinocensis) whose distributions include the Amazonas, Orinoco, and Casiquiare, we constructed maximum likelihood phylograms of haplotypes and analyzed the populations under an isolation-with-migration coalescent model. Our analyses suggest that populations of all three species have experienced some degree of gene flow via the Casiquiare. We also generated a mitochondrial genealogy of all Cichla species using >2000 bp and performed a dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA) to reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus. This analysis, when combined with the intraspecific results, supports two instances of dispersal from the Amazonas to the Orinoco. Thus, our results support the idea that the Casiquiare connection is important across temporal scales, facilitating both gene flow and the dispersal and range expansion of species.

  10. Venezuela and Energy Security of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Igorevna Vesnovskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the specificity of Venezuela's energy policy and the features of the evolution of its approaches to solving problems of energy security. Special attention is paid to the projects of Caracas in the energy sector which are aimed at the creating of common energy zone in Latin America. The author has revealed the interaction of internal political processes in Venezuela as the country's leader in the region, with its integration policy, and also identified trends in the further development of energy policy and strategy of Latin American countries. The research of energy resources of Latin America determined that the main factor that works in favor of convergence states within the South American "geopolitical ring" is to ensure energy security. Venezuela is among the richest resources of Latin America. In the research it was determined that Petrosur, Petrocaribe and Petroandina provide the basis for a range of bilateral agreements to promote cooperation, creation ventures based on the state oil companies of these states.

  11. Altos custos financeiros do trauma vascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa-Val

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar o custo e impacto financeiro referente à primeira abordagem cirúrgica das lesões vasculares em pacientes admitidos no Hospital João XXIII/FHEMIG, entre os anos de 2004 a 2006. MéTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo com aprovação ética, retrospectivo, de coorte e descritivo realizado a partir da auditoria de contas hospitalares referentes a 70 prontuários catalogados pelo Serviço de Trauma Cardiovascular. RESULTADOS: Cinco (7,14% prontuários foram excluídos por má qualidade técnica. O valor monetário repassado pelo Sistema Único de Saúde e pelo setor privado foram de R$ 103.614,96 (US$ 60.949,97 e de R$ 185.888,21 (US$ 109.346,0, respectivamente, implicando em defasagem potencial de 44%. Houve correlação direta entre custos e topografia anatômica das lesões e exponencial em relação às variáveis hemoderivados e próteses vasculares. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo corrobora os altos custos do trauma vascular e fortalece a importância da auditoria de contas para as tomadas de decisões médicas.

  12. Molecular diagnosis of the arowanas Osteoglossum ferreirai Kanazawa, 1966 and O. bicirrhossum (Cuvier, 1829 from the Orinoco and Amazon River basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doris Escobar L.

    Full Text Available The arowanas, fishes of Gondwanan origin, are represented in South America by the genus Osteoglossum. All species were initially reported as being exclusive to the Amazon region, with O. ferreirai restricted to the Negro River basin and O. bicirrhosum to the Amazon and Essequibo Rivers basin. Starting in the mid 1970's it was reported that O. ferreirai also occurs in the Orinoco River basin. In all regions the arowanas assumed significant socio-economic importance due to their popularity in the international ornamental fish trade, leading to over-exploitation of both species in some areas. The Orinoco populations are particularly heavily exploited, and thus conservation and management measures are needed. Both depend on the clarification of taxonomic status, and phylogenetic distinctness of the Orinoco populations. With the goal of molecularly characterizing the two species of Osteoglossum, and comparing populations of Osteoglossum from the Orinoco and Amazon basins, we characterized individuals sampled from eight localities, one in the Orinoco River basin and seven in the Amazon River basin. We sampled 39 individuals, obtaining 1004 base pairs, of which 79 were synapomorphies. Genetic distance between the two species calculated using the HKY + G model of molecular evolution was 8.94%. Intraspecific distances ranged from 0.42% in O. bicirrhosum to 0.10% in O. ferreirai. The genetic characterization confirmed the taxonomic status of O. ferreirai in the Orinoco basin, and suggested that its distribution in the Orinoco basin is unlikely to be the result of vicariance or natural dispersal, but rather an anthropic introduction.

  13. YURUPARÍ: MÁSCARAS Y PODER ENTRE LOS PIAROAS DEL ORINOCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDER MANSUTTI RODRÍGUEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In northwest Amazonia, among other kinds, two celebrations occur: one with masks dedicated to the harvest of Bactris gasipaes and other fruits, and another with sacred flutes that evoke extraordinary beings. When both coincide in a same village they occur at different moments. However, to the Piaroa and the Wirö peoples of the Orinoco basin, both ceremonies occur simultaneously at the same place. This paper shall describe participants and procedures of the ceremony and evaluate the gender and age based power game that comes to light during it. This ceremony consolidates alliances between the shamans and their communities with the masters who control animals and plants exploited by the Piaroa people, facilitates men’s expropriations and limits women power to the domestic sphere, and shifts a society with no major hierarchical organizations into a highly hierarchical one as long as the ceremony is occuring.En el noroccidente amazónico se realizan, entre otras, dos tipos de fiestas: una enmascarada dedicada a la cosecha de Bactris gassipaes y otras frutas, y otra con flautas sagradas dedicada a evocar seres extraordinarios. Ellas, cuando coinciden en un mismo pueblo, se realizan en momentos diferentes. Sin embargo, en el caso de los Piaroas y Wirös de la cuenca del Orinoco, ambas fiestas coinciden entiempo y lugar. En este ensayo vamos a describir los personajes y procedimientos que son parte de la fiesta y a evaluar algunos de los juegos de poder de género y edad que en ella se expresan.Se trata de una fiesta que consolida alianzas de los shamanes y sus comunidades con los dueños de animales y plantas sometidas a la depredación piaroa, que institucionaliza la expropiación por los hombres y la redefinición hacia lo doméstico del poder femenino, y que transforma una sociedad sin grandes jerarquías en su citianeidad en una sociedad altamente jerarquizada mientras dura la fiesta.

  14. Dos nuevas especies de bagres del género Trichomycterus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae de la Gran Sabana, Escudo de las Guayanas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Lasso

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dos nuevas especies de bagres tricomictéridos, Trichomycterus celsae y Trichomycterus lewi, colectados en el río Kukenán, afluente del río Caroní (cuenca del Orinoco, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. El río Kukenán esta ubicada en el área denominada U Gran Sabana, perteneciente a la porción venezolana de la región del Escudo de las Guayanas. Las dos nuevas especies se reconocen y se separan fácilmente entre ellas y entre las otras especies del género Trichomycterus descritas para esta región, por el patrón de coloración. Se describe el patrón de coloración, la morfometría y la merística, además se presentan las diferencias más llamativas entre los caracteres osteológicos observados en un ejemplar adulto de cada una de las nuevas especies. El patrón osteológico permite indicar que ambas especies pertenecen al género Trichomycterus.Trichomycterus celsae n. sp. and Trichomycterus lewi n. sp. are describes from the river Kukenán a tributary of the river Caroní, Orinoco basin, Guyana Shield, Venezuela. The new species are diagnosed within the Guyana Shield Trichomycterus species by a distinctive color pattern. Trichomycterus celsae has a uniform light brown color on dorsum and sides of the body; the ventral surface is yellowish or creamy. Trichomycterus lewi has an irregular pattern of black spots of different sizes on dorsum and sides of the body, the larger spots are located at the posterior part of the body, and, the ventral surface is whitish. The osteology of the new species showed that they belong to the genus Trichomycterus. Osteological features support the external diagnosis of both species, some of them are: in T. celsae, the skull has the fontanels well separated, T. Iewi has the fontanels closer andjoined by a narrow canal. In T. celsae, the dorsal border of the hyomandibula has a conspicuous notch. In T. Iewi, the metapterygoid has a projection on the posteroventral angle. Neural spine of the first

  15. The late Miocene Phractocephalus catfish (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from Urumaco, Venezuela: additional specimens and reinterpretation as a distinct species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Lundberg

    Full Text Available Based on additional specimens the fossil pimelodid catfish from the upper Miocene Urumaco Formation, Falcón State, Venezuela originally assigned to the extant species Phractocephalus hemioliopterus is described as a new, extinct species. †Phractocephalus nassi n. sp. is diagnosed by the following combination of characters: 1 posterior half of frontals and anterior half of supraoccipital with elongate, coarse ridges and sulci in addition to reticulating ridges and subcircular pits; 2 very broad and ornamented mesethmoid bone; 3 lateral ethmoid margin convex and eliminating orbital notch but not projecting far anteriorly over palatine condyle; 4 anterior cranial fontanelle closed or represented by a small pit; 5 supraoccipital process rounded laterally and posterolaterally, concave posteriorly and completely concealing Weberian complex in dorsal view; 6 opercle covered with reticulating ridges and pits; 7 cleithrum coarsely ornamented along ventral edge and bulging outward lateral to spine articulation; 8 pectoral spine mostly ornamented with coarse ridges and sulci. †Phractocephalus nassi is compared to modern P. hemioliopterus and an undescribed extinct species from the upper Miocene Solimões Formation, Acre, Brazil. New diagnostic characters of Phractocephalus are presented that apply to the modern and fossil species, including: 1 ornamentation of skull, pectoral girdle and fin spines comprising a coarse meshwork of reticulating ridges surrounding rounded pits plus some elongate ridges and sulci; 2 supraoccipital posterior process greatly expanded laterally and posteriorly behind occipital wall; 3 lateral ethmoid and sphenotic broadly sutured behind eye; 4 anterior cranial fontanelle reduced or completely closed and posterior cranial fontanelle closed; 5 vomerine tooth plate large, roughly pentagonal to triangular in form, and with fine teeth. Today Phractocephalus ranges widely throughout the lowland Orinoco, Amazon and Essequibo basins

  16. Critical Pedagogy and Empowering in Teacher Education in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Carmen T.; Alvarez, Luisa Cristina

    This paper addresses the issue of the relationship between critical pedagogy and English as a foreign language (EFL) in Venezuela. Teacher-researchers have come to see the issues confronting nonnative educators in ELT as a more important issue than in previous years. They are particularly concerned about the current situation in Venezuela,…

  17. South America's energy integration overshadows Venezuela-US confrontational posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrantes, Dayse

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration

  18. An advanced nuclear power plant for heavy oil exploitation in the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal-Osorio, H.

    1992-01-01

    The most important characteristics of the Orinoco Oil Belt (OOB) and of its heavy oil content, together with the main requirements for its exploitation, are presented here for analyzing the possibilities of the application of advanced nuclear power as main energy source in the heavy oil exploitation in the OOB. A steamsupply advanced nuclear cogeneration plant based on high temperature reactors is suggested for both the extraction and upgrading of the crude oil. The model consists of a plant for a 100 km 2 oil field producing 100.000 barrels per day of refinery ready synthetic oil during 25 years. Three 1200 MW(th) reactors, built successively, supply a great portion of the required process heat, injection steam and electricity. Steam conditions are: for the process heat, a maximum pressure of 10 MPa at a temperature of 500deg C, and, for the injection steam, pressures between 12 and 17 MPa at saturation temperatures. Clear advantages for an advanced nuclear option application in the OOB development are substantiated, and a feasibility study is recommended. (orig.)

  19. Water flux through a semi-deciduous forest grove of the Orinoco savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José, José J; Montes, Ruben A; Florentino, Adriana

    1995-02-01

    Water relations were analysed in a semi-deciduous forest grove occurring in the oxisols of the Orinoco savannas. This grove has a shallow unconsolidated ironstone cuirass, which is overlaid by a sandy loam layer (0.0-0.5 m) that contains more than 90% of the grove forest root phytomass. Evapotranspiration and through drainage were calculated by using data from the soil profile as related to physical characteristics of the site root zone, hydraulic conductivity, volumetric water content and potential hydraulic gradient. Mean annual evapotranspiration was 783 mm year -1 and annual through drainage below the root zone was 14% (162 mm year -1 ) of the gross rainfall. This drainage recharged the 42% of the annual saturation deficit of the water table. Similar mean annual evapotranspiration (770 mm year -1 ) was also calculated by using the water balance components. The mean daily coupling omega factor (Ω) between the grove canopy and the surrounding atmosphere indicated that a high degree of coupling (Ω=0.14±0.16) occurs in the grove and evapotranspiration was mainly controlled by surface conductance. As the dry season proceeded, the soil saturation deficit (δθ) increased rapidly resulting in a threshold surface conductance (0.030-0.005 m s -1 ) for δθ ranging from 0.05 to 0.10. Hypotheses to explain the omnipresence of perennial species in the wide range of physical conditions in neotropical savannas are discussed.

  20. Accounting for ecosystem assets using remote sensing in the Colombian Orinoco River Basin lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Leonardo; Hein, Lars; Remme, Roy P.

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, ecosystem change compromises the supply of ecosystem services (ES). Better managing ecosystems requires detailed information on these changes and their implications for ES supply. Ecosystem accounting has been developed as an environmental-economic accounting system using concepts aligned with the System of National Accounts. Ecosystem accounting requires spatial information from a local to national scale. The objective of this paper is to explore how remote sensing can be used to analyze ecosystems using an accounting approach in the Orinoco River Basin. We assessed ecosystem assets in terms of extent, condition, and capacity to supply ES. We focus on four specific ES: grasslands grazed by cattle, timber harvesting, oil palm fresh fruit bunches harvesting, and carbon sequestration. We link ES with six ecosystem assets: savannahs, woody grasslands, mixed agroecosystems, very dense forests, dense forest, and oil palm plantations. We used remote sensing vegetation and productivity indexes to measure ecosystem assets. We found that remote sensing is a powerful tool to estimate ecosystem extent. The enhanced vegetation index can be used to assess ecosystems condition, and net primary productivity can be used for the assessment of ecosystem assets capacity to supply ES. Integrating remote sensing and ecological information facilitates efficient monitoring of ecosystem assets.

  1. Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of the Endangered South American Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) from the Orinoco Basin in Colombia: Management Implications and Application to Current Conservation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Susana; Correa-Cárdenas, Camilo A; Trujillo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Endangered giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis, are found along the Amazon and Orinoco rivers and most of their tributaries. Hunting in the mid-1970s pushed giant otter populations to the brink of extinction. We studied population structure and genetic diversity of giant otters from Colombia's Orinoco basin using analyses of partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences obtained from scat material. We collected and analyzed 54 scat samples from 22 latrines, 2 tissue samples primarily from captive giant otters and 2 from hunted animals near Puerto Carreño and Puerto Inírida (Colombian Orinoco), as well as one tissue sample from Puerto Leguizamo (Colombian Amazon). Thirty-nine partial control region sequences were obtained (258bp), corresponding to 15 unique haplotypes. Most of these haplotypes, found in samples collected around Puerto Carreño, defined one phylogeographic group (phylogroup) not previously described. Higher genetic diversity in the Colombian Orinoco populations than in other South American populations suggests that this newly described phylogroup, as well as a second phylogroup defined from a few Colombian Orinoco and Amazon samples, should be considered distinct genetic management units. National conservation programs, particularly those aiming to establish protected areas, should manage these independently. Current Colombian confiscated animal reintroduction and captive reproduction programs should also consider such differentiation when determining reintroduction locations or improving husbandry practices. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Casas de altos en Concepción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fischer Pérez

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available La casa de altos es una construcción eminentemente urbana. Pareada junto a otras construcciones, va formando bordes continuos, cuyos primeros pisos son generalmente comerciales y los superiores habitacionales.

  3. Description of a new species of the genus Chaetostoma from the Orinoco River drainage with comments on Chaetostoma milesi Fowler, 1941 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballen, Gustavo A; Urbano-Bonilla, Alexander; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A

    2016-04-20

    Chaetostoma joropo n. sp. is described from the piedmont of the Orinoco River drainage in Colombia. The new species has been long confused with Chaetostoma milesi, a species with similar overall morphology and color pattern that is restricted to the Magdalena-Cauca River Basin. We diagnose the new species on the basis of morphology as well as a precise description of the color pattern. Chaetostoma joropo n. sp. is also easily distinguished from C. formosae the most similar species and other species inhabiting the Orinoco River drainage in Colombia. Data on ontogenetic variation and sexual dimorphism are provided, as well as natural history notes and remarks on the usage of the name Chaetostoma milesi for specimens from both the Orinoco and Magdalena-Cauca drainages. A discussion on the usage of the name Chaetostoma platyrhynchus is also provided given its current instability in the literature.

  4. The Orinoco megadelta as a conservation target in the face of the ongoing and future sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T; Hernández, E; Rull, Valentí; Rull Vegas, Elisa

    2015-05-15

    Currently, risk assessments related to rising sea levels and the adoption of defensive or adaptive measures to counter these sea level increases are underway for densely populated deltas where economic losses might be important, especially in the developed world. However, many underpopulated deltas harbouring high biological and cultural diversity are also at risk but will most likely continue to be ignored as conservation targets. In this study, we explore the potential effects of erosion, inundation and salinisation on one of the world's comparatively underpopulated megadeltas, the Orinoco Delta. With a 1 m sea level rise expected to occur by 2100, several models predict a moderate erosion of the delta's shorelines, migration or loss of mangroves, general inundation of the delta with an accompanying submersion of wetlands, and an increase in the distance to which sea water intrudes into streams, resulting in harm to the freshwater biota and resources. The Warao people are the indigenous inhabitants of the Orinoco Delta and currently are subject to various socioeconomic stressors. Changes due to sea level rise will occur extremely rapidly and cause abrupt shifts in the Warao's traditional environments and resources, resulting in migrations and abandonment of their ancestral territories. However, evidence indicates that deltaic aggradation/accretion processes at the Orinoco delta due to allochthonous sediment input and vegetation growth could be elevating the surface of the land, keeping pace with the local sea level rise. Other underpopulated and large deltas of the world also may risk immeasurable biodiversity and cultural losses and should not be forgotten as important conservation targets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo.

  6. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo

  7. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  8. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  9. Some nematodes of freshwater fishes in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Prouza, A; Royero, R

    1997-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of nematodes found in 88 specimens of 24 species of freshwater fishes in Venezuela in 1992 and 1994. The following 13 species of nematodes were recorded: Adults; Guyanema longispiculum Moravec, Prouza et Royero, 1996, Guyanema sp., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus Travassos, Artigas et Pereira, 1928, P. (S.) krameri (Petter, 1974) comb. n., P.(S.) pintoi (Kohn et Fernandes, 1988) comb, n., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) mahnerti (Petter et Cassone, 1984). Larvae: Anisakidae gen. sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Contracaecum sp. Type 2, Contracaecum sp. Type 3, Eustrongylides sp. All these parasites are reported from Venezuela for the first time and all findings represent new host records. Brevimulticaecum larvae are reported from fishes for the first time. Almost all parasites are briefly described and illustrated and problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. A new name, Terranova diazungriai nom.nov. is proposed for T. caballeroi Díaz-Ungría, 1968 (a junior homonym of T. caballeroi Barus et Coy Otero, 1966).

  10. Academic resonances of the intelectual baggage brought by Augusto Pi Suñer to Venezuela (1939-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Frechilla, Juan José

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article read over the intellectual connection between two physiologists, the Catalan exiled Augusto Pi Suñer in 1939 and the Venezuelan Francisco De Venanzi beyond their common research subject like as: the Academic insertion of the Biological sciences and the related debate with the Natural sciences; the Scientific development and the necessity to attract the Human resources for it; the publication of the Project results by owner institutional reviews; the Legal establishment at the highest Govern level to development the Scientific research. All of these subjects were developed when the scientific community in Venezuela are confirming her institutional organization.

    Se recorre aquí la sintonía intelectual entre dos fisiólogos: el catalán Augusto Pi Suñer exiliado en Venezuela en 1939 y el venezolano Francisco De Venanzi, más allá de su común campo de investigación, en asuntos como: la inserción académica de las ciencias biológicas y el debate en relación a las ciencias naturales; el fomento de la investigación y la necesidad de captar recursos humanos para su desarrollo; la divulgación de los resultados de los proyectos por medio de órganos institucionales propios; el establecimiento de un cuerpo de legalidad al más alto nivel ejecutivo para el desarrollo de la investigación. Todo ello en el momento en que se formalizan en Venezuela las primeras iniciativas organizativas de su comunidad científica.

  11. Interannual Variation in Offshore Advection of Amazon-Orinoco Plume Waters: Observations, Forcing Mechanisms, and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S.; Vandemark, D. C.; Gaultier, L.; Lee, T.; Jonsson, B. F.; Gierach, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the tropical Atlantic east of the Lesser Antilles, a region impacted by freshwater advection from the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers have potential implications to late-summer tropical cyclones (TCs). This study examines these variations during late summer and their forcing mechanisms using observations. During the period 2010-2014, the largest difference in plume-affected area, defined as the extent covered by SSS lower than 35.5 pss, is found between 2011 and 2014. Plume waters covered 92% (60%) of the study region in 2011 (2014) with the averaged SSS in the study region being 2-pss lower in 2011. Lagrangian particle tracking based on satellite-derived ocean currents is used to diagnose the impacts of the river plumes on SSS and SST during 2010-2014. Northward freshwater flux in the summer of 2014 is significantly weaker than those in 2010-2013. This is not due to interannual discharge variability, but significant changes in eddy-driven transport and cross-shore winds. In particular, the stronger cross-shore wind in May 2014 restricted offshore freshwater flow, leading to a smaller extent of the plume-affected area. Persistent SST gradients are often found near the plume edge, which may have implication to ocean-atmosphere coupling associated with TC-related convection. SST in the study region is 1°C higher in 2010 than in other years, and is related to basin-scale ocean-atmosphere processes. Interannual variation in Amazon advective pathways and the associated SSS changes are also influenced by changes in the ITCZ position between 2011 and 2014.

  12. Venezuela tra Alba e Mercosur. Un ruolo ambivalente

    OpenAIRE

    Pellini, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Giacomo Pellini, "Venezuela tra Alba e Mercosur", in: Visioni LatinoAmericane, 11 (2014), pp.48-62 L’autore esamina l’attivismo di Hugo Châvez nei processi di integrazione latinoamericana soffermandosi in particolare sull’Alba e il Mercosur. Mette a confronto, da una parte, la leadership esercitata dal Venezuela all’interno dell’Alba e dall’altra il ruolo di secondo piano del Venezuela all’interno del Mercosur. Evidenzia come per il Paese sia più vantaggiosa la permanenza, seppur con un ru...

  13. Compositional change in fish assemblages along the Andean piedmont - Llanos floodplain gradient of the río Portuguesa, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hoeinghaus

    Full Text Available The Llanos is an extensive area of savannas and floodplains in central and western Venezuela that encompasses a gradual elevation gradient from the río Orinoco to the foothills of the Andean piedmont. The río Portuguesa is one of the major rivers in this region that until recently had escaped major anthropogenic impacts and still maintains substantial seasonal fish migrations. However, little work has been conducted on fish ecology in this river. The present study analyzes museum collections sampled at 28 locations along the longitudinal gradient of the río Portuguesa to assess similarity of species composition from the foothills of the Andean piedmont to the lowland llanos floodplain. The standardized samples used in this analysis contained greater than 133 species representing 6 orders and 27 families, dominated by characiforms (61 species and siluriforms (52 species. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA ordination of samples revealed a continual pattern of compositional change, and species are added at a faster rate than they are lost as one moves from the foothills of the piedmont to the low llanos. Based on DCA, samples from three elevational segments were found to significantly differ in fish species composition. Assemblages in the upper reaches contained unique species of loricariid catfishes, small pimelodid and trichomycterid catfishes, and small characiforms not observed at lower elevations. The lowland reach contained species of cichlids, large catfishes and characids not collected from the other two regions. Samples from the middle region revealed transitional species composition. Longitudinal species turnover probably reflects differences in environmental characteristics such as a water velocity, substrate composition and disturbance regime. Findings from this broad-scale analysis contribute to a baseline for future studies of fish ecology in this region.

