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Sample records for alto orinoco venezuela

  1. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  2. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  3. Water control wells methodology, applied in Orinoco Belt Morichal district, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcano, B.; Ramos, M.; Brown, J.; Lagrave, G.; Lista, H.; Ugas, L. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2006-07-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt is located next to the lower Orinoco River in eastern Venezuela, and contains large deposits of extra heavy oil. Water cut is a significant problem in the area due to aquifer activity and the fact that many wells are drilled in close proximity to the aquifer. This paper provided details of a pilot test conducted in the Carabobo and Morichal oilfield to evaluate a water control technique designed for use with horizontal wells. The method drained water through the horizontal wells that reached a water cut of higher than 80 per cent in order to protect neighbouring wells from potential water breakthrough in cases where the wells were completed close to aquifers. Results of the 2 pilot tests demonstrated that the method reduced water cut in the wells by 45 per cent. Total expected production increases were estimated at 542 bpd for a 4 well cluster. It was concluded that simulation and reservoir characterization studies are needed to optimize the methodology. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  4. New own design an application of electric heating cable for the Orinoco oil belt wells in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada, A; Jorge, L [PDVSA PETROLEOS S.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal recovery processes are common methods to reduce oil viscosity and the oil steaking factor. One of these methods consists of using a heating element to increase the well's temperature.. A new heating system, the down hole electric heating system (CEF), has been developed where the hold cable for the horizontal section is heated and used as a resistive heating element; the aim of this paper is to present this new technology system and its application. The system was installed one of PDVSA's wells in the Zuata Field in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and has now been in use for 8 months. Results showed a production increase of 20% with the use of the down hole electric heating system. Through successful application in a well in Venezuela, this paper showed that the down hole electric heating system can be a good alternative to produce oil from heavy oil reservoirs.

  5. Evaluation of thermal performance in fields subjected to steam injection (SW-SAGD mode), Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, F.; Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The first well to operate the SW-SAGD process in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela was built in 2006 by Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA). SW-SAGD is a thermal recovery process consisting in the injection of steam through a horizontal well pipe insulation. In order to follow the behavior of steam and the movement of heated fluids in such a process better, PDVSA installed a monitoring system composed of high temperature fiber optic and thermocouple type sensors. The aim of this paper is to assess the thermal behavior of reservoirs in wells under the SW-SAGD process. A pilot test has been conducted over the last 3 years. Results show an increase in production and estimations show a recovery factor twice as high as in other wells. This study demonstrated that SW-SAGD is an excellent alternative solution to stimulate reservoirs in the Orinoco oil belt and valuable information on the reservoir's thermal behavior was established.

  6. Domestication process of two Solanum section Lasiocarpa species among Amerindians in the Upper Orinoco, Venezuela, with special focus on Piaroa Indians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Marcucci, R.; Tornadore, N.; Paoletti, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Two semi-cultivated Solanum species (S. sessiliflorum Dunal and S. stramonifolium Jacq.) are utilized by the Amazonian Indians of the Upper Orinoco Basin in Venezuela. The manner in which they have become partially domesticated by the Piaroas and other native tribes of this rain forest region is elu

  7. Geostatistical modeling of a fluviodeltaic reservoir in the Huyapari Field, Hamaca area, in the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ascencao, Erika M.; Munckton, Toni; Digregorio, Ricardo [Petropiar (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Huyapari field, situated within the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco (FPO) of Venezuela presents unique problems in terms of modeling. This field is spread over a wide area and is therefore subject to variable oil quality and complex fluvial facies architecture. Ameriven and PDVSA have been working on characterizing the ld's reservoirs in this field since 2000 and the aim of this paper is to present these efforts. Among others, a 3-D seismic survey completed in 1998 and a stratigraphic framework built from 149 vertical wells were used for reservoir characterization. Geostatistical techniques such as sequential Gaussian simulation with locally varying mean and cloud transform were also used. Results showed that these geostatistical methods accurately represented the architecture and properties of the reservoir and its fluid distribution. This paper showed that the application of numerous different techniques in the Hamasca area permitted reservoir complexity to be captured.

  8. Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossini, Mario; Blanco, P.A.; Marin, E.;

    2012-01-01

    The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during postlaying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal...

  9. SAGD pilot project, wells MFB-772 (producer) / MFB-773 (injector), U1,3 MFB-53 reservoir, Bare Field. Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Armas, F.; Vasquez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil and extra heavy oil fields, steam assisted gravity drainage is a thermal recovery method used to reduce oil viscosity and thus increase oil recovery. For SAGD to be successfully applied in deep reservoirs, drilling and completion of the producer and injector wells are critical. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently assessing the feasibility of SAGD in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and this paper aims at presenting the methodology used to ensure optimal drilling and completion of the project. This method was divided in several stages: planning, drilling and completion of the producer, injector and then of the observer wells and cold information capture. It was found that the use of magnetic guidance tools, injection pipe pre-insulated and pressure and temperature sensors helps optimize the drilling and completion process. A methodology was presented to standardize operational procedures in the drilling and completion of SAGD projects in the Orinoco oil belt.

  10. Drilling fluids engineering to drill extra-heavy oil reservoir on the Orinoco Oil Belt, eastern Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pino, R.; Gonazalez, W. [Proamsa, Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    Petrocedeno is an exploration and development company operating in Venezuela. As part of a multidisciplinary group, Proamsa has been working with Petrocedeno to drill horizontal wells while minimizing issues related to the handling of drilling fluids. Proamsa is the only 100 per cent Venezuelan Company involved in drilling extra-heavy oil wells. The drilling plan for Petrocedeno was divided into two campaigns. More than 400 horizontal wells were drilled during the first campaign from 1999 to 2003 which represented over 2,500,000 drilled feet into the Oficina Formation (pay zone of the field). From 2006, during the second drilling campaign, and another 154 horizontal wells having been drilled until 2006 utilizing the xantam gum viscoelastic fluid. This paper discussed the field geology of the Orinoco oil belt. Well design was also explained and discussed and drilling fluid design and new fluid formations were presented. The benefits of xantam gum viscoelastic fluid were also discussed. It was concluded that recycling of drilling fluid from well to well minimized volume and reduced costs. In addition, centrifugation of drilling fluids either on intermediate or horizontals sections while the rig was skidding was always a very good practice avoiding mixing additional volumes. It was also demonstrated that the initial idea to provide a drilling fluid service company with a 100 per cent national value was a success, as demonstrated by the high performance shown by Proamsa during the second drilling campaign with external technologic support. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Reservoir characterization of hydraulic flow units in heavy-oil reservoirs at Petromonagas, eastern Orinoco belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merletti, G.D.; Hewitt, N.; Barrios, F.; Vega, V.; Carias, J. [BP Exploration, Houston, TX (United States); Bueno, J.C.; Lopez, L. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    An accurate integrated reservoir description is necessary in extra-heavy oil prospects where pore throat geometries are the ultimate control on hydrocarbon primary recovery. The key element in producing accurate oil reservoir descriptions and improving productivity is to determine relationships between core-derived pore-throat parameters and log-derived macroscopic attributes. This paper described the use of the flow zone indicator technique (FZI) to identify hydraulic units within depositional facies. It focused on a petrophysical analysis aimed at improving the description of reservoir sandstones containing heavy or extra heavy oil in the eastern Orinoco belt in Venezuela. The Petromonagas license area contains large volumes of crude oil in-place with an API gravity of 8. Production comes primarily from the lowermost stratigraphic unit of the Oficina Formation, the Miocene Morichal Member. Facies analysis has revealed various depositional settings and core measurements depict a wide range in reservoir quality within specific depositional facies. The reservoir is divided into 4 different rock qualities and 5 associated non-reservoir rocks. The use of the FZI technique provides a better understanding of the relationship between petrophysical rock types and depositional facies. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  12. Vector bionomics and malaria transmission in the Upper Orinoco River, Southern Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Magris

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Ocamo, Upper Orinoco River, between January 1994 and February 1995 to understand the dynamics of malaria transmission in this area. Malaria transmission occurs throughout the year with a peak in June at the beginning of the rainy season. The Annual Parasite Index was 1,279 per 1,000 populations at risk. Plasmodium falciparum infections accounted for 64% of all infections, P. vivax for 28%, and P. malariae for 4%. Mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections were diagnosed in 15 people representing 4% of total cases. Children under 10 years accounted for 58% of the cases; the risk for malaria in this age group was 77% higher than for those in the greater than 50 years age group. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant anopheline species landing on humans indoors with a biting peak between midnight and dawn. A significant positive correlation was found between malaria monthly incidence and mean number of An. darlingi caught. There was not a significant relationship between mean number of An. darlingi and rainfall or between incidence and rainfall. A total of 7295 anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite (CS protein. Only An. darlingi (55 was positive for CS proteins of P. falciparum (0.42%, P. malariae (0.25%, and P. vivax-247 (0.1%. The overall estimated entomological inoculation rate was 129 positive bites/person/year. The present study was the first longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study conducted in this area and set up the basic ground for subsequent intervention with insecticide-treated nets.

  13. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ginsberg, Joshua R.; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. PMID:26982578

  14. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Lafferriere, Natalia A; Antelo, Rafael; Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ayarzagüena, José; Ginsberg, Joshua R; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

  15. Seasonal variability of total dissolved fluxes and origin of major dissolved elements within a large tropical river: The Orinoco, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque, Alain; Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Alkattan, Rana; Steiger, Johannes; Mora, Abrahan; Adèle, Georges; Castellanos, Bartolo; Lagane, Christèle; Lopez, José Luis; Perez, Jesus; Rodriguez, Militza; Rosales, Judith

    2013-07-01

    Seasonal variations of total dissolved fluxes of the lower Orinoco River were calculated taking into account four complete hydrological cycles during a five-year period (2005-2010). The modern concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) of the Orinoco surface waters were compared with data collected during the second half of the last century published in the literature. This comparison leads to the conclusion that chemical composition did not evolve significantly at least over the last thirty to forty years. Surface waters of the Orinoco at Ciudad Bolivar are between bicarbonated calcic and bicarbonated mixed. In comparison to mean values of concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) of world river surface waters (89.2 mg l-1), the Orinoco River at Ciudad Bolivar presents mainly low mineralized surface waters (2005-10: TDS 30 mg l-1). The TDS fluxes passing at this station in direction to the Atlantic Ocean between 2005 and 2010 were estimated at 30 × 106 t yr-1, i.e. 36 t km-2 yr-1. It was observed that the seasonal variations (dry season vs wet season) of total dissolved fluxes (TDS and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) are mainly controlled by discharge variations. Two groups of elements have been defined from dilution curves and molar ratio diagrams. Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, Cl- and Na+ mainly come from the same geographic and lithologic area, the Andes. K+ and SiO2 essentially come from the Llanos and the Guayana Shield. These findings are important for understanding fundamental geochemical processes within the Orinoco River basin, but also as a baseline study in the perspective of the development of numerous mining activities related with aluminum and steel industries; and the plans of the Venezuelan government to construct new fluvial ports on the lower Orinoco for the transport of hydrocarbons.

  16. Optimization of stimulation and cleaning works with coiled tubing equipments in low productivity wells of the Zuata Field, Junin Block Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, H.; Amaya, R.; Bernard, J. St. [PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Zuata Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela, has important recoverable reserves but faces sand production and low reservoir pressures in many cases. Thus solid removal and cleaning are necessary and increase stimulation time and cost. The aim of this paper is to present a new technique for minimizing the rig time/cost. This new scheme of completion uses a cleaning technology with CCTU WellVac SandVac to clean the filling and remove formation damage from low pressure wells. Field tests were conducted in the Zuata Field on two wells operated by PDVSA. The new methodology proved successful in stimulating low pressure reservoirs and results showed that sediments were removed without significant loss of fluids, the CAPEX/OPEX per well was reduced and profitability in low and medium production wells increased. The methodology proposed herein was shown to be a good alternative for stimulating and cleaning low productivity wells.

  17. Ecological and spatial modeling : mapping ecosystems, landscape changes, and plant species distribution in Llanos del Orinoco, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, E.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The transformation of Llanos del Orinoco, focused on the flooding savanna, is evaluated in terms of the change and replacement of the savanna ecosystem and the plant species distribution under a Landscape Ecological approach. This research is carried out at three spatial scales: sub-continental, reg

  18. Weathering processes and the composition of inorganic material transported through the orinoco river system, Venezuela and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R.F.; Koehnken, L.; Johnsson, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of river-borne material in the Orinoco River system is related primarily to erosion regime, which in turn is related to tectonic setting; especially notable is the contrast between material derived from tectonically active mountain belts and that from stable cratonic regions. For a particular morpho-tectonic region, the compositional suites of suspended sediment, bed material, overback deposits, and dissolved phases are fairly uniform are are typically distinct from whose of other regions. For each region, a consistent set of chemical weathering reactions can be formulated to explain the composition of dissolved and solid loads. In developing these formulations, erosion on slopes and storage of solids in soils and alluvial sediments are important considerations. Compositionally verymature sediment is derived from areas of thick soils where erosion is transport limited and from areas where sediments are stored for extended periods of time in alluvial deposits. Compositionally immature sediments are derived from tectonically active mountain belts where erosion is weathering limited. Weathering-limited erosion also is important in the elevated parts of the Guayana Shield within areas of sleep topography. Compared to the mountain belts, sediments derived from elevated parts of the Shield are more mature. A greater degree of chemical weathering seems to be needed to erode the rock types typical of the Shield. The major-element chemistry and mineral composition of sediment delivered by the Orinoco River to the ocean are controlled by rivers that have their headwaters in mountain belts and cross the Llanos, a region of alluvial plains within the foreland basin. The composition of sediments in rivers that drain the Shield seems to be established primarily at the site of soil formation, whereas for rivers that drain the mountain belts, additional weathering occurs during s episodes of storage on alluvial plains as sediments are transported across the Llanos

  19. Optimization of the recovery factor by implementing a continuous steam injection pilot in the Huyapari Field located in the Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; Munckton, T.; Armas, F.; Johan, J.; Barrios, A. [PDVSA PetroPiar (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Located in Venezuela, the Orinoco heavy oil belt (Faja) is one of the world's biggest accumulations of extra heavy crude oil. Recovery rates in the Faja are relatively low and so one of the key objectives is to increase it. The thermal recovery process could be a way to increase production as it has been proven in other heavy oil fields and PDVSA has started a pilot project to test the process on the Faja reservoirs. This paper aimed at providing an overview of the project. The different steps of the Huyapari thermal pilot project are discussed: the objectives and challenges of the project, project design, uncertainty management, site selection, modeling of the site subsurface and optimization planning in terms of well configuration and constraints. This project is under development and further steps will be required before there are results but when there are, it is expected that they will provide valuable information on the technical and economic feasibility of thermal recovery projects in the Faja area.

  20. Participación directa de los trabajadores en la Siderúrgica del Orinoco 'Alfredo Maneiro', Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Cova, Milagros Isabel; Dávila, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación, en progreso, se propone caracterizar la participación de los trabajadores promovida en la industria siderúrgica de la región Guayana, Venezuela. Los referentes que sustentan esta investigación se orientan a las categorías de participación de los trabajadores en la toma de decisiones en empresas bajo dos vertientes principales en estudio: la democracia industrial y la gestión o dirección participativa. La investigación se desarrolla bajo una estrategia de acompañamiento a l...

  1. Experimental and natural infection of Simulium sanchezi by Mansonella ozzardi in the Middle Orinoco region of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarzábal, L; Basáñez, M G; Ramírez-Pérez, J; Ramírez, A; Botto, C; Yarzábal, A

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and natural infections of Simulium sanchezi by Mansonella ozzardi were studied in the area of Síquita, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. The microfilariae developed synchronously in the blackflies, reaching stage L3 in seven to eight days at temperatures between 23 degrees and 27 degrees C. Larvae in different stages of development, including infective forms, were found in 0.6% of 662 unfed wild-caught females. These results confirm that simuliids are the main vectors of M. ozzardi in the American continent.

  2. La sedimentación del Delta del río Orinoco y sus implicaciones geopolíticas en las relaciones entre Venezuela y Trinidad-Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigio Cedeño

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La sedimentación del delta del río Orinoco podría influir en las relaciones geopolíticas entre Venezuela y Trinidad-Tobago, ya que los espacios deltaicos abarcan superficies cada vez más extensas, y de esta manera generan un acercamiento progresivo entre territorio venezolano y trinitario. Al norte y sur de Trinidad existen ciudades importantes como Puerto España, Point Fortín y La Brea, con recursos e industrias vinculadas a la actividad petrolera vitales para su desarrollo económico, que mantienen relaciones de intercambio comercial y cultural con centros poblados situados en el estado Delta Amacuro y la península de Paria, conformándose así la frontera entre Venezuela y Trinidad-Tobago, a pesar de existir barreras en cuanto a idioma, cultura y costumbres. Para el Estado venezolano, el delta del río Orinoco constituye la fachada atlántica que proyecta su Zona Económica Exclusiva y por este motivo, Venezuela y Trinidad-Tobago comparten un espacio que posee recursos marinos, mineros y pesqueros de alta rentabilidad. Para la explotación de estos recursos, se recurrió a la delimitación jurídica a objeto de establecer el derecho que cada Estado posee en la zona, sin embargo, los espacios respectivos que cada país ha adquirido en virtud de dicha delimitación podrían verse afectados por la sedimentación deltaica, en los aspectos social, económico, político y limítrofe, tal y como se concluye en este artículo.

  3. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments Altos níveis de Mercúrio e Chumbo detectados pela análise de cabelo em dois ambientes venezuelanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Marcano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon state, whereas automobile activity is responsible for high levels of Lead in hair in Caracas.Concentrações de mercúrio e chumbo obtidas pela análise ICP-OAS de amostras de cabelo humano de comunidades ribeirinhas ao longo do rio Orinoco no estado de Amazonas (Venezuela foram comparadas com outras de Caracas, Venezuela. Levando em consideração as características desses dois ambientes e os valores das concentrações médias de mercúrio e chumbo, foram estabelecidas linhas basais que sugerem que as atividades de minério de ouro próximo ao rio Orinoco são responsáveis pelos altos conteúdos de mercúrio em cabelo no estado de Amazonas. Entretanto, a indústria automotriz é responsável pelo alto conteúdo de chumbo em cabelo em Caracas.

  4. New designed device allows significant savings in PCP completions, in the Zuata Field, Junin block of the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, T.; Brunings, C. [PDVSA (Venezuela); Grisoni, J. [TIET, C.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the Zuata principal field in the Orinoco oil belt, PDVSA has implemented a new device named FMB-TIET. This device is a retrievable mechanically activated tool designed with a torque anchor which converts a tubular PCP into an insertable PCP. In the Zuata principal field, the insertable PCPs have been used since 2001 but, given the intent of PDVSA to increase its oil production rates and decrease its operational expenditure, the FMB-TIET device was tried in well ZPZ0047 in February, 2010. This implementation along with Flush by unit resulted in a considerable saving: the operational expenditure for replacement service was reduced by 63%, rig time was reduced by two days and production delays were also reduced by two days. The test of the FMB-TIET device in one well of the Orinoco oil belt has proved to be successful and PDVSA is planning to install twenty devices in the short term.

  5. Seasonal inundation patterns in two large savanna floodplains of South America: the Llanos de Moxos (Bolivia) and the Llanos del Orinoco (Venezuela and Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen K.; Sippel, Suzanne J.; Melack, John M.

    2004-08-01

    Inundation patterns in two of the largest savanna floodplains of South America were studied by analysis of the 37-GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (Nimbus-7 satellite). Flooded area was estimated at monthly intervals for January 1979 through to August 1987 using mixing models that account for the major landscape units with distinctive microwave emission characteristics. Results are presented separately for five subregions in each of the two floodplain regions to show the spatial as well as temporal variability in inundation patterns. The total area inundated during the 9 years varied between 2069 and 78 460 km2 in the Llanos de Moxos (also spelled as Mojos; median area, 23 383 km2) and 1278 and 105 454 km2 in the Llanos del Orinoco (median, 25 374 km2), not including the open-water area of permanent lakes and river channels. The correlation between flooded area and river stage was used to extend the inundation records over a 30-year period in the Moxos (1967-97) and a 58-year period (1927-85) in the Orinoco. Interannual variability in inundation is greater in the Moxos than the Orinoco. Comparison of these data, however, with a previously published analysis of the Pantanal wetland shows that inundation patterns in these two floodplain regions are not as variable across years as they are in the Pantanal.

  6. Composición proximal, ácidos grasos y características fisicoquímicas de aceite de harina artesanal de caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus Pisces: Characidae proveniente de Caicara del Orinoco-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granados, Ángel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Caribe (Serrasalmus rhoembeus is a Characidae fish that lives in the basins of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. It is an  underutilized specie although in the last years has been marketed in the form of of a meal which is obtained through a handmade process but without information about its chemical composition. This research was conducted to evaluate the proximate composition of commercial caribe meal, the fatty acids profile and some physicochemical properties of its lipidic extract. Three aleatory samples of meal were selected in Caicara del Orinoco shops, Bolívar state –Venezuela. Moisture (6.00 ± 0.45 %, crude protein (N x 6.25: 52.78 ± 2.36 %, crude fat (22.47 ± 1.08 % and total ash (24.58 ± 3.12 % were determined in each sample. The fat was extracted with nhexane and it was analyzed for free fatty acids (5.66 ± 0.15 % as oleic acid, peroxide value (23.50 ± 1.02 meq O2/kg, iodine value (152.2 ± 0.5, saponification value (186.5 ± 0.3 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 ± 0.4 g/kg. The fatty acids profile showed an unsaturated acids/ saturated acids ratio of 5.62 with 59.9 % of monounsaturated fatty acids and 25.0 % of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Caribe meal is an important source of nutrients and a potential raw material for human food.El caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus es un pez de la familia Characidae de la cuenca de los ríos Orinoco y Amazonas, de poco valor comercial debido a su estructura espinosa y a creencias relacionadas con su hábito alimentario, pero que en años recientes los pobladores de las zonas donde existe naturalmente le han dado utilidad mediante la obtención artesanal de una harina que es expendida para consumo humano; sin embargo, no se dispone de información referente a su composición química. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química proximal del producto comercializado como harina de caribe y algunas características fisicoquímicas del extracto lipídico de la misma

  7. Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    This discussion of Venezuela reviews the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; statistical systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in realizing development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Over the 1920-1961 period Venezuela's level of fertility was high and continued to rise gradually. The crude birth rate was around 40.0/1000 population in 1920, 44.0/1000 in 1950, and 45.0/1000 in 1961, and thereafter began to decline, dropping to a level of 38.4/1000 by 1971. During the same period, mortality underwent a steady decline, with the crude death rate falling from 30.0/1000 population in 1920 to 13.7 in 1950, 7.4 in 1961, and to 6.6 by 1971. Venezuela's government has no policy of intervention to modify fertility or population growth but has relied primarily on the benefits of rapid economic growth to achieve a rate of demographic growth that is compatible with its development objectives. Since 1920, 7 modern censuses have been conducted. The most recent census was in 1971. The registration data are classified as incomplete. Multiround sample household surveys were conducted in 1976-1977 and 1978. The government has not established a special unit for population policies. It assigned this function to the Central Planning Agency in 1975. The government has not announced a comprehensive population policy, but it has been moving in the direction of formulating more comprehensive policies in 2 areas of concern--international migration and spatial distribution. The government considers the current rate of population growth to be satisfactory despite the fact that it is rather high by Latin American standards. The government also considers

  8. First deep azimuthal electromagnetic resistivity and rotary steerable system geonavigation project result in complex sands for Bare field in Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, P.; Guzman, R.; Rojas, C.; Ache, A. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Hazboun, N.K.; Gonzalez, K. [Schlumberger, Piso (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) in the Mucura District has been evaluating the use of new technologies that facilitate reaching reservoirs with complex geologies, such as thin sands, uncertain dip changes, and unconsolidated sands. The objective was to improve overall operational efficiency. PDVSA carried out a pilot project in a thin and unconsolidated package where a very high drilling rate was expected. The selected sand, known as TL sand in the Oficina formation of the Bare field, was initially planned for cold production, with expected implementation of thermal enhanced oil recovery processes in the future. This paper discussed the pilot project, with particular reference to geology; well placement for thermal processes; planning; and objectives and challenges of the high viscosity of the oil contained in the Bare field. Details of the pre-job modelling were presented along with updates of the geological model. Achievements were also presented. It was concluded that the greatest value that this technology brings resides in the ability to measure the boundary distance in real time, allowing for appropriate action to be taken. 3 refs., 19 figs.

  9. Molecular systematics of the freshwater stingrays (myliobatiformes: potamotrygonidae) of the Amazon, Orinoco, Magdalena, Esequibo, Caribbean, and Maracaibo basins (Colombia - Venezuela): evidence from three mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David Alejandro; Lasso, Carlos Andres; Morales, Monica; Caballero, Susana Josefina

    2016-11-01

    Lack of adequate information about the taxonomic and evolutionary relationships, ecology, biology, and distribution of several species belonging to the family Potamotrygonidae makes these species vulnerable to anthropic activities, including commercial overexploitation for the ornamental fish market. The aim of this study was to investigate the systematic relationships among genera and species belonging to this family by analyses of three mitochondrial gene regions. Samples were collected from the main river basins in Colombia and Venezuela for four genera and seven species of the family, as well as for what appear to be unidentified species. Three mitochondrial molecular markers COI, Cytb, and ATP6 were amplified and sequenced. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis were performed to obtain topologies for each marker and for a concatenated dataset including the three genes. Small dataset may compromise some methods estimations of sequence divergence in the ATP6 marker. Monophyly of the four genera in Potamotrygonidae was confirmed and phylogenetic relationships among members of the Potamotrygon genus were not clearly resolved. However, results obtained with the molecular marker Cytb appear to offer a good starting point to differentiate among genera and species as a tool that could be used for barcoding. The application of this gene as a barcode could be applied for management and regulation of extraction practices for these genera. Sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes would be the next step for testing evolutionary hypothesis among these genera. Population structure analyses should be undertaken for Paratrygon, Potamotrygon magdalenae and motoro.

  10. 委内瑞拉奥里诺科重油带地质与油气资源储量%Geology and reserve of the Orinoco heavy oil belt, Venezuela

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆龙新; 韩国庆; 徐宝军

    2009-01-01

    Orinoco heavy oil belt is the largest heavy oil enriched area in the world, with the total area of 54 000 km~2, heavy oil reserves of about 200 billion tons, and recoverable reserves of about 50 billion tons. It is located in the marginal uplift belt of East Venezuela Basin, and is a monocline dipping to the north. The main reservoir is Tertiary fluvial deltaic facies sandstone characterized by shallow depth of oil layer, large thickness, high porosity, high permeability, high oil saturation,poor consolidation, and strong heterogeneity. The main trap is lithologic trap, and locally controlled by faults. The belt is subdivided into 4 large areas with 32 blocks, and the proved reserves are mainly in the JUNIN and CARABOBO regions.Oil pools are characterized by "three highs and one low" in the fluidity of the heavy oil, that is, high gravity, high sulfur, high content of heavy metals vanadium and nickel, and low viscosity, and foamy oil can be formed. Under the conditions of cold production, the oil can flow and single well production is high, the production with horizontal well is up to 200 tons per day, and the oil recovery is relatively low (5 %-10 %).%奥里诺科重油带是目前世界上最大的重油富集带,位于东委内瑞拉盆地南缘的北倾单斜上,总面积为54 000 km~2,重油地质储量约2 000×10~8t,可采储量约500×10~8t.该重油带主要储集层是一套第三系河流一三角洲相砂岩,油层埋藏浅,厚度大,孔隙度、渗透率、含油饱和度高,岩石固结程度差,非均质性强.重油带油藏以岩性圈闭为主,局部受断层控制.重油带被划分为4大区32个可开发区块,目前探明储量主要分布在JUNIN和CARABOBO两个地区,区内油藏具有三高一低可流动的特点,即:高比重,高含硫.高含重金属钒和镍,低黏度,可形成泡沫油.冷采条件下可流动并能获得很高的单井产能,水平井冷采产量一般可达200 t/d,冷采采收率较低,为5%~10%.图7表4参6

  11. Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Provenzano R.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Harttia merevari, a new species of loricariid catfish, is described from eight specimens captured in the upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. The new species is recognized by the following combination of characters: abdomen naked; two or three preanal plates; a bony plate before each branchial opening; seven lateral plates between the pectoral and pelvic fins; maxillary barbel short and attached to the oral disk by a fleshy fold; head dorsal surface and anterior portion of the body light or dark yellow with numerous, round black spots; posterior region of the body light or dark yellow with five black transverse bands, dorsal central area of the two anterior bands diffused. The discovery of this new species extends the distribution of the genus northwest to include the Orinoco River basin on the northern slope of the Guyana shield.Harttia merevari, uma espécie nova de bagre loricarideo é descrita com base em oito exemplares capturados no alto rio Caura, bacia do rio Orinoco, Venezuela. A espécie nova se distingue pela seguinte combinação de caracteres: abdome nu; duas ou três placas preanais; presença de uma placa óssea anterior a cada abertura branquial; sete placas laterais entre as nadadeiras peitorais e pélvicas; barbilhão maxilar curto e unido ao disco oral por uma dobra carnosa; superfície dorsal da cabeça e região anterior do corpo amarelo escuro ou marrom claro com numerosos pontos negros arredondados, região dorsal e posterior do corpo amarelo escuro ou marrom claro com cinco bandas transversais negras, as duas bandas anteriores com a parte dorsocentral difusa. A descoberta desta espécie nova estende a distribuição do gênero ao noroeste incluindo a bacia do rio Orinoco na vertente norte do Escudo das Guianas.

  12. Régimen alimenticio y nutrición en algunos hatos del Alto Apure (Venezuela: Un estudio cuantitativo, 1909-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Sánchez, Jaime

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se examinan algunos caracteres de la actividad de trabajo y del régimen alimenticio de los peones de un grupo de hatos del Alto Apure, cuyo propietario era el presidente de Venezuela, Juan Vicente Gómez. La construcción de la ración media permite sostener que presentaba un adecuado nivel calórico y que su calidad nutricional podría haber estado reducida a los mínimos exigibles para la manutención del nivel de actividad en el trabajo del llano. Es posible que las características del funcionamiento económico de los hatos estudiados presionaran los costos de alimentación.

    La monotonía de la dieta podría haber sido garantía de equilibrio nutricional, al combinarse con actividades personales de caza y pesca, de tal modo que la estacionalidad en el empleo de la mano de obra aparece como una condición de supervivencia.

  13. Turismo Sustentable como Alternativa de Desarrollo en las Comunidades de la Faja Petrolífera del Orinoco. Caso: Sector Laguna de Mamo, Municipio Independencia, Estado Anzoátegui, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Blanco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Laguna de Mamo tiene una superficie de 55 km2; recibe las aguas de los ríos Camoruco y Merey y desemboca en el Orinoco por el río Mamo. Está ubicada al sur-oeste del estado Anzoátegui en el municipio Independencia, parroquia Mamo y pertenece al Área Carabobo de la Faja Petrolífera del Orinoco. La zona en la que se ubica la Laguna de Mamo concentra grandes posibilidades de desarrollo turístico a nivel local, pues cuenta con varios sitios naturales para la recreación y el esparcimiento al aire libre; así como valores culturales que pueden ser aprovechados para el turismo de naturaleza, bajo la modalidad del turismo rural. Durante la celebración de las diversas fiestas patronales que se celebran en la zona, en temporadas de Semana Santa y Carnaval, las comunidades son visitadas por grupos de personas que se trasladan, principalmente en vehículos propios, a pasar el día en los ríos y lagunas. La zona se caracteriza por la presencia de gran variedad de cuerpos de agua, en torno a los cuales se desarrolla una de las principales actividades económicas de la región, como es la pesca. Estos cuerpos de agua, constituyen pequeños ecosistemas en los que habitan diversas especies de flora y fauna autóctonas y que también pueden ser aprovechadas con fines turísticos. El objetivo de la investigación consistió en identificar las posibilidades de desarrollo del turismo sustentable bajo la modalidad del turismo rural, en torno a la Laguna de Mamo, como una alternativa económica regional

  14. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments Altos níveis de Mercúrio e Chumbo detectados pela análise de cabelo em dois ambientes venezuelanos

    OpenAIRE

    Eunice Marcano; Mary Labady; Clara Gomes; Guillermina Aguiar; Jorge Laine

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  15. Orinoco bitumen in water emulsion (Orimulsion): untapping an unlimited premium fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, D.R.; Euler Jimenez G.; Javier Izaguirre M.; Jose Salazar P.; Carrizo, R.; Alcantara, J.

    1987-01-01

    Venezuela has extensive recoverable reserves of extra heavy crudes and natural bitumens located in the Orinoco Oil Belt. INTEVEP, S.A. and LAGOVEN, S.A. have developed the Orinoco bitumen in water emulsion (ORIMULSION) for the production, handling and transportation of those hydrocarbons. This emulsion is considered a premium fuel due to its performance in conventional liquid firing systems. Pilot scale combustion tests, conducted during 1986, at INTEVEP Combustion Research Facility (ICRF) and Nagasaki Technical Institute (NTI-Mitsubishi Heavy Industries), Japan, have demonstrated the technical feasibility of burning this natural fuel steam-assisted, obtaining high combustion efficiency values (99.90%), which resemble those of a No.6 fuel-oil. This allows forecasting a promising future for ORIMULSION as a new fuel for thermal power stations.

  16. Aspectos Musicales del Joropo de Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Calderón Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Joropo es una expresión de arte popular en permanente evolución, originalmente una fiesta campesina o pueblerina que integra poesía, canto, música y danza en un sistema de creatividad improvisatoria sobre estructuras establecidas y parámetros definidos de estilo. El Joropo se caracteriza por un sistema de estructuras cristalizadas a lo largo de la historia a partir de canciones y danzas tradicionales que se erigieron en formas musicales, sirviendo como base para a variantes en la letra, o convirtiéndose en formas puramente instrumentales. El Joropo es una tradición que abarca casi la totalidad del territorio venezolano y al menos la cuarta parte del territorio colombiano. En Venezuela el Joropo es considerado el baile nacional por excelencia y existen tres tipos de Joropo clasificados por regiones con importantes variantes de instrumentación y estilo: el Joropo Oriental, el Joropo Central y el Joropo Llanero. Solamente el Joropo Llanero, extendido alrededor de la cuenca central del Orinoco, es común a Colombia y Venezuela, siendo el más difundido de todos, tanto por la amplia discografía y radiodifusión como por la abundancia de festivales, concursos y torneos que involucran a ambos países. Además es notable el auge y desarrollo urbano que ha tenido esta música en los últimos años en las respectivas capitales. Sus orígenes se remontan a las músicas ibéricas del Siglo XVII y XVIII, tales como el múltiple Fandango, las Folías, Peteneras, Jotas y Malagueñas andaluzas, sazonadas con la influencia de ocho siglos de dominación árabe y posteriormente transformadas en América con el mestizaje de elementos africanos e indígenas, bajo el sol abrasador de la Cuenca del Orinoco y la vastedad infinita de sus horizontes y llanuras. Los antecesores del Joropo incluyen la música de marineros y trovadores que llega en los galeones provenientes de España, transformándose en música arraigada en el suelo americano y dando lugar a

  17. Oil production in the Orinoco basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borregales, C.J.

    1980-02-01

    With an extension of 42,000 sq km, the Orinoco basin is one of the largest petroliferous zones in the world which contains high viscosity and low API gravity crude. Results from production tests performed in the central and southern parts of the basin indicate that its productive potential is similar to that in Morichal, Pilon and Jobo fields, and reveals that the heaviest oil existing in the Orinoco basin could be economically exploited by conventional methods of primary oil recovery. It is estimated that the oil recovery could be 5% of the total oil-in-place by using primary recovery methods, 8% by using alternate steam injection, and 20% by secondary recovery methods (continuous steam injection). However, if the compaction phenomenon takes place, an estimate of 5% to 15% additional oil recovery could be possible. Geology, fluid properties, results from production tests, and recovery methods in the Orinoco basin are presented.

  18. Venezuela's Petroleum Diplomacy and China & Venezuela Cooperation in Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The considerable potential of oil and gasproduction in VenezuelaVenezuela is located in the north end of the South American continent. The oil reserve of Venezuelan announced by OPEC is 296.5 billion barrels (about 40.62 billion tons). Most of the oil reserve locates in Orinoco River area where heavy oil and ultra heavy oil can be explored, are highly viscosity and highly sulfur.

  19. Budgets of fixed nitrogen in the Orinoco Savannah Region: Role of pyrodenitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Eugenio; Crutzen, Paul J.

    1998-12-01

    Human activities have strongly altered the amount of fixed nitrogen that cycles in many regions of the industrialized world, with serious environmental consequences. Past studies conducted at the Orinoco savannahs of Venezuela offer a unique possibility for reviewing the cycling of nitrogen species in a tropical environment. The available information for the Orinoco savannahs is critically reviewed, and, despite many uncertainties, we present a budget analysis of both the fixed N in the soil-vegetation system and atmospheric NOy. Analysis of the data indicates that nitrogen fixation, especially by legumes, and ammonia emission from vegetation and animal wastes needs considerable attention in future research efforts. In contrast with many regions of the world, in the studied region, nonindustrial sources, foremost biomass burning, dominate the soil-vegetation and atmospheric budgets of fixed N. In general, N cycling is mainly driven by biomass burning. The resulting pyrodenitrification in the soil-vegetation system is the largest single process that, during the following wet season, may promote biological fixation to compensate for the N losses from fires during the burning season. However, a gradual impoverishment of the N status of the savannah ecosystems cannot be excluded. During the dry season, biomass burning is also the main source of atmospheric NOy, which is largely exported, mainly in the direction of the Amazon forest. Together with other nutrients, a "fertilization" of the Amazon forest due to biomass burning in the savannah may be the result. These issues require further scientific analysis.

  20. Re-Entries: New strategies in development zones at the Orinoco Oil Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.; Briceno, M.; Figueroa, J.; Bolanos, C. [Lagoven, S.A., Morichal, Edo. Monagas (Venezuela)

    1996-08-01

    Drilling of horizontal wells in Venezuela began in the Orinoco Oil Belt with the wells CI-87 and CI-97 in the J-20 block, drilled in 1989 and 1990, respectively. Well CI-87 produces up to 1000 BPD without steam injection. Due to the success of this well, the exploitation strategy was oriented toward re-entry and sidetracking wells with mechanical problems, high water cut and low potential. The purpose of this programme was to enhance drainage patterns, access new reservoirs through existing bores, and increase oil production while reducing per-barrel costs. Eighteen (18) wells were re-drilled in different pay zones such as O-12, O-13, O-14 and O-15 with horizontal sections between a thousand feet and one thousand six hundred feet. Those wells were completed with progressive cavity pumps, sucker rod beam pumps and electrical submersible pumps. Presented in this paper are the results of the re-entries at the Orinoco Oil Belt and the future re-entry strategy.

  1. Conservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Blanco, Ariel S.; Morales-Betancourt, Mónica A.; Seijas, Andrés E.; Lasso, Carlos A.; Antelo, Rafael; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of large predator species has historically been a challenge because they often overlap in resource utilization with humans; furthermore, there is a general lack of in-depth knowledge of their ecology and natural history. We assessed the conservation status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius), defining regional habitat priorities/crocodile conservation units (RHP/CCU) and regional research priorities (RRP) for this species. We also estimated a species distribution model (SDM) to define current suitable areas where the species might inhabit and/or that might be successfully colonized. The SDM area obtained with a suitable habitat probability ≥ 0.5 was 23,621 km2. Out of 2,562 km2 are included within protected areas in both Colombia (1,643 km2) and Venezuela (919 km2), which represents only 10.8% of C. intermedius’ potential range. Areas such as Laguna de Chigüichigüe (flood plain lagoon) exhibited an increase in population abundance. In contrast, localities such as the Cojedes and Manapire Rivers reported a significant reduction in relative abundance values. In Colombia, disparity in previous survey methods prevented accurate estimation of population trends. Only one study in this country described an increase over a 13 years span in the Ele, Lipa, and Cravo Norte River populations based on nest surveys. We defined 34 critical areas (16 in Colombia, 17 in Venezuela, and one covering both countries) where we need to preserve/research/monitor and/or generate management actions, 10 RHP/CCU (six from Venezuela and four from Colombia) and 24 RRP (11 from Venezuela, 12 from Colombia, and one in both countries). Caño Guaritico (Creek) and the Capanaparo River in Venezuela and the Ele, Lipa, Cravo Norte River System and the Guayabero River in Colombia were defined as areas with the most optimal conditions for long-term preservation and maintenance of C. intermedius populations. We conclude that the conservation status of this species is

  2. The field development of the extra heavy oil Orinoco Belt in Morichal : a joint Chinese-Venezuelan effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivodo, E. [Grupo KC, Caracas (Venezuela); Li, G.; Lu, F. [Orifuels Sinoven S.A., Barcelona, Anzoategui (Venezuela)

    2006-07-01

    Proper planning and a systemic approach along with a continual evaluation are important foundations to the development of an extra heavy oil field. This paper discussed a joint effort between China and Venezuela in the field development of extra heavy oil in the Orinoco Belt in Morichal. Background information on the Morichal Oilfield was first presented. The paper discussed the field development approach for pre-operations, including project execution plan; procedures/documents development and review; procurement and services contracts; commissioning and startup; and operations stabilization. The paper also addressed cultural recognition as a judicious approach as well as considerations and recommendations. It was concluded that extra heavy oil field development during the pre-operation stage is a continuous process from planning to startup and stable operations. In addition, a cultural recognition is recommended as a judicious approach to efficient personnel and community affairs management. 9 refs, 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Fish assemblages of the Casiquiare River, a corridor and zoogeographical filter for dispersal between the Orinoco and Amazon basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winemiller, K.O.; Lopez-Fernandez, H.; Taphorn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Duque, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the Casiquiare River functions as a free dispersal corridor or as a partial barrier (i.e. filter) for the interchange of fish species of the Orinoco and Negro/Amazon basins using species assemblage patterns according to geographical location and environmental features. Location: The Casiquiare, Upper Orinoco and Upper Negro rivers in southern Venezuela, South America. Methods: Our study was based on an analysis of species presence/absence data and environmental information (11 habitat characteristics) collected by the authors and colleagues between the years 1984 and 1999. The data set consisted of 269 sampled sites and 452 fish species (> 50,000 specimens). A wide range of habitat types was included in the samples, and the collection sites were located at various points along the entire length of the Casiquiare main channel, at multiple sites on its tributary streams, as well as at various nearby sites outside the Casiquiare drainage, within the Upper Orinoco and Upper Rio Negro river systems. Most specimens and field data used in this analysis are archived in the Museo de Ciencias Naturales in Guanare, Venezuela. We performed canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) based on species presence/absence using two versions of the data set: one that eliminated sites having < 5 species and species occurring at < 5 sites; and another that eliminated sites having < 10 species and species occurring at < 10 sites. Cluster analysis was performed on sites based on species assemblage similarity, and a separate analysis was performed on species based on CCA loadings. Results: The CCA results for the two versions of the data set were qualitatively the same. The dominant environmental axis contrasted assemblages and sites associated with blackwater vs. clearwater conditions. Longitudinal position on the Casiquiare River was correlated (r2 = 0.33) with CCA axis-1 scores, reflecting clearwater conditions nearer to its origin

  4. en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan R. Brewer Carías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La Constitución de Venezuela, en la cual se establecen las regulaciones fundamentales relativas a la justicia constitucional y, en particular, a la Jurisdicción Constitucional, regula sólo dos supuestos, tanto en materia de control difuso como de control concentrado de la constitucionalidad de las leyes, en los cuales los jueces están autorizados para actuar de oficio. Sin embargo, mediante la jurisprudencia constitucional y en la Ley Orgánica del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia de 2004, sin fundamento constitucional alguno se han dispuesto poderes de control constitucional de oficio, en algunos casos, en forma ilimitada. Este trabajo tiene por objeto analizar todos estos supuestos.

  5. ANÁLISIS BIOGEOGRÁFICO DE LOS PECES CHARACIFORMES DE VENEZUELA Biogeographic Analysis of the Characiformes Fishes of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA BONILLA RIVERO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis biogeográfico basado en los peces Characiformes de Venezuela con el objetivo de explorar la importancia relativa de los procesos que han contribuido con el establecimiento de los patrones de distribución actuales de la ictiofauna continental venezolana. La información geográfica y filogenética disponible se analizó siguiendo los métodos de Análisis de Parsimonia de Endemismos (PAE y Análisis de Parsimonia de Brooks (BPA. El PAE señaló fundamentalmente a los Llanos Occidentales y el sur del Amazonas como áreas de endemismo. El BPA realizado con la información filogenética de siete géneros mostró un patrón generalizado con los clados (Caribe + Maracaibo y ((((Río Negro+Orinoco + Paria + Valencia + Cuyuní, donde se destaca un evento de dispersión desde la cuenca del río Negro hacia el río Orinoco. Los resultados de ambos métodos biogeográficos indican que la región de los llanos - amazonas, donde se conjugó la biota del incipiente Orinoco con la biota amazónica, contiene el mayor número de especies, las áreas de endemismo mejor sustentadas, así como distintos eventos de especiación y posterior dispersión hacia otras regiones. La biota de la región nortecostera del país parece más bien gobernada por procesos de especiación vicariante de carácter puntual por el aislamiento histórico de sus drenajes.Based on the information available on fishes of the order Characiformes of Venezuela a biogeographical analysis was performed to explore the relative importance of the processes that may have contributed to the establishment of current distribution patterns of the Venezuelan continental ichthyofauna. Geographic and phylogenetic information available for this group of fishes was analyzed by Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA. PAE uncovered the western plains and southern Amazonas as areas of endemism. BPA, using the phylogenetic information of seven genera

  6. Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Provenzano R.

    Full Text Available Harttia merevari, a new species of loricariid catfish, is described from eight specimens captured in the upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. The new species is recognized by the following combination of characters: abdomen naked; two or three preanal plates; a bony plate before each branchial opening; seven lateral plates between the pectoral and pelvic fins; maxillary barbel short and attached to the oral disk by a fleshy fold; head dorsal surface and anterior portion of the body light or dark yellow with numerous, round black spots; posterior region of the body light or dark yellow with five black transverse bands, dorsal central area of the two anterior bands diffused. The discovery of this new species extends the distribution of the genus northwest to include the Orinoco River basin on the northern slope of the Guyana shield.

  7. en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Caraballo Vivas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos proponemos esbozar los escenarios de gobernabilidad e ingobernabilidad de la democracia en Venezuela a partir del rol cumplido positiva o negativamente por los partidos políticos. Abordamos la cuestión de la crisis de gobernabilidad como un fenómeno complejo. La ingobernabilidad se presenta como una crisis básicamente como crisis de legitimidad, crisis, de conducción política y crisis del Estado, es decir no se logra conformar un ambiente y escenario definido por la legitimidad y eficiencia que conlleva a un deterioro del sistema político a causa de la disfunción de los partidos como productores de representación y gobernabilidad en la sociedad venezolana a finales de los años ochenta. Finalmente analizamos el agotamiento del bipartidismo y la llegada del fenómeno Chávez y naturalmente la persistencia antes y ahora de indicadores de ingobernabilidad democrática.

  8. Two new Bryconamericus: B. cinarucoense n. sp. and B. singularis n. sp. (Characiformes, Characidae from the Cinaruco River, Orinoco Basin, with keys to all Venezuelan species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-Valencia, C.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe for the first time Bryconamericus cinarucoense n. sp. and Bryconamericus singularis n. sp., two new species of Characiformesfrom the Cinaruco River, Orinoco Basin in Venezuela. B. cinarucoense n. sp. is distinguished from all other species of the genus in having: upper jaw extending beyond lower, maxilla short with only one or two teeth, cartilaginous rhinosphenoid extending to anterior part of prevomer, pelvic bone with cartilage along anterior edge, lateral line pores in straight line. B. singularis n. sp. is distinguished from congeners by having top of head flat, dentary with six or seven small unicuspid teeth, a dark lateral band extending from posterior edge of humeral spot to midbase of caudal fin which widens behind dorsal-fin origin, and in having five supraneurals which lack cartilage on the upper and lower extremities. Keys to aid identification of all known Venezuela species are included. Bryconamericus motatanensis is placed in the synonymy of B. alpha. Previous reports of B. breviceps and B. heteresthes from Venezuela are misidentifications, and are here considered as either B. cinarucoense n. sp., or another as yet undescribed species.

  9. Technology research and development and project finding of alternative energies. Part 2. ; Development and introduction of Orinoco tar orimarsion. Sekiyu daitai energy shigen ni kakawaru gijutsu kaihatsu to project finding. 2. ; Orimarsion no kaihatsu donyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, K.

