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  1. Delayed upwelling alters nearshore coastal ocean ecosystems in the northern California current

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Barth; Menge, Bruce A.; Lubchenco, Jane; Chan, Francis; Bane, John M.; Kirincich, Anthony R.; McManus, Margaret A.; Nielsen, Karina J.; Pierce, Stephen D.; Washburn, Libe

    2007-01-01

    Wind-driven coastal ocean upwelling supplies nutrients to the euphotic zone near the coast. Nutrients fuel the growth of phytoplankton, the base of a very productive coastal marine ecosystem [Pauly D, Christensen V (1995) Nature 374:255–257]. Because nutrient supply and phytoplankton biomass in shelf waters are highly sensitive to variation in upwelling-driven circulation, shifts in the timing and strength of upwelling may alter basic nutrient and carbon fluxes through marine food webs. We sh...

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Contingent Valuation Studies in Coastal and Near-Shore Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Liu; Stern, David I.

    2008-01-01

    The ecosystem services provided by coastal and nearshore marine systems contribute significantly to human welfare. However, studies that document values of these services are widely scattered in the peer-reviewed literature. We collected 39 contingent valuation papers with 120 observations to conduct the first meta-analysis of the ecosystem service values provided by the coastal and nearshore marine systems. Our results show that over ¾ of the variation in Willingness to Pay (WTP) for coastal...

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Contingent Valuation Studies in Coastal and Near-Shore Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuang; Stern, David I.

    2008-01-01

    The ecosystem services provided by coastal and nearshore marine systems contribute significantly to human welfare. However, studies that document values of these services are widely scattered in the peer-reviewed literature. We collected 39 contingent valuation papers with 120 observations to conduct the first meta-analysis of the ecosystem service values provided by the coastal and nearshore marine systems. Our results show that over ¾ of the variation in Willingness to Pay (WTP) for coas...

  4. Nearshore coastal mapping. [in Lake Michigan and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Two test sites of different water quality and bottom topography were used to test for maximum water depth penetration using the Skylab S-192 MSS for measurement of nearshore coastal bathymetry. Sites under investigation lie along the Lake Michigan coastline where littoral transport acts to erode sand bluffs and endangers developments along 1,200 miles of shore, and on the west coast of Puerto Rico where unreliable shoal location and depth information constitutes a safety hazard to navigation. The S-192 and S-190A and B provide data on underwater features because of water transparency in the blue/green portion of the spectrum. Depth of 20 meters were measured with the S-192 in the Puerto Rico test site. The S-190B photography with its improved spatial resolution clearly delineates the triple sand bar topography in the Lake Michigan test site. Several processing techniques were employed to test for maximum depth measurement with least error. The results are useful for helping to determine an optimum spectral bandwidth for future space sensors that will increase depth measurements for different water attenuation conditions where a bottom reflection is detectable.

  5. Macrobenthos in the nearshore coastal system of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mathew, A.; Govindan, K.

    . Selected water quality parameters like S ppt, DO, BOD, nutrients etc. were monitored. Macrobenthos and water quality of the Harbour-Thana creek-System (HTS) and the Bassein creek-coastal system (BCS) were studied and compared. HTS sustained relatively...

  6. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m(-2) d(-1)). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L(-1)) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters. PMID:27283125

  7. Remote sensing of Qatar nearshore habitats with perspectives for coastal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Christopher; Dupont, Jennifer; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Hobeichi, Sanaa; Palandro, David; Purkis, Sam

    2016-04-30

    A framework is proposed for utilizing remote sensing and ground-truthing field data to map benthic habitats in the State of Qatar, with potential application across the Arabian Gulf. Ideally the methodology can be applied to optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of mapping the nearshore environment to identify sensitive habitats, monitor for change, and assist in management decisions. The framework is applied to a case study for northeastern Qatar with a key focus on identifying high sensitivity coral habitat. The study helps confirm the presence of known coral and provides detail on a region in the area of interest where corals have not been previously mapped. Challenges for the remote sensing methodology associated with natural heterogeneity of the physical and biological environment are addressed. Recommendations on the application of this approach to coastal environmental risk assessment and management planning are discussed as well as future opportunities for improvement of the framework. PMID:26632526

  8. Nearshore Coastal Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Micro-Tidal Beach (NCSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu, A.; Figlus, J.; Mendoza, T.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.; Pieterse, A.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; DiCosmo, N. R.; Wellman, N.; Garcia-Nava, H.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; Roberts, T.; López-González, J.; Bravo, M.; Ojeda, E.; Medellín, G.; Appendini, C. M.; Figueroa, B.; González-Leija, M.; Enriquez, C.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Salles, P.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive field experiment devoted to the study of coastal processes on a micro-tidal beach was conducted from March 30th to April 12th 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán México. Wave conditions in the study area are controlled by local (i.e., sea-breezes) and meso-scale (i.e., Nortes) meteorological events. Simultaneous measurements of waves, tides, winds, currents, sediment transport, runup, and beach morphology were obtained in this experiment. Very dense nearshore instrumentation arrays allow us the study of the cross-/along- shore variability of surf/swash zone dynamics during different forcing conditions. Strong sea-breeze wind events produced a diurnal cycle with a maximum wind speed of 14 m/s. The persistent sea-breeze system forces small-amplitude (Hs1 m) Norte event, lasting 48 hours, reached the coast on April 8th generating a long-period swell (Tp>10 s) arriving from the NNW. This event induced an eastward net sediment transport across a wide surf zone. However, long-term observations of sand impoundment at a groin located near the study area suggests that the net sediment transport in the northern Yucatan peninsula is controlled by sea-breeze events and hence swash zone dynamics play an important role in the net sediment budget of this region. A comparative study of surf and swash zone dynamics during both sea-breeze and Norte events will be presented. The Institute of Engineering of UNAM, throughout an International Collaborative Project with the University of Delaware, and CONACYT (CB-167692) provided financial support. The first author acknowledges ONR Global for providing financial support throughout the Visiting Scientist Program.

  9. Landsat-8 imagery to estimate clarity in near-shore coastal waters: Feasibility study - Chabahar Bay, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Keivan; Moradi, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the advantages of incorporating the new band of Landsat-8 OLI imagery (band 1: Coastal/Aerosol, 435-451 nm) to a model for estimation of Secchi disk depth (SDD) values (as an indicator for transparency) in near-shore coastal waters using multispectral bands. In doing so, Chabahar Bay in the southern part of Iran (north of Gulf of Oman) was selected as the study area. Two approximately four-hour in-situ observations (including 48 and 56 field measured SDD values for each date respectively) were performed in the study area using Secchi disk; this was designed to start about two hours before and end about two hours after the time of satellite overpasses. Thereafter, a model was formed for estimation of SDD values based on the terms including all possible linear and mutual ratio values of Coastal/Aerosol (B1), Blue (B2), Green (B3), and Red bands (B4). In the first step, the correlation between reflectance/ratio reflectance values of these bands and Ln(SDD) values were calculated to indicate higher correlated bands/band ratios with the first field measured SDD values. Consequently, 17 combinations of highest correlated bands/band ratios were selected to estimate SDD values. In this regard, 32 points among the 48 field observations were selected to determine unknown coefficients of models using a multiple linear regression, and the rest 16 points were designated for accuracy assessment the results. Eventually, the measured SDD values in second field observations were utilized for validating the results. Final results demonstrated that combination of linear terms including B1, B2 and B3 bands and band ratio terms including ratio reflectance values of B4/B3, B3/B1, and B2/B1 has led to obtain the highest accuracy (R2=0.866 and RMSE=0.919, SVM feature weight=4.294). This was in agreement with the results obtained from the second observations. Finally, by applying the entire 104 field observed SDD values, the model in form of SDD=0.077exp(1.209RB1

  10. Contribution from coastal laterites to the nearshore placers of central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Srinivas, K.

    and basalts. The pebbles show genetic relation with the coastal laterites and Deccan trap basalts indicating their derivation from them before the last Holocene transgression. The petrography, mineralogical and geochemical analyses suggest that the minerals...

  11. Seasonal Distribution of Organic Carbon in the Surface Sediments of the Terengganu Nearshore Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hasrizal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The distribution of organic carbon in the surface sediment is a crucial indicator for current productivity in the ocean especially in the nearshore area. The difference of organic carbon in the surface sediment reflects the influence of current movement on the bottom sediment. Approach: This study was carried out to oversee the difference of organic carbon distribution during pre and post-monsoon seasons. For the purpose of the study, 42 surface sediments in the Terengganu near shore area were collected and determined for organic carbon by using the wet dichromate acid method. Results: The concentration of organic carbon was significantly different between the seasons showing a relatively higher content during pre-monsoon seasons. In this study, the average concentration of organic carbon in pre-monsoon was 1.14±0.29% and varied from 0.60-1.80%. Meanwhile during post-monsoon seasons, the average concentration of organic carbon was slightly lower to 0.82±0.23% and ranged from 0.24-1.32%. Conclusion: Generally, the average concentration of organic carbon in South China Sea was low compared to the occurrence in riverine environment as well as the mangrove environment.

  12. Restricted movements and mangrove dependency of the nervous shark Carcharhinus cautus in nearshore coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalle, L; Speed, C W; Meekan, M G; White, W T; Babcock, R C; Pillans, R D; Huveneers, C

    2015-08-01

    This study used a network of acoustic receivers deployed around a no-take zone in Mangrove Bay, within the Ningaloo Reef Marine Park in Western Australia, to study residency and habitat preference of a small coastal shark, the nervous shark Carcharhinus cautus. Twelve C. cautus were tagged with acoustic tags and monitored for up to 579 days. Based on individuals detected within the receiver array for at least 2 months, C. cautus had small core (50% kernel utilization distribution, KUD) and home ranges (95% KUD) of 0.66 and 3.64 km2, respectively, and showed a strong habitat preference for mangroves, which are only found in the no-take zone. This resulted in C. cautus spending most of their detected time within the no-take zone boundaries (mean = 81.5%), showing that such a protected area could be beneficial to protect this species from extensive fishing pressure and local depletion, where required. Not all C. cautus remained within the acoustic array, however, suggesting that individual variations occur and that not all individuals would benefit from such protection. This study provides important information about the habitat, residency and movements of C. cautus that can be used for management and conservation. The strong affinity and residency of C. cautus within a mangrove-fringing coastline, emphasizes the importance of mangrove habitat to the species and suggests that such preferences can be used to design appropriate no-take zones for this species or others with similar habitat preferences. PMID:26179676

  13. Diel variation in near-shore great lakes fish assemblages and implications for assessment sampling and coastal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, J.E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    I compared fish assemblages captured in three different microhabitats (shoreline, pelagic near-shore, and benthic near-shore) during day and night fishing in different protection (inside bay or tributary vs. outside in Lake Ontario proper) and turbidity regimes of four near-shore areas of Lake Ontario. The effects of diel movement and availability to gear were clearly evident. Fish assemblages were consistently and significantly more diverse at night than during the day, with nighttime assemblages often being supersets of daytime assemblages. Evidence for a turbidity effect was much weaker than the effects of nocturnal movements and changes in availability to the gear associated with darkness. Nighttime sampling is more likely to capture the full array of species in near-shore areas of the Great Lakes than daytime sampling.

  14. A conceptual framework for Lake Michigan coastal/nearshore ecosystems, with application to Lake Michigan Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelbach, Paul W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Bunnell, David Bo; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rogers, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs) within the Great Lakes region are examples of broad-scale, collaborative resource-management efforts that require a sound ecosystems approach. Yet, the LaMP process is lacking a holistic framework that allows these individual actions to be planned and understood within the broader context of the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this paper we (1) introduce a conceptual framework that unifies ideas and language among Great Lakes managers and scientists, whose focus areas range from tributary watersheds to open-lake waters, and (2) illustrate how the framework can be used to outline the geomorphic, hydrologic biological, and societal processes that underlie several goals of the Lake Michigan LaMP, thus providing a holistic and fairly comprehensive roadmap for tackling these challenges. For each selected goal, we developed a matrix that identifies the key ecosystem processes within the cell for each lake zone and each discipline; we then provide one example where a process is poorly understood and a second where a process is understood, but its impact or importance is unclear. Implicit in these objectives was our intention to highlight the importance of the Great Lakes coastal/nearshore zone. Although the coastal/nearshore zone is the important linkage zone between the watershed and open-lake zones—and is the zone where most LaMP issues are focused--scientists and managers have a relatively poor understanding of how the coastal/nearshore zone functions. We envision follow-up steps including (1) collaborative development of a more detailed and more complete conceptual model of how (and where) identified processes are thought to function, and (2) a subsequent gap analysis of science and monitoring priorities.

  15. Nearshoring Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Brazinskas, Sigitas; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2013-01-01

    factors affected them. The survey results reveal the perspective of Lithuanian vendors regarding their relationships with Scandinavian partners. These findings are used in assessing the future prospects of nearshoring in the Baltic region. Practical implications: The study relates the key attributes of...... and secondary statistical data. Part of the empirical base of the study is an examination of three Scandinavian firms that offshore their operations to vendors in the Baltics. To provide a more complete view of the practices and processes of offshoring in the region, we complement the case studies of...... Swedish and Danish manufacturers with a survey of 55 Lithuanian vendors and other statistical data. Findings: The paper outlines the main drivers of nearshoring for Scandinavian manufacturing firms. Based on in-depth insights into nearshoring initiatives, we elucidate how the initiatives evolved and what...

  16. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography

  17. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  18. Coupling urban growth scenarios with nearshore biophysical change models to inform coastal restoration planning in Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Kreitler, J.; Labiosa, W.

    2010-12-01

    A scenario represents an account of a plausible future given logical assumptions about how conditions change over discrete bounds of space and time. Development of multiple scenarios provides a means to identify alternative directions of urban growth that account for a range of uncertainty in human behavior. Interactions between human and natural processes may be studied by coupling urban growth scenario outputs with biophysical change models; if growth scenarios encompass a sufficient range of alternative futures, scenario assumptions serve to constrain the uncertainty of biophysical models. Spatially explicit urban growth models (map-based) produce output such as distributions and densities of residential or commercial development in a GIS format that can serve as input to other models. Successful fusion of growth model outputs with other model inputs requires that both models strategically address questions of interest, incorporate ecological feedbacks, and minimize error. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model (PSEPM) is a decision-support tool that supports land use and restoration planning in Puget Sound, Washington, a 35,500 sq. km region. The PSEPM couples future scenarios of urban growth with statistical, process-based and rule-based models of nearshore biophysical changes and ecosystem services. By using a multi-criteria approach, the PSEPM identifies cross-system and cumulative threats to the nearshore environment plus opportunities for conservation and restoration. Sub-models that predict changes in nearshore biophysical condition were developed and existing models were integrated to evaluate three growth scenarios: 1) Status Quo, 2) Managed Growth, and 3) Unconstrained Growth. These decadal scenarios were developed and projected out to 2060 at Oregon State University using the GIS-based ENVISION model. Given land management decisions and policies under each growth scenario, the sub-models predicted changes in 1) fecal

  19. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  20. The structure of rocky reef fish assemblages across a nearshore to coastal islands' gradient in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Local assemblages of fishes associated with reefs are influenced by interactions among the availability of larvae and survival of recruits with subsequent biotic and abiotic forcing, as well as by periodic and episodic disturbances of varying natures and magnitudes. Therefore, besides being structurally heterogeneous and patchily distributed, reef systems are strongly context-dependent due to the influence of a broad array of ecological processes. In order to assess interactions of local factors that influence the distribution and abundance of reef fishes within a coastal mosaic of rocky reefs, we tested the null hypothesis of no significant variation in fish assemblage structure, by comparing 33 sites along the northern coast of the São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Replicated stationary visual census samples (n = 396 were obtained at different distances from the coast, depths and wave exposures, including the mainland, three relatively small coastal islands, and the two margins of a wide channel between the mainland and the large São Sebastião Island (~350 km², totaling 225 h of SCUBA diving. The regional rocky shore fish fauna comprised 106 species (41 families, with preponderance of diurnal mobile-invertebrate feeders. Samples from the outer margin of the São Sebastião Island, together with those from Alcatrazes, Búzios, and Vitória islands were significantly dissimilar from samples from the coastal sites at the São Sebastião Channel. Species richness tended to increase in a gradient from the coast to the more offshore islands. Local conditions such as depth and other habitat characteristics also influenced fish assemblages' structure. Distance from coast and depth were the main predictors for fish assemblages, followed by water transparency, temperature and benthic cover. This study represents the first regional-scale assessment of fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs in the São Paulo State coast, filling a major

  1. Great Lakes nearshore-offshore: Distinct water quality regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared water quality of nearshore regions in the Laurentian Great Lakes to water quality in offshore regions. Sample sites for the nearshore region were from the US EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment and based on a criteria or sample-frame of within the 30-m depth co...

  2. Variability In Long-Wave Runup as a Function of Nearshore Bathymetric Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkin, Lauren McNeill [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Beaches and barrier islands are vulnerable to extreme storm events, such as hurricanes, that can cause severe erosion and overwash to the system. Having dunes and a wide beach in front of coastal infrastructure can provide protection during a storm, but the influence that nearshore bathymetric features have in protecting the beach and barrier island system is not completely understood. The spatial variation in nearshore features, such as sand bars and beach cusps, can alter nearshore hydrodynamics, including wave setup and runup. The influence of bathymetric features on long-wave runup can be used in evaluating the vulnerability of coastal regions to erosion and dune overtopping, evaluating the changing morphology, and implementing plans to protect infrastructure. In this thesis, long-wave runup variation due to changing bathymetric features as determined with the numerical model XBeach is quantified (eXtreme Beach behavior model). Wave heights are analyzed to determine the energy through the surfzone. XBeach assumes that coastal erosion at the land-sea interface is dominated by bound long-wave processes. Several hydrodynamic conditions are used to force the numerical model. The XBeach simulation results suggest that bathymetric irregularity induces significant changes in the extreme long-wave runup at the beach and the energy indicator through the surfzone.

  3. Nearshore sticky waters

    CERN Document Server

    Restrepo, Juan M; Dawson, Clint

    2013-01-01

    Wind- and current-driven flotsam, oil spills, pollutants, and nutrients, approaching the nearshore will frequently appear to park just beyond the break zone, where waves break. Moreover, the portion of these tracers that beach will do so only after a long time. Explaining why these tracers park and at what rate they reach the shore has important implications on a variety of different nearshore environmental issues, including the determination of what subscale processes are essential in computer models for the simulation of pollutant transport in the nearshore. Using a simple model we provide an explanation for the underlying mechanism responsible for the parking of tracers, the role played by the bottom topography, and the non-uniform dispersion which leads, in some circumstances, to the eventual landing of all or a portion of the tracers. We refer to the parking phenomenon in this environment as nearshore sticky waters.

  4. Mercury Sources and Cycling in the Great Lakes: Dramatic Changes Resulting from Altered Atmospheric Loads and the Near-Shore Shunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; DeWild, J. F.; Maglio, M. M.; Tate, M. T.; Ogorek, J. M.; Hurley, J. P.; Lepak, R.

    2013-12-01

    there have been large declines in surface water total Hg concentrations (50-75%) across the Great Lakes since about 2000, an observation in agreement with concurrent declines in atmospheric deposition. In addition to a decline in inputs, we hypothesize that appreciable increases in volatilization of gaseous Hg have occurred. Mercury volatilization is directly related to water clarity (via the photo-reduction process), which has increased substantially in the Great Lakes since the invasion of zebra mussels and quagga mussels. Finally, although substantial declines in total aqueous Hg levels are apparent, fish mercury levels over the same time period appear to be relatively steady, and in some locations increasing. We submit this apparent discordance is also the outcome of the invasive mussels, which have caused near-shore eutrophication and off-shore oligotrophication commonly referred to as the near-shore shunt. Initial sampling by this project has revealed that these eutrophied zones are markedly enriched in MeHg. Therefore, it appears that while the open water regions of the Great Lakes appear to have experienced significant aqueous Hg declines, fish Hg levels may be responding to a new site of methylation in the near-shore zone.

  5. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  6. Effects of Human Alterations on Global River Basins and their Associated Coastal Zones: focus on River-dominated Ocean Margins (RiOMars)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, H. H.; Van Cappellen, P.; Meybeck, M.; Laruelle, G. G.; Mayorga, E.; Hartmann, J.; Maavara, T.; Bouwman, L.; Seitzinger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal systems connected to large rivers, mostly major delta systems or river-dominated ocean margins (RiOMars), make up impacts of global change will be explored through the Millenium Assessment Scenarios and how the fluxes to these different coastal systems might change. An increasing role is also played by aquaculture in different coastal types as a non-insignificant source of nutrients. World-wide distribution of coastal types and their related river basins (Dürr et al. 2011). Characteristics of types of near-shore coastal areas and their associated river basins Greenland and Antarctica excepted. Data from Dürr et al. (2011) and the Global-NEWS program (Seitzinger et al. 2005 and Mayorga et al. 2010).

  7. Salt additions alter short-term nitrogen and carbon mobilization in a coastal Oregon Andisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Jana E; Church, M Robbins

    2011-01-01

    Deposition of sea salts is commonly elevated along the coast relative to inland areas, yet little is known about the effects on terrestrial ecosystem biogeochemistry. We examined the influence of NaCl concentrations on N, C, and P leaching from a coastal Oregon forest Andisol in two laboratory studies: a rapid batch extraction (approximately 1 d) and a month-long incubation using microlysimeters. In the rapid extractions, salt additions immediately mobilized significant amounts of ammonium and phosphate but not nitrate. In the month-long incubations, salt additions at concentrations in the range of coastal precipitation increased nitrate leaching from the microcosms by nearly 50% and reduced the mobility of dissolved organic carbon. Our findings suggest that coupled abiotic-biotic effects increase nitrate mobility in these soils: exchange of sodium for ammonium, then net nitrification. Changes in sea salt deposition to land and the interactions with coastal soils could alter the delivery of N and C to sensitive coastal waters. PMID:21869523

  8. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C.; Atkinson, Philip W.; Robinson, Leonie A.; Green, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fin...

  9. Application of autonomous robotized systems for the collection of nearshore topographic changing and hydrodynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyakov, Vladimir; Makarov, Vladimir; Zezyulin, Denis; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous phenomena in the coastal zone lead to the topographic changing which are difficulty inspected by traditional methods. It is why those autonomous robots are used for collection of nearshore topographic and hydrodynamic measurements. The robot RTS-Hanna is well-known (Wubbold, F., Hentschel, M., Vousdoukas, M., and Wagner, B. Application of an autonomous robot for the collection of nearshore topographic and hydrodynamic measurements. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 2012, vol. 33, Paper 53). We describe here several constructions of mobile systems developed in Laboratory "Transported Machines and Transported Complexes", Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University. They can be used in the field surveys and monitoring of wave regimes nearshore.

  10. Cumulative Effects of Coastal Habitat Alterations on Fishery Resources: toward Prediction at Regional Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet A. Nestlerode

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal habitat alterations such as the loss of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV and hardening of shorelines could have cumulative effects on valuable fishery resources. To investigate this effect, we developed a multiscale modeling framework for blue crab (Callinectes sapidus in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Areal coverage of shoreline land cover and SAV for Mobile Bay, Alabama, were combined with information from small-scale biological studies and long-term, large-scale commercial fishery data to model the potential effects of marginal habitat losses on the blue crab fishery. We applied stochastic variation in annual recruitment to the fishery to estimate probabilities for sustainable harvests under scenarios of habitat loss. The simulations suggested that, accumulated over large areas, relatively small local losses of estuarine marsh edge and SAV habitats could have long-term negative effects on the sustainability of the fishery. Spatially extensive models are required to investigate the cumulative ecological effects of many local environmental changes. The requisite scaling adds uncertainty and reduces precision, but if model parameters are accurate at each scale, accurate predictions of long-term outcomes and probabilities are possible.