  14. The experimental study on H2S generation during thermal recovery process for heavy oil from the Eastern Venezuela Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingkui Mi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is toxic, corrosive and environmentally damaging. It is not only found in oil and gas development, but is also often found in heavy oil exploitation. In this study, three heavy oils were selected from the Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt in the southern part of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. Thermal cracking experiments in gold sealed tubes were then conducted using the heavy oils. The objective of the experiment is to unravel the H2S generation mechanism and utility in establishing a development program for heavy oil thermal recovery. The results of the oil isothermal cracking experiments show that the H2S yield increases with the increasing cracking temperature and holding time at 150 °C and 250 °C. Carbon dioxide (CO2 is the main component in gaseous products and its concentration is more than 80% in our experiments. The yields of CO2, H2S and total hydrocarbon gas present similar varying trend that increases with increasing isothermal time. The sulfur contents in group compositions of the original oil from the CJS-48 well and that of the residual oils with different cracking time at 250 °C were then measured. The analytical results show that most sulfur (>75% exists in aromatics both in original oil and in the residual oils cracked at 250 °C, not to mention, no sulfur was measured in saturates. Although the decrease of sulfur in aromatics with the increased cracking time is low, it has great significance to the H2S generation during thermal recovery of heavy oil for more than 75% sulfur existed in aromatics. The decrease of sulfur content in resin and asphaltene of cracking residues with increased cracking time indicates that the sulfur existed in resin and asphaltene has some contribution to H2S generation during the thermal recovery process of heavy oil. Keywords: Venezuela, Heavy oil, Thermal recovery, H2S, Gold tube experiments

  15. NPP Grassland: Calabozo, Venezuela, 1969-1987, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains four ASCII text files for a 260-hectare humid Trachypogon savanna at the Estacion Biologica de Los Llanos, Calabozo, Venezuela (8.93 N, -67.42...

  16. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2008-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  17. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  18. NPP Tropical Forest: San Eusebio, Venezuela, 1970-1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass, litterfall,a nd nutrient content of above- and below-ground vegetation and soil for a tropical montane forest at San Eusebio, Venezuela.

  19. Morphological characters of adult Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Wilkerson, Richard; Guzmán, Hernán

    2003-06-01

    A morphometric study was carried out to find diagnostic characters with which to update taxonomic keys for field identification of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara and the 3 other sympatric Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) species (An. darlingi, An. argyritarsis, and An. braziliensis) that occur in Venezuela. Diagnostic random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction markers from wild-caught specimens showed that An. marajoara was the only species in the Anopheles albitarsis complex collected in Venezuela.

  20. Implications of China’s Growing Demand for Oil: A Case Study in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    its royalties on production of Orinoco heavy crude by international oil companies from one percent to over 16 percent.114 As revenues increase, so...billion barrels. 118 “Ministry certifies 100Bb of Orinoco reserves, insider says move political,” Business News Americas, October 9, 2007. 29 3...Prospects (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002). Slyke, Lyman Van. Yangtze: Nature, History and the River , (Stanford Alumni Association

  1. Military nurses in Venezuela and training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Izquierdo-Martínez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nursing career professionals with solid-humanistic way scientific, ethical and basis in order that they can properly integrate the multidisciplinary team to creatively solve health problems through nursing care. This article analyzes the formation of the military nurse in Venezuela, with the help of logical historical method to uncover trends and regularities that characterize this process. The nurse is a professional attitudes, values, knowledge and skills to assume their social responsibility, applying theories and models of discipline in the promotion, prevention, recovery and rehabilitation of health. Similarly, military nurse career provides to the military institution and especially health institutions of the country leadership training in the management of custodial care, management and research on health and committed to education continues in his practice.

  2. [Historical overview of antimalarials used in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerpa de Artiles, N

    1993-06-01

    A historical review of antimalarials used in Venezuela is presented from the time when the bark of quina was used until the massive distribution of quinine and metoquine by the Dirección de Malariología y Saneamiento Ambiental. The utility of chloroquine and primaquine against sensible parasite isolates and of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and quinine, currently used against P. falciparum resistant strains, is thoroughly discussed. The author suggests use of artemisimine and its derivatives as a very promising antimalarial drug. She also stresses the possibility of the application of new antimalaria vaccine against P. falciparum blood states, presently assayed in the country as an additional tool in malaria control programs.

  3. Nostalgic Venezuela. Reelection, rupture and revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Dámaso Luis León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Venezuela was an oasis in Latin America, a stable, democratic and prosperous country for several decades until the coming of the 1980s’ crisis. The new context and the erosion of traditional actors forced profound political changes. The crisis, the adjustments made during the 1990s and the population’s hopes of one day returning to the path of prosperity generated increasingly radical policy responses. This article seeks to analyse the political responses of the Venezuelan people to the challenges posed by their new socioeconomic reality and how these connect with visions derived from past experience and the approach to the roles of state and leader. It also explores the frustration caused by failure to meet their expectations, leading to the election of increasingly radical options.

  4. Visual pollution in public spaces in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Velandia, Carmen Arelys

    2013-01-01

    Each day cities inhabitants are exposed to visual pollution. This work assess the environmental impact caused by visual pollution in public spaces, using as a case of study a mixed-use neighborhood in San Cristobal, the capital of Tachira state, Venezuela. Such assessment was made using a qualitative approach, where special emphasis was paid to the perception of these impacts by a purposive sample of users of this area. The compilation and analysis of information reveal the main visual pollutants existing in these public spaces where, in addition to outdoor advertising, overhead wires, rubbish, graffiti, vacant land, among others, cars and outdoor kiosks. Neighborhood users are sensitive to the presence of visual pollutants, which affects them physically and psychologically, as well as for the visual quality of their environment. Such signs were used to guide a qualitative appraisal of environmental impacts generated by these circumstances and to propose policies to mitigate them.

  5. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, J. L.; Diaz, G.; Hamar, V.; Isea, R.; Rojas, F.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Nunez, L. A.

    2007-07-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several webbased scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria. (Author)

  6. PENSIONES DE ALTOS FUNCIONARIOS EN LA JURISPRUDENCIA CONSTITUCIONAL: SOSTENIBILIDAD FINANCIERA

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Arturo Hernández Díaz; Javier Francisco Franco Mongua

    2014-01-01

    El régimen pensional de los altos funcionarios del Estado, considerado como especial, ha generado insostenibilidad financiera hasta antes del 2013. Tiempo en el que se adopta una visión más garantista de los derechos de igualdad, equidad, solidaridad y equilibrio financiero del sistema general de pensiones, típico de una posición del Análisis Económico del Derecho (AED). Entonces, el estudio de las decisiones jurisprudenciales respecto del sistema especial de pensiones de los altos funcionari...

  7. Technical and scientific report of the Alto project; Rapport scientifique et technique du projet ALTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essabaa, S.; Gardes, D.; Grialou, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Le Scornet, J.C

    2002-07-01

    The Alto project means the installation of an electron linear accelerator inside the experimental area of the tandem accelerator of the nuclear physics institute of Orsay (IPNO, France). This linear accelerator comes from CERN where it was operating as a pre-injector for LEP. This equipment will allow IPNO'teams to perform fast kinetics studies in a domain different from that of ELYSE accelerator. The time resolution will not be as high as that of ELYSE (picosecond) but will be sufficient (microsecond) to produce free radicals in aqueous and gaseous media. The main expectations of this installation can be classified according 3 axis: 1) basic research (mainly the study of nuclear matter through photo-fission, 2) research and development of accelerators (by providing a test bench for new high frequency systems and superconducting components), and 3) applied research for industry concerning: biochemistry under irradiation, radiation sensibility, DNA breaking, food and drug sterilization and behaviour of electronic components under irradiation. This rapport details the research program that could be achieved with this equipment, describes its contributions in terms of economic development, cooperation with industry, student training, and specifies the needed investment and the operating and maintenance costs. (A.C.)

  8. Open Spaces for Arts Education ‐ The ALTO Ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casey, John; Greller, Wolfgang; Davies, Hywel; Follows, Chris; Turner, Nancy; Webb-Ingall, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Casey, J., Greller, W., Davies, H., Follows, C., Turner, N., & Webb-­Ingall, E. (2011, 27-30 September). Open Spaces for Arts Education - The ALTO Ecosystem Model. Paper presentation of "Future Learning Spaces", at the 7th annual Designs on E-learning 2011 (DeoL) conference, Helsinki, Finland.

  9. Crecimiento del caimán del Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae en dos condiciones de cautiverio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldeima T Pérez T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available para determinar el crecimiento del caimán del Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius, en diferentes condiciones de cautiverio, se criaron 40 ejemplares durante 11 meses y 15 días. Se utilizaron dos tanques circulares, con una superficie de 28.3 m² y un volumen de 62.2 m³, construidos con bloques de concreto y protegidos con techo de láminas galvanizadas e internamente cubiertos con láminas de resina. Un tanque fue cubierto parcialmente con láminas galvanizadas (Tanque I y el otro se techó totalmente (Tanque II. Se colocaron 20 cocodrilos en cada tanque y a los dos grupos se les administró una dieta compuesta por 85% de carne de res, 10% de carne de pescado, 5% de huevos de gallina y mezcla de minerales y vitaminas. El crecimiento en longitud total y peso difirió entre grupos (p Growth of the Orinoco Caiman (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae under two captivity conditions. In order to determine the growth of Caiman of the Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius under two conditions of captivity, 40 specimens were raised during 11 months and 15 days in two circular tanks, with 28.3 m² of surface area and a volume of 62.2 m³ in each tank. The tanks were built with concrete walls and guarded blocks covered internally with sheets of myrrhlike resin, and a roof of galvanized sheets. One tank was covered partially with the galvanized sheets (tank I, the other was totally covered (tank II. Twenty caimans were placed in each tank, and both groups were fed with 85% beef, 10% fresh fish, 5% hen eggs and a mixture of minerals and vitamins. The length and weight differed significantly between the groups (p < 0.001. Mean growth (103.0 ± 6.81 cm and weight (3 987 ± 0.98 g were higher in tank II, (tank I: 88.9 ± 7.58 cm; 2 705 ± 0.69 g. The greater growth in tank II reflects higher air and water temperatures. The survival rate was 97.5%. These results can be used for rearing caimans in captivity for conservation and commercial purposes. Rev

  10. Formación de equipos de alto desempeño y estrategias gerenciales en proyectos de empresas publicitarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSA ESTHER PALAMARY D'AGUILLO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente las empresas publicitarias se ven presionadas a competir en un entorno donde productos y estrategias se asemejan cada día más debido a la globalización. El éxito de estas empresas dependerá de la práctica de la innovación en sus actividades así como del desarrollo del capital humano. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar la relación entre formación de equipos de alto desempeño y estrategias gerenciales en proyectos de empresas publicitarias; sustentada bajo una investigación descriptiva correlacional de campo transversal, con un diseño no experimental descriptivo transeccional. Se tomó como población a las empresas ubicadas en el municipio de Maracaibo (Venezuela pertenecientes a la Federación de Agencias Publicitarias. Los resultados obtenidos sirven para otras empresas que deseen asumir este reto.

  11. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los debates sobre la democracia en la Venezuela de hoy carecen de una definición común sobre el tema, sobre cómo estudiarlo, e incluso respecto a qué es democracia. El régimen ha sido descrito de muchas formas: democracia participativa, híbrido, mixto, personalista, populista, iliberal, autoritarismo competitivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el nivel de calidad de la democracia en Venezuela, en el marco de una concepción procedimental de la democracia. La evaluación empírica de cinco dimensiones de calidad de la democracia (decisión electoral, participación, respuesta a la voluntad popular, rendición de cuentas y soberanía revela un nivel bajo en conjunto, con escasa variación entre 2005 y 2010. Los escenarios posibles luego de las elecciones de 2012 incluyen: reforzamiento de las tendencias autoritarias, militarización abierta, liberalización política con fortalecimiento institucional, o volatilidad duradera con conflicto polarizado y debilidad institucional. La salud del presidente Chávez afectará estos escenarios, dado su carácter de factor central unificador de su movimiento y del régimen.Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the

  12. Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysaccis B., Raul

    1998-12-01

    On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the

  13. Aproximación al conocimiento de las briofitas de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Efraín J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces the up-dated taxonomic placement of 106 genera of Hepaticae and 233 genera of Musci known from Venezuela. Besides, a summarized version from the geographical distribution in Venezuela of 383 species of Hepaticae and 1009 species of mosses is presented. Information was derived from an exhaustive revision of bryophyte collections in the Venezuelan herbaria, and from publications about bryophytes collected in Venezuela. It is concluded that Venezuela, despite having been li...

  14. Parasitosis intestinal, su relación con factores ambientales en niños del sector "Altos de Milagro", Maracaibo Intestinal parasitosis, its relation to environmental factors in children from the "Altos de Milagro", Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Espinosa Morales

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El parasitismo intestinal de conjunto con otras enfermedades infecciosas trasmisibles, constituye el motivo por el cual un gran número de pacientes acude a los consultorios populares en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela; dentro de ellos predominan los niños y adolescentes, debido a la pobre condición higiénico- sanitaria de las barriadas. OBJETIVO: Determinar la presencia de algunos factores ambientales condicionantes en niños parasitados, del sector "Altos de Milagro"Norte, Maracaibo estado Zulia, entre diciembre de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo para determinar el comportamiento de la parasitosis intestinal en los niños del sector y su relación con algunos factores ambientales, para lo cual se utilizó una encuesta realizada por la autora, con la finalidad de obtener la información relacionada con las diferentes variables a estudiar. RESULTADOS: Fueron atendidos 56 pacientes, 51,7 % representó al sexo masculino, este último fue el más parasitado con un 42,7 %, predominaron las edades comprendidas entre 1-4 años con 39,2 %, la disposición inadecuada de excretas estuvo presente en un 86,6 %, así como la presencia de vectores en un 94,6 %, y 26 pacientes consumían agua no tratada (57,8 %. CONCLUSIONES: Existió una elevada presencia de la enfermedad, el sexo masculino fue el más afectado; sin embargo no mostró diferencias significativas con el otro sexo. Predominó el grupo etario de 1-4 años. El alto porcentaje obtenido en los factores ambientales estudiados, mostró que fueron importantes en el comienzo, transmisión y propagación de la parasitosis. Se recomendó efectuar programas de intervención comunitaria que impidan o limiten la aparición de estas enfermedades.INTRODUCTION: The intestinal parasitism together with other transmissible and infectious disease is the reason by which many patients come to popular consulting rooms in the Bolivarian

  15. THE DELTA INDIGENE. THE GUARAÚNOS OF THE ORINOCO AT ETNOGRAPHY OF THE LORD SPIRITUAL TURRADO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Díaz Diego

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical of the positivist ethnographer from the beginnings of XX century, Ángel Turrado Moreno (1903-1961, missionary and bishop of Asso, had an essencialist vision of culture. For him, cultures had a lot of similar and comparable aspects which he tried to underline: marriage, family, authorities, deities, etc. Though Turrado did not carry out a deep analysis of cultural productions, he made a considerable effort to register the dimensions of daily life of Orinoco´s guaraunos with notable ethnographic rigor. Despite of all their biases, these community studies are important documentary sources today to comprehend these societies. This article intends to summerize the material conditions of life, the social organization and the symbolic cosmovision of gauraunos using the work of this missionary, as well as to give ethnographic logic that is lacking in some parts of his text. Guarauno lexicon used here corresponds to the phonetic adjustments handled by Turrado.

  16. A new species of Tyttocharax (Characiformes: Characidae: Stevardiinae from the Güejar river, Orinoco river Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Román-Valencia

    Full Text Available A new Tyttocharax species from the Güejar River system, near the Macarena Mountains in Colombia is described. This is the first record for the genus from the Orinoco basin. The combination of the following characters distinguish Tyttocharax metae from its congeners: presence of bony hooks on the pectoral and caudal-fin rays; bony hooks on the anal-fin rays larger than those on the pelvic-fin rays; pectoral-fin rays i,5-6,i; presence of three unbranched dorsal-fin rays; absence of an adipose fin; four scales rows between the anal-fin origin and the lateral line; and four scale rows between the pelvic-fin and the lateral line. Ecological characteristics of the habitat of the new species are also presented.

  17. 78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ...Atlantica de Venezuela, S.A.\\6\\ (``FerroVen''), and data reported by FerroVen affected by high inflation in... the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary Determinations of Antidumping Duty...: Irene Gorelik (Russia) or Kabir Archuletta (Venezuela), AD/CVD Operations, Office V, Enforcement and...

  18. 78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year Reviews... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... on subject imports from Venezuela was adequate, and [[Page 4438

  19. 78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States..., Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  20. 77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States International Trade... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be...

  1. Venezuela’s Changing Foreign Policy Towards the United States: A Holistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Economic Indicators, 1995-2000”, http://www.latin- focus.com/countries/venezuela/venindex.htm [12 Feb 2001]. 58 Ministerio de Finanza de Venezuela website...www.cne.gov.ve/. Ministerio de Finanza de la Republica Bolivareana de Venezuela, accessed online at: http://www.mf.gov.ve, [12 Mar 2001]. Plan

  2. Malaria Control and Elimination,1 Venezuela, 1800s–1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-01-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920, malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world’s interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication. Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization. We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  3. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convit, Jacinto; Schuler, Harland; Borges, Rafael; Olivero, Vimerca; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Frontado, Hortencia; Grillet, María E

    2013-10-07

    Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10-12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001-2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. From 2007-2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children Venezuela.

  4. Malaria control and elimination, Venezuela, 1800s –1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-10-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920,malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world's interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication.Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization.We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  5. Las decisiones de los hogares en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marakah Mancini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza quién toma las decisiones en los hogares y los factores que afectan la decisión. Esta investigación se condujo en Venezuela, donde se preguntó a las mujeres sobre las decisiones de los hogares en cuatro áreas. Los resultados indican que la mayoría de los hogares toman decisiones conjuntamente. Excluyendo esta categoría, la mayoría de las mujeres toman decisiones concernientes a la compra de bienes y la educación de los hijos, mientras que los hombres dominan las decisiones acerca de las finanzas del hogar y el cambio de residencia. También se encontró que la mayoría de las parejas que trabajan comparten los gastos del hogar. Además, se identifican factores que afectan el poder de decisión de las mujeres como la participación femenina en el mercado laboral y la edad, no obstante, el nivel de educación no afecta su poder decisión.

  6. Carbon regeneration in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Marquez

    Full Text Available Abstract The carbon regeneration in the water column of the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela was investigated using a regression model of total alkalinity (TA and the concentration of total inorganic carbon (TCO2. Primary productivity (PP was determined from the inorganic carbon fraction assimilated by phytoplankton and the variation of the 22 and 23ºC isotherm was used as an indicator of coastal upwelling. The results indicate that CO2 levels were lowest (1962 µmol/kg at the surface and increased to 2451 µmol/kg below the oxic-anoxic redox interface. The vertical regeneration distribution of carbon was dominated (82% by organic carbon originating from the soft tissue of photosynthetic organisms, whereas 18% originated from the dissolution of biogenic calcite. The regeneration of organic carbon was highest in the surface layer in agreement with the primary productivity values. However, at the oxic-anoxic interface a second more intense maximum was detected (70-80%, generated by chemotrophic respiration of organic material by microorganisms. The percentages in the anoxic layers were lower than in the oxic zone because aerobic decomposition occurs more rapidly than anaerobic respiration of organic material because more labile fractions of organic carbon have already been mineralized in the upper layers.

  7. Venezuela: país potencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. Osuna Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente el Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación convocó a una Consulta Nacional por la Calidad Educativa, acto en el cual el Ministro expresó: “es para lograr que Venezuela sea un país potencia”. Otro funcionario sentenció, “somos el segundo país en América Latina y quinto en el mundo con mayor presencia de jóvenes en recintos universitarios”. En efecto, la matrícula universitaria creció 203% entre el año 1997 y el 2010; en 1997 había 756.000 estudiantes universitarios inscritos, cifra que aumentó hasta 2.294.000 en el año 2010. Estadísticas que generan muchas interrogantes, una de ellas relacionada con la “calidad educativa”; lo cual nos obliga a recordar que hay programas e indicadores confiables para un auténtico diagnóstico del rendimiento de la educación, particularmente de primaria y secundaria. Sin embargo, quienes han conducido la educación en nuestro país, nunca evaluaron seriamente su rendimiento; peor aún, en la última década se ha sacrificado la calidad educativa en aras de la cantidad de matrícula

  8. Criterios para identificar patologías de alto costo en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenta de alto costo, MinSalud

    2010-01-01

    Al identificar posibles pacientes de alto costo se debe definir si existen características que determinan su comportamiento como pacientes de alto costo, para definir si dicha patología puede considerarse como Enfermedad de Alto Costo en Colombia.

  9. PENSIONES DE ALTOS FUNCIONARIOS EN LA JURISPRUDENCIA CONSTITUCIONAL: SOSTENIBILIDAD FINANCIERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Hernández Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El régimen pensional de los altos funcionarios del Estado, considerado como especial, ha generado insostenibilidad financiera hasta antes del 2013. Tiempo en el que se adopta una visión más garantista de los derechos de igualdad, equidad, solidaridad y equilibrio financiero del sistema general de pensiones, típico de una posición del Análisis Económico del Derecho (AED. Entonces, el estudio de las decisiones jurisprudenciales respecto del sistema especial de pensiones de los altos funcionarios, en el marco de las herramientas económicas, es el claro ejemplo para decisiones posteriores que busquen la eficiencia jurídica y económica de los sistemas normativos.

  10. Misery Index Corrected by Informality: Applicable to Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Ramoni Perazzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a variation of the IMO index (Okun's Misery Index, adapting it to markets with these characteristics, adding the ESI level (Employment in the Informal Sector to the unemployment level. This research compares the evolution of several standard misery indexes in several zones during the last decades, with emphasis on the case of Venezuela, for which the new proposed index is also estimated. Results show improvement in the well-being of groups of countries under study, compared to the deterioration of the indicator in Venezuela. In general terms, the IMO is controlled by unemployment, except in Venezuela. However, preponderance of inflation over unemployment in this country seems to occur by the underestimate that the unemployment rate has on the Venezuelan labor market situation.

  11. Assessing Whether Oil Dependency in Venezuela Contributes to National Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and the correlation between oil prices and democracy. This article also explores the various forms of instability within Venezuela and their causes. Finally, the article looks at President Hugo Chavez's political and economic policies as well as the stagnation of the state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA. This article dispels the myth that the resource curse is the source of destabilization in many resource dependent countries. Rather than a cause of instability, this phenomenon is a symptom of a much larger problem that is largely structural.

  12. CALIFA, the Calar alto legacy integral field area survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 < z < 0.03) galaxies, obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on th...... the available interfaces and tools that allow easy access to this first publicCALIFA data at http://califa.caha.es/DR1.......We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 ... on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory. The galaxies in DR1 already cover a wide range of properties in color-magnitude space, morphological type, stellar mass, and gas ionization conditions. This offers the potential to tackle a variety of open questions in galaxy evolution using spatially...

  13. Proteste in Venezuela und die Krise des Chavismus

    OpenAIRE

    Mijares, Víctor M.

    2014-01-01

    Seit Wochen demonstrieren in Venezuela Gegner der Regierung von Nicolás Maduro gegen Gewaltkriminalität, Inflation und die Einschränkung bürgerlicher Grundrechte. Die Regierung antwortet mit Repression und lässt einen führenden Oppositionspolitiker verhaften. Venezuela steht vor einem neuen Zyklus der Instabilität. Das während der Präsidentschaft von Hugo Chávez (1999-2013) etablierte sozioökonomische Modell stößt schon im ersten Amtsjahr seines Nachfolgers Nicolás Maduro an seine Grenzen: Ve...

  14. Events affecting gold exploration in Venezuela since 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the gold mining industry in Venezuela has changed significantly since 1999 as a result of Government policy changes and industry response to these changes. This report documents the policy decisions that have affected the mining industry, discusses the response of the industry on a site by site basis, and suggests possible effects of these changes on the global economy. For the short term, at least, it appears that these changes have made Venezuela a more difficult place to invest for U.S. and Canadian companies, while investment by Chinese entities has been encouraged.