    1994-05-05

    Venezuela has a huge amount of Orinoco tar, a natural asphalt distributed in the northern basin of Orinoco River. This paper describes the course of introducing the development of a new fuel for power generation made of the Orinoco tar emulsified to provide properties usable as C-heavy oil (commonly called Orimarsion). The paper also introduces the fuel as a promising petroleum substituting fuel. A local estimation calls for a reserve quantity of about 1.2 trillion barrels. If this is extracted at a recovery rate of 22% which would be possible with the currently available mining technologies, the production would reach about 267 billion barrels, which is larger than the crude oil reserve in Saudi Arabia. Mitsubishi Trading Company of Japan who has noticed this possibility has inaugurated since 1985 contacts with concerned parties. The company has conducted discussions on raw fuel transportation and legal regulations, development of a water emulsifying process, and actual drum tests (demonstration tests at four Japanese electric power companies having been performed since 1991). After these efforts, the possibility has turned out a promising practicability. Thus, a technology has been established as one through-chain from the mining site to boilers and exhaust gas treatment plants. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Maximizing reservoir exposure with proactive well placement in high geological complexity field of Venezuelan Orinoco Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Luis; Leon, Maryesther; Meunier, Antoine [Schlumberger, Caracas (Venezuela); Lara, Manuel; Herrera, Yoanna; Granado, Miguel [Petrolera Indovenezolana S.A. (PIV), El Tigre (Venezuela)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, Petrolera Indovenezolana S.A. (PIV), a joint venture between Corporacion Venezolana del Petroleo (CVP) and the Indian company ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL), started planning for two horizontal wells in the Norte Zuata (San Cristobal) field in the Orinoco belt of eastern Venezuela. The focus for this campaign was to evaluate the productivity of horizontal wells in thin sands and avoid areas of complex geology because of the high uncertainty in the structural behavior, applying technology that provided absolute control of the drilling process into the Oficina formation. Within the Oficina formation, thin sand reservoirs with variations in thickness and dip, geologically facies changes and sub seismic faults presented the main challenge to geosteering a horizontal well. Because the project faced high geological uncertainties, a pilot hole was drilled as the first stage in the first well to verify the structural levels and the continuity of the sand bodies. To achieve the above challenges, the combination of a rotary steerable system (RSS) 'point-the-bit' and a deep azimuthal electromagnetic resistivity tool (DAEMR) was used. The measurements provided accurate information to the well-placement engineers for proactive decisions in real time, mitigating the possible loss of the target by these geologic uncertainties. High-quality and valuable data for real time geological model update were the expected results obtained from the effort made by PIV in the Norte Zuata (San Cristobal) field, and the data showed the oil-producing potential of one of the main reservoir (Sand F,G). This application of high-tier technologies demonstrated that drilling and data measurements can be improved and optimized to yield added value for reservoir development and 100% net to gross (NTG) targets. This reduces operational cost, makes it possible to drill in the right place the first time, and pushes forward the limit of the achievable in terms of reservoir exposure. (author)

  11. Approaching viscosity control: electrical heating of extra heavy oil as alternative to diluent injection in down hole in Cerro Negro Field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Manuel [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Electrical heating is a method used to enhance oil recovery in extra heavy oil reservoirs. This method can be used when diluent injection or other methods are not able to reduce oil viscosity sufficiently or when problems of product quality or quantity arise. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of electrical heating, individually and simultaneously with injection of diluents. For this purpose, simulations were undertaken in one well with integrated electrical heating and diluent injection in Cerro Negro Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela. Results have shown that the application of both methods together is more profitable than the application of electrical heating alone. This paper demonstrated that the use of electrical heating and diluent injection combined is a valid alternative to diluent injection alone, reducing production loss.

  12. The opisthobranch gastropods (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) from Venezuela: an annotated and illustrated inventory of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Caballer; Ortea, Jesús; Rivero, Nelsy; Tucker, Gabriela Carias; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Narciso, Samuel

    2015-10-29

    The Caribbean waters of Venezuela are composed by a large variety of habitats, with over 2800 km of coastline, islands, and islets. This area is a transitional zone between two main biogeographic provinces, the Caribbean and the Brazilian, separated by the fresh water outflows of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers, and is therefore expected to be an area of high species diversity. However, concerning the study of molluscs, Venezuela is probably the poorest known region in the Caribbean. The best compilation of opisthobranch species known in Venezuela was produced almost a decade ago, mentioning the occurrence of 57 species, plus seven determined only to genus level. In this work, 134 species are reported for Venezuela (71 are illustrated), representing about 40 % of the entire diversity of opisthobranchs known in the Caribbean. Among the species occurring in Venezuela, 49 have here the southern limit of their distribution range and only one the northern limit. Forty-six species are recorded for the first time to the country and one is a new record for the Caribbean Sea, namely Placida cremoniana. In addition, the distribution and ecology of the species are given based in literature and new data.

  13. Sutilezas de la producción cartográfica en el mapa del Orinoco de Humboldt Subtleties of cartographic production in Humboldt’s Orinoco Map

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    Ángela Pérez Mejía

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cuando en 1804 Alexander Von Humboldt y Aimé Bonpland salieron del territorio de la Nueva Granada para continuar con su recorrido por la América equinoccial, habían dejado en manos del Virrey Pedro Mendinueta y Muzquiz el primer mapa del río Magdalena (nunca antes dibujado en su totalidad, mapas que corregían la ruta del Orinoco y el plano de Cartagena y de Santa fé. Eran ocho pliegos de cartografía, que dadas las circunstancias políticas, representaban un objeto de porte imperial. El regalo era apenas una formalidad hacia quien les había permitido viajar sin restricciones por los territorios de Venezuela y Colombia. El verdadero legado que dejaba Humboldt quedaba en manos de sus amigos independentistas: un vasto conocimiento geográfico que ayudaría a alimentar la causa patriótica. La producción geográfica de la expedición de Humboldt y Bonpland tuvo repercusiones concretas en la formación de las nuevas repúblicas. No obstante, el proceso de producción de ese conocimiento geográfico, a menudo ignorado en nuestro afán por alabar al geógrafo, fue también el producto de una interesante red de relaciones personales, científicas y políticas cuya interpretación contribuye a nuestro conocimiento geográfico del momento. El presente artículo es una versión corregida del capítulo sobre la producción geográfica de Humboldt de mi libro La geografía de los tiempos difíciles (Pérez Mejía, 2002 y plantea una interpretación de la producción geográfica de Humboldt, concretamente de su mapa “Itinerario del Orinoco”, en busca de las claves sobre la multiplicidad de ese proceso de producción cartográfica y sus repercusiones locales.When Alexander Von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland left the New Granade’s territory in 1804 to continue their trip across intertropical America, they left the first map of the Magdalena river in the hands of the Viceroy Pedro Mendinueta and Muzquiz (never before fully drawn, along with maps that

  14. Common Distribution Patterns of Marsupials Related to Physiographical Diversity in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained. PMID:24806452

  15. Earthworm Populations in Savannas of the Orinoco Basin. A Review of Studies in Long-Term Agricultural-Managed and Protected Ecosystems

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    Danilo López-Hernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthworm biomass and production in savannas are limited by seasonal precipitation and the lack of organic and nutrient resources; I hypothesize that after a long-term protection of savanna from fire and agricultural activities drastic changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil occur with a concomitant increase in earthworm abundance and activities. Similar changes might occur after a long-term fertilization of savannas with manure. This review article considers the earthworm communities and other soil quality indices in Trachypogon savannas of the Orinoco Basin in an organic agricultural forestal savanna (OAFS amended with compost over forty years in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and in an Experimental Station long-term protected (PS from fire and cattle raising from more than four decades in Central Llanos, Venezuela, comparison is made with results from similar savannas. Long-term additions of organic manure or a long protection have induced significant changes in the soil physical and chemical properties of the natural savanna (NS soils that induce a significant increase in the density and biomass of earthworm populations. On the other hand, the protection of the savanna promotes an improvement in the physical and chemical properties of the soil, which favors an increase in the density and biomass of earthworms in the PS compared with the NS subjected to recurrent burning and grazing. The results emphasize the importance of appropriate organic matter management and the relevance of earthworms in such agroecosystems.

  16. Yogurt funcional alto CLA

    OpenAIRE

    Massa Grilli, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de compuestos bioactivos en la grasa láctea ha despertado gran interés ya que se le atribuyen efectos preventivos frente a enfermedades de alto impacto en la población. Se ha demostrado que los sistemas de alimentación basados en pastoreo incrementan la presencia de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y específicamente del acido linoleico conjugado, obteniéndose un alimento funcional que presenta propiedades beneficiosas sobre la salud. El objetivo del presente ...

  17. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  18. Estado de conocimiento de las concentraciones de cadmio, mercurio y plomo en organismos acuáticos de Venezuela - Current state of knowledge of the concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead from aquatic organisms of Venezuela

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    Salazar Lugo, Raquel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn Venezuela, la contaminación por metales pesados está relacionadacon el desarrollo de la industria siderúrgica y petrolera, así como a la explotación indiscriminada de otros metales como el oro. Está bastante documentada la contaminación del lago de Maracaibo dado al desarrollo en sus cercanías de actividades urbanas, industriales, mineras y agropecuarias; del lago de Valencia, del río Tuy, Orinoco y Manzanares, entre otros En este trabajo se revisa el estado de conocimiento, en los últimos 10 años, de la concentración de plomo, cadmio y mercurio en especies acuáticas de diferentes áreas del País.SummaryContamination due to trace metals in Venezuela is related withindiscriminate exploitation of metals like gold, transport of river runoff, oil and siderurgica industries and urban zones. The Tuy, Orinoco, Tigre, Manzanares rivers and others basins as Valencia and Maracaibo lakes has been reported as polluted for many years. In this work, we reviewed the state of knowledge, in the last 10 years, of metals concentrations specially lead, cadmium and mercury, in aquatic species from diverse areas of country.

  19. Phillips tests methods to improve drawdown and producing rates in Venezuela fire flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldau, R.F.; Lumpkin, W.B.

    1974-08-01

    Phillips Petroleum Co. conducted a 4-yr test of fire flooding in the Morichal field, Venezuela. The field, located at the N. edge of the Orinoco heavy-oil belt, produces 8' to 12' API crude at high rates from poorly consolidated sands below 3,000 ft. The pilot performed well with no channeling, corrosion, emulsion or sanding problems. However, combustion-gas production in some wells seriously reduced pump efficiency and drawdown. A number of field methods were tested to improve drawdown and production rates in pumping wells. A downhole gas separator made significant improvement; foam suppressants, pump speed, pump displacement, and reduction of casing pressure had little or no effect. Field data show that flowing rather than pumping, fire-flood producers can give better drawdown under some conditions.

  20. Protected Areas legislation and the conservation of the Colombian Orinoco Basin natural ecosystems

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    Ana Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has shown a strong commitment to the achievement of the CBD´s biodiversity target, by promoting the conservation of at least 10% of its natural ecosystems. Protected Area categories in Colombia are undergoing a standardization process that should enhance the country´s capacity to protect its natural ecosystems. In this study we use a spatial analysis to examine how the legislation and the civil society´s initiatives help in the conservation of natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin. We found that differentiation in use restriction legislation limits the conservation potential of some Protected Area categories. The only fully Protected Areas in Colombia are the Natural National Parks System Areas, which protect only 10% of the area of natural ecosystems and less than 50% of the natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin. Indigenous Reserves help significantly in the conservation of the natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin, but are not a Protected Area category, making it difficult for indigenous groups to aid in the accomplishment of conservation goals in Colombia.A small percentage of ecosystems of the Colombian Orinoco Basin fall outside of any Protected Area or Indigenous Reserve and urgent actions may be needed to protect them. Future similar studies should use current and updated information on Protected Areas and take into account changes in land cover, for a better understanding of the role of different categories of Protected Areas in the achievement of conservation objectives in Colombia.

  1. Biological Ocean Margins Program. Active Microbes Responding to Inputs from the Orinoco River Plume. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge E. Corredor

    2013-01-28

    The overall goal of the proposed work is to identify the active members of the heterotrophic community involved in C and N cycling in the perimeter of the Orinoco River Plume (ORP), assess their spatial distribution, quantify their metabolic activity, and correlate these parameters to plume properties such as salinity, organic matter content and phytoplankton biomass.

  2. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...... against the US and how China is considered a valuable ally to acquire more independence. However, this situation of interdependence can paradoxically lead to a new kind of dependence, in this case on China. To analyze these relations, I propose a conceptual framework consisting of three dimensions: 1...... of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...

  3. masculino de alto nivel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de la Vega Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio, valiéndose de un diseño ex post facto retrospectivo, analizó la relación entre los estados de ánimo precompetitivos yel rendimiento deportivo de un equipo de doce jugadores de voleibol durante el campeonato del mundo de Brasil-2011, categoría masculina sub-20.Para la medición de los estados de ánimo se utilizó el instrumento Profile of Moods States(POMS. La medición del rendimiento deportivo se llevó acabo a partir de dos instrumentos: por una parte, una escala de valoración o percepción de los entrenadores a propósito del rendimiento de sus jugadoresy, por otra, el software Data Voley System. Se procedió con estadística descriptiva y estadística inferencial no paramétrica. Los participantes mostraronun perfil anímico de alto vigor, moderada tensión, baja cólera, y mínima fatiga y depresión. Se detalla la relación entre las variables estudiadas y sediscute cómo el hecho de perder un partido que tuvo como consecuencia la exclusión del equipo a la opción de ganar medalla, influyó hacia una menortensión y vigor de los jugadores, a la vez que aumentó la depresión y la fatiga.

  4. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  5. La ordenación territorial en la Venezuela Bolivariana. Entre la catálisis sustentable y la desaceleración petrolera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Lisio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discuten las variaciones en las políticas de ordenamiento territorial del Gobierno de la “Venezuela Bolivariana”, atendiendo a tres momentos cruciales. El primero, corresponde a la aprobación de la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela en 1999, en cuyo texto se consagra la obligación del Estado Venezolano en el logro de territorios sustentables. En esta etapa, se formula la propuesta sustentable de la Región Plan Orinoco-Apure. Un segundo momento que nos interesa destacar, es el vinculado al “salto hacia adelante” de 2004, en el cual se resaltó el carácter endógeno del modelo de desarrollo sustentable nacional a seguir. Se privilegió al Eje Norte Llanero como Región Plan. El tercero, concierne a la reorientación socialista del proceso bolivariano a partir de 2007. En esta etapa los postulados del desarrollo duradero alternativo parecen pasar a un segundo plano, a juzgar por los resultados de la evaluación del Plan Socialista Orinoco.

  6. Venezuela y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Cardozo de da Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela es uno de los principales actores económicos de América Latina, de allí la importancia de conocer las características de su política exterior. Los desarreglos de la política exterior hacia el caribe pueden ser resueltos si se les comprende en su dimensión local y global. En este sentido es necesario avanzar del espacio "inter-societal" de la preocupación estrictamente comercial a los espacios culturales y de cooperación técnica.

  7. Surface Freshwater Storage Variations in the Orinoco Floodplains Using Multi-Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Frappart

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations in surface water extent and storage are poorly characterized from regional to global scales. In this study, a multi-satellite approach is proposed to estimate the water stored in the floodplains of the Orinoco Basin at a monthly time-scale using remotely-sensed observations of surface water from the Global Inundation Extent Multi-Satellite (GIEMS and stages from Envisat radar altimetry. Surface water storage variations over 2003–2007 exhibit large interannual variability and a strong seasonal signal, peaking during summer, and associated with the flood pulse. The volume of surface water storage in the Orinoco Basin was highly correlated with the river discharge at Ciudad Bolivar (R = 0.95, the closest station to the mouth where discharge was estimated, although discharge lagged one month behind storage. The correlation remained high (R = 0.73 after removing seasonal effects. Mean annual variations in surface water volume represented ~170 km3, contributing to ~45% of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE-derived total water storage variations and representing ~13% of the total volume of water that flowed out of the Orinoco Basin to the Atlantic Ocean.

  8. Colombia-Venezuela: Comparación de las petroleras nacionales

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    Laszlo Palotas Kelen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo compara las Compañías Petroleras de Estado (CPE de Venezuela y Colombia a tres maneras: (1 Describe las trayectorias de Ecopetrol y PDVSA, divergentes desde 2003 (con semi-privatización de la primera y estricto control gubernamental de la segunda. (2 Compara los actuales regímenes de explotación petrolera de Venezuela (Estado-céntrico y Colombia (mercado-céntrico según acceso a recursos, modelo organizativo, competencia-monopolio. (3 Compara la gobernanza de las dos CPE (por sus Estados en varias dimensiones de forma y función, completando esta matriz con una mirada a las relaciones obrero-patronales. Los paralelos entre las dos CPE a través del tiempo inspirarían empatía en sus ejecutivos, facilitando su colaboración en proyectos conjuntos como el oleoducto de la Faja del Orinoco al Pacífico. Una convergencia petrolera colombo-venezolana parecía probable, con China como otra beneficiaria.

  9. Metamorfosis del delito de secuestro en el Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Añez Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El delito de secuestro es un flagelo social que ha experimentado mutaciones en el tiempo. El año 2009 terminó con una cifra sin precedentes en cuanto a los secuestros reportados en Venezuela. Los datos aportados por los organismos oficiales revelan que durante el 2008 hubo 537 secuestros, lo cual representa un aumento de 52% respecto al total del 2007, mientras que en el 2009 la cifra se incrementó en un 62,82%, en relación con el año anterior. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo describir el delito de secuestro en Venezuela, con especial referencia al Estado Zulia, población fronteriza limítrofe con Colombia. Para ello se emplea una metodología de tipo documental- descriptiva. Se revela que no existen esquemas predefinidos que permitan caracterizar este tipo penal, pues, tal y como ha venido sucediendo, es susceptible de llevarse a cabo en cualquier momento y circunstancia, no de modo exclusivo en sujetos de alto estatus socioeconómico, sino con mínimos medios para responder a las exigencias de los plagiarios; de aquí la proliferación de la modalidad del llamado secuestro exprés. El delito de secuestro en Venezuela ha cambiado en forma notable sus patrones: de ser un delito predominantemente político, fronterizo y ejecutado por grupos organizados, ha pasado a ser uno de objetivos sobre todo económicos, urbano, y ejecutado con un fin de lucro por la delincuencia común. En verdad, el Estado Zulia sigue repuntando en la lista de los estados con mayor incidencia de este delito en Venezuela, pero no es el principal, pues ha sido desplazado en posicionamiento por otras urbes del país, encabezadas en la actualidad por la ciudad capital de Caracas.

  10. Apheresis activity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Christiane

    2005-07-01

    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma.

  11. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  12. Mochima, estado Sucre (Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Elisa Requena Mago

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En tiempos de recesión, los expertos nos bombardean con cifras relacionadas a la caída del producto interno bruto, al desempleo, entre otras. Dada la situación que presenta hoy en día Venezuela, aunado a la alta inflación y la devaluación de la moneda; el escenario resulta bastante complicado para el consumidor y las empresas proveedoras de bienes y servicios. En este sentido, las PyMES turísticas de Mochima, ubicadas en el Estado Sucre, Venezuela, se presentan como una alternativa para de alguna manera ayudar a disipar ese triste escenario, mediante sus bondades y en combinación con Internet. De allí que el presente artículo aborde desde los aspectos teóricos del turismo hasta las bondades naturales y culturales que ofrece esta zona oriental del país. Se utilizó una metodología de carácter descriptiva y una combinación de estrategia documental y de campo. Se aplicó un muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional, seleccionando los elementos con base en criterios de los investigadores. De acuerdo al estudio, se diseñó la página web y se concluyó, que la implementación de la misma ayudaría en gran medida a mejorar los ingresos de la región y darse a conocer tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

  13. Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu juht kuulutas sõja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu direktor Fernando Baez kuulutas, et tema juhtimisel püüab Venezuela rahvusraamatukogu saavutada juhirolli Ladina-Ameerikas, kuna USA Kongressi Raamatukogust on saanud raamatukogude suurimaid vaenlasi ajaloos

  14. Venezuela paneb kokku regionaalset energeetikaliitu / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela pealinnas toimus organisatsiooni Petrocaribe kolmas tippkohtumine. Petrocaribe, mis liidab peamiselt Kariibi mere riike ja tegeleb energeetikaküsimustega, algatas 2 aastat tagasi Venezuela president Hugo Chavez. Organisatsiooni kuulub 16 riiki

  15. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  16. Sasón y sabor en el suroriente colombiano: Amazonas y Orinoco

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Astrid Quintero

    2016-01-01

    RESUMENEsta investigación, presenta las costumbres y tradiciones culinarias y alimenticias de las regiones del Amazonas y el Orinoco en el suroriente colombiano, dos regiones hermanas unidas por territorio y geografía, que se complementan de manera perfecta para dar cabida a una de las cocinas más variadas y singulares del mundo. Pretende mostrar, así mismo, la cocina como patrimonio cultural inmaterial de los pueblos y como un arte, en el que cada plata, fruto, animal o semilla llevan impres...

  17. Transporte Urbano en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Virginia Ocaña Ortiz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El diseño e implantación de políticas públicas expresas en el área del transporte urbano en Venezuela data de finales de los años ochenta. En él se contempló la “modernización” y la “municipalización” del transporte urbano. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la intervención de los poderes locales en el diseño e implementación de la política de transporte urbano en las ciudades venezolanas. La metodología utilizada consistió en el análisis de información documental y entrevistas semiestructuradas a funcionarios de Alcaldías y del gobierno central. Los resultados indican que la política fue diseñada en el seno del Ministerio de Transporte y Comunicaciones y del Ministerio de Infraestructura, por un grupo de especialistas, siguiendo lineamientos de la banca multilateral, sin consultar a los actores del sistema, y muy especialmente a los Municipios o Alcaldías. Se concluye que los poderes locales han intervenido de forma limitada en la implantación de la política, con muy escaso poder de decisión y siguiendo lo establecido por el gobierno nacional.

  18. Desarrollo humano en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idana Berosca Rincón Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo tiene como objetivo principal analizar la tendencia y evolución del desarrollo humano en Venezuela para el periodo 2000-2010. Se abordó la investigación enmarcada en una metodología de tipo positivista con técnicas estadísticas. Se concluyó que los recursos escasos y las dificultades históricas exigen un incremento de esfuerzos presupuestarios y de gestión, en cantidad, calidad y transparencia por parte del Estado a través del gasto público. En los últimos años, el Estado no ha aprovechado plenamente el potencial de la política fiscal y los periodos de bonanza económica, precedidos por los auspiciosos auges petroleros, para fomentar, estimular y consolidar el desarrollo humano que permita a la población en general tener calidad de vida cónsonos con una sociedad conducente al bienestar general sostenible y permanente. Esto se explica por diversas limitaciones y retos afrontados, como la falta de diversificación del financiamiento y gasto público, la exigua carga fiscal, la corrupción dentro de la praxis política, la estructura mayormente regresiva del sistema de recaudación, el gasto público y social insuficiente e inequitativo.

  19. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  20. ATLAS Virtual Visit-Venezuela-Colombia-05-06-2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The Virtual Center of High Energy Studies (Centro Virtual de Altos Estudios en Altas Energias CeVALE2) is a Colombian-Venezuelan initiative to promote the research on particle physics in the region. It groups four Colombian universities and four Venezuelan institutions. The two main objectives of CeVALE2 are the development and transfer of collaborative and organizational platforms in the area and the creation of opportunities for the dissemination of particle physics such as courses and seminars. A cycle of conferences has been organized during June 2014 for teachers and students from the member institutions. The ATLAS Virtual Visit will be a key part of this experience - See more at: http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2014/Venezuela-Colombia-2014.html#sthash.tZw8PxLn.dpuf

  1. La credibilidad del sistema de banda cambiaria de Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Campos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la credibilidad del régimen cambiario de bandas de fluctuación crecientes a tasa constante de Venezuela durante el periodo julio de 1996-febrero de 2002. Mostramos que los análisis de credibilidad aplicados a zonas objetivo, introduciendo algunas modificaciones, también pueden utilizarse para estudiar la credibilidad de sistemas cambiarios de bandas de fluctuación crecientes a tasa constante. En este trabajo aplicamos tanto el denominado test de credibilidad de Svensson como el método de ajuste de la deriva. Con ambos métodos obtenemos resultados similares en cuanto al alto grado de credibilidad del sistema durante el periodo analizado.

  2. English Teaching Profile (Provisional): Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Venezuela discusses the status of English in society and in the educational system. It also gives an account of Venezuelan political, economic, and social life. A description is given of the education system and reforms that have been proposed for nursery school through higher education.…

  3. International Commercial Arbitration in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the above article author describes evolution of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Venezuela. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Venezuela activities. In past two decades many Latin American countries have reformed their arbitration law. In an effort to modernize its arbitral institutions several Latin American countries adopted Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL. In addition, many Latin American countries have adopted the monistic system. Author pays detailed attention to this issue, discusses concept of a monistic system - a system in which a unique set of rules governs both domestic and international arbitration. Author argues that legal system of Venezuela fits this definition. Venezuelan law on arbitration in 1998 makes no distinction between domestic and international arbitration. Arbitration was included in judicial system under the Constitution of Venezuela of the 1999. Art. 258 of the Venezuelan Constitution states that arbitration, conciliation and mediation are alternative ways of resolving disputes.

  4. Venezuela. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    This bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Venezuela's history, geography, economy, and culture for teachers to use with migrant children in the elementary grades. Topics presented in the English portion include climate, land, people, customs, government, arts, food, culture, wildlife,…

  5. Estado Lara, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Oropeza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La parroquia Diego de Lozada, ubicada en el municipio Florencio Jiménez, en la parte sur del estado Lara, presenta un alto potencial para el desarrollo turístico, pero esta actividad se encuentra limitada, y para impulsarla se deben considerar las condiciones socioeconómicas del área, sus potencialidades físiconaturales y las limitantes vinculadas a estas variables. El objetivo de este documento es identificar las potencialidades y restricciones en el aprovechamiento de los recursos turísticos en la parroquia Diego de Lozada. Para ello se ha evaluado una base de datos ambientales básicos conformada por la clasificación de los tipos de paisajes, condiciones climáticas, hídricas y cobertura vegetal, y se determinaron las principales características socioeconómicas de la población; se identificaron las restricciones jurídicas y físico-naturales, y se representaron espacialmente. Se encontró, como resultado del estudio, que las mayores restricciones son de tipo jurídico (presencia de ABRAE y en segundo lugar amenazas naturales (hidrogeomorfológicas, que juntas restringen el 40% del área total. A pesar de ello, el desarrollo de la actividad turística puede impulsarse reforzando los servicios actuales de atención y recepción de la población visitante (mejoramientos de la vialidad, alumbrado eléctrico público, restauración, creación de infraestructuras de recepción, señalización de servicios y lugares, a fin de consolidar las condiciones de calidad de vida de los habitantes del área y de la población flotante o visitante

  6. CARACTERIZACIÓN LIMNOLÓGICA DE HUMEDALES DE LA PLANICIE DE INUNDACIÓN DEL RÍO ORINOCO (ORINOQUÍA, COLOMBIA Limnological characterization of wetlands of the floodplain of the Orinoco river ( Orinoco , Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Rivera Rondón

    Full Text Available En este estudio se desarrolló una caracterización física y química de los principales ríos, quebradas y humedales de la región aledaña a la ciudad de Puerto Carreño (Vichada, Colombia en la época de aguas altas y bajas del Río Orinoco; y una caracterización biológica durante la época de aguas bajas. La mayor parte de los sistemas presentaron pH ácido y una baja concentración de iones y nutrientes. El régimen hidrológico tuvo un impacto importante sobre los ecosistemas acuáticos: Durante el periodo de agua altas, aumentó la transparencia y la concentración de algunos nutrientes y se presentó una reducción en la conductividad y la clorofila-a. En aguas bajas, los grupos dominantes de algas fueron Bacillariophyceae y Zygnemaphyceae; la composición taxonómica del zooplancton fue común a la encontrada en otros sistemas del complejo Amazónico-Orinoqués. Las comunidades de macroinvertebrados estuvieron dominadas por Coleoptera, Odonata y Ephemeroptera y la mayor diversidad de grupos funcionales y de morfotipos se presentó en sustratos de hojarasca. Los resultados sugieren que la vegetación de la ribera juega un papel muy importante en el mantenimiento de una fuente de energía y un refugio para las comunidades acuáticas durante el periodo de aguas bajas. Así mismo, la baja mineralización de estos ecosistemas los hace muy susceptibles a contaminación de fuentes urbanas, agrícolas y ganaderas.We carried out a physical and chemical characterization of the major rivers, streams and wetlands of the surrounding area of the town of Puerto Carreño ( Vichada , Colombia in the flooding and dry seasons, as well as a biological characterization in the dry season. Most of the studied systems showed an acid pH and low ion and nutrient concentrations. The hydrologic regime has an important impact on aquatic ecosystems: during the flooding season, transparency and the concentration of some nutrients increased but conductivity and

  7. Evidence of at least two introductions of HIV-1 in the Amerindian Warao population from Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor R Rangel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Venezuelan Amerindians were, until recently, free of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. However, in 2007, HIV-1 infection was detected for the first time in the Warao Amerindian population living in the Eastern part of Venezuela, in the delta of the Orinoco river. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of the HIV-1 circulating in this population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The pol genomic region was sequenced for 16 HIV-1 isolates and for some of them, sequences from env, vif and nef genomic regions were obtained. All HIV-1 isolates were classified as subtype B, with exception of one that was classified as subtype C. The 15 subtype B isolates exhibited a high degree of genetic similarity and formed a highly supported monophyletic cluster in each genomic region analyzed. Evolutionary analyses of the pol genomic region indicated that the date of the most recent common ancestor of the Waraos subtype B clade dates back to the late 1990s. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: At least two independent introductions of HIV-1 have occurred in the Warao Amerindians from Venezuela. The HIV-1 subtype B was successfully established and got disseminated in the community, while no evidence of local dissemination of the HIV-1 subtype C was detected in this study. These results warrant further surveys to evaluate the burden of this disease, which can be particularly devastating in this Amerindian population, with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, hepatitis B, among other infectious diseases, and with limited access to primary health care.

  8. China Strengthens Energy Cooperation with Venezuela

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Deliang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Venezuela is the 5th biggest oil export country in the world, and a member of OPEC. With rich reserves of crude oil, its average daily oil output reached 3.1 million barrels in 2004. Venezuela's state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA), the biggest oil company in South America, launched its China representative office in Beijing on 22 Aug. Ma Fucai, Vice Director of the State Energy Leading Group Office, and Rafael Ramrez,Minister of the Energy and Oil Ministry of Republic of Venezuela, attended the opening ceremony.

  9. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Rural and Urban Dyspeptic Patients from Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Monica; Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Reyes, Nelson; García-Amado, María Alexandra; Rojas, Héctor; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to assess the Helicobacter pylori prevalence in a rural mestizo population and compare it to an urban population from Venezuela. The study was performed in gastric juice samples of 71 dyspeptic patients from Caracas (urban) and 39 from Tucupita (rural), in the Orinoco Delta region. Helicobacter pylori was detected by amplification of 16S rRNA, glmM, and ureA genes in 55.0% patients from urban and 87.2% from rural populations. cagA was found positive in 51% and 62% urban and rural patients, respectively. Non-H. pylori Helicobacter species were not detected in the urban population, but was found in 7.7% of patients in the rural study site. Frequency values of the 16S rRNA, glmM, and ureA genes were higher in the rural population. The odds ratio for each gene was 15.18 for 16S rRNA, 2.34 for glmM, 2.89 for ureA, and 1.53 cagA, showing significant differences except for cagA when gene frequency was compared in both populations. These results demonstrate a higher frequency of H. pylori and gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infection in a rural mestizo population with low hygienic standards as compared with city dwellers, representing a potential risk for the development of gastroduodenal diseases. PMID:26195456

  10. Family cluster of Mayaro fever, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jaime R; Russell, Kevin L; Vasquez, Clovis; Barrera, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B; Salas, Rosalba; Watts, Douglas M

    2004-07-01

    A cluster of protracted migratory polyarthritis involving four adult family members occurred in January 2000 after a brief overnight outing in a rural area of Venezuela. Laboratory testing demonstrated Mayaro virus as the cause of the cluster. These results documented the first human cases of Mayaro virus in Venezuela.

  11. Family Cluster of Mayaro Fever, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime R. Torres; Russell, Kevin L; Vasquez, Clovis; Robert B Tesh; Salas, Rosalba; Watts, Douglas M.

    2004-01-01

    A cluster of protracted migratory polyarthritis involving four adult family members occurred in January 2000 after a brief overnight outing in a rural area of Venezuela. Laboratory testing demonstrated Mayaro virus as the cause of the cluster. These results documented the first human cases of Mayaro virus in Venezuela.

  12. Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Briceno, Cesar

    2003-01-01

    At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formatio...

  13. YURUPARÍ: MÁSCARAS Y PODER ENTRE LOS PIAROAS DEL ORINOCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDER MANSUTTI RODRÍGUEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In northwest Amazonia, among other kinds, two celebrations occur: one with masks dedicated to the harvest of Bactris gasipaes and other fruits, and another with sacred flutes that evoke extraordinary beings. When both coincide in a same village they occur at different moments. However, to the Piaroa and the Wirö peoples of the Orinoco basin, both ceremonies occur simultaneously at the same place. This paper shall describe participants and procedures of the ceremony and evaluate the gender and age based power game that comes to light during it. This ceremony consolidates alliances between the shamans and their communities with the masters who control animals and plants exploited by the Piaroa people, facilitates men’s expropriations and limits women power to the domestic sphere, and shifts a society with no major hierarchical organizations into a highly hierarchical one as long as the ceremony is occuring.En el noroccidente amazónico se realizan, entre otras, dos tipos de fiestas: una enmascarada dedicada a la cosecha de Bactris gassipaes y otras frutas, y otra con flautas sagradas dedicada a evocar seres extraordinarios. Ellas, cuando coinciden en un mismo pueblo, se realizan en momentos diferentes. Sin embargo, en el caso de los Piaroas y Wirös de la cuenca del Orinoco, ambas fiestas coinciden entiempo y lugar. En este ensayo vamos a describir los personajes y procedimientos que son parte de la fiesta y a evaluar algunos de los juegos de poder de género y edad que en ella se expresan.Se trata de una fiesta que consolida alianzas de los shamanes y sus comunidades con los dueños de animales y plantas sometidas a la depredación piaroa, que institucionaliza la expropiación por los hombres y la redefinición hacia lo doméstico del poder femenino, y que transforma una sociedad sin grandes jerarquías en su citianeidad en una sociedad altamente jerarquizada mientras dura la fiesta.

  14. Low child survival index in a multi-dimensionally poor Amerindian population in Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Villalba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warao Amerindians, who inhabit the Orinoco Delta, are the second largest indigenous group in Venezuela.  High Warao general mortality rates were mentioned in a limited study 21 years ago. However, there have been no comprehensive studies addressing child survival across the entire population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the Child Survival-Index (CSI (ratio: still-living children/total-live births in the Warao population, the principal causes of childhood death and the socio-demographic factors associated with childhood deaths. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 688 women from 97 communities in 7 different subregions of the Orinoco Delta. Data collected included socio-demographic characteristics and the reproductive history of each woman surveyed. The multidimensional poverty index (MPI was used to classify the households as deprived across the three dimensions of the Human Development Index. Multivariable linear regression and Generalized Linear Model Procedures were used to identify socioeconomic and environmental characteristics statistically associated with the CSI. FINDINGS: The average CSI was 73.8% ±26. The two most common causes of death were gastroenteritis/diarrhea (63% and acute respiratory tract Infection/pneumonia (18%.  Deaths in children under five years accounted for 97.3% of childhood deaths, with 54% occurring in the neonatal period or first year of life.  Most of the women (95.5% were classified as multidimensionally poor.  The general MPI in the sample was 0.56.   CSI was negatively correlated with MPI, maternal age, residence in a traditional dwelling and profession of the head of household other than nurse or teacher. CONCLUSIONS: The Warao have a low CSI which is correlated with MPI and maternal age.  Infectious diseases are responsible for 85% of childhood deaths.  The low socioeconomic development, lack of infrastructure and geographic and cultural isolation

  15. Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the 2012 presidential election result, include reinforcement of authoritarian trends, open militarization, liberalization and institutional strengthening, or long term volatility and polarized conflict. All scenarios are contingent on the health of President Chávez, who is a central unifying factor for his movement and regime

  16. Pediatric multiple sclerosis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Venezuelan pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: Database records from the National Program for MS were searched for patients with an established diagnosis of MS whose first symptoms appeared before age 18. RESULTS: The national database held records of 1.710 patients; 3.8% had onset of the first symptoms before age 18. 46.7% were boys, yielding an F:M ratio of 1.13:1. Many children had a disease onset characterized by motor impairment (30.7%, brainstem/cerebellum and spinal cord affectation (27.6%, headache (26%. Less frequent symptoms were sensory symptoms (8% and optic neuritis (7%. DISCUSSION: Pediatric MS patients in Venezuela represent a significant proportion of all MS cases. The clinical pattern is characterized by motor symptoms at onset, and predominantly monosymptomatic presentation with a relapsing-remitting pattern. This is the first systematic attempt to estimate the prevalence of pediatric MS in Venezuela.

  17. Accounting for ecosystem assets using remote sensing in the Colombian Orinoco River basin lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Leonardo; Hein, Lars; Remme, Roy P.

    2016-10-01

    In many parts of the world, ecosystems change compromises the supply of ecosystem services (ES). Better ecosystem management requires detailed and structured information. Ecosystem accounting has been developed as an information system for ecosystems, using concepts and valuation approaches that are aligned with the System of National Accounts (SNA). The SNA is used to store and analyse economic data, and the alignment of ecosystem accounts with the SNA facilitates the integrated analysis of economic and ecological aspects of ecosystem use. Ecosystem accounting requires detailed spatial information at aggregated scales. The objective of this paper is to explore how remote sensing images can be used to analyse ecosystems using an accounting approach in the Orinoco river basin. We assessed ecosystem assets in terms of extent, condition and capacity to supply ES. We focus on four specific ES: grasslands grazed by cattle, timber and oil palm harvest, and carbon sequestration. We link ES with six ecosystem assets; savannahs, woody grasslands, mixed agro-ecosystems, very dense forests, dense forest and oil palm plantations. We used remote sensing vegetation, surface temperature and productivity indexes to measure ecosystem assets. We found that remote sensing is a powerful tool to estimate ecosystem extent. The enhanced vegetation index can be used to assess ecosystems condition, and net primary productivity can be used for the assessment of ecosystem assets capacity to supply ES. Integrating remote sensing and ecological information facilitates efficient monitoring of ecosystem assets, in particular in data poor contexts.

  18. Consideraciones sobre la produccion de frutas en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Aular

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se presenta información sobre superficie, producción, y rendimiento de los frutales en Venezuela. Además se hacen consideraciones sobre los sistemas de producción, destacando limitaciones, avances y sugerencias. La fruticultura en Venezuela ocupa el 3er. lugar dentro del sector agrícola vegetal. Existen 167.691 Ha de frutales y una producción 2.232.088 TM por año. Se producen comercialmente una docena de rubros frutícolas, siendo los principales: plátano, banano, naranjo y piña. Las áreas de producción van desde zonas bajas y áridas, en donde se obtienen uvas y piñas; hasta zonas altas y húmedas donde se hallan duraznos y fresas. Ha habido reducción de la superficie plantada, con excepción de lechosa, piña y aguacate. El manejo hortícola de los huertos frutícolas es heterogéneo, ya que se observa desde bajo hasta alto nivel de tecnología. La incorrecta aplicación de las prácticas hortícolas origina baja productividad y calidad de fruta. La poscosecha podría mejorarse a través del desarrollo e implementación de normas de clasificación, empaque, embalaje, y cadena de frío. La exportación de frutas venezolanas se ha reducido en los últimos años y se concentra en mango, naranja y lima Tahití. Los principales destinos son Colombia, Europa, Norteamérica y las islas del Caribe. Sólo la naranja se procesa de manera importante en Venezuela. Las perspectivas para la fruticultura venezolana es continuar como una actividad dirigida al mercado interno, no se vislumbra una mayor participación del país en el mercado internacional.

  19. Venezuela: Issues in the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Justice First (Primero Justicia), Project Venezuela ( Proyecto Venezuela), and A New Era (Un Nuevo Tiempo, UNT); leftist parties that defected from...would not be freed from a federal immigration facility in El Paso , Texas.142 In November 2006, however, a U.S. federal judge, who was considering...whereupon he was transferred from immigration detention in El Paso to a county jail in New Mexico near the Texas border. Posada was released from jail in

  20. DAMPAK PENERAPAN SUCRE TERHADAP PEREKONOMIAN VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    LATIEF, BASRI HASANUDDIN

    2016-01-01

    2016 ABSTRAKSI Basri Hasanuddin Latief, E131 11 258, dengan skripsi berjudul ???Dampak Penerapan SUCRE terhadap Perekonomian Venezuela???, dibawah bimbingan Drs. H. M. Imran Hanafi, MA., M.Ec. selaku Pembimbing I dan Nur Isdah, S.Ip., MA. selaku Pembimbing II pada Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik, Universitas Hasanuddin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak SUCRE terhadap perekonomian Venezuela yang telah menggunak...

  1. Centro especializado de alto rendimiento : Balneario Panticosa

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Huerta, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    El proyecto es un Centro Especializado de Alto Rendimiento en altura, enfocado a deportes de invierno sin descartar otros deportes. Se sitúa en el Balneario de Panticosa, en la comarca del Alto Gallego, en Huesca, a una altura de 1936m, perfecto para un entrenamiento en altura y en un entorno privilegiado rodeado de montañas que alcanzan los 3000m. El edificio se compone de una base de hormigón y piedra del que surgen 5 volúmenes quebrados de construcción ligera que se giran hacia el valle e...

  2. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  3. Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, C

    2003-01-01

    At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation. The results show that variability is a powerful technique to identify pre-main sequence populations, specially in sparse areas devoid of gas and dust. We are currently developing a massive database, equipped with web-based data mining tools, that will make our data and results available to the astronomical community.

  4. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo León Ganatios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una reforma constitucional en Venezuela, en el año 1999 se introdujeron mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo o el plebiscito. A pesar de que este proceso amplió las vías de participación ciudadana en la vida política, hubo importantes retrocesos en libertades y derechos civiles y políticos básicos. La finalidad de este artículo consiste en medir la calidad de la democracia en Venezuela con base en una serie de indicadores derivados de la concepción de poliarquía de Robert Dahl (1993.Palabras Clave: Calidad de la democracia; Venezuela; Indicadores; estudio comparado; poliarquía.Quality of Democracy in VenezuelaAbstractSince 1999 a constitutional reform in Venezuela introduced some mechanisms of direct democracy such as the referendum and the plebiscite. Although this process broadened the means for citizens’ participation in the political system, there were important setbacks in political and civil liberties. The goal of this paper is to measure the quality of democracy according to a series of indicators that draw upon Robert Dahl’s conception of polyarchy.Keywords: Quality of democracy; Venezuela; indicators; comparative studies; polyarchy.

  5. The Orinoco megadelta as a conservation target in the face of the ongoing and future sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T; Hernández, E; Rull, Valentí; Rull Vegas, Elisa

    2015-05-15

    Currently, risk assessments related to rising sea levels and the adoption of defensive or adaptive measures to counter these sea level increases are underway for densely populated deltas where economic losses might be important, especially in the developed world. However, many underpopulated deltas harbouring high biological and cultural diversity are also at risk but will most likely continue to be ignored as conservation targets. In this study, we explore the potential effects of erosion, inundation and salinisation on one of the world's comparatively underpopulated megadeltas, the Orinoco Delta. With a 1 m sea level rise expected to occur by 2100, several models predict a moderate erosion of the delta's shorelines, migration or loss of mangroves, general inundation of the delta with an accompanying submersion of wetlands, and an increase in the distance to which sea water intrudes into streams, resulting in harm to the freshwater biota and resources. The Warao people are the indigenous inhabitants of the Orinoco Delta and currently are subject to various socioeconomic stressors. Changes due to sea level rise will occur extremely rapidly and cause abrupt shifts in the Warao's traditional environments and resources, resulting in migrations and abandonment of their ancestral territories. However, evidence indicates that deltaic aggradation/accretion processes at the Orinoco delta due to allochthonous sediment input and vegetation growth could be elevating the surface of the land, keeping pace with the local sea level rise. Other underpopulated and large deltas of the world also may risk immeasurable biodiversity and cultural losses and should not be forgotten as important conservation targets.

  6. Venezuela en el comercio internacional y frente al desarrollo sustentable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysela Coromoto Morillo Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela pese a los innumerables dotes naturales no ha podido alcanzar el anhelado desarrollo, tampoco el bienestar de todos sus habitantes, en parte porque sus acciones y prácticas económicas no se han fundamentado en el desarrollo sustentable, su comercio exterior se limita a la exportación de materias primas básicas sin mucho valor agregado cuya explotación intensiva incrementa la vulnerabilidad ecológica irreversible. En el presente trabajo se analiza la economía venezolana en el marco del desarrollo sustentable, vinculando su participación en el comercio exterior con el desarrollo sustentable. Se recomienda la urgente reducción de la dependencia petrolera, la diversificación económica y de exportaciones, para participar en el comercio internacional de forma dinámica con productos de alto valor agregado. El reto son los procesos de liberalización comercial y mundialización que promueva la sustentabilidad ecológica y el desarrollo humano equitativo, integrando mundialmente las políticas ecológicas y comerciales, dado que el comercio internacional no necesariamente eleva la calidad de vida y la salud del planeta, por el contrario, todo depende del uso eficiente de los recursos para crear riquezas en concordancia con la protección del medio ambiente.

  7. Hurricane interaction with the upper ocean in the Amazon-Orinoco plume region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulidakis, Yannis; Kourafalou, Vassiliki; Halliwell, George; Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Kang, Heesook; Mehari, Michael; Atlas, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of three successive hurricanes (Katia, Maria, and Ophelia) is investigated over the river plume area formed by the Amazon and Orinoco river outflows during September of 2011. The study focuses on hurricane impacts on the ocean structure and the ocean feedback influencing hurricane intensification. High-resolution (1/25° × 1/25° horizontal grid) numerical simulations of the circulation in the extended Atlantic Hurricane Region (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Northwest Atlantic Ocean) were used to investigate the upper ocean response during the three hurricane-plume interaction cases. The three hurricanes revealed different evolution and intensification characteristics over an area covered by brackish surface waters. The upper ocean response to the hurricane passages over the plume affected region showed high variability due to the interaction of oceanic and atmospheric processes. The existence of a barrier layer (BL), formed by the offshore spreading of brackish waters, probably facilitated intensification of the first storm (Hurricane Katia) because the river-induced BL enhanced the resistance of the upper ocean to cooling. This effect was missing in the subsequent two hurricanes (Maria and Ophelia) as the eroded BL (due to Katia passage) allowed the upper ocean cooling to be increased. As a consequence, the amount of ocean thermal energy provided to these storms was greatly reduced, which acted to limit intensification. Numerical experiments and analyses, in tandem with observational support, lead to the conclusion that the presence of a river plume-induced BL is a strong factor in the ocean conditions influencing hurricane intensification.

  8. Muuga joodab Venezuela naftaga Valgevene tehaseid / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Venezuela toornaftat veetakse Valgevenesse Muuga sadama kaudu. Riia sadam loodab suurema osa Venezuela nafta transiidist endale saada, samas peaks sadam selleks tegema mitmeid töid, nt. süvendama akvatooriumi

  9. Pobreza y asistencialismo en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neritza Alvarado Chacín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de contribuir a discernir la compleja problemática de la pobreza y de sus posibles salidas, en este trabajo se discuten algunas razones que explicarían la continuidad del estilo asistencial compensatorio focalizado, propio de la política social neoliberal, en la actual estrategia venezolana de atención a la pobreza, pese a que el discurso del presente gobierno se opone frontalmente a dicho modelo. Destacan, entre otros, dos factores básicos: 1 la vigencia de los mecanismos psicológicos del rentismo, manifiesto en la cultura clientelar aún internalizada en el venezolano, tanto en los ciudadanos como en los gobernantes, a pesar de los cambios de la coyuntura económica y sociopolítica del país, y 2 la importancia político-estratégica del asistencialismo en función del objetivo prioritario, no declarado, de mantener una relativa paz social, legitimidad política, estabilidad del gobierno y del régimen democrático. Se señalan riesgos potenciales del asistencialismo y se bosquejan algunos de los prerrequisitos que hoy exige el enfrentamiento a la pobreza en Venezuela.

  10. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Eduardo León Ganatios

    2014-01-01

    A partir de una reforma constitucional en Venezuela, en el año 1999 se introdujeron mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo o el plebiscito. A pesar de que este proceso amplió las vías de participación ciudadana en la vida política, hubo importantes retrocesos en libertades y derechos civiles y políticos básicos. La finalidad de este artículo consiste en medir la calidad de la democracia en Venezuela con base en una serie de indicadores derivados de la concepción de poliarquía de R...