  11. Carbonate chemistry in the coastal zone responds more strongly to eutrophication than to ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Alberto; Gypens, N.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean has altered carbonate chemistry in surface waters since preindustrial times and is expected to continue to do so in the coming centuries. Changes in carbonate chemistry can modify the rates and fates of marine primary production and calcification. These modifications can in turn lead to feedback on increasing atmospheric CO2. We show, using a numerical model, that in highly productive nearshore coastal marine environments, the effect of eutro...

  12. Bioturbating shrimp alter the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in coastal marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverock, Bonnie; Smith, Cindy J; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve; Gilbert, Jack A

    2010-12-01

    Bioturbation is a key process in coastal sediments, influencing microbially driven cycling of nutrients as well as the physical characteristics of the sediment. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity and function of the microbial communities that inhabit the burrows of infaunal macroorganisms. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to investigate variation in the structure of bacterial communities in sediment bioturbated by the burrowing shrimp Upogebia deltaura or Callianassa subterranea. Analyses of 229 sediment samples revealed significant differences between bacterial communities inhabiting shrimp burrows and those inhabiting ambient surface and subsurface sediments. Bacterial communities in burrows from both shrimp species were more similar to those in surface-ambient than subsurface-ambient sediment (R=0.258, P<0.001). The presence of shrimp was also associated with changes in bacterial community structure in surrounding surface sediment, when compared with sediments uninhabited by shrimp. Bacterial community structure varied with burrow depth, and also between individual burrows, suggesting that the shrimp's burrow construction, irrigation and maintenance behaviour affect the distribution of bacteria within shrimp burrows. Subsequent sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from surface sediments revealed differences in the relative abundance of bacterial taxa between shrimp-inhabited and uninhabited sediments; shrimp-inhabited sediment contained a higher proportion of proteobacterial sequences, including in particular a twofold increase in Gammaproteobacteria. Chao1 and ACE diversity estimates showed that taxon richness within surface bacterial communities in shrimp-inhabited sediment was at least threefold higher than that in uninhabited sediment. This study shows that bioturbation can result in significant structural and compositional changes in sediment bacterial communities, increasing

  13. ei_2hm_fill - interpolated swath bathymetry collected by the U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center surrounding the nearshore of the Elizabeth Islands, MA, 2010 (ESRI grd)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  14. Interpolated swath bathymetry contours collected by the U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center surrounding the nearshore of the Elizabeth Islands, MA, 2010 (ei_contours_1m_dd, ESRI polyline shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  15. Uninterpolated swath bathymetry collected by the U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center surrounding the nearshore of the Elizabeth Islands, MA, 2010 (ei_2hm_nofill, ESRI grd)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  16. Interpolated swath bathymetry hillshaded image collected by the U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center surrounding the nearshore of the Elizabeth Islands, MA, 2010 (ei_2hm_fillhs.tif, GeoTIFF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  17. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  18. GoM Coastal Biopsy Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small vessel surveys were conducted within estuarine and nearshore coastal waters of Barataria Bay, LA and Mississippi Sound, MS to collect tissue biopsy samples...

  19. A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estuarine and coastal hydrodynamic processes are sometimes neglected in the design and planning of nearshore restoration actions. Despite best intentions, efforts to restore nearshore habitats can result in poor outcomes if circulation and transport which also affect freshwater-saltwater interactions are not properly addressed. Limitations due to current land use can lead to selection of sub-optimal restoration alternatives that may result in undesirable consequences, such as flooding, deterioration of water quality, and erosion, requiring immediate remedies and costly repairs. Uncertainty with achieving restoration goals, such as recovery of tidal exchange, supply of sediment and nutrients, and establishment of fish migration pathways, may be minimized by using numerical models designed for application to the nearshore environment. A high resolution circulation and transport model of the Puget Sound, in the state of Washington, was developed to assist with nearshore habitat restoration design and analysis, and to answer the question 'can we achieve beneficial restoration outcomes at small local scale, as well as at a large estuary-wide scale?' The Puget Sound model is based on an unstructured grid framework to define the complex Puget Sound shoreline using a finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). The capability of the model for simulating the important nearshore processes, such as circulation in complex multiple tidal channels, wetting and drying of tide flats, and water quality and sediment transport as part of restoration feasibility, are illustrated through examples of restoration projects in Puget Sound.

  20. Glacier runoff as a source of labile dissolved organic matter for near-shore marine ecosystems in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E.; Fellman, J.; Spencer, R.; Edwards, R.; D'Amore, D.

    2008-12-01

    Northern rivers transport large quantities of dissolved organic matter (DOM), however this organic material is typically thought to be refractory and therefore of little significance for the biogeochemistry of downstream marine ecosystems. Recent research in both the arctic and sub-arctic has shown that terrigenous DOM may be more bioavailable than was previously thought. These findings suggest that riverine DOM has the potential to support both heterotrophic metabolism and primary productivity in near-shore marine ecosystems. Along the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), the ongoing loss of glacier ice in coastal watersheds is altering the land-to-ocean transfer of freshwater and DOM. In particular, DOM derived from glacial runoff appears to be derived largely from microbial precursor material while DOM in watersheds with little or no glacier coverage is predominantly derived from terrestrial plants. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the character and bioavailability of riverine DOM being exported to the GOA will be altered as glaciers recede and contribute less to streamflow. We sampled rivers draining 12 coastal watersheds along a 500 mile stretch of the GOA during the peak glacier runoff season in the summer of 2008. The study watersheds were typical of the thousands of moderately sized (50-450 km2) watersheds draining the coast mountains along the GOA and ranged in watershed glacier coverage from 0 to >60%. Concentrations of DOC were relatively low in all 12 watersheds ranging from 0.6-2.2 mg C L-1. However, the chemical character of DOM varied widely across the watersheds. As watershed glacial coverage increased and glacier runoff comprised a large proportion of streamflow, riverine DOM became enriched in 13C-DOC and protein content as measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. These findings are consistent with the idea that DOM in pro-glacial streams is largely derived from sub-glacial microbial populations. Moreover, incubations of riverine DOM from

  1. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Havik

    Full Text Available Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not.

  2. ASSESSING COASTAL WATERS OF AMERICAN SAMOA: TERRITORY-WIDE WATER QUALITY DATA PROVIDE A CRITICAL 'BIG-PICTURE' VIEW FOR THIS TROPICAL ARCHIPELAGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coastal waters of American Samoa’s 5 high islands (Tutuila, Aunu’u, Ofu, Olosega,and Ta’u) were surveyed in 2004 using a probabilistic design. Water quality data were collected from the near-shore coastal habitat, defined as all near-shore coastal waters including embayments,...

  3. Adjoint-Based Sensitivity Maps for the Nearshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzech, Mark; Veeramony, Jay; Ngodock, Hans

    2013-04-01

    The wave model SWAN (Booij et al., 1999) solves the spectral action balance equation to produce nearshore wave forecasts and climatologies. It is widely used by the coastal modeling community and is part of a variety of coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere model systems. A variational data assimilation system (Orzech et al., 2013) has recently been developed for SWAN and is presently being transitioned to operational use by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office. This system is built around a numerical adjoint to the fully nonlinear, nonstationary SWAN code. When provided with measured or artificial "observed" spectral wave data at a location of interest on a given nearshore bathymetry, the adjoint can compute the degree to which spectral energy levels at other locations are correlated with - or "sensitive" to - variations in the observed spectrum. Adjoint output may be used to construct a sensitivity map for the entire domain, tracking correlations of spectral energy throughout the grid. When access is denied to the actual locations of interest, sensitivity maps can be used to determine optimal alternate locations for data collection by identifying regions of greatest sensitivity in the mapped domain. The present study investigates the properties of adjoint-generated sensitivity maps for nearshore wave spectra. The adjoint and forward SWAN models are first used in an idealized test case at Duck, NC, USA, to demonstrate the system's effectiveness at optimizing forecasts of shallow water wave spectra for an inaccessible surf-zone location. Then a series of simulations is conducted for a variety of different initializing conditions, to examine the effects of seasonal changes in wave climate, errors in bathymetry, and variations in size and shape of the inaccessible region of interest. Model skill is quantified using two methods: (1) a more traditional correlation of observed and modeled spectral statistics such as significant wave height, and (2) a recently developed RMS

  4. APPLICATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL WAVELET TRANSFORM IN NEAR-SHORE X-BAND RADAR IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiang-bo; YAN Yi-xin; ZHANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    Among existing remote sensing applications, land-based X-band radar is an effective technique to monitor the wave fields,and spatial wave information could be obtained from the radar images.Two-dimensional Fourier Transform (2-D FT) is the common algorithm to derive the spectra of radar images.However, the wave field in the nearshore area is highly non-homogeneous due to wave refraction, shoaling, and other coastal mechanisms.When applied in nearshore radar images, 2-D FT would lead to ambiguity of wave characteristics in wave number domain.In this article, we introduce two-dimensional Wavelet Transform (2-D WT) to capture the non-homogeneity of wave fields from nearshore radar images.The results show that wave number spectra by 2-D WT at six parallel space locations in the given image clearly present the shoaling of nearshore waves.Wave number of the peak wave energy is increasing along the inshore direction, and dominant direction of the spectra changes from South South West (SSW) to West South West (WSW).To verify the results of2-D WT, wave shoaling in radar images is calculated based on dispersion relation.The theoretical calculation results agree with the results of 2-D WT on the whole.The encouraging performance of 2-D WT indicates its strong capability of revealing the non-homogeneity of wave fields in nearshore X-band radar images.

  5. A CRITICAL REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF APPLYING SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (SVOCS AS A GEOCHEMICAL TRACER TO INDICATE TSUNAMI BACKWASH: The Bilateral, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG and National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT Funded Project “Tsunami Deposits in Near-Shore- and Coastal Waters of Thailand (TUNWAT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwatt Pongpiachan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis symbolize one of the most harmful natural disasters for low-lying coastal zones and their residents, due to both its destructive power and irregularity. The 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, which attack the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand, resulted 5,395 of deaths and inestimable casualties, interrupted economies and social well-being in numerous coastal villages and caused in extreme alterations of both onshore and offshore coastal morphology. The Great Indian Ocean tsunami also highlighted that there are many missing jigsaw puzzle pieces in scientific knowledge, starting from the generating of tsunamis offshore to the countless influences to the marine ecosystems on the continental shelf, coastal areas and on land and to the economic and social systems consequences. As with all deposits that do not have a direct physical link to their causative sources, marine tsunami deposits must be distinguished from other deposits through regional correlation, dating and criteria for recognition within the deposits themselves. This study aims to provide comprehensive reviews on using Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs as a chemical proxy to discriminate tsunami relateddeposits from typical marine sediments. The advantages and disadvantages of this chemical tracer will be critically reviewed and further discussed.

  6. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Warwick-Evans

    Full Text Available During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making.

  7. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C; Atkinson, Philip W; Robinson, Leonie A; Green, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making. PMID:27031616

  8. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C.; Atkinson, Philip W.; Robinson, Leonie A.; Green, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney’s coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney’s seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making. PMID:27031616

  9. Cooperative trap survey for nearshore groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This pilot study is designed to evaluate a fishery-independent, cooperative sampling methodology for nearshore groundfish species, with an emphasis on species in...

  10. Who should own the nearshore wind turbines?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Krog; Sperling, Karl

    This report examines the possibility for non-profit organisations to participate in tenders for nearshore wind turbines in Denmark under the current frame-work conditions in the area. The point of departure is a case study of the non-profit organisation Wind People’s attempt to participate...... with a popular project in the Danish tender for 350 MW nearshore wind turbines. A series of in-depth interviews have been carried out with Wind People’s staff in order to make an in-depth analysis of their actions and experiences of entering into the market for nearshore wind turbines. The report concludes...... that it is not possible for non-profit organisations to participate with popular projects in connection with tenders for nearshore wind turbines in Denmark under the current framework conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to make a modification of the framework conditions. In itself, this is not sufficient to pave...

  11. Changes in nearshore waves during the active sea/land breeze period off Vengurla, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Singh, J.

    A unique feature observed in the tropical and subtropical coastal area is the diurnal sea-breeze/land-breeze cycle. We examined the nearshore waves at 5 and 15 m water depth during the active sea/land breeze period (January–April) in the year 2015...

  12. GoM Coastal and Estuarine Biopsy Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small vessel surveys are conducted within estuarine and nearshore coastal waters to collect tissue biopsy samples from bottlenose dolphins. Visual surveys are...

  13. Waves in the nearshore waters of northern Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Singh, J.; Pednekar, P.S.; Gowthaman, R.

    comparative performance survey of methods used for estimating directional wave spectra from heave-pitch-roll data. Proceedings Coastal Engineering Conference, pp. 62-75. Besnard, J.C., Benoit, M., 1994. Representative directional wave parameters - Review...: Ocean Eng., vol.38(2-3); 2011; 382-388 Waves in the nearshore waters of northern Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon V. Sanil Kumar*, Jai Singh, P. Pednekar and R. Gowthaman Ocean Engineering, National Institute of Oceanography (Council...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE TSUNAMI OF DECEMBER 26, 2004 ON THE NEAR-SHORE BATHYMETRY OF THE KALPAKKAM COAST, EAST COAST OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sasidhar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The devastating impact of the December 26, 2004 tsunami on the coast of South India has been well documented. However, only a few studies assessed the tsunami’s impact in the near-shore region. The present study evaluates changes in bathymetry along the near-shore of Kalpakkam before and after the tsunami. Using GIS software, data was extracted from charts to create three-dimensional bathymetric representations of the offshore region before and after the tsunami. Initially, a TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network surface was created by using Arc GIS software. Subsequently, by employing a 3D analyst tool, a three-dimensional surface of the near shore bathymetry was generated and comparisons were made with the pre-tsunami bathymetry. Based on comparisons of selected profiles, conclusions were drawn as to changes that resulted from the tsunami’s impact. The analysis indicated that the tsunami deposited loose inner shelf sediments that altered significantly the near shore region bathymetry of the Kalpakkam coastal region. Sediment accretion changed the local bathymetry by 10 to 50 cm.

  15. San Diego Region Nearshore Coastal Zone Seafloor Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The layer is meant to display those locations offshore where bedrock is present, as these locations may support sensitive habitats that could be adversely affected...

  16. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca;

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency a...

  17. Predominant Nearshore Sediment Dispersal Patterns in Manila Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siringan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Net nearshore sediment drift patterns in Manila Bay were determined by combining the coastal geomorphology depicted in 1 : 50,000scale topographic maps and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, with changes in shoreline position and predominant longshore current directions derived from the interaction of locally generated waves and bay morphology.Manila Bay is fringed by a variety of coastal subenvironments that reflect changing balances of fluvial, wave, and tidal processes. Along the northern coast, a broad tidal-river delta plain stretching from Bataan to Bulacan indicates the importance of tides, where the lateral extent of tidal influences is amplified by the very gentle coastal gradients. In contrast, along the Cavite coast sandy strandplains, spits, and wave-dominated deltas attest to the geomorphic importance of waves that enter the bay from the South China Sea.The estimates of net sediment drift derived from geomorphological, shoreline-change, and meteorological information are generally in good agreement. Sediment drift directions are predominantly to the northeast along Cavite, to the northwest along Manila and Bulacan, and to the north along Bataan. Wave refraction and eddy formation at the tip of the Cavite Spit cause southwestward sediment drift along the coast from Zapote to Kawit. Geomorphology indicates that onshore-offshore sediment transport is probably more important than alongshore transport along the coast fronting the tidal delta plain of northern Manila Bay. Disagreements between the geomorphic-derived and predicted net sediment drift directions may be due to interactions of wave-generated longshore currents with wind- and tide-generated currents.

  18. Fate and effects of nearshore discharges of OCS produced waters. Volume 2. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the number of facilities that discharge OCS produced waters into coastal environments of Louisiana are few in number, they account for large volumes, individually and collectively. Of the 15 facilities which discharge OCS-generated produced water into coastal environments of Louisiana (as of February 1990), 10 discharges in seven areas were studied. The discharge volumes of the study areas range from 3,000 to 106,000/bbl.d. The receiving environments for these effluents are varied, but include the shallow, nearshore continental shelf; high energy, freshwater distributaries of the Mississippi River delta; and brackish and saline coastal environments with moderately to poorly flushed waters. All study areas are within the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. The study expanded on the initial assessment of Boesch and Rabalais (1989a) with increased temporal and spatial studies of three areas, additional study sites including an abandoned discharge, and additional analytical and field observations

  19. Remote sensing of nearshore wave interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, P. B.; Bland, R.; Janssen, T. T.; Laughlin, B.

    2016-05-01

    Wave focusing of energetic swell fields can result in small-scale variations associated with coherent interference that can be important for nearshore circulation and beach dynamics. However, coherent interference is difficult to measure with conventional in situ instruments and is not accounted for in operational wave models. As a result, such effects are generally ignored. In this work, we analyze X-band radar observations collected at Ocean Beach, San Francisco using a Wigner-Ville or coupled-mode spectrum, to show how long-dwell remote sensing technology allows us to identify coherent wave interference. Our analysis demonstrates that during energetic swell events, the nearshore wave field consists of two noncollinear, but coherent, swell patterns that originate from the same offshore source but are directionally separated due to refraction over the San Francisco Bar. The length scale of the associated alongshore wave height variability (200 m) is consistent with the wavenumber separation obtained from the coupled mode analysis. This confirms that the small-scale variability is primarily due to coherent interference. In addition, our analysis shows that the shoreline exhibits a strong localized response near the radar site on the 200 m scale, which suggests that coherent interference effects can affect wave-driven nearshore transport processes and localized erosion.

  20. Sea state observation in island-sheltered nearshore zone based on in situ intermediate-water wave measurements and NCEP/CFSR wind data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.

    In this study, wind-seas, swells, and the coastal wind pattern are examined to interpret the temporal diversity of the sea state in the island-sheltered nearshore zone off Karwar on the west coast of India. The sea state is analyzed based on the sea...

  1. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  2. Microlevel mapping of coastal geomorphology and coastal resources of Rameswaram island, India: A remote sensing and GIS perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nobi, E.P.; Shivaprasad, A.; Karikalan, R.; Dilipan, E.; Thangaradjou, T.; Sivakumar, K.

    Coastal areas are facing serious threats from both manmade and natural disturbances; coastal erosion, sea-level variation, and cyclones are the major factors that alter the coastal topography and coastal resources of the island ecosystems...

  3. Submarine groundwater discharge into the near-shore zone of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the tropical coastline of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region, little is known to date about submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the near-shore ocean. In an oceanographic sense, SGD consists of freshwater flow from land as well as seawater circulated through sediments. Recent radiochemical and geophysical studies, using the tracer 222Rn and apparent ground conductivity respectively, provide evidence for SGD to occur in a variety of hydrogeological settings. In this paper, a non-quantitative overview of different settings of SGD in the region is presented: (1) recirculation of seawater through animal burrows in mangrove forests, (2) freshwater SGD from unconfined aquifers as a narrow coastal fringe of freshwater along Wet Tropics beaches, (3) SGD from coastal dune systems in form of localised freshwater springs in the intertidal zone, (4) inner-shelf SGD from confined submarine aquifer systems comprised of riverine paleochannels incised into the shelf

  4. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Conditions and Variability in Water Quality Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in recent years has increased regarding conditions in the nearshore of the Great Lakes. We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Ontario nearshore along the 20 m contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 720 km survey was conducted September 6-10, 20...

  5. Section 404 Permitting in Coastal Texas: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationship Between Peak Streamflow and Wetland Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Wesley E.

    2012-04-01

    As early as the passage of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act the U.S. government has sought to protect the nation's water resources through regulatory tools. While there has been a large amount of research on wetlands and wetland mitigation, very little is known about the impact of Section 404 permitting on water quantity. This research examines the impact of Section 404 permit types on peak annual streamflow in Coastal Texas from 1996 to 2003. Results of cross-sectional time-series regression analyses indicate that all four permit types have positive and significant effects on peak streamflow. These effects also vary by permit type, with Individual permits having the highest per-permit impact on peak annual flow.

  6. Chemical and isotopic alteration of organic matter during early diagenesis: Evidence from the coastal area off-shore the Pearl River estuary, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanrong; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Derong

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the chemical and C, N isotopic alteration of organic matter (OM) during early diagenesis is crucial to the studies of biogeochemical processes in marine and lacustrine environments. In this study, isotopic composition ( δ13C and δ15N), total organic carbon and total nitrogen content of sediment cores, plankton and particulate organic matter (POM) from the coastal area off-shore the Pearl River estuary were determined. In addition, the fractional carbon content of total hydrolysable amino acids, total carbohydrates, total lipids and acid-insoluble organic compounds and their respective δ13C were analyzed. The δ13C org of sediment cores from geographically distinct sites (C5 and E4) is fairly constant and just slightly lower than that of the plankton, suggesting that δ13C can be used as a reliable geochemical proxy indicating OM origin in the studied coastal area. Considerable diagenetic alteration of OC/N was observed, and the diagenetic alteration of δ15N was significant. A rapid degradation of OM was associated with a rapid bacteria growth in the water column, which governed the diagenesis of the OM. In addition to the kinetic isotopic fractionation associated with the biodegradation of OM, formation and degradation of bacterial biomass contributed significantly to the observed change of δ13C and δ15N during diagenesis. Although the bacteria biomass was believed to be rich in 13C relative to the substrate, bacteria biosynthesis also produced 13C-rich and 13C-poor fractions, and the subsequent biodegradation preferentially decomposes the 13C-rich compound classes and the 13C-rich compounds in a specific class as well, which made the δ13C of remaining organic matter similar to the substrate in the sediment. On the other hand, the low δ15N of the POM and sedimentary OM relative to the fresh plankton was resulted from the addition of 15N-depleted biomass that was possibly generated by the preferential uptake of 15N-depleted ammonium during

  7. Nearshore marine fish assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish benthic trawls were completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data from 425 fisheries independent trawls ranging from 2-215...

  8. Spartina alterniflora invasion alters soil microbial community composition and microbial respiration following invasion chronosequence in a coastal wetland of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; Cheng, Xiaoli; An, Shuqing

    2016-05-01

    The role of exotic plants in regulating soil microbial community structure and activity following invasion chronosequence remains unclear. We investigated soil microbial community structure and microbial respiration following Spartina alterniflora invasion in a chronosequence of 6-, 10-, 17-, and 20-year-old by comparing with bare flat in a coastal wetland of China. S. alterniflora invasion significantly increased soil moisture and salinity, the concentrations of soil water-soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon (MBC), the quantities of total and various types of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), the fungal:bacterial PLFAs ratio and cumulative microbial respiration compared with bare flat. The highest MBC, gram-negative bacterial and saturated straight-chain PLFAs were found in 10-year-old S. alterniflora soil, while the greatest total PLFAs, bacterial and gram-positive bacterial PLFAs were found in 10- and 17-year-old S. alterniflora soils. The monounsaturated:branched PLFAs ratio declined, and cumulative microbial respiration on a per-unit-PLFAs increased following S. alterniflora invasion in the chronosequence. Our results suggest that S. alterniflora invasion significantly increased the biomass of soil various microbial groups and microbial respiration compared to bare flat soil by increasing soil available substrate, and modifying soil physiochemical properties. Soil microbial community reached the most enriched condition in the 10-year-old S. alterniflora community.