  15. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-18

    r i b b e a n S e a Atlantic Ocean Golfo de Venezuela Gulf of Paria Aruba Curacao Bonaire Isla la Tortuga Isla de Margarita Tobago Trinidad C o l o m...that the system in place allowed a small elite class to dominate Congress and that revenues from the state-run oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela...other nations — Brazil, Chile, Mexico , Spain, and Portugal, in establishing a group known as the “Friends of Venezuela” — to lend support to the OAS

  16. REVISIÓN TAXONÓMICA DE LOASACEAE EN VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Noguera Eliana

    2012-01-01

    La familia Loasaceae no ha sido estudiada taxonómicamente en Venezuela, por tal razón se realizó una revisión taxonómica que permitió reconocer las especies presentes en el país y los principales caracteres de importancia taxonómica para su reconocimiento. Se examinaron 102 especímenes de Loasaceae depositados en herbarios nacionales e internacionales. En Venezuela, Loasaceae está representada por tres subfamilias (Gronovioideae, Loasoideae y Mentzelioideae), cuatros géneros (Gronovia, Klapro...

  17. The Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: An Analysis of the Reasons Behind Venezuela’s Continuing Demands for Abrogation of the 1899 Anglo-Venezuelan Arbitral Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Filardo, Pascual. La Reclamacion Venezolana Sobre La Guayana Essequiba. Caracas: Academia de Ciencias Politicas v Sociales, 1983. 162 "Venezuela Garantiza...rpp1. ; Walter . Lo briie de Venezuela. Caracas: FUndicU ion L~a Salle de Ciencias Naturales Ins t i tu t C’ -i (ift Anrrropolrgia ’v Sociologia...Andres. Geopolitica de las Relaciones de Venezuela Con el Caribe. Caracas: Asociacion Venezolana para el Avaice de la Ciencia , 1983. Singh, Chaitram

  18. Analysis of the Linkage Effects of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector and Political Risk Analysis of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    APPENDIX A Table 1, Petroleum Tax Rates. Balestrini, Los precios del petroleo y la participacion fiscal de Venezuela, p. 39. Table 2... precios del petroleo y la participacion fiscal de Venezuela (Caracas, 1974), p. 39. 12. Allen, p. 15. 13. Alvarez R. Torrealba, El petroleo en la...S.J. and S.M. Barrow. Business Yearbook of Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. London: Graham and Trotman, Ltd., 1980. Balestrini, Caesar. Los precios del

  19. Interrupting Chagas disease transmission in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aché, A; Matos, A J

    2001-01-01

    The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease in Venezuela is attributed to the combined effects of ongoing entomoepidemiological surveillance, ongoing house spraying with residual insecticides and the concurrent building and modification of rural houses in endemic areas during almost five decades. The original endemic areas which totaled 750,000 km(2), have been reduced to 365,000 km(2). During 1958-1968, initial entomological evaluations carried out showed that the house infestation index ranged between 60-80%, the house infection index at 8-11% and a house density index of 30-50 triatomine bugs per house. By 1990-98, these indexes were further reduced to 1.6-4.0%, 0.01-0.6% and 3-4 bugs per house respectively. The overall rural population seroprevalence has declined from 44.5% (95% C.I.: 43.4-45.3%) to 9.2% (95% C.I.: 9.0-9.4%) for successive grouped periods from 1958 to 1998. The annual blood donor prevalence is firmly established below 1%. The population at risk of infection has been estimated to be less than four million. Given that prevalence rates are stable and appropriate for public health programmes, consideration has been given to potential biases that may distort results such as: a) geographical differences in illness or longevity of patients; b) variations in levels of ascertainment; c) variations in diagnostic criteria; and d) variations in population structure, mainly due to appreciable population migration. The endemic areas with continuous transmission are now mainly confined to piedmonts, as well as patchy foci in higher mountainous ranges, where the exclusive vector is Rhodnius prolixus. There is also an unstable area, of which landscapes are made up of grasslands with scattered broad-leaved evergreen trees and costal plains, where transmission is very low and occasional outbreaks are reported.

  20. pobres y nuevas coaliciones en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Briggs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, los gobiernos locales junto con el gobierno nacional, crearon un sistema nacional de salud paralelo, Misión Barrio Adentro (MBA, ubicando a unos 33.000 profesionales de la salud, inicialmente cubanos, en vecindarios de bajos ingresos. A través de la etnografía y entrevistas, se concluye que MBA proporcionó acceso a la atención médica y logró obtener apoyo popular a consecuencia de: movimientos sociales de los pobres; cooperación entre trabajadores comunitarios, residentes, profesionales de salud y funcionarios públicos; la integración de la atención médica con programas sociales y económicos; la ubicación de médicos como residentes en barrios pobres; interacciones positivas y equitativas médico-paciente; el papel clave de los Comités de Salud; y el impacto de la hostilidad de la prensa, un segmento grande de los médicos venezolanos y la oposición en transformar a la salud en un tema político esencial. Todo esto nos sugiere que el Estado puede confrontar las inequidades de salud cuando se unen perspectivas teóricas de la medicina social y la epidemiología crítica con los saberes populares dentro de las comunidades afectadas. Estructuras institucionales flexibles, no burocráticas y creativas aumentan la efectividad de las intervenciones.

  1. Salinity gradient in the Manamo River, a dammed distributary of the Orinoco Delta, and its influence on the presence of Eichhornia crassipes and Paspalum repens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, E.; Colonnello, G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a saline gradient established by the damming of the Manamo River, a former freshwater environment, in the Orinoco Delta and the influence of this gradient on the distribution of Eichhornia crassipes Solms (water hyacinth), and Paspalum repens Berg, The two most abundant aquatic macrophytes. The present work demonstrates, on the basis of measurements of leaf osmolality and ion concentrations, that salinity is acting in the dammed river as a regulator of the studied species E. Crassipes is a potential weed which was originally controlled by the hydrodynamics of waters in the Orinoco River. Plants and river water were sampled in ten sites, three of them with high salinity. The osmolality as well as relative proportions of the main soluble ions explain the relative tolerance to salinity of E. Crassipes in comparison with P. Repens. In sites where both species were present, the K+/Na+ ratio in the leaf sap was higher in the E. Crassipes than in P. repens (authors)

  2. Venezuela: mudanças políticas na era Chávez Venezuela: political changes in the Chávez era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A VENEZUELA da época democrática, que se inicia em 1958, tem na emergência política de Hugo Chávez seu marco divisor do cenário político: pode-se, desta forma, apontar uma Venezuela democrática pré e pós-Chávez. Este ensaio analisa, pois, os fatores da mudança político-institucional venezuelana em quatro momentos: durante o auge e a queda do Pacto de Punto Fijo; o início do fenômeno chavista e suas características; a polarização social e política na Venezuela de Chávez; e, por fim, a Venezuela pós-referendo presidencial.THE DEMOCRATIC era in Venezuela dates from 1958. With the Hugo Chávez Administration, the nation is experiencing a true breach in its national political scene. Therefore it now becomes possible to identify a democratic Venezuela pre- and post-Chavez. This article tries to analyze the variables for political and institutional change in Venezuela in four specific moments: first, during the rise and fall of the Punto Fijo Pact; second, the building-up of the chavista phenomenon; third, the social and political polarization in Venezuela during Chavez Administration; and finally, Venezuela after the presidential referendum.

  3. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo-Pacheco, Johanna I.; Rös, Matthias; Escobar​, Federico; Castro-Lima, Francisco; Verdú, José R.; López Iborra, Germán M.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1) type (sw...

  4. ARQUITECTURA Y URBANISMO EN LAS REDUCCIONES Y HACIENDAS JESUÍTICAS EN LOS LLANOS DE CASANARE, META y ORINOCO, SIGLOS XVII-XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ MORA, FELIPE

    2014-01-01

    After the first independent missionary experience in the foothills of the main eastern mountain range, the Jesuit Province of the Kingdom of New Granada, based on a conception of a missionary policy and equipped with a geographic knowledge of the territory, obtained a clear definition of its evangelical project by the spatial conjunction of the Central Andean plateau with the lower region of Los Llanos of Casanare, Meta and the Orinoco, including the control of the great rivers in these...

  5. Primer registro de Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae para Venezuela First record of Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joany Mariño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Venezuela el aeolidaceo Dondice parguerensis Brandon y Cutress, 1985, parásito de los cnidarios Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 y Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774, hasta ahora sólo conocido de Puerto Rico, Panamá y Bermudas.The presence of the aeolidacean Dondice parguerensis Brandon and Cutress, 1985, parasite of the cnidaria Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 and Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774 is recorded for the first time in Venezuela. It was previously recorded in Puerto Rico, Panama and Bermuda.

  6. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  7. Study of renewable energies in Venezuela; Estudio del desarrollo de las energias alternativas en Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posso, F. R.

    2004-07-01

    It is study the feasibility of development of the alternative energies, AE, in Venezuela based on its potential of exploitation, the analysis of its energetic system, and the attitude of the State before the AE. The results indicate that the country has a high potential of AE, that the hidroenergy in great scale is the unique one with an important participation in the energy system, and that the solar energy and the eolic are those of greater possibility of development. However, an assembly of factors impede the development in firm of the AE, fundamentally related to its historic condition of producer and consumer of fuel fossil in great scale at low cost. It is concluded that only with a change of attitude of the State and the concourse of all the actors involved in the sector, the {sup c}lean energies{sup w}ould be able to have an important weight in the national energetic balance. (Author)

  8. East with the night: longitudinal migration of the Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata between Manú National Park, Peru and the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C Davenport

    Full Text Available We report on the intra-Amazonian migration of a pair of Orinoco Geese (Neochen jubata from Manú National Park, Peru. The species is Critically Endangered in Peru, so a major aim of the study was to aid conservation planning by learning the wet season location of the country's last known breeding population. We captured a breeding pair on October 27, 2010, and fitted the birds with Microwave Telemetry, Inc. GPS/Argos satellite PTT's. The pair migrated ∼655 km from Manú National Park to the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia (Dept. of Bení in a predominantly longitudinal migration, reaching their final destination on December 23, 2010. Major movements (>5 km per time period were almost exclusively at night and were undertaken with and without moonlight. Foraging areas used at stopovers in the Llanos de Moxos were remarkably limited, suggesting the importance of grazing lawns maintained by the geese and other herbivores, possibly including cattle. Orinoco Geese are resident in the Llanos de Moxos year-round, so the Manú geese represent a partial migration from the Bení region. We hypothesize that cavity nest limitation explains the partial migration of Orinoco Geese from the Llanos de Moxos.

  9. TRES NUEVAS ESPECIES DE Hyphessobrycon GRUPO heterorhabdus (TELEOSTEI: CHARACIFORMES: CHARACIDAE, Y CLAVE PARA ESPECIES DE LA CUENCA DEL RÍO ORINOCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen tres nuevas especies de Hyphessobrycon grupo heterorhabdus de lacuenca alta del río Orinoco, Orinoquia Colombiana. Hyphessobrycon mavro sp. n.se distingue de los otros Hyphessobrycon conocidos de la cuenca del Orinoco porpresentar 4 a 6 dientes en el maxilar, 17 dientes en el dentario, por la longitud del hocico9,9-15,2 % LC y la ausencia de ganchos en las aletas en machos. Hyphessobrycon nigersp. n. puede distinguirse por presentar nueve dientes en el dentario, cinco escamas conporos en la línea lateral, 25 a 26 escamas en la serie lateral del cuerpo, tres escamasentre la línea lateral y las aletas pélvicas, dos escamas entre la línea lateral y la aletaanal y una línea lateral oscura que se continua para unirse con una mancha peduncularconspicua. Hyphessobrycon acaciae sp. n. se diferencia por presentar 14 dientes en eldentario, cuatro radios simples en la aleta anal y ausencia de ganchos óseos en aletasde machos sexualmente maduros. Se incluye una clave taxonómica para las especiesde Hyphessobrycon grupo heterorhabdus presentes en la cuenca del Orinoco.

  10. East with the night: longitudinal migration of the Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) between Manú National Park, Peru and the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lisa C; Nole Bazán, Inés; Carlos Erazo, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    We report on the intra-Amazonian migration of a pair of Orinoco Geese (Neochen jubata) from Manú National Park, Peru. The species is Critically Endangered in Peru, so a major aim of the study was to aid conservation planning by learning the wet season location of the country's last known breeding population. We captured a breeding pair on October 27, 2010, and fitted the birds with Microwave Telemetry, Inc. GPS/Argos satellite PTT's. The pair migrated ∼655 km from Manú National Park to the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia (Dept. of Bení) in a predominantly longitudinal migration, reaching their final destination on December 23, 2010. Major movements (>5 km per time period) were almost exclusively at night and were undertaken with and without moonlight. Foraging areas used at stopovers in the Llanos de Moxos were remarkably limited, suggesting the importance of grazing lawns maintained by the geese and other herbivores, possibly including cattle. Orinoco Geese are resident in the Llanos de Moxos year-round, so the Manú geese represent a partial migration from the Bení region. We hypothesize that cavity nest limitation explains the partial migration of Orinoco Geese from the Llanos de Moxos.

  11. La rentabilidad del negocio azucarero en Venezuela. El caso de los precios y los productores del río Turbio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigala Venegas, Luis H.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of the sugar business, cane supply and the productivity of the sector have suffered reductions in Rio Turbio, Venezuela, during the last years. This is partly due to uncertainties on the future of the sector and to its decapitalization. Taking into account the country’s hard economic situation and inflation high rates, this article studies the performance of sugar prices as a factor affecting profitability. The analysis is focused on the adjusting -constant or actual- prices paid to the producers, with the aim of comparing the different «zafras» along the 1988-2001 period .

    Los rendimientos del negocio azucarero, la oferta de caña y su productividad se han reducido en los últimos años en Río Turbio, Venezuela, en parte debido a la incertidumbre sobre el futuro del sector y a su descapitalización. Teniendo en cuenta la difícil situación económica y los altos niveles de inflación que ha sufrido el país, este trabajo estudia el comportamiento de las cotizaciones del azúcar como factor que afecta a la rentabilidad de su cultivo. Para ello analizan los precios recibidos por los productores, ajustándolos a valores constantes o reales, con el fin de poder comparar las diferentes zafras del período 1988-2001.

  12. Taska teeb Venezuela seebi eesti moodi / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Produtsent Kristian Taska ostis ära Venezuela seebiooperi "Lorenzo naine", et valmistada Kanal Spordis näitamiseks Eesti oludele mugandatud "Kalevi naised" (lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar, osades Maria Avdjuško, Andrus Vaarik, Jan Uuspõld, Anne Reemann)

  13. Diversity of avian haemosporidians in arid zones of northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Nayara O; Rodríguez-Ferraro, Adriana; Braga, Erika M; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2012-07-01

    Arid zones of northern Venezuela are represented by isolated areas, important from an ornithological and ecological perspective due to the occurrence of restricted-range species of birds. We analysed the prevalence and molecular diversity of haemosporidian parasites of wild birds in this region by screening 527 individuals (11 families and 20 species) for parasite mitochondrial DNA. The overall prevalence of parasites was 41%, representing 17 mitochondrial lineages: 7 of Plasmodium and 10 of Haemoproteus. Two parasite lineages occurred in both the eastern and western regions infecting a single host species, Mimus gilvus. These lineages are also present throughout northern and central Venezuela in a variety of arid and mesic habitats. Some lineages found in this study in northern Venezuela have also been observed in different localities in the Americas, including the West Indies. In spite of the widespread distributions of some of the parasite lineages found in northern Venezuela, several, including some that are relatively common (e.g. Ven05 and Ven06), have not been reported from elsewhere. Additional studies are needed to characterize the host and geographical distribution of avian malaria parasite lineages, which will provide a better understanding of the influence of landscape, vector abundance and diversity, and host identity on haemosporidian parasite diversity and prevalence.

  14. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Venezuela a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Caraballo H.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in a 32 year old man is presented. The clinical picture included a rapid progressive dementia associated with ataxia, global aphasia, myoclonus and pyramidal signs, death ocurred after 13 months. The diagnosis of CJD was confirmed by CT and neuropathological studies. This is the first report of CJD occurring in Venezuela.

  15. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Maikell; Martínez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

  16. [Epidemiology of ophidism in Venezuela (1996-2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Bastouri-Carrasco, Jessica; Matos, Mercedes; Borges, Adolfo; Bónoli, Stefano; Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    The data of accidents caused by snakebites in Venezuela, registered at the morbidity statistics of the Direction of Epidemiology and Strategic Analysis of the Ministry of Health and Social Development were analyzed. During the years of 1996-2004, 53,792 snakebites were registered in Venezuela (5,976 cases average per year), with a higher incidence during the year 2004 (7,486 incidents). Zulia reported the highest frequency of all the states (5,975 cases); meanwhile the Midwestern region, constituted by Lara, Portuguesa, Falc6n and Yaracuy states, had a higher morbidity for snake bites. The highest incidence, distributed per states was registered in Cojedes, during the year 2001, with 228.72 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. When it was determined by regions, the highest incidence occurred during the year 2004 at los Llanos with 63.81 per 100,000 inhabitants. The median of the incidence rate for Venezuela during the period was of 21.46 accidents per 100,000 inhabitants. The classification of the endemic areas for ophidism, according to the percentiles 23, 50, 75 and 90, organized the country in: (a) states and regions of very high endemicity, (b) high endemicity, (c) middle, (d) low and (e) very low endemicity. These epidemiological data indicated that the accidents caused by snakes constitute a collective health problem in Venezuela.

  17. State-Led Education for Democratic Socialism: Venezuela's Education Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela's "Bolivarian Revolution" is conceptualised as an anti-neoliberal project that aims to promote fundamental changes in the configuration of political power via processes of state-grassroots collaboration. Central to this process is an emphasis on the key role of education in the development of a 21st Century socialism based on…

  18. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  19. Inmigracion ilegal y matricula general de extranjeros en Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Michelena A; Antequera R; Mota C

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on irregular migrants (mainly immigration from Colombia) and the General Register of Foreigners in Venezuela - covers immigration in the 1970s and its relationship to economic conditions, migration policy, and the legal aspects and institutional framework for registering and legalizing immigrants. Bibliography. Restricted.

  20. Illegal immigration and the general register of foreigners in Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Michelena A; Antequera R; Mota C

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on irregular migrants (mainly immigration from Colombia) and the General Register of Foreigners in Venezuela - covers immigration in the 1970s and its relationship to economic conditions, migration policy, and the legal aspects and institutional framework for registering and legalizing immigrants. Bibliography. Restricted.

  1. Reorganization and redimensioning of nuclear activities in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This paper is of a self-critical nature, beginning with a retrospective look at nuclear activities in Venezuela. An inventory of human resources, materials and existing techniques is also made. National nuclear policies and developments are examined pointing out failures and successes. Finally, conclusions are presented about the technical assistance received from international organizations in research, nuclear safety and technological development

  2. Use of nuclear techniques in agriculture in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez C, R.

    1984-01-01

    The agricultural activites being carried out so far in Venezuela are described. Failures and lessons learned from the induced mutation programme (sorghum and ajonjoli) are emphasized. Some of the results obtained with the use of isotopes in biological investigations with dairy and beef cattle and sheep are related. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Life and death in the city: Lessons from Venezuela | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-16

    Nov 16, 2016 ... ... compassion and solidarity in the cities of Venezuela — and the lessons that can be taken from their experience. Cities of Life and Death presents findings from research led by Laboratorio de Ciencias Sociales (LACSO) in four cities: Caracas, Ciudad Guayana, San Cristobal, and San Antonio del Táchira.

  4. Snakes from the Leeward Group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1940-01-01

    Dr. P. Wagenaar Hummelinck entrusted me with the study of the snakes, which he collected during his trips to the islands off the north coast of Venezuela, to the Venezuelan mainland, and to eastern Colombia. In the present paper the species collected by Dr. Hummelinck are listed with data on scale

  5. Frogs from the Leeward group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1948-01-01

    The present notes deal with a small collection of frogs that was made by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK during his visits to the islands of the Leeward Group, Venezuela and Eastern Colombia. I have included in this study the specimens of Pleurodema brachyops (Cope) already present in the Rijksmuseum van

  6. Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoppi de Roa, Evelyn

    1971-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio de las Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela. Presenta los resultados taxonómicos y de distribución de las especies recolectadas durante los años 1960 a 1962. Las muestras de plancton analizadas indicaron la presencia de 18 especies

  7. Escuela de psicología en Venezuela: estructura curricular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Vicentelli

    Full Text Available The paper is concerning to the academic formation of the psycho1ogist at Venezuela, studing the curriculum structure, taking in consideration the recommendations, suggestions and reflections presented in events that had influenced the teaching of Psychology and the action of the professional.

  8. Diet seasonality and food overlap in fishes of the upper Orituco stream, northern Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ortaz

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The diets of four diurnal fish species (Creagrutus bolivari, Knodus deuterodonoides, Knodus sp. and Poecilia reticulata were examined during a year in the Orituco stream at northern Venezuela. The fishes were sampled monthly from February 1991 to March 1992 (except October 1991 and February 1992 in the stream main channel with a beach seine and a cast net. Diet is reported as frequency of ocurrence and numeric proportion because variation in prey sizes was small. Non-parametric statistical tests were applied. A total of 18 distinct prey items were found in stomachs. The diet of these fishes consisted of aquatic insects (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, allochthonous plant matter (fragments of leaves and seeds, microalgae (Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyceae and terrestrial arthropods (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Arachnida. The low percentage of empty guts and the high fullness percentage of guts suggest that food was always abundant. Aquatic insects were more important in the dry season (November - April while plant matter and terrestrial arthropods increased in the wet season (May - October. The Proportional Similarity Measure (PS was high between characid species and low between characids and P. reticulata in the dry season. PS decreased during the wet season because of a reduction in aquatic insect consumption. The seasonal diet shift indicated the greater importance of allochthonous food only in the wet season.Se analizó la dieta de cuatro especies de peces (Creagrutus bolivari, Knodus deuterodonoides, Knodus sp. y Poecilia reticulata que habitan el río Orituco al norte de Venezuela. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente entre febrero de 1991 y marzo de 1992 (excepto octubre/91 y febrero/92. Los peces se recolectaron con chinchorro y atarraya en el canal principal del río. La dieta se expresó como frecuencia numérica y de ocurrencia y se analizó con pruebas estadísticas no param

  9. The Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlinde, J

    2010-10-18

    The ALTOS campaign focuses on operating a tethered observing system for routine in situ sampling of low-level (< 2 km) Arctic clouds. It has been a long-term hope to fly tethered systems at Barrow, Alaska, but it is clear that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will not permit in-cloud tether systems at Barrow, even if unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations are allowed in the future. We have provided the scientific rationale for long-term, routine in situ measurements of cloud and aerosol properties in the Arctic. The existing restricted air space at Oliktok offers an opportunity to do so.

  10. Feminicidios en la frontera chilena: el caso de Alto Hospicio

    OpenAIRE

    Ainhoa Vásquez Mejías

    2016-01-01

    Entre 1999 y el 2001, varias adolescentes desaparecieron en el norte de Chile y, posteriormente, fueron encontradas muertas. La novela Alto Hospicio (2008), de Rodrigo Ramos Bañados, recrea estos feminicidios desde la visión del cómplice del único inculpado por estos crímenes. En el presente artículo se plantea que el escritor utiliza la noción de frontera como aparato crítico, con el fin de desestabilizar barreras espaciales, simbólicas y textuales que se agrupan en cuatro ejes: Bolivia-Chil...