  11. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.O autor faz uma revisão do programa de pesquisa sobre malária no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela, à luz de uma abordagem ecossistêmica. O objetivo era determinar quais métodos poderiam ter sido introduzidos no início do estudo para torná-lo mais ecológico e interdisciplinar. A fase inicial do estudo não incluía uma abordagem ecossistêmica ou controle integrado da doença, que só foram incorporados quando dois ecossistemas contrastantes no Estado de Sucre foram selecionados para pesquisa, junto com um método de controle de vetores com base nos resultados. Uma política de saúde bem-definida com uma abordagem ecossistêmica é crucial para o sucesso de uma estratégia de pesquisa e controle. Esta revisão sugere que a sustentabilidade é baixa se todos os atores não estiverem

  12. The late Miocene Phractocephalus catfish (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from Urumaco, Venezuela: additional specimens and reinterpretation as a distinct species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Lundberg

    Full Text Available Based on additional specimens the fossil pimelodid catfish from the upper Miocene Urumaco Formation, Falcón State, Venezuela originally assigned to the extant species Phractocephalus hemioliopterus is described as a new, extinct species. †Phractocephalus nassi n. sp. is diagnosed by the following combination of characters: 1 posterior half of frontals and anterior half of supraoccipital with elongate, coarse ridges and sulci in addition to reticulating ridges and subcircular pits; 2 very broad and ornamented mesethmoid bone; 3 lateral ethmoid margin convex and eliminating orbital notch but not projecting far anteriorly over palatine condyle; 4 anterior cranial fontanelle closed or represented by a small pit; 5 supraoccipital process rounded laterally and posterolaterally, concave posteriorly and completely concealing Weberian complex in dorsal view; 6 opercle covered with reticulating ridges and pits; 7 cleithrum coarsely ornamented along ventral edge and bulging outward lateral to spine articulation; 8 pectoral spine mostly ornamented with coarse ridges and sulci. †Phractocephalus nassi is compared to modern P. hemioliopterus and an undescribed extinct species from the upper Miocene Solimões Formation, Acre, Brazil. New diagnostic characters of Phractocephalus are presented that apply to the modern and fossil species, including: 1 ornamentation of skull, pectoral girdle and fin spines comprising a coarse meshwork of reticulating ridges surrounding rounded pits plus some elongate ridges and sulci; 2 supraoccipital posterior process greatly expanded laterally and posteriorly behind occipital wall; 3 lateral ethmoid and sphenotic broadly sutured behind eye; 4 anterior cranial fontanelle reduced or completely closed and posterior cranial fontanelle closed; 5 vomerine tooth plate large, roughly pentagonal to triangular in form, and with fine teeth. Today Phractocephalus ranges widely throughout the lowland Orinoco, Amazon and Essequibo basins

  13. Sistema de salud de Venezuela The health system of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle Bonvecchio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Venezuela, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos humanos y materiales con los que cuenta, y las actividades de rectoría que en él se desarrollan. Este sistema cuenta con un sector público y un sector privado. El sector público está constituido por el Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Salud (MS y diversas instituciones de seguridad social, dentro de las que destaca el Instituto Venezolano de los Seguros Sociales (IVSS. El MS se financia con recursos del gobierno central, estados y municipios. El IVSS se financia con cotizaciones patronales, cotizaciones de los trabajadores y con aportes del gobierno. Ambas instituciones cuentan con su propia red de atención ambulatoria y hospitalaria. El sector privado está constituido por prestadores de servicios que reciben pagos de bolsillo y por compañías aseguradoras. El sistema de salud venezolano atraviesa por un proceso de reforma desde la aprobación de la Constitución de 1999 que plantea la creación de un Sistema Público Nacional de Salud cuya punta de lanza hoy es el programa Barrio Adentro.This paper describes the Venezuelan health system, including its structure and coverage, financial sources, human and material resources and its stewardship functions. This system comprises a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Popular Power for Health (MS and several social security institutions, salient among them the Venezuelan Institute for Social Security (IVSS. The MH is financed with federal, state and county contributions. The IVSS is financed with employer, employee and government contributions. These two agencies provide services in their own facilities. The private sector includes providers offering services on an out-of-pocket basis and private insurance companies. The Venezuelan health system is undergoing a process of reform since the adoption of the 1999

  14. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Venezuela, RB

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Venezuela RB. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain ...

  15. Implementing Pre-Vocational Studies in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mi

    This paper describes prevocational education in Venezuela on each educational level. First, it sets a historical context by identifying aspects of technical education that emerged at different times in its development; then it identifies certain strategies created to support the implementation of prevocationalization, and finally it concludes by…

  16. The Development of Education in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, George I.

    The present study aims to bring to the reader an understanding of Venezuela's educational patterns, needs, and development within the framework of the country's economic and social situation. Much of this report is devoted to historical backgrounds --to cultural development, politics, immigration, economics, and international attitudes-- to give…

  17. Venezuela: Higher education, neoliberalism and socialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhr, T.; Verger, A.; Hill, David; Rosskam, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we analyse the Higher Education For All (HEFA) policies and practices in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. In the construction of a 21st Century Socialism, universal access to higher education has not only become a constitutional right but assumes a pivotal role in both the repay

  18. La actividad económica informal y el negocio de franquicia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Prieto Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se plantea el negocio de franquicia como una alternativa viable para canalizar la problemática de la informalidad laboral en Venezuela. Con base a un análisis documental-bibliográfico, semuestra la aplicabilidad de dichomodelo en un proceso de reconversión de la actividad económica informal en el país. Para lograrlo, se ha considerado la articulación entre diferentes conceptos económicos: el modelo de franquicia de conversión y la problemática de la economía informal en Venezuela, flagelo económico social presente en la realidad venezolana. Se concluye que un modelo de reconversión de la actividad económica informal representaría una alternativa para transformar esta actividad en el país, planteándose la conformación de una PYME con fortalezas financiera y operacional, con altos niveles de racionalidad, cuya actividad principal es ejecutada por otros individuos de manera informal; de esta forma se estructura una estrategia de crecimiento en función de la absorción de los ejecutores informales quienes, a través del financiamiento público o privado, concretan la conformación de una microempresa y la firma de un contrato tipo franquicia con la PYME.

  19. THE DELTA INDIGENE. THE GUARAÚNOS OF THE ORINOCO AT ETNOGRAPHY OF THE LORD SPIRITUAL TURRADO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Díaz Diego

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical of the positivist ethnographer from the beginnings of XX century, Ángel Turrado Moreno (1903-1961, missionary and bishop of Asso, had an essencialist vision of culture. For him, cultures had a lot of similar and comparable aspects which he tried to underline: marriage, family, authorities, deities, etc. Though Turrado did not carry out a deep analysis of cultural productions, he made a considerable effort to register the dimensions of daily life of Orinoco´s guaraunos with notable ethnographic rigor. Despite of all their biases, these community studies are important documentary sources today to comprehend these societies. This article intends to summerize the material conditions of life, the social organization and the symbolic cosmovision of gauraunos using the work of this missionary, as well as to give ethnographic logic that is lacking in some parts of his text. Guarauno lexicon used here corresponds to the phonetic adjustments handled by Turrado.

  20. A new species of Tyttocharax (Characiformes: Characidae: Stevardiinae from the Güejar river, Orinoco river Basin, Colombia

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    César Román-Valencia

    Full Text Available A new Tyttocharax species from the Güejar River system, near the Macarena Mountains in Colombia is described. This is the first record for the genus from the Orinoco basin. The combination of the following characters distinguish Tyttocharax metae from its congeners: presence of bony hooks on the pectoral and caudal-fin rays; bony hooks on the anal-fin rays larger than those on the pelvic-fin rays; pectoral-fin rays i,5-6,i; presence of three unbranched dorsal-fin rays; absence of an adipose fin; four scales rows between the anal-fin origin and the lateral line; and four scale rows between the pelvic-fin and the lateral line. Ecological characteristics of the habitat of the new species are also presented.

  1. Publicidad de alto impacto en comerciales televisivos

    OpenAIRE

    D`Ugo, Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto de tesis, titulado “Publicidad de alto impacto en comerciales televisivos”, se realizó para conocer el impacto de ciertas publicidades televisivas en el telespectador, a fin de evaluar cuáles son las expresiones que generan mayor recordación en la sociedad actual y la conveniencia para la marca publicitada. Para ello, fue necesario desarrollar un marco teórico, en el cual se explicó conceptualmente los elementos básicos que intervienen en los procesos relaci...

  2. Nave de montaje Volkswagen, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhorst, D.

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available To assemble Volkswagen cars for the Venezuela market, a large hall has been built, which is fitted with full facilities for its purpose, such as painting and greasing installations, and large parking area for the finished vehicles. The siting of this hall was carefully studied, and such factors as nearness to industrial zones, climate, and ease of access were decisive aspects that were taken into account. The final choice was a site near Morón, in the Carabobo Department, close to the sea. The main constructional item is the roof of the large hall. It is made of a series of hyperbolic-parabolic reinforced concrete thin shells, of rectangular planform, and slightly inclined towards the north, to produce a saw edge profile. Each of these shells is supported by a central column. The hollow spaces along the saw edge profile have been used for ventilation. The enclosing walls consist of trellice material, which also provide ample facility for additional ventilation.Para el montaje de los coches Volkswagen destinados al mercado venezolano, se ha construido una gran nave dotada de todos los servicios necesarios: pintura, engrases, aparcamiento de los vehículos terminados, etc. La elección del lugar más apropiado para la situación de la nave y edificios anexos fue motivo de un detenido estudio, en el que la proximidad a zonas industriales, clima, fácil entrada de materiales procedentes de ultramar y salida para los acabados, fueron los factores decisivos. Definitivamente se eligió un solar en las cercanías de Morón, del departamento de Carabobo, y próximo al mar. Lo más notable es la cubierta de la gran nave, formada por una serie de láminas parabólico-hiperbólicas de hormigón armado, de planta rectangular, inclinadas ligeramente hacia el norte para formar un perfil en diente de sierra. Cada una de estas láminas se soporta por un montante central. Los huecos que dichos dientes de sierra dejan se han aprovechado para la ventilación. Los

  3. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis Violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.O presente artigo analisa as mudanças na violência ocorridas na Venezuela nos últimos quarenta anos, relacionadas com os altos e baixos da renda petroleira e com a crise política no país, fatos que contribuíram para um aumento nas taxas de homicídios: de 7 por cada cem mil habitantes em 1970 a 12 em 1990, 19 em 1998 e 50 no ano de 2003. O artigo caracteriza a Venezuela como sociedade rentista e, a partir daí, faz uma retrospecção cobrindo desde a violência rural até os inícios da violência urbana, o movimento guerrilheiro dos anos sessenta, a criminalidade resultando da abundância dos recursos petroleiros e a violência em decorrência da revolta popular e dos saques ocorridos em 1989 em Caracas. Em seguida são analisados os golpes de Estado de 1992 e o impacto que a violência política exerceu

  4. Diplomacia transfronteriza en tiempos de revolución: el Alto Río Negro iberoamericano, 1815-1820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Brito

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudia los impactos de la guerra de independencia en la frontera regional del Alto Río Negro, teniendo como objeto de análisis las múltiples conexiones existentes entre los habitantes de ambos lados de la imaginaria línea fronteriza. A partir de julio de 1817, la guerra de independencia en Venezuela cambió de coordenadas: las luchas entre patriotas republicanos y realistas, fieles a la restauración de Fernando VII, alcanzaron la extensa región de frontera, e influenciaron las dinámicas políticas y sociales locales, principalmente las relaciones transfronterizas entre ambos lados, lo que impactó en la vida cotidiana de las poblaciones y afectó la diplomacia entre las autoridades portuguesas e hispanoamericanas, tanto realistas como patriotas.

  5. Hechos estilizados del crecimiento económico en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idana Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo describir el comportamiento del crecimiento económico en Venezuela para el período 2000-2010 a través de las variaciones del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB como indicador macroeconómico. El abordaje se enmarcó con una metodología de tipo descriptiva mediante la revisión de fuentes documentales. Por su parte, los hechos estilizados permiten evidenciar el comportamiento de la economía venezolana en el período de estudio y los elementos fundamentales de incidencia sobre el crecimiento económico. Finalmente se concluyó que los variantes e inestables niveles del crecimiento económico en los últimos años, estuvieron influidos generalmente por el gasto público auspiciado por los altos ingresos petroleros. La economía venezolana se caracteriza por tener un sector productivo “estrangulado”, no obstante, los últimos cinco años del período estudiado, el PIB ha presentado una propensión decreciente generado por la disminución del crecimiento económico. En suma, no se ha logrado subsanar y erradicar los problemas sociales más importantes en la economía venezolana como la pobreza, la inflación, el desempleo, entre otros; muchas de estas dificultades inciden directa y proporcionalmente sobre el bienestar social y por ende sobre el desarrollo humano, concluyendo que los beneficios económicos de los períodos de bonanza, no se trasladan en significativas mejoras de la calidad de vida.

  6. [Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids of Lepidopteran eggs in Lara State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José; Vásquez, Carlos; Pérez B, Nieves L; Valera, Neicy; Ríos, Yolmar; Arrieche, Norayda; Querino, Ranyse B

    2007-01-01

    This work was conducted to determine the occurrence of Trichogramma wasp species in Lara State, Venezuela. Lepidopteran egg samples collected from various crop leaves were observed daily under laboratory conditions for emergence of Trichogramma species adult wasps. Trichogramma were also obtained from traps containing eggs from the hosts Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In the laboratory, specimens of Trichogramma species were mounted on microscope slides to show male genitalia and other morphological characters used for its identification. Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto and at El Parchal, Humocaro Bajo, Municipio Morán. T. atopovirilia also emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at Sabana Grande and from S. cerealella eggs used as traps in a pepper culture at Tintinal, Municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco. T. exiguum Pinto y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs used as traps or collected in cornfield at Totumito and at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto. T. pretiosum Riley emerged from Phthorimaea operculella Zeller eggs collected on stored potatoes at Monte Carmelo, Sanare. The identification of Trichogramma species in Lara State would be useful in the development of biological control programs for lepidopteran pests.

  7. El salvaje y la retórica colonial en El Orinoco ilustrado (1741 de José Gumilla S. J.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Del Cairo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo constituye una aproximación hermenéutica a la obra El Orinoco ilustrado, escrita por el jesuita José Gumilla y publicada por primera vez en 1741. Los autores exploran los fundamentos de la retórica colonial que se advierte en el texto a través de la identificación de las instancias retóricas a las que recurre su autor para escribir la historia natural del Orinoco. Se resalta la funcionalidad geopolítica e imperial de las misiones en los territorios de frontera; la noción de historia en Gumilla; la diferencia colonial que se decreta a través de una retórica que recurre al cuerpo como instancia de manifestación del salvajismo, la ignorancia y el desgobierno de estas naciones, y la explicación teológica e histórica del origen y situación de los habitantes del Orinoco. Por último, se evidencian las representaciones y prácticas que justifican y hacen más eficaz el proyecto misional y civilizador, entre los “operarios” de la Compañía de Jesús en el siglo XVIII.

  8. Venezuela- China Industry, Commerce, Agriculture, Tourism Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bordering Columbia, Brazil and Guyana,Venezuela's economy developed speedily in recent years. It is a comparatively active country in South America. The main industries of the country are petroleum, mining, telecom, husbandry and tourism. The visiting enterprises include the leading enterprises of each key industry. This fair provides abundant trade and investment opportunities for China's execution of "Introduce in and Walk Out" development strategy.

  9. Area Handbook Series: Venezuela; A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    to sign a revised Acta. The Contradora process was effectively superseded by direct negoti- ations among the Central American states. encomienda -A...131 203, 206 Central Bank of Venezuela (BCV), cocoa (see also cacao), 94; boom, 3; un- 36-37, 85, 99; interest rate policies of, der encomienda system...211 ment budget, 196; stability of, 196; un- Costa Rica, 185 der trienio, 180 cotton: under encomienda system, 82; as ex- defense spending, 195-9t

  10. EL DELTA INDÍGENA: LOS GUARAÚNOS DEL ORINOCO EN LA ETNOGRAFÍA DEL OBISPO TURRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ DÍAZ DIEGO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Typical of the positivist ethnographer from the beginnings of XX century, Ángel Turrado Moreno (1903-1961, missionary and bishop of Asso, had an essencialist vision of culture. For him, cultures had a lot of similar and comparable aspects which he tried tounderline: marriage, family, authorities, deities, etc. Though Turrado did not carry out a deep analysis of cultural productions, he made a considerable effort to register the dimensions of daily life of Orinoco´s guaraunos with notable ethnographic rigor. Despite of all their biases, these community studies are important documentary sources today to comprehend these societies. This article intends to summerize the material conditions of life, the social organization and the symbolic cosmovision of gauraunos using the work of this missionary, as well as to give ethnographic logic that is lacking in some parts of his text. Guarauno lexicon used here corresponds to the phonetic adjustments handled by Turrado.RESUMEN: Típico del etnógrafo positivista de principios del siglo XX, Ángel Turrado Moreno (1903-1961, misionero y obispo de Asso, mantuvo una visión esencialista de la cultura. Las culturas poseían para él una multitud de aspectos coincidentes y comparativos que se preocupaba de remarcar: matrimonio, familia, autoridades, deidades, etc. Aunque Turrado no llevó a cabo un profundo análisis de las producciones culturales, hizo un considerable esfuerzo por registrar, con notable rigor etnográfico, parte de la vida cotidiana de losguaraúnos del Orinoco. Estos estudios de comunidad, con todos sus sesgos, nos resultan hoy fuentes documentales de gran importancia para acercarnos a la comprensión de estas sociedades. Se pretende con este artículo dar un repaso por las condiciones materiales de vida,la organización social y la cosmovisión simbólica de los guaraúnos a través de los materiales de este misionero así como dar lógica etnográfica a algunas lagunas de su texto

  11. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44969). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50,...

  12. The impact of landscape transformation on the reinfestation rates of Rhodnius prolixus in the Orinoco Region, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovez, Juan M; Guhl, Felipe

    2015-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent responsible for Chagas disease, is widely distributed in the Americas in association to insect vectors and animal reservoirs. Triatomines are common vectors of Chagas disease and they vary in their distribution and affinity to human or sylvatic environments. Thus, control programs that include house spraying have been successful in regions were insects have a tendency to domiciliation. In the Orinoco region of Colombia, Rhodnius prolixus is the main vector presenting a stable sylvatic cycle, but is also found colonizing human dwellings. In 1997, health authorities developed a control program in the Department of Casanare spreading with insecticide houses in 667 localities. Infestation Indexes (I.I.) were calculated at the locality level before and after spraying. Times for re-infestation assessment varied between 1 and 67 months. Localities were classified into 3 groups according to their I.I. after spraying. Group 1 dropped their I.I. down to zero, Group 2 had a drop but remained positive and Group 3 increased its I.I. after spraying. We classified each group in terms of their land use characteristics before and after spraying based on satellite images obtained for the years 1997 (beginning of the study) and 2002 (end of program). We found that spraying significantly reduce the I.I. on average. However, we found that time after spraying does not produce significant differences in the I.I. Interestingly, land use changes and variations on I.I. after spraying for all groups were significantly dependent.

  13. Estudio de las características individualizantes de las rugas palatinas. Caso: Bomberos de la Universidad de Los Andes Mérida - Venezuela Study of characteristics of palatal rugae individualizing. Case: Fire department of Los Andes University Mérida - Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    L. España; Paris, A.; Florido, R.; Arteaga, F; Solórzano, E.

    2010-01-01

    La rugoscopia es un método seguro y de bajo costo, que puede utilizarse como técnica alternativa en la individualización de personas y en el reconocimiento de cadáveres no identificados por diversas causas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue aplicar una ficha rugoscópica en una muestra de veinte (20) Bomberos Universitarios del estado Mérida-Venezuela y crear una base de datos de una población de alto riesgo a partir de las características individualizantes de las rugas palatinas. Se utili...

  14. Modelos estructurales. Deporte de alto rendimiento y conductas alimentarias de alto riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Se plantearon como objetivos el desarrollo de modelos estructurales para analizar las interrelaciones, pesos y direcciones entre los factores de riesgo (insatisfacción corporal, afecto negativo como depresión, ansiedad, hostilidad o enojo y preocupación por el peso) y conductas alimentarias anómalas (dieta crónica y restringida y sobreingesta compulsiva) y así determinar el papel del deporte en esas interrelaciones. Participaron 150 mujeres adolescentes, deportistas de alto rendimiento, y 150...

  15. Kebijakan Politik Hugo Chavez Dalam Penanggulangan Krisis Ekonomi Venezuela (1998-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinem, Try Edo Ati

    2015-01-01

    Hugo Chavez is the President of Venezuela who has an important role for change of political direction to resolve economic crisis in Venezuela with his Bolivarian Revolution. His political and economic policies able to cope with the bad condition in Venezuela. The purpose of this study was (1) to describe the condition of Venezuela when the economic crisis (2) Describe the Bolivarian Revolution (3) Describe the policies of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela tackling the economic crisis...

  16. e-Science perspectives in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, G; Hamar, V; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Mendez, Z; Núñez, L A; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M

    2008-01-01

    We describe the e-Science strategy in Venezuela, in particular initiatives by the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), Merida, and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. We present the plans for the Venezuelan Academic Grid and the current status of Grid ULA supported by Internet2. We show different web-based scientific applications that are being developed in quantum chemistry, atomic physics, structural damage analysis, biomedicine and bioclimate within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA)

  17. e-Science perspectives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hamar, V.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Mendez, Z.; Nunez, L. A.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.

    2007-07-01

    We describe the e-Science strategy in Venezuela, in particular initiatives by the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), Merida, and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. We present the plans for the Venezuelan Academic Grid and the current status of Grid ULA supported by Internet2. We show different web-based scientific applications that are being developed in quantum chemistry, atomic physics, structural damage analysis, biomedicine and bio climate within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA). (Author)

  18. Filogeografia e gen?tica de popula??es de inia geoffrensis (cetartiodactyla: iniidae) nos rios Negro e Branco e evid?ncia de linhagem evolutiva independente na Bacia do Orinoco

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Joiciane Gon?alves

    2015-01-01

    Os golfinhos de ?gua doce do g?nero Inia pertencem a fam?lia Iniidae e possuem tr?s esp?cies descritas para diferentes regi?es hidrogr?ficas: Inia boliviensis (sub-bacia Boliviana); I. araguaiaensis (bacia Tocantins/Araguaia); e I. geoffrensis (bacias Amaz?nica e do Orinoco). Esta ?ltima ? representada por duas subesp?cies, cuja taxonomia ? controversa: Inia geoffrensis geoffrensis (bacia Amaz?nia) e I. g. humboldtiana (bacia do Orinoco). As adapta??es adquiridas pelas esp?cies...

  19. Nuevos significados de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Karina Núñez Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es interpretar los nuevos significados de la demo- cracia en Venezuela, construidos a partir de los cambios y transformaciones iniciados en 1999 (proceso constituyente-reforma política, teniendo como centro los discursos y prácticas de una ciudadanía que debe participar de forma activa y organizada en los asuntos públicos con miras a la búsqueda de la solución de sus problemas más apremiantes. La aproximación metodológica (cualitativa-hermenéutica se realizó con- siderando que esta redefinición es una construcción intersubjetiva de los valores, acciones y normas en el ámbito político que intenta explicar cómo se construye la ciudadanía, fundamentalmente en el nivel local, a través de formas asociativas (como los consejos comunales en su interrelación con el Estado. Se concluye que a partir del nuevo orden constitucional de 1999 se comien- za a construir en Venezuela un nuevo sujeto que intenta viabilizar sus de- mandas a través de las organizaciones sociales.

  20. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  1. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo

  2. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  3. Analysis of the Linkage Effects of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector and Political Risk Analysis of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Maracaibo and Venezuelan Population Growth Rates. Ingles, Urbanization and Regional Development in Venezuela, p. 58. Izard, Serie estadistica para la...Regional Development in Venezuela. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University, 1975. Izard, Miguel. Serie estadistica para la historia de Venezuela. Merida

  4. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, J L; Hamar, V; Isea, R; Rojas, F; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M; Florez-Lopez, J; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Núñez, L A

    2007-01-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several web-based scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CeCalCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the \\textit{E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America} (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria.

  5. Las elecciones presidenciales en Venezuela 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Jiménez, Juan Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    IntroducciónEl pasado 3 de diciembre, se llevaron a cabo las elecciones presidenciales en Venezuela. La disputa estaba concentrada en las candidaturas del actual presidente Hugo Chávez Frías y la de Manuel Rosales, Gobernador del estado Zulia. Toda la campaña estuvo signada por una dinámica discusión en torno a la construcción de procesos enmarcadotes, a través de los cuales definían su perspectiva y visión acerca de la democracia, el sistema político y la utilización de la renta petrolera. P...

  6. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, J. L.; Diaz, G.; Hamar, V.; Isea, R.; Rojas, F.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Nunez, L. A.

    2007-07-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several webbased scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria. (Author)

  7. [Historical overview of antimalarials used in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerpa de Artiles, N

    1993-06-01

    A historical review of antimalarials used in Venezuela is presented from the time when the bark of quina was used until the massive distribution of quinine and metoquine by the Dirección de Malariología y Saneamiento Ambiental. The utility of chloroquine and primaquine against sensible parasite isolates and of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and quinine, currently used against P. falciparum resistant strains, is thoroughly discussed. The author suggests use of artemisimine and its derivatives as a very promising antimalarial drug. She also stresses the possibility of the application of new antimalaria vaccine against P. falciparum blood states, presently assayed in the country as an additional tool in malaria control programs.

  8. Delimiting Evolutionarily Significant Units of the Fish, Piaractus brachypomus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae), from the Orinoco and Amazon River Basins with Insight on Routes of Historical Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Maria Doris; Andrade-López, Juana; Farias, Izeni P; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater fish Piaractus brachypomus is an economically important for human consumption both in commercial fisheries and aquaculture in all South American countries where it occurs. In recent years the species has decreased in abundance due to heavy fishing pressure. The species occurs in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, but lack of meristic differences between fishes from the 2 basins, and extensive migration associated with reproduction, have resulted in P. brachypomus being considered a single panmictic species. Analysis of 7 nuclear microsatellites, mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and COI), and body shape variables demonstrated that each river basin is populated by a distinct evolutionarily significant unit (ESU); the 2 groups had an average COI divergence of 3.5% and differed in body depth and relative head length. Historical connection between the 2 basins most probably occurred via the Rupununi portal rather than via the Casiquiare canal. The 2 ESUs will require independent fishery management, and translocation of fisheries stocks between basins should be avoided to prevent loss of local adaptations or extinction associated with outbreeding depression. Introductions of fishes from the Orinoco basin into the Putumayo River basin, an Amazon basin drainage, and evidence of hybridization between the 2 ESUs have already been detected.

  9. [Food and reproductive biology of Farlowella vittata (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) in Güejar River Basin, Orinoco, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alzate, Carlos A; Román-Valencia, César; Barrero, Ana M

    2012-12-01

    Neotropical fish live in streams with considerable spatial and temporal variability of their food items. Food availability depends on different factors such as discharge, channel morphology, physicochemical conditions and interactions with other species, as well as their food habits. On the other side, good food availability results in reproductive success. Because the study of those changes contributes to a better understanding of trophic interactions in fish populations, the present work describes and evaluates aspects of diet and reproduction of Farlowella vittata in Pringamosal Creek, Güejar River drainage, Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Five collecting expeditions were done during both high and low rain seasons of 2008 and 2009. Physical and chemical water parameters were measured, and fish were captured from several points along the total length of the 7km stream, to characterize their biometry and stomach contents. Our results showed that Pringamosal creek is a first order stream, about 3.5m wide and with an average depth of 1m in our study area. Dissolved oxygen values were 6.2mg/L during low water and 2.7mg/L during high water phase. The creek is classified as oligotrophic but with a tendency to eutrophication. A total of 130 fish samples were analyzed. Fishes were assigned to seven size range categories between 86.0 and 175.5mm standard length (SL). Stomach contents revealed that the diet of this species consisted mainly of algae (Bacillariophyceae) (84.6% Abundance Relative), but we observed a variation in the diet according to season; during low rainfall it feeds on phytoplankton (86.47% A.R.) and during high rainfall on zooplankton as well as plant material and organic material (0.685% A.R. and 18.83% A.R., respectively). A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in food items between sexes. The condition factor (K) indicated that the species was well fed. Size at sexual maturity was 154mm SL for males and 124mm SL for

  10. Technical and scientific report of the Alto project; Rapport scientifique et technique du projet ALTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essabaa, S.; Gardes, D.; Grialou, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Le Scornet, J.C

    2002-07-01

    The Alto project means the installation of an electron linear accelerator inside the experimental area of the tandem accelerator of the nuclear physics institute of Orsay (IPNO, France). This linear accelerator comes from CERN where it was operating as a pre-injector for LEP. This equipment will allow IPNO'teams to perform fast kinetics studies in a domain different from that of ELYSE accelerator. The time resolution will not be as high as that of ELYSE (picosecond) but will be sufficient (microsecond) to produce free radicals in aqueous and gaseous media. The main expectations of this installation can be classified according 3 axis: 1) basic research (mainly the study of nuclear matter through photo-fission, 2) research and development of accelerators (by providing a test bench for new high frequency systems and superconducting components), and 3) applied research for industry concerning: biochemistry under irradiation, radiation sensibility, DNA breaking, food and drug sterilization and behaviour of electronic components under irradiation. This rapport details the research program that could be achieved with this equipment, describes its contributions in terms of economic development, cooperation with industry, student training, and specifies the needed investment and the operating and maintenance costs. (A.C.)

  11. 78 FR 60846 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... International Trade Administration Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping... a sunset review of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan,...

  12. 78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct... duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to... on subject imports from India and Kazakhstan were inadequate. Notwithstanding this, the...

  13. Aproximación al conocimiento de las briofitas de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Efraín J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces the up-dated taxonomic placement of 106 genera of Hepaticae and 233 genera of Musci known from Venezuela. Besides, a summarized version from the geographical distribution in Venezuela of 383 species of Hepaticae and 1009 species of mosses is presented. Information was derived from an exhaustive revision of bryophyte collections in the Venezuelan herbaria, and from publications about bryophytes collected in Venezuela. It is concluded that Venezuela, despite having been li...

  14. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los debates sobre la democracia en la Venezuela de hoy carecen de una definición común sobre el tema, sobre cómo estudiarlo, e incluso respecto a qué es democracia. El régimen ha sido descrito de muchas formas: democracia participativa, híbrido, mixto, personalista, populista, iliberal, autoritarismo competitivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el nivel de calidad de la democracia en Venezuela, en el marco de una concepción procedimental de la democracia. La evaluación empírica de cinco dimensiones de calidad de la democracia (decisión electoral, participación, respuesta a la voluntad popular, rendición de cuentas y soberanía revela un nivel bajo en conjunto, con escasa variación entre 2005 y 2010. Los escenarios posibles luego de las elecciones de 2012 incluyen: reforzamiento de las tendencias autoritarias, militarización abierta, liberalización política con fortalecimiento institucional, o volatilidad duradera con conflicto polarizado y debilidad institucional. La salud del presidente Chávez afectará estos escenarios, dado su carácter de factor central unificador de su movimiento y del régimen.Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the

  15. Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysaccis B., Raul

    1998-12-01

    On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the

  16. 78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY... from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  17. CALIFA, the Calar alto legacy integral field area survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 < z < 0.03) galaxies, obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on th...

  18. VENEZUELA 2010-2011: POLARIZACIÓN Y RADICALIZACIÓN DEL PROYECTO SOCIALISTA Venezuela 2010-2011: Polarization and Radicalization of the socialist project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICKARD LALANDER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela el bienio de 2010 y 2011 se caracterizó por una polarización política y social y la radicalización continua del gobierno socialista de Hugo Chávez Frías, con la gecución de nuevas leyes, oficialmente para expandir y profundizar la democracia participativa y radical. Paralelamente, también se manifestó el retorno de la oposición política a partir de las elecciones parlamentarias de 2010. En el 2011, la crisis interna ya existente dentro del chavismo se acentuó con la enfermedad del presidente Chávez y los aspectos de incertidumbre en cuanto al liderazgo de un movimiento político que hasta la fecha se ha caracterizado por un alto grado de personalismo y poder concentrado en el Presidente. En el campo social, el gobierno ha mantenido sus políticas progresistas/asistencialistas de diferentes Misiones sociales del Estado, especialmente a partir del 2011 para confrontar la escasez habitacional. En 2011 igualmente se puede observar el inicio de la precampaña electoral para las presidenciales del 2012. En el presente estudio se ofrece un resumen político de Venezuela en 2010 y 2011 y habrá un enfoque analítico particular en las elecciones parlamentarias de 2010, así como en las tensiones entre dos modelos democráticos: uno liberal representativo y otro más radical y participativo. De este ultimo modelo, habrá un énfasis especial en la evolución de los consejos comunales y sus implicaciones para la democracia.Theyears of2010 and 2011 were characterized by political and social polarization and similarly by a radicalization of the socialist government of Hugo Chávez Frías, with the establishment of new laws to expand the model of radical participatory democracy. The period however also witnessed the return of the opposition to the National Assembly in 2010. In 2011, the already existing crisis within the chavismo was hit by the health problems of the President, which added to uncertainty regarding the leadership ofa

  19. Formación de equipos de alto desempeño y estrategias gerenciales en proyectos de empresas publicitarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSA ESTHER PALAMARY D'AGUILLO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente las empresas publicitarias se ven presionadas a competir en un entorno donde productos y estrategias se asemejan cada día más debido a la globalización. El éxito de estas empresas dependerá de la práctica de la innovación en sus actividades así como del desarrollo del capital humano. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar la relación entre formación de equipos de alto desempeño y estrategias gerenciales en proyectos de empresas publicitarias; sustentada bajo una investigación descriptiva correlacional de campo transversal, con un diseño no experimental descriptivo transeccional. Se tomó como población a las empresas ubicadas en el municipio de Maracaibo (Venezuela pertenecientes a la Federación de Agencias Publicitarias. Los resultados obtenidos sirven para otras empresas que deseen asumir este reto.

  20. de filiales de empresas multinacionales: Caso Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Sigala Paparella

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia la influencia de los diferentes factores determinantes de los roles que tienen las filiales dentro de las empresas multinacionales, a través de la ponderación del comportamiento de factores del contexto de unas filiales sometidas a un entorno adverso. Se utiliza la metodología de estudio de casos en diecisiete filiales localizadas en Venezuela de diversos sectores. El estudio comprueba que la adversidad del entorno es uno de los factores contextuales que mayor influencia ejerce en la determinación de los roles de las filiales, induciendo a una devaluación de los roles de las mismas. El impacto de los determinantes varía dependiendo del tipo de filial: aquellas que realizan pocas actividades de valor agregado, usualmente de mercadeo y ventas, dependen más de la asignación de la matriz, mientras que las que incorporan un mayor número de actividades de la cadena de valor, integran otros determinantes como la adversidad del entorno y la iniciativa desarrollada por la propia filial.

  1. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  2. [Enterobiasis in students from Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devera, R; Pérez, C; Ramos, Y

    1998-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a nematode with a peculiar biological cycle, thus requiring a special diagnostic technique. In order to determine the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, 282 children aged 5-14 years old were evaluated between november 1995 and august 1996 by the Graham technique (three perianal swabs with adhesive cellulose tape). The prevalence of enterobiasis in the studied children was estimated 19.1% (54/282). There was no difference between sexes (P > 0.05), but there was a difference between ages (x2 = 13.8; 1.g. = 4), being the infection more frequent between 5 and 8 years. Symptoms were observed in 90.7% of the schoolchildren. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (81.6%). Other less frequent manifestations were enuresis (28.6%) and vulvitis in girls (26.1%). This intestinal parasitosis occurs with high frequency among schoolchildren in Ciudad Bolívar with characteristic and identifiable symptoms in most cases. The Graham method must be used for its diagnosis. This test is not routinely performed in our laboratories unless specifically requested by the attending physician.

  3. Responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lescher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela. El trabajo se sustenta en los postulados de Rodríguez (2010, De la Cuesta (2011, el Ministerio de Educación de España (2011, entre otros. El estudio fue descriptivo, de campo. La población estuvo conformada por autoridades de cinco (5 universidades, una (1 pública y cuatro (4 privadas ubicadas en Maracaibo, a las cuales se accedió mediante un cuestionario compuesto por treinta y dos (32 ítems cerrados. El instrumento fue validado por expertos en el ámbito de la gerencia universitaria. Para determinar la confiabilidad del cuestionario se aplicó el método test-retest, obteniéndose un coeficiente de 0,94. Para analizar los datos se utilizó el promedio aritmético o media. Los resultados indican que las universidades estudiadas exhiben un modelo de responsabilidad social de tendencia empresarial instrumental, donde el conocimiento se perfila como el principal activo disponible para su uso por la sociedad, pero se requiere una mayor integración de las instituciones de educación superior con sus stakeholders.

  4. In situ combustion field experiences in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, M.; Estrada, M.; Bolivar, J. [INTEVEP, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1995-02-01

    A literature review of four in situ combustion projects: in Miga, Tia Juana, Melones and Morichal fields in Venezuela was made, and a summary of these projects is presented. Reservoir description and project performance data were analyzed. The behavior of the four in situ combustion field tests can be summarized as follows: The problems most often encountered were corrosion and high temperature producing wells. The direction in which the burning front moved was guided essentially by reservoir characteristics. The produced oil was upgraded by about 4{degrees} API, and viscosity was substantially reduced. For Mirochal and Miga fields, the analyses of available information from the combustion projects indicated that the process has been successful in the affected region. Conclusions from this review indicate that the two most frequent problems encountered were operational problems in producing wells and the direction of the burning front. The heterogeneous nature of the sands probably resulted in the burning front moving in a preferential direction, hence reducing areal sweep efficiency.

  5. Misery Index Corrected by Informality: Applicable to Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Ramoni Perazzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a variation of the IMO index (Okun's Misery Index, adapting it to markets with these characteristics, adding the ESI level (Employment in the Informal Sector to the unemployment level. This research compares the evolution of several standard misery indexes in several zones during the last decades, with emphasis on the case of Venezuela, for which the new proposed index is also estimated. Results show improvement in the well-being of groups of countries under study, compared to the deterioration of the indicator in Venezuela. In general terms, the IMO is controlled by unemployment, except in Venezuela. However, preponderance of inflation over unemployment in this country seems to occur by the underestimate that the unemployment rate has on the Venezuelan labor market situation.

  6. Assessing Whether Oil Dependency in Venezuela Contributes to National Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and the correlation between oil prices and democracy. This article also explores the various forms of instability within Venezuela and their causes. Finally, the article looks at President Hugo Chavez's political and economic policies as well as the stagnation of the state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA. This article dispels the myth that the resource curse is the source of destabilization in many resource dependent countries. Rather than a cause of instability, this phenomenon is a symptom of a much larger problem that is largely structural.

  7. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Pacheco, Johanna I; Rös, Matthias; Escobar, Federico; Castro-Lima, Francisco; Verdú, José R; López-Iborra, Germán M

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1) type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms) and (2) origins (natural, mixed and artificial). A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81%) were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution). Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha), with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha) supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  8. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna I. Murillo-Pacheco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1 type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms and (2 origins (natural, mixed and artificial. A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81% were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution. Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha, with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  9. Complete genome sequences of two begomoviruses infecting weeds in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The complete sequences of isolates of two new bipartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) found infecting weeds in Venezuela are provided. The names proposed for these new begomoviruses are "Datura leaf distortion virus" (DLDV), isolated from a Datura stramonium L. (family Solanaceae) plant, and "Dalechampia chlorotic mosaic virus" (DCMV), isolated from infected Dalechampia sp. (family Euphorbiaceae) and Boerhavia diffusa L. (family Nyctaginaceae) plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these new begomoviruses segregated in two distinct clades of New World begomoviruses. To our knowledge, this is the first record of a begomovirus infecting Dalechampia sp. plants. Also, this is the first report of a begomovirus infecting Boerhavia spp. and Datura spp. in Venezuela.

  10. Added value of nuclear magnetic resonance logging as delineation tool in EHO context : an example from Orinoco Heavy oil belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, F.; Mus, E. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Petrocedeno; Marcos, J. [Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In preparation for the upcoming implementation of a thermal oil recovery project, an intensive delineation campaign was recently conducted in a specific area of the Junin block main field of Petrocedeno, operated by Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) Petrocedeno joint venture. A complete acquisition program was defined in terms of conventional logging (GR, resistivity, neutron/density, sonic, formation pressure), coring, and unconventional logging with imagery logs and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with the objective of delineating the field. The purpose of this paper was to show the significant added value and step forward the NMR acquisition brought in fluid and reservoir characterization. The paper described the input of standard NMR logging, including fluid characterization; petrophysical support; tool limitation; NMR gamma inversion reprocessing; methodology; and application to EOR project area. Applications for field development were also presented including application for cold and hot production development. It was concluded that the NMR is a suitable tool for fluid characterization and for improving future development of the Petrocedeno extra heavy oil field. It has the capability of identifying fluids that are poorly characterized, or not characterized, by conventional logs. 10 refs., 18 figs.

  11. pobres y nuevas coaliciones en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Briggs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, los gobiernos locales junto con el gobierno nacional, crearon un sistema nacional de salud paralelo, Misión Barrio Adentro (MBA, ubicando a unos 33.000 profesionales de la salud, inicialmente cubanos, en vecindarios de bajos ingresos. A través de la etnografía y entrevistas, se concluye que MBA proporcionó acceso a la atención médica y logró obtener apoyo popular a consecuencia de: movimientos sociales de los pobres; cooperación entre trabajadores comunitarios, residentes, profesionales de salud y funcionarios públicos; la integración de la atención médica con programas sociales y económicos; la ubicación de médicos como residentes en barrios pobres; interacciones positivas y equitativas médico-paciente; el papel clave de los Comités de Salud; y el impacto de la hostilidad de la prensa, un segmento grande de los médicos venezolanos y la oposición en transformar a la salud en un tema político esencial. Todo esto nos sugiere que el Estado puede confrontar las inequidades de salud cuando se unen perspectivas teóricas de la medicina social y la epidemiología crítica con los saberes populares dentro de las comunidades afectadas. Estructuras institucionales flexibles, no burocráticas y creativas aumentan la efectividad de las intervenciones.

  12. e innovación en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Peña cedillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestra investigación ha estado dirigida a evaluar las `Agendas de Investigación e Innovación` desarrolladas en Venezuela a partir de 1995. Las Agendas representaron un conjunto de políticas dirigidas a la constitución de redes de innovación en múltiples áreas, impulsando nuevas formas de colaboración entre investigadores, empresarios, ciudadanos, políticos, entre otros. En función de alcanzar nuestros objetivos de evaluación, desarrollamos algunas herramientas e indicadores para estimar si ellas fueron exitosas o no, centrándonos en este escrito en la apreciación cualitativa de las características generales de las Agendas como programas de innovación (un componente de una más compleja macro-evaluación institucional, quedando para otras publicaciones la presentación de los resultados específicos asociados a cada una de las Agendas. Los resultados preliminares aquí reportados indican un abandono de sus planteamientos originales y una vuelta a la tradición que privilegiaba la investigación académica frente a otros esfuerzos de generación de conocimiento. La puesta al día de estas políticas pareciera pasar por la profundización del planteamiento original de redes de actores y agentes sociales, superando el modelo `gerencialista` centrado en lograr `investigaciones más pertinentes`, el cual ha impedido el despliegue frontal de las promesas contenidas en el enfoque de redes.

  13. Development actualities and characteristics of the Orinoco heavy oil belt,Venezuela%委内瑞拉奥里诺科重油带开发现状与特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆龙新

    2010-01-01

    目前委内瑞拉奥里诺科重油带上仅有5个合资项目(其中MPE3项目由中国石油南美公司(CNPC South America Corporation,以下简称CNPCSA)和委内瑞拉国家石油公司(PDVSA)合资经营)和1个PDVSA项目在开发生产,这6个项目日产重油超过11.7×104t,日产奥里乳油约8.8×104t,合计动用面积2 022 km2,动用面积比例不到4%,动用地质储量约216×108t,储量动用程度不到11%,因此,重油带开发程度很低.奥里诺科重油与世界上其他重油有很大的区别,具有"三高一低可流动"的特性,即:高密度(934~1 050 kg/m3),高含硫(平均为35 000 mg/L),高含重金属钒和镍(大于500 mg/L),低黏度(一般小于20 Pa·s),可形成泡沫油,冷采条件下可流动并能获得很高的单井产能,水平井冷采产量一般可达200 t/d;冷采采收率较低,为5%~10%.图5表6参13

  14. Criterios para identificar patologías de alto costo en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenta de alto costo, MinSalud

    2010-01-01

    Al identificar posibles pacientes de alto costo se debe definir si existen características que determinan su comportamiento como pacientes de alto costo, para definir si dicha patología puede considerarse como Enfermedad de Alto Costo en Colombia.

  15. Study of renewable energies in Venezuela; Estudio del desarrollo de las energias alternativas en Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posso, F. R.

    2004-07-01

    It is study the feasibility of development of the alternative energies, AE, in Venezuela based on its potential of exploitation, the analysis of its energetic system, and the attitude of the State before the AE. The results indicate that the country has a high potential of AE, that the hidroenergy in great scale is the unique one with an important participation in the energy system, and that the solar energy and the eolic are those of greater possibility of development. However, an assembly of factors impede the development in firm of the AE, fundamentally related to its historic condition of producer and consumer of fuel fossil in great scale at low cost. It is concluded that only with a change of attitude of the State and the concourse of all the actors involved in the sector, the {sup c}lean energies{sup w}ould be able to have an important weight in the national energetic balance. (Author)

  16. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  17. Quaternary Faults and Stress Regime of Venezuela Fallas y campo de esfuerzos cuaternarios de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Audemard M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial configuration of Quaternary active tectonic features along the southern Caribbean plate boundary suggests that the region is subject to a compressive strike-slip (transpressional senso lato regime, characterized by a NNW-SSE maximum horizontal stress (sH=s1 and/or an ENE-WSW minimum (s h=s3 or s2 horizontal stress. Stress inversion applied to fault-plane kinematic indicators measured essentially in Plio-Quaternary sedimentary rocks confirms this tectonic regime. Accordingly, this stress regime is responsible for the Quaternary activity and kinematics of six sets of brittle features along northern Venezuela (from Colombia in the west to Trinidad in the east: (1 east-west rightlateral faults, (2 NW right-lateral faults -acting as synthetic Riedel shears-, (3 ENE to east-west dextral faults -P shears-, (4 NNW normal faults, (5 almost north-south left-lateral faults -antithetic Riedel shears- and (6 mostly subsurface ENE reverse faults associated with folding of the same orientation. Brittle deformation conforms to the simple shear model, although not all the deformation can be accounted for it since strain partitioning is also taking place because regional folding and thrusting are due to the normal-to-structure component of the relative slip vector between the Caribbean and South America plates. On the other hand, the maximum horizontal stress in western Venezuela, particularly in the Maracaibo block and south of the Oca-Ancón fault, progressively turns counter-clockwise to become more east-west oriented, producing left- and right-lateral slip along the north-south striking and NE-SW striking faults, respectively. The orientation and spatial variation of this regional stress field in western Venezuela results from the superposition of the two major neighboring interplate maximum horizontal stress orientations (sH: roughly east-west trending stress across the Nazca-South America type-B subduction along the pacific coast of Colombia and NNW

  18. Taska teeb Venezuela seebi eesti moodi / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Produtsent Kristian Taska ostis ära Venezuela seebiooperi "Lorenzo naine", et valmistada Kanal Spordis näitamiseks Eesti oludele mugandatud "Kalevi naised" (lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar, osades Maria Avdjuško, Andrus Vaarik, Jan Uuspõld, Anne Reemann)

  19. Historical Development of Organochlorine Pesticides Legislation in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Information about organochlorine pesticideslegislation in Venezuela was recovered, usingthe search engine Google. Progress and setbackswas analyzed, with information about imports,exports, inventories, storage sites, controls andactions taken for disposal and participation ininternational conventions. The country appearsto have adequate legislation, however, greaterconsistency of laws and decrees are required. Updatethe technical rule is necessary and increasesthe capacity to monitoring, iden...

  20. The Majorat of Sartenejas in Colonial Venezuela 1740-1858

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egilda Rangel

    2013-01-01

    Ponte and Martinez de Villegas, based on law 33, of the Leyes de Toro. Three “noble” families with roots in Venezuela, the Mixares, Ponte and Tovar families were linked to the above-mentioned property and they were joined by marriage alliances to preserve their properties.

  1. Poverty rates in Venezuela: getting the numbers right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis; Rosnick, David

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at household and individual poverty rates in Venezuela over the past seven years. For more than a year, the statement that poverty in Venezuela has increased under the government of President Hugo Chávez has appeared in scores of major newspapers, on major television and radio programs, and even in publications devoted to foreign policy. There are no data to support such statements, and in fact the available data show a decline in poverty for both individuals and households over the seven-year period: the percentage of people in poverty declined from 50 percent in the first quarter of 1999 to 43.7 percent in 2005. Further, there is no evidence to suggest any change in the methodology for measuring poverty during this period, as has been alleged in a number of reports. The article also examines briefly the impact of significant changes in non-cash benefits such as free health care, which are not taken into account in the measured poverty rate, on poor people in Venezuela. Finally, the authors look at how the mistakes in reporting on Venezuela's poverty rate were made; an appendix gives examples of mistakes in major media and foreign policy publications.

  2. Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoppi de Roa, Evelyn

    1971-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio de las Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela. Presenta los resultados taxonómicos y de distribución de las especies recolectadas durante los años 1960 a 1962. Las muestras de plancton analizadas indicaron la presencia de 18 especies pert

  3. Building Coalitions for Change : Venezuela Judicial Infrastructure Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnast, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Government of Venezuela urgently requested assistance from the World Bank to combat corruption, improve the business climate, and create a sense of transparency and involvement of civil society in state matters. The country's judicial system was identified as the institution in which to begin such reforms, because it was widely perceived as lacking credibility and e...

  4. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  5. The Educational System of Venezuela. Education around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Edward J.

    History, structure, legal bases, and planned reforms of the educational system of Venezuela are discussed. The conflicting roles of church and state in administering education have been reconciled within the past two decades, with resultant increases in enrollment and government financing. Curriculum regulation, coordination, and supervision are…

  6. La rentabilidad del negocio azucarero en Venezuela. El caso de los precios y los productores del río Turbio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigala Venegas, Luis H.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of the sugar business, cane supply and the productivity of the sector have suffered reductions in Rio Turbio, Venezuela, during the last years. This is partly due to uncertainties on the future of the sector and to its decapitalization. Taking into account the country’s hard economic situation and inflation high rates, this article studies the performance of sugar prices as a factor affecting profitability. The analysis is focused on the adjusting -constant or actual- prices paid to the producers, with the aim of comparing the different «zafras» along the 1988-2001 period .

    Los rendimientos del negocio azucarero, la oferta de caña y su productividad se han reducido en los últimos años en Río Turbio, Venezuela, en parte debido a la incertidumbre sobre el futuro del sector y a su descapitalización. Teniendo en cuenta la difícil situación económica y los altos niveles de inflación que ha sufrido el país, este trabajo estudia el comportamiento de las cotizaciones del azúcar como factor que afecta a la rentabilidad de su cultivo. Para ello analizan los precios recibidos por los productores, ajustándolos a valores constantes o reales, con el fin de poder comparar las diferentes zafras del período 1988-2001.