  9. A conceptual model and rapid appraisal tool for integrated coastal floodplain assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Low-lying coastal zones are high-risk areas threatened by flooding due to extreme coastal events and rising sea-levels. The coastal floodplain system includes elements such as near-shore waves and water levels, inter-tidal beaches and coastal habitats, natural and artificial sea defences and multiple inland floodplain features. Flood risk studies generally achieve an integrated assessment of these elements using multiple numerical models for different floodplain elements. However fundamental ...

  10. Interpolated swath bathymetry shaded relief image collected by the U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center surrounding the nearshore of the Elizabeth Islands, MA, 2010 (ei_2hm_shdrlf_image_dd.tif, GeoTIFF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  11. Influence of an altered salinity regime on the population structure of two infaunal bivalve species

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Rebecca J.; Wing, Stephen R.

    2008-07-01

    Hydrological alterations in watersheds have changed the flows of freshwater to many nearshore marine environments. The ensuing alterations to the salinity environment of coastal waters may have implications for species distribution. This study describes the response of two common bivalves to a modified salinity environment imposed by freshwater inputs from a hydroelectric power station in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. Populations of Austrovenus stutchburyi and Paphies australis inhabiting river deltas near the outflow of the power station in inner Doubtful Sound were more than an order of magnitude smaller in abundance than populations in neighbouring Bradshaw Sound where the salinity regime is unaltered. In addition, there was a lack of small size classes of both species in inner Doubtful Sound, suggesting that these populations are unsustainable over the long term (10-20 years). Laboratory experiments demonstrated that sustained exposure (>30 days) to low salinity (food webs of Fiordland's shallow soft sediment communities.

  12. DEEPWATER AND NEARSHORE FOOD WEB CHARACTERIZATIONS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the difficulty associated with sampling deep aquatic systems, food web relationships among deepwater fauna are often poorly known. We are characterizing nearshore versus offshore habitats in the Great Lakes and investigating food web linkages among profundal, pelagic, and ...

  13. AFSC/ABL: Nearshore Fish Atlas of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information on the distribution and relative abundance of nearshore fishes from beach seine hauls in Alaska is now available to managers as an online Fish Atlas....

  14. Puget Sound Chinook Salmon Nearshore Marine Area Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nearshore marine areas within the Puget Sound have been designated as Critical Habitat for the Puget Sound (PS) Chinook salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit...

  15. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 08 (NS08): Koror, Palau

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  16. Biogeography of Nearshore Subtidal Invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biogeography of nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine was studied to compare recent data with historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of envi...

  17. From hindcast to operational forecast of the wave conditions in the nearshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, E.; Soares, C.; Quaresma, L.; Vitorino, J.

    2003-04-01

    In this poster are presented some of the steps performed at Hydrographic Institute of the Portuguese Navy (IH) in the effort of implementing a system for assessing and predicting the wave conditions in the coastal environment. This system is based on the interactions between large scale and high-resolution numerical wave models, namely WW3 and SWAN. The SWAN performances were first tested in some hindcast analysis by forcing the model with offshore buoy data (using either spectral or parametric boundary conditions in both stationary and non-stationary modes), and comparing the results with the registrations made by nearshore ‘in situ’ devices. In this respect, may be the most relevant was the experiment developed at the Obidós Bay. In that site were collocated three different devices in the nearshore (a directional buoy, an ADCP and a pressure sensor), for inter-comparing the time evolution of the relevant wave parameters (significant wave height, period, direction and directional spreading) and, on the other hand, evaluating the corresponding SWAN output. The model was forced in this case using data from an offshore buoy. However, the main objective of the system, which is being now implemented, would be to assure the environmental support in the nearshore military operations by providing operationally forecast products for the oceanographic data during various missions. This was already used successfully in two major naval applications: the NATO exercise ‘Unified Odyssey’ (January-February 2002 in Madeira archipelago) and the exercise of the Portuguese Navy Contex/Phibex (April 2002 located in the area Pinheiro da Cruz south of Lisbon).

  18. Index Layers for High-Resolution Orthorectified Imagery from Approximately 1980 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This vector shapefile is one of two index map layers for 57 frames of orthorectified aerial photography from approximately 1980 for the coastal and nearshore areas...

  19. Extent Layers for High-Resolution Orthorectified Imagery from 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This vector shapefile is one of two layers that depict the extent of the 2003 digital orthophoto mosaic for the coastal and nearshore areas of Bering Land Bridge...

  20. Integration of Wave Energy Converters into Coastal Protection Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, B.; Martinelli, L.; Castagnetti, M.;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the feasibility of using wave energy converters for coastal protection through laboratory tests. The paper considers the case of a near-shore floating device of the Wave Activated Body type, named DEXA. The influence of the device length and of the wave par...

  1. Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species

  2. What is the impact on fish recruitment of anthropogenic physical and structural habitat change in shallow nearshore areas in temperate systems? A systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacUra, B.; Lönnstedt, O.M.; Byström, P.;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shallow nearshore marine ecosystems are changing at an increasing rate due to a range of human activities such as urbanisation and commercial development. The growing numbers of constructions and other physical and structural alterations of the shoreline often take place in nursery and...... fish recruitment and which these effects are. Methods: The review will examine how various physical and structural anthropogenic changes of nearshore fish habitats affect fish recruitment. Relevant studies include small- and large-scale field studies in marine and brackish systems or large lakes in...... temperate regions of the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Relevant studies may be based on comparisons between undisturbed and disturbed areas, before and after disturbance, or both. Relevant outcomes include measures of recruitment defined as abundance of juveniles of nearshore fish communities. Searches...

  3. Nearshoring Practices of Scandinavian MNCs in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Brazinskas, Sigitas; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to unravel and assess current nearshoring practices of Scandinavian MNCs. In addressing this issue, we draw on the literature within the areas of offshoring and outsourcing. We use mixed methods of enquiry involving case studies, survey techniques as well as...... secondary statistical data. To provide a more refined view on the practices and processes of nearshoring, we complement the case studies of Scandinavian manufacturers with a survey of 55 Lithuanian vendor companies and other statistical data. The paper outlines the main drivers of nearshoring in...... Scandinavian manufacturing firms. Moreover, we are able to elucidate how the initiatives evolved over time and what were various factors affecting them. The results of the survey uncover the perspective of Lithuanian vendor companies on their relationships with partners in Scandinavia. While our discussion...

  4. The emerging role of lidar remote sensing in coastal research and resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Purkis, Samuel J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of coastal elevation is an essential requirement for resource management and scientific research. Recognizing the vast potential of lidar remote sensing in coastal studies, this Special Issue includes a collection of articles intended to represent the state-of-the-art for lidar investigations of nearshore submerged and emergent ecosystems, coastal morphodynamics, and hazards due to sea-level rise and severe storms. Some current applications for lidar remote sensing described in this Special Issue include bluegreen wavelength lidar used for submarine coastal benthic environments such as coral reef ecosystems, airborne lidar used for shoreline mapping and coastal change detection, and temporal waveform-resolving lidar used for vegetation mapping.

  5. Nearshore Versus Offshore: Comparative Cost and Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of which offshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The choice between nearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of...

  6. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis to Support Nearshore Restoration Projects in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To re-establish the intertidal wetlands with full tidal exchange and improve salmonid rearing habitat in the Skagit River estuary, State of Washington, USA, a diked agriculture farm land along the Skagit Bay front is proposed to be restored to a fully functional tidal wetland. The complex and dynamic Skagit River estuarine system calls for the need of a multi-facet and multi-dimensional analysis using observed data, numerical and analytical methods. To assist the feasibility study of the restoration project, a hydrodynamic modeling analysis was conducted using a high-resolution unstructured-grid coastal ocean model to evaluate the hydrodynamic response to restoration alternatives and to provide guidance to the engineering design of a new levee in the restoration site. A set of parameters were defined to quantify the hydrodynamic response of the nearshore restoration project, such as inundation area, duration of inundation, water depth and salinity of the inundated area. To assist the design of the new levee in the restoration site, the maximum water level near the project site was estimated with consideration of extreme high tide, wind-induced storm surge, significant wave height and future sea-level rise based on numerical model results and coastal engineering calculation.

  7. Horizontal spatial and temporal distribution patterns of nearshore larval fish assemblages at a temperate rocky shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rita; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Chícharo, M. Alexandra; Ré, Pedro; Gonçalves, Emanuel J.

    2007-02-01

    There have been no previous studies of the composition of nearshore larval fish assemblages along the coast of Portugal. We aimed to describe the composition and horizontal distribution patterns of larval fish assemblages and their temporal dynamics near a rocky reef at depths shallower than 13 m (inshore) and at two miles (3.70 km) from shore (offshore), as well as along transects perpendicular to the shoreline, from the reef to 10 miles offshore (18.52 km). Samples were taken using 5 min sub-surface trawls at the rocky shore of the Arrábida Marine Park (W Portugal). A total of 1021 larvae were collected, belonging to 61 taxa inshore and to 29 taxa offshore. Along transects, 626 larvae of 52 taxa were collected. Most larvae belonged to coastal species associated with rocky reefs. Total larval abundance and diversity were higher from May to July, which is consistent with the spawning activity of adults. Diversity and total larval abundance decreased significantly with increasing distance from shore, both in the inshore/offshore comparison and in the transects, where this decrease was evident at a very small spatial scale (within the first mile from the reef). Species assemblages differed in the pattern of distribution, with most species clearly associated to the extreme nearshore. The distribution patterns obtained were independent of the spawning mode of species. Results are discussed in the light of the possible physical mechanisms that can potentially act at the Arrábida Marine Park to facilitate larvae retention and the role of larval behaviour.

  8. Impacts of a North Pacific Predator on Nearshore Seawater Mercury Cycling via Top-Down Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossaboon, J. M.; Ganguli, P. M.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Marine mammals are common sentinel species for studying marine pollution, however their potential role as vectors of contaminants to local ecosystems has rarely been addressed. Organic methylmercury, or MeHg, is a potent neurotoxin that biomagnifies approximately one to ten million-fold in aquatic carnivores such as the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), whose excreta and molted pelage, in turn, constitute a source of environmental MeHg contamination at the base of marine food chains. This recycling of MeHg was evidenced by comparing total mercury (HgT) and MeHg concentrations in seawater at the Año Nuevo State Reserve pinniped rookery to those of neighboring coastal sites in Central California. The observed 17-fold enrichment of MeHg in seawater at Año Nuevo during the M. angustirostris molting season (0.28—9.5 pM) was remarkable, and exceeded the range of surface water MeHg concentrations observed in the highly urbanized San Francisco Bay estuary (waters from Northern elephant seals was confirmed by the HgT concentrations in molted pelage samples (average = 3.6 μg g-1 dry wt.), which presumably contained >80% MeHg. This equates to an annual per-capita emission factor of 0.05 g MeHg per adult elephant seal. Based on this estimate, we calculate that approximately 0.2 kg of organic Hg entered the nearshore environment of Año Nuevo during that molting season. This elevated methylmercury (MeHg) in seawater adjacent to the rookery may become bioavailable to lower trophic levels, demonstrating that marine mammal colonization can substantially influence nearshore mercury cycling and potentially threaten ecosystem health.

  9. Information Needs Assessment for Coastal and Marine Management and Policy: Ecosystem Services Under Changing Climatic, Land Use, and Demographic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kaitlin A.; Granek, Elise F.; Lubitow, Amy

    2015-12-01

    Changing climatic, demographic, and land use conditions are projected to alter the provisioning of ecosystem services in estuarine, coastal, and nearshore marine ecosystems, necessitating mitigation and adaptation policies and management. The current paradigm of research efforts occurring in parallel to, rather than in collaboration with, decision makers will be insufficient for the rapid responses required to adapt to and mitigate for projected changing conditions. Here, we suggest a different paradigm: one where research begins by engaging decision makers in the identification of priority data needs (biophysical, economic, and social). This paper uses synthesized interview data to provide insight into the varied demands for scientific research as described by decision makers working on coastal issues in Oregon, USA. The findings highlight the need to recognize (1) the differing framing of ecosystem services by decision makers versus scientists; and (2) the differing data priorities relevant to inland versus coastal decision makers. The findings further serve to highlight the need for decision makers, scientists, and funders to engage in increased communication. This research is an important first step in advancing efforts toward evidence-based decision making in Oregon and provides a template for further research across the US.

  10. Dramatic beach and nearshore morphological changes due to extreme flooding at a wave-dominated river mouth (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P. L.; Warrick, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Direct observations of major floods which input large volumes of sediment into littoral systems generally are rare due to the scarcity of large events and the difficulty of obtaining appropriate data. To understand the importance of infrequent, high-discharge river floods on the long-term morphodynamics of a coastal system, we combine 16 years of pre-flood survey data with three years of post-flood data to characterize morphologic changes at a wave-dominated river mouth. This study provides in-depth morphological analysis of coastal response to an extremely rare flooding event; the highest discharge on record for the Santa Clara River (CA, USA) which occurred in January 2005. This event injected ~5 million m3 of littoral-grade sediment into the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell (SBLC), producing rapid and extreme beach and nearshore morphologic evolution. The sediment load produced by the event is an order of magnitude larger than both the average annual river loads and the annual alongshore littoral transport in this portion of the SBLC. Over 170 m of local shoreline (mean high water (MHW)) progradation was observed as result of the flood, followed by 3 years of rapid local shoreline retreat. Linear regression-determined shoreline change rates of up to -45 m a-1 were observed on the subaerial beach (MHW) and -114 m a-1 on the submarine delta (6 m isobath). Starting approximately 1 km downdrift of the river mouth, shoreline progradation persisted throughout the three-year post-flood monitoring period, with rates of up to +19 m a-1. Post-flood bathymetric surveys show nearshore (0 to 12 m depth) erosion on the delta exceeding 400 m3/m a-1, more than an order of magnitude higher than mean seasonal cross-shore sediment transport rates in the region. Changes were not constant with depth, however; sediment accumulation and subsequent erosion on the delta were greatest at -5 to -8 m, and accretion in downdrift areas was greatest above -2 m. Simple “one-line” shoreline

  11. Nearshore versus Offshore:Comparative Cost and Competitive Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of whichoffshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The question betweennearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of increased public resistance due to visualdisamenities produced by nearshore projects, and because of the potential cost reduction benefits attained bybuilding wind farms closer to the shore.

  12. Distribution of actinomycetes in near-shore tropical marine sediments.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, P R; Dwight, R; Fenical, W.

    1991-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from near-shore marine sediments collected at 15 island locations throughout the Bahamas. A total of 289 actinomycete colonies were observed, and all but 6 could be assigned to the suprageneric groups actinoplanetes and streptomycetes. A bimodal distribution in the actinomycete population in relation to depth was recorded, with the maximum numbers occurring in the shallow and deep sampling sites. This distribution can be accounted for by a rapid decrease in strepto...

  13. Application of Active Contour Model in Tracking Sequential Nearshore Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Hung HSIAO; Min-Chih HUANG

    2009-01-01

    In the present study,a generalized active contour model of gradient vector flow is combined with the video techniques of Argus system to delineate and track sequential nearshore wave crest profdes in the shoaling process,up to their breaking on the shorehne.Previous applications of active contour models to water wave problems are limited to controllable wave tank experiments.By contrast,our application in this study is in a nearshore field environment where oblique images obtained under natural and varying condition of ambient light are employed.Existing Argus techniques produce plane image data or time series data from a selected small subset of discrete pixels.By contrast,the active contour model produces line image data along continuous visible curves such as wave crest profdes.The combination of these two existing techniques,the active contour model and Argus methodologies,facilitates the estimates of the direction wave field and phase speeds within the whole area covered by camera.These estimates are useful for the purpose of inverse calculation of the water depth.Applications of the present techniques to Hsi-tzu bay where a beach restoration program is currently undertaken are illustrated.This extension of Argus video techniques provides new application of optical remote sensing to study the hydrodynamics and morphology of a nearshore environment.

  14. Changes in nearshore waves during the active sea/land breeze period off Vengurla, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrutha, M. M.; Sanil Kumar, V.; Singh, J.

    2016-02-01

    A unique feature observed in the tropical and subtropical coastal area is the diurnal sea-breeze/land-breeze cycle. We examined the nearshore waves at 5 and 15 m water depth during the active sea/land breeze period (January-April) in the year 2015 based on the data measured using the waverider buoys moored in the eastern Arabian sea off Vengurla, central west coast of India. Temporal variability of diurnal wave response is examined. Numerical model Delft3D is used to study the nearshore wave transformation. The wave height increased due to the sea breeze and reached its peak at ˜ 13:00 UTC at 15 m water depth, whereas the peak significant wave height is at 12:00 UTC at 5 m water depth. Due to the influence of the land/sea breeze system, the range of the peak wave period in 1 day varied up to 8 s. Reduction in the wave height of wind-sea is around 20 % and that of the swell is around 10 % from 15 to 5 m water depth.

  15. UPWELLING EFFECTS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF NITRATE IN YAQUINA BAY, A COASTAL OREGON ESTUARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal Oregon in the summer is dominated by northwesterly winds. Upwelling of nutrient-rich water into the nearshore is controlled by the velocity and duration of these summer winds. Yaquina Bay estuary is a mesotidal drowned river valley that is typically vertically well-mixed ...

  16. Coastal wind study based on Sentinel-1 and ground-based scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsbahs, Tobias Torben; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo;

    fields from the Sentinel-1A satellite using APL/NOAA’s SAROPS system with GFS model wind directions as input. For the presented cases CMOD5.n is used. Ground-based scanning lidar located on land can also cover near shore areas. In order to improve wind farm planning for near-shore coastal areas, the...

  17. Analysis of the impacts of Wave Energy Converter arrays on the nearshore wave climate in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    through the external modification of the wave spectra at the device locations, based on a new experimentally determined Power Transfer Function established in an earlier WEC-array laboratory study. Changes in nearshore forcing conditions for each array size and configuration are compared in order to determine the scale of the far-field effects of WEC arrays and which array sizes and configurations could have the most significant impacts on coastal processes.

  18. Sustainable multiple-use and management of the coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, R.H.; Charlier, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will consider both the nearshore and the onshore sector of the coastal zone but stops short of the immediate hinterland. As the 21st century dawns, pressures on the littoral fringe intensify at an accelerating pace. Demands for its use are complex and numerous, with conflict steadily increasing. They encompass expanding human occupance, industry's search for water, implantation of transformation-facilities, processing, manufacture- and manutention plants, alternative energy install...

  19. Eliciting and using stakeholder input to guide Puget Sound nearshore restoration decisionmaking

    OpenAIRE

    Lipsky, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Puget Sound Nearshore Ecosystem Restoration Project (PSNERP) is to improve system-wide functionality of nearshorei ecosystem processes. To achieve that goal, PSNERP plans to strategically restore nearshore sites throughout Puget Sound. PSNERP scientists are assessing changes to the nearshore, and will recommend an environmentally strategic restoration portfolio. Yet, PSNERP also needs stakeholder input to design a socially strategic portfolio. This research investigates the va...

  20. Correlation of coral fluorescence with nearshore rainfall and runoff in Hainan Island, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Under UV-laser excitation, the Porites coral from Longwan bay waters, Hainan Island, could emit yellow-green fluorescence. After fitting the data of the fluorescent intensity (FI) of the coral with the rainfall (RF) in nearshore area of Qionghai, a good relationship between FI and RF was found with a linear formula of RF =889-4.54 FI and a correlation coefficient of 0.78. Based on this formula, the rainfall sequence from 1982 to 1997 has been reconstructed. The peak annual rainfall is usually related to global El'nino events. By fitting the data of the fluorescent intensity and the runoff (RO), a quadric formula was obtained as RO=-0.0279FI2-18.59 FI-950.9 with a correlation coefficient of 0.74.The reconstructed runoff sequence from 1982 to 1997 coincided with the rainfall occurrence. The results indicate that flood and drought incidents in coastal areas of the south China are affected by global change to a great extent.

  1. Approach to downstream planning for nearshore response and sensitive areas protection outside Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the need for an oil spill response plan for downstream coastal communities that could be affected by oil spilled from tankers travelling in Prince William Sound, Alaska. For the purpose of oil spill contingency planning, the State of Alaska has been divided into the Kodiak and Cook Inlet sub-areas that are at risk for downstream impacts from a Prince William Sound oil spill. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill provided an example of a worst-case scenario oil spill from a tanker in Prince William Sound, but the oil spill planning system that has evolved in Alaska does not adequately plan for on oil spill that originates in one sub-area of the state, but impacts other sub-areas in the downstream spill path. This study analyzed the gaps that exist in the current response planning system in the Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet and Kodiak sub-areas. A method was proposed to improve the existing response plans so that emergency response teams are better prepared to manage cross-boundary oil spills originating in Prince William Sound. The proposed method focuses on nearshore response and sensitive areas protection for coastlines and communities that are at risk for oil spills from a tanker travelling the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). 11 refs., 3 figs

  2. Coastal Marine resources management as an issue of integrated coastal zone management in the Western Indian Ocean Africa region

    OpenAIRE

    Ruwa, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the use and abuse of coastal marine resources especially due to overexploitation, habitat degradation and unplanned changes in resource use in nearshore areas which are easily accessible. The countries in the Western Indian Ocean Africa region hardly extract more than 7% of the total annual catches of the Western Indian Ocean region. The countries of the region have low technology capabilities to allow them to effectively exploit offshore fisheries and are therefore not expe...

  3. Methane concentrations and oxidation in nearshore waters of the Lena River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, S. B.; Samarkin, V.; Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is warming dramatically, with potentially catastrophic impacts on climate change through rapid mobilization of labile carbon reservoirs sequestered presently in permafrost. Increasingly, Arctic feedbacks are recognized as key contributors to climate change, including cycles associated with the powerful greenhouse gas methane, whose atmospheric concentration has more than doubled since the pre-industrial epoch. Sustained methane release to the atmosphere from thawing Arctic permafrost and delivery to the coastal ocean through groundwater or riverine discharge or expulsion from the seabed is a positive and likely highly significant feedback to climate warming. Microbially-mediated methane oxidation provides a key sink and effective biofilter that can limit methane fluxes from coastal environments to the atmosphere. We examined methane dynamics on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf by determining concentrations and oxidation rates at a series of stations near the Lena River Delta and moving offshore. Methane concentrations and oxidation rates were highly elevated in and near the river mouth compared to offshore waters, except when the offshore waters were impacted by seabed methane seepage. The regulation of methane oxidation in Arctic waters appears two-fold: first, rates are strongly related to methane availability and second, in the presence of methane, nutrient availability strongly regulates methane consumption. Along the Lena river delta, elevated concentrations of both nutrients and methane create ideal conditions to support high rates of pelagic methanotrophy. Offshore, where nutrient concentrations are lower and more limiting, methane oxidation rates are considerably lower. These data suggest that, at present, nearshore waters are fairly efficient methane sinks while in offshore waters, pelagic methanotrophy is inefficient, allowing methane to escape to the atmosphere.