  11. EL DELTA INDÍGENA: LOS GUARAÚNOS DEL ORINOCO EN LA ETNOGRAFÍA DEL OBISPO TURRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ DÍAZ DIEGO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Typical of the positivist ethnographer from the beginnings of XX century, Ángel Turrado Moreno (1903-1961, missionary and bishop of Asso, had an essencialist vision of culture. For him, cultures had a lot of similar and comparable aspects which he tried tounderline: marriage, family, authorities, deities, etc. Though Turrado did not carry out a deep analysis of cultural productions, he made a considerable effort to register the dimensions of daily life of Orinoco´s guaraunos with notable ethnographic rigor. Despite of all their biases, these community studies are important documentary sources today to comprehend these societies. This article intends to summerize the material conditions of life, the social organization and the symbolic cosmovision of gauraunos using the work of this missionary, as well as to give ethnographic logic that is lacking in some parts of his text. Guarauno lexicon used here corresponds to the phonetic adjustments handled by Turrado.RESUMEN: Típico del etnógrafo positivista de principios del siglo XX, Ángel Turrado Moreno (1903-1961, misionero y obispo de Asso, mantuvo una visión esencialista de la cultura. Las culturas poseían para él una multitud de aspectos coincidentes y comparativos que se preocupaba de remarcar: matrimonio, familia, autoridades, deidades, etc. Aunque Turrado no llevó a cabo un profundo análisis de las producciones culturales, hizo un considerable esfuerzo por registrar, con notable rigor etnográfico, parte de la vida cotidiana de losguaraúnos del Orinoco. Estos estudios de comunidad, con todos sus sesgos, nos resultan hoy fuentes documentales de gran importancia para acercarnos a la comprensión de estas sociedades. Se pretende con este artículo dar un repaso por las condiciones materiales de vida,la organización social y la cosmovisión simbólica de los guaraúnos a través de los materiales de este misionero así como dar lógica etnográfica a algunas lagunas de su texto

  12. VENEZUELA EN EL PROCESO DE INCORPORACIÓN AL MERCOSUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani José Villalobos Soto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diversos han sido los esquemas de integración que han experimentado en sus prácticas los países de Latinoamérica, en su lucha por lograr una concentración de esfuerzos frentes a las vicisitudes en aras de alcanzar intereses comunes para la región. Esta investigación enfoca al MERCOSUR como un proceso de integración que busca la conformación de un mercado común por medio de la eliminación de barreras arancelarias y para arancelarias. En ese sentido el presente estudio considera la participación de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela como posible miembro pleno del bloque, también se analiza el escenario asimétrico que caracteriza a Venezuela para su ingreso al MERCOSUR, donde se destacan las asimetrías de Venezuela para con los países miembros del bloque sureño, considerando de esta forma los potenciales beneficios y costos que tendrá para Venezuela la inclusión real al conglomerado de países que integran el MERCOSUR. Se ha basado en un trabajo de tipo documental, donde se realiza un análisis sobre la inclusión de Venezuela al esquema integracionista. Como conclusión es importante destacar que el objetivo de MERCOSUR  se basa en crear una zona de libre comercio para beneficio de los países que integran América del Sur.

  13. Sistema de costos basado en actividades en hoteles cuatro estrellas del estado Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysela Coromoto Morillo Moreno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas actualmente demandan sistemas de costos que reporten un mayor detalle en la información generada, con el propósito de orientar la aplicación de estrategias que conduzcan a captar y apropiarse de mayores espacios de mercado, sobre todo cuando la competitividad es elevada; por ello, se formuló un sistema de costos basado en actividades, conocido por sus siglas en inglés como abc (Activity-Based Costing, aplicado a los hoteles de turismo de cuatro estrellas de Mérida, en Venezuela, para el control y reducción de costos en los servicios prestados. A partir de una investigación de carácter exploratorio, con un diseño de campo y con apoyo documental, se halló que el sector hotelero encuentra en el abc una oportunidad para afinar controles sobre los altos y variados costos en los que incurre a partir del conocimiento profundo de actividades consumidas, con sus medidas y frecuencia. De esta manera, se obtiene el costo real de los distintos servicios al vincularlos con las actividades desarrolladas para su obtención; finalmente, se sugiere un conjunto de variables que pudieran fungir como generadoras de valor e indicadoras de eficiencia. Se concluye que el abc representa una herramienta de gestión que orienta las decisiones estratégicas y el control de los costos con la consecuente reducción de los mismos para la maximización de beneficios.

  14. Seasonal Variability of Seawater Salinity and the Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Seawater in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, M. C.; Thunell, R. C.; Tappa, E. J.; Wright, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Monthly seawater oxygen isotope measurements (δ18Osw) were collected between May 1996- February 1997 and in May 2005 at various water depths in the Cariaco Basin, offshore Venezuela. The δ18Osw values are compared with concurrent salinity measurements to assess the δ18Osw:salinity relationship in this tropical region and to determine if there is significant seasonal variability in the relationship. The δ18Osw values range from 0.83‰ - 1.27‰ smow. The climatology of the region is driven by the seasonal migration of the ITCZ. During the winter and early spring, precipitation is low and upwelling is intense causing salinity to increase to ~37 psu. In contrast, during the Summer and early Fall when the ITCZ migrates to the north, upwelling ceases and precipitation increases causing surface salinities to decrease to ~36.2 psu. Preliminary results indicate that the strongest positive correlation between δ18Osw and salinity in the upper 400m occurred during May 2005 (R2= 0.93). However, the salinity:oxygen isotope relationship varies significantly over the course of the year. For example, the lightest δ18Osw values occurred during November 1996 possibly due to increased input of Orinoco River water into the Cariaco Basin. The relationships determined from our study will aid our understanding of paleosalinity variations in this region. Magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) ratios and the oxygen isotope composition (δ18Oc) were also measured in two surface dwelling planktonic foraminiferal species Globigerinoides ruber (white and pink variety) and Globigerina bulloides from bi-weekly sediment trap samples collected in the Cariaco Basin between 2003 and 2005. The Mg/Ca ratios range from 3.9-6.9 mmol/mol for G. ruber and 4.7-6.4mmol/mol for G. bulloides. The range in δ18Oc is 0.96‰ for G. ruber over ~5°C change in sea surface temperature (SST) and 0.50‰ for G. bulloides over ~2.5°C change in SST.

  15. Las cárceles y población reclusa en Venezuela Prisos and inmates population in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Posada

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la importancia de los asuntos penitenciarios, en América Latina existen pocos estudios comprensivos y recomendaciones regionales con relación a este contexto. En este trabajo se describen las características de las cárceles y los reclusos en Venezuela, información recopilada a través de revisión documental y en visitas realizadas desde 1998-2006 a diferentes penales venezolanos, en el marco de las Jornadas de Salud insertas en el Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, con el propósito de realizar un aporte que sirva como antecedente nacional y regional para la investigación en el ámbito penitenciario, que permita avanzar en el estudio de sus problemas y en la promoción e implementación de posibles soluciones.Despite the importance of prison issues in Latin America, there is little in the way of detailed local studies or recommendations on the subject. This article sets out to describe the situation concerning prisons and inmates in Venezuela. Data for this study was compiled from documentary sources and visits to a number of Venezuelan prisons from 1998 to 2006 as part of the Health Conference of the Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, (Central University of Venezuela Prison Program. The program’s aim was to make contributions towards research on the prison environment at national and regional levels that might serve as a precedent for further study of the problems and issues that exist, and promote and implement possible solutions.

  16. Can Venezuela's oil sector endure Chavez' ambitions any longer?; Kan Venezuela's oliesector Chavez' ambities nog langer dragen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkoop, J.

    2009-07-15

    The author describes the decline of Venezuela's oil industry as well as President Chavez' reaction to Venezuela's budgetary crisis. Politicization, falling investment and the obligation to take upon itself a plethora of social spending have left national oil company Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. unable to produce efficiently and maintain production levels. Falling oil production and lower oil prices have in turn left president Hugo Chavez unable to spread the wealth to Venezuela's poor and he is searching desperately for ways to extract yet more from Venezuela's dysfunctional economy. As funds run out, Venezuela's expensive foreign policy, supporting regional allies, in particular Cuba, and seeking to export anywhere but the United States, proves overly expensive. Venezuela's impoverished masses, still supportive of Chavez during February's elections, may become less so as funds for social programmes run out. For Chavez it is a time for making choices... otherwise the people of Venezuela will choose for him. [Dutch] De auteur beschrijft de teruggang van de olie-industrie van Venezuela en de reacties van president Chavez op de budgettaire crisis in Venezuela. Politisering, dalende investeringen en de verplichtingen m.b.t. de overvloed aan sociale uitgaven zorgen er voor dat de nationale oliemaatschappij Petroleos de Venezuela niet in staat is om efficient te produceren en de productie op peil te houden. Dalende olie-productie en lagere olieprijzen zorgen er ook voor dat de president niet in staat is om de rijkdom te verdelen over de armen in Venezuela. Hij is op zoek naar manieren om meer te halen uit de slecht functionerende economie. Zijn dure buitenlandse Venezuela beleid, onder meer door ondersteuning van regionale bondgenoten, in het bijzonder Cuba, en het zoeken naar export mogelijkheden, behalve naar de USA, pakt fiancieel gezien slecht uit. De verarmde massa's van Venezuela steunden Chavez nog in de verkiezingen in

  17. [The migrant family: subsistence strategies in Dominican families in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrealba, R

    1991-09-01

    This study of migration to Venezuela from the Dominican Republic used sociological and anthropological techniques to study fragmentation and regrouping of families before and after migration, family subsistence strategies, entry into the labor force, and mutual aid networks among migrants. A 44-item questionnaire was administered in 1987 to 50 heads of households born in the Dominican Republic and residing in Venezuela with their families for at least 1 year. The survey took place in metropolitan Caracas. Its findings were complemented by use of traditional participant-observation. 43 respondents were male and 7 were female. 30 were married, 1 divorced, 16 in consensual unions, and 2 widowed. Respondents' ages ranged from 26 to 57 years. 38 had resided permanently in their place of birth before migrating to Venezuela. 36 had lived in Venezuela for 5-10 years and 9 for 11-15 years. 39 stated that their principal reason for coming to Venezuela was to find employment. 36 entered on tourist visas, 11 on transient visas, and 2 with no documentation. 29 entered the country alone, 12 came with spouses, and 8 with most of their family group. Only 3 planned a future move within Venezuela. The migrants were of relatively low educational status. 16 had incomplete and 19 complete primary educations and 11 had some degree of secondary education. 41 were employed at the time of the survey, 5 were unemployed and 3 were temporarily disabled. 16.3% were vendors, 12.2% were office workers, 8.2% were transport workers, 8.2% were artisans or operators, 8.2% were in domestic service, and 12.2% were in other personal services. 22 worked in enterprises with fewer than 5 workers or were self-employed and only 6 worked in enterprises with 21 or more employees. 11 had had 3 jobs since their arrival, in Venezuela, 8 had had 4, and 25 had had 5 or more. 16 migrants had found their jobs through a direct search, 16 had obtained them through recommendations of friends or relatives, and 2 were

  18. Preparation of a 4D seismic acquisition program for steam chambers monitoring on Petrocedeno Field in the Venezuelan Orinoco belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaux, V.; Mus, M. [Petrocedeno, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); De Pellegars, O.; Hubans, C.; Yuh, S. [Total, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Venezuelan Orinoco belt is a huge heavy oil accumulation covering an area of about 55,000 km{sup 2}. An enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot project was launched in 2006 encompassing a 30 km{sup 2} area of the Petrocedeno field in the Zuata sector of the oil belt. The recovery performances of 3 different steam assisted recovery techniques were evaluated, notably steam drive (SD), steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), and horizontal alternating steam drive (HASD). The objective was to better understand the relation between steam chambers geometry and measured oil recovery and to proactively adjust the steam injection strategy if necessary. The Petrocedeno field consists of channelized sandy reservoirs that were deposited during the Miocene period above a stiff over-compacted basement from the Cretaceous and Cambrian ages. 3D seismic was identified as a key monitoring method to understand the development of the steam chambers. A thorough feasibility study based on numerical simulations and field tests was conducted to evaluate adequate seismic acquisition technology and parameters. The study concluded that the traditional and widely used acquisition methods based on dynamite and vibro-truck seismic sources cannot properly detect the steam chamber signal in the field because of reservoir depletion that has been induced by cold production. 2 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Factores de Eficacia Escolar en Venezuela / Factors of School Effectiveness in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Martínez-Garrido

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La línea de investigación sobre Eficacia Escolar aporta información sobre los factores de aula y escuela que promueven de forma duradera el desarrollo global de todos y cada uno de sus estudiantes más allá de lo que sería esperable teniendo en cuenta sus condiciones previas, al mismo tiempo que fomentan el desarrollo de la comunidad educativa (Murillo, 2007. El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar cuáles son los factores de Eficacia Escolar en Venezuela. Para dar respuesta a este objetivo, se lleva a cabo un estudio multinivel siguiendo el planteamiento de valor añadido, esto es, se considera cuál es la aportación de cada factor de eficacia descontando el efecto que generan las características personales, sociales previas del estudiante (nivel socioeconómico y cultural de la familia del estudiante, rendimiento previo, género…. El estudio se lleva a cabo con la información aportada por 362 estudiantes de 23 aulas de tercer curso de Primaria de 10 escuelas venezolanas. El análisis se realiza sobre 4 variables de producto (Rendimiento en Matemáticas y Lectura, Autoconcepto y Satisfacción hacia la escuela, 5 variables de ajuste y 37 variables explicativas. Para la recogida de la información se utilizaron pruebas de rendimiento, test de autoconcepto y cuestionarios a los profesores de la escuela y los estudiantes. Como método de análisis se utilizaron Modelos Multinivel con dos niveles de análisis (estudiante, escuela. Los resultados encontrados indican la existencia de 6 factores de eficacia escolar en Venezuela que demuestran hacer una aportación significativa al desarrollo cognitivo y socioafectivo de los estudiantes: Sentido de Comunidad, Clima de aula y escuela, Currículum de calidad, Dirección escolar, Participación de la comunidad escolar y Recursos. Los resultados de esta investigación han de considerarse como un insumo esencial en cualquier debate informado que busque mejorar la calidad y la equidad de

  20. Venezuela: oportunidades y amenazas de su inserción en el MERCOSUR

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se exploran las oportunidades y amenazas que surgen para Venezuela al fortalecer la integración económica con MERCOSUR. Se analiza la política comercial de Venezuela en contexto más general de su política exterior y de los resultados de la política económica. Se examinan los patrones de comercio de Venezuela con el MERCOSUR y sus tendencias recientes. Finalmente se pasa analizar algunas de las principales amenazas y oportunidades que surgen para Venezuela una vez que se firmó...

  1. Biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ah Reum; Park, Sung Ryeol; Park, Je Won; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-06-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028, bearing a deletion of the entire biosynthetic gene cluster encoding the pikromycin polyketide synthases and desosamine biosynthetic enzymes, was used as a bioconversion system for combinatorial biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin. Two engineered deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways for the biosynthesis of TDP-3-O-demethyl-D-chalcose or TDP-Lrhamnose in conjunction with the glycosyltransferaseauxiliary protein pair DesVII/DesVIII were expressed in a S. venezuelae YJ028 mutant strain. Supplementation of each mutant strain capable of producing TDP-3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose or TDP-L-rhamnose with tylosin aglycone tylactone resulted in the production of the 3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose, D-quinovose, or L-rhamnose-glycosylated tylactone.

  2. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  3. [A new species of Tityus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from Turimiquire, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Manzanilla, Jesús; Parrilla-Alvarez, Pedro

    2006-06-01

    We describe a new species of Buthid scorpion, Tityus quirogae, from the Turimiquire mountains, eastern side of the La Costa range, Monagas and Sucre States, Venezuela. It is morphologically similar to T. nematochirus and T. meridanus. It differs from these species in the distribution of the dorsal femoral trichobothria and in the following combination of characters: (1) I caudal segment with two parallel ventral keels. Caudal segments II to IV with ventral keels that are double in the extremes of the segments and single in the middle, (2) noticeable sexual dimorphism, especially in pedipalp shape; the male chelae are markedly thin and long, (3) number of pectineous teeth (male: 18 in each pecten; female: 18 in the right pecten and 19 in the left one), and (4) number of denticle rows in the movable finger of the right chela (16 in both sexes). T. quirogae is the first species of this genus, in the Northeastern region of Venezuela, with thin and elongated pedipalps.

  4. Assessing flooding patterns in LLanos of the Apure Region (Venezuela) using radar images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Smith, J.K.; Chacon Moreno, E.J.; Loedeman, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    In the flooding savannas of the Llanos del Orinoco water is the main factor determining the ecosystem and its changes. During flooding, the water level and flood duration depend highly on the relative height position of the ecosystem unit. To understand the spatial processes in the ecosystem it is

  5. Obreras y empresarias en el Periodo Romano Alto Imperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Fernández Uriel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de la situación laboral y las diferentes medios y trabajos de las mujeres en el contexto de la Roma alto Imperial, frente a la situación mentalidad tradicional femenina a través de la documentación que proporcionan las fuentes históricas. Se contempla su relación con la sociedad, su ámbito doméstico e incluso la posible repercusión que pudiera existir en la cultura y mentalidad de este momento histórico.Analysis of the labor situation and the different ways and works of women in the context of high Imperial Rome, facing the situation traditionally minded women through the documentation provided by historical sources. It sees its relationship with society, its domestic and even the possible impact that might exist in the culture and mentality of this historical moment.

  6. EL ALTO MAGDALENA- COLOMBIA DE LA MANO CON ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barragán-Alturo, Ancízar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El afán por destruir un paradigma, que mantiene encadenados a los habitantes de Girardot y la región, a una compañía de distribución de la energía eléctrica con sus altos precios para el kilowatt-hora, ha inspirado la investigación CUNDINAMARCA DE LA MANO DE LAS ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS, demostrando por diversos caminos que el montaje de paneles solares para generación de energía eléctrica en las cubiertas de las casas es la energía alternativa para la solución de diversos problemas, entre ellos: los costos elevados, las fluctuaciones de voltaje, los cortes de energía, los daños en los electrodomésticos

  7. Technical and scientific report of the Alto project

    CERN Document Server

    Essabaa, S; Grialou, D; Ibrahim, F; Le Scornet, J C

    2002-01-01

    The Alto project means the installation of an electron linear accelerator inside the experimental area of the tandem accelerator of the nuclear physics institute of Orsay (IPNO, France). This linear accelerator comes from CERN where it was operating as a pre-injector for LEP. This equipment will allow IPNO'teams to perform fast kinetics studies in a domain different from that of ELYSE accelerator. The time resolution will not be as high as that of ELYSE (picosecond) but will be sufficient (microsecond) to produce free radicals in aqueous and gaseous media. The main expectations of this installation can be classified according 3 axis: 1) basic research (mainly the study of nuclear matter through photo-fission, 2) research and development of accelerators (by providing a test bench for new high frequency systems and superconducting components), and 3) applied research for industry concerning: biochemistry under irradiation, radiation sensibility, DNA breaking, food and drug sterilization and behaviour of electro...

  8. Feminicidios en la frontera chilena: el caso de Alto Hospicio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Vásquez Mejías

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1999 y el 2001, varias adolescentes desaparecieron en el norte de Chile y, posteriormente, fueron encontradas muertas. La novela Alto Hospicio (2008, de Rodrigo Ramos Bañados, recrea estos feminicidios desde la visión del cómplice del único inculpado por estos crímenes. En el presente artículo se plantea que el escritor utiliza la noción de frontera como aparato crítico, con el fin de desestabilizar barreras espaciales, simbólicas y textuales que se agrupan en cuatro ejes: Bolivia-Chile, santas-putas, racionalidad-locura, ficción-realidad. Así, la novela cuestiona y deconstruye los límites para hablarnos de estos feminicidios desde un punto indeterminado, que funciona como espejo de la incertidumbre e irresolución de este caso en la justicia chilena.

  9. Misery Index corrected by informality: applicable to Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ramoni Perazzi, Josefa; Orlandoni Merli, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests a variation of the IMO index (Okun's Misery Index), adapting it to markets with these characteristics, adding the ESI level (Employment in the Informal Sector) to the unemployment level -- This research compares the evolution of several standard misery indexes in several zones during the last decades, with emphasis on the case of Venezuela, for which the new proposed index is also estimated -- Results show improvement in the well-being of groups of countries under study, c...

  10. [Recent evolution of natality and fertility in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M R

    1977-01-01

    Venezuela, like the majority of Latin American countries, has experienced an important decrease in fertility rate since 1960; it was 48/1000 in 1954, the highest level ever, but only 36.6/1000 in 1975. This phenomenon implies the intervention of new factors which affected birth rate. Birth underegistration in Venezuela has always been a problem; it has decreased from 8% in 1950, to 6% in 1971, but it is still necessary to make corrections in the observed birth rate to have a figure nearer to reality. Thus, while observed birth rate was 45.9/1000 in 1960, and 36.6 in 1975, the estimated birth rate was 47.7 and 38.1 in the same years. The computation of age-specific fertility rate shows an increase up to 1960, a stabilization between 1960 and 1967, and a progressive decrease after 1968. An interpretation of the recent evolution in birth and fertility rate must take into consideration the number of women exposed to the risk of pregnancy, the changes in rate of marriage, and especially the changes in reproductive behavior. Family planning programs have been available in Venezuela since 1963, and there are now about 150 clinics which provide contraceptive information and services. However, the female population covered by such programs is only 12%; this means that numerous women seek contraception outside of organized programs, and that, indeed, birth control precedes years of the diffusion of contraceptive methods. With an estimated birth rate of 38.1/1000 in 1975, Venezuela still has one of the highest natality rates in the world.

  11. The New Phase of Constitutional Struggle in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-21

    government corruption , and narcotrafficking, to name a few. In the con- text of Latin America more broadly, the opposition victory has been interpreted in...widespread corruption and poor governance in Venezuela, while others would presumably be attracted by the power and access to resources potentially...to the unfolding drama will also impact the outcome. With the loss of power of the Peronists in Argentina’s November 22, 2015 elections, the

  12. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Graduating in 1975 with a Military Arts and Science degree, Chavez entered service for a few months before starting a political science graduate degree...9254 (accessed 29 Dec 08). 95 Lupi, Juan Pablo and Vivas , Leonardo. “(Mis) Understanding Chavez and Venezuela in Times of Revolution.” The...Loveman, Brian. Addicted to Failure. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2006 Lupi, Juan Pablo and Vivas , Leonardo. “(Mis) Understanding

  13. When populism takes over the delivery of health care: Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Adequate and modern health care is not available in Venezuela at this moment. A humanitarian crisis of post war dimensions is currently rampant and afflicting all Venezuelans alike. The delivery and availability of cancer care is severely limited and inadequate. No funding is available as populist measures, mismanagement, pillaging, corruption, lack of forethought and expertise have brought the country into severe economic collapse and political turmoil.

  14. When populism takes over the delivery of health care: Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Daryanani, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Adequate and modern health care is not available in Venezuela at this moment. A humanitarian crisis of post war dimensions is currently rampant and afflicting all Venezuelans alike. The delivery and availability of cancer care is severely limited and inadequate. No funding is available as populist measures, mismanagement, pillaging, corruption, lack of forethought and expertise have brought the country into severe economic collapse and political turmoil.

  15. Two new Larainae species from Guayana region, Venezuela (Coleoptera: Elmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laššová, Kristína; Ciampor, Fedor; Ciamporová-Zaťovičová, Zuzana

    2014-01-06

    Two new species of the subfamily Larainae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Elmidae), Hexanchorus angeli n. sp. and Hypsilara autanai n. sp., are described from Guyana region in Venezuela. We provide habitus photographs, detail drawings of both male and female genitalia, and description of morphological features important for discrimination of the new species. Molecular differences within genera were measured using 816bp fragment of mtDNA gene for cytochrome oxidase c subunit I. Sequence divergences among species are discussed.

  16. Estados Unidos y Venezuela: Una relación necesaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Romero.

    2002-01-01

    The author identifies Hugo Chavez's electoral victory and the implementation of a new type of democracy as two factors that transformed Venezuelan foreign policy, and in particular, the bilateral relationship with the United States. Chavez's international activism, in addition to his Bolivarian policy signaled a shift from "safe partner" to "partner with reservations" in the country's relations with Washington. Although Venezuela considered itself a Latin American showcase in previous years, ...