  7. Seismological Parameters in the Northern Andes, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiesiak, M.; Palme de Osechas, C.; Choy, J. E.; Morandi S., M. T.; Campo, M.; Granado Ruiz, C.

    2001-12-01

    Venezuelas tectonic setting as part of the plate boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plate causes two major seismologically active fault systems: the roughly west - east trending strike slip fault system along the coast with numerous sub-parallel faults and the Bocono fault system, which dominates the Venezuelan southwest - northeast striking Andes. The main Bocono fault reaches a total length of about 500 km and has a width of approximately 100 km between the southern and northern baseline of the mountain slopes which are marked by inverse faults. This is believed to be due to strain partitioning, a concept which seems to apply as well to the Bocono fault system. The whole fault system is characterized by a high seismicity rate of small scale and intermediate event magnitudes ranging from 1.5 to 6.3 in the last fifty years. In this study we would like to present an investigation on 39 focal mechanism solutions and a b-value mapping of the Andean region with the main goal to throw light on the stess and strain situation. For recompiling the focal memchanisms calculated from first motion polarities, various sources had to been used: seismograms from stations of the local and regional networks of the Seismological Center of ULA, the national seismic network operated by FUNVISIS, the seismic network Lago Maracaibo of PDVSA and the local seismic network of DESURCA. For the b-value mapping we used the two catalogues of ULA and DESURCA of which the last one registered more than 6500 events from 1994 to 1999. The set of focal mechanism solutions studied showed normal, strike slip, and reverse faulting mechanisms concentrated in distinct areas of the Bocono fault system and thus resulting in a zonation also supported by the determinations of the azimuths of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax. This hypothesis of the zonation of the Andes region is strongly supported by the results of the b-value mapping. The zonation as seen in the varying major stress

  8. Venezuela 2007: los motores del socialismo se alimentan con petróleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel E Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela vive actualmente una coyuntura crítica en la que combinan cambios políticos radicales y abundancia de recursos provenientes de los altos precios internacionales del crudo. Desde la campaña electoral presidencial del año 2006, el presidente Hugo Chávez anunció la implantación de un nuevo modelo económico y político al cual bautizó como "socialismo del siglo XXI". Ahora que fue reelegido, ha anunciado el arranque de los así llamados "cinco motores" del nuevo régimen. Puede que estos "motores" sean nuevos, pero el socialismo de Chávez se está alimentando del viejo rentismo petrolero. No cabe duda que los cambios en la actual coyuntura serán radicalmente profundos. Con la nueva reforma constitucional se pretende acabar con las "desviaciones capitalistas" de la Constitución de 1999. Mientras ella se produce, el gobierno adelanta políticas "antiimperialistas", de nacionalización y regulación económica. Los "chavistas" se agrupan en el Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela (aunque no sin cierta resistencia interna. La oposición política, dividida en dos partidos, ensaya una nueva estrategia pacífica, electoral y de largo plazo para enfrentar al gobierno. Todo parece indicar que el nuevo esquema de cambio radical en lo económico y lo político será adoptado a marcha forzada y con poca o ninguna resistencia efectiva por parte de los partidos políticos y de la sociedad civilVenezuela is currently facing a new critical juncture that combines radical political changes with an economic boom driven by high oil prices in the international market. Since the 2006 electoral campaign, President Hugo Chavez announced a new program of radical economic and instructional change: the "XXI century socialism". Once reelected, Chávez has "started" the so-called "five engines" of the new regime. These engines may be brand new ones, but they still fuelled by the old oil-based rentistic model. Nonetheless, the new wave of political and

  9. Las cárceles y población reclusa en Venezuela Prisos and inmates population in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Posada

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la importancia de los asuntos penitenciarios, en América Latina existen pocos estudios comprensivos y recomendaciones regionales con relación a este contexto. En este trabajo se describen las características de las cárceles y los reclusos en Venezuela, información recopilada a través de revisión documental y en visitas realizadas desde 1998-2006 a diferentes penales venezolanos, en el marco de las Jornadas de Salud insertas en el Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, con el propósito de realizar un aporte que sirva como antecedente nacional y regional para la investigación en el ámbito penitenciario, que permita avanzar en el estudio de sus problemas y en la promoción e implementación de posibles soluciones.Despite the importance of prison issues in Latin America, there is little in the way of detailed local studies or recommendations on the subject. This article sets out to describe the situation concerning prisons and inmates in Venezuela. Data for this study was compiled from documentary sources and visits to a number of Venezuelan prisons from 1998 to 2006 as part of the Health Conference of the Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, (Central University of Venezuela Prison Program. The program’s aim was to make contributions towards research on the prison environment at national and regional levels that might serve as a precedent for further study of the problems and issues that exist, and promote and implement possible solutions.

  10. Can Venezuela's oil sector endure Chavez' ambitions any longer?; Kan Venezuela's oliesector Chavez' ambities nog langer dragen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkoop, J.

    2009-07-15

    The author describes the decline of Venezuela's oil industry as well as President Chavez' reaction to Venezuela's budgetary crisis. Politicization, falling investment and the obligation to take upon itself a plethora of social spending have left national oil company Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. unable to produce efficiently and maintain production levels. Falling oil production and lower oil prices have in turn left president Hugo Chavez unable to spread the wealth to Venezuela's poor and he is searching desperately for ways to extract yet more from Venezuela's dysfunctional economy. As funds run out, Venezuela's expensive foreign policy, supporting regional allies, in particular Cuba, and seeking to export anywhere but the United States, proves overly expensive. Venezuela's impoverished masses, still supportive of Chavez during February's elections, may become less so as funds for social programmes run out. For Chavez it is a time for making choices... otherwise the people of Venezuela will choose for him. [Dutch] De auteur beschrijft de teruggang van de olie-industrie van Venezuela en de reacties van president Chavez op de budgettaire crisis in Venezuela. Politisering, dalende investeringen en de verplichtingen m.b.t. de overvloed aan sociale uitgaven zorgen er voor dat de nationale oliemaatschappij Petroleos de Venezuela niet in staat is om efficient te produceren en de productie op peil te houden. Dalende olie-productie en lagere olieprijzen zorgen er ook voor dat de president niet in staat is om de rijkdom te verdelen over de armen in Venezuela. Hij is op zoek naar manieren om meer te halen uit de slecht functionerende economie. Zijn dure buitenlandse Venezuela beleid, onder meer door ondersteuning van regionale bondgenoten, in het bijzonder Cuba, en het zoeken naar export mogelijkheden, behalve naar de USA, pakt fiancieel gezien slecht uit. De verarmde massa's van Venezuela steunden Chavez nog in de verkiezingen in

  11. Estudios realizados en riegos del alto Aragón

    OpenAIRE

    Dechmi, Farida; Isidoro, Daniel; Balcells Oliván, María; Clavería Laborda, Ignacio; Skhiri, Ahmed; Gimeno, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    A nivel nacional, las Confederaciones Hidrográficas, responsables del control de la calidad de las aguas, han implementado redes de análisis de calidad en los principales ríos de sus cuencas (CHE, 2009). Para cumplir con las exigencias de la Directiva Marco de Agua, la Comunidad General de Riegos del Alto Aragón (RAA) realizó un seguimiento de la calidad de las aguas superficiales dentro de su red de drenaje durante las estaciones de riego de 2005 y 2006. Esa primer...

  12. Feminicidios en la frontera chilena: el caso de Alto Hospicio

    OpenAIRE

    Ainhoa Vásquez Mejías

    2016-01-01

    Entre 1999 y el 2001, varias adolescentes desaparecieron en el norte de Chile y, posteriormente, fueron encontradas muertas. La novela Alto Hospicio (2008), de Rodrigo Ramos Bañados, recrea estos feminicidios desde la visión del cómplice del único inculpado por estos crímenes. En el presente artículo se plantea que el escritor utiliza la noción de frontera como aparato crítico, con el fin de desestabilizar barreras espaciales, simbólicas y textuales que se agrupan en cuatro ejes: Bolivia-Chil...

  13. The Calar Alto Observatory: current status and future instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Barrado, D; Aceituno, J; Pedraz, S; Sanchez, S F; Aguirre, A; Alises, M; Bergond, G; Galadi, D; Guijarro, A; Hoyo, F; Mast, D; Montoya, L; Sengupta, Ch; de Guindos, E; Solano, E

    2010-01-01

    The Calar Alto Observatory, located at 2168m height above the sea level in continental Europe, holds a signi?cant number of astronomical telescopes and experiments, covering a large range of the electromagnetic domain, from gamma-ray to near-infrared. It is a very well characterized site, with excellent logistics. Its main telescopes includes a large suite of instruments. At the present time, new instruments, namely CAFE, PANIC and Carmenes, are under development. We are also planning a new operational scheme in order to optimize the observatory resources.

  14. MAPCAT: Monitoring AGN with Polarimetry at the Calar Alto Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Agudo, Ivan; Gomez, Jose L; Marscher, Alan P; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Heidt, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    We introduce MAPCAT, a long-term observing program for "Monitoring of AGN with Polarimetry at the Calar Alto Telescopes". Multi-spectral-range studies are critical to understand some of the most relevant current problems of high energy astrophysics of blazars such as their high energy emission mechanisms and the location of their gamma-ray emission region through event associations across the spectrum. Adding multi-spectral-range polarimetry allows for even more reliable identification of polarized flares across the spectrum in these kind of objects, as well as for more accurate modeling of their magnetic field. As part of a major international effort to study the long term multi-spectral range polarimetric behavior of blazars, MAPCAT uses -since mid 2007- CAFOS on the 2.2m Telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria, Spain) to obtain monthly optical (R-band) photo-polarimetric measurements of a sample of 34 of the brightest gamma-ray, optical, and radio-millimeter blazars accessible from the northern he...

  15. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Aceituno, J; Grupp, F; Lillo, J; Hernan-Obispo, M; Benitez, D; Montoya, L M; Thiele, U; Pedraz, S; Barrado, D; Dreizler, S; Bean, J

    2013-01-01

    We present here CAFE, the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph, a new instrument built at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Alem\\'an (CAHA). CAFE is a single fiber, high-resolution ($R\\sim$70000) spectrograph, covering the wavelength range between 3650-9800\\AA. It was built on the basis of the common design for Echelle spectrographs. Its main aim is to measure radial velocities of stellar objects up to $V\\sim$13-14 mag with a precision as good as a few tens of $m s^{-1}$. To achieve this goal the design was simplified at maximum, removing all possible movable components, the central wavelength is fixed, so the wavelentgth coverage; no filter wheel, one slit and so on, with a particular care taken in the thermal and mechanical stability. The instrument is fully operational and publically accessible at the 2.2m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. In this article we describe (i) the design, summarizing its manufacturing phase; (ii) characterize the main properties of the instrument; (iii) describe the red...

  16. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  17. Biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ah Reum; Park, Sung Ryeol; Park, Je Won; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-06-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028, bearing a deletion of the entire biosynthetic gene cluster encoding the pikromycin polyketide synthases and desosamine biosynthetic enzymes, was used as a bioconversion system for combinatorial biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin. Two engineered deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways for the biosynthesis of TDP-3-O-demethyl-D-chalcose or TDP-Lrhamnose in conjunction with the glycosyltransferaseauxiliary protein pair DesVII/DesVIII were expressed in a S. venezuelae YJ028 mutant strain. Supplementation of each mutant strain capable of producing TDP-3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose or TDP-L-rhamnose with tylosin aglycone tylactone resulted in the production of the 3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose, D-quinovose, or L-rhamnose-glycosylated tylactone.

  18. Downhole Upgrading of Orinoco Basin Extra-Heavy Crude Oil Using Hydrogen Donors under Steam Injection Conditions. Effect of the Presence of Iron Nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ovalles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An extra-heavy crude oil underground upgrading concept and laboratory experiments are presented which involve the addition of a hydrogen donor (tetralin to an Orinoco Basin extra-heavy crude oil under steam injection conditions (280–315 °C and residence times of at least 24-h. Three iron-containing nanocatalysts (20 nm, 60 nm and 90 nm were used and the results showed increases of up to 8° in API gravity, 26% desulfurization and 27% reduction in the asphaltene content of the upgraded product in comparison to the control reaction using inert sand. The iron nanocatalysts were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDAX, and Mössbauer spectroscopy before and after the upgrading reactions. The results indicated the presence of hematite (Fe2O3 as the predominant iron phase. The data showed that the catalysts were deactivating by particle sintering (~20% increase in particle size and also by carbon deposition. Probable mechanisms of reactions are proposed.

  19. THE INFORMAL HOUSING PRODUCTION: THE MARACAIBO CASE, VENEZUELA)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [EN]In housing production in Venezuela and particularly in Maracaibo, we can recognize two main sectors: the "formal" sector production carried out by prívate and national enterprises, and ttie "informal" sector, which produces tiouses in marginal áreas and uncontrolled suburbs in town. The production in this sector tías become larger ttian ttie formal one. In act, in Maracaibo more than 60% of population is living in these types of suburbs. Ttiese people tiave resolve...

  20. Historical Development of Organochlorine Pesticides Legislation in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Information about organochlorine pesticides legislation in Venezuela was recovered, using the search engine Google. Progress and setbacks was analyzed, with information about imports, exports, inventories, storage sites, controls and actions taken for disposal and participation in international conventions. The country appears to have adequate legislation, however, greater consistency of laws and decrees are required. Update the technical rule is necessary and increases the capacity to monito...

  1. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Margarita Island, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    La Barbera-Sánchez, Amelia; Franco Soler, Jose; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna) exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 µg STX/100 g meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2 548 and 115 ...

  2. Severed hemoparasitosis complicated in a thoroughbred horses from Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Villoria, D.; Andrea, J.; Leal, L.; García, Francisco; Morales Briceño, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is the disease caused by protozoan hemoparasites Babesia caballi and/or B. (Theileria equi). The aim of this study was to report of case of severed hemoparasitosis complicated in a Thoroughbred horse from Venezuela. The equine present acute abdominal pain in 24 hours and complicated post 48 hours and death in the 72 hours. Temperature oscillate 41;2°C. Icterus and hematury severed. We realized a multidisciplinary study clinical, laboratory, biochemistry, necropsy, hi...

  3. Lessons Learned by Venezuela Fighting in Low Intensity Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-05

    BUILDING 122 CARLISLE, PA 17013-5050 ga. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING I 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION I...Congress, 29 April 1960. 1 7Colonel Juan Biaggini Gutierrez et al., Los Cinco de Linea (Caracas: Direccion de Educaion del Ejercito, 4 August 1980), 102...Barracks, PA : U.S. Army War College, 3 August 1992. Low Intensity Conflict. Venezuela Case Study. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff

  4. Nota sectorial: Servicio eléctrico en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2010-01-01

    Esta nota sectorial tiene por objetivo facilitar el diálogo de políticas públicas, oportunidades de cooperación y la elaboración de la estrategia de país del Banco con las autoridades del Gobierno de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela para en las áreas de energía eléctrica y el Plan Nacional de Inversión.

  5. Research in seismology and earthquake engineering in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, L.; Grases, J.

    1983-01-01

    Venezuela has been affected by destructive earthquakes for the past four centuries. According to entries in the national seismic catalog, there have been about 180 earthquakes which have caused some type of damage to the country. The most catastrophic earthquake occurred on March 26, 1812, on the Bocono fault system and caused widespread destruction in the cities of Merida and Caracas and claimed an estimated 30,000 lives.

  6. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  7. Proyectos educativos: estudio comparativo entre Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineira Finol

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Educativo Integral Comunitario (PEIC y el Proyecto Educativo Institucional constituyen la categoría de comparación entre Venezuela y Colombia; a tal fin, este estudio de tipo comparativo-documental se centró en determinar congruencias y discrepancias entre PEIC y PEI, utilizando el método comparativo estructurado en cuatro fases: descripción, interpretación, yuxtaposición y comparación, propuesto por Hilker y Bereday (1972 Entre los resultados se tienen: congruencias en cuanto surgen sobre las bases de diagnóstico externos efectuados por organismos internacionales UNESCO, CEPAL ante la inefectividad y baja productividad de ambos países; a nivel interno responden a políticas educativas reformadoras de currículum y leyes,. Discrepancias referidas al tiempo de implementación; en Venezuela a partir de 1996; Colombia en 1992; este último, consolidó las bases para la participación a través del gobierno escolar y de un sistema de evaluación institucional, muy incipiente en Venezuela.

  8. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.

  9. Venezuela: La descentralización en el socialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodriguez Rojas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La nueva dinámica del poder político y el desarrollo económico en Venezuela hay que entenderlos en el contexto de La Nueva geometría del Poder, el necesario reacomodo territorial, el fortalecimiento del poder popular, Comunal y de los Núcleos de Desarrollo Endógeno. En Venezuela el desarrollo endógeno es un mecanismo dentro del proceso para la construcción de nuestro socialismo. Por lo tanto este debe partir por el debate teórico y filosófico de los fundamentos que deben sustentar esta nueva economía y sociedad. Por eso el propósito de este trabajo tiene que ver con los cambios ocurridos en la administración publica, la dialéctica entre centralización y descentralización, la ocupación del territorio en Venezuela, y los espacios alcanzados por la organización popular, para entender el papel que juegan en el desarrollo armónico de las comunas y la sociedad socialista.

  10. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women's breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women's breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela.

  11. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader.

  12. Geologic map of the Venezuela part of the Puerto Ayacucho 2 degrees x 3 degrees Quadrangle, Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Olmore, Steven D.; Mendoza, Vicente; García, Andrés; Rendon, Ines; Estanga, Yasmin; Rincon, Haydee; Martinez, Felix; Lugo, Elis; Rivero, Nelson; Schruben, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    This map is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale maps that, along with several other products, stems from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana, Tecnica Minera, C.A. (TECMIN), a Venezuelan Government-owned mining and mineral exploration company. The agreement covered cooperative work carried out in the Precambrian Shield of southern Venezuela during 1987-1991 and included a geologic and mineral resource inventory, technology transfer, and scientific training (Wynn and others, in press). The Precambrian Guayana Shield (Escudo de Guyana, not to be confused with the neighboring country of Guyana) includes some of the oldest known rocks in the world (Mendoza, 1977) and also covers parts of neighboring Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Columbia, and Brazil. In Venezuela, it underlies most of Bolivar state and all of the Amazonas Federal Territory (see index map).

  13. Paleoseismology in Venezuela: Objectives, methods, applications, limitations and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard M., Franck A.

    2005-10-01

    The privileged location of Venezuela along an active interplate deformation belt, despite of being a "so-called" developing country, has led to a long paleoseismic tradition as attested by 45 trench assessments since 1968. Since then, a first 2-trench study was carried out by the American Woodward-Clyde company across the Oca fault at Sinamaica. Since 1980, all further paleoseismic studies have been performed by FUNVISIS and the Uribante-Caparo hydroelectric project (southern Mérida Andes) became their first assessment where 22 huge trenches were bulldozer-dug. Except for these Compañía Anónima de Administración y Fomento Eléctrico (CADAFE) financed trenches and two others, all other assessments were for Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. -PDVSA-. In this paper, geographic and geologic factors, as well as logistic limitations, conditioning success in paleoseismic studies by trenching, shall be discussed based on the Venezuelan experience developed over the years. The scientific contribution of this approach refer to: confirmation of Holocene fault activity, slip-per-event and average slip rate of a given fault (or segment), seismic potential (repeat of maximum credible earthquakes) of known faults, fault segmentation, fault interaction as consequence of stress loading by stick-slip on contiguous faults, time-space distribution of seismic activity along a given tectonic feature, seismotectonic association of historical earthquakes and landscape evolution on the short term and its implications on the long-term evolution (poorly discussed since this is really part of the field of Neotectonics). In recent years (since 1999), a new approach has been introduced in Venezuela consisting in complementing the seismic history derived from trenching studies with the evaluation of seismically induced perturbations in the continuous Quaternary sedimentary record of (either active or fossil) lakes. The future of this discipline in Venezuela heads to more trenching and lake

  14. Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems: III. Radio Broadcasting in Venezuela. Communication and Society, 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Oswaldo; And Others

    The third in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Venezuela. An overview of radio broadcasting in Venezuela describes various aspects and provides…

  15. Technical and scientific report of the Alto project

    CERN Document Server

    Essabaa, S; Grialou, D; Ibrahim, F; Le Scornet, J C

    2002-01-01

    The Alto project means the installation of an electron linear accelerator inside the experimental area of the tandem accelerator of the nuclear physics institute of Orsay (IPNO, France). This linear accelerator comes from CERN where it was operating as a pre-injector for LEP. This equipment will allow IPNO'teams to perform fast kinetics studies in a domain different from that of ELYSE accelerator. The time resolution will not be as high as that of ELYSE (picosecond) but will be sufficient (microsecond) to produce free radicals in aqueous and gaseous media. The main expectations of this installation can be classified according 3 axis: 1) basic research (mainly the study of nuclear matter through photo-fission, 2) research and development of accelerators (by providing a test bench for new high frequency systems and superconducting components), and 3) applied research for industry concerning: biochemistry under irradiation, radiation sensibility, DNA breaking, food and drug sterilization and behaviour of electro...

  16. Feminicidios en la frontera chilena: el caso de Alto Hospicio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Vásquez Mejías

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1999 y el 2001, varias adolescentes desaparecieron en el norte de Chile y, posteriormente, fueron encontradas muertas. La novela Alto Hospicio (2008, de Rodrigo Ramos Bañados, recrea estos feminicidios desde la visión del cómplice del único inculpado por estos crímenes. En el presente artículo se plantea que el escritor utiliza la noción de frontera como aparato crítico, con el fin de desestabilizar barreras espaciales, simbólicas y textuales que se agrupan en cuatro ejes: Bolivia-Chile, santas-putas, racionalidad-locura, ficción-realidad. Así, la novela cuestiona y deconstruye los límites para hablarnos de estos feminicidios desde un punto indeterminado, que funciona como espejo de la incertidumbre e irresolución de este caso en la justicia chilena.

  17. LITIGO DE ALTO IMPACTO. Estrategias alternativas de ejercer el Derecho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Correa Montoya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El ejercicio del litigio de alto impacto, como forma alternativa de ejercer el derecho, consiste en la estrategia de seleccionar, analizar y poner en marcha el litigio de ciertos casos que permitan lograr un efecto significativo en las políticas públicas, la legislación y la sociedad civil de un Estado o región; es un proceso de identificación, socialización, discusión y estructuración de problemáticas sociales, para a partir de allí promover casos concretos para alcanzar soluciones integrales a tales problemáticas sociales, y lograr cambios sociales sustanciales.

  18. Natación de alto rendimiento en discapacitados

    OpenAIRE

    Astray Mendoza, Mario

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo hago referencia a la evolución de la natación desde el inicio y su evolución histórica, haciendo una mención a sus principales fundadores y clubes, además de también nombrar a alguno de los nadadores más importantes de la historia de la natación española, para continuar con la evolución de las paralimpiadas y nuestros deportistas paralímpicos. Vemos las diferentes formas de entrenar en la natación de alto rendimiento, además de los músculos implicados en cada estilo y como ...

  19. EL ALTO MAGDALENA- COLOMBIA DE LA MANO CON ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barragán-Alturo, Ancízar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El afán por destruir un paradigma, que mantiene encadenados a los habitantes de Girardot y la región, a una compañía de distribución de la energía eléctrica con sus altos precios para el kilowatt-hora, ha inspirado la investigación CUNDINAMARCA DE LA MANO DE LAS ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS, demostrando por diversos caminos que el montaje de paneles solares para generación de energía eléctrica en las cubiertas de las casas es la energía alternativa para la solución de diversos problemas, entre ellos: los costos elevados, las fluctuaciones de voltaje, los cortes de energía, los daños en los electrodomésticos

  20. EL ALTO MAGDALENA- COLOMBIA DE LA MANO CON ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS

    OpenAIRE

    ANCÍZAR BARRAGÁN-ALTURO

    2013-01-01

    El afán por destruir un paradigma, que mantiene encadenados a los habitantes de Girardot y la región, a una compañía de distribución de la energía eléctrica con sus altos precios para el kilowatt-hora, ha inspirado la investigación CUNDINAMARCA DE LA MANO DE LAS ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS, demostrando por diversos caminos que el montaje de paneles solares para generación de energía eléctrica en las cubiertas de las casas es la energía alternativa para la solución de diversos problemas, entre ellos...

  1. Obreras y empresarias en el Periodo Romano Alto Imperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Fernández Uriel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de la situación laboral y las diferentes medios y trabajos de las mujeres en el contexto de la Roma alto Imperial, frente a la situación mentalidad tradicional femenina a través de la documentación que proporcionan las fuentes históricas. Se contempla su relación con la sociedad, su ámbito doméstico e incluso la posible repercusión que pudiera existir en la cultura y mentalidad de este momento histórico.Analysis of the labor situation and the different ways and works of women in the context of high Imperial Rome, facing the situation traditionally minded women through the documentation provided by historical sources. It sees its relationship with society, its domestic and even the possible impact that might exist in the culture and mentality of this historical moment.

  2. The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Chiaraluce

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of multidisciplinary and high-resolution data is a fundamental requirement to understand the physics of earthquakes and faulting. We present the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO, a research infrastructure devoted to studying preparatory processes, slow and fast deformation along a fault system located in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Apennines, dominated by a 60 km long low-angle normal fault (Alto Tiberina, ATF active since the Quaternary. TABOO consists of 50 permanent seismic stations covering an area of 120 × 120 km2. The surface seismic stations are equipped with 3-components seismometers, one third of them hosting accelerometers. We instrumented three shallow (250 m boreholes with seismometers, creating a 3-dimensional antenna for studying micro-earthquakes sources (detection threshold is ML 0.5 and detecting transient signals. 24 of these sites are equipped with continuous geodetic GPS, forming two transects across the fault system. Geochemical and electromagnetic stations have been also deployed in the study area. In 36 months TABOO recorded 19,422 events with ML ≤ 3.8 corresponding to 23.36e-04 events per day per squared kilometres; one of the highest seismicity rate value observed in Italy. Seismicity distribution images the geometry of the ATF and its antithetic/synthetic structures located in the hanging-wall. TABOO can allow us to understand the seismogenic potential of the ATF and therefore contribute to the seismic hazard assessment of the area. The collected information on the geometry and deformation style of the fault will be used to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting diverse slip distributions and rupture directivity models.

  3. 77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela (73 FR 841, January 4, 2008). The Commission is now... amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is required if a..., and Venezuela (67 FR 36149). Following the five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  4. Dengue in Venezuela : A study on viral transmission, risk factors and clinical disease presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is wereldwijd de belangrijkste door muggen overgedragen ziekte. In Venezuela komen regelmatig epidemieën van toenemende omvang voor. In het onderzoek beschreven in dit proefschrift werden ongeveer 2000 personen uit drie wijken in Maracay, Venezuela, bestudeerd middels een prospectieve "commun

  5. 78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 49471 (August 14, 2013) (``Initiation Notice''). \\2\\ See id., 78 FR at 49474. As explained in the memorandum from the... International Trade Administration Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement...

  6. Venezuela loodab tüürida Kuuba saatust / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez soovib üle võtte Fidel Castro rolli võitluses USA ülemvõimu vastu. Venezuela odava nafta tähtsus Kuuba majandusele. Vt. samas: Kuuba nafta õõnestab USA embargot

  7. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics; Provincia alcalina Alto Paraguai: caracteristicas petrograficas, geoquimicas e geocronologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1996-12-31

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10{sup `}to 23 deg 25{sup `}of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10{sup `} to 58 deg 00{sup `}, having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio {sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author) 124 refs., 52 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Caracteristicas morfologicas y cristalograficas del grafito de Osumita, Venezuela, y su uso como geotermometro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A morphologic, petrographic and crystallographic study was performed in some representative samples of disseminated graphite of the Cerro Osumita, Cojedes State, Venezuela with the aim of establishing the degree of mineral crystallinity (graphitization and the highest temperature reached by the rock. From the original rock (La Aguadita quartz-feldespatic-graphitic Gneiss, fractions enriched in graphite were obtained by means of leaching with HCI-HF and physical procedures (flotation and accumulation in liquid interfaces. The isolated graphite was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction, whereas morphology was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM. The mineralogical association exhibited by the gneiss (quartz- oligoclase- hornblende (green- microcline - chlorite- biotite- epidote allows establishing the metamorphism of the rock in the upper zone of the green schist facies, in the biotite zone. Graphite grains present aspect of flakes, with a concentration oscillating between 7 and 10% in weight. The used enrichment process allowed obtaining fractions with more than 92% in graphi- te. Under Scanning Electronic Microscopy, graphite samples showed morphology dominantly as sheets, very well defined and ordered. The crystallinity index (measured by XRD is around 58 and 60, with a mean graphitization degree of 60, suggesting a high order in the crystalline net. The higher temperature reached by the rock, according to the graphitization degree, is of 472 f 27 "C.Muestras representativas del grafito diseminado del Cerro Osumita, Estado Cojedes, Venezuela, fueron objeto de un estudio morfológico, petrográfico y cristalográfico, con el fin de establecer el grado de cristalinidad del mineral y la temperatura máxima alcanzada por la roca. A partir de la roca original (gneis cuarzo feldespático grafitoso de La Aguadita se obtuvieron las fracciones enriquecidas en grafito mediante una combinación de ataque químico (HCI-HF y físico (flotación y

  9. CARACTERIZACIÓN LIMNOLÓGICA DE HUMEDALES DE LA PLANICIE DE INUNDACIÓN DEL RÍO ORINOCO (ORINOQUÍA, COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALBERTO RIVERA RONDÓN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se desarrolló una caracterización física y química de los principales ríos, quebradas y humedales de la región aledaña a la ciudad de Puerto Carreño (Vichada, Colombia en la época de aguas altas y bajas del río Orinoco; y una caracterización biológica durante la época de aguas bajas. La mayor parte de los sistemas presentaron pH ácido y una baja concentración de iones y nutrientes. El régimen hidrológico tuvo un impacto importante sobre los ecosistemas acuáticos: Durante el periodo de aguas altas, aumentó la transparencia y la concentración de algunos nutrientes y se presentó una reducción en la conductividad y la clorofila-a. En aguas bajas, los grupos dominantes de algas fueron Bacillariophyceae y Zygnemaphyceae; la composición taxonómica del zooplancton fue común a la encontrada en otros sistemas del complejo Amazónico-Ori- noqués. Las comunidades de macroinvertebrados estuvieron dominadas por Coleoptera, Odonata y Ephemeroptera y la mayor diversidad de grupos funcionales y de morfotipos se presentó en sustratos de hojarasca. Los resultados sugieren que la vegetación de la ribera juega un papel muy importante en el mantenimiento de una fuente de energía y un refugio para las comunidades acuáticas durante el periodo de aguas bajas. Así mismo, la baja mineralización de estos ecosistemas los hace muy susceptibles a contaminación de fuentes urbanas, agrícolas y ganaderas.

  10. Venezuela: un caso de inflación mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Risquez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el fenómeno inflacionario venezolano reciente, caracterizado como un caso de “inflación moderada”. En él se relaciona esta situación con el problema de la debilidad institucional, el déficit de credibilidad de las autoridades, lo cual ha llevado a un importante uso del impuesto inflacionario como mecanismo de financiamiento del gasto público. Así mismo se señala el papel desempeñado por la inercia en la permanencia de la inestabilidad de los precios en Venezuela.

  11. Explora??o sexual feminina na fronteira: Brasil e Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Andr?a Freitas de

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho procurou abordar o fen?meno da Explora??o Sexual feminina na sociedade de consumo, fundamentando-se na sociologia das rela??es de g?nero, ao tomar como estudo as situa??es de explora??o sexual feminina e de prostitui??o que acontecem na fronteira Brasil/Venezuela, no per?odo compreendido entre a ?ltima d?cada (anos dois mil), aos dias atuais. O percurso te?rico conceitual adotado considera essa tem?tica um assunto relevante para o campo de estudos sociol?gicos e da din?mic...

  12. Cambio y orden social en Venezuela, durante el "chavismo"

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Calderón, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    En Venezuela comienza un proyecto político en el año 1998, cuando gana las elecciones el Teniente Coronel Hugo Chávez Frías. Que pretendió cambios en el sistema político corrupto, populista y clientelar. Para lo cual, en una primera etapa que denominamos Democracia Bolivariana, se da inicio a un proceso nacional constituyente, que cambió el sistema político venezolano de Democracia Representativa Liberal a Democracia Participativa y Protagónica. Un Estado federal, descentralizado, alternativo...

  13. VENEZUELA: DISENSO Y CONFLCITO EN LAS ELECCIONES 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Eduardo Romero Jiménez

    2003-01-01

    Partiendo desde una concepción de la democracia como conflicto, a través de la cual se amplían los espacios de participación pública y por lo tanto de los ciudadanos, se analiza la transición política experimentada en Venezuela, particularmente del proceso electoral de julio de 2000, que significó la construcción definitiva de un nuevo orden en el sistema político. El enfrentamiento de julio de 2000 estuvo signado por la fractura en la unidad en torno a Hugo Chávez y el surg...

  14. BYTTNERIA CARIPENSIS (STERCULIACEAE UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Cristóbal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Byttneria caripensis Cristóbal (sección Crassipetala de Edo. Bolívar, Venezuela se describe como nueva. Se estudia también la anatomía de los nectarios de la hoja y la venación menor. El tamaño y la forma muy peculiar de la cavidad glandular de los nectarios multiaperturados están estresados. Se presentan dos ilustraciones.

  15. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-04

    America, 2006, preliminary version, December 2006. 47 Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), República Bolivariana de Venezuela, “Línea de Pobreza ... Mexico , Spain, and Portugal, in establishing a group known as the “Friends of Venezuela” — to lend support to the OAS Secretary General’s efforts. U.S...supplier in 2005, after Canada, Mexico , and Saudi Arabia), providing about 12% of U.S. crude oil imports, a key U.S. interest has been ensuring the

  16. Soil gas radon concentration across faults near Caracas, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Caracas (Venezuela); Flores, N.; Urbani, F. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Dept. de Geologia, Caracas (Venezuela); Carreno, R. [Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologia, Apdo. 47334, Caracas 1041A (Venezuela)

    2001-09-01

    SSNTD were used across tectonic features of different degree of activity and lithology in four localities north of Caracas, Venezuela. The homemade dosimeters with LR115 film were buried 20-30 cm in the ground. This cheap and low- tech method proved very useful to understand the tectonic features involved, measuring higher Radon concentration above traces of active faults while in old and sealed faults the results only show the effect of the surrounding lithology. Radon concentration range is 4.3 - 27.2 kB/m{sup 3}. (Author)

  17. Academic Writing Books in Argentina, Venezuela and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Mónica Prior; Carpio, Guillermo Cordero; Pereira, Claudia Maria

    2016-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n3p253The books are:Reading and writing in learning within the different IFD graduate courses and subjects that prepare teachers for secondary school: concepts and practices stated by teachers’ trainers;Writing Seedbed: writing tasks throughout three courses at the UNGS;Academic writing in Venezuela: Research, reflection and proposals;Reading and writing in academic and professional contexts: Genres, Corpus and Methods.  Os livros resenhados são:L...

  18. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  19. [History of psychiatry in Venezuela: milestones in social work education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, J

    1991-01-01

    A historical compilation, initiated with Dr. Lorenzo Campins y Ballester in 1773, covering the teaching aspect, and culminated with the creation of the first postgraduate in psychiatry at the Central University of Venezuela in 1939, is made. On the assistential side, the way in which patients were treated during colonial times is mentioned, introducing the attempts which were carried out up to 1892, when Dr. G.T. Villegas Pulido ordered the moving of 30 patients to the remodeled military hospital, becoming this latter institution the Psychiatric Hospital of Caracas. The influence of private institutions on both teaching formation and assistential level is also mentioned.

  20. Fortalezas y debilidades de la actitud democrática en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valia PEREIRA ALMAO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente trabajo se evalúan para el año 2000, con base en datos provenientes de encuestas nacionales, las tendencias históricas que se han reportado sobre la actitud democrática de los venezolanos en relación a características sociodemográficas, políticas e ideológicas. Al respecto se concluye que no hay diferenciaciones en la preferencia democrática con base en esas características. También se analiza la consistencia de la actitud democrática, en especial con respecto a las valoraciones de tener un gobierno militar y un líder fuerte. En estos aspectos se obtienen incongruencias que contrastan con el alto nivel de aceptación que tiene la democracia en el país. Tal cosa permite establecer que existen para el año 2000 predisposiciones autoritarias que, de estimularse, podrían reducir en el tiempo el valor que la democracia ha tenido para los venezolanos.ABSTRACT: This paper evaluates the historical tendencies that have been reported about the attitudes of Venezuelans towards democracy. These attitudes are analyzed taken into account socio-demographic, political and ideological characteristics of Venezuelan. The analysis is done using survey data from national polls. The paper reaches the conclusion that in Venezuela there are not significant differences regarding the attitude towards democracy on the basis of socio-demographic, political or ideological variables. The paper also consider the level of coherence in the attitude towards democracy, using as control variables questions related to the support for a military government, and the support for a strong authoritarian leader. The paper found that there is a significant level of incoherence in the support for democracy among Venezuelan. A sizeable sector declares a preference for democracy on one hand, and for an authoritarian leader or a military government on the other. This is interpreted as meaning that by the year 2000, Venezuelan hold authoritarian

  1. Incidencia de las estrategias docentes con enfoque constructivista en el rendimiento académico de los alumnos en la asignatura geografía de Venezuela en educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis José Vera Guadrón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo divulga los resultados del estudio orientado a determinar la incidencia de las estrategias docentes que utilizan los profesores en el rendimiento académico de la asignatura geografía de Venezuela. La teoría se fundamentó en el conductismo, constructivismo y en la asimilación y el aprendizaje significativo. La investigación fue descriptiva. El análisis de los datos permitió identificar a los profesores con tendencia conductista y constructivista, se evidenció alto rendimiento en cursos de profesores con tendencia constructivista, medio y bajo en profesores con tendencia conductista, por tanto se recomienda realizar reflexiones para poner en práctica estrategias bajo enfoque constructivista.

  2. THE BURNED BONES IN TOCA DO ALTO DO CAPIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Alexandre Farias Fontes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Funerary practices are acts performed by a group and/or a family to the body of one or more individuals after death. Relating the terms funeral and practice is to admit the straight intentions of this research. By the way, it aims to search for archaeological evidence to attest the mortuary behavior in Toca do Alto do Capim, in the National Park of Serra das Confusões (Piauí. This site was dug up during three turns of researchthat happenedin 2008 and 2009. The remnants that were found are summarized in artifacts of chipped and polished stones, human and animal bones withburning marks, fires and a burial of a child. The results of this research were reached through spatial andosteological analysis, whichal lowed identifying a minimum number of five individuals, three chronological moments of occupation, as well as practices of primary burial and cremation.

  3. TNO Photometry and Spectroscopy at ESO and Calar Alto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Sekiguchi, T.; Vair, M.; Hainaut, O.; Delahodde, C.; West, R. M.; Tozzi, G. P.; Barrera, L.; Birkle, K.; Watanabe, J.; Meech, K.

    New photometry and spectroscopy of Transneptunian objects (TNO) has been obtained at ESO (VLT+FORS1, NTT+SOFI) and the Calar Alto (3.5m+MOSCA) observatory. BVRI photometry of more than 10 objects confirms the general colour-colour distribution of TNOs found previously. Quasi-simultaneous spectroscopy in the visible wavelength range of 5 TNOs did not reveal any spectral signature apart from the spetral gradients which are in agreement with the broadband colours. JHK filter photometry of 3 objects indicates that the reddening may only occur in the near-IR at least in some cases. Using new observations from the ESO VLT the lightcurve, colours and spectrum of 1996TO66 are investigated: the rotation period of 6.25h is confirmed, also the change in the lightcurve between 1997 and 1998 which indicates an exceptional behaviour in this object (temporary cometary activity ?). The 1999 photometry and spectroscopy in the visible revealed solar colours, no reddening and no spectral features. V-R colour changes over the rotation phase are not found. This works is done in colaboration with:

  4. Galactic structure from the Calar Alto Deep Imaging Survey (CADIS)

    CERN Document Server

    Phleps, S; Meisenheimer, K; Fuchs, B

    2005-01-01

    We used 1627 faint (15.5< R<23) stars in five fields of the Calar Alto Deep Imaging Survey (CADIS) to estimate the structure parameters of the Galaxy. The results were derived by applying two complementary methods: first by fitting the density distribution function to the measured density of stars perpendicular to the Galactic plane, and second by modelling the observed colors and apparent magnitudes of the stars in the field, using Monte Carlo simulations. The best-fitting model of the Galaxy is then determined by minimising the C-statistic, a modified chisquared. Our model includes a double exponential for the stellar disk with scaleheights h_1 and h_2 and a power law halo with exponent alpha. 24480 different parameter combinations have been simulated. Both methods yield consistent results: the best fitting parameter combination is alpha=3.0 (or alpha=2.5, if we allow for a flattening of the halo with an axial ratio of (c/a)=0.6), h_1=300 pc, h_2=900 pc, and the contribution of thick disk stars to the...

  5. Bird diversity and conservation of Alto Balsas (southwestern Puebla), Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Albores, Jorge E

    2007-03-01

    Knowledge of the composition of the bird community in Alto Balsas (southwestern Puebla, Central Mexico) is needed for management programs aiming at protection and conservation of bird species and their habitats I studied sites with tropical deciduous forest. Data were obtained during 1666 hours of field work in 238 days from March 1998 to September 2000. Six permanent transect (3.5 km long and 100 m wide; 30 to 40 ha in each transect) were used to determine species richness in the study sites. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for each site and Sorensen's index was used to assess similarity between sites. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between sites in species richness and diversity values. A total of 128 species were recorded, Tepexco (n=75, H' = 3.76) and Puente Márquez (n=61, H' = 3.62) were the sites that showed the greatest specific richness and diversity. However, species richness and diversity seasonally patterns were similar among sites (ANOVA p > 0.05), with highest diversity during the rainy season. Most species were resident; 42 were migrants. The avifauna was represented by 30 species associated with tropical deciduous forest and 12 from open habitats or heavily altered habitats. Insectivores were the best represented trophic category, followed by carnivores and omnivores.

  6. Ventaja de jugar en casa en voleibol de alto rendimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Marcelino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se ha pretendido estudiar la ventaja en casa en el Voleibol de alto rendimiento, apoyándonos en las estadísticas de los partidos que más pueden explicar ese fenómeno. Se han analizado 65.949 acciones de juego seleccionadas de la Liga Mundial 2005. El instrumento de observación que se ha elaborado es una combinación de formato de campo con sistemas de categorías. Los datos se han obtenido mediante el "Volleyball Information System" y se han analizado mediante la prueba t de Student, y la prueba ji-cuadrado. Los resultados demuestran que hay ventaja en casa en Voleibol (57,5% de victorias jugando en casa. Las estadísticas del ataque (t= 2.49, p = 0.01, del servicio (t= -2.18, p= 0.03, de la recepción (t= 16.74, p<0.001 y de la distribución (t= 2.03, p= 0.04 muestran rendimientos superiores para los equipos que juegan en casa. No se han encontrado diferencias en el rendimiento del bloqueo (t= -0.25, p= 0.80 y la defensa (t= 0.11, p= 0.92 entre los juegos disputados en casa y los disputados fuera.

  7. Osteosarcoma de huesos del pie con alto grado de malignidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Martínez Milián

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El osteosarcoma es la neoplasia primaria del hueso más frecuente, los hombres son los más afectados en una relación 1,2 - 1,5 por cada mujer y con una tasa de mortalidad cercana a 0,15/100.000 habitantes/año. Se reporta el caso de una paciente femenina de 57 años de edad, con dolor, aumento de volumen e impotencia funcional de aproximadamente seis meses de evolución, los exámenes diagnósticos utilizados fueron radiografía de pie, tomografía axial computarizada de miembro inferior y biopsia de hueso. Se tuvo la confirmación diagnóstica de osteosarcoma de alto grado de malignidad por anatomía patológica. El tratamiento realizado fue quirúrgico, practicándose la amputación del miembro inferior, pudiendo así mejorar la supervivencia y extendiéndole la vida a la paciente. El motivo de la presentación del caso está dado por la poca frecuencia de este tipo de tumor óseo en los huesos del pie en pacientes femeninas

  8. The Calar Alto lunar occultation program: update and new results

    CERN Document Server

    Richichi, A; Merino, M; Otazu, X; Nuñez, J; Prades, A; Thiele, U; Pérez-Ramírez, D; Montojo, F J

    2006-01-01

    We present an update of the lunar occultation program which is routinely carried out in the near-IR at the Calar Alto Observatory. A total of 350 events were recorded since our last report (Fors et al. \\cite{fors04}). In the course of eight runs we have observed, among others, late-type giants, T-Tauri stars, and infrared sources. Noteworthy was a passage of the Moon close to the galactic center, which produced a large number of events during just a few hours in July 2004. Results include the determinations of the angular diameter of \\object{RZ Ari}, and the projected separations and brightness ratios for one triple and 13 binary stars, almost all of which representing first time detections. Projected separations range from $0\\farcs09$ to $0\\farcs007$. We provide a quantitative analysis of the performance achieved in our observations in terms of angular resolution and sensitivity, which reach about $0\\farcs003$ and $K \\approx8.5$ mag, respectively. We also present a statistical discussion of our sample, and i...

  9. A new catfish species of the genus Trichomycterus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae from the río Orinoco versant of Páramo de Cruz Verde, Eastern Cordillera of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos DoNascimiento

    Full Text Available A new Trichomycterus is described from a highland tributary of the río Meta (Orinoco basin, along the east flank of Páramo de Cruz Verde, Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. The new species is distinguished from most of its congeners by having a reduced posterior cranial fontanel, restricted to the parieto-supraoccipital, cleithrum pierced by several foramina, and an unique combination of four irregular rows of conic teeth in premaxilla and dentary, 13-14 opercular odontodes, 41-43 interopercular odontodes, 6-7 branchiostegal rays, 40 or 41 free vertebrae, 14-18 ribs, first ray of pectoral fin slightly projected as a short filament, 7-8 branched pectoral-fin rays, dorsal-fin origin at same level of pelvic-fin insertion, anal-fin origin posterior to dorsal-fin base, caudal-fin margin slightly rounded, a single upper hypural plate (3+4+5, and coloration pattern consisting in ground color dark brown with a thin mid-lateral dark stripe. Phylogenetic relationships of the new species based on the shared presence of derived features related to posterior cranial fontanel and cleithrum are discussed. The new species is also compared to the only two described species from Andean tributaries of río Orinoco basin.

  10. Relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es describir las relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo - Venezuela, para lo cual se caracterizaron los elementos interconectores del capital social como soporte de la innovación y el emprendimiento. Desde el capital social se trabajaron con las perspectivas de Putnam et al (1993, Coleman (1988, Bourdieu (2001 y Lin (2001. La población la conformaron 475 empresas de siete sectores económicos. La técnica muestral empleada fue el muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional aplicado a 85 empresas. Se recolectaron los datos mediante un cuestionario estructurado a cada agente informante de las empresas, el cual fue validado por expertos y la confiabilidad de acuerdo a Alpha de Cronbach arrojó un 0.96, por lo que el instrumento demuestra alta confiabilidad. Las respuestas del cuestionario tuvieron un tratamiento estadístico descriptivo mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciencies (SPSS. Se concluye que hay una debil interconectividad de los elementos del capital social, incidiendo en el bajo nivel de innovación y emprendimiento, precarizando las fuerzas sustentadoras del desarrollo territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela.

  11. Intestinal helminths of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Salas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative parameters of intestinal helminth species and their potential relations to host characteristics in a population of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from Venezuela are reported for the first time. The intestines of 40 capybaras were collected during the 1992-annual harvest at Hato El Cedral. Six helminth species were found: 2 cestodes (Monoecocestus macrobursatum, M. hagmanni, 2 nematodes (Viannella hydrochoeri, Protozoophaga obesa, and 2 trematodes (Hippocrepis hippocrepis, Taxorchis schistocotyle. This is the first report for M. macrobursatum in Venezuela. Helminth abundance did not differ between sexes or age classes. Although patterns of distribution for all helminth species were overdispersed, the high prevalence found for all species (over 70% and the high abundance observed for nematodes made it difficult to assess the effect that these helminths may produce on capybaras. Nevertheless, the negative associations found between the body condition of capybaras and helminth intensity for M. macrobursatum and V. hydrochoeri, might be pointing out potential host population regulatory role for these parasites which require further research.

  12. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  13. CURRENT SPACE PROJECTS OF THE BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del a ̃o 2008, con el lanzamiento exitoso del primer sat ́lite venezolano de telecomunicaciones, sat ́lite n e e VENESAT-1, la Rep ́blica Bolivariana de Venezuela pasa a formar parte del grupo de pa ́ u ıses que a nivel internacional utilizan activamente la ciencia y la tecnolog ́ espacial como una herramienta para promover el ıa desarrollo nacional. Sobre esa base, a trav ́s de la Agencia Bolivariana para Actividades Espaciales (ABAE, se e ha impulsado la ejecuci ́n de diversos proyectos espaciales, entre los que destacan la fabricaci ́n y lanzamiento o o del primer sat ́lite venezolano para la observaci ́n de la Tierra, la construcci ́n de un centro especializado para e o o el dise ̃o y fabricaci ́n de sat ́lites de peque ̃o peso, as ́ como actividades de investigaci ́n y desarrollo relativas n o e n ı o a la medici ́n de propiedades f ́ o ısicas de la Tierra. El trabajo presenta una breve descripci ́n de los proyectos o espaciales desarrollados en Venezuela.