  4. Seasonality of CO2 in coastal oceans altered by increasing anthropogenic nutrient delivery from large rivers: evidence from the Changjiang-East China Sea system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, W.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Cai, W.-J.; Tseng, C.-M.

    2013-06-01

    Model studies suggested that human-induced increase in nutrient load may have stimulated primary production and thus enhanced the CO2 uptake capacity in the coastal ocean. In this study, we investigated the seasonal variations of the surface water's partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2sw) in the highly human-impacted Changjiang-East China Sea system between 2008 and 2011. The seasonality of pCO2sw has large spatial variations, with the largest extreme of 170 ± 75 μatm on the inner shelf near the Changjiang Estuary (from 271 ± 55 μatm in summer to 441 ± 51 μatm in autumn) and the weakest extreme of 53 ± 20 μatm on the outer shelf (from 328 ± 9 μatm in winter to 381 ± 18 μatm in summer). During the summer period, stronger stratification and biological production driven by the eutrophic Changjiang plume results in a very low dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface waters and a very high DIC in bottom waters of the inner shelf, with the latter returning high DIC to the surface water during the mixed period. Interestingly, a comparison with historical data shows that the average pCO2sw on the inner shelf near the Changjiang Estuary has decreased notably during summer, but has increased during autumn and winter from the 1990s to the 2000s. We suggest that this decadal change is associated with recently increased eutrophication. This would increase both the photosynthetic removal of DIC in surface waters and the respiratory release of DIC in bottom waters during summertime, thereby returning more DIC to the surface during the subsequent mixing seasons and/or episodic extreme weather events (e.g., typhoons). Our finding demonstrates that increasing anthropogenic nutrient delivery from a large river may enhance the sequestration capacity of CO2 in summer but may reduce it in autumn and winter. Consequently, the coastal ocean may not necessarily take up more atmospheric CO2 in response to increasing eutrophication, and the net effect largely depends on the relative

  5. Graduate Education in Coastal Science: Then and Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Coastal science began in the early 20th century in geology disciplines with descriptive field studies of ancient shorelines (G. K. Gilbert, 1885) and coastal observations (Douglas Johnson, 1919). World War II placed a strong emphasis on the importance of coastal processes in military operations. The most profound impact was associated with the interdisciplinary approach to coastal science demonstrated by The Oceans (1942). The first organized graduate program in oceanography opened at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1946 and offered courses in marine geology as well as physical oceanography, biology at the sea, chemistry of sea water and applied mathematics. Those first classes and the new "Sverdrup" curriculum inspired the rapid growth and transfer of knowledge in the new oceanographic sciences. Graduates of these classes established Sverdrup-type interdisciplinary curricula throughout the world. Research and descriptive understanding of the world's oceans and coasts burgeoned during the 1950s. The aqualung, introduced to Shepard's students in 1948 by Jacques Cousteau, became a new scientific tool for studies in nearshore waters, and instruments were designed for studying waves, currents, and sediment transport. A new quantitative coastal science emerged from the concepts of Bagnold and others. Funding came from the Office of Naval Research, coastal engineering (Beach Erosion Board), and the oil industry. A significant contribution to the literature of classical nearshore processes was the series of Conferences on Coastal Engineering sponsored by the University of California and edited by Joe Johnson. Starting with the first conference held in Long Beach in 1950, the conferences brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds and published their findings expeditiously. This research soon was synthesized into textbooks such as Shepard's Submarine Geology (2nd edition, 1963); Hill's 1963 edited volume The Sea v. 3 The Earth Beneath the Sea, with the

  6. NEARSHORE FISH AND MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES ALONG THE STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA INCLUDING FOOD HABITS OF THE COMMON NEARSHORE FISH: FINAL REPORT OF THREE YEARS' SAMPLING, 1976-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seasonal survey of nearshore fishes was made in the Strait of Juan de Fuca from May 1976 to June 1979. A beach seine was used for sampling nearshore demersal fishes and a townet for nearshore pelagic fishes; intertidal fishes were sampled with the use of anesthetic and a hand n...

  7. Migration and fishing in Indonesian coastal villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Randall A; Simanjuntak, Sahat M H; Liese, Christopher

    2002-06-01

    The coastal ecosystems in Southeast Asia are under increased pressure from local and global change. This paper examines human migration and the use of marine resources in coastal villages in the Minahasa district of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Primary data were collected through interviews with village leaders, focus groups, and a sample survey of 600 fishing households. Migration is responsible for at least one quarter of the total growth during the past decade. All groups of fishermen report falling productivity of the nearshore fisheries. Econometric analysis is used to examine the weekly fish catch of the artisanal fishing sector. Migration status and socioeconomic variables seem to have no systematic effect, while fishing effort (labor, boat, and gear), the degree of specialization, and the remoteness of villages are found to be positively related to weekly fish catches. PMID:12174608

  8. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  9. Exposing the U.S. coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratson, Lincoln; Divins, David; Butler, Tanja; Metzger, Dan; Sharman, George; Steele, Mark; Berggren, Todd; Holcombe, Troy; Ramos, Ricardo

    Overdevelopment of shores and wetlands, dwindling sites on land for the disposal of human-generated waste, contamination of estuaries and nearshore sediments, the disruption of coastal-water ecosystems by dredging, and the specter of rising sea level due to anthropogenically induced global warming are but a few of the pressures humans are exerting on coastal environments around the world. In the United States, a lot is riding on the response of its coastal environments to these pressures. The majority of the U.S. population resides in the coastal states, where the country's largest cities and most popular recreation areas are located.If the United States is to sustain the health and beauty of its coastal environments, then they must be managed, not only on the federal scale, but also on the state and local scales. One of the most fundamental types of data required to conduct this management will be detailed elevation data. On land, topography dictates the flow of water and the maximum extent of flooding. Offshore, bathymetry is a major control on shallow-water ocean currents and the dissemination of sediments eroded from the continent.

  10. Elwha Master Datafile - Elwha Dam Removal - Nearshore monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington will help restore natural sediment processes to the coastal environment near the river mouth. We are interested...

  11. Depth inversion in coastal water based on SAR image of waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Kaiguo; HUANG Weigen; HE Mingxia; FU Bin; ZHANG Biao; CHEN Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    Wave-number spectrum technique is proposed to retrieve coastal water depths by means of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image of waves. Based on the general dispersion relation of ocean waves, the wavelength changes of a surface wave over varying water depths can be derived from SAR. Approaching the analysis of SAR images of waves and using the general dispersion relation of ocean waves, this indirect technique of remote sensing bathymetry has been applied to a coastal region of Xiapu in Fujian Province, China. Results show that this technique is suitable for the coastal waters especially for the near-shore regions with variable water depths.

  12. Neural-network predictability experiments for nearshore sandbar migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, L.; Ruessink, B. G.

    2011-06-01

    Cross-shore migratory behavior of nearshore sandbars is commonly studied with nearshore bathymetric-evolution models that represent underlying processes of hydrodynamics and sediment transport. These models, however, struggle to reproduce natural cross-shore sandbar behavior on timescales of a few days to weeks and have uncertain skill on longer scales of months to years. One particular concern for the use of models on prediction timescales that far exceed the timescale of the modeled processes is the exponential accumulation of errors in the nonlinear model equations. The relation between cross-shore sandbar migration, sandbar location and wave height has previously been demonstrated to be weakly nonlinear on timescales of several days, but it is unknown how this nonlinearity affects the predictability of long-term (months to years) cross-shore sandbar behavior. Here we study the role of nonlinearity in the predictability of sandbar behavior on timescales of a few days to several months with data-driven neural network models. Our analyses are based on over 5600 daily-observed cross-shore sandbar locations and daily-averaged wave forcings from the Gold Coast, Australia, and Hasaki, Japan. We find that neural network models are able to hindcast many aspects of cross-shore sandbar behavior, such as rapid offshore migration during storms, slower onshore return during quiet periods, seasonal cycles and annual to interannual offshore-directed trends. Although the relation between sandbar migration, sandbar location and wave height is nonlinear, sandbar behavior can be hindcasted accurately over the entire lifespan of the sandbars at the Gold Coast. Contrastingly, it is difficult to hindcast the long-term offshore-directed trends in sandbar behavior at Hasaki because of exponential accumulation of errors over time. Our results further reveal that during periods with low-wave conditions it becomes increasingly difficult to predict sandbar locations, while during high

  13. Exploring the nearshore marine wind profile from field measurements and numerical hindcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Jesus, F.; Menendez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wind power is the predominant offshore renewable energy resource. In the last years, offshore wind farms have become a technically feasible source of electrical power. The economic feasibility of offshore wind farms depends on the quality of the offshore wind conditions compared to that of onshore sites. Installation and maintenance costs must be balanced with more hours and a higher quality of the available resources. European offshore wind development has revealed that the optimum offshore sites are those in which the distance from the coast is limited with high available resource. Due to the growth in the height of the turbines and the complexity of the coast, with interactions between inland wind/coastal orography and ocean winds, there is a need for field measurements and validation of numerical models to understand the marine wind profile near the coast. Moreover, recent studies have pointed out that the logarithmic law describing the vertical wind profile presents limitations. The aim of this work is to characterize the nearshore vertical wind profile in the medium atmosphere boundary layer. Instrumental observations analyzed in this work come from the Idermar project (www.Idermar.es). Three floating masts deployed at different locations on the Cantabrian coast provide wind measurements from a height of 20 to 90 meters. Wind speed and direction are measured as well as several meteorological variables at different heights of the profile. The shortest wind time series has over one year of data. A 20 year high-resolution atmospheric hindcast, using the WRF-ARW model and focusing on hourly offshore wind fields, is also analyzed. Two datasets have been evaluated: a European reanalysis with a ~15 Km spatial resolution, and a hybrid downscaling of wind fields with a spatial resolution of one nautical mile over the northern coast of Spain.. These numerical hindcasts have been validated based on field measurement data. Several parameterizations of the vertical wind

  14. Habitat associations of marbled murrelets during the nesting season in nearshore waters along the Washington to California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Martin G.; Shirk, Andrew J.; Falxa, Gary A.; Pearson, Scott F.

    2015-06-01

    The marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a seabird in the family Alcidae that forages in nearshore waters of the Pacific Northwest, and nests in adjacent older-forest conifers within 80 km offshore. The species is of conservation concern due to habitat loss and declining numbers, and is listed as Threatened in British Columbia, Canada and in the United States portion of its range south of Canada. Recent monitoring in the United States indicated that murrelet numbers continued to decline there, especially in the waters of Washington State. To better understand this decline, and to inform conservation planning for the species, we evaluated how terrestrial and marine factors influence the distribution and abundance of the murrelet in coastal waters, including whether at-sea hotspots of murrelet abundance exist. Murrelet at-sea abundance and distribution were determined by surveys conducted annually from 2000 to 2012 in coastal waters from the United States-Canada border south to San Francisco Bay. We summarized mean and variance of murrelet density at the scale of 5-km segments of coastal waters throughout this area. We used a boosted regression tree analysis to investigate the contributions of a suite of marine and terrestrial attributes to at-sea murrelet abundance in each segment. We observed several regional hotspots of higher murrelet abundance at sea. Terrestrial attributes made the strongest contribution, especially the amount and cohesiveness of suitable nesting habitat in proximity to each segment, whereas marine attributes explained less of the spatial and temporal variations in murrelet abundance. At-sea hotspots of murrelet abundance therefore reflect not only suitable marine foraging habitat but primarily the proximity of suitable inland nesting habitat.

  15. SICS: the Southern Inland and Coastal System interdisciplinary project of the USGS South Florida Ecosystem Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2011-01-01

    State and Federal agencies are working jointly on structural modifications and improved water-delivery strategies to reestablish more natural surface-water flows through the Everglades wetlands and into Florida Bay. Changes in the magnitude, duration, timing, and distribution of inflows from the headwaters of the Taylor Slough and canal C-111 drainage basins have shifted the seasonal distribution and extent of wetland inundation, and also contributed to the development of hypersaline conditions in nearshore embayments of Florida Bay. Such changes are altering biological and vegetative communities in the wetlands and creating stresses on aquatic habitat. Affected biotic resources include federally listed species such as the Cape Sable seaside sparrow, American crocodile, wood stork, and roseate spoonbill. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is synthesizing scientific findings from hydrologic process studies, collecting data to characterize the ecosystem properties and functions, and integrating the results of these efforts into a research tool and management model for this Southern Inland and Coastal System(SICS). Scientists from all four disciplinary divisions of the USGS, Biological Resources, Geology, National Mapping, and Water Resources are contributing to this interdisciplinary project.

  16. Joint effect of freshwater plume and coastal upwelling on phytoplankton growth off the Changjiang River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-F. Tseng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Changjiang River discharges vast amount of unbalanced nutrients (dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P with N / P > 80 in general into the East China Sea during summertime. To explore nutrient dynamics and P stress potential for phytoplankton, a cruise was conducted in the Changjiang plume during summer 2011. With 3-D observations of nutrients, chlorophyll a (Chl a, and bulk alkaline phosphatase activity (APA, we concluded that the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW and coastal upwelling significantly influenced the horizontal and vertical heterogeneities of phytoplankton P-deficiency in the plume. Allochthonous APA was detected at nutrient-enriched freshwater end. Excessive N (~10 to 112 µM was obserevd throughout the entire plume surface. In the plume fringe where featured by stratification and excess N, diapycnal phosphate supply was blocked to stimulate APA for phytoplankton growth. We observed upwelling outcrops just attaching the turbidity front at seaward side, where Chl a peaked yet much less APA was detected. An external phosphate supply from subsurface, which stimulated phytoplankton growth but inhibited APA, was suggested and the supply was likely sourced from the Nearshore Kuroshio Branch Current. In such hydrographically complicated Changjiang plume, phosphate supply instead of its concentration was more important determining the expression of APA. Meanwhile, allochthounous APA may also alter the usefulness of APA as a P-stress indicator.

  17. Nearshore magnetic anomalies of inner shelf of Bhimunipatnam-Pudimadaka, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Rao, K.M.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    Analysis of marine magnetic data of the nearshore marine environment between Bhimunipatnam and Pudimadaka, on the East Coast of India indicate charnockite intrusions in the innershelf in certain areas. From the analysis of magnetic data...

  18. AFSC/REFM: Nearshore fish survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska, July-August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project consisted of a nearshore fish, invertebrate, and habitat survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska. A 32-ft. gillnet vessel, the F/V Willow was chartered...

  19. Wave-induced nearshore flow patterns in the vicinity of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Vethamony, P.; Murty, C.S.

    The wave-induced nearshore circulation and the sediment exchanges between two littoral cells along the beaches bordering Vypeen and Chellanam islands in the vicinity of Fort Cochin are examined. In general, the flow within this narrow zone consists...

  20. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 02 (NS02): Hawaii Yacht Club, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  1. Variations in tidal constituents along the nearshore waters of Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    The characteristics of tidal constituents along the nearshore waters of Karnataka, west coast of India, are described. These are based on the sea level data measured at three locations by the Valeport wave and tide gauge during the presummer monsoon...

  2. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 03 (NS03): Hilton Hawaiian Pier, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  3. Hood Canal Summer-run Chum Salmon Nearshore Marine Area Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nearshore marine areas within the Puget Sound have been designated as Critical Habitat for the Hood Canal Summer-run (HCS) Chum salmon Evolutionarily Significant...

  4. Water surface slope spectra in nearshore and river mouth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxague, N. J. M.; Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-05-01

    With the ever-growing interest in satellite remote sensing, direct observations of short wave characteristics are needed along coastal margins. These zones are characterized by a diversity of physical processes that can affect sea surface topography. Here we present connections made between ocean wave spectral shape and wind forcing in coastal waters using polarimetric slope sensing and eddy covariance methods; this is based on data collected in the vicinity of the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) on the Oregon-Washington border. These results provide insights into the behavior of short waves in coastal environments under variable wind forcing; this characterization of wave spectra is an important step towards improving the use of radar remote sensing to sample these dynamic coastal waters. High wavenumber spectral peaks are found to appear for U 10 > 6 m/s but vanish for τ > 0.1 N/m2, indicating a stark difference between how wind speed and wind stress are related to the short-scale structure of the ocean surface. Near-capillary regime spectral shape is found to be less steep than in past observations and to show no discernable sensitivity to wind forcing.

  5. On the modeling of wave-enhanced turbulence nearshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Saeed; Thomson, Jim; Özkan-Haller, Tuba; Umlauf, Lars; Zippel, Seth

    2016-07-01

    A high resolution k-ω two-equation turbulence closure model, including surface wave forcing was employed to fully resolve turbulence dissipation rate profiles close to the ocean surface. Model results were compared with observations from Surface Wave Instrument Floats with Tracking (SWIFTs) in the nearshore region at New River Inlet, North Carolina USA, in June 2012. A sensitivity analysis for different physical parameters and wave and turbulence formulations was performed. The flux of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) prescribed by wave dissipation from a numerical wave model was compared with the conventional prescription using the wind friction velocity. A surface roughness length of 0.6 times the significant wave height was proposed, and the flux of TKE was applied at a distance below the mean sea surface that is half of this roughness length. The wave enhanced layer had a total depth that is almost three times the significant wave height. In this layer the non-dimensionalized Terray scaling with power of - 1.8 (instead of - 2) was applicable.

  6. Nearshore bar migration and sediment-induced buoyancy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchetti, Silvia; Conley, Daniel C.; Brocchini, Maurizio; Elgar, Steve

    2010-02-01

    A 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model that includes the effects of sediment-induced stratification is shown to simulate the observed onshore and offshore migration of a nearshore sandbar. The only two free parameters of the model, the bed reference concentration and the sediment diffusivity, are taken from the literature, rather than tuned to the data used here. The model results suggest that predictions of onshore bar migration, in which wave-induced sediment transport confined to within a few centimeters of the bottom dominates, are not greatly affected by accounting for buoyancy effects. The model results also suggest that both mean flows and waves transport sediment during offshore bar migration, with different components of transport dominating at different cross-shore locations across the bar-trough bathymetry. Neglecting the effects of sediment-induced stratification results in higher model skill during the largest waves, likely because the excess turbulence production simulated by the non-stratified model is counterbalanced by neglected breaking-wave-generated turbulence. Considering both onshore and offshore migration, the model that includes sediment-induced stratification has higher skill than the model without stratification.

  7. High-resolution wave and hydrodynamics modelling in coastal areas: operational applications for coastal planning, decision support and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Achilleas G.; Gaeta, Maria Gabriella; Moreno Miquel, Adrià; Archetti, Renata

    2016-07-01

    Numerical modelling has become an essential component of today's coastal planning, decision support and risk assessment. High-resolution modelling offers an extensive range of capabilities regarding simulated conditions, works and practices and provides with a wide array of data regarding nearshore wave dynamics and hydrodynamics. In the present work, the open-source TELEMAC suite and the commercial software MIKE21 are applied to selected coastal areas of South Italy. Applications follow a scenario-based approach in order to study representative wave conditions in the coastal field; the models' results are intercompared in order to test both their performance and capabilities and are further evaluated on the basis of their operational use for coastal planning and design. A multiparametric approach for the rapid assessment of wave conditions in coastal areas is also presented and implemented in areas of the same region. The overall approach is deemed to provide useful insights on the tested models and the use of numerical models - in general - in the above context, especially considering that the design of harbours, coastal protection works and management practices in the coastal zone is based on scenario-based approaches as well.

  8. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  9. Vulnerability of the Kenyan Shoreline to Coastal Instability.

    OpenAIRE

    Kairu, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    Like other countries of the world, the Kenya coastal zone has experienced rapid development and increase in human population. This has altered the environment and resulted in physical and ecological modification. In addition to human interference with coastal systems, natural factors that affect the land ocean boundary, especially changes in the relative sea level, natural shift in the river discharge points, coastal subsidence and the sea state have contributed to coastal erosion. In additio...

  10. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  11. Numerical Model of Beach Topography Evolution due to Waves and Currents: Special Emphasis on Coastal Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thanh Nam

    2010-01-01

    The beach topography change in the nearshore zone may be induced by natural phenomena such as wind, wave, storm, tsunami, and sea level rise. However, it can also be caused by man-made structures and activities, for example, groins, detached breakwaters, seawalls, dredging, and beach nourishment. Therefore, understanding the beach topography evolution in this zone is necessary and important for coastal engineering projects, e.g., constructing harbors, maintaining navigation channels, and prot...

  12. Modeling crude oil droplet-sediment aggregation in nearshore waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Michael C; Bonner, James S; Page, Cheryl A; Fuller, Christopher B; Ernest, Andrew N S; Autenrieth, Robin L

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a modeling approach that simulates changes in particle size distribution and density due to aggregation by extending the Smoluchowski aggregation kinetic model to particles of different density. Batch flocculation studies were conducted for clay, colloidal silica, crude oil, clay-crude oil, and silica-crude oil systems. A parameter estimation algorithm was used to estimate homogeneous collision efficiencies (alphaHOMO) for single-particle-type systems and heterogeneous collision efficiencies (alphaHET) for two-particle-type systems. Homogeneous collision efficiency values (alphaHOMO) were greater for clay (0.7) and for crude oil (0.3) than for silica (0.01). Thus, clay and crude oil were classified as cohesive particles while silica was classified as noncohesive. Heterogeneous collision efficiencies were similar for oil-clay (0.4) and oil-silica (0.3) systems. Thus, crude oil increases the aggregation of noncohesive particles. Data from the calibrated aggregation model were used to estimate apparent first-order flocculation rates (K') for oil, clay, and silica and apparent second-order flocculation rates (K'') for oil and clay in oil-clay systems and for oil and silica in oil-silica systems. For oil or clay systems, aggregation Damköhler numbers ranged from 0.1 to 1.0, suggesting that droplet coalescence and clay aggregation can occur on the same time scales as oil resurfacing and clay settling, respectively. For mixed oil-clay systems, the relative time scales of clay settling and clay-oil aggregation were also within an order of magnitude. Thus, oil-clay aggregation should be considered when modeling crude oil transport in nearshore waters. PMID:15461172

  13. cBathy: A robust algorithm for estimating nearshore bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holman, Rob; Holland, K. Todd

    2013-01-01

    A three-part algorithm is described and tested to provide robust bathymetry maps based solely on long time series observations of surface wave motions. The first phase consists of frequency-dependent characterization of the wave field in which dominant frequencies are estimated by Fourier transform while corresponding wave numbers are derived from spatial gradients in cross-spectral phase over analysis tiles that can be small, allowing high-spatial resolution. Coherent spatial structures at each frequency are extracted by frequency-dependent empirical orthogonal function (EOF). In phase two, depths are found that best fit weighted sets of frequency-wave number pairs. These are subsequently smoothed in time in phase 3 using a Kalman filter that fills gaps in coverage and objectively averages new estimates of variable quality with prior estimates. Objective confidence intervals are returned. Tests at Duck, NC, using 16 surveys collected over 2 years showed a bias and root-mean-square (RMS) error of 0.19 and 0.51 m, respectively but were largest near the offshore limits of analysis (roughly 500 m from the camera) and near the steep shoreline where analysis tiles mix information from waves, swash and static dry sand. Performance was excellent for small waves but degraded somewhat with increasing wave height. Sand bars and their small-scale alongshore variability were well resolved. A single ground truth survey from a dissipative, low-sloping beach (Agate Beach, OR) showed similar errors over a region that extended several kilometers from the camera and reached depths of 14 m. Vector wave number estimates can also be incorporated into data assimilation models of nearshore dynamics.