  17. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-01-01

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families

  18. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1996-01-01

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10 ' to 23 deg 25 ' of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10 ' to 58 deg 00 ' , having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author)

  19. The Alto Moxoto Terrain in Eastern Paraiba ('Caldas Brandao Massif')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Benjamim Bley de Brito; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa; Souza, Solange Lucena de; Schmus, William Randall Van; Fernandes, Tania Maria Gomes

    2001-01-01

    The Alto Moxoto Terrane (TAM), at the east of Paraiba State is mostly composed of sheared ortho gneisses, porphyritic granodioritic gneisses and it bears an imbricated sheet of Al-rich (garnet-biotite-sillimanite) gneisses, deeply affected by migmatization phenomena. This litho-structural assemblage is drawing a regional asymmetric anti formal structure, with its axial zone running parallel to the B R-230 highway (E-W trending). It is limited in both, north (Alto Pajeu terrane) and south (Rio Capibaribe terrane) sides by important shear zones, which are feather faults connected with the development of the Pernambuco lineament, to the southwest. The adopted designation of 'terrane' is based upon its singular geological features, in terms of lithological and structural characteristics, Paleoproterozoic in age and sharp limits with the different confining terranes. TAM is here considered as a mega-fragment of the Atlantica Super continent, that was built up by the Paleoproterozoic Collage ('Transamazonian') and that was preserved in the framework of West Gondwana (Brasiliano/Pan African Collage) as a 'terrane'. This terrane shows conspicuous continuity to the far interior of the province, to the southwestern part of Pernambuco State, and so doing, it demonstrates that the former designation of 'Caldas Brandao Massif must be ruled out, as obsolete for many reasons. Geochronological determinations using Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and U-Pb methods confirm the Paleoproterozoic age of this terrane, with the presence of some Archean protoliths as well as the various degrees of structural reworking and isotopic reseting promoted by the Brasiliano Cycle. This cycle was responsible for some intrusive granites, for most of the general geological features, like usual informal limits and even the present shape of the TAM, a typical reworked 'basement inlier'. (author)

  20. Proyectos educativos: estudio comparativo entre Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineira Finol

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Educativo Integral Comunitario (PEIC y el Proyecto Educativo Institucional constituyen la categoría de comparación entre Venezuela y Colombia; a tal fin, este estudio de tipo comparativo-documental se centró en determinar congruencias y discrepancias entre PEIC y PEI, utilizando el método comparativo estructurado en cuatro fases: descripción, interpretación, yuxtaposición y comparación, propuesto por Hilker y Bereday (1972 Entre los resultados se tienen: congruencias en cuanto surgen sobre las bases de diagnóstico externos efectuados por organismos internacionales UNESCO, CEPAL ante la inefectividad y baja productividad de ambos países; a nivel interno responden a políticas educativas reformadoras de currículum y leyes,. Discrepancias referidas al tiempo de implementación; en Venezuela a partir de 1996; Colombia en 1992; este último, consolidó las bases para la participación a través del gobierno escolar y de un sistema de evaluación institucional, muy incipiente en Venezuela.

  1. Retrospectiva de la política universitaria en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez Rojas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es hacer una breve revisión histórica de la política universitaria en Venezuela. La política universitaria en Venezuela tiene como antecedente la Universidad Colonial, pero surge más concretamente a partir de la reforma de 1827. Las universidades son un ente fundamentalmente político. Las universidades no son solamente espacios para el adiestramiento y formación de los profesionales que requiere la nación. Las universidades reflejan a la sociedad a la que pertenecen. Cuando se refiere a la política universitaria venezolana estamos haciendo referencia a las políticas de los respectivos estados y gobiernos en relación al papel que debe jugar las universidades en el desenvolvimiento del país. Pretendemos responder a las preguntas: ¿cómo ha sido la relación entre los gobiernos y las universidades?, ¿Ha existido una política universitaria en Venezuela?, ¿Cómo han evolucionado los principios de equidad, democracia y autonomía en las universidades?, ¿Quién manda en las universidades?¿Qué y quiénes investigan?, ¿Cómo y quién mide la cal

  2. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women's breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women's breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela.

  3. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader.

  4. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.

  5. Geologic map of the Venezuela part of the Puerto Ayacucho 2 degrees x 3 degrees Quadrangle, Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Olmore, Steven D.; Mendoza, Vicente; García, Andrés; Rendon, Ines; Estanga, Yasmin; Rincon, Haydee; Martinez, Felix; Lugo, Elis; Rivero, Nelson; Schruben, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    This map is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale maps that, along with several other products, stems from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana, Tecnica Minera, C.A. (TECMIN), a Venezuelan Government-owned mining and mineral exploration company. The agreement covered cooperative work carried out in the Precambrian Shield of southern Venezuela during 1987-1991 and included a geologic and mineral resource inventory, technology transfer, and scientific training (Wynn and others, in press). The Precambrian Guayana Shield (Escudo de Guyana, not to be confused with the neighboring country of Guyana) includes some of the oldest known rocks in the world (Mendoza, 1977) and also covers parts of neighboring Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Columbia, and Brazil. In Venezuela, it underlies most of Bolivar state and all of the Amazonas Federal Territory (see index map).

  6. Imaginarios geográficos de la independencia. Periplos dorados entre los Andes, el océano y el Orinoco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Fuentes Crispín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes an attempt for reading the maritime and fluvial adventures' memoirs of some adventurers and mercenaries that were part of the feat of Independence next to Bolivar. This route allows us to show some liberation campaign enemies' notes, such as the military man Pablo Morillo, that offer an interesting geographical perspective. The reading of these memoirs makes it possible to rebuild some mystical ideas, as El Dorado — reference whereby this region was known during the colonial time—, and highlight the personal experience of narrators with the Orinoco river landscape and its rich connections.

  7. The impact of landscape transformation on the reinfestation rates of Rhodnius prolixus in the Orinoco Region, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovez, Juan M; Guhl, Felipe

    2015-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent responsible for Chagas disease, is widely distributed in the Americas in association to insect vectors and animal reservoirs. Triatomines are common vectors of Chagas disease and they vary in their distribution and affinity to human or sylvatic environments. Thus, control programs that include house spraying have been successful in regions were insects have a tendency to domiciliation. In the Orinoco region of Colombia, Rhodnius prolixus is the main vector presenting a stable sylvatic cycle, but is also found colonizing human dwellings. In 1997, health authorities developed a control program in the Department of Casanare spreading with insecticide houses in 667 localities. Infestation Indexes (I.I.) were calculated at the locality level before and after spraying. Times for re-infestation assessment varied between 1 and 67 months. Localities were classified into 3 groups according to their I.I. after spraying. Group 1 dropped their I.I. down to zero, Group 2 had a drop but remained positive and Group 3 increased its I.I. after spraying. We classified each group in terms of their land use characteristics before and after spraying based on satellite images obtained for the years 1997 (beginning of the study) and 2002 (end of program). We found that spraying significantly reduce the I.I. on average. However, we found that time after spraying does not produce significant differences in the I.I. Interestingly, land use changes and variations on I.I. after spraying for all groups were significantly dependent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics; Provincia alcalina Alto Paraguai: caracteristicas petrograficas, geoquimicas e geocronologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1996-12-31

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10{sup `}to 23 deg 25{sup `}of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10{sup `} to 58 deg 00{sup `}, having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio {sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author) 124 refs., 52 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for

  10. Nueva especie de Tityus (Scorpiones: Buthidae del Turimiquire, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo De Sousa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de la familia Buthidae, Tityus quirogae, del Macizo del Turimiquire en el tramo oriental de la Cordillera de La Costa en los Estados Monagas y Sucre, Venezuela. Es similar, morfológicamente, a T. nematochirus y T. meridanus. Se distingue de estas especies por la disposición de las tricobotrias dorsales del fémur y por presentar la siguiente combinación de características: (1 I Segmento caudal con dos carenas ventrales paralelas. Segmentos caudales II al IV con carenas ventrales dobles hacia el área proximal que convergen y se hacen únicas, para finalmente ser divergentes hacia la región distal, (2 marcado dimorfismo sexual, especialmente en la forma de los pedipalpos; las quelas en los machos son marcadamente delgadas y largas, (3 número de dientes pectíneos (macho: 18 derechos y 18 izquierdos y hembra: 18 derechos y 19 izquierdos, (4 número de hileras de dentículos del dedo móvil de la mano derecha (macho 16 y hembra 16. T. quirogae es la primera especie del género con pedipalpos delgados y alargados para la región nororiental de Venezuela.A new species of Tityus (Scorpiones: Buthidae from Turimiquire, Venezuela. We describe a new species of Buthid scorpion, Tityus quirogae, from the Turimiquire mountains, eastern side of the La Costa range, Monagas and Sucre States, Venezuela. It is morphologically similar to T. nematochirus and T. meridanus. It differs from these species in the distribution of the dorsal femoral trichobothria and in the following combination of characters: (1 I caudal segment with two parallel ventral keels. Caudal segments II to IV with ventral keels that are double in the extremes of the segments and single in the middle, (2 noticeable sexual dimorphism, especially in pedipalp shape; the male chelae are markedly thin and long, (3 number of pectineous teeth (male: 18 in each pecten; female: 18 in the right pecten and 19 in the left one, and (4 number of denticle rows in the

  11. Bird diversity and conservation of Alto Balsas (Southwestern Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Ramírez-Albores

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the composition of the bird community in Alto Balsas (southwestern Puebla, Central Mexico is needed for management programs aiming at protection and conservation of bird species and their habitats I studied sites with tropical deciduous forest. Data were obtained during 1666 hours of field work in 238 days from March 1998 to September 2000. Six permanent transect (3.5 km long and 100 m wide; 30 to 40 ha in each transect were used to determine species richness in the study sites. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for each site and Sorensen’s index was used to assess similarity between sites. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between sites in species richness and diversity values. A total of 128 species were recorded, Tepexco (n = 75, H´= 3.76 and Puente Márquez (n = 61, H´= 3.62 were the sites that showed the greatest specific richness and diversity. However, species richness and diversity seasonally patterns were similar among sites (ANOVA p > 0.05, with highest diversity during the rainy season. Most species were resident; 42 were migrants. The avifauna was represented by 30 species associated with tropical deciduous forest and 12 from open habitats or heavily altered habitats. Insectivores were the best represented trophic category, followed by carnivores and omnivores. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 287-300. Epub 2007 March. 31.Este estudio describe la diversidad avifaunística en sitios del Alto Balsas (suroeste de Puebla en el Centro de México y examina la variación en la diversidad de las especies de aves. El estudio fue llevado a cabo en sitios con presencia de bosque tropical caducifolio. Los datos fueron obtenidos durante 1666 horas de trabajo de campo en 238 días de Marzo 1998 a Septiembre 2000. Se realizaron seis transectos permanentes (de 3.5 km de longitud y 100 m de ancho; de 30 a 40 ha en cada transecto para determinar la riqueza de especies en los sitios de estudio. Se

  12. 78 FR 60846 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... International Trade Administration Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping... a sunset review of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and...

  13. The Crisis of Civil-Military Relations in Venezuela: Testing Rational Choice, Cultural, and Institutional Theories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cortes, Jose

    1999-01-01

    ... and any increase in the presence of the armed forces in the political and economic arena is the result of civilians' request. The armed forces of Venezuela have not sought to tilt the balance of power in their favor. In addition, the thesis addresses how well each of the three major approaches of comparative politics to explain the Venezuela situation.

  14. Using the Five Themes of Geography To Teach about Venezuela and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Christensen, Lois

    Activities that employ the five themes of geography--location, place, relationships within places, movement, and regions--to teach about Venezuela and Mexico are described in this document. Each theme has objectives, a list of materials, and three types of activities--exploration, invention, and expansion. Background information on Venezuela and…

  15. Development of Next Generation Synthetic Biology Tools for Use in Streptomyces venezuelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelan, Ryan M.; Sachs, Daniel; Petkiewicz, Shayne J.

    2017-01-01

    precludes rapid and predictable metabolic engineering that is possible in hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to improve genetic tools for Streptomyces venezuelae, we developed a suite of standardized, orthogonal integration vectors and an improved method to monitor...... expression system. These tools advance S. venezuelae to be a practical host for future metabolic engineering efforts....

  16. The FARC and Hugo Chavez: Is Contemporary Venezuela a Threat to Colombia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    presence (representation) in Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, Ecuador, Peru , Bolivia, Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, Panama, Nicaragua, Brazil, Spain, France...Caribbean Bloc. 60 Simon Bolivar was the Liberator (Libertador) of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador. 26 • Supporting agrarian reform against...Mindefensa (Accessed July 28, 2010), 4. 96 “ Presidente Chavez pide a guerrilleros Colombianos liberar secuestrados,” El Pais, August 8, 2010, http

  17. Venezuela loodab tüürida Kuuba saatust / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez soovib üle võtte Fidel Castro rolli võitluses USA ülemvõimu vastu. Venezuela odava nafta tähtsus Kuuba majandusele. Vt. samas: Kuuba nafta õõnestab USA embargot

  18. South America's energy integration overshadows Venezuela-US confrontational posture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrantes, Dayse

    2006-07-01

    Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration.

  19. Dengue in Venezuela : A study on viral transmission, risk factors and clinical disease presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is wereldwijd de belangrijkste door muggen overgedragen ziekte. In Venezuela komen regelmatig epidemieën van toenemende omvang voor. In het onderzoek beschreven in dit proefschrift werden ongeveer 2000 personen uit drie wijken in Maracay, Venezuela, bestudeerd middels een prospectieve

  20. Observing Carbon Dioxide Fluxes on a Corn Field and a Native Savanna in the Colombian Orinoco River Region Using Eddy Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Rodríguez, N.

    2016-12-01

    The Orinoco River basin is expected to become Colombia's largest farming belt in the near future. Agriculture and land use change are the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) source in Colombia and one of the most important globally. At the same time, agriculture is one of the few economic sectors that is also able to act as a sink, e.g. through soil carbon storage. Emissions are largely determined by agricultural practices, thus practice identification and C flux monitoring are of paramount importance for mitigation alternative identification. During second semester of 2015, we measured CO2 fluxes over a commercial corn filed the Colombian Orinoco River Region using enclosed-path eddy covariance. The plot behaved as a CO2 sink during crop development. We found that inter-crop activities played a key role in defining whether the area acted as a net source or sink. Quantifying C fluxes at under local soil and meteorological conditions provides new high quality scientific information, which could be incorporated into a wider evaluation of agroindustry process, e.g. through the C footprint. We will also present ongoing carbon flux measurements in a native savanna and will discuss on the possibility of extrapolating our result to wider areas using process based models.

  1. Delimiting Evolutionarily Significant Units of the Fish, Piaractus brachypomus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae), from the Orinoco and Amazon River Basins with Insight on Routes of Historical Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Maria Doris; Andrade-López, Juana; Farias, Izeni P; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater fish Piaractus brachypomus is an economically important for human consumption both in commercial fisheries and aquaculture in all South American countries where it occurs. In recent years the species has decreased in abundance due to heavy fishing pressure. The species occurs in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, but lack of meristic differences between fishes from the 2 basins, and extensive migration associated with reproduction, have resulted in P. brachypomus being considered a single panmictic species. Analysis of 7 nuclear microsatellites, mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and COI), and body shape variables demonstrated that each river basin is populated by a distinct evolutionarily significant unit (ESU); the 2 groups had an average COI divergence of 3.5% and differed in body depth and relative head length. Historical connection between the 2 basins most probably occurred via the Rupununi portal rather than via the Casiquiare canal. The 2 ESUs will require independent fishery management, and translocation of fisheries stocks between basins should be avoided to prevent loss of local adaptations or extinction associated with outbreeding depression. Introductions of fishes from the Orinoco basin into the Putumayo River basin, an Amazon basin drainage, and evidence of hybridization between the 2 ESUs have already been detected. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Massive hard coral loss after a severe bleaching event in 2010 at Los Roques, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bastidas

    2012-03-01

    , quedando pocos arrecifes exentos de eventos masivos de blanqueamiento (EMB. En el Parque Nacional Los Roques, Venezuela, un archipiélago poco afectado previamente por EMB, la temperatura del agua a 5m de profundidad alcanzó 30,85°C en septiembre 2010, y fue >29,0°C entre mediados de agosto y la primera semana de noviembre en cuatro arrecifes. El 72% de 563 colonias de escleractinios estaban blanqueadas o pálidas para octubre de 2010, mientras que para febrero 2011, el 46% de las colonias aún estaban afectadas. Para febrero 2011, la cobertura béntica coralina promedio disminuyó de 45 a 31%. Además, los arrecifes mostraron una alta prevalencia (de hasta 16% de enfermedad de banda negra en Octubre 2010, y de plaga blanca (11% en Febrero 2011. Como consecuencia, es probable que la mortalidad coralina resulte mayor a la reportada acá. Sin embargo, Los Roques es poco afectado por perturbaciones antropogénicas y cuenta con un alto reclutamiento de corales, lo cual podría contribuir a su recuperación

  3. Caracteristicas morfologicas y cristalograficas del grafito de Osumita, Venezuela, y su uso como geotermometro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A morphologic, petrographic and crystallographic study was performed in some representative samples of disseminated graphite of the Cerro Osumita, Cojedes State, Venezuela with the aim of establishing the degree of mineral crystallinity (graphitization and the highest temperature reached by the rock. From the original rock (La Aguadita quartz-feldespatic-graphitic Gneiss, fractions enriched in graphite were obtained by means of leaching with HCI-HF and physical procedures (flotation and accumulation in liquid interfaces. The isolated graphite was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction, whereas morphology was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM. The mineralogical association exhibited by the gneiss (quartz- oligoclase- hornblende (green- microcline - chlorite- biotite- epidote allows establishing the metamorphism of the rock in the upper zone of the green schist facies, in the biotite zone. Graphite grains present aspect of flakes, with a concentration oscillating between 7 and 10% in weight. The used enrichment process allowed obtaining fractions with more than 92% in graphi- te. Under Scanning Electronic Microscopy, graphite samples showed morphology dominantly as sheets, very well defined and ordered. The crystallinity index (measured by XRD is around 58 and 60, with a mean graphitization degree of 60, suggesting a high order in the crystalline net. The higher temperature reached by the rock, according to the graphitization degree, is of 472 f 27 "C.Muestras representativas del grafito diseminado del Cerro Osumita, Estado Cojedes, Venezuela, fueron objeto de un estudio morfológico, petrográfico y cristalográfico, con el fin de establecer el grado de cristalinidad del mineral y la temperatura máxima alcanzada por la roca. A partir de la roca original (gneis cuarzo feldespático grafitoso de La Aguadita se obtuvieron las fracciones enriquecidas en grafito mediante una combinación de ataque químico (HCI-HF y físico (flotación y

  4. Evaluating Sustainability: Limits and Possibilities in Alto Douro Vinhateiro, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Alto Douro Wine Region, located in North of Portugal, is one of the most important portuguese wine regions. In last decades, it has faced serious difficulties, common to many rural areas of the country and around the world. Problems such as aging and population loss, low economic, social and cultural density, low literacy, difficulties in the wine sector, poor associative movement, lack of common strategies among regional municipalities, and institutional difficulties, among others, affect its development and suggest that the region may not be managed in a sustainable way. Facing this scenario, a methodology to assess regional sustainability was developed. 76 indicators were used, grouped into 23 aspects and 5 dimensions. From this evaluation, a regional value was obtained which translates the regional situation relating to sustainable development. In a 0 to 100 scale, the region received a score of 57.14 points, showing that sustainability, if implemented as a regional strategy, could be highly benefic to regional improvement.

  5. Technical and scientific report of the Alto project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essabaa, S.; Gardes, D.; Grialou, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Le Scornet, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Alto project means the installation of an electron linear accelerator inside the experimental area of the tandem accelerator of the nuclear physics institute of Orsay (IPNO, France). This linear accelerator comes from CERN where it was operating as a pre-injector for LEP. This equipment will allow IPNO'teams to perform fast kinetics studies in a domain different from that of ELYSE accelerator. The time resolution will not be as high as that of ELYSE (picosecond) but will be sufficient (microsecond) to produce free radicals in aqueous and gaseous media. The main expectations of this installation can be classified according 3 axis: 1) basic research (mainly the study of nuclear matter through photo-fission, 2) research and development of accelerators (by providing a test bench for new high frequency systems and superconducting components), and 3) applied research for industry concerning: biochemistry under irradiation, radiation sensibility, DNA breaking, food and drug sterilization and behaviour of electronic components under irradiation. This rapport details the research program that could be achieved with this equipment, describes its contributions in terms of economic development, cooperation with industry, student training, and specifies the needed investment and the operating and maintenance costs. (A.C.)

  6. Bird diversity and conservation of Alto Balsas (southwestern Puebla), Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Albores, Jorge E

    2007-03-01

    Knowledge of the composition of the bird community in Alto Balsas (southwestern Puebla, Central Mexico) is needed for management programs aiming at protection and conservation of bird species and their habitats I studied sites with tropical deciduous forest. Data were obtained during 1666 hours of field work in 238 days from March 1998 to September 2000. Six permanent transect (3.5 km long and 100 m wide; 30 to 40 ha in each transect) were used to determine species richness in the study sites. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for each site and Sorensen's index was used to assess similarity between sites. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between sites in species richness and diversity values. A total of 128 species were recorded, Tepexco (n=75, H' = 3.76) and Puente Márquez (n=61, H' = 3.62) were the sites that showed the greatest specific richness and diversity. However, species richness and diversity seasonally patterns were similar among sites (ANOVA p > 0.05), with highest diversity during the rainy season. Most species were resident; 42 were migrants. The avifauna was represented by 30 species associated with tropical deciduous forest and 12 from open habitats or heavily altered habitats. Insectivores were the best represented trophic category, followed by carnivores and omnivores.

  7. Un centro ceremonial formativo en el Alto Piura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    estilos diversos, cuya evolución temporal se puede seguir, tanto del punto de vista de las formas y técnicas decorativas como de la iconografía, abundante y diversificada. Estos datos, nuevos para la región, así como el análisis comparativo de los vestigios materiales, comprueban la existencia de contactos y relaciones con las demás zonas cercanas y particularmente la integración del Alto Piura a los sistemas ideológicos y religiosos más sureños. La implantación del sitio podría estar ligada a su ubicación geográfica, en el cruce de una vía de intercambio entre poblaciones costeras, andinas y selváticas, y de un camino norte-sur facilitando los contactos entre la costa norte peruana y la costa y los Andes ecuatorianos. Su ocupación parece testimoniar una situación original -caracterizada por la presencia de representantes de varias tradiciones culturales- que se mantendrá e igualmente singularizará este sector del Alto Piura durante las épocas posteriores. Research carried out since 1986 on the archaeological site of Cerro Ñañañique (Chulucanas, department of Piura has allowed the identification and description of a ceremonial complex, built and occupied between the Xth and the Vth centuries B.C.. Several phases of edification and widening of the complex have been recognized according to a general U shape plan. Several ceramic traditions of various styles and origins can be found contemporarily on the site, and their temporal evolution can be identified and followed from these points of view: forms, decorative techniques and iconography which is abundant and diverse. The data, new for this study area, and the comparative analysis of material remains demonstrate the existence of relations with nearby zones and, particularly, the integration of Alto Piura in Southern ideological and religious systems. The establishment of the site might be related to its geographic location, at the crossing of an exchange route between coastal, andean and amazonian

  8. Ventaja de jugar en casa en voleibol de alto rendimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Marcelino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se ha pretendido estudiar la ventaja en casa en el Voleibol de alto rendimiento, apoyándonos en las estadísticas de los partidos que más pueden explicar ese fenómeno. Se han analizado 65.949 acciones de juego seleccionadas de la Liga Mundial 2005. El instrumento de observación que se ha elaborado es una combinación de formato de campo con sistemas de categorías. Los datos se han obtenido mediante el "Volleyball Information System" y se han analizado mediante la prueba t de Student, y la prueba ji-cuadrado. Los resultados demuestran que hay ventaja en casa en Voleibol (57,5% de victorias jugando en casa. Las estadísticas del ataque (t= 2.49, p = 0.01, del servicio (t= -2.18, p= 0.03, de la recepción (t= 16.74, p<0.001 y de la distribución (t= 2.03, p= 0.04 muestran rendimientos superiores para los equipos que juegan en casa. No se han encontrado diferencias en el rendimiento del bloqueo (t= -0.25, p= 0.80 y la defensa (t= 0.11, p= 0.92 entre los juegos disputados en casa y los disputados fuera.