  14. Venezuela: del neoliberalismo al socialismo del siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda la dinámica de la aplicación del modelo neoliberal en Venezuela y sus consecuencias económicas, políticas y sociales hasta llegar a la propuesta de construir el socialismo del siglo XXI. Para ello hacemos una breve retrospectiva de lo que ha sido la sociedad venezolana desde la década de 1970, del auge rentístico hasta llegar a la crisis de la década de 1980 y la inserción del programa neoliberal. La aplicación del modelo neoliberal en Venezuela, como en buen parte de América Latina, no fue un proceso fácil, por el contrario produjo fuertes conflictos y contradicciones. Asimismo, el periodo iniciado en 1999 con la llegada de Hugo Chávez al poder está cargado de dificultades y obstáculos, pero sin lugar a duda ha sido un proyecto contra el neoliberalismo. Por ello el objetivo de este trabajo es revisar el proceso venezolano hacia el socialismo.

  15. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEIXEIRA, Bertinellys; RODULFO, Hectorina; CARREÑO, Numirin; GUZMÁN, Militza; SALAZAR, Elsa; DONATO, Marcos DE

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America. PMID:27007556

  16. Venezuela, en la prensa internacional: una cobertura sesgada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Casado-Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se investigó la cobertura de Venezuela en 28 grandes diarios de América Latina, Europa y EEUU a lo largo de un año. El objetivo del trabajo fue dilucidar si existía un sesgo sistemático. Metodología. Se compaginó el análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de contenido. Se condensaron varias categorías en dos variables –tendencia e impacto– con una simple escala de medición adscrita. Resultados. Se demostró un sistemático sesgo negativo en la cobertura de Venezuela en los grandes diarios: el 82% de los artículos publicados tienen un impacto negativo. A la vez, el 95% de los temas está relacionado con el gobierno venezolano. Discusión y conclusiones. La comprobación de un sesgo negativo sistemático significa que el derecho de información de los ciudadanos-lectores no se está cumpliendo.

  17. VENEZUELA: DISENSO Y CONFLCITO EN LAS ELECCIONES 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Romero Jiménez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo desde una concepción de la democracia como conflicto, a través de la cual se amplían los espacios de participación pública y por lo tanto de los ciudadanos, se analiza la transición política experimentada en Venezuela, particularmente del proceso electoral de julio de 2000, que significó la construcción definitiva de un nuevo orden en el sistema político. El enfrentamiento de julio de 2000 estuvo signado por la fractura en la unidad en torno a Hugo Chávez y el surgimiento de una nueva oposición alrededor de Francisco Arias Cárdenas, uno de los excomandantes del intento de golpe de Estado del 4 de febrero de 1992. Se concluye que a partir de agosto de 2000 se consolida el liderazgo político de Chávez y una nueva forma de concebir la democracia en Venezuela

  18. Venezuela, 1. Fenomenologìa de una Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Neira Fernández

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor muestra una primera reflexión, la coyuntura histórica presentada en la crisis de los procesos sociales y estructurales en Venezuela. Esta crisis presenta procesos simultáneos derivados del principal, que ha sido el que Venezuela ha pasado de ser un país agrariamente pobre a ser un país con una gran riqueza petrolera, lo cual ha provocado la modernización y urbanización de las ciudades, y por consiguiente la incorporación de ciencia avanzada y tecnología de punta en los diferentes campos de la economía nacional. Las principales manifestaciones de esta crisis están en la inhabilidad de la clase política, la falta de una generación de líderes de relevo y la falta de institucionalización que ha dejado la sociedad sin marcos firmes y claramente definidos para encauzar su desarrollo. Se aúnan a todo lo anterior, los vicios presentes en la ciudadanía venezolana tales como la desidia en cuanto a la responsabilidad social, la cobardía cívica y la dejadez ante la propia suerte y la de la sociedad

  19. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women's perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women's breast cancer healthcare.

  20. Obligaciones legales de las asociaciones cooperativas bancos comunales en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coromoto Aguilar González, Herleny

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available n Venezuela se promulga la Ley Especial de Los Consejos Comunales en el año 2006. El Consejo Comunal está constituido por tres órganos: Órgano Ejecutivo, Unidad de Gestión Financiera, y Unidad de Contraloría Social. La Unidad de Gestión Financiera o Banco Comunal adquirirá la figura jurídica de cooperativa, por consiguiente el presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar los deberes formales que debe cumplir el Banco Comunal: 1. Inscribirse en los registros correspondientes; 2. Llevar Libros Legales; 3. Presentar Declaración Informativa de ISLR; 4. Practicar retención de ISLR; 5. Emitir factura de conformidad con lo establecido en la regulación venezolana.Venezuela promulgated the Special Law of the Communal Councils in 2006. The Communal Council is constituted by three agencies: Executive agency, Financial Management Unit, and Social comptroller Unit. The Financial Management Unit or Communal Bank will acquire the legal figure of a cooperative, therefore the present paper intends to analyze the formal duties established in the Venezuelan tax laws, that the Communal Bank must fulfil: 1. To register in the corresponding registration system; 2. Keep the accountancy Books required by tax laws; 3. To file an informative income tax return; 4. To practice income tax withholding; 5. To emit invoice in accordance with Venezuelan tax regulations.

  1. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bertinellys; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Carreño, Numirin; Guzmán, Militza; Salazar, Elsa; De Donato, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  2. Development and application of steam injection simulators in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, J.; Quintero, L.; Aquino, C.; Guevara, F.; Avila, A.

    1980-01-01

    Steam injection is a major oil recovery method in Venezuela, with 3 trillion bbl of oil possibly recoverable by this technqiue. Alongside progress in steam injection technology, the development of a series of numerical simulators has been proceeding at an accelerated pace. This work describes 3 of the steam injection simulators developed, and their application to 2 major heavy oil reservoirs. These simulators describe 3-phase, nonisothermal multicomponent flow, consisting of 4, 3, and 2 components, respectively, in 3 dimensions. The implicitness of the simulators increases in the order of decreasing number of components. However, for a variety of problems, the less implicit but more efficient simulators are adequate. The finite difference methods used for each simulator are outlined. These, as well as the computational performance, are compared with the existing simulators. The application of the simulators to 2 major reservoirs in Venezuela-morichal and M/sup -6/ is described and compared. Effects of such factors as spacing, injection rate, and gravity segregation are examined. 14 references.

  3. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representation

  4. La evolución político-institucional de Venezuela 1975-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ayala Corao; Jesús M. Casal

    2008-01-01

    Del mismo modo que ha ocurrido en otros países de América Latina, Venezuela ha experimentado un convulsionado proceso de reforma institucional y constitucional en las últimas décadas. En este trabajo se analizan los aspectos relacionados con el sistema de gobierno, el poder judicial, los derechos fundamentales y los partidos políticos en Venezuela. Este trabajo intenta extraer algunas enseñanzas y también algunos desafios que presenta esta evolución política de Venezuela, sobre todo, examinan...

  5. LESIONES CUTANEAS PARASITARIAS EN EL ASNO EQUUS ASINUS DE CHORONI, ESTADO ARAGUA, VENEZUELA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Abelardo; Garcia, Francisco; Rossini, Mario;

    2010-01-01

    Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted erythemat......Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted....... reported in donkeys of Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela....

  6. Calidad de abonos orgánicos empleados en la depresión de Quíbor-Venezuela bajo ambientes protegidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Torres Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La depresión de Quíbor es una de las zonas agrícolas más importante de Venezuela, donde en los últimos años se han introducido sistemas de producción bajo ambientes protegidos, los cuales están acompañados por el uso de abonos orgánicos, no certificados. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la calidad de los abonos orgánicos empleados en sistemas de producción bajo ambientes protegidos en la depresión de Quíbor, Venezuela. Se realizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar y se evaluaron once (11 abonos orgánicos (cuatro sólidos y siete líquidos por triplicados. Los abonos sólidos fueron colectados en la parte superior, inferior y media de las pilas, mientras que los líquidos fueron tomados directamente de los tanques de almacenamiento. Para la caracterización de los abonos se empleó el protocolo TMECC, la materia orgánica se determinó por calcinación a 450°C, el nitrógeno por Kjeldahl y los macronutrientes (potasio y calcio y micronutrientes (cobre, manganeso, hierro y zinc en extracto acuoso 1/20 (v/v del material y cuantificación por absorción atómica. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el vermicompost y compost de gallinaza presentaron los valores más altos de macronutrientes, mientras, para los abonos líquidos Macro®, fue quien presentó la mayor concentración de nitrógeno, humus1 los valores más altos de Ca y Mg y Micro® y humus2 los mayores contenidos de manganeso, hierro, cobre y zinc fueron encontrados, todos los abonos sólidos presentaron valores bajos de micronutrientes.

  7. Aptitud combinatoria de líneas de maíz de valles altos en suelos con alto y bajo contenido de nitrógeno

    OpenAIRE

    Esaú del Carmen Moreno Pérez; David Lewis Beck; Tarcicio Cervantes Santana; José Luis Torres Flores

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar híbridos de maíz (Zea mays L.) de cruza simple de alto rendimiento en suelos de Valles Altos con alto y bajo contenido de nitrógeno. En 1999, en el Batán, México, se evaluaron 19 cruzas Ai x CML349 y x CML246, 33 cruzas Bj x CML244 y x CML352, donde Ai y Bj corresponden a líneas endogámicas derivadas de las poblaciones 902 y 903, respectivamente, del Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT); CML 349, 246, 244 y 352 son líneas pr...

  8. CARACTERIZACIÓN LIMNOLÓGICA DE HUMEDALES DE LA PLANICIE DE INUNDACIÓN DEL RÍO ORINOCO (ORINOQUÍA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Juan Pablo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se desarrolló una caracterización física y química de los principales ríos, quebradas y humedales de la región aledaña a la ciudad de Puerto Carreño (Vichada, Colombia en la época de aguas altas y bajas del Río Orinoco; y una caracterización biológica durante la época de aguas bajas. La mayor parte de los sistemas presentaron pH ácido y una baja concentración de iones y nutrientes. El régimen hidrológico tuvo un impacto importante sobre los ecosistemas acuáticos: Durante el periodo de agua altas, aumentó la transparencia y la concentración de algunos nutrientes y se presentó una reducción en la conductividad y la clorofila-a. En aguas bajas, los grupos dominantes de algas fueron Bacillariophyceae y Zygnemaphyceae; la composición taxonómica del zooplancton fue común a la encontrada en otros sistemas del complejo Amazónico-Orinoqués. Las comunidades de macroinvertebrados fueron dominadas por Coleoptera, Odonata y Ephemeroptera y la mayor diversidad de grupos funcionales y de morfotipos se presentaron en sustratos de hojarasca. Los resultados sugieren que la vegetación de la ribera juega un papel muy importante en el mantenimiento de una fuente de energía y un refugio para las comunidades acuáticas durante el periodo de aguas bajas. Así mismo, la baja mineralización de estos ecosistemas los hace muy susceptibles a contaminaci

  9. Hydro-meteorological functioning of the Eastern Andean Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Insight from a paired catchment study in the Orinoco river basin highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Beatriz; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Leemans, Rik

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests regulate large scale precipitation patterns and catchment-scale streamflow, while tropical mountains influence runoff by orographic effects and snowmelt. Along tropical elevation gradients, these climate/ecosystem/hydrological interactions are specific and heterogeneous. These interactions are poorly understood and represented in hydro-meteorological monitoring networks and regional or global earth system models. A typical case are the South American Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCF), whose water balance is strongly driven by fog persistence. This also depends on local and up wind temperature and moisture, and changes in this balance alter the impacts of changes in land use and climate on hydrology. These TMCFs were until 2010 only investigated up to 350km from the coast. Continental TMCFs are largely ignored. This gap is covered by our study area, which is part of the Orinoco river basin highlands and located on the northern Eastern Andes at an altitudinal range of 1550 to 2300m a.s.l. The upwind part of our study area is dominated by lowland savannahs that are flooded seasonally. Because meteorological stations are absent in our study area, we first describe the spatial and seasonal meteorological variability and analyse the corresponding catchment hydrology. Our hydro-meteorological data set is collected at three gauged neighbouring catchments with contrasting TMCF/grassland cover from June 2013 to May 2014 and includes hourly solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture and runoff measurements. We compare our results with recent TCMF studies in the eastern Andean highlands in the Amazon basin. The studied elevational range always shows wetter conditions at higher elevations. This indicates a positive relation between elevation and fog or rainfall persistence. Lower elevations are more seasonally variable. Soil moisture data indicate that TMCFs do not use persistently more water than grasslands

  10. Hot gas injection as an artificial lift system through a concentric tubing completion in a heavy oil well, Pilon field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfissi, S.; Lujan, A. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Pilon Field in the Morichal District, Venezuela is producing heavy oil with numerous gas lift wells. Some of these wells are now inactive due to casing damage. The purpose of this paper is to assess the benefits of using hot gas injection as an artificial lift system through a concentric tubing completion in such wells. A pilot test was conducted on a well presenting a low water cut and 12 degree API, an indirect fire heater was installed near the wells. Results showed that heat losses were minimized thanks to the concentric pipe completion. In addition hot gas injection resulted in an oil production increase of 57%. The hot gas injection method used with a concentric tubing completion was proved to be a good alternative to the use of diluent but an economic analysis is nevertheless recommended to determine the costs of installing heating equipment.

  11. The Crustal Structure and Seismicity of Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Martins, A.; Sobiesiak, M.; Alvarado, L.; Vasquez, R.

    2001-12-01

    Eastern Venezuela is characterized by a moderate to high seismicity, evidenced recently by the 1997 Cariaco earthquake located on the El Pilar Fault, a right lateral strike slip fault which marks the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South-American plates in this region. Recently, the seismic activity seems to migrate towards the zone of subduction of the Lesser Antilles in the northeast, where a mb 6.0 earthquake occurred in October 2000 at 120 km of depth. Periodical changes in the seismic activity are related to the interaction of the stress fields of the strike-slip and the subduction regimes. The seismic activity decreases rapidly towards to the south with some disperse events on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield, related to the Guri fault system. The crustal models used in the region are derived from the information generated by the national seismological network since 1982 and by microseismicity studies in northeastern Venezuela, coinciding in a crustal thickness of about 35 km in depth. Results of seismic refraction measurements for the region were obtained during field campains in 1998 (ECOGUAY) for the Guayana Shield and the Cariaco sedimentary basin and in 2001 (ECCO) for the Oriental Basin. The total crustal thickness decreases from about 45 km on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield to some 36 km close to El Tigre in the center of the Oriental Basin. The average crustal velocity decreases in the same sense from 6.5 to 5.8 km/s. In the Cariaco sedimentary basin a young sedimentary cover of 1 km thickness with a seismic velocity of 2 km/s was derived. Towards the northern limit of the South-American plate, no deep seismic refraction data are available up to now. The improvement of the crustal models used in that region would constitute a step forward in the analysis of the seismic hazard. Seismic refraction studies funded by CONICIT S1-97002996 and S1-2000000685 projects and PDVSA (additional drilling and blasting), recording equipment

  12. Wetlands at Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and Surrounding Areas, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon coverage of wetlands at and surronding Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site, Texas. Roughly 20% of the park can be classified as...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Palo Alto County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Palo Alto County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  14. Valgevenest Iraanini : Venezuela liider koob USA-vastas ühisrinnet / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez külastab mitmeid Ameerika Ühendriikidele probleemseid riike. Kohtumine Valgevene presidendi Aleksandr Lukashenkoga, eelseisvast visiidist Venemaale. Lisa: Chavez tahab julgeolekunõukogusse

  15. Venezuela tõusis presidendi sotsialismikursi vastu üles / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2007-01-01

    Venezuelas toimunud rahvahääletusel lükati tagasi president Hugo Chavezi ettepanekud, mis puudutasid põhiseaduse muutmist. President peab seda vaid ajutiseks tagasilöögiks. Lisa: Tudengid ja meedia riigipea vastu

  16. Three new rarely collected or endangered species of Annonaceae from Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.; Pirie, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Annonaceae from Venezuela are described here: Cremastosperma venezuelanum Pirie, Klarobelia subglobosa Chatrou, and Pseudomalmea wingfieldii Chatrou. All three are represented by few collections (in comparison to those of other Neotropical species of Annonaceae). Klarobelia subg

  17. Checklist and distribution maps of the blow flies of Venezuela (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Yelitza; Martínez-Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Thomas, Arianna; Rojo, Santos

    2017-01-01

    A checklist of the 39 species of blow flies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae) so far known to occur in Venezuela is provided, based on a thorough literature review and the examination of ca. 500 specimens deposited in the main entomological collections of the country. Data from the literature and museum collections were used to generate distribution maps for 37 species. Three species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830), Mesembrinella spicata Aldrich, 1925 and Mesembrinella umbrosa Aldrich, 1922.

  18. Venezuela’s Changing Foreign Policy Towards the United States: A Holistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Economic Indicators, 1995-2000”, http://www.latin- focus.com/countries/venezuela/venindex.htm [12 Feb 2001]. 58 Ministerio de Finanza de Venezuela website...Plinio, “Un Foro Con Orejas de Lobo”, Analitica.com, http://www.analitica.com/va/ internacionales /opinion/7811628.asp, [02 Dec 2001]. 60 Gonzalez...Analitica.com, accessed online at: http://www.analitica.com/va/ internacionales /opinion/7811628 .asp, [02 Dec 2001]. “Proyecto de Ley Habilitante

  19. A comparative analysis of the flooding and fire effects on the energy exchange in a wetland community (Morichal) of the Orinoco Llanos

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José, J. J.; Meirelles, M. L.; Bracho, R.; Nikonova, N.

    2001-02-01

    This work analyzes the effects of flooding and fire stress on a wetland energy balance during the dry season of the Orinoco lowlands. The effect of flooding for burning conditions is evaluated by comparing flux measurements in a flooded/burned (T1) and an unflooded/burned (T3) stand, and the effect of burning for flooding conditions by distinguishing between a flooded/burned (T1) and a flooded/unburned (T2) stand. These examined factors affect the canopy features related to coverage and aerodynamic forcing conditions. The effect of flooding on the average daily radiative budget for the burned stands is to decrease the average daily albedo from 0.14 for the unflooded stand (T3) to 0.08 for the flooded stand (T1). Whereas, the effect of burning for the flooded stands decreases the average daily albedo from 0.16 for the unburned stand (T2) to 0.08 in the burned stand (T1). Furthermore, changes in surface temperature determine variations in the average daily output of long-wave ratios between stands with the most average daily net loss of long-wave radiation (-36.3 MJ m -2 day -1) corresponding to the flooded/burned stand (T1). In the stands, the changes in albedo and surface temperature lead to variation in the available energy. Thus, the average daily net radiation ( Rn) is affected by burning of the flooded stands, being 15.2 MJ m -2 day -1 in T1 and 14.7 MJ m -2 day -1 in T2. The effect of flooding on the average daily Rn is evident when compared T1 to T3 (13.1 MJ m -2 day -1). The partitioning of Rn into sensible ( H) and latent (LE) heat flux over the three stands is measured simultaneously using the Bowen ratio/gradient method, which is temporally corroborated by means of the eddy covariance approach. Results indicate that average daily LE to average daily Rn ratio is 0.78, 0.78 and 0.80 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. However, the partitioning of average daily LE into transpiration and evaporation is affected clearly by the analyzed factors. Thus, burning

  20. Narrativas sobre a experiência de ser puérpera de alto risco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Thaise Frello Roque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Quando o puerpério ocorre concomitantemente à hospitalização do recém-nascido, leva a puérpera a tornar-se acompanhante na Unidade Neonatal, o que pode influenciar seu poder vital conceituando-se o Puerpério de Alto Risco. O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer a experiência de ser puérpera de alto risco. Métodos: Narrativo com abordagem qualitativa, sustentado em Florence Nightingale. Realizado em uma instituição pública do sul do Brasil, de janeiro a março de 2010, foram sujeitos da pesquisa sete puérperas de alto risco acima de 18 anos, sendo neste recorte apresentado a experiência de uma puérpera de alto risco que desejou participar e assinou o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Resultados: Os resultados demonstram a mescla de sentimentos enfrentada pela puérpera de alto risco. Conclusão: Sendo importante a ampliação do termo Puerpério de Alto Risco nos programas de saúde, a fim de contemplar o cuidado de enfermagem específico às puérperas que estão com seus bebês na unidade neonatal.

  1. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  2. camarón del Alto Golfo de California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero R. Cabrera M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente la pesquería del camarón en el Alto Golfo de California genera preocupaciones referentes a su impacto sobre el medio ambiente, su viabilidad biológica y rentabilidad. Con el propósito de entender el manejo de esta pesquería y su productividad física, hemos examinado el comportamiento productivo de los barcos camaroneros de San Felipe, B.C. durante el periodo 1990-1993. Para ello usamos una función de producción frontera, flexible y no restringida, respecto a la cual estimamos la eficiencia técnica de cada una de las naves observadas. Nuestros resultados indican que la eficiencia promedio de la flota observada es del 80%, un valor de eficiencia cercano al mejor uso de la tecnología productiva y de los factores de la producción. Las naves más viejas resultaron menos eficientes, un resultado esperado; sin embargo, el tamaño de la cooperativa y calidad de su administración afectó positivamente los valores de eficiencia de las naves asociadas enmascarando con ello el efecto antes mencionado y favoreciendo el desarrollo de economías de escala. Los resultados indican también que el conocimiento acumulativo sobre la pesquería del camarón entre los productores es una variable importante, en términos de su efecto sobre la eficiencia productiva de las naves, mientras que la innovación tecnológica ha sido escasa, excepto por los excluidores de tortugas incorporados a su tecnología de captura durante 1996. Concluimos de nuestro análisis que la divulgación del conocimiento sobre la pesquería, como una variable social de cambio desincorporada a la función de producción, y el fortalecimiento de la calidad de los servicios administrativos, son dos aspectos fundamentales a promover para el desarrollo de esta pesquería. También argumentamos que la semejanza tecnológica y operativa entre ambas flotas, la de San Felipe, B.C. y el resto de la flota del camarón que pesca en el Golfo de California permite que nuestro an

  3. Amphinomidae y Euphrosinidae (Annelida: Polychaeta de la costa nororiental de Venezuela Amphinomidae and Euphrosinidae (Annelida: Polychaeta from northeastern coast of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Liñero-Arana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron ejemplares pertenecientes a ocho especies de Amphinomidae y una de Euphosinidae recolectados en diferentes lugares de la costa oriental de Venezuela: Amphinome rostrata, Chloeia viridis, Chloenopsis atlantica, Eurythoë complanata, Hermodice carunculata, Linopherus cana-riensis, L. paucibranchiata, Notopygos crinita (Amphinomidae y Euphrosine triloba (Euphrosinidae. Excepto para Eurythoë, Hermodice y Notopygos, los demás géneros y/o especies constituyen nuevos registros para la costa de Venezuela.Specimens belonging to eight species of Amphinomidae and one of Euphosinidae collected in different localities of the East coast of Venezuela were identified: Amphinome rostrata, Chloeia viridis, Chloenopsis atlantica, Eurythoë complanata, Hermodice carunculata, Linopherus canariensis, L. pauci-branchiata, Notopygos crinita (Amphinomidae and Euphrosine triloba (Euphrosinidae. Except for Eurythoë, Hermodice and Notopygos, the remain genera or species constitute new records from Venezuelan coast.

  4. SOCIEDADES DE GARANTÍAS RECIPROCAS REGIONALES EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando J. Canelones

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se propone describir el funcionamiento, los servicios que ofrecen las Sociedades de Garantías Reciprocas Regionales (SGRs en Venezuela y presentar de forma sintetizada, las nociones elementales para su constitución, así como también las bases legales por las cuales se deben regir, agregando un resumen ejecutivo de la Ley del Sistema Nacional de Garantías Reciprocas y las Normas de Promoción, Constitución y Funcionamiento de los Fondos Nacionales de Garantías Recíprocas y SGRs.  La metodología aplicada es documental, de revisión y exploración bibliográfica, que permitió inferir que las SGRs Regionales representan una alternativa de financiamiento a las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (Pymes

  5. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  6. Legalidad o ilegalidad de la desobediencia civil tributaria en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariadela Bello Atencio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación estudió la legalidad o ilegalidad de la Desobediencia Civil Tributaria en Venezuela en lo que al término hermenéutico se refiere. El artículo 350 de la carta magna consagra el derecho del pueblo a desacatar cualquier régimen, autoridad o legislación cuando contraríe los principios y garantías constitucionales o menoscabe los derechos humanos. El objetivo fundamental es analizar la legalidad o ilegalidad de la misma. Se trata de una investigación jurídica documental de tipo descriptivo, con un diseño bibliográfico. El método utilizado fue el sociológico auxiliado por la hermenéutica jurídica, concluyéndose que la desobediencia civil tributaria es legal conforme al referido artículo 350.

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over a two year period, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was evaluated in 29 hemodialysis patients, aged between 15 and 75 years (mean ± SD: 45 ± 39.5 years, from the University Hospital Hemodyalisis Unit, Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Anti-HCV antibodies were determined using a fourth generation ELISA (Innotest HCV Ab IV kit and positive blood samples were tested using a recombinant assay kit (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III, both kits from Innogenetics N.V., Belgium. The findings indicate a lack of HCV seroconversion in the hemodialysis patients over the study period, confirmed by the recombinant assay. Risk factors for HCV infection were 0.3270 (95% confidence interval: 0.01323-8.080 in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The findings suggest a lack of significant sources for HCV infection due to the preventive measures to avoid its transmission in the hemodialysis unit.

  8. Low occurrence of Helicobacter DNA in tropical wild birds, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Amado, María Alexandra; Sanz, Virginia; Martinez, Leoncia Margarita; Contreras, Mónica; Lentino, Miguel; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-10-01

    Enteric Helicobacter species (Helicobacter pullorum, Helicobacter pametensis, Helicobacter canadensis, Helicobacter anseris, and Helicobacter brantae) have been found in birds from temperate latitudes. We evaluated the occurrence of Helicobacter spp. in terrestrial wild birds from Venezuela. A fragment of 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR with Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Helicobacter spp. were detected in four of 80 fecal and in three of 42 intestinal tissue samples. Analyses of 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences confirm for the first time the presence of Helicobacter in tropical terrestrial wild birds. However, the occurrence of Helicobacter was low, suggesting these bacteria may be uncommon in the populations we studied.

  9. Embodying racism: race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbas, Lauren E

    2013-03-01

    In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image.

  10. Ootaxonomic investigation of five Lutzomyia species (Diptera, Psychodidae from Venezuela

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    AM Fausto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell fine structure of five sand fly species from Venezuela belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta, L. gomezi and L. panamensis was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chorionic sculpturing of L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta and L. gomezi was characterized by series of columns arranged in palisade to form sinuous ridges. In inter-ridge areas, the basal layer was covered with fibrous material. The outer chorion of L. panamensis had a pattern known as "mountain- or volcano-like". The morphology of the posterior pole and aeropyle had a common structure in the five species, with some species-specific characters. The eggshell features of the five species are compared with those of other phlebotomine sand flies.

  11. La emigración gallega a Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Álvarez, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un estudio de la emigración gallega a Venezuela entre los años 1945 y 1985 a través de la utilización de fuentes orales, complementadas con material bibliográfico, hemerográfico y de archivo. Así, veremos cómo a finales de los años cuarenta esta república sudamericana se convirtió en receptora de inmigración masiva debido a la profunda transformación económica que está experimentando, impulsada por el auge petrolífero y por la política inmigratoria de p...

  12. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  13. La universidad virtual en Venezuela. Un caso de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira Fernández de Pelekais

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito presentar una visión general de la educación virtual en Venezuela con el fin de validar un nuevo enfoque educativo. Se presenta un estudio de caso, donde se evidencia la necesidad de planificar la aplicación de las nuevas tecnologías en las diferentes áreas de la educación a fin de tomar decisiones adecuadas que garanticen las relaciones costo-beneficio y la optimización del uso masivo de las mismas; así como prever el mantenimiento de esos recursos para garantizar su productividad y eficiencia.

  14. Los movimientos estudiantiles en Venezuela, 1958-1990

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    Roberto López Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está centrado en los aportes del movimiento estudiantil al proceso político venezolano, en dos momentos clave: la renovación universitaria de 1969, y las protestas estudiantiles de 1987. Hemos identificado las particularidades de los diferentes grupos estudiantiles, y a sus principales dirigentes; sus mecanismos de intervención y de conflicto, su relación con los programas de partidos y movimientos políticos, y su incidencia en la situación política local y nacional. Recurriendo a fuentes biblio-hemerográficas, documentales y orales, el estudio consideró los aportes teórico-metodológicos de investigaciones relacionadas con los movimientos sociales en general y con el movimiento estudiantil en particular. Se concluye estableciendo que los movimientos estudiantiles fueron durante los primeros treinta años de la democracia puntofijista los principales protagonistas del conflicto social en Venezuela.____________________ABSTRACT:The present work describes the contributions of the student movement to the Venezuelan political process, in two focal moments: the university’s renovation of 1969, and the students’ protests of 1987. We have identified the peculiarities of the different students’ groups and their main leaders; their political mechanisms of intervention and conflict, their relation with programs of parties and movements, and their incidence in the local and national political situation. Referring to biblio-hemerographic, documentary and oral sources, the study has considered the theoretical-methodological contributions of researches related both to social movements in general and to student movements in particular. It is established that, during the first thirty years of the puntofijista democracy, student movements were the main protagonists of the social conflict in Venezuela.  

  15. Dimensiones de Personalidad de Marca. Estudio exploratorio en Venezuela

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    José Luis Pirela Saavedra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo explorar el modelo de Personalidad de Marca en Venezuela, a través del estudio propuesto por Aaker (1997 de los rasgos de personalidad, utilizando los centros comerciales como producto de referencia. La investigación de tipo exploratorio adoptó un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. La muestra resultó de ciento sesenta y ocho personas (168 entre encuestas auto suministradas y vía correo electrónico. En el procesamiento de los datos se aplicó un análisis de Confiabilidad vía Alfa de Cronbach encontrándose que las dimensiones de personalidad de marca para Venezuela son: Emocionante (0.91, Sinceridad (0.83, Pasional (0.88 Pasividad (0.76 y Rudeza (0.68. Estos resultados revelaron importantes diferencias con un estudio previo realizado en el país. La causa puede deberse a la falta de un procedimiento muestral más representativo de ambos estudios, ya que hasta la fecha no se ha realizado un estudio de escala nacional para medir Personalidad de Marca. A pesar de ello, se consiguieron evidencias que los rasgos de personalidad alrededor de la dimensión “Emocionante” pudiesen ser explicativos de la personalidad del venezolano promedio, ya que además de su consistencia interna, presentan coincidencias con otros estudios empíricos de segmentación realizados en el país.

  16. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

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    Bertinellys TEIXEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC, aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD, and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH, is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137 were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, mainly from discharges (96/137. The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively. Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49, followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49. The aac(6´-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  17. Funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela. Aproximación a un modelo / Functions of the scholastic supervision in venezuela. Approach to a model

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollón de González, Amada

    2011-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar la aproximación a un Modelo para las funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela sustentado en los ámbitos, acción supervisora y funciones denominadas: Técnicas, Administrativas, Sociales, de Asistencia y Mediación. El modelo se fundamentó teóricamente en Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Teoría de Sistemas de Bertalanffy, enfoque humanista y jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow. Es una investigación de campo realizada en Venezuela en los estados: ...

  18. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela Movimientos urbanos y desempoderamiento en Perú y Venezuela

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    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representationEste artículo plantea un puzzle principal: ¿por qué la movilización ciudadana continuada viene acompañada de un crecimiento del desempoderamiento de estos mismos ciudadanos? ¿Por qué los movimientos fracasan, los líderes se desgastan y los miembros se dispersan, y cuáles son las implicaciones del fracaso organizativo para la representación democrática? Nuestra consideración del asunto encuentra sus raíces en un profundo análisis de los movimientos urbanos, de la movilización, del empoderamiento y del

  19. The importance of trenching in paleoseismic studies in Venezuela: brief historical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    Paleoseismic studies have proved to be a powerful tool in seismic hazards assessment by he contributing to asses the seismogenic potential of a given fault by expanding the time window o seismic activity beyond the limits of historical and instrumental seismicity. Trenching has been an essential tool for paleoseismic studies in Venezuela. The first paleoseismic trenching project in Venezuela goes back to 1968 when Compania Shell de Venezuela retained the services of Woodward Clyde and Associates,(WCA), USA to asses the seismic integrity of the earthen dikes of Costa Oriental of Lake Maracaibo Protection System (COLM) in western Venezuela. The study was carried out under the general coordination of this author. An important part of this project included a seismology and seismic geology study under the direction of Geologist L.S. Cluff. This was the first ever study undertaken in Venezuela and included two excavations across the Oca Fault north of the city of Maracaibo. After several years of inactivity, FUNVISIS (The Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research) carried out in 1980 a seismic hazard (SHA) for the Uribante Caparo Hydroelectric Project southwest Venezuela. In 1989, MARAVEN, an operating company of PETROLE0S DE VENEUELA S.A. (PDVSA) undertook the project of a products pipeline form Maracaibo to El Vigia, south of Lake Maracaibo. Again, FUNVISIS was contracted to carry out a SHA, which included the digging of 5 trenches, which were supplemented with five more trenches for the COLM project. Trenching activity contined in Venezuela in the framework of SHA project, under the direction of Dr. Audemard. In 2001 Venezuelan trenching experience was exported to the neighboring Colombia as e Dr. Audemard t undertook a palaoseismicity project which included the digging of five trenches. In conclusion, paleoseismicty studies have given us the possibility of extending the scope of both instrumental and historical seismicity by some 10,000 years, trenching has

  20. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  1. The Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: An Analysis of the Reasons Behind Venezuela’s Continuing Demands for Abrogation of the 1899 Anglo-Venezuelan Arbitral Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    mainly of consumer products, such as television sets, radios, refrigerators, and washing machines - goods not readily available or else very costly in...London. December, 1990. "Hector Jurado Toro en Impacto : Indocumentados Trabajan en la Busqueda de Oro." El Universal (Caracas, Venezuela). November 5

  2. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Syr Salas Perea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Note from the Editors: This article by Drs. Borroto Cruz and Salas Perea was published in the Fall 2008 edition of MEDICC Review. We will be publishing a Spanish translation this month in Medicina Social. We present here the abstract of the article. We encourage readers to read the English original which is available at: www.medicc.org/mediccreview/. The issue is entitled: Teaching for Health Equity: Changing Paradigms of Medical Education. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela Introduction: Through the 1990s, wide disparities in health status were recorded in Venezuela, a mirror of poor social conditions, decreasing investment in the public health sector and a health workforce distribution unable to meet population health needs or to staff effective, accessible public health services. Venezuelans’ health status deteriorated as a result. In 2003-2004, the Venezuelan government launched Barrio Adentro, a new national public health model aimed at assuring primary health care coverage for the entire population of an estimated 26 million. Cuban physicians staff Barrio Adentro clinics, mainly in poor neighborhoods, until enough Venezuelan physicians can be trained to fill the posts. Intervention: Cuban experience with community-oriented medical education and global health cooperation was drawn upon to develop curriculum and provide faculty for the new National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, begun in 2005 in cooperation with six Venezuelan universities. The program differs from previous Venezuelan medical education models by adopting a stated goal of training physicians for public service, recruiting students who had no previous opportunity for university-level education, and concentrating the weight of their training on a service- and community-based model of education, relying on practicing physician-tutors. Results: Over 20,000 students have been enrolled in three years. The six

  3. [Recent and future trends in general fertility in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papail, J

    1983-01-01

    Data from the 1977 Venezuela Fertility survey were used to assess recent trends in fertility and to attempt an understanding of future fertility based on observed trends. Between 1951-61, the total fertility rate increased from 5.96 to 6.61. In the 1960s, the fertility of women aged 15-30 years declined somewhat and the use of contraception and sterilization became more widespread, so that by 1971 the total fertility rate fell to 5.58. It is possible that the 1977 fertility survey slightly underrepresented women in the Caracas area, which would tend to overestimate fertility at the national level. The small sample size of 4361 women aged 15-44 involved considerable fluctuations in fertility rates from year to year. The risk of errors resulting from the method of retrospective reporting of live births appeared to be small since the recall period was relatively short. A series of quinquennial rates for women aged 15-39 was constructed for each age group from 1968-77. Fertility rates estimated for 1971 and 1976 respectively from the Venezuela Fertility Survey results using a moving average for 3 years were 120.7 and 105.1 for women 15-19, 259.0 and 225.1 for women 20-24, 255.0 and 213.1 for women 25-29, 214.3 and 167.7 for women 30-34, and 150.0 and 103.6 for women 35-39. The results were quite close to fertility rates estimated in other sources. The 1977 fertility survey indicated a trend toward later age at marriage and a correlation of ideal family size with age. The ideal number of children was 4.2 for the total sample, 5 children for women aged 35-39 years, 4.5 for those aged 30-34, 3.9 for those 25-29, and 3.5 for those aged 20-24. 55% of women in union stated they wanted no more children. 46% of women exposed to risk of pregnancy used a modern method of contraception; the proportion varied from 40% of those with 1 child to 56% with 4 children. The fertility decline, reduced ideal family size, and use of modern contraception were closely associated with

  4. Venezuela: calidad de las elecciones y calidad de la democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam KORNBLITH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Partiendo de la afirmación de Levine y Molina (2006, según la cual la calidad de la democracia depende del funcionamiento de los procesos mediante los cuales la población selecciona y controla sus gobernantes, en este trabajo se examina el caso venezolano, haciendo especial énfasis en el análisis de la dinámica electoral del período marcado por la presidencia de Chávez (1999-2006. Dicho examen nos lleva a concluir que el régimen sociopolítico venezolano actual puede ser caracterizado más adecuadamente como un «régimen autoritario electoral», más que como una democracia representativa convencional. Los rasgos autoritarios del gobierno venezolano actual explicarían la baja puntuación obtenida por Venezuela en los índices de Freedom House. Sin embargo, este examen también nos lleva a considerar la pertinencia de los supuestos de la calidad de la democracia en el contexto de un cambio de régimen que explícitamente se aleja de las aspiraciones e ideales que sustentan el concepto, dimensiones e indicadores de la calidad de la democracia propuestos.ABSTRACT: Taking off from the affirmation by Levine and Molina that «the quality of democracy depends on the operation of procedures whereby the population selects and controls its government», this article examines the dynamics of elections during the Presidency of Chávez, (1999-2006. This examination leads to the conclusion that the current regime is better characterized as «an autoritarian electoral regime» than as a conventional representative democracy. This re-definition explains the low scores obtained by Venezuela both in Freedom House. At the same time, this study throws light on the bases of democracy and of definitions of quality of democracy in a regime that explicitly rejects the very ideals and aspirations that underlie the definitions, dimensions and indicators of democracy itself.

  5. Dengue Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Past and Recent Viral Transmission in Venezuela : A Comprehensive Community-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Sierra, Gloria M.; Guzman, Diamelis M.; Zambrano, Julio; Vivas, Daniel; Comach, Guillermo; Wilschut, Jan C.; Tami, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Dengue transmission in Venezuela has become perennial and a major public health problem. The increase in frequency and magnitude of recent epidemics prompted a comprehensive community-based cross-sectional study of 2,014 individuals in high-incidence neighborhoods of Maracay, Venezuela. We found a h

  6. El dolmen de “El alto de la Tejera” (Carrascosa de la Sierra, Soria. El fenómeno megalítico en el Alto Duero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimeno Martínez, A.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the dolmen of Alto de la Tejera (Carrascosa de la Sierra, Soria which is the first to be found and excavated in the Upper Duero, in its environmental and archaeological setting, and with a view to modeling the local population and megalithic territoriality in this area. The relationship of this megalithic settlement with that of the Meseta and the Ebro valley is also discussed.

    Se estudia el dolmen del Alto de la Tejera (Carrascosa de la Sierra, Soria -el primero conocido y excavado en la zona del Alto Duero- en su entorno arqueológico y ambiental, buscando una aproximación al modelo de poblamiento. Se analiza la documentación megalítica en conexión con el poblamiento neolítico-calcolítico y su medio, buscando las características constructivas y de territorialidad del fenómeno dolménico en esta zona. Finalmente se plantea la relación de este megalitismo con los focos de la Meseta y Valle del Ebro.

  7. Late quaternary environmental history of lake valencia, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, J P; Leyden, B; Salgado-Labouriau, M; Lewis, W M; Schubert, C; Binford, M W; Frey, D G; Whitehead, D R; Weibezahn, F H

    1981-12-18

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed.

  8. Sucesos de la Venezuela Rentista, 1989 y 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibelis Coromoto Blanco Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XX, Venezuela fue catalogado uno de los países de Sudamérica más ricos del continente, destacándose por su y estabilidad económica. Sin embargo, el capitalismo rentístico tanto de la época democrática como en el socialismo del siglo XXI sobredimensionó el tamaño del estado, utilizó mecanismos de subsidios que desaceleró el aparato productivo, generó niveles de inflación y déficit fiscal que se reflejaron en malestar y estallido social. Este artículo hace una reflexión sobre la crisis que atraviesa este país, para lo cual se describen elementos de política económica de corte neoliberal en 1989 y un resumen de los catorce años del gobierno actual caracterizado por las medidas de control cambiario que han generado, escasez. De igual forma se revisan los hechos desataron la crisis social en 1989 y 2014, así como los puntos en común presentes en los dos momentos, el más característico: la inseguridad.

  9. Atmospheric mercury emissions from polluted gold mining areas (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, A; Contreras, F; Adams, M; Santos, F

    2006-12-01

    Soil, waste rock and mud from mercury-gold amalgamation mining areas of El Callao (Venezuela) are highly enriched in Hg (0.5-500 microg g(-1)) relative to natural background concentrations (mining districts (>100,000 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The results from this study also show that Hg emissions from the soil are influenced by solar radiation, soil temperature and soil Hg concentration. Our data suggest that solar radiation may be the dominant factor affecting Hg degrees emission since the major species of mercury in polluted soil is Hg degrees (85-97% of total Hg). The simple release of Hg degrees vapor is probably the dominant process occurring with incident light in the field. The apparent activation energy for mercury emission indicates that the volatilization of mercury mainly occurred as a result of the vaporization of elemental mercury in soil. The degree of Hg emission differed significantly among the soil sites studied, which may be due to variations in soil texture, organic matter content and soil compaction.

  10. Venezuela: regiones fronterizas y globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Cardozo Galué

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La globalización, al mismo tiempo que introduce tendencias hacia la homogeneidad económica, impulsa la “economía difusa” a través de procesos de descentralización y reubicación de las estructuras industriales en asentamientos territoriales como las regiones fronterizas. Ha sido señalado el peligro de tales estrategias para la integridad y futuro de los Estados nacionales. En este artículo se analiza, en la perspectiva del proceso histórico, el caso específico de la región fronteriza que comparten Venezuela y Colombia, compuesta por los Estados Zulia y Táchira y el Departamento de Santander, respectivamente. La categoría “región histórica” sirve de marco teórico-metodológico para la comprensión del problema originado por el actual juego dialéctico de “Globalización-Estado nacional-Región” con el objeto de sustentar posibles propuestas de carácter sociopolítico.

  11. Venezuela's Barrio Adentro: an alternative to neoliberalism in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Benach, Joan; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented health care sector reforms based on a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care less as a social right and more as a market commodity. These reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states as prescribed by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program, Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighborhood). In this article, the authors review the main features of the Venezuelan health care reform, analyzing, within their broader sociopolitical and economic contexts, previous neoliberal health care reforms that mainly benefited transnational capital and domestic Latin American elites. They explain the emergence of the new health care program, Misión Barrio Adentro, examining its historical, social, and political underpinnings and the central role played by popular resistance to neoliberalism. This program not only provides a compelling model of health care reform for other low- to middle-income countries but also offers policy lessons to wealthy countries.

  12. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  13. [Anthropometric characterization of an institutionalized elderly population from Caracas, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérrera, Hector; Rebato, Esther; Rocandio, Ana María; Hernández, Rosa; Rodríguez, Nahir; Barbosa, Johanna; Hernández-Valera, Yolanda

    2005-06-01

    Most of the anthropometric standards are derived from adult populations but not from older subjects, so their use to evaluate the nutritional status in the elderly may not be the most appropriate. In this sense, the anthropometric characteristics and their relationship to sex and age in a cross-sectional sample of 809 Venezuelan subjects (370 males and 439 females), aged 60 to 102 years old, randomly selected from a elderly institution-alised population were studied. The results indicate that anthropometric variables show different degrees and signs of sexual dimorphism. Males presented higher stature, weight, waist and calf circumferences and higher bone diameters, while females have higher hip and thigh perimeters, and bigger trunk and extremities skinfolds. Independently of the changes observed in these variables with age, the difference spread between the sexes tends to stay and even to increase with age in the height and weight, in hip perimeter and in thigh and calf skinfolds; while, on the contrary, they attenuate in waist perimeter and in triceps, subescapular and suprailiac skinfolds. Males and females appear to be more similar for these variables in the advanced ages. In general, these results could be used as reference elements for similar researches in Venezuela, due to the low number of studies developed in the country in older populations

  14. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  15. Late quaternary environmental history of Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Bradbury J.; Leyden, B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Lewis, W.M.; Schubert, C.; Binford, M.W.; Frey, D.G.; Whitehead, D.R.; Weibezahn, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  16. Geochemical record of anthropogenic impacts on Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yunping [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)], E-mail: yunpingxu@urban.pku.edu.cn; Jaffe, Rudolf [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Bulk geochemical parameters and organic matter biomarkers in a short, high resolution gravity core (Lake Valencia, Venezuela) were examined to reconstruct anthropogenic impacts on the lake's conditions. During the period of ca. 1840-1990, sedimentary organic matter was characterized by high contents of total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN), low TOC/TN values as well as relatively enriched {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N signals, suggesting a primary autochthonous (algae and macrophytes) organic matter origin. The occurrence of large amounts of C{sub 23} and C{sub 25} relative to C{sub 29} and C{sub 31}n-alkanes indicated substantial inputs from submerged/floating macrophytes. The variations of C{sub 32} 15-keto-ol, tetrahymanol, diploptene, C{sub 32} bishomohopanol, 2-methylhopane, dinosterol and isoarborinol concentrations over the investigated period record changes in the planktonic community structure, including Botryococcus braunii, bacteriavore ciliates, cyanobacteria, Eustigmatophytes and dinoflagellates. A principal shift occurred in the 1910s when cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates became more abundant at the expense and decline of B. braunii and Eustigmatophytes, likely related to increasing anthropogenic activity around the lake. A second shift (less obvious) occurred in the 1960s when cyanobacteria became the sole predominant planktonic class, coinciding with further deterioration of lake conditions.

  17. Turismo en la cuenca del Alto Paraguay, Brasil. Aspectos positivos y negativos

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Eva Teixeira dos; Mercante,Mercedes Abid

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN - El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar los aspectos positivos y negativos del turismo en la Cuenca del Alto Paraguay (CAP) y su influencia en el desarrollo económico de la región. A partir de los datos obtenidos en la bibliografía existente, se muestra el desarrollo de las actividades turísticas y ecoturísticas en la Cuenca del Alto Paraguay entre 1996 y 2004. El trabajo, llevado a cabo conjuntamente con los alumnos de Turismo de la Universidad Anhanguera (Uniderp), fue de gran ...

  18. Estudio microbiológico de los alimentos elaborados en comedores colectivos de alto riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Silva García Mª del Carmen; Belmonte Cortés Susana; Martínez Corral Javier

    1998-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: Valorar los resultados del análisis microbiológico de los alimentos preparados en comedores colectivos de alto riesgo, con el fin de conocer el grado de contaminación de los alimentos, analizar las causas de dicha contaminación y mejorar la situación sanitaria de estos establecimientos. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional descriptivo con los datos obtenidos de la inspección sanitaria en 44 comedores colectivos de alto riesgo, que incluyó el análisis microbiológico de 90 alimentos, así ...

  19. TEORIA DA ESTRUTURA DE PROPRIEDADE: REDES SOCIAIS EM PERIÓDICOS INTERNACIONAIS DE ALTO IMPACTO

    OpenAIRE

    DELCI GRAPEGIA DAL VESCO; ILSE MARIA BEUREN

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio es identificar las redes sociales de la teoría de la estructura de la propiedad en los artículos publicados en las revistas internacionales de alto impacto. Una investigación sociometrica con metodología empírico - analítica fue realizada desde una perspectiva longitudinal de revisión documental. El universo del estudio son las revistas internacionales en las áreas de Administración y Contabilidad clasificados con el índice de alto impacto JCR (Journal Citation Rep...

  20. PAJERO-GALLANÍA Y CASA DE ALTO Y BAJO [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XX CARRETERA GENERAL TEROR-SAN MATEO, JUNTO AL LUGAR CONOCIDO COMO EL OJERO, NOS METEMOS EN UNA VEREDA QUESUBE AL CASERIO. CASA DE ALTO Y BAJO, PLANTA RECTANGULAR Y PATIO EXTERIOR. BALCON Y CUBIERTA A DOS AGUAS CON TEJA FRANCESA. PAJERO-ALPENDRE DE ALTO Y BAJO. PIEDRA SIN ENFOSCAR. CUBIERTA A DOS AGUAS. Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN AGRARIA Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No EN EL PAJAR, LAS PUERTAS NO SON LAS ORIGINALES, Y ...

  1. Puerpério de alto risco e cuidado de enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Frello, Ariane Thaise

    2013-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem, Florianópolis, 2013. O objetivo desta tese foi compreender como as mulheres percebem a vivência do puerpério de alto risco. Trata-se de um estudo narrativo com abordagem qualitativa que pesquisou junto de puérperas que estavam com seus bebês na unidade neonatal, configurando esta fase como puerpério de alto risco. A revisão de literatura consistiu no artigo 1, um...