  14. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of nearshore circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Detong

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional nearshore circulation model was developed by coupling CH3D, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and REF/DIF, a nearsbore wave transformation model. The model solves the three-dimensional wave-averaged equations of motion. Wave-induced effects on circulation were introduced in the form of radiation stresses, wave-induced mass transport, wave-induced enhancement of bottom friction and wave-induced turbulent mixing. Effects of breaking waves were considered following Svendsen (1984a and 1984b) and Stive and Wind (1986). The model was successfully tested against the analytical solution of longshore currents by Longuet and Higgins (1970). The model successfully simulated the undertow as observed in a laboratory experiment by Stive and Wind (1982). In addition, the model was applied to a physical model by Mory and Hamm (1997) and successfully reproduced the eddy behind a detached breakwater as well as the longshore current on the open beach and the contiguous eddy in the open area of the wave tank. While the qualitative agreement between model results and experimental observations was very good, the quantitative agreement needs to be further improved. Albeit difficult to explain every discrepancy between the model re- suits and observations, in general, sources of errors are attributed to the lack of understanding and comprehensive description of following processes: (1) the horizontal and vertical distribution of radiation stress, especially for breaking waves; (2) the detailed structure of turbulence;(3)Wave-current interaction (not included at this moment) ; and (4)the wave- current boundary layer and the resulting bottom shear stress.

  15. Coastal Upwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Features a three-part activity designed to teach students about coastal upwelling, the upward movement of cooler, more nutrient-rich water along a coast. Activity includes a mapping exercise, a graphing exercise, and questions for analyzing the map and graph. (Author/WRM)

  16. Integration of Web-GIS and oil spill simulation applications for environmental management of near-shore spill accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a near-shore oil spill, the use of a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) can greatly improve emergency response management and oil recovery operations by providing real-time information support. This paper presented a Web-GIS that is used in combination with an oil spill simulation model. The structure and content of the system was defined after the Nakhodka vessel spilled oil in the Sea of Japan in January 1997, leaving serious environmental damage to the coastal area of the Ishikawa prefecture. The Web-GIS provides a wide range of environmental and oil spill related information, presented in a geographical form. The system also consolidates spill and environmental damage related information from different sources and provides links to the specialized environmental and socio-economical information of other GIS databases. The oil spill modeling subsystem is part of an application for protection planning and oil recovery operations. With this system, oil-drift simulation begins at the onset of any oil spill and then remote sensing data are used to estimate the position and state of the spilled oil. The spill information is then assimilated into the spill model and the observed simulated results are uploaded to the Web page for public information. The applicability of the Web-GIS is extended by support for information gathering from the public and the responsible agencies. The relative simplicity of the system interface is an added advantage. 9 refs., 4 figs

  17. Implementation and validation of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghilesi, R.; Catini, F.; Bellotti, G.; Franco, L.; Orasi, A.; Corsini, S.

    2012-02-01

    A coastal forecasting system was implemented to provide wind wave forecasts over the whole Mediterranean Sea area, and with the added capability to focus on selected coastal areas. The goal of the system was to achieve a representation of the small-scale coastal processes influencing the propagation of waves towards the coasts. The system was based on a chain of nested wave models and adopted the WAve Model (WAM) to analyse the large-scale, deep-sea propagation of waves; and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) to simulate waves in key coastal areas. Regional intermediate-scale WAM grids were introduced to bridge the gap between the large-scale and each coastal area. Even applying two consecutive nestings (Mediterranean grid → regional grid → coastal grid), a very high resolution was still required for the large scale WAM implementation in order to get a final resolution of about 400 m on the shores. In this study three regional areas in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected, with a single coastal area embedded in each of them. The number of regional and coastal grids in the system could easily be modified without significantly affecting the efficiency of the system. The coastal system was tested in three Italian coastal regions in order to optimize the numerical parameters and to check the results in orographically complex zones for which wave records were available. Fifteen storm events in the period 2004-2009 were considered.

  18. What shapes mesoscale wind anomalies in coastal upwelling zones?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Julien [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); CNRS/CERFACS, URA 1875, Toulouse (France); Hall, Alex; Qu, Xin; Kapnick, Sarah B. [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Colas, Francois; McWilliams, James C.; Kurian, Jaison [University of California, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Observational studies have shown that mesoscale variations in sea surface temperature may induce mesoscale variations in wind. In eastern subtropical upwelling regions such as the California coast, this mechanism could be of great importance for the mean state and variability of the climate system. In coastal regions orography also creates mesoscale variations in wind, and the orographic effect may extend more than 100 km offshore. The respective roles of SST/wind links and coastal orography in shaping mesoscale wind variations in nearshore regions is not clear. We address this question in the context of the California Upwelling System, using a high-resolution regional numerical modeling system coupling the WRF atmospheric model to the ROMS oceanic model, as well as additional uncoupled experiments to quantify and separate the effects of SST/wind links and coastal orography on mesoscale wind variations. After taking into account potential biases in the representation of the strength of SST/wind links by the model, our results suggest that the magnitude of mesoscale wind variations arising from the orographic effects is roughly twice that of wind variations associated with mesoscale SST anomalies. This indicates that even in this region where coastal orography is complex and leaves a strong imprint on coastal winds, the role of SST/winds links in shaping coastal circulation and climate cannot be neglected. (orig.)

  19. Modern sedimentation processes in a wave-dominated coastal embayment: Espírito Santo Bay, southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Costa Moscon, Daphnne Moraes; Carmo, Dannilo; Neto, José Antonio Baptista; da Silva Quaresma, Valéria

    2015-02-01

    Sediment dynamics in wave-dominated coastal embayments are generally controlled by seasonal meteorological conditions, storms having a particularly strong influence. In the present study, such hydrodynamic processes and associated deposits have been investigated in a coastal embayment located along the southeast coast of Brazil, i.e. Espírito Santo Bay, in the winter (June/July) of 2008. The bay has undergone a series of human interventions that have altered the local hydrodynamic processes and, consequently, the sediment transport patterns. Facies distribution and sediment dynamics were examined by acoustic seabed mapping, sediment and core sampling, hydrodynamic measurements and sand transport modelling. The results show that sediment distribution can be described in terms of nearshore and offshore zones. The offshore bay sector is predominantly composed of "palimpsest" lithoclastic medium-coarse sands deposited in the course of the early Holocene transgression that peaked about 5,000 years ago. In the inner bay or nearshore zone (up to depths of 4-8 m), these older transgressive deposits are today overlain by a thin (up to 30-cm-thick) and partly patchy blanket of younger regressive fine sand/muddy fine sands. Both coarse- and fine-grained facies are being reworked during high-energy events (Hs>1.5 m) when fine sediment is resuspended, weak tide-induced drift currents causing the sand patches to be displaced. The coarser sediment, by contrast, is mobilized as bedload to produce wave ripples with spacings of up to 1.2 m. These processes lead to a sharp spatial delimitation between a fine sand/mud facies and a rippled coarse sand facies. The fine sand patches have a relief of about 20-30 cm and reveal a typical internal tempestite depositional sequence. Fair-weather wave-induced sediment transport (Hssand patches concentrated in the north-eastern part of the bay. Because storm-induced deposits of the type observed in this study have an inherently patchy

  20. Exploring the hidden shallows: extensive reef development and resilience within the turbid nearshore Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kyle; Perry, Chris; Smithers, Scott; Johnson, Jamie; Daniell, James

    2016-04-01

    Mean coral cover on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) has reportedly declined by over 15% during the last 30 years. Climate change events and outbreaks of coral disease have been major drivers of degradation, often exacerbating the stresses caused by localised human activities (e.g. elevated sediment and nutrient inputs). Here, however, in the first assessment of nearshore reef occurrence and ecology across meaningful spatial scales (15.5 sq km), we show that areas of the GBR shelf have exhibited strong intra-regional variability in coral resilience to declining water quality. Specifically, within the highly-turbid "mesophotic" nearshore (scale disturbance as their deep-water (>30 m) "mesophotic" equivalents, and also provide a basis from which to model future trajectories of reef growth within nearshore areas.

  1. Exploring the hidden shallows: extensive reef development and resilience within the turbid nearshore Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kyle; Perry, Chris; Smithers, Scott; Johnson, Jamie; Daniell, James

    2016-04-01

    Mean coral cover on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) has reportedly declined by over 15% during the last 30 years. Climate change events and outbreaks of coral disease have been major drivers of degradation, often exacerbating the stresses caused by localised human activities (e.g. elevated sediment and nutrient inputs). Here, however, in the first assessment of nearshore reef occurrence and ecology across meaningful spatial scales (15.5 sq km), we show that areas of the GBR shelf have exhibited strong intra-regional variability in coral resilience to declining water quality. Specifically, within the highly-turbid "mesophotic" nearshore (30 m) "mesophotic" equivalents, and also provide a basis from which to model future trajectories of reef growth within nearshore areas.

  2. Estimation of nearshore groundwater discharge and its potential effects on a fringing coral reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We characterized SGD in a fringing coral reef using radon tracing. → End-member Rn and gas transfer rate significantly affect flux estimation accuracy. → Reef SGD is strongly influenced by tidal pumping and hydraulic gradient. → SGD elevated nitrate concentrations, which drastically increased nearshore Chl-a. → SGD significantly induced the proliferation of cyanobacteria in nearshore reef areas. - Abstract: Radon (222Rn) measurements were conducted in Shiraho Reef (Okinawa, Japan) to investigate nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGDnearshore) dynamics. Estimated average groundwater flux was 2-3 cm/h (maximum 7-8 cm/h). End-member radon concentration and gas transfer coefficient were identified as major factors influencing flux estimation accuracy. For the 7-km long reef, SGDnearshore was 0.39-0.58 m3/s, less than 30% of Todoroki River's baseflow discharge. SGDnearshore was spatially and temporally variable, reflecting the strong influence of subsurface geology, tidal pumping, groundwater recharge, and hydraulic gradient. SGDnearshore elevated nearshore nitrate concentrations (0.8-2.2 mg/l) to half of Todoroki River's baseflow NO3-N (2-4 mg/L). This increased nearshore Chl-a from 0.5-2 μg/l compared to the typically low Chl-a (<0.1-0.4 μg/l) in the moat. Diatoms and cyanobacteria concentrations exhibited an increasing trend. However, the percentage contributions of diatoms and cyanobacteria significantly decreased and increased, respectively. SGD may significantly induce the proliferation of cyanobacteria in nearshore reef areas.

  3. Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2010-04-22

    In this study, a hydrodynamic model based on the unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was developed for Bellingham Bay, Washington. The model simulates water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity in a three-dimensional domain that covers the entire Bellingham Bay and adjacent water bodies, including Lummi Bay, Samish Bay, Padilla Bay, and Rosario Strait. The model was developed using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s high-resolution Puget Sound and Northwest Straits circulation and transport model. A sub-model grid for Bellingham Bay and adjacent coastal waters was extracted from the Puget Sound model and refined in Bellingham Bay using bathymetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and river channel cross-section data. The model uses tides, river inflows, and meteorological inputs to predict water surface elevations, currents, salinity, and temperature. A tidal open boundary condition was specified using standard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) predictions. Temperature and salinity open boundary conditions were specified based on observed data. Meteorological forcing (wind, solar radiation, and net surface heat flux) was obtained from NOAA real observations and National Center for Environmental Prediction North American Regional Analysis outputs. The model was run in parallel with 48 cores using a time step of 2.5 seconds. It took 18 hours of cpu time to complete 26 days of simulation. The model was calibrated with oceanographic field data for the period of 6/1/2009 to 6/26/2009. These data were collected specifically for the purpose of model development and calibration. They include time series of water-surface elevation, currents, temperature, and salinity as well as temperature and salinity profiles during instrument deployment and retrieval. Comparisons between model predictions and field observations show an overall reasonable agreement in both temporal and spatial scales. Comparisons of

  4. Landing Marine-derived Renewable Energy: Optimising Power Cable Routing in the Nearshore Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rosalind, ,, Dr.; Keane, Tom; Mullins, Brian; Phipps, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that a vast unexploited source of energy can be derived from the marine environment. Recent evolution of the energy market and looming EU renewable energy uptake targets for 2020 have driven a huge explosion of interest in exploiting this resource, triggering both governments and industry to move forward in undertaking feasibility assessments and demonstration projects for wave, tidal and offshore wind farms across coastlines. The locations which naturally lend themselves to high yield energy capture, are by definition, exposed and may be remote, located far from the end user of the electricity generated. A fundamental constraint to successfully exploiting these resources will be whether electricity generated in high energy, variable and constantly evolving environments can be brought safely and reliably to shore without the need for constant monitoring and maintenance of the subsea cables and landfall sites. In the case of riverine cable crossings superficial sediments would typically be used to trench and bury the cable. High energy coastal environments may be stripped of soft sediments. Any superficial sediments present at the site may be highly mobile and subject to re-suspension throughout the tidal cycle or under stormy conditions. EirGrid Plc. and Mott MacDonald Ireland Ltd. have been investigating the potential for routing a cable across the exposed Shannon estuary in Ireland. Information regarding the geological ground model, meteo-oceanographic and archaeological conditions of the proposed site was limited, necessitating a clear investigation strategy. The investigation included gathering site information on currents, bathymetry and geology through desk studies, hydrographic and geophysical surveys, an intrusive ground investigation and coastal erosion assessments at the landfall sites. The study identified a number of difficulties for trenching and protecting a cable through an exposed environment such as the Shannon

  5. A generalized wave action conservative equation for the dissipative dynamical system in the nearshore region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To describe the various complex mechanisms of the dissipative dynamical system between waves, currents, and bottoms in the nearshore region that induce typically the wave motion on large-scale variation of ambient currents, a generalized wave action equation for the dissipative dynamical system in the nearshore region is developed by using the mean-flow equations based on the Navier-Stokes equations of viscous fluid, thus raising two new concepts: the vertical velocity wave action and the dissipative wave action, extending the classical concept, wave action, from the ideal averaged flow conservative system into the real averaged flow dissipative system (that is, the generalized conservative system). It will have more applications.

  6. Who should own the nearshore wind turbines?:A case study of the Wind & Welfare project

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Louise Krog; Sperling, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the possibility for non-profit organisations to participate in tenders for nearshore wind turbines in Denmark under the current frame-work conditions in the area. The point of departure is a case study of the non-profit organisation Wind People’s attempt to participate with a popular project in the Danish tender for 350 MW nearshore wind turbines. A series of in-depth interviews have been carried out with Wind People’s staff in order to make an in-depth analysis of their ...

  7. Report on data from the Nearshore Sediment Transport Study experiment at Leadbetter Beach, Santa Barbara, California, January-February 1980 (NODC Accession 8200080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — THIS DATA SET CONSISTS OF THE RESULTS OF THE NEARSHORE SEDIMENT Nearshore Sediment Transport Study at Leadbetter Beach, Santa Barbara, California. These data from...

  8. Icefield-to-ocean linkages across the northern Pacific coastal temperate rainforest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Hood, Eran; Bidlack, Allison L.; Fleming, Sean W.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Arendt, Anthony; Burgess, Evan W.; Sergeant, Christopher J.; Beaudreau, Anne E.; Timm, Kristin; Hayward, Gregory D.; Reynolds, Joel H.; Pyare, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Rates of glacier mass loss in the northern Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) are among the highest on Earth, and changes in glacier volume and extent will affect the flow regime and chemistry of coastal rivers, as well as the nearshore marine ecosystem of the Gulf of Alaska. Here we synthesize physical, chemical and biological linkages that characterize the northern PCTR ecosystem, with particular emphasis on the potential impacts of glacier change in the coastal mountain ranges on the surface–water hydrology, biogeochemistry, coastal oceanography and aquatic ecology. We also evaluate the relative importance and interplay between interannual variability and long-term trends in key physical drivers and ecological responses. To advance our knowledge of the northern PCTR, we advocate for cross-disciplinary research bridging the icefield-to-ocean ecosystem that can be paired with long-term scientific records and designed to inform decisionmakers.

  9. COASTAL, Homer, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  10. Coastal Analysis, Accomack, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  11. COASTAL, Pacific, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  12. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  13. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  14. Coastal alert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains: how offshore drilling affects the environment and the quality of life; how the government auctions off our threatened coast to the oil industry; how offshore oil and gas are developed; how the lease sale process works; how energy alternatives can replace offshore drilling; how citizen action works and how one can become involved; letters and press announcements; important contacts. The author believes that America needs to get off the energy consumption treadmill and onto the track that leads to reliance on renewable resources and energy efficiency. This book is intended to tell citizens how they can help bring about this transition and protect unique coastal resources

  15. Introduction to coastal engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D' Angremond, K.; Pluim-van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Lecture notes on genesis of the coastline, climatology, oceanography, coastal morphology, coastal formations, coastalzonde management, tidal inlets and estuaries, pollution and density problems, practical problems and common solutions.

  16. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Numerical modeling of circulation and sediment transport in Long Bay, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. C.; Sullivan, C.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P.; Haas, K.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    Long Bay, South Carolina, is a heavily populated coastal region that supports a large tourism industry. Sand resources are important for both recreation and coastal habitat. Earlier geological framework studies have identified a large sand deposit oblique to the shoreline, oriented clockwise in the offshore direction. This sand feature is ~ 10 km long, 2 km wide, and in excess of 3m thick, possibly providing a source for beach nourishment material. Objectives of this study are to describe the physical processes that control the transport of sediment in Long Bay, specifically off the coast of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Specifically we seek to 1) measure and model the oceanographic circulation in the region, 2) identify the processes that maintain the presence of the offshore sand feature, 3) quantify the control that the shoal exerts on the nearshore through changes in wave energy propagation, and 4) identify consequences of removal of the offshore sand feature. Both observational and numerical experiments are used to study the oceanographic circulation and transport of sediment. The observational study is described in an accompanying poster and consists of eight sites that measured tides, surface waves, currents, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bed forms from October 2003 to April 2004. Numerical modeling for circulation and sediment transport in the study region uses a new version of ROMS (v2.1) that now includes transport of multiple grain sizes, coupling of sediment transport to wave bottom boundary layer models, and evolution of the bottom morphology. The SWAN model is used to compute wave propagation. Results indicate that currents in the study area are strongly influenced by both tidal motion and wind driven setup / setdown. The presence of the offshore sand feature alters the residual flows in the region. Sediment transport is more significant during periods of sustained strong winds that generate local waves. Wind direction

  17. Extended Abstracts from the Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound (CHIPS) 2006 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Gelfenbaum, Guy, (Edited By); Fuentes, Tracy L.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Grossman, Eric E.; Takesue, Renee K.

    2010-01-01

    Puget Sound is the second largest estuary in the United States. Its unique geology, climate, and nutrient-rich waters produce and sustain biologically productive coastal habitats. These same natural characteristics also contribute to a high quality of life that has led to a significant growth in human population and associated development. This population growth, and the accompanying rural and urban development, has played a role in degrading Puget Sound ecosystems, including declines in fish and wildlife populations, water-quality issues, and loss and degradation of coastal habitats. In response to these ecosystem declines and the potential for strategic large-scale preservation and restoration, a coalition of local, State, and Federal agencies, including the private sector, Tribes, and local universities, initiated the Puget Sound Nearshore Ecosystem Restoration Project (PSNERP). The Nearshore Science Team (NST) of PSNERP, along with the U.S. Geological Survey, developed a Science Strategy and Research Plan (Gelfenbaum and others, 2006) to help guide science activities associated with nearshore ecosystem restoration. Implementation of the Research Plan includes a call for State and Federal agencies to direct scientific studies to support PSNERP information needs. In addition, the overall Science Strategy promotes greater communication with decision makers and dissemination of scientific results to the broader scientific community. On November 14-16, 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored an interdisciplinary Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound (CHIPS) Research Workshop at Fort Worden State Park, Port Townsend, Washington. The main goals of the workshop were to coordinate, integrate, and link research on the nearshore of Puget Sound. Presented research focused on three themes: (1) restoration of large river deltas; (2) recovery of the nearshore ecosystem of the Elwha River; and (3) effects of urbanization on nearshore ecosystems. The more than 35 presentations

  18. FINDING AND READING ECOLOGICAL SIGNALS IN THE NEARSHORE OF THE GREAT LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjunct UMD faculty make annual presentations on research interest to IBS graduate students and faculty. Talks engage students in research and application to environmental problems. This presentation discusses the ecology of the nearshore areas of the Great Lakes, and ways to fi...

  19. Monitoring Bacterial Water Quality for Application to Watershed and Nearshore Fate and Transport Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, L. M.; Ritzenthaler, A.; Kramer, E.; Anderson, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing interest in linking watershed processes with nearshore processes in order to predict the fate and transport of pollutants, including bacteria, for application to management of recreational waters. However, traditional nearshore bacterial water quality monitoring programs are not sufficiently informative for understanding the spatio-temporal variability of water quality at scales that are relevant to process modeling. During the summer and fall of 2012, 2013, and 2014, we conducted increasingly intensive monitoring specifically designed to aid in the development of a linked watershed-hydrodynamics modeling framework for simulating the impacts of Michigan's Clinton River on the nearshore bacterial water quality of Lake St. Clair. Monitoring incorporated multiple sampling "events," including routine weekly sampling at 19 points along 19 km of shoreline, periodic transects perpendicular to the shoreline, periodic offshore sampling corresponding to the shoreline sampling points, repeated shoreline sampling over several 3-day periods, weekly river grab samples, hourly sampling of the river at baseline conditions, and hourly sampling of the river during high flow events. These sampling events allow exploration of the spatiotemporal variability of nearshore water quality resulting from local physiographic factors as well as the temporal variability of water quality in the river outlets. We present results describing the spatiotemporal variability as it relates to the watershed and hydrodynamics processes represented in a linked modeling framework which is under development.

  20. Preferences for Management of Near-Shore Marine Ecosystems: A Choice Experiment in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophal Chhun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in New Zealand in establishing “Customary Management Areas” (taiāpure and mātaitai and Marine Reserves to support Māori cultural practices and restore declining biodiversity and fish stocks. Allocation of near-shore marine areas for these management systems potentially benefits the larger public, but it has often been vigorously opposed by recreational and commercial fishers. This paper reports estimates of the relative values held by the public toward four potentially conflicting uses of near-shore marine areas. These estimates come from a web-based choice survey completed by 1055 respondents recruited from throughout New Zealand. The response rate was especially high at 60%. We present results weighted to the characteristics of the population and test the results against a variety of well-known sources of survey bias. Scenario development suggests that some reallocation of near-shore marine areas to any of the management systems under discussion alternative to the status quo is likely to yield a welfare gain. A combination of marine reserves and taiāpure is most preferred. The exercise supports the use of discrete choice experiments to provide crucial information about difficult-to-quantify public values for aspects of management of near-shore marine areas, such as proposed taiāpure, mātaitai, or marine reserves.