  9. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  10. Gross alpha radioactivity of drinking water in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Gomez, J.; Greaves, E.D.; Herrera, O.; Salazar, V.; Smith, A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottled mineral water is consumed by a large population in Venezuela. The alpha emitters concentration was measured in samples of bottled water and water springs collected near the surface. Approximately 30% of the total mineral water suppliers was monitored. a database on natural and artificial radioactivity in drinking water was produced. Results indicate that 54% of the waters sampled contain a total alpha radioactivity of less than 0.185 Bql -1 and only 12% above 0.37 Bql -1 . Our results revealed a total annual dose of 2.3 mSv year -1 . (author)

  11. Neutron Activation Analysis of Pre-Columbian Pottery in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L; Antczak, Ma M Mackowiak de; Kasztovszky, Zs; Greaves, E D; Antczak, A; Simonits, A; Palacios, D; Millan, B

    2006-01-01

    Pre-Hispanic pottery figurines from north-central Venezuela islands and mainland were analysed by neutron activation analysis (INAA and PGAA) at the Budapest Research to establish their provenience. In order to classify the samples of figurines, characteristic molecular and atomic components were determined. Several mass ratios were calculated for significant classification of the object of two origins. Results shed light on the origin of island figurines and suggest specific areas of their production on the mainland, contributing to better understanding of late pre-Hispanic migration patterns in the southeastern Caribbean region

  12. Neutron Activation Analysis of Pre-Columbian Pottery in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó-Bohus, L.; Mackowiak de Antczak, Ma M.; Kasztovszky, Zs; Greaves, E. D.; Antczak, A.; Simonits, A.; Palacios, D.; Millan, B.

    2006-05-01

    Pre-Hispanic pottery figurines from north-central Venezuela islands and mainland were analysed by neutron activation analysis (INAA and PGAA) at the Budapest Research to establish their provenience. In order to classify the samples of figurines, characteristic molecular and atomic components were determined. Several mass ratios were calculated for significant classification of the object of two origins. Results shed light on the origin of island figurines and suggest specific areas of their production on the mainland, contributing to better understanding of late pre-Hispanic migration patterns in the southeastern Caribbean region.

  13. Dimensiones de Personalidad de Marca. Estudio exploratorio en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Pirela Saavedra; Héctor Andrés Villavicencio San Martín; José Luis Saavedra Torres

    2004-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo explorar el modelo de Personalidad de Marca en Venezuela, a través del estudio propuesto por Aaker (1997) de los rasgos de personalidad, utilizando los centros comerciales como producto de referencia. La investigación de tipo exploratorio adoptó un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. La muestra resultó de ciento sesenta y ocho personas (168) entre encuestas auto suministradas y vía correo electrónico. En el procesamiento de los datos se aplicó...

  14. Lessons Learned by Venezuela Fighting in Low Intensity Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-05

    Ejercito, November 1979. D’Jesus R., Domingo, Lieutenant Colonel. Ensenanzas Derivadas de los Encuentros Armados Durante la Lucha Anti-Guerrillera en la ...17ehi3-5135ý • I SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE o#No.o0 ola la . REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS...IjireA) B a r m a C o u d r i a J o0 APPENDIX II GUERRILLA AREAS IN VENEZUELA, 1960-1970 Punio NET 14RANDSGRENADAJl La Asuncion TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Mora

  15. BYTTNERIA CARIPENSIS (STERCULIACEAE UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Cristóbal

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Byttneria caripensis Cristóbal (sección Crassipetala de Edo. Bolívar, Venezuela se describe como nueva. Se estudia también la anatomía de los nectarios de la hoja y la venación menor. El tamaño y la forma muy peculiar de la cavidad glandular de los nectarios multiaperturados están estresados. Se presentan dos ilustraciones.

  16. Venezuela No. 1 oil import source in S. America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darukhanavala, P.P.; Davidson, M.C.; Tyler, T.N.; Blaskovich, F.T.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that with the exception of Venezuela, the U.S. is likely to import much oil from South American countries through 2010, the General Accounting Office reports. GAO, a congressional watchdog agency, noted the U.S. imports about 4% of its oil from Colombia, Ecuador, and Trinidad and Tobago and possibly could import from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Peru in the future. It the the eight countries' crude oil reserves are expected to increase about 30% by 2000, then slide about 2% by 2010. Their oil production is expected to climb about 21% over 1990 by 2000, then level off until 2010

  17. CURRENT SPACE PROJECTS OF THE BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hernández; R. Acevedo; F. Varela; S. Otero

    2014-01-01

    A partir del a ̃o 2008, con el lanzamiento exitoso del primer sat ́lite venezolano de telecomunicaciones, sat ́lite n e e VENESAT-1, la Rep ́blica Bolivariana de Venezuela pasa a formar parte del grupo de pa ́ u ıses que a nivel internacional utilizan activamente la ciencia y la tecnolog ́ espacial como una herramienta para promover el ıa desarrollo nacional. Sobre esa base, a trav ́s de la Agencia Bolivariana para Actividades Espaciales (ABAE), se e ha impulsado la ejecuci ́n de diversos pro...

  18. Venezuela: un caso de inflación mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Risquez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el fenómeno inflacionario venezolano reciente, caracterizado como un caso de “inflación moderada”. En él se relaciona esta situación con el problema de la debilidad institucional, el déficit de credibilidad de las autoridades, lo cual ha llevado a un importante uso del impuesto inflacionario como mecanismo de financiamiento del gasto público. Así mismo se señala el papel desempeñado por la inercia en la permanencia de la inestabilidad de los precios en Venezuela.

  19. Challenging the norm? International election accompaniment in Nicaragua and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley MCCONNEL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available International election monitoring has been touted as a regional norm in the Western hemisphere, but recent reforms in Venezuela and Nicaragua substituted a diminished international role of electoral accompaniment. This article traces the initial acceptance and later limitation of international election monitoring in those countries to explore whether the change constitutes norm localization or norm defection. It concludes that the norm is not as well institutionalized in the hemisphere as conventionally thought, and that models need to assess together national and international monitoring capacities.

  20. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held

  1. Actividades rutinarias y cibervictimización en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Oduber; Endira Mora; Juan Antonio Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    El ciberdelito ha aumentado significativamente a nivel mundial en estas últimas décadas. En tal sentido, la investigación sobre este fenómeno en Venezuela ha sido escasa, específicamente en lo que respecta a los factores asociados con la victimización en línea. En consecuencia, este estudio busca promover el análisis de los condicionantes del delito y la victimización en línea en la región. Para ello, se investiga un conjunto de variables derivadas de la Teoría de las actividades rutinarias. ...

  2. Actividades rutinarias y cibervictimización en Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Oduber, Jesús; Mora, Endira

    2017-01-01

    El ciberdelito ha aumentado significativamente a nivel mundial en estas últimas décadas. En tal sentido, la investigación sobre este fenómeno en Venezuela ha sido escasa, específicamente en lo que respecta a los factores asociados con la victimización en línea. En consecuencia, este estudio busca promover el análisis de los condicionantes del delito y la victimización en línea en la región. Para ello, se investiga un conjunto de variables derivadas de la Teoría de las actividades rutinarias. ...

  3. Uranium exploration in Venezuela: Situation at the end of 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, J.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium exploration started in Venezuela in 1951. The activities began with enthusiasm but interest waned because of the unfavourable economic conditions of the uranium market. In 1975, with the establishment of the National Council for the Development of the Nuclear Industry, emphasis was once again placed on exploration for radioactive minerals. Systematic exploration began 18 months ago, and so far exploratory targets have been found in phosphate rocks in Tachira state and in Palaeozoic granites at El Baul (Cojedes state); very favourable occurrences have been encountered in the Precambrian in Merida and Bolivar states, and in continental Tertiary rocks in Trujillo state. (author)

  4. Stability and spatio-temporal structure in fish assemblages of two floodplain lagoons of the lower Orinoco River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirson González

    Full Text Available Fish assemblage structure and variability were analyzed in two floodplain lagoons (Las Arhuacas and Los Cardonales along the lower Orinoco over a hydrological cycle. Every three months during continuous three-day sampling, experimental gill nets (5 to 12.5 cm of mesh opening and 1 mm-mesh seine nets were utilized according to the types of habitats presents. A total of 133 fish species were found in Las Arhuacas and 95 species in Cardonales. Fifty five and 17 species were exclusive to Las Arhuacas and Los Cardonales respectively, and 77 were common to both lagoons. In Las Arhuacas, the most speciesrich orders were Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes and Gymnotiformes and in Los Cardonales, the most species-rich orders were Characiformes, Siluriformes, Clupeiformes and Perciformes. The richness, abundance and biomass were significantly higher (p < 0.001 in Arhuacas than in Cardonales. In general, the fishes assemblage was highly variable during the high water phase and moderately stable during low water phase in both lagoons, with more stability or less variability in Cardonales than Arhuacas. Also, there were significant differences in the fish assemblages between the two lagoons, mainly during low waters (ANOSIM; p < 0.001. The species that contributed most to the mean dissimilarity between the lagoons were Hypostomus argus, Aphanotorulus ammophilus, Potamorhina altamazonica, Prochilodus mariae, Loricaria gr. cataphracta, Oxydoras sifontesi, Hydrolycus armatus, Hyphopthalmus edentatus and Pterodoras rivasi. The last four species were more commonly collected in Los Cardonales. Also, the species of small size (mainly SL < 5 cm such as Rhinosardinia amazonica, Moenkhausia sp. 1 "lepidura", Moenkhausia sp. 2, Aphyocharax alburnus, Characidium sp. 1, Moenkhausia sp. 3, Exodon paradoxus and Roeboides dientonito contributed to the mean dissimilarity among the beach and aquatic vegetation habitats. The patterns of the species assemblage

  5. [Food and reproductive biology of Farlowella vittata (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) in Güejar River Basin, Orinoco, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alzate, Carlos A; Román-Valencia, César; Barrero, Ana M

    2012-12-01

    Neotropical fish live in streams with considerable spatial and temporal variability of their food items. Food availability depends on different factors such as discharge, channel morphology, physicochemical conditions and interactions with other species, as well as their food habits. On the other side, good food availability results in reproductive success. Because the study of those changes contributes to a better understanding of trophic interactions in fish populations, the present work describes and evaluates aspects of diet and reproduction of Farlowella vittata in Pringamosal Creek, Güejar River drainage, Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Five collecting expeditions were done during both high and low rain seasons of 2008 and 2009. Physical and chemical water parameters were measured, and fish were captured from several points along the total length of the 7km stream, to characterize their biometry and stomach contents. Our results showed that Pringamosal creek is a first order stream, about 3.5m wide and with an average depth of 1m in our study area. Dissolved oxygen values were 6.2mg/L during low water and 2.7mg/L during high water phase. The creek is classified as oligotrophic but with a tendency to eutrophication. A total of 130 fish samples were analyzed. Fishes were assigned to seven size range categories between 86.0 and 175.5mm standard length (SL). Stomach contents revealed that the diet of this species consisted mainly of algae (Bacillariophyceae) (84.6% Abundance Relative), but we observed a variation in the diet according to season; during low rainfall it feeds on phytoplankton (86.47% A.R.) and during high rainfall on zooplankton as well as plant material and organic material (0.685% A.R. and 18.83% A.R., respectively). A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in food items between sexes. The condition factor (K) indicated that the species was well fed. Size at sexual maturity was 154mm SL for males and 124mm SL for

  6. Prey composition in the carnivorous plants Utricularia inflata and U. gibba (Lentibulariaceae from Paria Peninsula, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gordon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas carnívoras acuáticas del género Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae, capturan pequeños organismos acuáticos, como rotíferos, copépodos, y cladóceros, por medio de estructuras anatómicas semejantes a vesículas. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar el tamaño y tipo de presas de U. gibba y U. inflata, recolectados en un pequeño lago y en un pastizal inundado, respectivamente, en la localidad de la Península de Paria (Estado Sucre, Venezuela. La acidez, conductividad, cantidad de oxígeno disuelto y la salinidad del agua se midieron in situ para cada sitio de muestreo; también se tomaron muestras de agua para determinar niveles de N-Kjeldahl, P-total, Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++ y Cl-. Se midieron cincuenta vesículas de cada especie y se analizaron sus contenidos. Los valores de N-Kjeldahl y P-total fueron similares en ambos sitios, y semejantes a los conocidos para ecosistemas eutróficos; sin embargo, las concentraciones de Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++ y los valores in situ de los parámetros del agua fueron más altos en el pastizal inundado. Las vesículas contenían los siguientes grupos de zooplancton: rotíferos, cladóceros, copépodos, anélidos, rizópodos, e insectos; y las siguientes divisiones de fitoplancton: Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta y Euglenophyta. Las vesículas presentadas por U. inflata fueron menores en tamaño y en cantidad, pero mayores en abundancia y riqueza total de morfoespecies algales y animales en comparación con U. gibba. La similitud en cuanto a composición de presas a nivel taxonómico, entre las dos especies de plantas carnívoras, fue baja.

  7. Fortalezas y debilidades de la actitud democrática en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valia PEREIRA ALMAO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente trabajo se evalúan para el año 2000, con base en datos provenientes de encuestas nacionales, las tendencias históricas que se han reportado sobre la actitud democrática de los venezolanos en relación a características sociodemográficas, políticas e ideológicas. Al respecto se concluye que no hay diferenciaciones en la preferencia democrática con base en esas características. También se analiza la consistencia de la actitud democrática, en especial con respecto a las valoraciones de tener un gobierno militar y un líder fuerte. En estos aspectos se obtienen incongruencias que contrastan con el alto nivel de aceptación que tiene la democracia en el país. Tal cosa permite establecer que existen para el año 2000 predisposiciones autoritarias que, de estimularse, podrían reducir en el tiempo el valor que la democracia ha tenido para los venezolanos.ABSTRACT: This paper evaluates the historical tendencies that have been reported about the attitudes of Venezuelans towards democracy. These attitudes are analyzed taken into account socio-demographic, political and ideological characteristics of Venezuelan. The analysis is done using survey data from national polls. The paper reaches the conclusion that in Venezuela there are not significant differences regarding the attitude towards democracy on the basis of socio-demographic, political or ideological variables. The paper also consider the level of coherence in the attitude towards democracy, using as control variables questions related to the support for a military government, and the support for a strong authoritarian leader. The paper found that there is a significant level of incoherence in the support for democracy among Venezuelan. A sizeable sector declares a preference for democracy on one hand, and for an authoritarian leader or a military government on the other. This is interpreted as meaning that by the year 2000, Venezuelan hold authoritarian

  8. Incidencia de las estrategias docentes con enfoque constructivista en el rendimiento académico de los alumnos en la asignatura geografía de Venezuela en educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis José Vera Guadrón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo divulga los resultados del estudio orientado a determinar la incidencia de las estrategias docentes que utilizan los profesores en el rendimiento académico de la asignatura geografía de Venezuela. La teoría se fundamentó en el conductismo, constructivismo y en la asimilación y el aprendizaje significativo. La investigación fue descriptiva. El análisis de los datos permitió identificar a los profesores con tendencia conductista y constructivista, se evidenció alto rendimiento en cursos de profesores con tendencia constructivista, medio y bajo en profesores con tendencia conductista, por tanto se recomienda realizar reflexiones para poner en práctica estrategias bajo enfoque constructivista.

  9. Impactos Sociales de la apreciación y depreciación del dólar en Venezuela: explicación de impacto positivo y negativo

    OpenAIRE

    Frías Méndez, Erick Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    La apreciación y depreciación de las divisas han impactado socialmente a las economías mundiales. En Venezuela, tras la crisis de 1994, nace un ascendente interés per cápita por hacerse de la acumulación libre del dólar, reflejado en los muchos valores o precios (oficiales y paralelos) que se han originado dependiendo la zona o instancia cambiaria del país, llegando a los niveles más altos en Latinoamérica. La depreciación del dólar en una economía “Socialista” – o mixta –, intervenida dir...

  10. Frecuencia de enzimas asociadas a sensibilidad disminuida a betalactámicos en aislados de enterobacterias, Caracas, Venezuela Frequency of enzymes associated with reduced sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics in enterobacteria isolates, Caracas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marcano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de los mecanismos enzimáticos asociados a sensibilidad disminuida a los antibióticos betalactámicos de amplio espectro en aislados de enterobacterias obtenidos de centros hospitalarios de Caracas, Venezuela. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal con enterobacterias aisladas de pacientes de ocho centros hospitalarios de Caracas, Venezuela, desde el 15 de octubre de 2009 al 15 de enero de 2010. La identificación se realizó mediante pruebas bioquímicas convencionales, y la susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos mediante antibiograma (Kirby-Bauer, según las normas de 2010 del Instituto de Estándares Clínicos y de Laboratorio. La detección de los genes de resistencia a betalactámicos se realizó mediante amplificación por reacción en cadena de polimerasa. RESULTADOS: De 1 235 aislados, 207 (16,8% mostraron resistencia a cefalosporinas de tercera y cuarta generación o a carbapenemes o a ambos. De esos, 93,8% presentaron fenotipo betalactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE; 4,3%, fenotipo AmpC derreprimido, y 1,9%, fenotipo carbapenemasa. La caracterización de los dos primeros fenotipos determinó que 36,7% eran tipo SHV; 22,3%, grupo CTX-M-1; 21,7%, tipo TEM; 5,2%, grupo CTX-M-1 + impermeabilidad; 4,5%, combinación de dos enzimas; 4,3%, grupo CTX-M-2; 3,4%, tipo PER, y 1,9%, tipo KPC. Se observó un predominio del tipo SHV en las cepas obtenidas de hospitales públicos y del grupo CTX-M-1, en los privados. CONCLUSIONES: De los mecanismos enzimáticos investigados, el tipo SHV fue el más frecuente, seguido del grupo CTX-M-1 y tipo TEM. Asimismo, se encontró un alto porcentaje de carbapenemasas tipo KPC. Este es uno de los pocos estudios multicéntricos realizados en Venezuela donde se evalúa la frecuencia de este tipo de mecanismo de resistencia a los antimicrobianos, incluida la caracterización fenotípica y molecular. Se demostró que los métodos de detección requieren una interpretaci

  11. Agricultura familiar e programas de desenvolvimento rural no Alto Jequitinhonha

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    Eduardo Magalhães Ribeiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os regimes agrários peculiares e os baixos níveis relativos dos indicadores sócio-econômicos fizeram com que a região do alto Jequitinhonha, nordeste de Minas Gerais, fosse considerada uma das mais complexas do Brasil. Por isso, vários governos orientaram para lá programas de desenvolvimento rural. Mas esses esforços não produziram bons resultados. Este artigo analisa as relações entre programas públicos e agricultura familiar, fazendo um balanço dos métodos e resultados das últimas três décadas. Conclui pela necessidade de incorporar as especificidades de história, ambientes e sociedade aos programas, que deveriam partir das experiências das organizações da região e se ajustar às ações e à cultura desses agricultores.The agrarian conditions and the low relative levels of the socioeconomic indicators cause the area of the "High Jequitinhonha Valley", in the northeast of the State of Minas Gerais, to be considered one of the most complex areas of Brazil. For this reason several governanmental administrations have recommended rural development programs. Most of these efforts, however, have not produced adequate results. This article analyzes the relationships between public programs and family farming, making a survey of the methods and results of the last three decades. It concludes that there is a need to incorporate the specificities of history, environment and culture into the rural programs. It is suggested that the programs take into consideration the experience accumulated by the regional organizations and be adjusted to the interest and culture of the local family producers.

  12. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  13. Neopopulismo, desestabilización sistemática o recuperación de la gobernabilidad: la Quinta República en Venezuela

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    Michael Rösch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Populismo es en su esencia un fenómeno de crisis, que crea apoyo inmediato para un sistema político. Gobiernos populistas son asociados a políticas redistributivas, izquierdistas, que polarizan la sociedad, basado en partidos fuertes y por su falta de sostenibilidad económica y política. El neopopulismo es un fenómeno bastante nuevo: aparece a partir de los años 90 en la discusión científica. Como el populismo, el neopopulismo es una estrategia de crisis, pero menos rígido en términos de políticas. Nuevas tecnologías de comunicación hacen hincapié en organizaciones fuertes. El caso Venezuela y Hugo Chávez son muestra que estrategias neopopulistas lograron estabilizar el país después de una serie de crisis en los 80 y 90. Esta estabilización, no obstante, es a un precio muy alto: instituciones y organizaciones intermediarias en todos los niveles están debilitados, reglas formales son sustituidos por informales y atajos directos a la oficina del presidente. Este artículo argumenta que en el corto plazo Chávez estabilizó Venezuela. Estabilizar entendido como una condición necesaria para la gobernabilidad. Por lo tanto, de hecho ha recuperado una forma básica de gobernabilidad. Al largo plazo, parece más probable que contribuye a crisis todavía más graves

  14. Neopopulismo, desestabilización sistemática o recuperación de la gobernabilidad: la Quinta República en Venezuela

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    Michael Rösch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Populismo es en su esencia un fenómeno de crisis, que crea apoyo inmediato para un sistema político. Gobiernos populistas son asociados a políticas redistributivas, izquierdistas, que polarizan la sociedad, basado en partidos fuertes y por su falta de sostenibilidad económica y política. El neopopulismo es un fenómeno bastante nuevo: aparece a partir de los años 90 en la discusión científica. Como el populismo, el neopopulismo es una estrategia de crisis, pero menos rígido en términos de políticas. Nuevas tecnologías de comunicación hacen hincapié en organizaciones fuertes. El caso Venezuela y Hugo Chávez son muestra que estrategias neopopulistas lograron estabilizar el país después de una serie de crisis en los 80 y 90. Esta estabilización, no obstante, es a un precio muy alto: instituciones y organizaciones intermediarias en todos los niveles están debilitados, reglas formales son sustituidos por informales y atajos directos a la oficina del presidente. Este artículo argumenta que en el corto plazo Chávez estabilizó Venezuela. Estabilizar entendido como una condición necesaria para la gobernabilidad. Por lo tanto, de hecho ha recuperado una forma básica de gobernabilidad. Al largo plazo, parece más probable que contribuye a crisis todavía más graves.