  2. Second record of Tityus bahiensis (Scorpiones, Buthidae from Venezuela: epidemiological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the scorpion Tityus bahiensis Perty from Venezuela. The specimen was found alive in a wardrobe at a hotel resort in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela. Morphological characterization allowed its assignment to the Tityus bahiensis population inhabiting the southernmost area of the species' geographic range, e.g. the state of São Paulo in Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. The fact that the only available Venezuelan antiscorpion (anti-Tityus discrepans serum does not neutralize the effects of alpha- and beta-toxin from Tityus serrulatus venom (which resembles in composition that of T. bahiensis constitutes a warning to local clinicians confronted with envenomations by noxious species transported to Venezuela from Brazil by human agency.

  3. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera coletados na Venezuela na copa de Matayba (Sapindaceae e Vochysia (Vochysiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerambycidae coletados em Surumoni, Amazonas, Venezuela, com o auxílio de uma grua, por armadilha de interceptação de vôo e armadilha luminosa nas copas de Matayba guianensis Aubl e Vochysia sp. resultaram em novos registros para 14 espécies e descrição de quatro novas: Erythropterus urucuri sp. nov. (Heteropsini, Eriphus ruBELLus sp. nov. (Trachyderini, Lissonotus kuaiuba sp. nov. (Lissonotini e Acyphoderes itaiuba sp. nov. (Rhinotragini.Cerambycidae (Coleoptera collected in Venezuela at the canopy of Matayba (Sapindaceae and Vochysia (Vochysiaceae. Cerambycidae collected in Surumoni, Amazonas, Venezuela, with help of a crane, made with interception and light traps in the canopy of Matayba guianensis Aubl and Vochysia sp. resulted in new records for 14 species and descriptions of four new species: Erythropterus urucuri sp. nov. (Heteropsini, Eriphus ruBELLus sp. nov. (Trachyderini, Lissonotus kuaiuba sp. nov. (Lissonotini and Acyphoderes itaiuba sp. nov. (Rhinotragini.

  4. Seven new species of Notiospathius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae from Northwest Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefany Karen López-Estrada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe seven new species of the doryctine wasp genus Notiospathius Matthews & Marsh from Northwest Venezuela: N. araguae sp. n., N. bolivari sp. n., N. curvilineatus sp. n., N. dantei sp. n., N. estradae sp. n., N. larensis sp. n., and N. venezuelae sp. n. These represent the first described species of the genus reported for this country. Species boundaries for the above taxa were confirmed using the General mixed Yule-coalescent method with 441 DNA barcode sequences from specimens assigned to Notiospathius and other closely related genera collected in different countries along the Neotropics.

  5. Notas sobre la sostenibilidad de la deuda pública en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Hector; Fajardo, Eddy Johanna

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo una evaluación de la sostenibilidad de la deuda pública en Venezuela. En la primera parte del estudio se presenta un breve bosquejo teórico de los modelos para evaluar la sostenibilidad de la deuda pública que aparece reflejado en la literatura económica. Asimismo, se presenta la evolución de los indicadores de sostenibilidad de la deuda pública, así como una comparación internacional de los niveles de deuda de Venezuela en comparación con otros países d...

  6. Migração transfronteiriça na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilene Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available AS ZONAS fronteiriças são zonas de empréstimos e apropriações culturais e, por isso, um lugar privilegiado para a compreensão do fenômeno migratório internacional. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar alguns aspectos do processo de deslocamentos transfronteiriços no norte do Brasil, no município de Pacaraima (Estado de Roraima e na fronteira sul da Venezuela, no município de Gran Sabana (Estado Bolívar, e, ao mesmo tempo, apontar as tendências e reflexos nas configurações socioculturais nessas zonas de contato. Nessa fronteira Brasil-Venezuela, podemos afirmar que o trânsito maior é de brasileiros para a Venezuela e para a Guiana, em decorrência das possibilidades de atuarem nas atividades de mineração, no comércio local e no setor de transportes, além das atividades ilegais, como tráfico de mulheres, contrabando de combustível e câmbio ilegal de moeda. Apresenta-se, no entanto, uma nova tendência que é a imigração de estrangeiros de outros países do continente, tais como peruanos e colombianos. Esses migrantes transfronteiriços percorrem os países fronteiriços em itinerários cuja porta de entrada é a Venezuela e a Guiana, mas também o Estado do Amazonas.BORDER zones are zones of cultural lending, borrowing and appropriation, and, therefore, a privileged vantage point for understanding the phenomenon of international migration. This essay attempts to examine certain aspects of the transborder dislocation process in northern Brazil (the city of Pacaraima, state of Roraima and in southern Venezuela (the city of Gran Sabana, state of Bolívar, and point out its trends and reflections on the sociocultural makeup of those contact zones. In this Brazil-Venezuela border, the largest movement is clearly that of Brazilians going into Venezuela and Guyana in search of job opportunities in mining, local business and transportation, not to mention illegal activities such as the traffic of women, fuel smuggling and

  7. Natural gas as an integrating element for Latin America - An opportunity for Venezuela?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Diego

    2010-09-15

    Summary This paper offers an analysis of the natural gas situation in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina, including countries of the Caribbean; analyzes the attitude of potential buyers of this energy source and the possibilities of each country receiving natural gas from Venezuela based on its reserves and production, highlighting the most outstanding projects being undertaken in some of those countries; makes recommendations in the area of energy, with emphasis on natural gas; and, lastly, presents an epilog describing Venezuela's role in an integration process in Latin America.

  8. Sostenibilidad de la televisión digital terrestre en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Marquina, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Partiendo de la teoría de los sistemas y de la ciencia de la complejidad, en este trabajo se pretende delimitar el campo sobre el cual se implemente la Televisión Digital Terrestre en Venezuela (TDT). Hablar de la sostenibilidad de la Televisión Digital Terrestre en Venezuela (TDTv), implica una delimitación clara del concepto para entender los niveles de incertidumbre, y la ausencia de estudios sistemáticos sobre los contenidos a difundirse en la Televisión Digital Venezolana (TDv). Por ello...

  9. Normativas contables aplicables a la contabilidad de gestión medioambiental en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo planteó como objetivo, analizar las normativas contables internacionales aplicables a la contabilidad de gestión medioambiental en Venezuela. Se realizó una investigación analítica, con diseño documental, obteniendo como resultado que en Venezuela no existen normas contables en materia medioambiental específicamente; se asume lo establecido de manera indirecta en las normas internacionales de información financiera (NIIF), en cuanto al reconocimiento de activos y provisiones medi...

  10. Phlebotominae de Venezuela: Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. del estado Lara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Arredondo Cardona

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el macho de Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. capturado en el Parque Nacional de Yacambú, Distrito Andrés Eloy Blanco, Estado Lara, Venezuela. La especie puede ser identificada por la forma característica del parámetro. Pertenece al grupo Verrucarum, serie Verrucarum de Theodor (1965.A description is given of the male of Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. who was collected in the National Park of Yacambú, State of Lara, Venezuela. This species is identified by the characteristic form of the paramere. It belongs to the Verrucarum Group, Verrucarum Series of Theodor (1965.

  11. Impacto Distributivo de las Reformas del IVA en Venezuela (1993-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka Quilez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular los impactos distributivos de las reformas a las exenciones del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2011. Los impactos distributivos se midieron a través de indicadores locales de progresividad/regresividad, bajo un enfoque de equilibro parcial, utilizando las encuestas nacionales de presupuestos familiares de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las Leyes del IVA. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que el diseño de las exenciones en Venezuela logró conferir progresividad al impuesto

  12. Un nuevo Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de Venezuela noroccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Villarreal Manzanilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, la cual habita en una caverna del Estado Lara en la región noroccidental de Venezuela y es la cuarta especie del mismo conocida para este país. Hansenochrus urbanii sp. nov. representa el primer registro del género para la fauna hipogea venezolana.A new species of Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 is described from a cave in Lara state, in the northwest region of Venezuela, and is its fourth species known from this country. Hansenochrus urbanii sp. nov. represents the first record of this genus from Venezuelan hypogean fauna.

  13. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  14. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  15. Altos ingresos e impuesto de renta en Colombia, 1993-2010

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    Facundo Alvaredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las series de participación del ingreso de los niveles superiores de la distribución en Colombia entre 1993 y 2010, basadas en datos del impuesto de renta personal. Se obtienen cuatro resultados empíricos principales: 1 el ingreso está altamente concentrado: el 1% más alto captó más del 20% de ingreso total en 2010, el mayor nivel de desigualdad en cualquier año reciente de la muestra WTID; 2 los individuos de altos ingresos son, en esencia, rentistas y propietarios de capital; 3 mientras que las encuestas de hogares muestran que la desigualdad ha disminuido desde 2006, los resultados basados en impuestos muestran que la concentración en la parte superior se ha mantenido estable; cuando los coeficientes de Gini de las encuestas se ajustan para tener en cuenta los ingresos más altos reportados en la declaración de impuestos, la desigualdad es más alta y la reducción de la desigualdad es menos pronunciada; 4 el impuesto de renta poco reduce el alto nivel de desigualdad.

  16. Changes without changes: the Puebla's Alto Atoyac sub-basin case in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Hans; Casiano, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Since the year 2000, actions at the three governmental levels have taken place to improve water quality in Mexico’s Puebla Alto Atoyac sub-basin. This paper reports a situation in which several policy actors have been striving for water quality improvement in that polluted sub-basin. However, when t

  17. Si Israel aceptase refugiados sirios en los Altos del Golán

    OpenAIRE

    Plotner, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    ¿Podría la reapertura de los Altos del Golán a los sirios desplazados por el conflicto ser una opción beneficiosa para quienes huyen del conflicto sirio y para las relaciones de Israel con sus vecinos del noreste?

  18. Los tambos Inca: el caso de Camata Tambo valle alto de Moquegua

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Camata Tambo está ubicado en la parte alta del valle alto de Moquegua. Por este tambo pasa un camino Inca que viene del altiplano y continúa hacia el centro provincial de Sabaya ubicado a 1 km valle abajo.

  19. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. III. Second public data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Benito, R.; Zibetti, S.; Sánchez, S. F.; Husemann, B.; de Amorim, A. L.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Ellis, S. C.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galbany, L.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López-Fernandez, R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Pérez, E.; Vale Asari, N.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Bekerait*error*ė, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bomans, D. J.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Demleitner, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Díaz, A. I.; Florido, E.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Holmes, L.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Jahnke, K.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Meidt, S. E.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Morisset, C.; del Olmo, A.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Singh, R.; Spekkens, K.; Stanishev, V.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; van de Ven, G.; Vilchez, J. M.; Walcher, C. J.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.; Alves, J.; Barrado, D.; Quintana, J. M.; Aceituno, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the Second Public Data Release (DR2) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The data for 200 objects are made public, including the 100 galaxies of the First Public Data Release (DR1). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mount

  20. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. II. First public data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Barrado, D.; Bekerait*error*ė, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Johnson, B. D.; Kupko, D.; López-Fernandez, R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Miskolczi, A.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Schilling, U.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, J.; Alves, J.; de Amorim, A. L.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cortijo, C.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Demleitner, M.; Díaz, A. I.; Enke, H.; Florido, E.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Gruel, N.; Haines, T.; Holmes, L.; Jungwiert, B.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Klar, J.; Lehnert, M. D.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Márquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; del Olmo, A.; Meidt, S. E.; Papaderos, P.; Puschnig, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Roth, M. M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Singh, R.; Stanishev, V.; Trager, S. C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005

  1. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey : II. First public data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sanchez, S. F.; Barrado, D.; Bekeraite, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Catalan-Torrecilla, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Johnson, B. D.; Kupko, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Miskolczi, A.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Perez, E.; Perez, I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Schilling, U.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, J.; Alves, J.; de Amorim, A. L.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cortijo, C.; Dettmar, R. -J.; Demleitner, M.; Diaz, A. I.; Enke, H.; Florido, E.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Gruel, N.; Haines, T.; Holmes, L.; Jungwiert, B.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Klar, J.; Lehnert, M. D.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Marmol-Queralto, E.; Marquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Molla, M.; del Olmo, A.; Meidt, S. E.; Papaderos, P.; Puschnig, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Roth, M. M.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Singh, R.; Stanishev, V.; Trager, S. C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005

  2. Open data: realidades sobre apertura de datos en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Sandoval

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El vertiginoso crecimiento de datos producidos y necesarios para el desarrollo de las organizaciones, tienen un gran valor que se acrecienta con el uso de estos en otros ámbitos. En función de ello, el objetivo del artículo se basa en el análisis del estado del arte de los datos abiertos, su fundamentación y marco legal que lo rige. Se fundamenta en una investigación descriptiva-proyectivo, mediante la cual se determina la necesidad de la apertura de datos, conocido con el término en inglés Open Data (datos abiertos, esta filosofía que persigue que ciertos datos que han estado en dominio de organizaciones públicas o privadas sean liberados para su uso por cualquiera que los requiera, sin restricciones de licencias, copyright y/o patentes. Para que un dato sea considerado abierto, tiene que ser accesible y reutilizable por la comunidad, sin exigencia legal y/o permisos. Los resultados se plantean con el fin de que la Administración Pública Nacional (APN se mantenga a la vanguardia, aproveche las ventajas competitivas de los datos abiertos y cumpla con las disposiciones legales establecidas, asimismo se requiere la implementación de mecanismos que apoyen una adecuada administración y publicación de sus datos para uso de los ciudadanos. Se recomienda la efectividad de una propuesta de portal de datos que permita la apertura de datos de la APN, como alternativa para garantizar la apertura de los datos en Venezuela.

  3. Encounters with Science at ULA, Venezuela: An Incentive for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, P.

    2006-08-01

    In the School of Science of the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), in Mérida, Venezuela, a very successful event focused on high school students and primary school students, was founded in 2000. The name of this event is "Encounters with Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Biology" (hereinafter "Encounters with Science"), and it integrates these disciplines as well as Astronomy. Its main purpose is that young minds can become familiar with the methods of science inquiry and reasoning, and can understand the concepts and processes of the sciences through thoroughly prepared experiences. This flourishing program is continuing to grow and to become strong. As a matter of fact, in its sixth edition (2005), the number of high and elementary school students coming from all over the country, has reached the outstanding number of nine thousand. Among all the experiences that the students could be engaged in were many involving Astronomy. These experiences were prepared by professors, together with graduate and undergraduate students, who are pursuing their degrees in all branches of science including astronomy. Although there is this incredible team of faculties and graduate and undergraduate students working together; the target is the students of the high and elementary schools. We certainly focus on the engaging and encouraging of students to experience scientific work first hand. Additionally, our professors have prepared an excellent didactic material that can, together with the hour/class teaching, prepare high school and elementary school students for a better understanding of science; particularly, helping in this way for a better education in Astronomy. The main event of the Encounters lasts five days in the School of Science of ULA, but subsidiary events are spread all over the year and around the country. As a successful program, it can be interesting to see if other countries can adopt this method to recruit or to trigger the interest of students to pursue their

  4. Morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Núñez Gómez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de determinar la morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela; en el período de enero a octubre de 2009. El universo fue de 286 niños, lo que se corresponde con la población total del grupo de edad de menores de 15 años. De estos se seleccionaron por muestreo aleatorio simple 43 pacientes, a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario y se confeccionó una guía de observación, para describir los factores epidemiológicos que influyen en la infestación por parasitismo intestinal. Además, se les realizaron análisis de las heces fecales seriadas para el diagnóstico del parasitismo. El método estadístico fue el cálculo de las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. A través del estudio de las heces fecales seriadas se obtuvo que 27 pacientes tenían parasitosis intestinal, para una morbilidad de 62,79%, con una mayor incidencia en los niños de cinco a nueve años de edad. El sexo femenino fue el más afectado. Los factores epidemiológicos que más influyeron fueron: los malos hábitos higiénicos personales, el entorno desfavorable y el consumo de agua no potable; existió relación entre el nivel socioeconómico, los factores epidemiológicos y la morbilidad por parasitismo intestinal. Predominó la parasitosis por Entamoeba Histolytica, con 11 casos, para un 40,74%. La diarrea, las molestias abdominales y la pérdida de apetito constituyeron los principales síntomas

  5. Neogene history of the Carapita Formation, Eastern Venezuela basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Zambrano, Dennis Alberto

    The planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the lower to middle Miocene shales of the Carapita Formation of Eastern Venezuela in three exploration wells and one outcrop section are analyzed with the objectives of establishing a precise biostratigraphy of the formation and its bathymetric history. Comparison with the well-preserved microfaunas of the correlative Cipero Formation of Trinidad made possible the achievement of these objectives. The formation, up to 4500 to 6000 m thick in outcrops, extends from northeastern Anzoategui and North of Monagas States to the Gulf of Paria and is both an important oil reservoir towards the east and the main seal rock for the Oligocene reservoir in the north of Monagas State. In the area studied the Carapita Formation spans lower to lower middle Miocene Zones N6/M3 to N9/M6; its upper part is unconstrained as only rare long ranging early Miocene to early Pliocene planktonic foraminifera occur above the Orbulina datum. Unexpectedly, we found that the four lower to middle Miocene sections are highly discontinuous, with hiastuses as long as 4 Myr. Based on the abundance patterns of sixty-nine species of benthic foraminifera and analysis of morphotype abundance following the methodology of Corliss and Chen (1988) and Corliss and Fois (1993), we show that the Carapita Formation was deposited at outer neritic to middle bathyal depths (≥200--1000 m), whereas the Cipero Formation was deposited at middle to lower bathyal depths (≥600--2000 m). Importantly, the bathymetric changes are associated with unconformities in all sections, strongly suggesting that both (shallowing and associated unconformities) were tectonically induced.

  6. Los nobles de Caracas y la Independencia de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero, Inés

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As in many other Spanish Empire’s provinces abroad, Venezuelan colonial society was based on hierarchical values and inegality. This was a direct consequence of translating Spain’s mores and forms to its American territories during trhe Conquest period. A creole nobility thus appeared that could not but behave accordingly to the values and principles of the Ancien Regime. Many creole noblemen, however, embraced the independentist movement and supported the political changes that put an end to the colonial order and gave way to a republican one. How this process same about, what contradictions emerged as it evolved and what ultimate effects —if any— it had upon the Provincia de Caracas is the main subject of this paper

    En Venezuela, como en otras provincias ultramarinas, se constituyó una sociedad jerárquica y desigual, consecuencia directa de la traslación y adecuación a estos territorios de las formas y procederes sociales existentes en España en el momento de la conquista. Como consecuencia de este proceso, se formó una nobleza criolla que actuó de acuerdo con los valores y principios jerárquicos de la sociedad del Antiguo Régimen. Muchos de los hombre pertenecientes a los sectores privilegiados de la sociedad se sumaron a la causa de la Independencia y apoyaron el cambio político que puso fin a la sociedad antigua y dio paso a la instauración de un orden republicano. Cómo se dio este proceso en la provincia de Caracas, cuáles fueron sus contradicciones y qué efectos tuvo sobre la sociedad resultante, es el objetivo del presente artículo.

  7. Lithospheric scale model of Merida Andes, Venezuela (GIAME Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Orihuela, N. D.; Klarica, S.; Gil, E.; Levander, A.; Audemard, F. A.; Mazuera, F.; Avila, J.

    2013-05-01

    Merida Andes (MA) is one of the most important orogenic belt in Venezuela and represents the northern culmination of South America Andes. During the last 60 years, several models have been proposed to explain the shallow and deep structure, using different geological, geophysical, seismological, geochemical and petrologic concepts; nevertheless, most of them have applied local observation windows, and do not represent the major structure of MA. Therefore, a multidisciplinary research group, coordinated by FUNVISIS, in close cooperation with UCV, ULA and PDVSA, is proposed in order to get the outlined goals in the project entitled GIAME ("Geociencia Integral de los Andes de MErida") was established, which aims to generate a lithospheric scale model and the development of a temporal dynamic model for the MA. As a base for lithospheric investigations of the Merida Andes, we are proposing three wide angle seismic profiles across the orogen on three representative sites, in order to determine the inner structure and its relation with the orogen's gravimetric root. To the date, there are no seismic studies at lithospheric scale which cross MA. The wide angle seismic will be complemented with the re-processing and re-interpretation of existing reflection seismic data, which will allow to establish a relationship between MA and its associated flexural basins (Maracaibo and Barinas-Apure basins). Depending on the results of the VENCORP Project (VENezuelan COntinental Reflection Profiling), which might show some reliable results about crustal features and Moho reflectors along three long seismic profiles at Caribbean Moutain system, a reflection seismic profile across the central portion of MA is proposed. Additional tasks, consisting in MA quaternary deformation studies, using research methods like neotectonics and paleoseismology, georadar, numerical modeling, cinematic GPS, SAR interferometry, thermocronology, detailed studies on regional geology, flexural modeling

  8. Spionidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Falcón, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, D; Viéitez, J M

    2002-03-01

    Five species of polychaetes (Spionidae) were found associated to Thalassia testudinum meadows in Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. We included a guide for their identification and present range extensions for the Venezuelan coasts and Southern Caribbean Sea. The species are: Dipolydora socialis, Prionospio (Minuspio) cirrifera, P. (Prionospio) fallax, P. (P.) steenstrupi, and Spio pettiboneae.

  9. A new cryptic species of lizard (Sauria: Teiidae: Gymnophthalmus) from Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Cole, C.J.; Ayarzaguena, J.

    1992-01-01

    Gymnophthalmus cryptus spec. nov. is described and illustrated on the basis of males and females collected in the Territorio Federal Amazonas, southern Venezuela. Some details on ecology and distribution are also presented. The females of G. cryptus are very similar to the unisexual Gymnophthalmus u

  10. Sandfly fauna of endemic leishmaniasis foci in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R; Jorquera, A; De Sousa, L; Ledezma, E; Devera, R

    2002-01-01

    A census of the sandfly fauna was undertaken in 1993-98 in 5 endemic leishmaniasis foci situated at different altitudes in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. From the 17 species of Lutzomyia identified, we believe that Lu. ovallesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi are the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, while Lu. evansi might transmit visceral leishmaniasis.

  11. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  12. The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A Radical Alternative in the Global Field of Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancheva, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as reflected in an alternative model of the university--the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Mision Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on…

  13. China Henan Cultural and Art Troupe’s Performance Tour of Venezuela and Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Venezuelan National Council of Culture and the Brazil Chinese Cultural Exchange Association, a 69-member cultural and art troupe from Henan Province, China gave three performances with a total audience of over 20,000 people in Venezuela and Brazil from February 25 to March 8.

  14. Politicas de Seguridad Alimentaria en los Paises de la Comunidad Andina: Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Yep, Susana Chu; Gamarra, Rosario Gomez; Bucheli, Fausto Jordan; Studzinski, Karlos La Serna; Aguancha, Alberto Lora; Castro, Juan Fernando Marrero; Bohrt, Julio Prudencio; Baca, Salomon Salcedo; Mena, Raul Sanchez; Abril, Octavio Villamarin

    2005-01-01

    This book analyses the complex concept of food security in the Andean Countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. The food security situation is examined from a sub regional perspective, and the possible elements of a sub regional food security strategy are outlined. Food security policies are analyzed and policy proposals are made for each Andean country.

  15. Sobre la guerra de símbolos y espacios de poder: el caso Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Yolanda; Universidad Simón Bolívar

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo propone un acercamiento a los símbolos visuales del poder en la crisis política de Venezuela. Más que como un conjunto de imágenes, estos símbolos se entienden en tanto sistemas de significación que pueden moviliar masas, conciencias, confrontaciones, violencias y guerra.

  16. 78 FR 44969 - Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    .... Please consult the Commission's rules, as amended, 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6, 2011), available on the Commission's Web site at http... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations...

  17. Diagnóstico Institucional del Sistema de Servicio Civil en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    El presente documento es un estudio de caso sobre el Sistema de Servicio Civil (SSC) en Venezuela. Se concentra en el sistema de gestión del empleo público y los recursos humanos adscritos al gobierno central, aunque se presentan algunas estadísticas e indicadores cuantitativos que se extienden a la totalidad del sector público.

  18. The promise of transformation through participation: an analysis of Communal Councils in Caracas, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Triviño Salazar (Juan Carlos)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCommunal Councils (CCs) in Venezuela are deemed as part of a greater project of social transformation under a radical approach to participatory democracy. The Hugo Chavez’s administration endorsed the creation of thousands of allegedly self-governing CCs in every neighbourhood of every c

  19. The Universidad Nacional Abierta of Venezuela. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H. Z.

    A brief description of the country of Venezuela (geography, population, economy, internal communications, and politics) and its educational system introduce a description of the Universidad Nacional Abierta (UNA). The UNA was opened in July 1978 to expand the national system of higher education by the use of distance learning techniques. These…

  20. The Cost Analysis of Learning at a Distance: Venezuela's Universidad Nacional Abierta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Greville

    1982-01-01

    Examines the cost structure and future system costs of Venezuela's Universidad Nacional Abierta, compares them with the costs of other distance universities, and discusses the cost implications of media choice, size of program, and number of students. The usefulness of cost analysis and projection for decision making is also discussed. (EAO)

  1. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  2. The freshwater crabs of the genus Pseudothelphusa from northern Venezuela and Trinidad (Brachyura, Potamonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, G.

    1966-01-01

    During a study of collections of Venezuelan Pseudothelphusa deposited at the Museum of Biology of the Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, and at the La Salle Museum of Natural History, Caracas, examples of two new forms were discovered; one of these is here described as a new species, the othe

  3. "El Fenomeno Chavez:" Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, Modern Day Bolivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Revolutionary: The president of Venezuela has a vision, and Washington has a headache,” The New Yorker, 6 September 2001. 6. Gabriel Garcia Marques, “The...that Chavez transferred $1 million to the Taliban through Venezuelan ambassador to India, Walte Marquez , in New Delhi, designating $900,000 to Al

  4. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  5. Production and study of fission fragments, from Lohengrin to Alto; Production et etude des fragments de fission, de Lohengrin a Alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, F

    2005-06-15

    The study of nuclei far from stability is constitutive of the history of nuclear physics at its very beginning and has been making considerable great strides since then. The study of these nuclei give the opportunity to reach new information on the nuclear structure and thus to measure the solidity of our knowledge on nuclear matter and its validity when it is pushed to its limits. The reaction selected for the production of exotic nuclei in the framework of the PARRNe program is the fission of uranium 238. The nuclei produced have an intermediate mass and are very rich in neutrons. The technique to recover them in order to accelerate them is the thick target method called also the Isol technique. The installation of the ancient Lep injector at the Tandem line in Orsay (IPN) is expected to increase by a factor 100 the production rate of exotic nuclei in the PARRNe program, it is the Alto project. The work presented here concerns studies carried out at the Lohengrin spectrometer installed at the ILL in Grenoble, and at the Tandem installation in Orsay. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) in flight techniques at Lohengrin, 2) the Isol technique, 3) magic numbers in the domain N=50, and 4) the Alto project.

  6. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    Site effects have been recognized to play an important role in damage distribution of destructive earthquakes. These effects have been observed in Venezuela especially during the 1967 Caracas earthquake, when 4 buildings with 10 and more storeys during the Caracas 1967 earthquake collapsed, and a big number of them in the same deep sediment area have been seriously damaged. This motivated the development of studies regarding the subsurface configuration of Caracas and Barquisimeto during the last decade, with a seismic microzoning project realized in both cities from 2005 to 2009. The main results of this project were the development of design response spectra for the different microzones within the sedimentary basin, as well as estimates of landslide hazard. Implementation of the results in municipality ordinances is actually discussed with local authorities. They are aimed to address mitigation for new constructions by the application of the specific design spectra, for existing buildings via evaluation and retrofitting strategies, and for slope areas (informal, as well as formal developments) due to the identification of areas that may not be developed or require detailed studies of slope stabilities. Since then, seismic microzoning studies were started in Cumaná, Guarenas/Guatire and Lara state, and within a broader context of integrated risk management, which includes flooding, landslide and technological risks, in Mérida, Valencia, Maracay, Barcelona/Puerto La Cruz and Valle de la Pascua. The projects are coordinated by the Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS) in cooperation with local universities. Efforts are done to unable local researchers to apply the methodologies in other cities as Valera, Trujillo, Boconó, San Cristóbal and Tucacas. A unified seismic hazard map as input motion to these studies is actually in development. Depending on the local characteristics, building inventory and vulnerability analysis are done for risk

  7. Botanical novelties from Sierra de Maigualida, southern Venezuela. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grande, José R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Four new species, Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus J.R. Grande (Campanulaceae, Phyllanthus huberi Riina & P.E. Berry (Phyllanthaceae, Sohnreyia maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Kallunki (Rutaceae, and Turnera maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Arbo (Turneraceae are described and illustrated from the summit areas of Sierra de Maigualida in the Gua - yana Highlands of southern Venezuela. To date, one genus, 32 spe cies, one subspecies, and one variety of angiosperms are known only from the Maigualida meadows and shrublands, between 1800 m and the highest elevation areas at 2400 m. Here we describe the first iteroparous species for the genus Sohnreyia K. Krause, a Turnera L. species with apically villose, apiculate petals, and a Siphocampylus Pohl species with aculeiform hairs and pinnatisect leaves. The new species, Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus, together with S. Tillettii Steyerm., represents a morphologically distinct subgroup within the genus.

    Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies nuevas procedentes de las cumbres de la Sierra de Maigualida: Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus J.R. Grande (Campanulaceae, Phyllanthus huberi Riina & P.E. Berry (Phyllanthaceae, Sohnreyia maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Kallunki (Rutaceae y Turnera maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Arbo (Turneraceae. Hasta ahora un género, 32 especies, una subespecie y una variedad de angiospermas se conocen exclusivamente de la Sierra de Maigualida, y todas ellas proceden de herbazales y arbustales desarrollados entre los 1800 m y las áreas más altas, a 2400 m. Aquí, se describen por primera vez una especie iterópara del género Sohnreyia K. Krause (Rutaceae, una especie de Turnera L. con pétalos apiculados apicalmente vilosos y una especie de Siphocampylus Pohl con pelos aculeiformes y hojas pinnatisectas. La nueva especie Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus representa

  8. LA CAPACITACIÓN PROFESIONAL DE FUNCIONARIOS POLICIALES EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Sofía Rodríguez Ugueto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La capacitación del funcionario policial en la actualidad, en cuanto a la práctica policial, presupone la delimitación de contradicciones que resultan necesarias en la sociedad y que no se corresponde con la pertinencia del momento histórico. Esta realidad está presente en la sociedad venezolana, que de manera particular la están viviendo los cuerpos policiales del país, los cuales en el marco de las transformaciones sociales que se llevan a cabo, requiere también cambios de su rol como funcionario a nivel nacional en la orientación del proyecto social, exigencia que conlleva a un Nuevo Modelo Policial alejado de lo tradicional y poco funcional como cuerpo represivo capaz de orientarse hacia una nueva disposición como funcionario inserto en la comunidad cuya función de represión se ha de ajustar a un plano primario de prevención y formación ciudadana. Los autores reflexionan en estas problemáticas.PALABRAS CLAVE: capacitación profesional; capacitación continua; modelo policial.THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF POLICE OFFICIALS IN VENEZUELA ABSTRACTThe police official's training at the present time, as for the police practice, it presupposes the delimitation of contradictions that are necessary in the society and that doesn't belong together with the relevancy of the historical moment. This reality is present in the Venezuelan society that are living her the police bodies of the country in a particular way, which also requires changes of its list like official at national level in the orientation of the social project in the mark of the social transformations that are carried out, demand that bears a New Police Model far from the traditional and not very functional as repressive body able to be guided toward a new disposition like official inserts in the community whose function of repression must be adjusted to a primary plane of prevention and civic formation. The authors meditate in these problems.KEYWORDS: professional training

  9. Prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganadería de altura en Bailadores Mérida, Venezuela (Prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle of Bailadores, State of Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gauta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa fasciolosis bovina es una enfermedad de importancia en Venezuela. Por denuncias de productores de la zona sobre numerosos decomisos de hígados y disminución de la producción, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganado lechero de Bailadores (Mérida, Venezuela en base a análisis coprológico.SummaryBovine fasciolosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases on Venezuela. Attending to the claim of farmers in the Andean zone about the high levels of infected livers detected at the slaughterhouse and milk production decrease, the aim of this work was to determine prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle of Bailadores, State of Mérida, Venezuela.

  10. Metodologia de avaliação e desenvolvimento de grupos de alto desempenho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Carneiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a fundamentação teórica do Projeto de Avaliação e Desenvolvimento de Grupos de Alto Desempenho, concebido com base na metodologia da Meta-aprendizagem, e no Modelo Evolutivo, estendido à luz da Teoria da Complexidade. Visa ao desenvolvimento e aplicação de uma metodologia de avaliação/constituição de grupos de alto desempenho no ambiente de pesquisa e pós-graduação. A metodologia proposta validada empiricamente teve base no aproveitamento das virtudes e potencialidades das teorias que lhe deram origem. É destinado aos docentes e pesquisadores de vários campos do conhecimento, bem como aos dirigentes de instituições de educação superior e de pesquisa.

  11. El gran abanico aluvial del Guadiana alto. Reflexiones en torno al concepto de yacimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel JIMÉNEZ MANZANARES

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el abanico aluvial del Guadiana Alto se documenta, en una enorme extensión, material arqueológico. El presente trabajo continúa y completa un estudio anterior insistiendo en la identificación de cadenas operativas y la realización de pruebas objetivas. El espacio en el que se dispersa la industria hace cuestionarse el concepto clásico de "yacimiento", lo que es abordado en último lugar.ABSTRACT: The Guadiana Alto is a big extensión with a lot of archeological material. This paper continué an anterior work, with special interest in the identification of operatoires chaines and objetive test. The área where lithic industry is distributed debates the classic idea of site.

  12. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira serovars in sheep and goats in Alto Adige-South Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceroni, L; Lombardo, D; Pinto, A; Ciarrocchi, S; Simeoni, J

    2000-04-01

    Serum samples from 313 sheep and 95 goats were collected during November 1993 in 26 localities in Alto Adige-South Tyrol and tested by microscopic agglutination test for antibodies to 28 serovars of the genus Leptospira. At the time of blood collection all the animals appeared healthy with no clinical sign suggestive of leptospirosis. The observed seroprevalence in sheep was 6.1%, whereas the seropositivity rate for goat serum samples was 2.1%. The highest serological prevalence in sheep was recorded for serovar castellonis, followed by poi, sejroe, hardjo subtype hardjobovis, copenhageni, and cynopteri. Titres to poi were the only ones found in goats. These findings, which are proof of Leptospira infection in Alto Adige-South Tyrol, indicate that foci of several serovars exist in this region.

  13. Tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo asociado a foramen oval permeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La alta mortalidad de los pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo amerita un enfoque terapéutico enérgico e invasivo que incluya la embolectomía pulmonar quirúrgica en aquellos pacientes con contraindicación para trombolisis o trombolisis fallida. Describimos un caso de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo que recibió tratamiento quirúrgico en vez de trombolisis debido a que al momento del diagnóstico presentaba un trombo móvil a través de un foramen oval permeable con altísima posibilidad de embolismo paradójico arterial.

  14. Gestión de información a través del sistema Gescu del Consejo Universitario UCLA, Barquisimeto – Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sandoval Mantilla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación de naturaleza descriptiva, tuvo como objetivo el analizar los procesos de información a través del Sistema para la Gestión del Consejo Universitario (Gescu de la Universidad Centro occidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA, Barquisimeto – Venezuela. Se trata de un estudio de campo, no experimental transeccional, su alcance se direccionó con una muestra intencional de 36 usuarios directos, indirectos y especializados del sistema, adscritos a la Secretaría General, Vicerrectorado Académico y Administrativo, Decanatos y Direcciones. Las técnicas utilizadas para la recolección de datos fueron la observación participante, la entrevista focalizada y el cuestionario. Los resultados obtenidos, permiten afirmar que el sistema Gescu, se constituye en una herramienta tecnológica para apoyar el desarrollo de las actividades en la Secretaria General, en respuesta ante el alto volumen de datos que se procesan en la referida dependencia. Adicionalmente, representa una fuente de información valiosa ante los complejos procesos de decisiones ejecutados en las diferentes dependencias que conforman la estructura universitaria. Como uno de los aspectos concluyentes, se afirma que es necesaria una revisión exhaustiva de los procesos administrativos en el marco de un plan de adaptación, rediseño y mejoramiento de estos, apoyándose en el uso de tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC, asimismo se consideran que los puntos claves están orientados a garantizar la óptima interconexión entre las diferentes dependencias y cumplir cabalmente los requerimientos de información de los usuarios

  15. Short biography of Louis Daniel Beauperthuy (1807-71): pioneer of microbiology and medical science in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Gerardo A; Tarradath, Ewart

    2010-02-01

    Louis Daniel Beauperthuy was a pioneer of microbiology in Venezuela where he developed microscopic and clinical research together with academic and scientific observation related to leprosy and the role of insects in the transmission of febrile illnesses.

  16. A new species of Bachia (Teiidae, Sauria) from Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, with notes on the zoogeography of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Bachia guianensis nov. spec, is described from Guri, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, on the basis of a single specimen. The species is closely related to Bachia heteropa (Lichtenstein), but differs from this species in lacking the interparietal scale.

  17. Estilo cognitivo reflexividad-impulsividad en escolares con alto nivel intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estilos cognitivos son definidos como estrategias habituales y estables que determinan los modos de percibir, recordar, pensar y solucionar problemas. El estilo cognitivo reflexividad-impulsividad hace referencia a la preferencia mostrada por las personas para responder rápidamente versus quien prefiere hacerlo de forma pausada para reducir el número de errores en tareas de resolución de problemas. La relación entre reflexividad-impulsividad y alto nivel de CI no está completamente aclarada. Nuestro objetivo fue conocer qué dimensión del estilo cognitivo reflexividadimpulsividad podemos considerar como característica propia de los alumnos con alto nivel de inteligencia psicométrica. Se evaluó el CI de 50 estudiantes de primaria y secundaria con la escala de inteligencia de Wechsler revisada para niños, así como su estilo cognitivo reflexividad-impulsividad con el test de Emparejamiento de Figuras Familiares. Asimismo, fueron evaluados con las Escalas para la valoración de las características de comportamiento de estudiantes superiores de Renzulli. Los resultados muestran que hay una mayor frecuencia de estudiantes con CI alto (superior a 130 en la escala de Wechsler que manifiestan un estilo cognitivo reflexivo.

  18. Venezuela ante la crisis económica global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Villegas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis que estalló en agosto de 2007 en Estados Unidos se gestó en el mercado de los préstamos hipotecarios de alto riesgo de ese país, sin embargo, se transformó en una crisis económica global, ya que por efecto contagio se trasladó a la eurozona y a Japón con un fuerte impacto en el crecimiento de las economías emergentes. El objetivo de la presente investigación consiste en analizar los canales de transmisión de esa crisis a la economía venezolana. El estudio es de tipo descriptivo-documental recurriendo a fuentes de información secundarias. Se concluye que en el caso venezolano, desde el canal real, la disminución del precio del petróleo tiene una doble incidencia: por una parte deteriora la cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos y, por otra, la posición fiscal. Desde el canal financiero, las consecuencias se evidencian en la evolución negativa que toma la percepción de riesgo soberano y con una caída en el saldo neto de la inversión en activos fijos proveniente del resto del mundo. El agotamiento del modelo rentístico y la desaceleración del sector privado, combinado con una espiral inflacionaria, se convierten en la verdadera fuente de vulnerabilidad externa en la economía venezolana

  19. Balancing the Societal Dimensions of Venezuela and Colombia through the Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration (AR2) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    fractured society’s success in the amnesty, reconciliation, and reintegration (AR2) process. In Venezuela, there remains a fractured political system...Balancing the Societal Dimensions of Venezuela and Colombia through the Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration (AR2) Process A Monograph by... Reintegration (AR2) Process 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ngo, Danielle J., Major, USA 5f. WORK

  20. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  1. Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas (NPS, GRD, GRE, PAAL, PAAL digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR)...

  2. The Chavez Challenge: Venezuela, The United States and the Geo-Politics of Post-Cold War Inter-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE U.S. AND VENEZUELA........................53 B. THE FUTURE OF VENEZUELA (WHAT DOES POST- FUJIMORI PERÚ TEACH US...highly critical perspective of the Bush administration, William Leogrande argues that due to the distraction of the Global War on Terror , President...of democracy after Fujimori in Perú will be used to evaluate possible scenarios in a post- Chávez Venezuela. The chapter will conclude with some

  3. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments

    OpenAIRE

    Marcano,Eunice; Labady,Mary; Gomes,Clara; Aguiar,Guillermina; Laine,Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  4. Latin America Report, No. 2712

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-26

    3 VENEZUELA PDVSA Official Discusses Orinoco Oil Belt Project (C. Chavez; EL UNIVERSAL, 26 May 83) 4 COUNTRY SECTION...Caribbean in Wti* run o* Sri rim comptSi sen reyail," he CSO: 3298/734 ENERGY ECONOMICS VENEZUELA PDVSA OFFICIAL DISCUSSES ORINOCO OIL BELT...charge t-_ , ^^ ^:. _.__;; PDVSA [Venezuelan Petroleum, inc. ] ’with. ;:’ prospecting, analysis, and selective development in the area of the Orioco

  5. Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae) en la zona alta de Mérida, Venezuela (Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae) in zone high of Mérida, Venezuela)

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves,E.; Rondon, M.; Zamora, E.; Salazar M

    2005-01-01

    Se realizó un estudió sobre la presencia de Fasciola hepática en la finca “El Joque” vía La Azulita, Estado Mérida, Venezuela. Un foco natural de fasciolasis fue verificado por la presencia de formas larvales en los caracoles hospedadores intermediarios y por examen coprológico en los bovinos de la finca. Detectandose la presencia de moluscos en todas las áreas muestreadas de la finca, de los cuales, el 77% resultó ser del Genero Lymnaea (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), se determinó una prevalencia ...

  6. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  7. Venezuela: confrontación social y polarización política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bracamonte

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Medófilo Medina y Margarita López Maya. Venezuela: Confrontación social y polarización política. Bogotá: Ediciones Aurora, 2003. La intensidad del debate público y del enfrentamiento político al que asiste el país desde 1998, ha logrado penetrar los espacios ociales más diversos, incluso aquellos en los que se creía que estaban vedados asuntos tan terrenales como los políticos, tenidos hasta la víspera como banales y de poca monta. Tal es uno de los saldos más trascendentales del proceso de transformación en curso hoy en Venezuela. Esto último es tan innegable, que constituye una verdad compartida por los dos bandos en que fatalmente está dividido el país

  8. UNASUR o la Confluencia de dos Liderazgos Regionales de Signo Dispar: Brasil y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo Ríos Sierra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo académico pretende servir de aproximación a los dos escenarios geopolíticos que en la actualidad son referencia en América del Sur: Brasil y Venezuela. El objetivo es analizar la confluencia de ambos en el último de los esquemas de integración que ha acontecido en la región, esto es, UNASUR. Así, se auspicia la necesidad de un liderazgo que sirva de referencia en el proceso de integración económica de América del Sur. Un liderazgo que, de mejor manera, debe ser asumido por Brasil y el entramado institucional que, per se, representa MERCOSUR, y frente al cual se erige, como alternativa, principalmente discursiva, Venezuela y el proyecto ALBA.

  9. La violencia como mecanismo del debate público en Venezuela durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Guardia Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente ensayo es describir los mecanismos por medio de los cuales la violencia política se presenta como uno de los elementos fundamentales del debate público en dos coyunturas históricas en Venezuela: en la Revolución de Octubre y en la Revolución Bolivariana. El trabajo se desarrolla en torno a dos ideas: primero se abordará el problema de la violencia y el miedo desde una perspectiva teórica, luego se describirá cada una de estas coyunturas históricas; finalmente se revisa comparativamente este fenómeno que se repite a lo largo del tiempo en Venezuela.

  10. Discurso y comunicación en Venezuela: del determinismo al nacionalismo tecnológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alberto Andrade Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el desarrollo de las tecnologías de información en Venezuela y cómo el elemento discursivo legitima su uso; para ello, se identifican tres tipos de discursos (determinismo tecnológico, democracia tecnológica y nacionalismo tecnológico. Se parte del supuesto de que la hegemonía es un proceso ideológico en constante búsqueda de poder, que usa el discurso para su legitimación. Se analiza cómo en Venezuela, junto con las políticas estatales que buscan la construcción de un modelo comunicacional basado en tecnologías de información, el discurso técnico "permea" los ambientes donde las tic puedan legitimar su existencia, con el fin de establecer una hegemonía ideológica en la sociedad.

  11. ANÁLISIS DEL COMERCIO DE GAS ENTRE COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN OSORIO RUIZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las oportunidades de intercambio de gas natural de Colombia con otros mercados regionales. Para dicho análisis, se propone un modelo del mercado de gas natural en Colombia, el cual incluye la oferta, la demanda, y las restricciones de transporte, así como las importaciones y exportaciones. El modelo se basa en la representación del comportamiento de los productores y su efecto en el mercado. Ya en este mercado la oferta es un oligopolio y el modelo es un modelo de equilibrio espacial con competencia a la Cournot. Los fl ujos resultantes del modelo indican que el impacto inicial de las exportaciones a Venezuela sobre el mercado Colombiano es bajo, y que las importaciones desde Venezuela mejoran la seguridad del suministro de gas al mercado y aumentan la competencia entre los productores.

  12. Los efectos de las elecciones de 1993 y 1995 sobre el sistema de partidos en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa RAMOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La autora analiza los cambios ocurridos en las dos últimas convocatorias electorales en Venezuela. Sus observaciones muestran cómo un sistema de partidos tradicionalmente fuerte, bipartidista, se recompone a partir de la crisis política derivada de la dificultades económicas que vive este país. Emergencia de nuevas fuerzas, altas tasas de volatilidad y de desidentificación política son algunos de los nuevos procesos que aparecen en la vida política venezolana.ABSTRACT: The author analyzes the changes which have happened in the last two elections in Venezuela. Her observations show how a strong traditionally party system, bipartidist, it's recomponed from the political crisis provoked by economic problems in the country. The emergency of new political forces, high rates of volatility and political desafection are some of the new processes which appeared in the Venezuelan political life.

  13. Evolutionary and Ecological Characterization of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated during an Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Liria, Jonathan; Forrester, Naomi L; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Long, Kanya C; Morón, Dulce; de Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is highly conserved genetically, showing ≈17% nucleotide divergence across all 3 genotypes and 4% among genotype D strains in the most variable genes. Coalescent analyses suggested genotypes D and L diverged ≈150 years ago and genotype diverged N ≈250 years ago. This virus commonly infects persons residing near enzootic transmission foci because of anthropogenic incursions.

  14. Reception, audiences, and cultural consumption in Venezuela (period 2000-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Díaz, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Analizamos el estado del arte de los estudios de recepción, audiencias y consumo cultural en Venezuela durante el período 2000-2011. Examinamos enfoques teóricos sobre el campo de la recepción mediática y cultural, desde las propuestas conceptuales de Aguirre, Barrios y Hernández Díaz. Se pudo constatar, en esta revisión documental, que los estudios de recepción en Venezuela abordan cuatro campos de estudio: 1) Educación para la recepción. 2) Influencia de la televisión. 3) Ciber-recepción. 4...

  15. SIMULACIÓN DE UN MODELO DE EQUILIBRIO GENERAL COMPUTABLE PARA VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Pedauga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de la simulación de un modelo de equilibrio general computable construido para Venezuela. El uso de este modelo se ejempli-fica mediante la calibración y simulación de una economía abierta con tres agentes institucionales (hogares, empresas y gobierno y tres sectores productivos (petró-leo, manufactura y resto, para una economía abierta. Se considera diferentes re-glas de política. En cada caso se muestra el proceso de calibración y los resultados de las simulaciones utilizando información proveniente de la serie de matrices de contabilidad social para Venezuela entre 1997 y 2005. Se aporta simulaciones de la economía hasta 2009, tanto en los parámetros pertinentes y como algunos ejerci-cios de sensibilidad

  16. Perú y Venezuela: desempeño económico e instituciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martínez C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1989 Venezuela implementó un programa de reformas para fortalecer el papel del mercado en la asignación de los recursos y disminuir la intervención del Estado y un año después Perú hizo otro tanto. Sin embargo, Perú creció a una tasa de 6,3 por ciento en las siguientes dos décadas, mientras que Venezuela lo hizo al 3,1 por ciento. El objetivo de este trabajo es indagar, mediante una investigación documental, las causas que explican ese resultado. La principal conclusión es que el marco institucional es un elemento fundamental para explicar el desempeño económico de estos dos países

  17. Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini with description of fourteen new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: B. aragua sp. n., B. asymmetricus sp. n., B. capanaparo sp. n., B. castaneus sp. n., B. corozo sp. n., B. ebeninus sp. n., B. garciai sp. n., B. humeralis sp. n., B. jolyi sp. n., B. llanensis sp. n., B. megaphallus sp. n., B. ornaticollis sp. n., B. repertus sp. n., and B. tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: B. ambogynus Mouchamps, B. consobrinus Knisch, B. elegans Knisch, B. geayi d’Orchymont, B. ghanicus d’Orchymont, B. guyanensis Queney, B. holdhausi Knisch, B. marquardti Knisch, B. olivae Queney, B. reticulatus Knisch, B. wintersteineri Knisch, and B. zimmermanni Knisch.

  18. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease.