  1. Assessing metal toxicity in sediments using the equilibrium partitioning model and empirical sediment quality guidelines: A case study in the nearshore zone of the Bohai Sea, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Based on the EqP model, 35% samples had potential metal toxicity in sediments. • The empirical SQGs are not suitable for assessing sediment toxicity in Bohai Sea. • The EqP model is a much needed tool for metal toxicity assessment in coastal China. - Abstract: Surface sediments were collected from five nearshore (wastewater discharges, aquaculture facilities and a seaport) sites in Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay, China. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) model and empirical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were applied to assess the potential metal toxicity in the collected sediments. The results show that, based on the EqP model, 35% of stations exhibited potential metal toxicity. Several metals (Cu, Ni and Cr) exceeded the empirical SQGs (9–93% of the time), however these guidelines may not be suitable for use in the Bohai Sea owing to the background concentrations. The EqP model is a more useful method for assessing potential metal toxicity in Bohai Sea sediment than the empirical SQGs. Additionally, we have provided new understanding about methods for assessing sediment metal toxicity in the Bohai Sea that may be useful in other coastal areas in China

  2. Climate change impacts on stream carbon export from coastal temperate rainforest ecosystems in Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E. W.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal temperate rainforests (CTR) in Alaska contain about 10% of the total carbon in the forests of the conterminous United States. CTR ecosystems span a large environmental gradient that ranges from icefields mantling the Coast Mountains to carbon-rich conifer forests along the coastal margin and within the islands of the Alexander Archipelago in the Gulf of Alaska. Riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export from Alaskan CTR ecosystems, which can exceed 2 Tg C yr-1, is large relative to other northern ecosystems as a result of high rates of specific discharge (~2.5 m yr-1) and an abundance of organic soils found in peatlands and forested wetlands. Runoff from glaciers, which are rapidly thinning and retreating, has also been shown to an important contributor to land-to-ocean fluxes of DOC in this region. Downscaled regional climate models suggest that CTR ecosystems in Alaska will become warmer and wetter in coming decades, with uncertain effects on riverine organic matter (OM) export. Changes in watershed OM export are likely to be driven by changes in both hydrology and the availability of OM in terrestrial source pools. However, the impacts of these climate driven changes will vary with watershed landcover across the continuum from icefields to coastal temperate forests. Expected hydrological perturbations include changes in the timing and magnitude of streamflow associated with shifts in: 1) the extent and duration of seasonal snowcover and 2) the mass balance of glaciers and icefields in the Coast Mountains. The availability of OM for export along hydrologic flowpaths will likely be altered by increased soil temperatures and shifts in water table elevations during the summer/fall runoff season. This will be particularly true for organic carbon export from peatlands in which changes in temperature and oxygen availability can strongly impact rates of organic matter decomposition. This talk will explore how climate-driven changes in hydrology and

  3. Characteristics of coastal circulation affecting the transport and dispersion of material released from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our knowledge of circulation in the coastal zones of oceans and inland seas is hindered by lack of detailed observations in these regions. The shallow zone within a few miles of the coast is the region where the impact of nuclear facilities is likely to be felt. The studies reported here represent an attempt to obtain the spatial and temporal resolution necessary to describe the characteristics of circulation in the coastal zone. These studies were conducted in Lake Ontario, one of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and they are thought to be particularly relevant to most large lakes and inland seas such as the Baltic Sea. Some relevance to shallow continental shelf areas is also noted. Data obtained from moored current meters during thermally stratified conditions indicate the existence of a nearshore region extending some 8 to 10 km from the shore where upwelling and downwelling of the thermocline is confined. The root-mean-square (rms) speeds of the wave-like currents near the local inertial period (17 hours) are a small fraction of the 'along-shore' velocity component in this nearshore zone. Beyond this region, the rms speeds dominate the flow regime and are typically 2 to 10 times the mean velocity. The transition between the nearshore zone is strikingly sudden and is usually completed over a distance of 2 or 3 km. A characteristic of particular importance to dispersion and transport of suspended matter is the large time lag observed in current reversals across the coastal zone. The lags can amount to as much as three days, the results of which are episodes of large lateral shear. These shears can approach the value of 10-4 s-1, the value of the Coriolis parameter near mid-latitudes. High shear values do not coincide with high winds, but are usually related to the inability of the nearshore currents to adjust to a slowly varying wind regime. Simple momentum arguments suggest that the time for adjustment decreases as water depth nearshore decreases. The most important

  4. Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Models to Determine Phytoplankton Density in the Coastal Waters of Long Bay, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J. E.; Ali, K.

    2013-12-01

    The southeast coastal region is one of the fastest growing regions in the United States and the increasing utilization of open water bodies has led to the deterioration of water quality and aquatic ecology, placing the future of these resources at risk. In coastal zones, a key index that can be used to assess the stress on the environment is the water quality. The shallow nearshore waters of Long Bay, South Carolina (SC) are heavily influenced by multiple biogeochemical constituents or color producing agents (CPAs) such as, phytoplankton, suspend matter, and dissolved organic carbon. The interaction of the various chemical, biological and physical components gives rise to the optical complexity observed in the coastal waters producing turbid waters. Ecological stress on these environments is reflected by the increase in the frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia), toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. These are of great concern for human health and are detrimental to the marine life. Therefore, efficient monitoring tools are required for early detection and forecasting purposes as well as to understand the state of the conditions and better protect, manage and address the question of how various natural and anthropogenic factors affect the health of these environments. This study assesses the efficiency remote sensing as a potential tool for accurate and timely detection of HABs, as well as for providing high spatial and temporal resolution information regarding the biogeodynamics in coastal water bodies. Existing blue-green and NIR-red based remote sensing algorithms are applied to the reflectance data obtained using ASD spectroradiometer to predict the amount of chlorophyll, an independent of other associated CPAs in the Long Bay waters. The pigment is the primary light harvesting pigment in all phytoplankton and is used

  5. The changing carbon cycle of the coastal ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, James E; Cai, Wei-Jun; Raymond, Peter A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Regnier, Pierre A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon cycle of the coastal ocean is a dynamic component of the global carbon budget. But the diverse sources and sinks of carbon and their complex interactions in these waters remain poorly understood. Here we discuss the sources, exchanges and fates of carbon in the coastal ocean and how anthropogenic activities have altered the carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that the coastal ocean may have become a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide during post-industrial times. Continued ...

  6. A numerical simulation of transient near-shore natural convection induced by ramped iso-flux cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Unsteady near-shore natural convection induced by ramped cooling is simulated. ► Ramped cooling may change the developing path of the flow towards the final state. ► Ramped cooling delays or suppresses onset of Rayleigh-Bénard type (RBT) instability. ► A time scale for onset time of RBT instability is proposed and verified. - Abstract: The present study numerically investigates the unsteady natural convection in a triangular domain induced by ramped iso-flux cooling at the water surface. The simulations indicate that, although the ramped cooling does not alter the final state of the flow for a given steady state flux, it may change the developing path towards the final state as well as slow down the development of the flow. The ramped cooling delays or completely suppresses the onset of a Rayleigh-Bénard type (RBT) instability during the developing process. As a consequence, a transitional stage characterized by the appearance and disappearance of the RBT instability at intermediate Rayleigh numbers does not occur if the ramp time is significantly long. Both qualitative and quantitative information is presented to demonstrate the effects of the ramp time on the transient behaviour of the flow at different Rayleigh numbers. A time scale for the onset time of the RBT instability under ramped cooling is also proposed and verified by the numerical results. The local instantaneous Rayleigh number at different parameters is calculated and its time history confirms the observed transient flow behaviours.

  7. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    demonstrated in autumn 2010 when the storm Becky reached the Santander Bay, Spain. As reported by THESEUS, the FP-7 EU project (2009-2013), the peak of nearshore significant wave height was about 8 m, the storm surge reached 0.6 m, with tidal level of 90% of the tidal range. The latest storm in December 2010, which hit the Nile Delta and which was the severest in the last decades showed that generated surges, up to 1.0 m as well as a maximum of 7.5 m wave height in the offshore of Alexandria presented a major natural hazard in coastal zones in terms of wave run up and overtopping. Along the US Atlantic Coast, where Hurricane Sandy this autumn and Hurricane Irene in 2011 left chaos in their wakes, a perfect storm of rising sea levels and dense coastal development at high risk . Super storm Sandy sent a storm surge of 4-5 m onto New Jersey's and New York's fragile barrier island and urban shorelines, causing an estimated 70 billion (USD) in damages and widespread misery for coastal inhabitants. Sea Level Rise and Impact on Upgrade of Coastal Structures: Williams (2013) highlights in his recent paper that adaptation planning on national scales in the USA for projected sea-level rise of 0.5-2 m by A.D. 2100 is advisable. Further he points out that sea-level rise, as a major driving force of change for coastal regions, is becoming increasingly important as a hazard to humans and urban areas in the coastal zone worldwide as global climate change takes effect. During the 20th century, sea level began rising at a global average rate of 1.7 mm/yr (). The current average rise rate is 3.1 mm/yr, a 50% increase over the past two decades. Many regions are experiencing even greater rise rates due to local geophysical (e.g., Louisiana, Chesapeake Bay) and oceanographic (mid-Atlantic coast) forces. Further the Mississippi River Delta plain region of Louisiana has much higher than average rates of LRSL rise due to geologic factors such as subsidence and man-made alterations to the delta plain

  8. Predicting species diversity of benthic communities within turbid nearshore using full-waveform bathymetric LiDAR and machine learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Antoine; Archambault, Phillippe; Long, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Epi-macrobenthic species richness, abundance and composition are linked with type, assemblage and structural complexity of seabed habitat within coastal ecosystems. However, the evaluation of these habitats is highly hindered by limitations related to both waterborne surveys (slow acquisition, shallow water and low reactivity) and water clarity (turbid for most coastal areas). Substratum type/diversity and bathymetric features were elucidated using a supervised method applied to airborne bathymetric LiDAR waveforms over Saint-Siméon-Bonaventure's nearshore area (Gulf of Saint-Lawrence, Québec, Canada). High-resolution underwater photographs were taken at three hundred stations across an 8-km(2) study area. Seven models based upon state-of-the-art machine learning techniques such as Naïve Bayes, Regression Tree, Classification Tree, C 4.5, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and CN2 learners were tested for predicting eight epi-macrobenthic species diversity metrics as a function of the class number. The Random Forest outperformed other models with a three-discretized Simpson index applied to epi-macrobenthic communities, explaining 69% (Classification Accuracy) of its variability by mean bathymetry, time range and skewness derived from the LiDAR waveform. Corroborating marine ecological theory, areas with low Simpson epi-macrobenthic diversity responded to low water depths, high skewness and time range, whereas higher Simpson diversity relied upon deeper bottoms (correlated with stronger hydrodynamics) and low skewness and time range. The degree of species heterogeneity was therefore positively linked with the degree of the structural complexity of the benthic cover. This work underpins that fully exploited bathymetric LiDAR (not only bathymetrically derived by-products), coupled with proficient machine learner, is able to rapidly predict habitat characteristics at a spatial resolution relevant to epi-macrobenthos diversity, ranging from clear to turbid

  9. Nearshore half-grabens as analogues for offshore, early Carboniferous rift basins along the SW Barents Sea Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, Jean-Baptiste; Bergh, Steffen G.; Indrevær, Kjetil; Lea, Halldis; Bergø, Espen; Henningsen, Tormod; Forthun, Tore; Faleide, Jan-Inge

    2016-04-01

    The present study focuses on the onshore-offshore correlation of brittle faults along the SW Barents Sea Margin, northern Norway. Several studies indicate that the SW Barents Sea Margin experienced a pulse of extensional deformation in the Late Devonian?-early Carboniferous, shortly after the Caledonian contractional deformation ended. The formation of major brittle faults and associated offshore basins that represent targets for hydrocarbon exploration, such as the NE-SW trending Nordkapp Basin, are thought to have initiated during this rifting event. Half-graben structures similar in shape and orientation to the southern segment of the Nordkapp Basin have been identified on the Finnmark Platform and in nearshore areas in coastal Finnmark, northern Norway. Although relatively smaller, these half-graben structures display the same asymmetric, sigma-shaped to triangular architecture in map view as the Nordkapp Basin and also initiated in the earliest Carboniferous, as confirmed by fossiliferous assemblages from shallow cores. The triangular shape of these half-graben structures is related to the presence of possible fault segments of the Trollfjord-Komagelv Fault Zone that trend WNW-ESE and partly truncate the NE-SW trending, sometimes arcuate, extensional brittle faults that bound the half-graben structures. High-resolution bathymetry data show that these half-graben structures internally display minor, NE-SW trending brittle faults and relatively high seafloor relief, thus possible fault displacement, at the intersection between these minor faults and the major, arcuate bounding faults. Microstructural analysis of fault-rocks in nearby onshore fault zones showed multiple generations of cataclasite, suggesting several episodes of faulting in the region. A major goal for future work will be to constrain the exact timing of the faulting event(s) with K/Ar radiometric dating of onshore fault-rocks. This may help estimating the timing of potential fluid migration

  10. Predicting Species Diversity of Benthic Communities within Turbid Nearshore Using Full-Waveform Bathymetric LiDAR and Machine Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Antoine; Archambault, Phillippe; Long, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Epi-macrobenthic species richness, abundance and composition are linked with type, assemblage and structural complexity of seabed habitat within coastal ecosystems. However, the evaluation of these habitats is highly hindered by limitations related to both waterborne surveys (slow acquisition, shallow water and low reactivity) and water clarity (turbid for most coastal areas). Substratum type/diversity and bathymetric features were elucidated using a supervised method applied to airborne bathymetric LiDAR waveforms over Saint-Siméon–Bonaventure's nearshore area (Gulf of Saint-Lawrence, Québec, Canada). High-resolution underwater photographs were taken at three hundred stations across an 8-km2 study area. Seven models based upon state-of-the-art machine learning techniques such as Naïve Bayes, Regression Tree, Classification Tree, C 4.5, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and CN2 learners were tested for predicting eight epi-macrobenthic species diversity metrics as a function of the class number. The Random Forest outperformed other models with a three-discretized Simpson index applied to epi-macrobenthic communities, explaining 69% (Classification Accuracy) of its variability by mean bathymetry, time range and skewness derived from the LiDAR waveform. Corroborating marine ecological theory, areas with low Simpson epi-macrobenthic diversity responded to low water depths, high skewness and time range, whereas higher Simpson diversity relied upon deeper bottoms (correlated with stronger hydrodynamics) and low skewness and time range. The degree of species heterogeneity was therefore positively linked with the degree of the structural complexity of the benthic cover. This work underpins that fully exploited bathymetric LiDAR (not only bathymetrically derived by-products), coupled with proficient machine learner, is able to rapidly predict habitat characteristics at a spatial resolution relevant to epi-macrobenthos diversity, ranging from clear to turbid

  11. Predicting species diversity of benthic communities within turbid nearshore using full-waveform bathymetric LiDAR and machine learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Collin

    Full Text Available Epi-macrobenthic species richness, abundance and composition are linked with type, assemblage and structural complexity of seabed habitat within coastal ecosystems. However, the evaluation of these habitats is highly hindered by limitations related to both waterborne surveys (slow acquisition, shallow water and low reactivity and water clarity (turbid for most coastal areas. Substratum type/diversity and bathymetric features were elucidated using a supervised method applied to airborne bathymetric LiDAR waveforms over Saint-Siméon-Bonaventure's nearshore area (Gulf of Saint-Lawrence, Québec, Canada. High-resolution underwater photographs were taken at three hundred stations across an 8-km(2 study area. Seven models based upon state-of-the-art machine learning techniques such as Naïve Bayes, Regression Tree, Classification Tree, C 4.5, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and CN2 learners were tested for predicting eight epi-macrobenthic species diversity metrics as a function of the class number. The Random Forest outperformed other models with a three-discretized Simpson index applied to epi-macrobenthic communities, explaining 69% (Classification Accuracy of its variability by mean bathymetry, time range and skewness derived from the LiDAR waveform. Corroborating marine ecological theory, areas with low Simpson epi-macrobenthic diversity responded to low water depths, high skewness and time range, whereas higher Simpson diversity relied upon deeper bottoms (correlated with stronger hydrodynamics and low skewness and time range. The degree of species heterogeneity was therefore positively linked with the degree of the structural complexity of the benthic cover. This work underpins that fully exploited bathymetric LiDAR (not only bathymetrically derived by-products, coupled with proficient machine learner, is able to rapidly predict habitat characteristics at a spatial resolution relevant to epi-macrobenthos diversity, ranging from clear to

  12. Decline in biodiversity of copepods in coastal waters of Mumbai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, V.R.

    Coastal waters of metropolitan cities face severe ecological threat due to sewage discharge and effluents from the industries. Copepods being the most abundant component in zooplankton some species can act as signals of alterations of water quality...

  13. Wind stress: Which formulation for coastal applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jenny; Mercier, Francois; Amoudry, Laurent; Souza, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    The accurate parameterisation of momentum and heat transfer across the air-sea interface is vital for realistic simulation of the atmosphere-ocean system. In many modelling applications accurate representation of the wind stress is required to numerically reproduce surge, coastal ocean circulation, surface waves and turbulence. Different formulations can be implemented and impact the accuracy of: the instantaneous and long-term residual circulation; and the generation of coastal storm conditions. This, in turn, affects predictions of storm impact, sediment pathways, and coastal resilience to climate change. The specific numerical formulation needs careful selection to ensure the accuracy of the simulations. We investigate two wind stress formulae widely used in respectively the ocean circulation and the storm surge communities. We focus on an application to the NW region of the UK, which is a specific case study area in two UK projects: the first investigating the evolution of coastal sediment systems and sediment pathways at the mesoscale (iCOASST: integrating coastal sediment systems), and the second investigating effective coastal adaptation to enhance resilience of coastal power stations to climate change (ARCoES: Adaptation and Resilience of Coastal Energy Supply). We employ model-data comparisons at two nearshore and one estuarine ADCP stations in Liverpool Bay, which is a hyper-tidal region of freshwater influence with vast intertidal areas. The period of study (February-March 2008) covers both calm and extreme conditions to fully test the robustness of: (i) The 10 m wind stress component of the CORE (Common Ocean Reference Experiment) bulk formulae used in operational barotropic-baroclinic global circulation modelling. The full set of formulae consists of methods to parameterise a set of atmospheric variables. (ii) The Charnock parameterisation used in barotropic surge modelling to capture increased surface roughness due to the presence of waves on the

  14. Coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented in the paper are gained from the routine radioecological control programme at the Swedish nuclear power plants and the research projects mainly in the Bothnian Sea. There is a permanent observation by personnel at local laboratories responsible for the programmes established by the authorities; i.e. the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SNV) in cooperation. This manning is of special value for an early documentation of short events or disturbances. Samples were taken already during the first days of the Chernobyl fallout, of interest for temporal aspects. The development during the early phase illustrates the immediate entrance of fallout radionuclides into the food chains. The regional distribution of the fallout over Sweden is reflected in the biota. The development along the coasts is largely a result of this original pattern and the transport of radionuclides in the free water mass. In most coastal areas sediments seem to be of minor importance. The time lag from lower to higher trophic levels in the food chains is demonstrated. (au)

  15. Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. Coastal development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study sites, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove sites (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on coastal sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of coastal fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.

  16. Acoustic and satellite remote sensing of shallow nearshore marine habitats in the Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshitnyk, Luba Yvanka

    The ability to map nearshore habitat (i.e. submerged aquatic vegetation) is an integral component of marine conservation. The main goal of this thesis was to examine the ability of high resolution, multispectral satellite imagery and a single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system to map the location of marine habitats in Bag Harbour, found in the Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area Reserve. To meet this goal, two objectives were addressed: (1) Using the QTC View V sing-beam acoustic ground discrimination system, identify which frequency (50 kHz or 200 kHz) is best suited for mapping marine habitat; (2) evaluate the ability to map nearshore marine habitat using WorldView-2 high resolution, multispectral satellite imagery and compare the results of marine habitat maps derived from the acoustic and satellite datasets. Ground-truth data for both acoustic and satellite data were collected via towed underwater video camera on June 3rd and 4th, 2012. Acoustic data (50 and 200 kHz) were collected on June 23rd and 24 th, 2012, respectively. The results of this study are organized into two papers. The first paper focuses on objective 1 where the QTC View V single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system was used to map nearshore habitat at a site within the Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area using two survey frequencies -- 50 kHz and 200 kHz. The results show that the 200 kHz data outperformed the 50 kHz data set in both thematic and spatial accuracy. The 200 kHz dataset was able to identify two species of submerged aquatic vegetation, eelgrass ( Zostera marina) and a red algae (Chondrocanthus exasperatus ) while the 50 kHz dataset was only able to detect the distribution of eelgrass. The best overall accuracy achieved with the 200 kHz dataset was 86% for a habitat map with three classes (dense eelgrass, dense red algae and unvegetated substrate) compared to the 50 kHz habitat classification with two classes (dense eelgrass and unvegetated

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of carbonate content in the beach and nearshore environments off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.

    Sediment samples collected from dunes, beaches (Calangute, Baina and Colva) and nearshore environments along the coast of Goa, have been analysed for their carbonate content. The results show the presence of very high carbonate content (60...

  18. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events. PMID:26561445

  19. Quantifying nearshore morphological recovery time scales using argus video imaging: Palm Beach, Sydney and Duck, North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Holman, R.; De Schipper, M.A.; Lippmann, T.; Wehof, J.; Duong, T.M.; Roelvink, D.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Time scales of post-storm nearshore morphological recovery and physical processes governing these time scales are poorly understood at present. The ability to predict nearshore morphological recovery time scales based on pre-, during- or post-resetting storm conditions is an essential requirement for building and validating scale aggregated models that operate at macro- and higher spatio-temporal scales. In this study, quality controlled ARGUS video derived beach states at Palm Beach, Sydney ...

  20. Nearshore Areas Used by Fry Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in the Northwestern Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    OpenAIRE

    McLain, Jeff; Castillo, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    We reported the geographic distribution and the densities and catch rates of fry Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, found in different substrata and nearshore zones in the northwestern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. Nearshore zones in the fresh-water, tidally influenced northwest delta were dominated by riprap, and contained sparse sections of tule beds, beaches, and riparian zones. A total of six beach seine sites and eight electrofish site...

  1. Distribution and swarming of mysids in the nearshore waters off Bombay

    OpenAIRE

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, Vijayalakshmi R.; Desai, B.N.

    1980-01-01

    Distribution and abundance of mysids were studied in the nearshore waters off Bombay along 3 transects located off Versova, off Mahim and Thana creek covering eleven stations during November 1979 to December 1980. Maximum population of mysids was recorded during the premonsoon period. Density of mysids was more in Versova than at Mahim and Thana transects. Tidal variation and pollution load influenced the distribution of mysids. Swarming of Mesopodopsis zeylanica was observed in Versova creek...

  2. Eutrophication and overfishing in temperate nearshore pelagic food webs: a network perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vasas, V.; C. Lancelot; Rousseau, V.; F. Jordán

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of human activities on the pelagic food web structure of nearshore marine ecosystems. Their generic structure was established on the basis of literature review and analyzed by qualitative structural network analysis. Two main issues were addressed: (1) the role of species capable of forming harmful algal blooms (HABs) and red tides (Noctiluca spp.), as well as the role of jellyfish, in eutrophicated systems; (2) the contribution of human influences on food webs, fo...