  15. Non-Native Suckermouth Armored Catfishes in Florida: Description of Nest Borrows and Burrow Colonies with Assessment of Shoreline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    their native range in South America: Cano Mavaquita, upper Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Type locality for Leporacanthicus triactis (Isbrücker et...included a photograph of a large catfish burrow colony that he reportedly shot along the main channel of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. While...collecting fish in an Orinoco River tributary in Venezuela, Leo Nico discovered a colony composed of about a dozen burrows along the shore of a

  16. Comportamiento de la violencia doméstica en mujeres pertenecientes al consultorio "Altos de Milagro" Behavior of the home violence in women from "Altos de Milagro" consulting room

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    Madeline Espinosa Morales

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la violencia doméstica, específicamente contra la mujer latinoamericana, se ha convertido en los últimos años en un serio problema médico, social y cultural, que exige una urgente atención integral de salud, lo que motivó a las autoras a desarrollar la investigación. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de la violencia doméstica en mujeres mayores de 15 años atendidas en el consultorio Altos de Milagro, en Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, entre diciembre de 2008 y diciembre 2009. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo para caracterizar el comportamiento de la violencia doméstica en el consultorio popular antes mencionado utilizando una encuesta elaborada por las autoras. Resultados: fueron atendidas 51 pacientes víctimas de violencia doméstica, con predominio de las edades entre 35 y 44 años (39,21 %. Resultaron ser acompañadas el 58,82 % y la totalidad de las pacientes sufrió violencia psicológica (100 %. La escolaridad primaria representó el 39,21 %, y 30 de las pacientes estudiadas pertenecen a familias grandes y extensas, con gran consumo de alcohol, para un 58,82 %. Se encontró, además, que más del 50 % de las estudiadas sufrió violencia doméstica, perteneciendo a la tercera-cuarta década de la vida, con bajo nivel intelectual. Conclusiones: predominó la violencia psicológica, las familias extensas y grandes, y en la mayor parte de estas el factor de riesgo más frecuente fue la ingesta de bebidas alcohólicas.Introduction: home violence specifically against the Latin American woman became in past years in a serious medical, social and cultural problem requiring an urgent integral health care, encouraging authors to develop present research. Objective: to determine the behavior of home violence in women aged over 15 seen in the "Altos de Milagro" consulting room in Maracaibo, Zulia State from December, 2008 to December, 2009. Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study

  17. Obligaciones legales de las asociaciones cooperativas bancos comunales en Venezuela

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    Coromoto Aguilar González, Herleny

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available n Venezuela se promulga la Ley Especial de Los Consejos Comunales en el año 2006. El Consejo Comunal está constituido por tres órganos: Órgano Ejecutivo, Unidad de Gestión Financiera, y Unidad de Contraloría Social. La Unidad de Gestión Financiera o Banco Comunal adquirirá la figura jurídica de cooperativa, por consiguiente el presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar los deberes formales que debe cumplir el Banco Comunal: 1. Inscribirse en los registros correspondientes; 2. Llevar Libros Legales; 3. Presentar Declaración Informativa de ISLR; 4. Practicar retención de ISLR; 5. Emitir factura de conformidad con lo establecido en la regulación venezolana.Venezuela promulgated the Special Law of the Communal Councils in 2006. The Communal Council is constituted by three agencies: Executive agency, Financial Management Unit, and Social comptroller Unit. The Financial Management Unit or Communal Bank will acquire the legal figure of a cooperative, therefore the present paper intends to analyze the formal duties established in the Venezuelan tax laws, that the Communal Bank must fulfil: 1. To register in the corresponding registration system; 2. Keep the accountancy Books required by tax laws; 3. To file an informative income tax return; 4. To practice income tax withholding; 5. To emit invoice in accordance with Venezuelan tax regulations.

  18. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera-Sánchez, Amelia; Franco Soler, Jose; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2004-09-01

    A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna) exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 microg STX/100 microg meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2548 and 115 microg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1422 and 86 microg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization). A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3) toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSP.

  19. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bertinellys; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Carreño, Numirin; Guzmán, Militza; Salazar, Elsa; De Donato, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  20. The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Hernán J.; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E.; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A.; Feliciangeli, M. Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  2. Relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela

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    Fernando Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es describir las relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo - Venezuela, para lo cual se caracterizaron los elementos interconectores del capital social como soporte de la innovación y el emprendimiento. Desde el capital social se trabajaron con las perspectivas de Putnam et al (1993, Coleman (1988, Bourdieu (2001 y Lin (2001. La población la conformaron 475 empresas de siete sectores económicos. La técnica muestral empleada fue el muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional aplicado a 85 empresas. Se recolectaron los datos mediante un cuestionario estructurado a cada agente informante de las empresas, el cual fue validado por expertos y la confiabilidad de acuerdo a Alpha de Cronbach arrojó un 0.96, por lo que el instrumento demuestra alta confiabilidad. Las respuestas del cuestionario tuvieron un tratamiento estadístico descriptivo mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciencies (SPSS. Se concluye que hay una debil interconectividad de los elementos del capital social, incidiendo en el bajo nivel de innovación y emprendimiento, precarizando las fuerzas sustentadoras del desarrollo territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela.

  3. REVISIÓN TAXONÓMICA DE LOASACEAE EN VENEZUELA

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    Noguera Eliana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Loasaceae no ha sido estudiada taxonómicamente en Venezuela, por tal razón se realizó una revisión taxonómica que permitió reconocer las especies presentes en el país y los principales caracteres de importancia taxonómica para su reconocimiento. Se examinaron 102 especímenes de Loasaceae depositados en herbarios nacionales e internacionales. En Venezuela, Loasaceae está representada por tres subfamilias (Gronovioideae, Loasoideae y Mentzelioideae, cuatros géneros (Gronovia, Klaprothia, Nasa y Mentzelia y nueve especies (Gronovia scandens L., Klaprothia fasciculata (C. Presl Poston, K. mentzelioides Kunth, Nasa lindeniana (Urb. & Gilg Weigend, N. venezuelensis (Steyerm. Weigend, N. perijensis (Weigend Weigend, N. triphylla (Juss. Weigend subsp. papaverifolia (Kunth Weigend, Mentzelia aspera L., M scabra subsp. chilensis (Gay Weigend. Se proporcionan claves para las especies presentes en el país, descripciones, ejemplares examinados, sinónimos, ilustraciones, datos de distribución geográfica y ecología, y breves comentarios morfológicos. El indumento y la ornamentación de la cubierta seminal son los principales caracteres de valor taxonómico para distinguir las especies de Loasaceae venezolanas.

  4. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela

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    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representation

  5. Experimental life cycle of Philophthalmus gralli (Trematoda: Philophthalmidae in Venezuela

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    Marcos T. Díaz

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of the miracidium, mother redia, daughter redia, grandaughter redia, cercaria, metacercaria and adult stages of Philophthalmus gralli Mathis and Leger,1910 recovered from experimental infections are presented. The intermediate host, Melanoides tuberculata, was collected from freshwater rivulets in Aguasanta and Yaguracual, Sucre State, Venezuela. Chicken were orally infected with cercariae and metacercariae, and metacercariae were introduced directly into the eyes by pipette. Both processes of infection produced adult worms. This is a new geographical record for P. gralliSe describe el miracidio, redia madre, redia hija, redia nieta, cercaria y el adulto de Philophthalmus gralli Mathis y Leger, 1910, obtenidos de infecciones experimentales. El hospedero intermediario Melanoides tuberculata fue recolectado en las localidades de Aguasanta y Yaguaracual, estado Sucre,Venezuela. Varios pollos fueron infectados oralmente con cercarias y metacercarias y colocando metacercarias directamente en los ojos con una pipeta. En ambos procesos de infección, se obtuvo parásitos adultos. Se amplía la distribución geográfica de P. gralli

  6. Aspectos legales del gobierno electrónico en Venezuela

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    Carlos Arcila Calderón

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta una revisión documental de los principales textos legales que amparan el funcionamiento del Gobierno Electrónico en Venezuela, vigentes al finalizar el primer semestre de 2009. Los resultados sugieren que existen dos grandes bloques legales que sustentan el uso de las TIC por el Gobierno, y tienen que ver, por un lado, con aquellas dirigidas a dotar de eficacia jurídica a las manifestaciones de voluntad por vía electrónica y, por otro, con aquellas pensadas para conseguir eficiencia en el cumplimiento de las funciones del Estado. El análisis de los distintos instrumentos que regulan la implementación de las TIC revela que Venezuela cuenta con una base jurídica en la materia sólida y  avanzada, por lo que la mayoría de las deficiencias que existen se deben más bien a la implementación. Se adopta un concepto amplio de gobierno electrónico, expandiéndolo a todas las ramas del poder público en tanto y en cuanto sus órganos se relacionen con el ciudadano o entre si. Por último se hace un llamado al poder judicial de manera de que se incorpore de manera plena las ventajas de los recursos electrónicos al proceso judicial.

  7. O referendo na Venezuela: um ato em um drama inacabado

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    Jennifer McCoy

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo enfoca o referendo revogatório realizado na Venezuela em agosto de 2004, que confirmou a permanência de Hugo Chávez na Presidência do país até o fim de seu mandato. Apontam-se o contexto político que nele culminou, no qual o governo Chávez foi alvo de intensas contestações por parte de seus opositores, e seus conturbados desdobramentos, com acusações de fraude e de atuação imparcial da autoridade eleitoral. A autora destaca a rígida polarização que permeou o processo, dividindo a sociedade venezuelana e impondo ao governo e à própria oposição o desafio de reconstituir o consenso nacional em torno dos interesses coletivos.The article focuses on the recall referendum that took place in Venezuela in August 2004, which confirmed the permanence of President Hugo Chávez. It points out the political context that culminated in the referendum, in which oppositionists fiercely criticized Chávez and his administration. The author shows the sharp polarization that characterized this process, dividing Venezuelan society and affecting the notion of collective interest.

  8. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  9. UMA NOVA ESPÉCIE DE SPASALUS (COLEOPTERA PASSALIDAE) DO ALTO RIO NEGRO. AMAZONAS, BRASIL.

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca,Claudio Ruy Vasconcelos da

    1992-01-01

    Spasalus ellanae, uma nova eepécie PASSALIDAE (COLEOPTERA) alto rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil, é descrita e ilustrada. Spasalus ellanae n. sp. from Negro river, Amazonas, Brazil, is described and illustrated.

  10. Calidad de abonos orgánicos empleados en la depresión de Quíbor-Venezuela bajo ambientes protegidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Torres Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La depresión de Quíbor es una de las zonas agrícolas más importante de Venezuela, donde en los últimos años se han introducido sistemas de producción bajo ambientes protegidos, los cuales están acompañados por el uso de abonos orgánicos, no certi cados. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la calidad de los abonos orgánicos empleados en sistemas de producción bajo ambientes protegidos en la depresión de Quíbor, Venezuela. Se realizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar y se evaluaron once (11 abonos orgánicos (cuatro sólidos y siete líquidos por triplicados. Los abonos sólidos fueron colectados en la parte superior, inferior y media de las pilas, mientras que los líquidos fueron tomados directamente de los tanques de almacenamiento. Para la caracterización de los abonos se empleó el protocolo TMECC, la materia orgánica se determinó por calcinación a 450°C, el nitrógeno por Kjeldahl y los macronutrientes (potasio y calcio y micronutrientes (cobre, manganeso, hierro y zinc en extracto acuoso 1/20 (v/v del material y cuantificación por absorción atómica. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el vermicompost y compost de gallinaza presentaron los valores más altos de macronutrientes, mientras, para los abonos líquidos Macro®, fue quien presentó la mayor concentración de nitrógeno, humus1 los valores más altos de Ca y Mg y Micro® y humus2 los mayores contenidos de manganeso, hierro, cobre y zinc fueron encontrados, todos los abonos sólidos presentaron valores bajos de micronutrientes.

  11. Demanding Change : The Collective Challenges of the Juntas Vecinales of El Alto

    OpenAIRE

    Tarazona Machicao, Mateo

    2010-01-01

    The Juntas Vecinales of El Alto portray a telling picture of the current process of societal change inBolivia. Formed to attend the collective needs of indigenous migrants striving to settle down on theoutskirts of the capital, the Juntas Vecinales have grown as an intrinsic part of El Alto becomingsignificant socio-political actors and part of the indigenous social movements propelling the processof change in Bolivia. Their traditional function of supervising public policy by pressuring serv...

  12. Metallogenic aspects of the feldspars and micas geochemistry in pegmatite from Alto-Ligonha (Mocambique)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, J.M.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with metallogenic aspects concerning the huge Alto Ligonha pegmatite Province. The geological setting of the pegmatites is briefly reviewed and the metamorphic grade of the country rocks of the pegmatites, ranging from granulitic to greenschist facies, has been considered. The economically most interesting pegmatites are those emplaced within rocks with lighter metamorphism. The available geochronological data allow us to link, the most interesting pegmatites from Alto Ligonha, to the Pan-African granitoid magmatism, about 500 Ma ago. (author)

  13. Added value of nuclear magnetic resonance logging as delineation tool in EHO context : an example from Orinoco Heavy oil belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, F.; Mus, E. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Petrocedeno; Marcos, J. [Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In preparation for the upcoming implementation of a thermal oil recovery project, an intensive delineation campaign was recently conducted in a specific area of the Junin block main field of Petrocedeno, operated by Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) Petrocedeno joint venture. A complete acquisition program was defined in terms of conventional logging (GR, resistivity, neutron/density, sonic, formation pressure), coring, and unconventional logging with imagery logs and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with the objective of delineating the field. The purpose of this paper was to show the significant added value and step forward the NMR acquisition brought in fluid and reservoir characterization. The paper described the input of standard NMR logging, including fluid characterization; petrophysical support; tool limitation; NMR gamma inversion reprocessing; methodology; and application to EOR project area. Applications for field development were also presented including application for cold and hot production development. It was concluded that the NMR is a suitable tool for fluid characterization and for improving future development of the Petrocedeno extra heavy oil field. It has the capability of identifying fluids that are poorly characterized, or not characterized, by conventional logs. 10 refs., 18 figs.

  14. LESIONES CUTANEAS PARASITARIAS EN EL ASNO EQUUS ASINUS DE CHORONI, ESTADO ARAGUA, VENEZUELA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Abelardo; Garcia, Francisco; Rossini, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted erythemat......Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted....... reported in donkeys of Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela....

  15. Pollution in coastal fog at Alto Patache, Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sträter, Ellen; Westbeld, Anna; Klemm, Otto

    2010-11-01

    The Atacama Desert in Northern Chile is one of the most arid places on earth. However, fog occurs regularly at the coastal mountain range and can be collected at different sites in Chile to supply settlements at the coast with freshwater. This is also planned in the fog oasis Alto Patache (20°49'S, 70°09'W). For this pilot study, we collected fog water samples in July and August 2008 for chemical analysis to find indications for its suitability for domestic use. Fog water samples were taken with a cylindrical scientific fog collector and from the net and the storage tank of a Large Fog Collector (LFC). The pHs of advective fog, originating from the stratus cloud deck over the Eastern Pacific, varied between 2.9 and 3.5. Orographic fog, which was formed locally, exhibited a pH of 2.5. About 50% of the total ionic concentration was due to sea salt. High percentages of sulfate and very high enrichment factors (versus sea salt) of heavy metals were found. Both backward trajectories and the enrichment factors indicate that the high concentrations of ions and heavy metals in fog were influenced by anthropogenic activities along the Chilean Pacific Coast such as power plants, mining, and steel industry. We found no direct indication for the importance of other sources such as the emission of dimethyl sulfide from the ocean and subsequent atmospheric oxidation for acidity and sulfate or soil erosion for heavy metal concentrations. When fog water was collected by the LFC, it apparently picked up large amounts of dry deposition which accumulated on the nets during fog-free periods. This material is rinsed off the collector shortly after the onset of a fog event with the water collected first. During the first flush, some concentrations of acidity, nitrate, As, and Se, largely exceeded the Chilean drinking water limits. Before any use of fog water for domestic purpose, its quality should be checked on a regular basis. Strategies to mitigate fog water pollution are given.

  16. camarón del Alto Golfo de California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero R. Cabrera M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente la pesquería del camarón en el Alto Golfo de California genera preocupaciones referentes a su impacto sobre el medio ambiente, su viabilidad biológica y rentabilidad. Con el propósito de entender el manejo de esta pesquería y su productividad física, hemos examinado el comportamiento productivo de los barcos camaroneros de San Felipe, B.C. durante el periodo 1990-1993. Para ello usamos una función de producción frontera, flexible y no restringida, respecto a la cual estimamos la eficiencia técnica de cada una de las naves observadas. Nuestros resultados indican que la eficiencia promedio de la flota observada es del 80%, un valor de eficiencia cercano al mejor uso de la tecnología productiva y de los factores de la producción. Las naves más viejas resultaron menos eficientes, un resultado esperado; sin embargo, el tamaño de la cooperativa y calidad de su administración afectó positivamente los valores de eficiencia de las naves asociadas enmascarando con ello el efecto antes mencionado y favoreciendo el desarrollo de economías de escala. Los resultados indican también que el conocimiento acumulativo sobre la pesquería del camarón entre los productores es una variable importante, en términos de su efecto sobre la eficiencia productiva de las naves, mientras que la innovación tecnológica ha sido escasa, excepto por los excluidores de tortugas incorporados a su tecnología de captura durante 1996. Concluimos de nuestro análisis que la divulgación del conocimiento sobre la pesquería, como una variable social de cambio desincorporada a la función de producción, y el fortalecimiento de la calidad de los servicios administrativos, son dos aspectos fundamentales a promover para el desarrollo de esta pesquería. También argumentamos que la semejanza tecnológica y operativa entre ambas flotas, la de San Felipe, B.C. y el resto de la flota del camarón que pesca en el Golfo de California permite que nuestro an

  17. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Aceituno, J.; Thiele, U.; Grupp, F.; Dreizler, S.; Bean, J.; Benitez, D.

    2011-11-01

    The Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph (CAFE) is an instrument underconstruction at CAHA to replace FOCES, the high-resolution echellespectrograph at the 2.2 m telescope of the observatory. FOCES is a property ofthe Observatory of the Munich University, and it was recalled it from Calar Altoin 2009. The instrument comprised a substantial fraction of thetelescope time during its operational life-time, and it is due to that it wastaken the decision to build a replacement.CAFE shares its basic characteristics with those of FOCES. However, significantimprovements have been introduced in the original design, the quality of thematerials, and the overall stability of the system. In particular: (i) a newcalibration Iodine cell is foreseen to operate together with the standard ThArlamps; (ii) the optical quality of all the components has been selected to belambda/20, instead of the original lambda/10; (iii) an isolated room hasbeen selected to place the instrument, termalized and stabilized againstvibrations (extensive tests have been performed to grant the stability); (iv)most of the mobile parts in FOCES has been substituted by fixed elements, toincrease the stability of the system; and finally (v) a new more efficientCCD, with a smaller pixel has been acquired. It is expected that the overallefficiency and the quality of the data will be significantly improved withrespect to its precesor. In particular, CAFE is design and built to achieveresolutions of R ˜ 70000, which will be kept in the final acquired data,allowing it to compete with current operational extrasolar planets hunters.After two years of work all the components are in place. The instrument is nowfinally assembled, and we are performing the the first alignment tests. It isexpected that the commissioning on the laboratory will finish at the end of2010, followed by the commissioning on telescope along the first semester of2011. If everything goes well, we will offer the instrument in a shared

  18. Fístula de alto gasto High output fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Almeida Varela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a un paciente de 37 años de edad que acude a nuestro Cuerpo de Guardia politraumatizado, con lesiones torácicas y abdominales, con síntomas y signos sugestivos de fracturas costales múltiples, con hemotórax derecho y hemoperitoneo, corroborado imaginológicamente y en la punción abdominal. Se realiza pleurostomía mínima intermedia y laparotomía exploratoria. Se le encuentran lesiones hepáticas de los segmentos VI, V, VIII y IV, con una profundidad mayor de 3 cm, además, deserosamientos en las asas delgadas intestinales y colon. Se realiza hepatorrafia y empaquetamiento hepático. Posteriormente van apareciendo complicaciones, por lo que tiene que ser reintervenido en más de 60 ocasiones. Entre ellas, la aparición de una fístula de alto gasto, que lo llevó a la desnutrición y a la permanencia con el abdomen expuesto durante 7 meses hasta el egreso. Se revisa la literatura correspondiente a estas entidades.A 37 years-old multi-traumatized male patient went to our emergency service. He had many injures in the thorax and the abdomen, together with symptoms and signs suggestive of multiple costal fractures, with right hemothorax and hemoperitoneum, all of which was confirmed by imaging techniques and by abdominal puncture. Minimal intermediate pleurostomy and exploratory laparoscopy were performed. We found hepatic lesions in the 6th, 5th, 8th and 4th segments, over 3 cm deep; additionally, the loss of serosa from the intestinal ansae and from the colon. Hepatorrhaphy and hepatic packing were also performed. Later on, more complications appeared, so he had to be re-operated more than 60 times. The occurrence of a high output fistula led him to malnutrition and his abdomen remained exposed for 7 months until he was finally discharged from hospital. This paper also presented a literature review on this topic.

  19. Feasibility study for the installation of a nuclear reactor in thermal stimulation processes in heavy oil extraction from Orinoco oil belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A.; Sanchez, R.

    1982-01-01

    Due to strategic need in the exploitation of heavy and extraheavy oil wells of Orinoco oil belt, technical and economical studies have been carried out to determine an optimal method for oil production and exploitation. So far, studies indicate thermal stimulation is the most adequate technique. Experience shows that stimulation cost is high when traditional methods (boilers) are used. The profit is due to the high price of oil in international market. Due to actual oil price trends, evaluation of nontraditional methods to generate steam in thermal stimulation processes (steam injection) is in order. A nuclear reactor as steam generator was evaluated. It was found economical feasibility and saving in fuel cost between 31.08% and 72.63% depending on oil prices

  20. The Crustal Structure and Seismicity of Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Martins, A.; Sobiesiak, M.; Alvarado, L.; Vasquez, R.

    2001-12-01

    Eastern Venezuela is characterized by a moderate to high seismicity, evidenced recently by the 1997 Cariaco earthquake located on the El Pilar Fault, a right lateral strike slip fault which marks the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South-American plates in this region. Recently, the seismic activity seems to migrate towards the zone of subduction of the Lesser Antilles in the northeast, where a mb 6.0 earthquake occurred in October 2000 at 120 km of depth. Periodical changes in the seismic activity are related to the interaction of the stress fields of the strike-slip and the subduction regimes. The seismic activity decreases rapidly towards to the south with some disperse events on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield, related to the Guri fault system. The crustal models used in the region are derived from the information generated by the national seismological network since 1982 and by microseismicity studies in northeastern Venezuela, coinciding in a crustal thickness of about 35 km in depth. Results of seismic refraction measurements for the region were obtained during field campains in 1998 (ECOGUAY) for the Guayana Shield and the Cariaco sedimentary basin and in 2001 (ECCO) for the Oriental Basin. The total crustal thickness decreases from about 45 km on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield to some 36 km close to El Tigre in the center of the Oriental Basin. The average crustal velocity decreases in the same sense from 6.5 to 5.8 km/s. In the Cariaco sedimentary basin a young sedimentary cover of 1 km thickness with a seismic velocity of 2 km/s was derived. Towards the northern limit of the South-American plate, no deep seismic refraction data are available up to now. The improvement of the crustal models used in that region would constitute a step forward in the analysis of the seismic hazard. Seismic refraction studies funded by CONICIT S1-97002996 and S1-2000000685 projects and PDVSA (additional drilling and blasting), recording equipment

  1. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Pacheco, Johanna I.; Rös, Matthias; Castro-Lima, Francisco; Verdú, José R.; López-Iborra, Germán M.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1) type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms) and (2) origins (natural, mixed and artificial). A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81%) were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution). Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha), with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha) supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account. PMID:27602263

  2. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Pacheco, Johanna I; Rös, Matthias; Escobar, Federico; Castro-Lima, Francisco; Verdú, José R; López-Iborra, Germán M

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1) type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms) and (2) origins (natural, mixed and artificial). A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81%) were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution). Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha), with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha) supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  3. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna I. Murillo-Pacheco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1 type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms and (2 origins (natural, mixed and artificial. A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81% were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution. Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha, with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  4. Valgevenest Iraanini : Venezuela liider koob USA-vastas ühisrinnet / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez külastab mitmeid Ameerika Ühendriikidele probleemseid riike. Kohtumine Valgevene presidendi Aleksandr Lukashenkoga, eelseisvast visiidist Venemaale. Lisa: Chavez tahab julgeolekunõukogusse

  5. Venezuela tõusis presidendi sotsialismikursi vastu üles / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Venezuelas toimunud rahvahääletusel lükati tagasi president Hugo Chavezi ettepanekud, mis puudutasid põhiseaduse muutmist. President peab seda vaid ajutiseks tagasilöögiks. Lisa: Tudengid ja meedia riigipea vastu

  6. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  7. Democracy in Hugo Chavez's Venezuela: Developing or Faltering Due to His Politics, Activities, and Rhetoric?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, R. N

    2008-01-01

    .... During his reign, Chavez, a member of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, has made many dramatic changes to the nearly 50-year-old democracy, including nationalizing several key industries...