  19. KPC and VIM producing Enterobacter cloacae strain from a hospital in northeastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Marcano, Daniel; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Salgado, Nurys; Cuaical, Nirvia; Rodriguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; De Donato, Marcos

    2015-06-01

    An 83-year-old male patient is admitted to the central hospital in Cumana, Venezuela with severe urinary infection, history of hospitalizaions and prolonged antimicrobial treatments. A strain of Enterobacter cloacae was isolated showing resistance to multiple types of antibiotics (only sensitive to gentamicin), with phenotype of serine- and metallo-carbapenemases. Both, bla(VIM-2) and bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolate. This is the first report of an Enterobacteriaceae species producing both KPC carbapenemase and VIM metallo carbapenemase in Venezuela. This finding has a great clinical and epidemiological impact in the region, because of the feasibility of transferring these genes, through mobile elements to other strains of Enterobacter and to other infection-causing species of bacteria.

  20. A new species of Piaroa (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae) from Venezuela, with taxonomic notes on the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Osvaldo Villarreal; De Armas, Luis F; García, Luis Fernando

    2014-02-19

    A new species belonging to the schizomid genus Piaroa Villarreal, Giupponi and Tourinho, 2008 is described from north-western Venezuela. A complementary description of Piaroa guipongai Villarreal and Garcia, 2012 is provided including SEM pictures of relevant structures of both sexes. A key for males of Piaroa and Colombiazomus Armas and Delgado-Santa, 2012 is included. The presence of Dm3 setae on Hubbardiidae is discussed.

  1. Venezuelas Pursuit of Caribbean Basin Interests: Implications for United States National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    planning by the Lusinchi government, and upon whether the market price of petroleum drops no lower than the U.S. $28 per barrel to which it fell in...neutralizing the cazador units. The United States also should keep abreast of any Venezuelan plans to create a conven- tional rapid deployment force that could...Before additional initiatives could be undertaken, Venezuela’s Social Democrats ( Accion 0 Democratica) were ousted from power by the reactionary military

  2. Venezuela: o projeto de refundação da república

    OpenAIRE

    Villa,Rafael Duarte

    2000-01-01

    O governo de Hugo Chávez representa uma transição política, cujo significado mais fundo consiste no rompimento do pacto das elites que governaram a Venezuela até a chegada ao poder desse militar controvertido. Está em jogo um processo de circulação de elites, cujo alcance e profundidade são discutidos.

  3. QUO VADIS VENEZUELA: DE LA DEMOCRACIA DELEGATIVA AL AUTORITARISMO DEL SIGLO XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Chaguaceda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende, a partir del abordaje de un caso particular (el venezolano analizar algunas de las características que definen la Democracia Delegativa en tanto modo de concebir el acceso, ejercicio y fines del poder público y los recursos estatales, así como exponer las modalidades y consecuencias de su deriva a un régimen político abiertamente autoritario en la Venezuela actual.

  4. Malaria entomological inoculation rates in gold mining areas of Southern Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E Moreno; Yasmín Rubio-Palis; Elisa Páez; Enrique Pérez; Víctor Sánchez; Elena Vaccari

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal study of malaria vectors aiming to describe the intensity of transmission was carried out in five villages of Southern Venezuela between January 1999-April 2000. The man-biting, sporozoite and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were calculated based on 121 all-night collections of anophelines landing on humans, CDC light traps and ultra violet up-draft traps. A total of 6,027 female mosquitoes representing seven species were collected. The most abundant species were Anophele...

  5. A stable demand for money despite financial crisis: The case of Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for broad money in Venezuela, over a period of financial crisis and substantial exchange rate fluctuations. The analysis shows that there exist a long run relationship between real money, real income, inflation, the exchange rate and the domestic interest rate, that remains stable over major policy changes and large shocks. The long run properties emphasize that both inflation and exchange rate depreciations have negative effects on real money demand. The lo...

  6. Eficiencia y productividad en el comercio del sector manufacturero entre Venezuela y Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo R. Martínez C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la eficiencia y la productividad del comercio del sector manufacturero entre Venezuela y el Mercosur durante el 1999-2009. El tipo de investigación fue explicativa con un diseño no experimental de corte transversal. La población estuvo constituida por unidades de decisión, en adelante (DMU representadas por Venezuela, Brasil, Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. La técnica de recolección de datos fue documental. La técnica de análisis de datos utilizada, fue la metodología no paramétrica del Análisis Envolvente de Datos y el método del Índice de Malmquist. Los resultados indican que Venezuela muestra ineficiencia técnica de insumos con tendencia descendente entre 0,7% al 26,3%, Uruguay con 4,9% al 5,7%; Brasil y Paraguay se destacan debido al uso eficiente de recursos, Argentina en menor importancia. Venezuela fue la única que registró pérdidas de productividad en el comercio de manufacturas 0,102%, el resto avanzaron: Argentina crece con 2,13%, Brasil en 0,0234%, Paraguay en 0,2823% y Uruguay en 0,51%. Se concluye como prioridad que el país desarrolle condiciones de eficiencia y productividad para adelantar una mejor posición competitiva en ámbito internacional.

  7. La regulación del referendo revocatorio de mandato en Venezuela y en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Matheus Brito

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe y analiza la regulación constitucional, legal y jurisprudencial, de la revocatoria del mandato de los funcionarios de elección popular como mecanismo de participación política directa, tanto en Venezuela como en Colombia. Determina los elementos característicos en cada caso y, efectúa una comparación de ambas regulaciones; también establece sus diferencias esenciales.

  8. ESTUDIO FISICOQUÍMICO Y BACTERIOLÓGICO DEL RÍO MANZANARES, ESTADO SUCRE, VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    MARÍA VALENTINA FUENTES; WILLIAM SENIOR; IVIS FERMÍN; L. TROCCOLI

    2008-01-01

    The Manzanares River is one of the most important bodies of water in northeastern Venezuela. However, a vast influx of industrial and domestic sewage from farm and urban dwellings enters the river without much control by the pertinent authorities. To ascertain the environmental quality of the river 45 sampling sites were set throughout the area comprising the high, middle, and low-lying areas of the river basin during three different periods, namely, rainy season (2003), transitio...

  9. ESTUDIO FISICOQUÍMICO Y BACTERIOLÓGICO DEL RÍO MANZANARES, ESTADO SUCRE, VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    MARÍA VALENTINA FUENTES; WILLIAM SENIOR; IVIS FERMÍN; L. TROCCOLI

    2008-01-01

    The Manzanares River is one of the most important bodies of water in northeastern Venezuela. However, avast influx of industrial and domestic sewage from farm and urban dwellings enters the river without much control by thepertinent authorities. To ascertain the environmental quality of the river 45 sampling sites were set throughout the areacomprising the high, middle, and low-lying areas of the river basin during three different periods, namely, rainy season (2003),transitional period (2003...

  10. La producción informal de viviendas: caso Maracaibo, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    In housing production in Venezuela and particularly in Maracaibo, we can recognize two main sectors: the "formal" sector production carried out by private and national enterprises, and the "informal" sector, which produces houses in marginal areas and uncontrolled suburbs in town. The production in this sector has become larger than the formal one. In act, in Maracaibo more than 60% of population is living in these types of suburbs. These people have resolved their housing need accordingly to...

  11. Freed together, split by creed - A comparative study of the development strategies of Colombia and Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    McCay Martinez, Éamonn; Gordon, Lev Julian; Niels, Dreesen; Pidoux, Flora

    2013-01-01

    Colombia and Venezuela were once united as Gran Colombia, but since the liberation under Simon Bolivar in 1819, both countries have since taken different paths. Especially during the 1990’s, where Colombia implemented Neoliberalism, while Hugo Chavez initiated the Bolivarian Revolution. This comparative study defined criterias for economic success and social justice, which will be used to measure the performance of both countries on the basis of different indicators. While Colombia performs b...

  12. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-06-22

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866.

  13. Contraloría social a las gobernaciones en Venezuela. Estudio de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Boscán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar la realidad de la contraloría social en la gobernación del Estado Lara en Venezuela. El estudio parte de cuatro variables: marco legal larense, condiciones en las cuales se encuentra el objeto y el sujeto de contraloría social, y otros recursos disponibles para el ejercicio de este derecho ciudadano.

  14. Constructing (Il)Legitimate Democracy : Populism and Power Concentration in Newspaper Discourse on Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Despite scholarly consensus about the importance of the media for democracy, scant attention has been paid to what democracy means to journalistic discourse and how discourses on democracy are interrelated with legitimacy. The aim of this paper is to explore how (il)legitimate democracy is constructed in newspaper discourse. By using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper examines foreign news items about Venezuela, a country that under the presidency of Hugo Chávez has challenged the ...

  15. Nuevo Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de la Sierra San Luis, Venezuela noroccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. de Armas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo esquizómido del género Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, proveniente de la Sierra de San Luis, Estado Falcón, en Venezuela noroccidental. Rowlandius arduus sp. n. se caracteriza por el dedo móvil del quelícero con un diminuto diente subdistal, una débil eminencia dorsoposterior en el segmento abdominal XII del macho y espermatecas constituidas por dos pares de lóbulos largos y sinuosos, tenuemente quitinizados, sin bulbo terminal notable. Su asignación al género Rowlandius es tentativa, pues posee varios caracteres que no concuerdan plenamente con el mismo, sin embargo la carencia de caracteres sinapomórficos limita su asignación a otro género. Este es el primer registro del género para Venezuela y la tercera especie suramericana conocida.A new species of the genus Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 is described from Sierra San Luis, Falcón State, northwestern Venezuela. Rowlandius arduus sp. n. may be characterized by having movable finger of chelicerae with a diminute sub-distal tooth, male with a poorly developed dorsal eminence on abdominal segment XII, and female with two pairs of weakly sclerotized, sinuous spermathecal lobes, without conspicuous terminal lobe. It is assigned to Rowlandius tentatively, because some characters are not congruent with this genus, nevertheless the absence of synapomorphic characters limits its inclusion in other one. This is the first record of the genus from Venezuela, and the third South American species described.

  16. Decentralization process in Venezuela, under perspective of mayors elected for the term 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Josefina REVERÓN ESCOBAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the process of decentralization in Venezuela, under mayors’ perspective, elected for the period 2000-2004. Our main goal is to identify the vision they have over such an important process that theoretically strengthens, supports, and enhances the democratic system. We contrast decentralization theory (which states that if there is not democracy at levels of government closer to the citizens-municipal government-democracy is not sustained over real bases with what Venezuelan mayors exposed about the facts observed in the nation in this sense. Our hypothesis is that the concepts and visions that the mayors expressed must coincide with the theory sustaining decentralization in general and particularly decentralization in Venezuela, which must coincide with their praxis in their municipalities. We concluded that the positive perspectives and visions as the negatives or pessimistic ones stated by the interviewed mayors coincided with theory supporting decentralization in different countries and with the evaluations of decentralization that have been conducted in different nations. Venezuelan decentralization process is not different from those that have been discovered in other countries in this sense. It seems to be that the decentralization policy in Venezuela enjoys the same virtues and suffers the same problems that decentralization policies in other countries.

  17. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  18. El impacto fiscal de las reformas del IVA en Venezuela. 1993-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka Quílez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular el impacto fiscal de las reformas a la ley del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA en Venezuela, desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2012. Para ello, se utilizaron las Encuestas Nacionales de Presupuestos Familiares (ENPF de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las leyes del IVA, así como la data de consumo final de los hogares en el mercado interno que publica el BCV en sus Cuentas Nacionales. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que en Venezuela el sacrifico fiscal de las exenciones del IVA es elevado, y para el período en estudio oscilan entre un mínimo de 2,17% del PIB en 2008 y un máximo de 4,51% del PIB en 1999. Esta pérdida fiscal se incrementa en la medida que aumenta la base exenta y la alícuota aplicada son mayores y los costos fiscales que asume el Estado son entre 9 y 11 veces superiores para el diez por ciento de la población de mayor ingreso comparado con el diez por ciento de menores ingresos.

  19. Un nuevo Eleutherodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae de la Cordillera de Mérida, Andes de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacón-Ortiz, A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A new frog of the genus Eleutherodactylus is described from the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuelan Andes. The species is distinguished from others by its moderate size, first finger equal or shorter than second, basal webbing on toes, and dominant colour immaculate brown or with a few spots. The species is compared with the groups unistrigatus and conspicillatus, but not assigned to either of them. A distribution map and a sonogram (of the song are presented. Comments about current knowledge of frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus in Venezuela are provided.Se describe una nueva rana del género Eleutherodactylus de la Cordillera de Mérida, Andes de Venezuela. La especie se distingue del resto de congéneres por su tamaño moderado, primer dedo de la mano igual o más corto que el segundo, palmeadura pedal basal, y color dominante marrón uniforme o con pocas manchas. Se compara la especie con los grupos unistrigatus y conspicillatus, pero no se asigna a ninguno de ellos. Se presenta un mapa de distribución y un sonograma del canto. Se comenta brevemente sobre el conocimiento actual de las ranas del género Eleutherodactylus en Venezuela.

  20. Combined Rock Magnetic and Dielectric studies applied to stratigraphic and archeological problems in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Aldana, M.; Suarez, N.

    2007-05-01

    In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar in Caracas (Venezuela), has undertaken combined studies of rock magnetism (e.g. natural magnetic remanence, magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters etc.) and dielectric properties (maximum current depolarization temperatures and average activation energies) in Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary sequences from eastern and western Venezuela. Our main goal has been to find new ways of defining physical markers, in fossil- poor sedimentary rocks, for stratigraphic correlations. Magneto/dielectric characterizations of these rocks have proved also useful identifying lithological discontinuities and paleoenvironmental changes. More recently these two-fold technique have been extended to archeological materials (potsherds) from a series of Venezuelan islands, in order to track down clay sources and find out about different stages of pottery craftsmanship. Magneto/Dielectric characterization of archeological potsherds seems to allow the tracing of their provenance from various mainland prehistoric settlements of distinct Venezuelan amerindian groups. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of this research applied to a contact between two sedimentary formations in eastern Venezuela (Cretaceous Chimana/Querecual) and a number of pottery samples with diverse stylistic features excavated in a single archeological site from Los Roques islands.

  1. [Direct genetic manipulation and criminal code in Venezuela: absolute criminal law void?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermeño Zambrano, Fernando G De J

    2002-01-01

    The judicial regulation of genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is of big relevance currently in Venezuela due to the drafting of an innovative bioethical law in the country's parliament. This article will highlight the constitutional normative of Venezuela's 1999 Constitution regarding this subject, as it establishes the framework from which this matter will be legally regulated. The approach this article makes towards the genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is made taking into account the Venezuelan penal law and by highlighting the violent genetic manipulations that have criminal relevance. The genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome has another important relevance as a consequence of the reformulation of the Venezuelan Penal Code discussed by the country's National Assembly. Therefore, a concise study of the country's penal code will be made in this article to better understand what judicial-penal properties have been protected by the Venezuelan penal legislation. This last step will enable us to identify the penal tools Venezuela counts on to face direct genetic manipulations. We will equally indicate the existing punitive loophole and that should be covered by the penal legislator. In conclusion, this essay concerns criminal policy, referred to the direct genetic manipulations on the human genome that haven't been typified in Venezuelan law, thus discovering a genetic biotechnology paradise.

  2. Evaluación del manejo de la población ex situ del Caimán llanero o Cocodrilo del Orinoco, Crocodylus intermedius (Graves 1819 en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila R. María Cristina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace 30 años la Universidad Nacional de Colombia ha sido la institución en Colombia encargada del cuidado de individuos de Crocodylus intermedius en cautiverio, especie declarada en peligro crítico de extinción en el mundo por la UICN en 1984 y en el territorio nacional por el Ministerio del Medio Ambiente en 1997 con la resolución 676 del 21 de julio. Actualmente a cargo del Centro Estación de Biología Tropical “Roberto Franco” (CEBTRF en Villavicencio, de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá, existen 113 individuos
    del cocodrilo del Orinoco de los cuales más del 50% son producto de eventos reproductivos ex situ, 43 individuos están en traslado temporal en varios centros de cría, dos de ellos zoológicos, uno fuera del área de distribución natural de la especie. Esta evaluación permitió conocer que no
    se tienen lineamientos para el manejo de los animales tales como diligenciamiento de bases de datos, hojas de vida, control de dietas y posturas, seguimiento a crías, reproducción, condiciones sanitarias, aspectos clínico y veterinario, infraestructura disponible, entre otros. El presente trabajo sugiere algunas pautas para el manejo de la especie en cautiverio y que junto con el sistema de identificación electrónica que posee el CEBTRF cuya base de datos reunirá aspectos biológicos,
    clínicos, veterinarios y de manejo de cada uno de los animales, aspira a brindar una guía en el proceso que permitirá cumplir con el objetivo de conservación de la población.

  3. Calidad del coque de Horno Alto en la Unión Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez, R.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the coking technology at the beginning of the new millennium, blast furnace coke quality criteria of most of EU countries, presented by the European Blast Furnace Committee in the 4th European Coke and Ironmaking Congress, are compared with those used by the Spanish Steel Industry at Aceralia. Blast furnace coke quality is very high in EU's countries in order to meet the requirements of bigger blast furnaces commissioned in the last years. CSR index is the most important parameter in the control of coke quality in Europe.

    En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo una breve revisión de las tecnologías de coquización existentes al comienzo del nuevo milenio. Los criterios de calidad del coque de Horno Alto de la mayoría de los países de la Unión Europea, recogidos por el European Blast Furnace Committee, y que fueron presentados en el 4th European Coke and Ironmaking Congress en París durante el año 2000, se comparan con los utilizados por la industria siderúrgica española Aceralia. Como consecuencia del sensible aumento experimentado en el tamaño de los modernos Hornos Altos durante los últimos años, se ha podido comprobar que, en la UE, los valores de los diversos parámetros de control de calidad del coque son bastante similares y con unos requerimientos muy elevados. Asimismo, en la UE el parámetro CSR se ha convertido en el más importante para el control de la calidad del coque de Horno Alto.

  4. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. III. Second public data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Benito, R.; Zibetti, S.; Sánchez, S. F.; Husemann, B.; de Amorim, A. L.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Ellis, S. C.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galbany, L.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López-Fernandez, R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Pérez, E.; Vale Asari, N.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Bekerait*error*ė, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bomans, D. J.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Demleitner, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Díaz, A. I.; Florido, E.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Holmes, L.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Jahnke, K.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Meidt, S. E.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Morisset, C.; del Olmo, A.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Singh, R.; Spekkens, K.; Stanishev, V.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; van de Ven, G.; Vilchez, J. M.; Walcher, C. J.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.; Alves, J.; Barrado, D.; Quintana, J. M.; Aceituno, J.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the Second Public Data Release (DR2) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The data for 200 objects are made public, including the 100 galaxies of the First Public Data Release (DR1). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory. Two different spectral setups are available for each galaxy, (i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3745-7500 Å with a spectral resolution of 6.0 Å (FWHM); and (ii) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the wavelength range 3650-4840 Å with a spectral resolution of 2.3 Å (FWHM). The sample covers a redshift range between 0.005 and 0.03, with a wide range of properties in the color-magnitude diagram, stellar mass, ionization conditions, and morphological types. All the cubes in the data release were reduced with the latest pipeline, which includes improvedspectrophotometric calibration, spatial registration, and spatial resolution. The spectrophotometric calibration is better than 6% and the median spatial resolution is 2.̋4. In total, the second data release contains over 1.5 million spectra. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The second data release is available at http://califa.caha.es/DR2

  5. Estudio microbiológico de los alimentos elaborados en comedores colectivos de alto riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Silva García Mª del Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Valorar los resultados del análisis microbiológico de los alimentos preparados en comedores colectivos de alto riesgo, con el fin de conocer el grado de contaminación de los alimentos, analizar las causas de dicha contaminación y mejorar la situación sanitaria de estos establecimientos. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional descriptivo con los datos obtenidos de la inspección sanitaria en 44 comedores colectivos de alto riesgo, que incluyó el análisis microbiológico de 90 alimentos, así como la inspección sanitaria de los establecimientos. RESULTADOS: En los colegios los microorganismos mesófilos fueron los contaminantes más frecuentes; en las guarderías y residencias de ancianos predominaron los indicadores de higiene deficiente en la manipulación de alimentos. Los microorganismos mesófilos se encontraron durante los meses fríos en mayor proporción que durante los meses cálidos. Los indicadores de higiene deficiente aparecieron generalmente en los alimentos preparados en establecimientos en los que se observaron deficiencias. Los microorganismos psicrótrofos no se encontraron en ninguno de los alimentos recogidos en guarderías y sí en colegios y residencias de ancianos. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio indica qué problemas predominan en cada tipo de comedor colectivo de alto riesgo. Los mesófilos aparecen en los alimentos elaborados en cocinas de tamaño grande, los indicadores de higiene deficiente se encontraron asociados a una manipulación de alimentos por personal no profesional y a establecimientos con deficiencias, y los psicrótrofos se detectaron en aquellos establecimientos que guardan la comida sobrante. Se sugieren recomendaciones para la eliminación de los problemas detectados.

  6. Trastorno de espectro autista de alto funcionamiento y su relación con la familia

    OpenAIRE

    González Villafáñez, María Felisa

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en analizar las dificultades que tienen los adolescentes con Trastorno del Espectro Autista de Alto Funcionamiento (TEA-AF), en sus relaciones sociales y familiares. Este análisis ha requerido la revisión de las diversas definiciones y teorías explicativas del citado trastorno. A su vez también se describen las terapias conocidas hasta hoy para crear un programa de apoyo a los familiares (padres, hermanos, abuelos…) que se relacionan con dicho adolescente....

  7. Hormigones de alto desempeño, caso de estudio: hormigón autocompactante

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo dar a conocer las ventajas del empleo de hormigones de alto desempeño, específicamente del hormigón autocompactante, en la construcción de grandes estructuras, densamente armadas, que requieren desarrollar altas resistencias a corto plazo, rapidez de colocación, reducción de ruido por la ausencia de vibrado y minimizar los posibles riesgos de lesiones por parte de los operarios de la obra. El Hormigón Autocompactante nace en el año de 1986 en Japón, por los...

  8. "Grupos parque". Grupos de padres de bebés y alto riesgo.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Morandé Lavín; Carmen Bayo Fernández; Anta, C.

    1984-01-01

    Una unidad de nuestro equipo inició su trabajo en bebés en 1978. Inicialmente observando recién nacidos normales y luego aquellos que eran ingresados a las pocas horas o días de nacer por diferentes entidades clínicas. Se definió junto a los neonatólogos el concepto de alto riesgo, entendiendo dicho término como aquellos bebés que por sus alteraciones psiconeurológicas en el primer mes de vida tenían altas posibilidades de presentar un desarrollo psicológico disarmónico, enlentecido o deficit...

  9. Conduta na lesão intraepitelial de alto grau em mulheres adultas

    OpenAIRE

    Pauliana Sousa Oliveira; Camila Cardoso Coelho; Elza Francinet Siqueira de Cerqueira; Flávia Verônica Ferreira Lopes; Minelli Salles Alves Fernandes; Denise Leite Maia Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    O câncer cervical é a segunda causa mais comum de câncer entre as mulheres no mundo, apesar de apresentar grande potencial de prevenção e cura quando diagnosticado e tratado precocemente, o que pode reduzir a taxa de mortalidade entre as acometidas. Como não há consenso entre as medidas terapêuticas nas lesões intraepiteliais escamosas cervicais de alto grau (HSIL), buscamos discutir a conduta frente às mulheres adultas que apresentam HSIL e o seguimento após o procedimento adotado. Foi reali...

  10. Panstrongylus megistus em ecótopos artificiais de ilhas do Alto Rio Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ana Lucia Falavigna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Em resposta a denúncias de triatomíneos em ilhas do Alto Rio Paraná foram investigados 145 ecótopos artificiais e 4 (2,8% deles encontravam-se infestados: residência, "clube", ex-escola e monte de madeira. Foram analisados 17 de 35 P. megistus coletados; 12 (70,6% apresentavam-se infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi. Ave e roedor constituíram as fontes alimentares mais comuns. Todos os exames sorológicos (56 de humanos, 18 de cães e 10 de gatos foram negativos.

  11. Conservation and public presentation of the argaric site of Castellón Alto (Galera, Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ariza, M. Oliva

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnificent preservation of the archaeological site of Castellón Alto permitted reconstruction of the urbanism of this settlement and the life of its inhabitants. In addition to the necessary conservation, two interventions have been carried out with the principal objective of facilitating access, visiting, and the understanding of the site by the majority of the public. The first intervention happened in 1989 and the main task was centered on the consolidation, restoration, and delimiting of the archaeological bed. The second one happened in 1997 and was centered in the consolidation and reconstruction of both a hut and two tombs. With the opening of the Archaeological Museum of Galera, the cultural and touristic contribution of Castellón Alto will be complete. It will provide an interpretation of this prehistoric village, as well as the Argaric culture in general and all the other archaeological sites of the area.

    La magnífica conservación del registro arqueológico del Castellón Alto permitía reconstruir el urbanismo del poblado y la vida de estas poblaciones. Se han efectuado dos actuaciones con el objetivo principal de facilitar, además de la necesaria conservación, el acceso, la visita y la comprensión del poblado prehistórico por parte de un público mayoritario. La primera actuación se realizó en 1989 y los trabajos se centraron principalmente en la consolidación, restauración y cerramiento del área del yacimiento. La segunda se realizó en 1997 y se centró en el acondicionamiento y reconstrucción de una cabaña y dos sepulturas. La oferta turística y cultural que ofrece el Castellón Alto se completará con la próxima apertura del Museo Arqueológico de Galera, donde se efectuará una interpretación de este poblado y de la cultura argárica, así como del resto de yacimientos de la zona.

  12. Sobreentrenamiento: análisis en atletas de alto rendimiento = Overtraining: analysis on high performance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Gago González, Sara

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el nivel de estrés-recuperación en deportistas de alto rendimiento según Momento de la temporada, género. Participaron 15 atletas de una edad comprendida entre los 18 a los 22 años (20,73±1,437), diferenciados en cinco disciplinas (velocidad, pértiga, altura, combinadas y lanzamientos), a los que se administró la versión española del Cuestionario de Estrés-Recuperación RESTQ Sport, para conocer el nivel de estos deportistas durante cuatro moment...

  13. EVOLUCIÓN Y SITUACIÓN ACTUAL DE LA FRUTICULTURA EN EL ALTO VALLE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Kloster

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available El espacio conocido como Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén, se extiende a lo largo de los valles inferiores de los ríos Neuquén y Limay y del valle superior del Río Negro adoptando la forma de una horqueta rescotada. Con una superficie aproximada de 100.000 hectáreas, constituye una unidad económico-productiva desarrollada en las provincias de Río Negro y Neuquén.

  14. Tendinitis rotuliana y pliometría en juniors de alto rendimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Esper Di Cesare, Pablo Alberto; Esper, Pablo Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    Habitualmente los trabajos y estudios publicados sobre el entrenamiento de la potencia pliométrica de miembros inferiores orientados hacia el alto rendimiento deportivo en baloncesto, son realizados sobre atletas de elite, pero no así sobre jugadores que están en la etapa del traspaso de las categorías Junior a las Elites, pero que, en muchos casos, entrenan juntos, sin que se respete su individualidad biológica, llevando en muchos casos a lesiones tendinosas por un inadecuado trabajo metodol...

  15. Presencia de Ptychodus Mortoni (Elasmobranchii: Ptychodontidae en el Cretácico Superior de Venezuela Presence of Ptychodus Mortini (Elasmobranchii: Ptychodontidae in the Upper Cretaceous of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge D Carrillo-Briceño

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ptychodus mortoni es un tiburón durofago característico del Cretácico Superior, con un registro cronoestratigráfico entre el Turoniano-Maastrichtiano. En la presente contribución se ilustra y describe un conjunto de dientes de un mismo ejemplar de Ptychodus mortoni, proveniente de la Formación La Luna, del Cretácico Superior de La Sierra de Perijá, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Este material representa el único registro conocido de esta especie para América del sur y extiende la distribución paleobiogeográfica del taxón, el cual era conocido sólo para África, América del Norte y EuropaPtychodus mortoni is a durophagous shark characteristic from the Upper Cretaceous, with a chronostratigraphic record between the Turonian-Maastrichtian. The present contribution illustrate and describes a set of teeth of Ptychodus mortoni from the La Luna Formation, Upper Cretaceous of the Sierra de Perijá, Zulia State, Venezuela. This material represents the only known record for South America, increasing the paleobiogeographi distribution of the taxon, which was previously known only from Africa, North America and Europe.

  16. Identidad, intercambio y aventura en el Alto Neuquén IDENTITY, TRADE, AND ADVENTURE IN THE ALTO NEUQUÉN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Silla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pretendemos analizar cómo son considerados los denominados chilenos que habitan el lado occidental de los Andes por los grupos denominados crianceros (pastores trashumantes que habitan una serie de localidades y parajes rurales del Alto Neuquén, patagonia argentina. Veremos que en el sistema clasificatorio y autoclasi- ficatorio de estos grupos opera el principio de los indiscernibles: las categorías adscriptivas se multiplican sin solución de continuidad. Se manifiesta así una superposición y continuidad de identidades más que oposiciones entre el argentino, el chileno, el mapuche, etc. Esto es lo que observamos cuando empezamos a analizar las categorías de adscripción en acto y no como modelo. Nos proponemos señalar cómo esta ambigüedad y superposición de identidades se hace también manifiesto en valoraciones ambiguas y superpuestas respecto a cómo los crianceros argentinos valoran moralmente a los crianceros chilenos. Para ello analizaré ciertas situaciones de intercambio que se caracterizan por ser poco claras, tales como el comercio, el robo y el contrabando de ganado que ocurre a ambos lados de la frontera internacional.This article examines how Chileans living in the Western Andes are thought of by the crianceros (transhumanance shepherds who live in the Alto Neuquén, (Argentinean Patagonian. It is observed that the principle of indiscernible operates in the classificatory and self-classificatory systems of these groups: the ascriptive categories cannot be discerned or distinguished from one another and multiply ad infinitum. A superposition and continuity of identities is manifested rather than an opposition between Argentineans, Chileans, Mapuche, and so on. These forms appear when ascriptive categories are analyzed in action rather than in models. It is shown that such ambiguity and superposition of identities is also made manifest in ambiguous and superposed moral judgments of Chilean shepherds by Argentinean

  17. 委内瑞拉奥里诺科重油带Carabobo油区M区块Morichal段地层沉积演化特征%Sedimentary Evolution Characteristics of Morichal Member in M Block of Carabobo Area of Orinoco Heavy-oil Belt, Venezuela

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 陈和平; 黄文松; 万广峰; 张超前

    2016-01-01

    综合岩心观察、测井、钻井和取样分析等资料,对委内瑞拉奥里诺科重油带内Carabobo油区M区块Morichal段油层组沉积类型及沉积演化特征在垂向和平面上的展布规律进行了研究.结果表明:研究区Morichal段油层组主要发育辫状河三角洲沉积体系,以辫状河三角洲平原亚相为主,进一步可以划分为辫状河道、心滩、溢岸\\决口扇、泛滥平原等沉积微相.其中,辫状河道与心滩为主要发育的沉积微相,其骨架砂体是研究区内最有利的储集体,储层的展布形态主要受控于古地貌形态和沉积微相的展布.主河道沿南西—北东方向发育,溢岸\\决口扇和泛滥平原微相仅在局部少量发育.

  18. Escorias de alto horno: composición y comportamiento hidráulico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state-of-the-art on hydraulic behaviour of the blast furnace slags. It analyzes different aspects such as characteristics and influence of its vitreous phase structure, its chemical composition, mechanisms that rule its hydration process, activators and activating process mechanisms, etc. At the same time, the paper presents results obtained from a chemical and mineralogical characterization of Spanish blast furnace slags.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio del estado del conocimiento en tomo al comportamiento hidráulico de las escorias de alto horno, analizando aspectos tan variados como características e influencia de la estructura de su fase vitrea, de su composición química, mecanismos que rigen su proceso de hidratación, activadores y mecanismos del proceso de activaci��n, etc. Así mismo, se presentan los resultados obtenidos tras realizar una caracterización química y mineralógica de las escorias de alto horno españolas.

  19. Liderar equipos de alto desempeño: un gran reto para las organizaciones actuales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernanda Uribe R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los continuos e impredecibles cambios que deben afrontar las organizaciones en la actualidad les exigen asumir retos cada vez más complejos que les garanticen resultados para sobrevivir en un mercado altamente competitivo. Tal condición requiere de directivos que optimicen sus habilidades para liderar equipos, considerando unas características que antes parecían irrelevantes. El propósito de éste estudio es delimitar conceptualmente el liderazgo en relación con los equipos de alto desempeño y discutir entorno al rol que este debe tener en su conformación y mantenimiento. Se puntualiza sobre la necesidad de que el líder se convierta en un facilitador para la transformación no solo de las personas que componen los equipos, sino dela organización, a través de desarrollo y crecimiento. Se plantea la necesidad de incluir en los procesos de dirección exitosa de equipos de alto desempeño factores como la estrategia organizacional, la gestión humana y la estructura organizacional, todos ellos permeados necesariamente por los estilos de liderazgo y la actitud del líder hacia el cambio.

  20. Irmã de índio, mulher de branco: perspectivas femininas no alto rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lasmar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A posição "deslocada" das mulheres é um traço constitutivo da experiência social feminina no alto rio Negro, em contraste com a masculina, esta fortemente centrada na noção de "pertencimento". Tomando isso por pressuposto, realiza-se, neste artigo, uma reflexão sobre a experiência social das mulheres indígenas que residem na cidade de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, principal pólo urbano da bacia do alto rio Negro. Com base em análise etnográfica, discute-se o modo como os casamentos com brancos na cidade contribuem para o processo de transformação da experiência social feminina.The "displaced" position of women is a constitutive feature of female social experience in the Upper Rio Negro, in contrast to the male position which is centred on the notion of "belonging". Starting from this premise, the article reflects on the social experience of Indigenous women who live in the city of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, the principal urban centre in the Upper Rio Negro basin. Through ethnographic analysis, it explores how marriages with white men in the city contribute to the process of transforming female social experience.

  1. TEORIA DA ESTRUTURA DE PROPRIEDADE: REDES SOCIAIS EM PERIÓDICOS INTERNACIONAIS DE ALTO IMPACTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELCI GRAPEGIA DAL VESCO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es identificar las redes sociales de la teoría de la estructura de la propiedad en los artículos publicados en las revistas internacionales de alto impacto. Una investigación sociometrica con metodología empírico - analítica fue realizada desde una perspectiva longitudinal de revisión documental. El universo del estudio son las revistas internacionales en las áreas de Administración y Contabilidad clasificados con el índice de alto impacto JCR (Journal Citation Reports por el ISI Web Knowledge edición 2009. Las técnicas de análisis usadas fueron bibliometría y análisis de las redes sociales, las cuales compararon las características principales de las redes haciendo énfasis en pequeños mundos y grados de centralidad. Se concluyó que estas características muestran la consolidación del tema como un área de investigación permanente para los investigadores y contribuye al desarrollo de literatura científica sobre la estructura de propiedad, ya que mide los aspectos importantes de su configuración a nivel internacional.

  2. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. III. Second public data release

    CERN Document Server

    García-Benito, R; Sánchez, S F; Husemann, B; de Amorim, A L; Castillo-Morales, A; Fernandes, R Cid; Ellis, S C; Falcón-Barroso, J; Galbany, L; de Paz, A Gil; Delgado, R M González; Lacerda, E A D; López-Fernandez, R; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A; Lyubenova, M; Marino, R A; Mast, D; Mendoza, M A; Pérez, E; Asari, N Vale; Aguerri, J A L; Ascasibar, Y; Bekeraitė, S; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Barrera-Ballesteros, J K; Cano-Díaz, M; Catalán-Torrecilla, C; Cortijo, C; Delgado-Inglada, G; Demleitner, M; Dettmar, R -J; Díaz, A I; Florido, E; Gallazzi, A; García-Lorenzo, B; Gomes, J M; Holmes, L; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Jahnke, K; Kalinova, V; Kehrig, C; Kennicutt, R C; López-Sánchez, Á R; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Meidt, S E; Mendez-Abreu, J; Mollá, M; Monreal-Ibero, A; Morisset, C; del Olmo, A; Papaderos, P; Pérez, I; Quirrenbach, A; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Roth, M M; Ruiz-Lara, T; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Sánchez-Menguiano, L; Singh, R; Spekkens, K; Stanishev, V; Torres-Papaqui, J P; van de Ven, G; Vilchez, J M; Walcher, C J; Wild, V; Wisotzki, L; Ziegler, B; Aceituno, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the Second Public Data Release (DR2) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The data for 200 objects are made public, including the 100 galaxies of the First Public Data Release (DR1). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory. Two different spectral setups are available for each galaxy, (i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3745-7500 \\AA\\ with a spectral resolution of 6.0 \\AA\\ (FWHM), and (ii) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the wavelength range 3650-4840 \\AA\\ with a spectral resolution of 2.3 \\AA\\ (FWHM). The sample covers a redshift range between 0.005 and 0.03, with a wide range of properties in the Color-Magnitude diagram, stellar mass, ionization conditions, and morphological types. All released cubes were reduced with the latest pipeline, including improved spectrophotometric calibration, spatial registration and spatial resolution. The spectr...

  3. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey: IV. Third Public data release

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, S F; Zibetti, S; Walcher, C J; Husemann, B; Mendoza, M A; Galbany, L; Falcón-Barroso, J; Mast, D; Aceituno, J; Aguerri, J A L; Alves, J; Amorim, A L; Ascasibar, Y; Barrado-Navascues, D; Barrera-Ballesteros, J; Bekeraite, S; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Díaz, M Cano; Fernandes, R Cid; Cavichia, O; Cortijo, C; Dannerbauer, H; Demleitner, M; Díaz, A; Dettmar, R J; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A; del Olmo, A; Gallazzi, A; García-Lorenzo, B; de Paz, A Gil; Delgado, R González; Holmes, L; Iglésias-Páramo, J; Kehrig, C; Kelz, A; Kennicutt, R C; Kleemann, B; Lacerda, E A D; Fernández, R López; Sánchez, A R López; Lyubenova, M; Marino, R; Márquez, I; Mendez-Abreu, J; Mollá, M; Minakata, R Ortega; Torres-Papaqui, J P; Pérez, E; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Roth, M M; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Schilling, U; Spekkens, K; Asari, N Vale; Bosch, R C E van den; van de Ven, G; Vilchez, J M; Wild, V; Wisotzki, L; Yıldırım, A; Ziegler, B

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Third Public Data Release (DR3) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. Science-grade quality data for 667 galaxies are made public, including the 200 galaxies of the Second Public Data Release (DR2). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. Three different spectral setups are available, i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3749-7500 AA (4240-7140 AA unvignetted) with a spectral resolution of 6.0 AA (FWHM), for 646 galaxies, ii) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the wavelength range 3650-4840 AA (3650-4620 AA unvignetted) with a spectral resolution of 2.3 AA (FWHM), for 484 galaxies, and iii) the combination of the cubes from both setups (called COMBO), with a spectral resolution of 6.0 AA and a wavelength range between 3700-7500 AA (3700-7140 AA unvignetted), for 446 galaxies. The Main Sample, selected and observed according to the CALIFA survey s...

  4. Asentamientos y pueblos indios desaparecidos en Los Altos de Jalisco durante el virreinato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMÓN GOYAS MEJÍA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la desaparición de pueblos indígenas duran- te el periodo colonial en la región de Los Altos de Jalisco. Diversos autores han analizado la catastrófica disminución de la población indí- gena a raíz de la llegada de los europeos al continente americano; sin embargo, al menos para el occidente de México no hay estudios deta- llados que describan la redistribución del espacio luego de dicha pér- dida de habitantes. Tal situación es aún más evidente para el caso de Los Altos de Jalisco, donde, a pesar de que se han llevado a cabo gran cantidad de estudios para entender la propiedad ranchera como forma típica de asentamiento local, los antiguos pueblos indios del área han pasado casi inadvertidos, de ahí la relevancia del presente análisis.

  5. Saúde reprodutiva e mulheres indígenas do Alto Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Azevedo

    Full Text Available O presente artigo descreve e analisa as concepções próprias das mulheres indígenas do Alto Rio Negro sobre saúde reprodutiva, relacionando-as a indicadores de fecundidade. As informações qualitativas apontam para um conhecimento detalhado e complexo que as mulheres indígenas dessa região possuem sobre seu corpo e os cuidados com sua saúde. Os níveis e padrões etários da fecundidade estão relacionados com a etnia das mulheres, portanto, aos sistemas tradicionais de cuidados com a saúde desses povos. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida entre 1997 e 2003, na região de Iauaretê, Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro (AM, e teve como primeira fonte de dados o Censo Indígena Autônomo do Rio Negro - CIARN-, levado a efeito pela Federação das Organizações Indígenas do Rio Negro - FOIRN - em 1992.

  6. Numerical modelling of Alto Verde landslide using the material point method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alejandro Llano-Serna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Finalizando el año 2008 en la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, ocurrió un deslizamiento de tierra en la urbanización Alto Verde provocando la muerte de doce personas y la destrucción de seis viviendas. Los deslizamientos se destacan por el elevado nivel de deformaciones en una masa de suelo. El presente trabajo utilizó el método del punto material (MPM, método basado en partículas que utiliza una doble discretización Lagrangiano-Euleriana. La doble discretización genera un marco numérico robusto que permite la simulación de grandes distorsiones. El modelo numérico planteó una simplificación de las condiciones geotécnicas, morfológicas y estructurales de las edificaciones envueltas en Alto Verde. El estado de deformación final de la simulación se acomodó satisfactoriamente a las características geométricas finales observadas en campo. Los resultados obtenidos generan aplicaciones como el diseño de barreras, análisis de riesgo o la determinación de la distancia mínima de retiro a una ladera susceptible de deslizamiento.

  7. Characterization of tabique walls nails of the Alto Douro Wine Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rui; Pinto, Jorge; Paiva, Anabela; Lanzinha, João Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Tabique is one of the main Portuguese traditional building techniques which use raw materials as stone, earth andwood. In general, a tabique building component as a wall consist of a wooden structure made up of vertical boards connected to laths by metal nails and covered on both sides by an earth based material. This traditional building technology as an expressive incidence in the Alto Douro Wine Region located in the interior of Northern Portugal, added to the UNESCO's Word Heritage Sites List in December 2001 as an `evolved continuing cultural landscape'. Furthermore, previous research works have shown that the existing tabique construction, in this region, reveals a certain lack of maintenance partially justified by the knowledge loosed on that technique, consequently this construction technique present an advanced stage of deterioration. This aspect associated to the fact that there is still a lack of scientific studies in this field motivated the writing of this paper, the main objectives are to identify and characterize the nails used in the timber connections. The nails samples were collected from tabique walls included in tabique buildings located in LamegoMunicipality, near Douro River, in the Alto Douro Wine Region. This work also intends to give guidelines to the rehabilitation and preservation of this important legacy.

  8. Water Soluble Organic Nitrogen in atmospheric aerosol samples from urban, sub-urban and pristine areas of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelon, R.; Giuliante, A.; Aguiar, G.; Ghneim, T.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    Concentrations of water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) were determined in atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) collected between September of 2005 and May of 2006, in an urban continental (Caracas, 10° 29' 09'' N, 66° 53' 48'' W), an urban coastal (Catia la mar, 10° 35' 47'' N, 67° 01' 45'' W), a sub-urban coastal (Osma, 10° 32' N, 67° 28' W), a suburban continental (Altos de Pipe, 10° 23' 41'' N, 63° 59' 10'' W), a pristine coastal (Isla de Aves, 15° 40' N, 63° 36' W) and a pristine continental (La Gran Sabana National Park, 5° 41' 30'' N, 61° 34' 20'' W) areas of Venezuela. TSP samples were collected using a Hi-Vol airborne particle sampler. TSP were impacted on a fiberglass filter pretreated under 400° C for 4 hours to minimize organic nitrogen contamination. Ultra sound water extractions of the sample filters were performed and their NH4+, NO2- and NO3- concentrations were determined by ion exchange liquid chromatography. The water extracts were UV digested and the nitrogen inorganic ions were analyzed after the UV exposure. WSON concentrations were calculated by the difference between the inorganic nitrogen concentrations before and after UV digestion. Ninety five percent of the aerosol samples collected in the suburban and pristine areas showed a WSON concentration range from 0.03 to 0.6 μg/m3 whereas in urban areas the range was 0.21 to 1.09 μg/m3. These concentration values are on the same order of magnitude than the previously found in other tropical and subtropical areas. The contribution of aerosol WSON to the total soluble nitrogen in the coastal urban, sub-urban and pristine areas ranged from 23 to 67%, while in Caracas was smaller (38±8%, n=5). Therefore, aerosol WSON provides an important source of nitrogen to these pristine and suburban ecosystems, which could potentially have implications on the nutrient cycling. There was a statistically significant linear correlation between the aerosol WSON and the water soluble inorganic

  9. Aesthetic Communication and Intercultural Perspective. A Qualitative Analysis of Aesthetic Perceptions of the Brand "Südtirol/Alto Adige"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the qualitative study of mental associations with the brand picture "Südtirol/Alto Adige" different images of the region among German speaking, Italian speaking and bilingually grown up South Tyroleans were analysed. The research interest was focused on the communalities and differences in these associations in order to identify potentially conflicting positions between the two major language groups in Südtirol/Alto Adige. In this paper the method is demonstrated which was used to display and investigate the emotional and cognitive contents of the images to Südtirol/Alto Adige from the point of view of different socio-cultural groups. Additionally selected results connected to the perception of the brand in the multilingual province Südtirol/Alto Adige are shown. Against the background of the outlined study the following questions are dealt with in this article: How is the special design of the brand picture perceived among the different socio-cultural groups in Alto Adige/Südtirol with respect to intercultural communication processes? Which meaning can be attributed to the historical heritage of the language groups in the analysis? URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901323

  10. ALTO RIESGO DE CONSUMO DE ALCOHOL EN TRABAJADORES DE ATENCIÓN PRIMARIA DE SALUD, LORETO, PERÚ, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Zagaceta Camiñas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol de alto riesgo o dependencia puede afectar la salud y el desempeño profesional. Los trabajadores de la atención primaria de salud (TAPS son clave en la referencia, prevención y tratamiento de las consecuencias de este consumo. Sin embargo, existe poca evidencia sobre el nivel de consumo de alcohol en TAPS. La investigación fue de tipo transversal, aleatorizado por conveniencia. 150 TAPS (médicos, enfermeras y obstetras de 3 centros de salud primarios fueron reclutados y se les aplicó el Cuestionario de Identificación de los Trastornos debidos al Consumo de Alcohol (AUDIT. Los TAPS de los tres centros estudiados, presentaron un alto porcentaje de bebedores en alto riesgo (40%-46%, al menos 50% de bebedores de alto riesgo fueron de sexo masculino y en grupos de edad correspondiente al rango de 31 a 40 años (56.3%. El porcentaje de bebedores con dependencia encontrado en este estudio es mayor a lo encontrado en otros estudios nacionales que incluían Loreto. El alto riesgo de consumo de alcohol podría ser un problema laboral aun no evaluado en salud que necesita futura investigación.

  11. Venezuela’s Potential Threat to the United States’ National Security: An Analysis of the Conflictual Inter-Country Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-07

    State run oil company, Petróleos de Venezuela ( PDVSA ), is in a chaotic turmoil. “ PDVSA has become far more poorly managed since a strike two years ago...corruption, PDVSA oil production is declining which requires private companies to make up more of the oil supply. 25 However, Venezuela current economy

  12. Innovación, empresarialidad, y capital intelectual en PyMEs de alto crecimiento: Estudio realizado sobre PyMEs de alto crecimiento en Brasil, Chile y México

    OpenAIRE

    Rudi Loossens

    2009-01-01

    De cara a profundizar el conocimiento y la caracterización de los empresarios dinámicos en America Latina y el Caribe, y en particular los factores determinantes en la innovación y creación de valor en las PYMEs de Alto Crecimiento, el FOMIN, en colaboración con la División de Ciencia y Tecnología del BID han lanzado un estudio sobre PYMEs de Alto Crecimiento en América Latina con el apoyo financiero del Programa de Apoyo a la Innovación del Fondo General de Cooperación Española.

  13. CARACTERIZACIÓN MICROESTRUCTURAL Y PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS DE UNA FUNDICIÓN ESFEROIDAL CON ALTOS CONTENIDOS DE MOLIBDENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Corona-Tenorio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia la influencia de los altos contenidos de molibdeno en dos aleaciones base (una con contenido alto de silicio y bajo en carbono, serie A; y la segunda con alto contenido de carbono y bajo silicio, serie B sobre la microestructura y el comportamiento mecánico en piezas coladas en fundición esferoidal en espesores normales. Se enfatiza la composición química y características micro-estructurales tales como tamaño, distribución de nódulos, la relación de las fases formadas y propiedades mecánicas en el material obtenido. Se comprobó la influencia del contenido de molibdeno sobre la formación de nódulos en ambas series, así como de su morfología que es la característica deseada.