  3. Nearshore Satellite Data as Relative Indicators of Intertidal Organism Physiological Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzelle, A.; Helmuth, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2011-12-01

    The physiological performance of intertidal and shallow subtidal invertebrates and algae is significantly affected by water temperature, and so the ability to measure and model onshore water temperatures is critical for ecological and biogeographic studies. Because of the localized influences of processes such as upwelling, mixing, and surface heating from solar radiation, nearshore water temperatures can differ from those measured directly offshore by buoys and satellites. It remains an open question what the magnitude of the differences in these temperatures are, and whether "large pixel" measurements can serve as an effective proxy for onshore processes, particularly when extrapolating from laboratory physiological studies to field conditions. We compared 9 years of nearshore (~10km) MODIS (Terra and Aqua overpasses) SST data against in situ measurements of water temperature conducted at two intertidal sites in central Oregon- Boiler Bay and Strawberry Hill. We collapsed data into increasingly longer temporal averages to address the correlation and absolute differences between onshore and nearshore temperatures over daily, weekly and monthly timescales. Results indicate that nearshore SST is a reasonable proxy for onshore water temperature, and that the strength of the correlation increases with decreasing temporal resolution. Correlations between differences in maxima are highest, followed by average and minima, and were lower at a site with regular upwelling. While average differences ranged from ~0.199-1.353°C, absolute differences across time scales were ~0.446-6.906°C, and were highest for cold temperatures. The results suggest that, at least at these two sites, SST can be used as a relative proxy for general trends only, especially over longer time scales.

  4. The contribution of nearshore fish aggregating devices (FADs to food security and livelihoods in Solomon Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle A Albert

    Full Text Available Fish aggregating devices, or FADs, are used widely in developing countries to concentrate pelagic fish, making them easier to catch. Nearshore FADs anchored close to the coast allow access for rural communities, but despite their popularity among policy makers, there is a dearth of empirical analysis of their contributions to the supply of fish and to fisheries management. In this paper we demonstrate that nearshore FADs increased the supply of fish to four communities in Solomon Islands. Estimated total annual fish catch ranged from 4300 to 12,000 kg across the study villages, with nearshore FADs contributing up to 45% of the catch. While it is clear that FADs increased the supply of fish, FAD catch rates were not consistently higher than other fishing grounds. Villages with limited access to diverse or productive fishing grounds seemingly utilized FADs to better effect. Villagers believed FADs increased household income and nutrition, as well as providing a source of fish for community events. FADs were also perceived to increase intra-household conflict and reduce fishers' participation in community activities. FADs need to be placed within a broader rural development context and treated as another component in the diversified livelihoods of rural people; as with other livelihood options they bring trade-offs and risks.

  5. The contribution of nearshore fish aggregating devices (FADs) to food security and livelihoods in Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Joelle A; Beare, Doug; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Albert, Simon; Warren, Regon; Teri, James; Siota, Faye; Andrew, Neil L

    2014-01-01

    Fish aggregating devices, or FADs, are used widely in developing countries to concentrate pelagic fish, making them easier to catch. Nearshore FADs anchored close to the coast allow access for rural communities, but despite their popularity among policy makers, there is a dearth of empirical analysis of their contributions to the supply of fish and to fisheries management. In this paper we demonstrate that nearshore FADs increased the supply of fish to four communities in Solomon Islands. Estimated total annual fish catch ranged from 4300 to 12,000 kg across the study villages, with nearshore FADs contributing up to 45% of the catch. While it is clear that FADs increased the supply of fish, FAD catch rates were not consistently higher than other fishing grounds. Villages with limited access to diverse or productive fishing grounds seemingly utilized FADs to better effect. Villagers believed FADs increased household income and nutrition, as well as providing a source of fish for community events. FADs were also perceived to increase intra-household conflict and reduce fishers' participation in community activities. FADs need to be placed within a broader rural development context and treated as another component in the diversified livelihoods of rural people; as with other livelihood options they bring trade-offs and risks. PMID:25513808

  6. Alongshore momentum transfer to the nearshore zone from energetic ocean waves generated by passing hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Ryan P.; Hanson, Jeffrey L.

    2016-06-01

    Wave and current measurements from a cross-shore array of nearshore sensors in Duck, NC, are used to elucidate the balance of alongshore momentum under energetic wave conditions with wide surf zones, generated by passing hurricanes that are close to and far from to the coast. The observations indicate that a distant storm (Hurricane Bill, 2009) with large waves has low variability in directional wave characteristics resulting in alongshore currents that are driven mainly by the changes in wave energy. A storm close to the coast (Hurricane Earl, 2010), with strong local wind stress and combined sea and swell components in wave energy spectra, has high variability in wave direction and wave period that influence wave breaking and nearshore circulation as the storm passes. During both large wave events, the horizontal current shear is strong and radiation stress gradients, bottom stress, wind stress, horizontal mixing, and cross-shore advection contribute to alongshore momentum at different spatial locations across the nearshore region. Horizontal mixing during Hurricane Earl, estimated from rotational velocities, was particularly strong suggesting that intense eddies were generated by the high horizontal shear from opposing wind-driven and wave-driven currents. The results provide insight into the cross-shore distribution of the alongshore current and the connection between flows inside and outside the surf zone during major storms, indicating that the current shear and mixing at the interface between the surf zone and shallow inner shelf is strongly dependent on the distance from the storm center to the coast.

  7. Algal δ15N values detect a wastewater effluent plume in nearshore and offshore surface waters and three-dimensionally model the plume across a coral reef on Maui, Hawai‘i, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The Lahaina WWRF effluent plume affects most of the shallow region at Kahekili. ► The Lahaina WWRF effluent plume rises to the surface waters in the Kahekili area. ► The Lahaina WWRF effluent plume flows south with the most predominant current. - Abstract: The coral reef at Kahekili, Maui is located ∼300 m south of the Lahaina Wastewater Reclamation Facility which uses four Class V injection wells to dispose of 3–5 million gallons of wastewater effluent daily. Prior research documented that the wastewater effluent percolates into the nearshore region of Kahekili. To determine if the wastewater effluent was detectable in the surface waters offshore, we used algal bioassays from the nearshore region to 100 m offshore and throughout the water column from the surface to the benthos. These algal bioassays documented that significantly more wastewater effluent was detected in the surface rather than the benthic waters and allowed us to generate a three-dimensional model of the wastewater plume in the Kahekili coastal region. Samples located over freshwater seeps had the highest δ15N values (∼30–35‰) and the effluent was detected in surface samples 500 m south and 100 m offshore of the freshwater seeps (∼8–11‰).

  8. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  9. Cross-shelf structure of coastal upwelling : a two - dimensional extension of Ekman's theory and a mechanism for inner shelf upwelling shut down

    OpenAIRE

    Estrade, P.; Marchesiello, Patrick; Verdière de, A. C.; Roy, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Sea-surface temperature images of the coastal upwelling regions off Northwest Africa show that the core of upwelling is sometimes located far from the coast. This has been documented in three regions that share a common feature, namely a wide and shallow continental shelf. This upwelling feature plays a key role in the ecology of the Canary Current System. It creates an innerfront which provides retention for biological material, e.g. fish eggs and larvae, in the highly productive nearshore e...

  10. Changing Chilean coastal currents could drive aquatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-01-01

    For invertebrate and fish species that spend most of their lives in rich coastal waters rather than migrating freely throughout the open ocean, the formation of island populations and the associated risk of genetic diversity loss are threats to long-term population health. Many species cope through a spawning mechanism whereby larvae are released en masse into near-shore ocean currents, like pollen adrift in the wind. The larvae are viable in open waters from days to months, but only those that find their way back to shore can settle and develop. To increase their chances, different species' larvae often use particular swimming behaviors, for example, varying their depth in the water column throughout the day.

  11. How will Somali coastal upwelling evolve under future warming scenarios?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decastro, M.; Sousa, M. C.; Santos, F.; Dias, J. M.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.

    2016-07-01

    Somali upwelling system, the fifth in the world, presents some unique features compared with the other major upwelling systems: 1) it is a Western Boundary Upwelling System located near the Equator and 2) upwelling affects the moisture responsible for monsoon rainfall. The intensity of Somali coastal upwelling during summer was projected for the twenty first century by means of an ensemble of Global Climate Models and Regional Climate Models within the framework of CMIP5 and CORDEX projects, respectively. Regardless global or regional circulation models and the chosen greenhouse warming scenario, the strengthening of Somali coastal upwelling, which increases with latitude, is even higher than observed for the Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. In addition, coastal upwelling strengthening is mainly due to Ekman transport since Ekman pumping shows no clear trend for most of the latitudes. Projected land-sea air temperature and pressure show a clear intensification of land-sea thermal and pressure gradient as a consequence of the global warming, which is likely to affect the strengthening of Somali upwelling verifying the hypothesis of Bakun. As a consequence, projected sea surface temperature warming is less intense nearshore than at oceanic locations, especially at latitudes where upwelling strengthening is more intense.

  12. How will Somali coastal upwelling evolve under future warming scenarios?

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCastro, M; Sousa, M C; Santos, F; Dias, J M; Gómez-Gesteira, M

    2016-01-01

    Somali upwelling system, the fifth in the world, presents some unique features compared with the other major upwelling systems: 1) it is a Western Boundary Upwelling System located near the Equator and 2) upwelling affects the moisture responsible for monsoon rainfall. The intensity of Somali coastal upwelling during summer was projected for the twenty first century by means of an ensemble of Global Climate Models and Regional Climate Models within the framework of CMIP5 and CORDEX projects, respectively. Regardless global or regional circulation models and the chosen greenhouse warming scenario, the strengthening of Somali coastal upwelling, which increases with latitude, is even higher than observed for the Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. In addition, coastal upwelling strengthening is mainly due to Ekman transport since Ekman pumping shows no clear trend for most of the latitudes. Projected land-sea air temperature and pressure show a clear intensification of land-sea thermal and pressure gradient as a consequence of the global warming, which is likely to affect the strengthening of Somali upwelling verifying the hypothesis of Bakun. As a consequence, projected sea surface temperature warming is less intense nearshore than at oceanic locations, especially at latitudes where upwelling strengthening is more intense. PMID:27440455

  13. Multi-scale modeling of Puget Sound using an unstructured-grid coastal ocean model: from tide flats to estuaries and coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water circulation in Puget Sound, a large complex estuary system in the Pacific Northwest coastal ocean of the United States, is governed by multiple spatially and temporally varying forcings from tides, atmosphere (wind, heating/cooling, precipitation/evaporation, pressure), and river inflows. In addition, the hydrodynamic response is affected strongly by geomorphic features, such as fjord-like bathymetry and complex shoreline features, resulting in many distinguishing characteristics in its main and sub-basins. To better understand the details of circulation features in Puget Sound and to assist with proposed nearshore restoration actions for improving water quality and the ecological health of Puget Sound, a high-resolution (around 50 m in estuaries and tide flats) hydrodynamic model for the entire Puget Sound was needed. Here, a threedimensional circulation model of Puget Sound using an unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model is presented. The model was constructed with sufficient resolution in the nearshore region to address the complex coastline, multi-tidal channels, and tide flats. Model open boundaries were extended to the entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the northern end of the Strait of Georgia to account for the influences of ocean water intrusion from the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Fraser River plume from the Strait of Georgia, respectively. Comparisons of model results, observed data, and associated error statistics for tidal elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity indicate that the model is capable of simulating the general circulation patterns on the scale of a large estuarine system as well as detailed hydrodynamics in the nearshore tide flats. Tidal characteristics, temperature/salinity stratification, mean circulation, and river plumes in estuaries with tide flats are discussed.

  14. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of echinoderms in nearshore rocky habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Iken

    Full Text Available This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org. Sample-based species richness was overall low (2 cm in 1 m(2 quadrats was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m(-2. In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m(2 quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m(-2. Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by a network of environmental and ecological processes, and by the differing responses of various echinoderm taxa, making generalizations about the patterns of nearshore rocky habitat echinoderm

  15. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-12-31

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  16. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons in the nearshore marine sediments of the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hilal, A H; Khordagui, H K

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were determined in nearshore sediment samples collected from 28 sampling sites along the United Arab Emirates shorelines on the Arabian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman and seven major creeks (khors) extending from them. Concentrations were highly variable and ranged between Dubai, Sharjah and Ajman semi-enclosed creeks where boat activities and land-based wastewater discharges are most common. Data support the premise that port activities, fuel filling stations and land-based wastewater discharges are major sources of pollution in the study area. Correlations with sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC) and distance from pollution sources are discussed. PMID:15091662

  18. Ocean wave diffraction in near-shore regions observed by Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Observation and analysis of ocean wave diffraction in near-shore and near-island region was performed with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, using an optimized retrieval method named parameterized first-guess spectrum retrieval method. The results retrieved from ERS-SAR and ENVISAT-ASAR images showed that, in the region sheltered by land jut, the energy of long waves is reduced by 10%-20% and that the propagation direction of long waves is changed due to the effect of topography. In the shadow zone behind the island, ocean wave can propagate along the seashore instead of perpendicular to the coastline, as shown by SAR images.

  19. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  20. Hydrographic and suspended sediment measurements of the Mississippi River plume during the historic 2011 flood: a coupled satellite analysis and boat survey approach to determine an efficiency factor for sediment trapping in the nearshore zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, F.; Li, C.; D'Emidio, M.; Lutken, C.; Macelloni, L.; Salusti, A.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River (MR) flood, sediment carried to sea by the River had the potential to combat wetland loss in some areas. The movement and fate of river sediments is determined by a combination of river plume momentum, and coastal and offshore currents [Walker, 1996; Walker et al., 2005; Rego et al., 2010]. We therefore used a coupled satellite analysis and boat survey approach in order to track mixing and transport of MR plume sediments during one of the largest recorded floods in history. During the flood crest in June of 2010, MR discharge was held at a constant and large value for several weeks, providing a unique experiment that allowed us to study plume structure under steady flow conditions. Sea surface temperature, height, and color data from satellites were employed in order to quantify river plume dispersion, surface sediment concentration [Peckham, 2008; Shi and Wang, 2009] and sediment migration pathways in the nearshore zone for the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, for the duration of the flood. The boat survey measured current velocity, salinity, temperature and sediment concentration of the MR plume, during the peak of the flood. Although plumes emanating from the MR Delta should contribute significant sediment to the coastal zone [cf. Wright and Nittrouer, 1995; D'Sa and Ho, 2008], our investigation shows that the focused jet of the MR during the flood penetrated the coastal current and contributed little to the coastal sediment budget. Collected data allowed calculation of the hydrodynamic structure of the plume and thus its Potential Vorticity. We show that a novel PV, recently described by Falcini and Jerolmack [2010], works as an efficiency factor: the fraction of sediment emitted from each river plume that is trapped in the nearshore zone (and on marshes) is directly related to the PV of each river effluent. This relation may help to better understand and predict how future floods, or human-constructed river diversions, will

  1. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Campbell, K.R.; Wood, M.A.; Rash, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir.

  2. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir

  3. Autotrophic and heterotrophic abundance and activity associated with a nearshore front off the Georgia coast, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, T. R.; Pomeroy, L. R.; Blanton, J. O.

    1983-11-01

    The nearshore frontal zone off the coast of Georgia was found to be an area of high phytoplankton and bacterioplankton abundance and activity. Phytoplankton and bacterioplankton populations on the seaward side of the frontal zone had significantly higher photosynthetic and heterotrophic potentials than the nearshore side of the front. Phytoplankton species composition changed across the front, verifying that the front is a barrier to cross shelf mixing. Nearshore, large chain forming diatoms dominated, while smaller single cell diatoms and cyanobacteria dominated the seaward side of the front. Increased bacterioplankton activity was found associated with phytoplankton photosynthetic activity. Light appeared to be the major factor controlling photosynthesis across the frontal zone. Nitrogen, phosphorus and silica were present in similar concentrations, well above levels that would limit photosynthesis, on both sides of the front. Therefore the outflow of nutrients from rivers or estuaries did not influence primary production directly.

  4. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L. [Washington State Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States); Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site`s retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge.

  5. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site's retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants (3H, 90Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge

  6. Simulating coastal to offshore interactions around the South Florida coastal seas and implications on management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H.; Kourafalou, V. H.; Hogan, P. J.; Smedstad, O.

    2008-12-01

    The South Florida coastal seas include shelf areas and shallow water bodies around ecologically fragile environments and Marine Protected Areas, such as Florida Bay, the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (around the largest coral reef system of the continental U.S.) and the Dry Tortugas Ecological Reserve. Man- made changes in the hydrology of the Everglades have caused dramatic degradation of the coastal ecosystem through discharge in Florida Bay. New management scenarios are under way to restore historical flows. The environmental impacts of the management propositions are examined with an inter-disciplinary, multi-nested modeling system. The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) has been employed for the Regional Model for South Florida Coastal Seas (SoFLA-HYCOM, 1/25 degree resolution) and for the embedded, high resolution coastal Florida Keys model (FKEYS- HYCOM, 1/100 degree). Boundary conditions are extracted from GODAE products: the large scale North Atlantic model (ATL-HYCOM, 1/12 degree) and the intermediate scale Gulf of Mexico model (GOM-HYCOM, 1/25 degree). The study targets the impacts of large scale oceanic features on the coastal dynamics. Eddies that travel along the Loop Current/Florida Current front are known to be an important mechanism for the interaction of nearshore and offshore flows. The high resolution FKEYS simulations reveal both mescoscale and sub- mesoscale eddy passages during a targeted 2-year simulation period (2004-2005), forced with high resolution/high frequency atmospheric forcing. Eddies influence sea level changes in the vicinity of Florida Bay with possible implications on current and future flushing patterns. They also enable upwelling of cooler, nutrient-rich waters in the vicinity of the Reef Tract and they influence transport and recruitment pathways for coral fish larvae, as they carry waters of different properties (such as river-borne low-salinity/nutrient-rich waters from as far as the Mississippi River) and

  7. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part II: the nearshore fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    We use detailed diet analyses of the predominant planktivorous, benthivorous and piscivorous fish species from Lake Superior to create a nearshore (bathymetric depths Mysis diluviana and Diporeia spp). Although the piscivorous fishes like lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) fed to a lesser extent on Diporeia and Mysis, they were still strongly connected to these macroinvertebrates, which were consumed by their primary prey species (sculpin spp., rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and coregonines). The addition of Bythotrephes to summer/fall cisco and lake whitefish diets, and the decrease in rainbow smelt in lean lake trout diets (replaced by coregonines) were the largest observed differences relative to historic Lake Superior diet studies. Although the offshore food web of Lake Superior was simpler than nearshore in terms of number of fish species present, the two areas had remarkably similar food web structures, and both fish communities were primarily supported by Mysis and Diporeia. We conclude that declines in Mysis or Diporeia populations would have a significant impact on energy flow in Lake Superior. The food web information we generated can be used to better identify management strategies for Lake Superior.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Wave Height and Wave Set-Up in Nearshore Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永红; 沈永明; 邱大洪

    2001-01-01

    Based on the time dependent mild slope equation including the effect of wave energy dissipation, an expression for the energy dissipation factor is derived in conjunction with the wave energy balance equation, and then a practical method for the simulation of wave height and wave set-up in nearshore regions is presented. The variation of the complex wave amplitude is numerically simulated by use of the parabolic mild slope equation including the effect of wave energy dissipation due to wave breaking. The components of wave radiation stress are calculated subsequently by new expressions for them according to the obtained complex wave amplitude, and then the depth-averaged equation is applied to the calculation of wave set-up due to wave breaking. Numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data,showing that the expression for the energy dissipation factor is reasonable and that the new method is effective for the simulation of wave set-up due to wave breaking in nearshore regions.

  9. Nearshore waves and longshore sediment transport along Rameshwaram Island off the east coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowthaman Rajamanickam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wave-induced Longshore Sediment Transport (LST play an important role in the dynamics of the Dhanushkodi sandspit located southeast of Rameshwaram. The LST along the Dhanushkodi coast is studied based on data collected simultaneously in Gulf of Mannar (GoM and Palk Bay (PB using directional waverider buoys. The numerical model REF/DIF1 was used to calculate the nearshore waves and the LST rate was estimated using three different formulae. The model validation was done based on the measured nearshore waves using InterOcean S4DW. Numerical model LITPACK was also used for simulating non-cohesive sediment transport and the LITLINE module was used to study the shoreline evolution over 5 years. Low net annual LST along PB (~ 0.01×106 m3 compared to the GoM region (0.3×106 m3 were due to the weak waves. Accretion in the region led to growth of the Dhanushkodi sandspit by 65 m during the period 2010-2015.

  10. Parameter selection and model research on remote sensing evaluation for nearshore water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Guibin; ZHANG Ying; PAN Delu; WANG Difeng; FU Dongyang

    2016-01-01

    Using remote sensing technology for water quality evaluation is an inevitable trend in marine environmental monitoring. However, fewer categories of water quality parameters can be monitored by remote sensing technology than the 35 specified in GB3097-1997 Marine Water Quality Standard. Therefore, we considered which parameters must be selected by remote sensing and how to model for water quality evaluation using the finite parameters. In this paper, focused on Leizhou Peninsula nearshore waters, we found N, P, COD, PH and DO to be the dominant parameters of water quality by analyzing measured data. Then, mathematical statistics was used to determine that the relationship among the five parameters was COD>DO>P>N>pH. Finally, five-parameter, four-parameter and three-parameter water quality evaluation models were established and compared. The results showed that COD, DO, P and N were the necessary parameters for remote sensing evaluation of the Leizhou Peninsula nearshore water quality, and the optimal comprehensive water quality evaluation model was the four-parameter model. This work may serve as a reference for monitoring the quality of other marine waters by remote sensing.

  11. Data Summary for the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) was to quantify potential human health risks associated with Department of Energy (DOE)-related contamination of surface sediments in Watts Bar Reservoir (WBR). An estimated 700 Ci of {sup 137}Cs and 325 Ci of {sup 60}Co were released from White Oak Lake into the Clinch River between 1949 and 1992 (DOE, 1988). A number of previous studies have documented sediment contamination in the deep-water sediments but no study specifically targeted the near-shore environment, which has the most potential for exposure to humans.

  12. Data Summary for the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) was to quantify potential human health risks associated with Department of Energy (DOE)-related contamination of surface sediments in Watts Bar Reservoir (WBR). An estimated 700 Ci of 137Cs and 325 Ci of 60Co were released from White Oak Lake into the Clinch River between 1949 and 1992 (DOE, 1988). A number of previous studies have documented sediment contamination in the deep-water sediments but no study specifically targeted the near-shore environment, which has the most potential for exposure to humans

  13. Queen conch (Strombus gigas testis regresses during the reproductive season at nearshore sites in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Spade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Queen conch (Strombus gigas reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01 in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992, spermatogenesis (GO:0007283, small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264, and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue

  14. Coastal Conditions 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Dataset developed by California Coastal Commission's Melanie Coyne by attaching names to a dynamically segmented coastline using the Department of Navigation and...

  15. Coastal Analysis, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  16. Coastal Analysis, Essex County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  17. Coastal Analysis, Virginia Beach, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  18. Coastal Analysis, Caroline County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  19. Coastal Analysis, Nassau,NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  20. Coastal Analysis, Surry County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  1. Coastal Analysis, Charles County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  2. Global patterns of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, H.; Yin, Kedong; Cloern, J.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific Committee on Ocean Research Working Group 137 Meeting; Hangzhou, China, 17-21 October 2010; Phytoplankton biomass and community structure have undergone dramatic changes in coastal ecosystems over the past several decades in response to climate variability and human disturbance. These changes have short- and long-term impacts on global carbon and nutrient cycling, food web structure and productivity, and coastal ecosystem services. There is a need to identify the underlying processes and measure the rates at which they alter coastal ecosystems on a global scale. Hence, the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR) formed Working Group 137 (WG 137), "Global Patterns of Phytoplankton Dynamics in Coastal Ecosystems: A Comparative Analysis of Time Series Observations" (http://wg137.net/). This group evolved from a 2007 AGU-sponsored Chapman Conference entitled "Long Time-Series Observations in Coastal Ecosystems: Comparative Analyses of Phytoplankton Dynamics on Regional to Global Scales.".