  8. Scorpionism due to Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Boadas, Jenny; Kiriakos, Demetrio; Borges, Adolfo; Boadas, Jesús; Marcano, Jenny; Turkali, Iván; De Los Ríos, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The first two cases of scorpion envenoming caused by Tityus neoespartanus (Buthidae) are described. The accidents took place within human environments (one inside a home and the other inside a school), in the village of La Sierra, Margarita Island, State of Nueva Esparta, northeastern Venezuela. Both cases were moderately severe and developed pancreatic involvement and electrocardiographic abnormalities. This report allows inclusion of Margarita Island among the endemic areas of scorpionism in Venezuela.

  9. Strategi Venezuela Menyepakati ALBA dalam Menghadapi Ekspansi Perdagangan Amerika Serikat Dikawasan Amerika Latin

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlawan, Indra; Wahyu, Septian

    2014-01-01

    In 2004 Venezuela and Cuba have agreed on a regional collaboration in latin america called Alternative Bolivarian Para las Americas an abbreviated ALBA. This collaboration is formed as a resistance facing U.S. trade expansion to bring a mission neoliberalism. With the formation of ALBA, Venezuela is the regional co-operation leaders make strategic measures to face Neoliberalism. In 2010 ALBA has had a total of 10 member countries. As counter hegemony, ALBA also worked in three space. In the s...

  10. Guidelines to elaborate a migration plan for digital terrestrial television in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    José Rafael Uzcátegui; José Francisco Torres; Nelson Pérez García; Luís Duque; Zeldívar Bruzual

    2011-01-01

    In October 2009, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela adopted the ISDB-Tb (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting - Terrestrial Built On), released by Japan, with some improvement made by Brazil, as Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) to be deployment in Venezuela. After standard choice, has been start the route towards the solution of transcendental aspects of legal and technical nature to enable the provision of digital terrestrial television service harmonized with the goals of true soc...

  11. Rómulo Gallegos: dos épocas, una venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Acosta

    1968-12-01

    Full Text Available El último desenlace de Rómulo Gallegos careció de los imprevistos giros con que salpicó su extensa obra de narrador. Se extinguió con una pasmosa naturalidad, en un tránsito lento y demasiado obvio, poniéndole fin en uno de los amaneceres vacíos de la Semana Mayor a una agonía que tuvo filialmente crispada a Venezuela. Una compenetración tan absoluta entre Gallegos y su país, y, por extensión, con la América Latina, merecían este postrer acto que confirma su invaluable lección: la lealtad del escritor consigo mismo, por lo tanto con sus gentes, y en Consecuencia su altivez de combatiente.

  12. Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans. PMID:22172205

  13. Ootaxonomic investigation of five Lutzomyia species (Diptera, Psychodidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Fausto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell fine structure of five sand fly species from Venezuela belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta, L. gomezi and L. panamensis was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chorionic sculpturing of L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta and L. gomezi was characterized by series of columns arranged in palisade to form sinuous ridges. In inter-ridge areas, the basal layer was covered with fibrous material. The outer chorion of L. panamensis had a pattern known as "mountain- or volcano-like". The morphology of the posterior pole and aeropyle had a common structure in the five species, with some species-specific characters. The eggshell features of the five species are compared with those of other phlebotomine sand flies.

  14. [Molecular epidemiology of human rotavirus in Cumaná, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, A J; Bastardo, J W

    1992-01-01

    During the period January to December 1987, rotaviruses were obtained from infants hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Cumaná, Venezuela, and were compared by analysis of the migration of their double-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome segments in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Rotavirus RNA was detected in 87 (17.03%) of 511 faecal samples, and at least 12 different electropherotypes were recognized throughout the period of study. Of the rotavirus positive samples, 86 (98.85%) had a "long" electrophoretic pattern characteristic of human rotavirus subgroup 2. The incidence of rotavirus infection was statistically related with the age, sex, and nutritional status of the pediatric patients for epidemiological purposes. This statistical relation was very significant with the age and the nutritional status of the patients but not with their sex.

  15. Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela

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    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over a two year period, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was evaluated in 29 hemodialysis patients, aged between 15 and 75 years (mean ± SD: 45 ± 39.5 years, from the University Hospital Hemodyalisis Unit, Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Anti-HCV antibodies were determined using a fourth generation ELISA (Innotest HCV Ab IV kit and positive blood samples were tested using a recombinant assay kit (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III, both kits from Innogenetics N.V., Belgium. The findings indicate a lack of HCV seroconversion in the hemodialysis patients over the study period, confirmed by the recombinant assay. Risk factors for HCV infection were 0.3270 (95% confidence interval: 0.01323-8.080 in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The findings suggest a lack of significant sources for HCV infection due to the preventive measures to avoid its transmission in the hemodialysis unit.

  16. Gamma environmental dosimetry and radon concentration in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo B, L.; Greaves E, D.

    1996-01-01

    The environmental radiation levels have been determined in Venezuela by means of different techniques including the passive dosimeters and the alpha and gamma dosimetry besides the gross alpha/beta counting. The most important conclusion is that the presence of artificial radionuclides (Cesium-137, Beryllium-7 and Cadmium-109) was observed in different environmental samples and in food considered contaminant. The values of gamma levels are between 28 and 40 mGy/day and the mean value of radon concentration in closed environment is 36 Bq/m 3 ; the higher values of a factor 10 have been measured in the Andes region. The 20% of analysed drinking water has a concentration of alpha radionuclides emitters less than 0.005 Bq/l and only the 8% is greater than 0.450 Bq/l. (authors). 6 refs., 1 fig

  17. Presentación: República Bolivariana de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Estudios Sudamericanos (CENSUD)

    2007-01-01

    La República Bolivariana de Venezuela está ubicada al norte del Ecuador, en la costa septentrional de América del Sur. Limita al Norte, con el mar Caribe o Mar de las Antillas, con una extensión de 2.813 km; al sur, con la República de Brasil con 2.000 km de frontera; al este, con el océano Atlántico y la República de Guyana con la que tiene una línea fronteriza de 743 km; y al oeste, con la República de Colombia en una extensión de 2.050 km. Instituto de Relaciones Internacionales (IRI)...

  18. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  19. What does the failure to reduce homicides in Venezuela teach?

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    Roberto Briceño-León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the paradox of increased homicides in Venezuela in a period of wealth and redistribution. To do so, theories that explain criminality through poverty and inequality are reviewed and refuted and weighed against theories of institutionalism. Thus, the article analyses the situation of homicides between 1985 and 2010 and establishes three periods in which the rules regulating access to a goods, b political power, and c social and penal control were broken. The theories are discussed with statistical information and interpreted within the economic and political context of the time. It is concluded that the reduction in homicides requires institutionalism based on sensitivity and certain formal and informal rules that allow the construction of legitimacy around social difference and punishment, and a citizens’ culture that favours social control by peers over penal control by the State.

  20. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP in Margarita Island, Venezuela

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    Amelia La Barbera-Sánchez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 µg STX/100 g meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2 548 and 115 µg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1 422 and 86 µg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization. A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX, but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3 toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSPUn severo brote de intoxicación paralizante por moluscos (PSP en inglés ocurrió en Manzanillo y Guayacán en la costa noroeste de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela entre agosto y octubre de 1991. Una proliferación de Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum y Alexandrium tamarense causó el brote. Los niveles de PSP en mejillón (Perna perna superaron los niveles máximos permisibles de saxitoxina, 80 µg STX/100g carne. Los niveles de toxinas variaron entre 2 548 y 115

  1. Estados Unidos y Venezuela: Una relación necesaria.

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    Carlos Romero.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author identifies Hugo Chavez's electoral victory and the implementation of a new type of democracy as two factors that transformed Venezuelan foreign policy, and in particular, the bilateral relationship with the United States. Chavez's international activism, in addition to his Bolivarian policy signaled a shift from "safe partner" to "partner with reservations" in the country's relations with Washington. Although Venezuela considered itself a Latin American showcase in previous years, the text argues that Chavez's populist tendencies, his critical posture towards the promotion of democracy and human rights, and his supposed links with Colombian guerrillas has led to a "wait-and-see" policy characterized by high levels of caution on the part of the United States.

  2. Venezuela 1983. Impacto de la crisis económica

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    Alfredo Keller R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La revista se centra en el rol que desempeñan los medios en las campañas electorales,se publica la función política de éstos en Escandinavia,(1983La campaña electoral en una transición política en Argentina, (1986Una democracia amenazada en Costa Rica, (1985 Rescate de la memoria colectiva desde el Perú, (1983 Impacto de la crisis económica en Venezuela,(1986 Impresiones del periodismo político en Austria, (1984Propaganda electoral en la prensa de Quito, (1984 En DOCUMENTOS se publica sobre Innovación tecnológica en Educación, el Informe de proyectos 1985, la Primera reunión de Jamaica.

  3. (Re)construccion de una identidad negra en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Charier, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Depuis quelques années, on peut observer au Venezuela un renouveau des pratiques culturelles liées à l’identité noire. Ce processus a été complexe et s’inscrit dans l’affirmation d’une nouvelle société civile indépendante du système des parties et des structures traditionnelles de pouvoir. Les organisations noires ont investi de nombreux domaines de la vie sociale : défense de l’environnement, économie, santé, éducation, culture. La mise en évidence de la relation entre lutte ethnico-culturel...

  4. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  5. Embodying racism: race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbas, Lauren E

    2013-03-01

    In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image.

  6. Pterocladiella caerulescens (Kützin Santelices & Hommersand (RHODOPHYTA, UNA NUEVA ADICIÓN PARA LA FLORA FICOLÓGICA DEL ESTADO NUEVA ESPARTA (VENEZUELA | Pterocladiella caerulescens (Kützin Santelices & Hommersand (RHODOPHYTA, A NEW ADDITION TO THE PHYCOLOGICAL FLORA OF NUEVA ESPARTA STATE (VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Rodríguez Reyes,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El alga rodofita, Pterocladiella caerulescens, ha sido poco estudiada en Venezuela, a pesar de que a nivel mundial se ha determinado su alto rendimiento en la producción de agar. En este trabajo, se describen las estructuras vegetativa y reproductiva (cistocarpo, tetrasporangio y espermatangio de una población de P. caerulescens ubicada en los sustratos rocosos de la zona intermareal de la bahía de Boca de Río, Isla de Margarita, durante el mes de noviembre 2013 a mayo de 2014. Doscientos ejemplares, formando agrupaciones cespitosas, fueron recolectados con estructuras de fijación, realizándose el desprendimiento con la ayuda de cuchillo y espátulas, preservándolas en solución de formaldehido al 4% v/v con agua de mar y almacenadas en frascos de vidrio. El análisis mediante microscopía óptica reveló en los ejemplares femeninos, la presencia de un cistocarpo solitario con una placenta unilocular en cuyo centro de la cavidad se dispone el carpogonio, lo que permitió la identificación de la especie como Pterocladiella caerulescens (Kützin Santelices & Hommersand, perteneciente a la familia Pterocladiaceae. Esta especie no había sido registrada en la zona marino-costera del estado Nueva Esparta, siendo identificado por primera vez en los estados Falcón y Carabobo, posteriormente en el estado Sucre, por lo que con este registro se amplía el área de distribución de la misma en Venezuela.

  7. Dimensiones de Personalidad de Marca. Estudio exploratorio en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pirela Saavedra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo explorar el modelo de Personalidad de Marca en Venezuela, a través del estudio propuesto por Aaker (1997 de los rasgos de personalidad, utilizando los centros comerciales como producto de referencia. La investigación de tipo exploratorio adoptó un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. La muestra resultó de ciento sesenta y ocho personas (168 entre encuestas auto suministradas y vía correo electrónico. En el procesamiento de los datos se aplicó un análisis de Confiabilidad vía Alfa de Cronbach encontrándose que las dimensiones de personalidad de marca para Venezuela son: Emocionante (0.91, Sinceridad (0.83, Pasional (0.88 Pasividad (0.76 y Rudeza (0.68. Estos resultados revelaron importantes diferencias con un estudio previo realizado en el país. La causa puede deberse a la falta de un procedimiento muestral más representativo de ambos estudios, ya que hasta la fecha no se ha realizado un estudio de escala nacional para medir Personalidad de Marca. A pesar de ello, se consiguieron evidencias que los rasgos de personalidad alrededor de la dimensión “Emocionante” pudiesen ser explicativos de la personalidad del venezolano promedio, ya que además de su consistencia interna, presentan coincidencias con otros estudios empíricos de segmentación realizados en el país.

  8. Los movimientos estudiantiles en Venezuela, 1958-1990

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    Roberto López Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está centrado en los aportes del movimiento estudiantil al proceso político venezolano, en dos momentos clave: la renovación universitaria de 1969, y las protestas estudiantiles de 1987. Hemos identificado las particularidades de los diferentes grupos estudiantiles, y a sus principales dirigentes; sus mecanismos de intervención y de conflicto, su relación con los programas de partidos y movimientos políticos, y su incidencia en la situación política local y nacional. Recurriendo a fuentes biblio-hemerográficas, documentales y orales, el estudio consideró los aportes teórico-metodológicos de investigaciones relacionadas con los movimientos sociales en general y con el movimiento estudiantil en particular. Se concluye estableciendo que los movimientos estudiantiles fueron durante los primeros treinta años de la democracia puntofijista los principales protagonistas del conflicto social en Venezuela.____________________ABSTRACT:The present work describes the contributions of the student movement to the Venezuelan political process, in two focal moments: the university’s renovation of 1969, and the students’ protests of 1987. We have identified the peculiarities of the different students’ groups and their main leaders; their political mechanisms of intervention and conflict, their relation with programs of parties and movements, and their incidence in the local and national political situation. Referring to biblio-hemerographic, documentary and oral sources, the study has considered the theoretical-methodological contributions of researches related both to social movements in general and to student movements in particular. It is established that, during the first thirty years of the puntofijista democracy, student movements were the main protagonists of the social conflict in Venezuela.  

  9. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

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    Bertinellys TEIXEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC, aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD, and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH, is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137 were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, mainly from discharges (96/137. The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively. Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49, followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49. The aac(6´-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  10. Petróleo y producción agropecuaria en las relaciones bilaterales entre Colombia y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Gast Niño, Laura María

    2010-01-01

    Las relaciones bilaterales entre Colombia y Venezuela se caracterizan por una interdependencia de tipo estructural dada por el petróleo como factor vinculante. La industria petrolera venezolana deterioro a tal punto su sector agropecuario, que puso en riesgo la seguridad alimentaria de los venezolanos, hecho que hace a Venezuela depender de los productos agropecuarios colombianos y a su vez, que la producción agropecuaria colombiana se enfoque a entender este mercado en Venezuela.

  11. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela Movimientos urbanos y desempoderamiento en Perú y Venezuela

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    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representationEste artículo plantea un puzzle principal: ¿por qué la movilización ciudadana continuada viene acompañada de un crecimiento del desempoderamiento de estos mismos ciudadanos? ¿Por qué los movimientos fracasan, los líderes se desgastan y los miembros se dispersan, y cuáles son las implicaciones del fracaso organizativo para la representación democrática? Nuestra consideración del asunto encuentra sus raíces en un profundo análisis de los movimientos urbanos, de la movilización, del empoderamiento y del

  12. Pilates como complemento del entrenamiento en fútbol de alto rendimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Olmo Cárceles, Natalia del

    2015-01-01

    Editar registro: Hoy en día existen muchos métodos distintos de entrenamiento que inciden en todas las cualidades físicas. El método Pilates es uno de ellos, y a pesar de sus múltiples beneficios, es un entrenamiento que no se ha incorporado en los clubes de alto rendimiento como complemento del entrenamiento. En este trabajo realizo una reflexión sobre las características y los beneficios que aporta este método. Su posible aplicación en el entrenamiento de fútbol de alto rendimiento, tanto c...

  13. Compromiso intestinal por quemadura eléctrica de alto voltaje: caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    C. Arriagada; C. Soto; V. Peña; J. Villegas

    2013-01-01

    Las quemaduras son una de las causas más importantes de discapacidad y mortalidad en todo el mundo. En las producidas por electricidad de alto voltaje, las manifestaciones sistémicas más frecuentes son la insuficiencia renal y las arritmias. La lesión visceral secundaria a una quemadura eléctrica es infrecuente y su tratamiento quirúrgico constituye un desafío. En este artículo presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente con quemadura eléctrica de alto voltaje con compromiso de la pared abdomi...

  14. Tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo asociado a foramen oval permeable

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Miranda; Sergio Franco; William Uribe; Mauricio Duque; Francisco Femenía; Adrián Baranchuk

    2012-01-01

    La alta mortalidad de los pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo amerita un enfoque terapéutico enérgico e invasivo que incluya la embolectomía pulmonar quirúrgica en aquellos pacientes con contraindicación para trombolisis o trombolisis fallida. Describimos un caso de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo que recibió tratamiento quirúrgico en vez de trombolisis debido a que al momento del diagnóstico presentaba un trombo móvil a través de un foramen oval permea...

  15. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Syr Salas Perea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Note from the Editors: This article by Drs. Borroto Cruz and Salas Perea was published in the Fall 2008 edition of MEDICC Review. We will be publishing a Spanish translation this month in Medicina Social. We present here the abstract of the article. We encourage readers to read the English original which is available at: www.medicc.org/mediccreview/. The issue is entitled: Teaching for Health Equity: Changing Paradigms of Medical Education. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela Introduction: Through the 1990s, wide disparities in health status were recorded in Venezuela, a mirror of poor social conditions, decreasing investment in the public health sector and a health workforce distribution unable to meet population health needs or to staff effective, accessible public health services. Venezuelans’ health status deteriorated as a result. In 2003-2004, the Venezuelan government launched Barrio Adentro, a new national public health model aimed at assuring primary health care coverage for the entire population of an estimated 26 million. Cuban physicians staff Barrio Adentro clinics, mainly in poor neighborhoods, until enough Venezuelan physicians can be trained to fill the posts. Intervention: Cuban experience with community-oriented medical education and global health cooperation was drawn upon to develop curriculum and provide faculty for the new National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, begun in 2005 in cooperation with six Venezuelan universities. The program differs from previous Venezuelan medical education models by adopting a stated goal of training physicians for public service, recruiting students who had no previous opportunity for university-level education, and concentrating the weight of their training on a service- and community-based model of education, relying on practicing physician-tutors. Results: Over 20,000 students have been enrolled in three years. The six

  16. [Taxonomy of some microteids (Squamata) from Venezuela, I: variation and geographic distribution of Euspondylus acutirostris and description of a new Euspondylus from northeast Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares-Urrutia, A; Celsa Señaris, J; Arends, A

    2000-01-01

    Only two species of the microteiid lizard genus Euspondylus (E. acutirostris and E. phelpsorum) had been reported from Venezuela. New records of the poorly known gymnophthalmid lizard Euspondylus acutirostris are reported extending its known range along the Coastal Range and Sierra de Aroa (north-central Venezuela) and Sierra de San Luis (northwestern Venezuela), all records occurring at the cloud forest above 1000 m. Seven body measurements were included and morphological variation is described based on at least 17 new specimens. Sexual dimorphism is determined in, at least, eight characteristics of size and squamation. Specimens were found in epiphytic bromeliads and the ground. The populations from Sierra de Aroa and Sierra de San Luis (only one specimen known from each locality), differ from those of the Coastal Range (supposedly the nominal population) in some morphological and coloration features, suggesting that the former two could represent different taxonomical entities. A new species of Euspondylus is described based on a female (taken within a bromeliad) from Cerro El Humo, Sucre, northeastern Venezuela. It differs from congeners mainly by having keeled scales on the limbs and a very acute snout.

  17. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  18. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Syndrome in Colombia and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez, Juan B; Murati, Felipe A; Pettito, Michele; Peñaranda, Carlos F; de Yepez, Jazmin; Maestre, Gladys; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    The ocular manifestations and sequelae of Zika virus infection are not well known. Recently, the World Health Organization changed the declaration of Zika as a public health emergency and designated the viral outbreak and related microcephaly clusters as a long-term program of work. This change indicates the urgent need to evaluate and document ophthalmic manifestations in patients for timely management of this disease. In addition, confirmation whether the public health problem in Brazil extends to other regions in South America is needed. To report the ocular manifestations of congenital Zika syndrome with microcephaly in Colombia and Venezuela. This prospective case series included 43 patients from 2 ophthalmic centers in Colombia and Venezuela who underwent evaluation from October 1, 2015, through June 30, 2016, and were clinically diagnosed with congenital Zika syndrome. Twenty patients were Hispanic; 13, African; 8, white; and 2, Native American. Ophthalmic and systemic evaluations and serologic testing were performed on all infants. Patients underwent external ocular examination and dilated ophthalmoscopy. Serologic testing ruled out toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus. Ophthalmic manifestations of congenital Zika syndrome. Of the 43 patients included in this series (28 female and 15 male), the mean (SD) age at examination was 2.1 (1.5) months. The mothers of all the children had no ophthalmic findings and did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. All patients had bilateral ophthalmic manifestations. Optic nerve findings included hypoplasia with the double-ring sign, pallor, and increased cup-disc ratio in 5 patients (11.6%). Macular abnormalities included mild to severe pigment mottling in 27 patients (63%) and lacunar maculopathy in 3 (6.9%). Chorioretinal scarring was present in 3 patients (7%). Eleven patients (26%) had a combination of lesions in the posterior pole. Five patients (12%) were

  19. Structural Model of the Tucupita Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Tucupita Field has an area of 73,51 Km2, is located between the states of Monagas and Delta Amacuro, geologically is located at the greater Temblador area in the Eastern Venezuela Basin, where the Oficina Formation's sands represent the main hydrocarbons reservoirs. From the results of the seismic reprocessing realized by Fusion Petroleum Technologies, Inc., the structural model of this field was done as initial step to the geocellular model of the Oficina-40 Reservoir, which was defined as a Faulted Relay Ramp, where the normal faults are dominant with NE-SW orientation Introduction The Tucupita Field is a mature oilfield at the greater Temblador area, however most of the wells were completed in the upper sands, therefore the main study is focused in the geological characterization of the Oficina-40 Reservoir's lower sands, starting by the structural model Previous Studies 1. Proyecto Tucupita 3D The seismic data of the Tucupita Field were adquired in 1996 by Western Atlas of Venezuela for the Benton Vinccler Company. The UTM coordinates of the wells used in this project, have been taken to make this geological model 2. Soporte Geofísico Integrado The seismic project Tucupita was processed by Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc., in Houston and consisted of reprocessing and pre-stack migration in time (PSTM) and pre-stack migration in depth (PSDM), this data belong to the Petrodelta Company Based on the regional stratigraphy, were validated the "picks" to make the structural sections to support research with hard data. After, it proceeded to interpret the structural style of the field from the seismic amplitude cube. Then, it was done the faults modelling and the stratigraphic horizons to carry out the geocellular model Three structural sections were realized, which was interpreted like a faulted monocline, whose peak is located southward, where justly the wells are located. The contact oil-water was interpreted to -5648'. Echelon faults were interpreted in a

  20. High yielding and disease resistant mutants of sorghum in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoso, A.; Murty, B.R.; Taborda, F.

    1987-01-01

    The programme was assisted by IAEA under project VEN/5/005 since 1978. It aims at improvement of plant type, earliness and resistance to Macrophomina in the locally adapted varieties Criollo Rojo Pequeno (CRP) and Criollo Blanco Alto (CBA). The mutagenic treatment consisted of seed irradiation at 20, 30 and 40 kR of gamma rays and chemical mutagenesis using sodium azide followed by 5000 kR gamma radiation. The 16 best mutants were evaluated in multilocation trials during M 6 -M 9 1981-1984: Mutants from CRP namely 1279, 1543, 1265, 2085, 1251 and 1359 and four mutant from CBA, 109, 467, 469 and 81-1227 were found to be superior to their parents and the existing commercial hybrids. CRP 1279, 1543 and 2085 are already under large scale cultivation by farmers and under process for cultivar certification by the Ministry of Agriculture