  14. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. IV. Third public data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; García-Benito, R.; Zibetti, S.; Walcher, C. J.; Husemann, B.; Mendoza, M. A.; Galbany, L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Mast, D.; Aceituno, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alves, J.; Amorim, A. L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrado-Navascues, D.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Bekeraitè, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cano Díaz, M.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Cavichia, O.; Cortijo, C.; Dannerbauer, H.; Demleitner, M.; Díaz, A.; Dettmar, R. J.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; del Olmo, A.; Galazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R.; Holmes, L.; Iglésias-Páramo, J.; Kehrig, C.; Kelz, A.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kleemann, B.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López Fernández, R.; López Sánchez, A. R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R.; Márquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Ortega Minakata, R.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Pérez, E.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Schilling, U.; Spekkens, K.; Vale Asari, N.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Yıldırım, A.; Ziegler, B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the third public data release (DR3) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. Science-grade quality data for 667 galaxies are made public, including the 200 galaxies of the second public data release (DR2). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. Three different spectral setups are available: i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3745-7500 Å (4240-7140 Å unvignetted) with a spectral resolution of 6.0 Å (FWHM) for 646 galaxies, ii) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the wavelength range 3650-4840 Å (3650-4620 Å unvignetted) with a spectral resolution of 2.3 Å (FWHM) for 484 galaxies, and iii) the combination of the cubes from both setups (called COMBO) with a spectral resolution of 6.0 Å and a wavelength range between 3700-7500 Å (3700-7140 Å unvignetted) for 446 galaxies. The Main Sample, selected and observed according to the CALIFA survey strategy covers a redshift range between 0.005 and 0.03, spans the color-magnitude diagram and probes a wide range of stellar masses, ionization conditions, and morphological types. The Extension Sample covers several types of galaxies that are rare in the overall galaxy population and are therefore not numerous or absent in the CALIFA Main Sample. All the cubes in the data release were processed using the latest pipeline, which includes improved versions of the calibration frames and an even further improved image reconstruction quality. In total, the third data release contains 1576 datacubes, including ~1.5 million independent spectra. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The spectra are available at http://califa.caha.es/DR3

  15. Fuel dynamics by using Landscape Ecology Indices in the Alto Mijares, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, J.; Garcia, C. V.

    2009-04-01

    Land abandonment in Mediterranean regions has brought about a number of management problems, being an increased wildfire activity prevalent among them. Agricultural neglect in highlands resulted in reduced anthropogenic disturbances and greater landscape homogeneity in areas such as the Alto Mijares in Spain. It is widely accepted that processes like forest fires, influence structure of the landscape and vice versa. Fire-prone Mediterranean flora is well adapted to this disturbance, exhibiting excellent succession capabilities; but higher fuel loads and homogeneous conditions may ally to promote vegetation recession when the fire regime is altered by land abandonment. Both succession and recession make changes to the landscape structure and configuration. However, these changes are difficult to quantify and characterize. If landscape restoration of these forests is a management objective, then developing a quantitative knowledge base for landscape fuel dynamics is a prerequisite. Four classified LandsatTM satellite images were compared to quantify changes in landscape structure between 1984 and 1998. An attempt is made to define landscape level dynamics for fuel development after reduced disturbance and fuel accumulation that leads to catastrophic fires by using landscape ecology indices. By doing so, indices that best describe the fuel dynamics are pointed. The results indicate that low-level disturbance increases heterogeneity, thus lowers fire hazard. No disturbance or severe disturbance increases homogeneity because of vegetation succession and may lead to devastating fires. These fires could be avoided by human induced disturbance like controlled burning, harvesting, mechanical works for fuel reduction and other silviculture measures; thus bringing in more heterogeneity in the region. The Alto Mijares landscape appears to be in an unstable equilibrium where succession and recession are at tug of war. The effects are evident in the general absence of the climax

  16. Groundwater recharge estimate at Alto Rio Grande - MG watershed Recarga de aquíferos superficiais na região do Alto Rio Grande-MG

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    Lucas A. da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Springs are outcrops of aquifers surface, and the water cycle in this environment pass through the recharge, generally defined as the amount of water added to the aquifer, which may occur locally from rainwater infiltration. This study uses the Water Table Fluctuation (WTF method to estimate the direct recharge and a groundwater balance to estimate the deep recharge on unconfined aquifers. The WTF method employs data of the aquifer water levels and its specific yield to estimate the direct recharge. The groundwater balance considers the direct recharge estimated by the WTF method, as the water input in the system and outputs as the base flow and deep recharge. The recharge was estimated at four areas at the watershed of Alto Rio Grande city, Minas Gerais (MG state, in Brazil. The direct recharge estimate was 121.11; 64.62; 83.99; 152.46 (mm/year for the L1, L2, M1 and M2 areas. The effect of the presence of forest in the recharge area can prevail over slope of relief, allowing more direct recharge, even in sources with steeper relief. The runoff from the springs in the study period exceeded the direct recharge, indicating a situation in which the saturated zone feeds the vadose zone. The annual flow was above the direct recharge pointing a situation of over exploitation of the aquifer, a non sustainable situation. The specific yield of the aquifers could also have been underestimated.As nascentes são afloramentos dos aquíferos superficiais, e o ciclo da água neste ambiente passa pela recarga que é definida, de maneira geral, como a quantidade de água que é acrescentada ao aquífero, podendo ocorrer localmente a partir da infiltração das águas das chuvas. Neste trabalho, apresenta-se o método de flutuação das superfícies livres (Water Table Fluctuation- WTF para estimativa da recarga direta e um balanço hídrico subterrâneo para estimativa da recarga profunda, em aquíferos livres. O método WTF utiliza dados de monitoramento do n

  17. Fatores associados ao obito neonatal de recem-nascidos de alto risco: estudo multicentrico em Unidades Neonatais de Alto Risco no Nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ferreira da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo pretendeu determinar os fatores associados à mortalidade intra-hospitalar, utilizando como variáveis explicativas as características individuais da mãe, da assistência ao pré-natal, parto e período neonatal e dos recém-nascidos internados em Unidades Neonatais de Alto Risco (UTIN integrantes da Rede Norte-Nordeste de Saúde Perinatal no Nordeste do Brasil. Foi realizado estudo longitudinal, multicêntrico de base hospitalar. A população do estudo compreendeu 3.623 nascidos vivos internados em 34 UTIN. Após o ajuste para os três níveis hierárquicos do modelo de determinação do óbito em UTIN até o 27 o dia de vida, associaram-se: tipo de parto – cesariana (OR = 0,72; IC95%: 0,56-0,95; não uso de corticoide antenatal (OR = 1,51; IC95%: 1,01-2,25; pré-eclâmpsia (OR = 0,73; IC95%: 0,56-0,95; oligodramnia (OR = 1,57; IC95%: 1,17-2,10; peso ao nascer < 2.500g (OR = 1,40; IC95%: 1,03-1,90; escore de Apgar 5 o minuto < 7 (OR = 2,63; IC95%: 2,21-3,14; uso de tubo endotraqueal (OR = 1,95; IC95%: 1,31-2,91; não uso de surfactante (OR = 0,54; IC95%: 0,43-0,69. O óbito em UTIN é determinado pelas condições assistenciais à gestação, parto e recém-nato.

  18. Yoduria en escolares y embarazadas del estado Trujillo, Venezuela 2007-2008 Urinary Iodine in school children and pregnant women of Trujillo state, Venezuela 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Caballero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La principal función del yodo, es contribuir en la síntesis de hormonas tiroideas, las cuales participan en el desarrollo cerebral y regulación del metabolismo. La excreción urinaria de yodo (yoduria es un útil e importante indicador de la situación del yodo en la población. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS recomienda que la mediana de la concentración de yodo urinario (CYU en una población de embarazadas y de niños en edad escolar, deba estar en un rango de 150-249 μg/L y 100-200 μg/L respectivamente. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de deficiencia de yodo en escolares y embarazadas del estado Trujillo, en la región andina de Venezuela. Material y métodos: Un estudio transversal realizado en 400 escolares de 7 a 14 años de edad y en 300 embarazadas. Muestras casuales de orina fueron recolectadas y analizadas en su contenido de yodo mediante la reacción de Sandell-Kolthoff. Se aplicaron los criterios de suficiencia yodada establecidos por la OMS. Resultados: La mediana de excreción urinaria de yodo en escolares fue 175 μg/L; 6,25 % de los niños presentaron concentraciones de yodo urinario menores de 50 μg/L. La mediana de excreción urinaria de yodo en embarazadas fue 228 μg/L; 25 % de ellas presentaron concentraciones de yodo urinario menores de 150 μg/L. Conclusiones: De acuerdo a las recomendaciones de la OMS, los escolares y embarazadas del estado Trujillo, Venezuela, son yodo suficientes.The main role of iodine is the synthesis of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones are related to brain development and metabolic regulation. Urinary iodine excretion is a useful and important indicator of the iodine status of a population. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends that the median urinary iodine concentration in a population of pregnant women should range between 150 and 249 μg/L and in a population of school children it should range between 100 and 200 μg/L. Objective: To determine the prevalence of

  19. Implantación de prácticas de recursos humanos en empresas manufactureras de alto rendimiento

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Este proyecto aborda la posible implantación de prácticas de recursos humanos en empresas manufactureras denominadas de alto rendimiento (HPM, High Performance Manufacturing), mediante el estudio empírico de una encuesta realizada a 266 empresas de 9 países del mundo. El trabajo se enmarca en el proyecto “HPM Project-Spain: proyecto para la manufactura de alto rendimiento (High Performance Manufacturing)”, financiado por el Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia del Gobierno de España....

  20. Valoración de la Fuerza Explosiva General y Específica en Futbolistas Juveniles de Alto Nivel.

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Santos-Garcia, Daniel; López de Subijana Hernández, Cristina; Antonio García, Raquel de; Navarro Cabello, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    La fuerza explosiva es una capacidad física fundamental en el fútbol, por lo que su valoración resulta importante para el control y planificación del entrenamiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar la Fuerza explosiva general y específica en futbolistas juveniles de alto nivel. 21 jugadores pertenecientes a un club de alto nivel (16,1 ± 0,2 años; 1,77 ± 0,06 m; 67,7 ± 6,3 kg) llevaron a cabo un test general de fuerza explosiva (salto vertical con contra movimiento -CMJ) y un test espec...

  1. Relevamiento íctico con espineles en el río Alto Iguazú (Misiones, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Sergio Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo describir al arte de pesca denominado “espinel” que utilizamos en el alto Iguazú durante las décadas de los 80 y los 90, en un plan de relevamiento científico, y que permitió recolectar especies raras o nuevas para la Argentina (Gómez y Somay, 1985) como por ejemplo el bagre exótico Ictalurus nebulosus (Gómez, 2008). Se describen los espineles utilizados en el Alto Iguazú y la frecuencia o abundancia de las principales especies capturadas con este arte de pesc...

  2. Repercussões do uso do calçado de salto alto na postura corporal de adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Anniele Martins Silva; Gisela Rocha de Siqueira; Giselia Alves P. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Revisar estudos referentes às repercussões do uso de calçado com salto alto na postura corporal de adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Pesquisa realizada nas bases de dados Scopus, SciELO e PubMed entre 1980 e 2011, incluindo artigos escritos em inglês e português. Foram utilizados os descritores: "postura", "centro de gravidade" e "calçado de salto alto". Foram encontrados 55 artigos, independentemente do desenho do estudo, incluindo-se 20 relacionados à postura da coluna vertebral e me...

  3. Valoración del deporte de alto rendimiento (gimnasia rítmica) en edades tempranas

    OpenAIRE

    Usero Gómez, Alba

    2014-01-01

    Comenzando por una introducción, en la cual se contextualiza el deporte y especialmente el de alto rendimiento, nos introduciremos en la cuestión de estudio, el deportista de élite y la preocupación por el comienzo en edades tempranas. Llevaremos a cabo este estudio, por medio de un análisis reflexivo de diversos autores y estudios que se sumergen en el deporte de alto rendimiento, especialmente en la infancia. Trataremos el objeto de estudio en relación a un deporte, la Gimnasia Rítmic...

  4. Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae en la zona alta de Mérida, Venezuela (Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae in zone high of Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves, E*

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudió sobre la presencia de Fasciola hepática en la finca “El Joque” vía La Azulita, Estado Mérida, Venezuela. Un foco natural de fasciolasis fue verificado por la presencia de formas larvales en los caracoles hospedadores intermediarios y por examen coprológico en los bovinos de la finca. Detectandose la presencia de moluscos en todas las áreas muestreadas de la finca, de los cuales, el 77% resultó ser del Genero Lymnaea (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, se determinó una prevalencia de infección de un 42 % en el bebedero, del 43% en el potrero y del 39% en el manantial. Ademas, se detectó un 39% de infección por F. hepática en los bovinos de la finca. La alta prevalencia de F. hepatica en la zona . In the present study was evaluated the presence of Fasciola hepatica in the farm The Joque Merida State, Venezuela. The installation of the natural focus of fascioliasis was verified through of finding the larval forms in the intermediate snail host and coprologics exams in cattle from the farm. The snails were collected in diferents places of the farm, registering the 77% belongs to the Lymnaea genus (Pulmonata:Lymnaeidae intermediator host infected naturally with Fasciola was 42% in the water fill, 43% in the herder and 39% in the source. The results shows that the region presents one prevalence to fascioliasis in cattle of 39%. The very high prevalence of F. hepatica in area studied, suggest that could act as a potential risk to public health.

  5. CARIOTIPO DEL LAGARTO Tropidurus hispidus(SAURIA: TROPIDURIDAE EN EL ORIENTE DE VENEZUELA Lizard Karyotipe Tropidurus hispidus (Sauria: Tropiduridae in the East of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS ALEJANDRO GONZÁLEZ S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio citogenético mediante tinción con Giemsa, en tres regiones xerofíticas (continental, peninsular e insular del oriente de Venezuela, demostró un número diploide 2n=36, compuesto por seis pares de macrocromosomas metacéntricos y submetacéntricos y 12 pares de microcromosomas acrocéntricos manteniéndose esta característica en machos y hembras en las tres poblaciones estudiadas. Se determinó que el primer par de macrocromosomas es metacéntrico y en la región continental representa 13% de longitud relativa total (LRT, siendo el cromosoma de mayor tamaño con respecto a la población peninsular con un 9,4 % y a la población insular con 7,1 %, conteniendo esta última población los cromosomas más pequeños. Considerando las diferencias cromosómicas y el aislamiento geográfico existente, estos lagartos podrían presentar un proceso de especiación alopátrica de tipo vicariante.A cytogenetic study by Giemsa staining in three xerophytic regions (continental, peninsular and insular in eastern Venezuela, showed a diploid number 2n=36, consisting of 6 pairs of metacentric and submetacentric macrochromosomes and 12 pairs of acrocentric microchromosomes maintained, this feature in males and females in the three populations studied. It was determined that the first pair of macrochromosomes is metacentric and the continental region represents 13% of total relative length (LRT as the larger chromosome, with respect to the peninsular population with 9.4% and the insular population 7.1%, the latter population containing the smallest chromosomes. Whereas chromosomal differences and geographic isolation exists, these lizards have a process of vicariant allopatric speciation.

  6. Crisis política y narrativas transmedia en las protestas de 2014 en Venezuela/ Political crisis and transmedia storytelling in the 2014 protests in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Orlando Pernía Peñalver

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo forma parte de una investigación en curso sobre el surgimiento en Venezuela de los online espacios de autonomía que vienen alterando los regímenes de intercambio informativo. Las protestas civiles de 2014 sumaron evidencias a la disolución de las fronteras, cada vez más imprecisas, entre los medios clásicos de comunicación de masas y las plataformas digitales que han posibilitado el acceso directo de los usuarios a la mediasfera. Abordamos ejemplos que lo demuestran y aportamos elementos teóricos para una interpretación del fenómeno. El bloqueo informativo gubernamental es el eje que ha obligado a los nuevos infociudadanos a formar colectividades en red para construir las narraciones y modelos de lectura sobre el entorno crítico y sus fases de tensión. This work is part of an ongoing research on the rise in Venezuela of online autonomy spaces which are altering the information exchange regimes. Civil protests of 2014 brought into evidence the dissolution of borders, increasingly blurred, between traditional mass media and digital platforms which are enabling direct user access to the media sphere. In this article, we provide and analyze examples and also, theoretical elements contributing to an interpretation of the phenomenon. The government's information blockade is the axis that has forced communities to form new social info-network where to build stories and models of reading on critical environment and its phases of tension.

  7. Estudio seroepidemiologico de la amibiasis en una comunidad del estado Zulia, Venezuela A seroepidemiological study of amebiasis in a community of Zulia State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Chacin-Bonilla

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiologico de amibiasis en una comunidad de bajas condiciones socioeconómicas del Municipio Mara, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 283 individuos cuyas edades fluctuaron de 2 a 53 años. Se obtuvieron muestras de sueros, las cuales se examinaron con la prueba de hemaglutinación indirecta de KESSEL et al., según una modificación de MILGRAM et al. Se utilizó antígeno amibiano obtenido de cultivos axénicos de la raza HK9 de E. histolytica. La tasa de seropositividad obtenida fué de 46.6%; la mayoría de los reactores tenía títulos bajos y no presentaba signos de amibiasis. El porcentaje de seropositividad aumentó con la edad. Los resultados sugieren una alta endemicidad de la infección en esta comunidad, ocurriendo la transmisión con mucha mayor frecuencia que la amibiasis invasiva.In the present evaluation, a community of low socioeconomical conditions from Zulia State, Venezuela, was analyzed for the prevalence of antibodies to E. histolytica. Two hundred and eighty three serum samples were collected and examined by the indirect hemagglutination test according to a microtiter modification of the KESSEL and LEWIS method, as used by MILGRAM et al. Antigen prepared from axenically-grown. E. histolytica strain HK9 in Diamond's medium was used. The seropositivity rate obtained was 46.6% and the frequency of positive cases was dependent on age. The antibody profiles obtained suggest a high endemicity for this parasitic infection in the area studied, with a much higher level of transmission than invasive amebiasis.

  8. Partidos políticos, opinião pública e o futuro da democracia na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Hillman

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo apresenta a evolução da política partidária na Venezuela, identificando as condições de seu processo de institucionalização. Além disso, os autores fazem inferências sobre as bases culturais de consolidação do sistema democrático.This article presents the evolution of party politics in Venezuela, by identifying the conditions of it's institutionalization process. In addition, the authors draw inferences about the cultural basis for further consolidation of the democratic system.

  9. Funciones de la supervición escolar en Venezuela. Aproximación a un modelo

    OpenAIRE

    Amada Mogollón de González

    2006-01-01

    Resumen:Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar la aproximación a un Modelo para las funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela sustentado en los ámbitos, acción supervisora y funciones denominadas: Técnicas, Administrativas, Sociales, de Asistencia y Mediación. El modelo se fundamentó teóricamente en Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Teoría de Sistemas de Bertalanffy, enfoque humanista y jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow. Es una investigación de campo realizada en Venezuela en los e...

  10. Estudio preliminar del borde dorsal del cuello en caballos de pura raza colombiana en Caracas-Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, A.; Méndez, A.; Pérez Arévalo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Se plantea como objetivo un estudio preliminar del borde dorsal del cuello en caballos de pura raza Colombiana en Caracas-Venezuela. Fueron estudiados un total de 57 caballos de esta raza, con edades entre 4 y 10 años, en Caracas, Venezuela. Todos ellos sometidos a ejercicio de moderada intensidad, a las mismas condiciones de alimentación y manejo. Se practicó un examen clínico mediante la inspección y palpación siguiendo el protocolo descrito para equinos. Se realizo un estudio morfológico c...

  11. Problemas Comunes de Vecinos a Espaldas: Seguridad social y empleo informal en Barbados, Trinidad y Tobago y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Freije; Patricia Monteferrante

    2002-01-01

    El empleo informal representa una porción significativa y, en algunos países, creciente del empleo total en América Latina y El Caribe. Entre los países de la región, Venezuela es uno de los que ha experimentado un crecimiento más rápido y notable de la informalidad. El presente estudio tiene dos objetivos: evaluar las condiciones de pobreza y desprotección social de los trabajadores informales en tres países de la región: Barbados, Trinidad y Tobago, y Venezuela, y recomendar mecanismos para...

  12. MONOPOLY AND OLIGOPOLY: CAUSES OF ENTERPRISES CLOSED IN VENEZUELA. A CASE STUDY IN THE ZULIA STATE.GROUP SIDEPRO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Agostini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The economy has been impacted because of the monopoly and oligopoly Venezuela markets. This study analyzes the causes of the closure of the main company producing pipes for the oil industry in Zulia State.(Group SIDERPRO It is a research field, documentary and descriptive. The information was collected on experiences arising in the process of expropriation and recovery. As a result evidence of the need to propose a macroeconomic planning and control allowing to speed recovery of closed industrial parks and Venezuela recovery process model.

  13. Textiles para turistas: tejedoras y comerciantes en los Altos de Chiapas

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    Eugenia Bayona Escat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo indaga en el papel que ocupan las mujeres indígenas como productoras y vendedoras de piezas textiles, consideradas artesanales y de tradición indígena, con alta demanda en el mercado turístico de la región de los Altos de Chiapas, México. La presencia del turismo en la zona ha provocado la consolidación de un complejo mercado local de textiles en el que se entrelazan tejedoras, distribuidoras y comerciantes, cadenas mercantiles y múltiples espacios de venta. A través de este protagonismo femenino y de la comercialización de lo “indígena”, el trabajo indaga en un contexto local que permite a las mujeres indígenas tomar nuevas posiciones sociales a la vez que integra aspectos globales sobre mercancías e imaginarios sociales.

  14. The religiosity and the quotidian in the city of Alto Paraíso (RO)

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo da presente pesquisa é explicitar a relação entre a religião e a vida cotidiana na cid ade de Alto Paraíso (RO). Pretende discutir o papel do imaginário religioso no processo de ocupação de um novo espaço geográfico e na luta pela sobrevivência neste contexto. Sistematiza, assim, a história de uma cidade a partir de depoimentos de seus primeiros habitantes, perguntando pelo lugar da religião nesta memória. A metodologia privilegia o depoimento oral, colhido através da técn...

  15. La fiesta xita: patrimonio biocultural mazahua de San Pedro el Alto, México

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    Alicia Y. Vásquez González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante la crisis ambiental y de la modernidad, se propone conservar la riqueza cultural y biológica de la humanidad como patrimonio. Así, se valora y revalora el patrimonio vivo, como es la relación entre culturas y biodiversidad, que se manifiestan en paisajes y territorios de los pueblos originarios. Se propone la fiesta xita (viejos como patrimonio biocultural de la milpa mazahua. El estudio etnográfico se realizó en San Pedro el Alto, México. La fiesta xita es parte del patrimonio biocultural mazahua, mediante la cual se entretejen agrobiodiversidad y cultura, lo que permite que los mazahuas mantengan y desarrollen sus actividades sociales y culturales que han sido heredadas de generación en generación.

  16. Knowledge, practices and attitudes about ICT among nurses of Alto Paraná

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    Carmen Noelia Espínola López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: ICT competencies are now essential for nurses in optimizing their care services and their training. Objective: To analyze knowledge, attitudes and practices related to ICT, in de population of public hospital and ISP’s nurses of Alto Paraná, Paraguay. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive and transversal study was conducted. Data were collected from 130 professionals, during June and July of the year 2011, through interviews and by application of a questionnaire of open and closed questions and a Likert scale.Results: The dimensions of knowledge and use shows elementary levels, but the attitude toward ICT is favorable. Discussion: This last fact and the finding of a predominantly young population suggest that interventions aimed at training have a high probability of success.

  17. Photo-fission for the production of radioactive beams ALTO project

    CERN Document Server

    Essabaa, S; Ausset, P; Bajeat, O; Baronick, J P; Clapier, F; Coacolo, J L; Donzaud, C; Ducourtieux, M; Galas, S; Gardes, D; Grialou, D; Hosni, F; Guillemaud-Müller, D; Ibrahim, F; Junquera, T; Lau, C; Le Blanc, F; Lefort, H; Le Scornet, J C; Lesrel, J; Müller, A C; Obert, J; Perru, O; Potier, J C; Proust, J; Pougheon, F; Roussière, B; Rouvière, N; Sauvage, J; Sorlin, O; Tkatchenko, A; Verney, D; Waast, B; Rinolfi, Louis; Rossat, G; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Bienvenu, G; Bourdon, J C; Garvey, Terence; Jacquemard, B; Omeich, M

    2003-01-01

    In order to probe neutron rich radioactive noble gases produced by photo-fission, a PARRNe-1 experiment (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons) has been carried out at CERN. The incident electron beam of 50 MeV was delivered by the LIL machine: LEP Injector Linac. The experiment allowed us to compare under the same conditions two production methods of radioactive noble gases: fission induced by fast neutrons and photo-fission. The obtained results show that the use of the electrons is a promising mode to get intense neutron rich ion beams. After the success of this photo-fission experiment, a conceptual design for the installation at IPN Orsay of a 50 MeV electron accelerator close to the PARRNe-2 device has been worked out: ALTO Project. This work has started within a collaboration between IPNO, LAL (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire) and CERN groups.

  18. Photo-fission for the production of radioactive beams ALTO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essabaa, S. E-mail: essabaa@ipno.in2p3.fr; Arianer, J.; Ausset, P.; Bajeat, O.; Baronick, J.P.; Clapier, F.; Coacolo, L.; Donzaud, C.; Ducourtieux, M.; Gales, S.; Gardes, D.; Grialou, D.; Hosni, F.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Junquera, T.; Lau, C.; Le Blanc, F.; Lefort, H.; Le Scornet, J.C.; Lesrel, J.; Mueller, A.C.; Obert, J.; Perru, O.; Potier, J.C.; Proust, J.; Pougheon, F.; Roussiere, B.; Rouviere, N.; Sauvage, J.; Sorlin, O.; Tkatchenko, A.; Verney, D.; Waast, B.; Rinolfi, L.; Rossat, G.; Forkel-Wirth, D.; Muller, A.; Bienvenu, G.; Bourdon, J.-C.; Garvey, T.; Jacquemard, B.; Omeich, M

    2003-05-01

    In order to probe neutron rich radioactive noble gases produced by photo-fission, a PARRNe-1 experiment (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons) has been carried out at CERN. The incident electron beam of 50 MeV was delivered by the LIL machine: LEP Injector Linac. The experiment allowed us to compare under the same conditions two production methods of radioactive noble gases: fission induced by fast neutrons and photo-fission. The obtained results show that the use of the electrons is a promising mode to get intense neutron rich ion beams. After the success of this photo-fission experiment, a conceptual design for the installation at IPN Orsay of a 50 MeV electron accelerator close to the PARRNe-2 device has been worked out: ALTO Project. This work has started within a collaboration between IPNO, LAL (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire) and CERN groups.

  19. Rituals and death cults in recent prehistory in Central Portugal (Alto Ribatejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Figueiredo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to give a general outline of new data that contributes to a better understanding of cults and rituals in Alto Ribatejo, central Portugal, during recent prehistory. The Megalithic Complex of Rego da Murta is the only megalithic set known so far in the Upper Nabão region, and is therefore of crucial significance to understanding the population dynamics of the people who inhabited this region. The excellent preservation of deposition contexts – especially those in Dolmen II of Rego da Murta, and its relative proximity with the cave contexts – makes it the perfect case study for understanding the burial rites performed in this period.

  20. Desarrollo rural y deterioro del bosque. Región interestatal del Alto Lerma

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    María Estela Orozco-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación analiza las condiciones naturales y socioeconómicas de la región interestatal Alto Lerma, mediante una evaluación diagnóstica de las fortalezas, oportunidades, debilidades y amenazas que afectan la utilización de las áreas que corresponden a bosques templados. Se aportan elementos para repensar las formas de intervención y apropiación de los recursos forestales y se proponen estrategias para la atención social y ambiental de las comunidades rurales. Se analizó información cartográfica, estadística y documental, así como la obtenida por medio de entrevistas proporcionadas por funcionarios públicos.

  1. Derechos de propiedad, compañías petroleras, Estado y renta en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús MORA CONTRERAS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo muestra que las compañías petroleras internacionales han estado haciendo negocios en Venezuela durante más de cuatro quintas partes de casi un siglo de historia de la industria petrolera en este país (1917-2009. Muestra también que lo que ha cambiado para ellas a lo largo del tiempo es la manera de hacer negocios en la industria petrolera venezolana, valga decir, los términos y condiciones de acceso a las actividades de exploración y producción que les ha impuesto el propietario del recurso natural, relacionados particularmente con el reparto de la renta petrolera internacional. El artículo, dividido en cuatro secciones, es una síntesis de la historia del derecho de propiedad del subsuelo, de las compañías petroleras, del Estado y de la renta petrolera internacional en Venezuela desde 1920 hasta el presente. ABSTRACT: This paper shows that in almost a century of history of the Venezuelan oil industry (1917-2009, International Oil Companies (IOCs have been doing business in this country for just more than fourth fifth of this period (74/92 years. It shows too that during that time, what has been changing in this country for the oil companies, IOCs or National Oil Companies (NOCs, is the way of doing business in the upstream of the oil industry: the terms and conditions of the owner of the underground property rights. Terms and conditions mean in this context how much of the oil generated rents in the underground public and national property rights goes to the pockets of the oil companies and government. This paper summarizes the history of the underground property rights, oil companies, the State, and rent in Venezuela from 1920 up to the present.

  2. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  3. [Case reports of drug-induced liver injury in a reference hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Ruiz-Soler, María; Silva-Suarez, Niniveth; Andrade-Bellido, Raúl; Lucena-González, Maribel; Bessone, Fernando; Hernández, Nelia; Sánchez, Adriana; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with varied geographical differences. The aim of this prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was to identify and characterize cases of DILI in a hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela. Thirteen patients with a presumptive diagnosis of DILI attended by the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario, Zulia state, Venezuela, from December-2012 to December-2013 were studied. Ibuprofen (n = 3; 23.1%), acetaminophen (n = 3; 23.1), isoniazid (n = 2; 15.4%) and Herbalife products (n = 2; 15.4%) were the main drugs involved with DILI. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen showed a mixed pattern of liver injury (n = 3; 23.1%) and isoniazid presented a hepatocellular pattern (n = 2; 15.4%). The CIOMS/RUCAMS allowed the identification of possible (n = 7; 53.9%), probable (n = 4; 30.8%) and highly-probable cases (n = 2; 15.4%) of DILI. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, isoniazid, isotretinoin, methotrexate and Herbalife nutritional products were implicated as highly-probable and probable agents. The highest percentage of DILI corresponded to mild cases that recovered after the discontinuation of the agent involved (n = 9; 69.3%). The consumption of Herbalife botanical products is associated with probable causality and fatality (n = 1; 7.7%). In conclusion, the frequency of DILI cases controlled by the Department of Gastroenterology of the Hospital Universitario of Maracaibo was low, being ibuprofen, acetaminophen, isoniazid and products Herbalife the products most commonly involved. It is recommended to continue with the prospective registration of cases, with an extended follow up monitoring period and to facilitate the incorporation of other hospitals in the Zulia State and Venezuela.

  4. La alta gerencia corporativa, el marketing y la responsabilidad social empresarial: Caso Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Raspa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta a continuación es una visión que analiza y examina el desarrollo del concepto de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y el Marketing,a nivel global, bajo la óptica de autores como Lindbaek (2003 hasta las tendencias modernas de la misma, a través de las normativas que controlan e incentivan la acción social de las empresas en el concierto de las naciones. Luego de un análisis de esas tendencias se adentra en la situación de la Responsabilidad Social y Marketing en Venezuela y como se viene desarrollando durante las últimas décadas. Finalmente, al comparar las tendencias mundiales sobre Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y la situación venezolana se destaca la propensión del empresariado venezolano a la puesta en práctica de la acción social de una manera eficiente y con orientación al Marketing.Palabras Clave: Responsabilidad social empresarial; marketing, estrategia; acción social; ciudadano corporativo.Corporate senior management, marketing and corporate social responsibility: Venezuela Case AbstractThe work presented below is an overview that draws the development of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility and global marketing from the perspective of authors like Lindbaek (2003 to modern trends of this perspective, through regulations that control and encourage social action of the companies in the concert of nations. After an analysis of these trends, it goes deeper into the situation of the Social Responsibility and Marketing in Venezuela and how it has been developing itself over recent decades. Finally, and to compare global trend about Corporate Social Responsibility and the Venezuelan situation, it is highlighted the propensity of the Venezuelan entrepreneurial to the implementation of social action in an efficient way and marketing focused.Keywords: corporate social responsibility; marketing; strategy; social action; corporate citizen.

  5. Transformaciones sociodemográficas de la élite parlamentaria en Venezuela (1993-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa RAMOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Si bien Venezuela no es un caso representativo de nuevo régimen democrático, ya que ha funcionado ininterrumpidamente como tal desde hace treinta años, sí existen una serie de elementos que permiten plantear la existencia de una importante ruptura en la composición de la élite parlamentaria, constituyendo las dos últimas legislaturas un punto de inflexión claro en el desarrollo político venezolano y una muestra de la ruptura definitiva del bipartidismo que venía funcionando desde 1958.El objeto de este artículo es el estudio de la estructura sociológica de la élite parlamentaria en el período 1993- 1998, comparando algunas particularidades de la misma con características de la actual legislatura intentando establecer rupturas y continuidades entre ambas Cámaras. En el mismo se contrastan hipótesis clásicas, al estilo de las recogidas por Putnam y Von Beyme sobre la relación entre determinadas características sociodemográficas y demográficas y la élite política.ABSTRACT: Although Venezuela is not a representative case of new democracy, because it is established thirty years ago, there are now some important element that implied an break in parliamentarian elite composition. The last two legislatures can be interpreted as an evident point in Venezuela Political.The object of this article is the study of sociological estructure of parliamentarian elite durign the period of 1993-1998, comparing some o( their particularities and trying to stablish breaks and continuities along them. Some clasical hipothesis, as posited by Von Beyme and Putnam about correlation sociademoghapich characterists and political elites, are contrasted in the article.

  6. Distribución y redistribución del ingreso en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel FREIJE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El análisis de la distribución y redistribución del ingreso en Venezuela se puede resumir en tres conclusiones generales. En primer lugar, la distribución del ingreso en Venezuela es más desigual en el año 2000 que a finales de la década de 1970. En segundo lugar, esta situación se debe a un descenso en la acumulación de capital que está también asociado al colapso del producto y el ingreso. En tercer lugar, el descenso en la acumulación de capital no parece estar asociado a la desigualdad inicial de la economía o a mecanismos redistributivos por parte del gobierno. Puede decirse que la contracción del crecimiento económico es lo que ha causado el aumento de la pobreza y el aumento de la desigualdad en la economía venezolana.ABSTRACT: An analysis of distribution and redistribution of income in Venezuela leads to three general conclusions. In first place, the distribution of income is more unequal in 2000 than by the end of the seventies. In second place, this situation is due to a drop in the accumulation of capital, also linked to the collapse of the product and the income. In third place, the drop in the accumulation of capital does not seem to be associated to the initial inequality of the economy or to redistributive mechanisms of the government. It is possible to say that the reduction of the economic growth has caused an increase of the poverty and the raise of inequality in the Venezuelan economy.

  7. Interacción dinámica ofensiva en balonmano de alto rendimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrio Lozano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar las variables que influyen en las fases ofensivas del balonmano de alto rendimiento desde una perspectiva ecológica evaluando los diferentes sistemas tácticos ofensivos en ataque posicional y en contraataque, teniendo en cuenta: el marcador, el tipo de defensa, la simetría numérica, la zona de finalización y el tipo de finalización. Utilizando la metodología observacional y un sistema de observación ad hoc (SOCTO introducido en el software Lince, se registraron un total de 19 partidos de las fases finales masculinas del Campeonato del Mundo 2011, Campeonato de Europa 2012 y Juegos Olímpicos 2012. El análisis descriptivo y de contingencia se complementó con la detección de patrones temporales ­(T-patterns. Los resultados reafirman la autoorganización no lineal de la dinámica de juego ofensivo en el balonmano masculino de alto rendimiento, a partir de la utilización de medios tácticos básicos contra sistemas defensivos abiertos y de medios tácticos complejos contra sistemas defensivos cerrados. Estos medios tácticos complejos ofensivos son los más utilizados en igualdad numérica en la primera secuencia de ataque posicional desde la zona intermedia entre 6 y 9 metros y finalizando en golpe franco a favor del equipo atacante.

  8. Situación estimada de la zona cohesiva en el horno alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cores, A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of sinters are manufactured in the pilot plant, using a mineral mixture, like that blast furnace. The sinters are characterised, by chemical and granulometric analysis and by determining the softening and melting temperatures. In the blast furnace temperatures are determined by using a series of probes in the furnace which make it possible to locate the position of the isotherm of higher temperature of 950°C, which correspond to the reserve thermic zone. A model has been developed, proposing and indirect estimation of the shape of the cohesive zone through the determination of the isotherm with the highest temperature in the thermic reserve zone. The values of the softening and melting temperatures of sinters can be used to estimate the isotherms limiting the cohesive zone in the 1300-1400 °C range.

    En planta piloto se fabrica una serie de sinterizados a partir de mezclas minerales como las utilizadas en el horno alto. Se caracterizan los sinterizados mediante análisis químico y granulométrico y determinación de las temperaturas de reblandecimiento y fusión. En el horno alto, mediante una serie de sondas, se determinan las temperaturas en el horno, lo que permite situar la posición de la isoterma de mayor temperatura de 950 °C, que corresponde a la zona de reserva térmica. Se ha desarrollado un modelo que propone una estimación indirecta de la forma de la zona cohesiva a través de la determinación de la isoterma de mayor temperatura de la zona de reserva térmica. Los valores de las temperaturas de reblandecimiento y fusión de los sinterizados permiten estimar las isotermas que limitan la zona cohesiva, en el intervalo de 1.300-1.400 °C.

  9. Assistência prestada à adolescente no momento do parto em uma maternidade de alto risco

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    Márcia Juliana Mello da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar as práticas obstétricas realizadas em adolescentes parturientes atendidas em uma maternidade de alto risco. Métodos: Estudo observacional, de corte transversal, documental e descritivo, realizado com busca em 157 prontuários de parturientes adolescentes atendidas em maternidade de alto risco em Maceió-AL, no período de janeiro a junho/2013. Avaliaram-se variáveis socioeconômicas, práticas obstétricas e clínica, sendo os resultados apresentados em frequência simples. Resultados: Entre as parturientes, a idade variou de 14 a 19 anos, e 96 (61,1% viviam em união estável. Com relação aos dados obstétricos, 125 (79,6% eram primigestas e 73 realizaram de 4 a 6 consultas de pré-natal. Em 107 (68,1% prontuários o partograma não foi encontrado. Entre os partos realizados, em 75 (47,8% os profissionais não realizaram episiotomia, em 110 (70,1% foram realizadas manobras ativas do 3º estágio e 146 (86,6% adolescentes não tiveram complicações clínicas no parto. Conclusão: Evidenciou-se que algumas práticas obstétricas preconizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde estão sendo realizadas com as parturientes adolescentes, mas não são suficientes para uma assistência de qualidade.

  10. La lucha contra el cierre de Altos Hornos del Mediterráneo de Sagunto (Valencia

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    Enrique González de Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La lucha de los trabajadores de Altos Hornos del Mediterráneo (AHM de Sagunto (Valencia contra el cierre de la cabecera entre los años 1983 y 1984 constituyó un hito en toda regla. El Gobierno del PSOE propuso una reconversión industrial en la que los principales afectados serían los trabajadores del sector. Las formas de organización con que se dotó el pueblo de Sagunto inmediatamente posibilitaron que la participación fuera muy amplia y extensa, lo que presionó, a su vez, a los directivos de la siderurgia, al Gobierno, a los sindicatos y a los partidos de izquierda, siendo una constante a lo largo de todo el conflicto. Las innumerables huelgas, concentraciones, marchas a Valencia y a la capital de España mostraron la enorme disposición de la clase trabajadora por defender los puestos de trabajo. Sin embargo, aquella demostración no echó atrás los planes previstos.The struggle of workers in the Altos Hornos del Mediterráneo (AHM Sagunto (Valencia against the closure of the head between 1983 and 1984 was a landmark in the whole rule. The PSOE Government’s proposed industrial restructuring in which the main victims were workers. The town of Sagunto took such organization measures that people participation was very broad and extensive, and, consequently, management of iron and steel industry, government, trade unions and left-wing political parties were pressurized. It was a constant throughout the conflict. The numerous strikes, rallies and marches to Valencia and the Spanish capital showed the enormous willingness of the working class to defend jobs. However, that demonstration didn’t stop the plans.

  11. El desarrollo del turismo en el Parque Natural del Alto Tajo

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    Antonio Mora Sánchez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el espacio geográfico delimitado por el Parque Natural del Alto Tajo, buscando métodos y sistemas cuya implantación permitan un desarrollo de la zona desde el punto de vista turístico y que, por otro lado, asegure la compatibilidad de las medidas de desarrollo que se emprendan con las exigencias y ventajas que supone el área geográfica del espacio natural del Alto Tajo. Con objeto de establecer las bases que permitan comprender las posibilidades de desarrollo turístico y las propuestas que para ello se realizan, el estudio aborda un análisis del turismo rural, tendencias actuales, implicaciones, condicionantes y motivaciones. Asimismo, se analizan experiencias de desarrollo turístico en zonas rurales de otras regiones de España, Taramundi y Serranía de Ronda, como experiencias equivalentes de desarrollo turístico rural que muestran la viabilidad de este tipo de actuaciones impulsoras del desarrollo en el ámbito rural. Entre las líneas de acción que se pueden llevar a cabo en el territorio objeto de estudio, desde el punto de vista del desarrollo sostenible, en el corto y en el medio plazo, destacamos algunas consideradas imprescindibles y que hacen referencia a aspectos como el estudio de la capacidad de carga del territorio, la necesidad de un equipamiento fundamental como es un centro de acogida de visitantes, la idoneidad de disponer de un adecuado sistema de Agentes de Desarrollo Local orientado específicamente al sector turístico, así como un plan de comercialización y marketing para los productos turísticos de la zona del Parque Natural.

  12. Sentidos de Vitória/Derrota para os Pais Segundo Atletas do Alto Rendimento

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    Isabela Amblard

    Full Text Available Este estudo compreendeu as representações sociais da vitória/derrota para os pais segundo atletas-adolescentes do esporte de alto rendimento, na cidade do Recife. A adolescência é compreendida a partir da Psicologia Social-histórica, e o embasamento teórico-metodológico da Teoria das Representações Sociais abordou os sujeitos em diferentes contextos socioculturais, lugares de pertencimento, experiências, crenças, saberes e sentimentos compartilhados. Adotou-se a perspectiva pluri metodológica com variados recursos de coleta e análise progressiva de dados. Participaram 101 atletas-adolescentes do esporte de alto rendimento, nas modalidades natação e vôlei. Os instrumentos utilizados foram questionários de associação livre e entrevistas semidirigidas. Na análise dos dados, o software EVOC e as técnicas de análise temática de conteúdo de Bardin. Identificamos as representações de vitória para os pais, nas dimensões: pessoal e motivacional, e afetivo-emocional e, nas representações sociais da derrota para os pais, além destas, a dimensão técnica. O sentido de vitória para os pais apareceu ampliado: o contexto esportivo, a escolarização, e o crescimento pessoal e profissional na vida. A derrota para os pais é representada como oportunidade de aprendizado e superação para o atleta-adolescente, porém, eles mostraram que necessitam do apoio afetivo de sua família para lidar com a autoculpabilização nas situações de fracasso.

  13. Adesão ao Tratamento em Gestação de Alto Risco

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    Fabíola Langaro

    Full Text Available No Brasil, aproximadamente 15% das gestações são de alto risco, sendo os diagnósticos de diabetes gestacional e hipertensão as causas mais frequentes dessa condição. Para a efetividade dos tratamentos indicados nesses casos, bem como alcance de desfechos favoráveis, é essencial a adesão da paciente às recomendações fornecidas pelas equipes de saúde, o que torna fundamental a avaliação desse indicador. A pesquisa apresentada avaliou a adesão de participantes de um programa de atendimento interdisciplinar a gestantes de alto risco desenvolvido em um hospital geral privado por meio de três instrumentos: Questionário Morisky-Green de adesão ao uso de medicação, Questionário de Adesão ao Tratamento e Pergunta descritiva de avaliação qualitativa. Durante oito meses, 83 gestantes responderam aos questionários, que possibilitaram identificar níveis de adesão ao longo do tempo de participação no programa, situações de não adesão mais frequentes, bem como variáveis que interferem nas medidas de adesão ao uso de medicação e ao tratamento global. Considera-se que os índices levantados são passíveis de uso como indicadores clínicos e gerenciais, possibilitando a comprovação da efetividade e melhoria constante das rotinas de saúde. Tais mecanismos são úteis para definição de protocolos, discussão de casos clínicos e mesmo para feedbackàs próprias pacientes.

  14. Wine and cultural heritage. The experience of the Alto Douro Wine Region

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    Lina Lourenço-Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Demarcated Douro Region is one of the oldest demarcated wine regions, and the largest and the most heterogeneous mountainous wine region in the world. Viticulture covers 44,000 ha, and since 2001 an area covering 24,600 ha has been designated as the most representative territory of the Demarcated Douro Region, the Alto Douro Wine Region. This region is included in the list of World Heritage Sites as an evolving and living cultural landscape. The Demarcated Douro Region fits the terroir model, as its economy is based on wine (Porto wine and Douro still wines, supplemented by tourism. During recent decades, both activities have witnessed deep and structural changes, with consequences for the maintenance of the traditional characteristics of the cultural landscape that drove the UNESCO classification. With this issue in mind, the goal of this paper is to describe the recent evolution of the main economic activities of the Demarcated Douro Region. In particular, we aim to deepen the knowledge about the preferences of Portuguese visitors towards the Alto Douro Wine Region and its attributes, thus determining those that deserve preservation and, consequently, public attention. The results of a mixed logit model show that visitors assign highest utility to the preservation of vineyards supported by schist walls, followed by the agglomerations and the characteristic mosaic nature of the landscape. Additionally, respondents who are richer, employed, better educated, better informed regarding the culture of the site and more influenced by the listing are more willing to participate in preserving the cultural heritage of the region.

  15. Study for improving the in-situ combustion of Venezuela extra-heavy crude oil using unconventional additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Rodriguez, A.J.; Perozo Hernandez, H. A.; Oliveros, D. A. [PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Reyes, N. [Universidad Central de Venezuela (Venezuela); Reinoza, J. [Universidad de los Andes (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of conventional oil resources, heavy oil now accounts for an important part of both world and Venezuelan resources. Its recovery presents many challenges and a new in situ combustion process using additives was developed to address them. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of the use of an additive to enhance the combustion process. Tests were performed with an inexpensive waste steam as additive and crude oil from the Orinoco oil belt. Six runs were performed, 2 were references and 4 used the additive placed in 2/3 of the total length of the cell. The use of additive led to more efficient combustion, greater stability of the combustion front, better oil recovery and the production of lighter compounds than without additive. This study demonstrated that the use of additive could be a promising opportunity for Venezuelan heavy oil operators.

  16. Microcrédito y pobreza en Venezuela: un caso de estudio

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    Alberto Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor analiza y evalúa el Proyecto de Desarrollo de Comunidades Rurales Pobres (PRODECOP como uno de varios programas que existen en Venezuela para reducir los índices de pobreza. La metodología utilizada comprende tanto investigación documental como trabajo de campo. Dentro de los principales resultados obtenidos resaltan el éxito del PRODECOP en el fortalecimiento de los activos humanos, sociales, financieros y físicos de las familias bene- ficiarias y el extraordinario crecimiento de las cajas rurales, que se han convertido en un mecanismo de financiamiento para las familias rurales pobres

  17. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Two Hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E.; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month – 86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second - higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Conclusions/Significance Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial

  18. Venezuela, los cambios globales y su política exterior

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    Carlos A. ROMERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El mundo ha avanzado hacia la globalización, lo que exige que América Latina, con poca relevancia internacional y con una situación económica crítica, busque ajustarse a las nuevas exigencias internacionales mediante "la desregulación y la coordinación económica". También se hace prioritaria la búsqueda de la integración regional tanto a nivel público como privado a través de instituciones como Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.Este artículo plantea las incidencias de la globalización y la integración en la política exterior venezolana y los mecanismos a aplicar para ajustarse al nuevo modelo mundial. Tres son los puntos prioritarios en este sentido: los cambios globales, el petróleo y la política exterior.La situación de Venezuela como país proveedor de petróleo a Estados Unidos le ha permitido ser conservador en sus posiciones y asumir la apertura económica de forma más discreta al resto de países de la región. La democracia es otro tema que rodea las relaciones internacionales, especialmente lo relativo a los derechos humanos y al buen gobierno, y del cual Venezuela se beneficia al procurar un espacio idóneo para su desarrollo.ABSTRACT: The world has moved towards globalization, which means that Latin America, that has low international leverage and a critical economic situation, has to search for an adjustment to the new international demands by means of "deregulation and economic coordination". It is also a priority to pursue the regional integration at the prívate and public levels through institutions such as Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.This article poses the incidences of globalization and integration in the Venezuelan international policy, as wcll as the mechanisms of adjustment to the new world orden. Three elements are pointed out as priorities: the global changes, the petroleum, and the international policy.The situation of Venezuela as a US supplier of petroleum has

  19. Historia reciente y situación política actual de Venezuela

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    Elizabeth Burgos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Entrevista (en español Presentación Elisabeth Burgos es una antropóloga y escritora venezolana; coautora del libro Me llamo Rigoberta Menchú y así me nació la conciencia (Madrid, Editores Siglo XXI, 1998, sobre la vida de la dirigente indígena guatemalteca ganadora del Premio Nobel de la Paz en 1992. Actualmente reside en París donde realiza estudios de Historia. En esta entrevista, Elisabeth Burgos nos presenta su visión de la historia de Venezuela desde 1936, año en el que ella sitúa el i...

  20. Tendencias actuales en autorregulación: el caso de las comunicaciones comerciales en Venezuela

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    David López Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La autorregulación de las comunicaciones comerciales constituye una práctica relativamente reciente. Numerosas empresas, en la actualidad, con buen criterio, están adecuando sus actividades publicitarias a los instrumentos derivados de la autorregulación. Estos últimos, fomentados en ciertas ocasiones por el sector público, constituyen un sugerente complemento de la normativa legal. En el presente estudio, nos referiremos, con carácter general, de forma somera, a esta figura. Posteriormente, tomaremos conciencia de la misma en el caso de Venezuela.