  3. Fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and toxic organics in Louisiana coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous potentially toxic compounds are entering Louisiana's inshore and nearshore coastal environments. To a large degree there is insufficient information for predicting the fate and effect of these materials in aquatic environments. Studies documenting the impact of petroleum hydrocarbons entering Louisiana coastal wetlands are summarized. Also included are research findings on factors affecting the persistence of petroleum hydrocarbons and other toxic organics (pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), creosote, etc.) in sediment-water systems. Sediment pH and redox conditions have been found to play an important role in the microbial degradation of toxic organics. Most of the hydrocarbons investigated degrade more rapidly under high redox (aerobic) conditions although there are exceptions (e.g., 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)(DDT) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs)). Some of these compounds, due to their slow degradation in anaerobic sediment, may persist in the system for decades

  4. Effect of rising sea level on runoff and groundwater discharge to coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, W.K.; Portnoy, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Rising sea level can cause an increase in surface runoff from coastal areas by raising the watertable and thus increasing the incidence of saturated soil conditions in low-lying areas. As surface runoff increases, less rainfall will infiltrate into the ground and groundwater discharge to the coast will decrease. The link between sea level rise and runoff is critically dependent on the sensitivity of surface runoff to changes in the elevation of the watertable. A significant relation between the two is demonstrated for a coastal watershed on Cape Cod, where it is estimated that a 10 cm rise in the watertable will increase surface runoff by 70% and decrease groundwater discharge by 20%. Effects on near-shore ecosystems include changes in nutrient fluxes and in the salinity of the sediments.

  5. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  6. The impact of mariculture on nutrient dynamics and identification of the nitrate sources in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Pingping; Xu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    Reclamation along coastal zones is a method that has been used to relieve the problems of strained resources and land. Aquaculture, as one of the major man-made activities in reclamation areas, has an environmental impact on coastal waters. The effluents from aquaculture ponds are known to enrich the levels of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate. The goals of the present study are to evaluate the environmental impact of mariculture on coastal waters in the east coast of Laizhou Bay, China, and to identify the nitrate sources. Monitoring the concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphate was used to assess their impact on the water quality of coastal waters. A dual isotope (δ(15)N-NO3(-) and δ(18)O-NO3(-)) approach was used to identify the nitrate sources. Higher dissolved nitrogen concentrations (NH4(+) and NO3(-)) than PO4(3-) concentrations associated with enriched δ(15)N-NO3(-) values were observed in the drainage channels, sea cucumber ponds, and groundwater, which indicated that aquaculture activity has more influence on nitrogen nutrients than on phosphate nutrients. In this coastal area with seawater intrusion, nitrogen released from sea cucumber ponds accumulated in nearshore water and migrated in the offshore direction in groundwater currents. This behavior results in nitrogen enrichment in groundwater within the hinterland. Isotopic data indicate that mixing of multiple nitrate sources exists in groundwater, and nitrogen from mariculture is the main source. PMID:26358214

  7. Marine and coastal agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Six Central American nations have signed an agreement to improve coastal habitats, including mangrove swamps, beaches, and coral reefs.Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama signed the Convention on Cooperation in the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Northeast Pacific on 18 February.

  8. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613

  9. Experimental Monitoring of Mixed Sand and Mud Sediment in the Nearshore Area of Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, S. G.; Greene, H. G.

    2001-12-01

    An experiment conducted in late March of 2001 along the beaches and nearshore of Santa Cruz, California consisted of three phases: pre-experiment, experiment, and post-experiment. In the pre- and post-experimental phases, high-resolution side scan sonar and multibeam bathymetry data were collected to produce maps describing surface sediments and depth changes of the seafloor near the Santa Cruz Harbor. Offshore and beach sediment samples were collected three weeks prior to and after the experiment to analyze for changes in grain size and to provide physical evidence of seafloor substrate. Experimental monitoring consisted of daily beach and offshore sediment sampling. Oceanographic data including swell direction, height, and period were obtained from buoys offshore. Rainfall and stream flow data from the nearby San Lorenzo River were recorded during all phases of the project. Our sedimentological studies of materials dredged from the upper Santa Cruz Harbor, California suggest that sediment containing approximately 40% sand and 60% mud can be disposed in the surf zone without adversely affecting the quality of neighboring beaches or offshore rocky habitats while simultaneously replenishing sand to eroding beaches downcoast. A small amount of the mud-rich material (about 2300 m3) was placed into the surf-zone during the winter of 2000-2001 to determine the retention of sands in the nearshore zone and the impact that fine-grain (mud) sediment may have on rocky habitats. The beaches and other nearshore environments near the disposal site of the Santa Cruz Small Craft Harbor appear to be unchanged by the disposed harbor sediments. The data indicates that little change in sediment grain size or distribution has occurred. This is most likely due to the high-energy nature of this coastline, which results in suspension of silts and clays until they reach lower energy, deeper water offshore outside of the study area. The sand fraction of the disposed sediment was likely

  10. A Quick Response Forecasting Model of Pathogen Transport and Inactivation in Near-shore Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Fu, X.

    2011-12-01

    Modeling methods supporting water quality assessments play a critical role by facilitating people to understand and promptly predict the potential threat of waterborne bacterial pathogens pose to human health. A mathematical model to describe and predict bacterial levels can provide foundation for water managers in making decisions on whether a water system is safe to open to the public. The inactivation (decay or die-off) rate of bacteria is critical in a bacterial model by controlling bacterial concentration in waters and depends on numerous factors of hydrodynamics, meteorology, geology, chemistry and biology. Transport and fate of waterborne pathogens in fresh water systems is an essentially three-dimensional problem, which requires a coupling of hydrodynamic equations and transport equations that describe the pathogen and suspended sediment dynamics. However, such an approach could be very demanding and time consuming from a practical point of view due to excess computational efforts. Long computation time may lead people unintentionally drinking or swimming in the contaminated water during the period before the predictive results of water quality come out. Therefore, it is very necessary to find a quick-response model to forecast bacterial concentration instantly to protect human health without any delay. Nearshore regions are the most commonly and directly used area for people in a huge water system. The prior multi-dimensional investigations of E. Coli and Enterococci inactivation in literature indicate that along-shore current predominated the nearshore region. Consequently, the complex dynamic conditions may be potentially simplified to one-dimensional scenario. In this research, a one-dimensional model system coupling both hydrodynamic and bacterial transport modules is constructed considering different complex processes to simulate the transport and fate of pathogens in nearshore regions. The quick-response model mainly focuses on promptly forecasting

  11. Coastal processes of the Russian Baltic - modern trends, driving forces and human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sivkov, Vadim; Kovaleva, Olga; Sergeev, Alexander; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Dorokhov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    In frame of EMODNET-geology project and Russian Science Foundation (project 14-37-00047), the Coastal Behavior maps for the Russian parts of Baltic were compiled. Several areas of the Baltic Sea coastal zone were chosen as case studies for more detailed mapping and analyses. According to annual observations rates of coastal erosion within some areas of the easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland are recently accelerated due to both natural (increasing of the extreme storm events frequency, accompanied by high water level) and anthropogenic (impact of St. Petersburg Flood Protection Facility, submarine sand mining, ineffective coast protection etc.) factors. The geological and geomorphic factors determine the long-term coastal zone development. The coasts mostly consist of easily erodible Quaternary deposits (clays and sands). They evolve under overall sediment deficiency. Moreover, some specific, small-scale features of the near-shore bottom, found by investigations using multibeam and side-scan sonar study, play a very important role in the entire erosion process. Average rates of coastal erosion is 0.5-1.0 m/year, but during the extreme storms, coastal escarpment can retreat for the distance up to 5 m at once. During late autumn and winter seasons of 2006-2007, 2011-2012 and 2013 years severe storms caused extreme erosion events damaged the coastal dunes with forming of active escarpment, destruction of coast protection and recreation infrastructure, complete transformation of sand accretion spits. In the southern coastal zone of the Gulf processes of long-shore sand waves occurred. Prognoses of coastal processes development based on annual observations (since 2004), remote sensing data analyses and modeling has shown that depending on different climate change scenarios coastal line of the study area can retreat for the distance from 50 to 100 m. The most intense coastal processes of the Russian part of the South-Eastern Baltic are observe within attached part of

  12. Evidence of extensive reef development and high coral cover in nearshore environments: implications for understanding coral adaptation in turbid settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kyle M.; Perry, Chris T.; Smithers, Scott G.; Johnson, Jamie A.; Daniell, James J.

    2016-07-01

    Mean coral cover has reportedly declined by over 15% during the last 30 years across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Here, we present new data that documents widespread reef development within the more poorly studied turbid nearshore areas (coral cover on these reefs averages 38% (twice that reported on mid- and outer-shelf reefs). Of the surveyed seafloor area, 11% had distinct reef or coral community cover. Although the survey area represents a small subset of the nearshore zone (15.5 km2), this reef density is comparable to that measured across the wider GBR shelf (9%). We also show that cross-shelf coral cover declines with distance from the coast (R2 = 0.596). Identified coral taxa (21 genera) exhibited clear depth-stratification, corresponding closely to light attenuation and seafloor topography, with reefal development restricted to submarine antecedent bedforms. Data from this first assessment of nearshore reef occurrence and ecology measured across meaningful spatial scales suggests that these coral communities may exhibit an unexpected capacity to tolerate documented declines in water quality. Indeed, these shallow-water nearshore reefs may share many characteristics with their deep-water (>30 m) mesophotic equivalents and may have similar potential as refugia from large-scale disturbances.

  13. Wave hindcast studies using SWAN nested in WAVEWATCH III - comparison with measured nearshore buoy data off Karwar, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Sandhya, K.G.; Nair, T.M.B.; Rathod, J.L.

    Waves in the nearshore waters (~15 m water-depth) of eastern Arabian Sea were simulated using SWAN nested in WAVEWATCH III (WW3) for the year 2014. The sensitivity of the numerical wave model WW3 towards different source term (ST) packages...

  14. The tidal influence on oil and gas emissions from an abandoned oil well: Nearshore Summerland, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and gas emissions were quantified for natural and human sources in nearshore waters off Summerland, California through deployment of custom designed collection tents. Seepage was measured at a repeatedly abandoned well, on the seabed from a caisson located along the historical location of the Treadwell Wharf, where the world's first off-shore oil wells were drilled at the end of the 19th century. Seepage rates at the capped T-10 Well, located in ∼5 m water, showed high correlation to tides. Site emissions were 2.4 and 38.7 L day-1 oil and gas, respectively. Emissions were measured from two areas of seepage at the T-10 Well Site. Oil and gas ratios were inversely correlated between the two seepage areas, demonstrating connectivity. Data were interpreted in terms of an electronic circuit model of seepage with respect to the time lag between local low tide and peak oil emissions

  15. The nearshore benthic community of Kasatochi Island, one year after the 2008 volcanic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, S.C.; Bodkin, J.L.; Chenelot, H.; Esslinger, G.G.; Hoberg, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    A description is presented of the nearshore benthic community of Kasatochi Island 1012 months after a catastrophic volcanic eruption in 2008. The eruption extended the coastline of the island approximately 400 m offshore, mainly along the south, southeast, and southwest shores, to roughly the 20 m isobath. Existing canopy kelp of Eualaria (Alaria) fistulosa, as well as limited understory algal species and associated fauna (e.g., urchin barrens) on the hard substratum were apparently buried following the eruption. Samples and observations revealed the substrate around the island in 2009 was comprised almost entirely of medium and coarse sands with a depauperate benthic community, dominated by opportunistic pontogeneiid amphipods. Comparisons of habitat and biological communities with other nearby Aleutian Islands, as well as with the Icelandic volcanic island of Surtsey, confirm dramatic reductions in flora and fauna consistent with an early stage of recovery from a large-scale disturbance event. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  16. Radar signal return from near-shore surface and shallow subsurface features, Darien Province, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B. C.; Dellwig, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    The AN/APQ-97 radar imagery over eastern Panama is analyzed. The imagery was directed toward extraction of geologic and engineering data and the establishment of operational parameters. Subsequent investigations emphasized landform identification and vegetation distribution. The parameters affecting the observed return signal strength from such features are considered. Near-shore ocean phenomena were analyzed. Tidal zone features such as mud flats and reefs were identified in the near range, but were not detectable in the far range. Surface roughness dictated the nature of reflected energy (specular or diffuse). In surf zones, changes in wave train orientation relative to look direction, the slope of the surface, and the physical character of the wave must be considered. It is concluded that the establishment of the areal extent of the tidal flats, distributary channels, and reefs is practical only in the near to intermediate range under minimal low tide conditions.

  17. A survey of fish and shellfish radioactivity levels in Cumbrian near-shore waters (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish (cod and plaice), crustacea, (crab and lobster), and molluscs (winkle) samples were collected from Cumbrian near-shore waters in 1990. The samples were analysed for total beta activity and a range of gamma and alpha emitters. In general, the radionuclide levels are lower than those measured in the previous 3 years of the study and the intake of radioactivity by all consumers should have reflected this. The dose estimated to have been incurred by the critical group of local seafood consumers near Sellafield in 1990, mainly due to winkle consumption, is less than 0.1 mSv and thus significantly below the limit of 1 mSv per year for long term radiation exposure recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  18. 18S rDNA dataset profiling microeukaryotic populations within Chicago area nearshore waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Searle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their critical role in the aquatic food web and nutrient cycling, microeukaryotes within freshwater environments are under-studied. Herein we present the first high-throughput molecular survey of microeukaryotes within Lake Michigan. Every two weeks from May 13 to August 5, 2014, we collected surface water samples from the nearshore waters of four Chicago area beaches: Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach. Four biological replicates were collected for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Eighty-nine of these samples were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V7 and V8 regions of the 18S rDNA gene. Both technical and biological replicates were sequenced and are included in this dataset. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI’s SRA database (BioProject PRJNA294919.

  19. Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration Project: Beach and Nearshore Morphological Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Stevens, A. W.; Ruggiero, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Shoreline change along the southwest Washington and northwest Oregon coast responds to both natural and anthropogenic drivers at a range of temporal and spatial scales. Within the last century, human interventions, primarily the construction of large jetties at the entrance to the Columbia River, have been the dominant driver of nearshore morphology and shoreline change in this area. These jetties caused the inlet to narrow and deepen, the ebb-tidal delta to migrate offshore into deeper water, and adjacent shorelines to first accrete then erode over distances of tens of kilometers and time scales of decades. Shoreline change modeling suggests that reduced local sediment supply owing to these morphological changes is causing a deficit of sand feeding the shoreline, especially in the region of Benson Beach, just north of the mouth of the Columbia River. One of the goals of the Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration (SW LDR) project is to assess the long-term viability of placing dredged material from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) directly on Benson Beach to supplement the littoral sediment budget. The SW LDR will be one of the largest beach nourishment projects in the Pacific Northwest, with approximately 200,000 - 400,000 m3 of dredged material being placed on Benson Beach during the summer of 2010. Extensive monitoring and modeling efforts are underway to evaluate the effectiveness of the project and to develop morphodynamic modeling tools to inform future Regional Sediment Management decisions. Overall project components include Argus beach monitoring, measurements of nearshore waves and currents, deployment of a sand tracer, morphodynamic modeling, and a morphological monitoring program. The primary purpose of the morphological monitoring program, and the focus for this presentation, is to track the response of beach and nearshore areas during and after the sand placement. Bathymetric data, collected using Personal Watercraft (PWCs) equipped with

  20. A new type numerical model foraction balance equation in simulating nearshore waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Several current used wave numerical models are briefly described, the computing techniques of the source terms, numerical wave generation and boundary conditions in the action balance equation model are discussed. Not only the quadruplet wave-wave interactions, but also the triad wave-wave interactions are included in the model, so that nearshore waves could be simulated reasonably. The model is compared with the Boussinesq equation and the mild slope equation. The model is applied to calculating the distribu-tions of wave height and wave period field in the Haian Bay area and to simulating the influences of the unsteady current and water level variation on the wave field. Finally, the de-veloping tendency of the model is discussed.

  1. Interoperability Between Coastal Web Atlases Using Semantic Mediation: A Case Study of the International Coastal Atlas Network (ICAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.; Lassoued, Y.; Dwyer, N.; Haddad, T.; Bermudez, L. E.; Dunne, D.

    2009-12-01

    users formulate their requests using a common ontology of metadata terms, called global ontology. A CSW mediator rewrites the user’s request into CSW requests over local CSWs using their own (local) ontologies, collects the results and sends them back to the user. To extend the system, we have recently added global maritime boundaries and are also considering nearshore ocean observing system data. Ongoing work includes adding WFS, error management, and exception handling, enabling Smart Searches, and writing full documentation. This prototype is a central research project of the new International Coastal Atlas Network (ICAN), a group of 30+ organizations from 14 nations (and growing) dedicated to seeking interoperability approaches to CWAs in support of coastal zone management and the translation of coastal science to coastal decision-making.

  2. Coral bleaching: one disturbance too many for near-shore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. A.; Dolman, A. M.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic nature of coral communities can make it difficult to judge whether a reef system is resilient to the current disturbance regime. To address this question of resilience for near-shore coral communities of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) a data set consisting of 350 annual observations of benthic community change was compiled from existing monitoring data. These data spanned the period 1985-2007 and were derived from coral reefs within 20 km of the coast. During years without major disturbance events, cover increase of the Acroporidae was much faster than it was for other coral families; a median of 11% per annum compared to medians of less than 4% for other coral families. Conversely, Acroporidae were more severely affected by cyclones and bleaching events than most other families. A simulation model parameterised with these observations indicated that while recovery rates of hard corals were sufficient to compensate for impacts associated with cyclones and crown-of-thorns starfish, the advent of mass bleaching has lead to a significant change in the composition of the community and a rapid decline in hard coral cover. Furthermore, if bleaching events continue to occur with the same frequency and severity as in the recent past, the model predicts that the cover of Acroporidae will continue to decline. Although significant cover of live coral remains on near-shore reefs, and recovery is observed during inter-disturbance periods, it appears that this system will not be resilient to the recent disturbance regime over the long term. Conservation strategies for coral reefs should focus on both mitigating local factors that act synergistically to increase the susceptibility of Acroporidae to climate change while promoting initiatives that maximise the recovery potential from inevitable disturbances.

  3. Sample variability of zooplankton in the nearshore off Louisiana with consideration of sampling design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Wormuth, John H.; Wolff, Gary A.

    1989-02-01

    Variability in zooplankton samples was examined to identify a proper sampling design for unbiased estimates of zooplankton abundances. Samples were selected in the nearshore about 16 km south of Louisiana during one night and 2 days in October 1985 using a 1 m 2 multiple Opening/Closing net and Environmental Sensing System fitted with 0.333 mm mesh nets. Data obtained from 21 tows of three different tow lengths at mid depth (about 5 m, water depth 10 m) were analysed. There seemed to be different patterns of vertical migration and these vertical migrations were shown to explain about 75% of total sample variability in the study area. These were: usual vertical migration ( Centropages velificatus, Chaetognatha, Eucalanus spp., Phialidium spp., Paracalanus spp. and Temora turbinata), weak vertical migration with elapsed phase (Doliolida A and Oikopleura spp.), and reversed vertical migration ( Acartia tonsa). The relationship between mean abundances and tow distance was weak, but the variance of the abundance estimates showed an exponentially decreasing trend with an increase of tow distance when populations were at their maximum, probably due to vertical migration. From nonlinear regression analyses with the model (variance)= A + B e c(tow distance), the minimum tow distance that would provide a stabilized variance of abundance estimate was determined. It varied among taxa from 43 to 140 m with an average of 80 m. Vertically stratified sampling with a minimum tow distance of about 140 m is suggested as a proper sampling scheme for the unbiased estimation of abundances in a nearshore environment like the sampling site of this study.

  4. Ecoregional analysis of nearshore sea-surface temperature in the North Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith C Payne

    Full Text Available The quantification and description of sea surface temperature (SST is critically important because it can influence the distribution, migration, and invasion of marine species; furthermore, SSTs are expected to be affected by climate change. To better understand present temperature regimes, we assembled a 29-year nearshore time series of mean monthly SSTs along the North Pacific coastline using remotely-sensed satellite data collected with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR instrument. We then used the dataset to describe nearshore (<20 km offshore SST patterns of 16 North Pacific ecoregions delineated by the Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW hierarchical schema. Annual mean temperature varied from 3.8°C along the Kamchatka ecoregion to 24.8°C in the Cortezian ecoregion. There are smaller annual ranges and less variability in SST in the Northeast Pacific relative to the Northwest Pacific. Within the 16 ecoregions, 31-94% of the variance in SST is explained by the annual cycle, with the annual cycle explaining the least variation in the Northern California ecoregion and the most variation in the Yellow Sea ecoregion. Clustering on mean monthly SSTs of each ecoregion showed a clear break between the ecoregions within the Warm and Cold Temperate provinces of the MEOW schema, though several of the ecoregions contained within the provinces did not show a significant difference in mean seasonal temperature patterns. Comparison of these temperature patterns shared some similarities and differences with previous biogeographic classifications and the Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs. Finally, we provide a web link to the processed data for use by other researchers.

  5. Mercury and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins from Lower Keys and Coastal Everglades (South Florida)

    OpenAIRE

    Damseaux, France; Kiszka, Jeremy; Heithaus, Michael,; Scholl, Georges; Eppe, Gauthier; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lewis, Jennifer; Das, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a major apex predator and the most common cetacean species found in nearshore waters of South Florida, including the Lower Florida Keys (LFK) and the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE). The objective of this study was 1) to assess contamination levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in skin and persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, PBDEs, DDT, HCH, HCB, DLCs and PCDD/Fs) in blubber samples of bottlenose dolphins from the LFK (8 males and 16 females) and fro...

  6. Numerical simulation of the Tohoku-oki tsunami and implications for the tsunami sedimentation in the offshore, nearshore and onshore of Sendai Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, D.; Goto, K.; Imamura, F.

    2012-12-01

    The 11th March 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake tsunami struck the Pacific coast of northeast Japan, and reached maximum run-up of 40 m at the rocky ria coast and maximum inundation distance around 4-5 km in the flat coastal plains, causing more than 19,000 dead and missing, and massive impacts on the societies. The tsunami heights have been investigated at more than 5,000 locations. Numbers of tsunami source models have been proposed during these 17 months, based on the geodetic, seismic and tide records, as well as the measured tsunami heights. Extensive field surveys have been carried out in the coastal plains of Sendai Bay, where the sandy beach ridges are developed along the coastline, and a lot of new findings on sedimentary feature of tsunami deposits have been obtained. For example, previous researches reported that the sandy tsunami deposits were found to be distributed only 60% of the inundation distance, in case the tsunami invaded more than 3 km from the coastline. Small contribution of marine materials to onshore tsunami deposits was inferred from the micropaleontological and geochemical analysis. These findings will be applied to develop the framework for deposit-based estimation of paleotsunami magnitude and to establish the identification criteria of paleotsunami deposit. In this regard, increase of our understanding of relationship between tsunami hydrodynamics and sedimentation is essential to further advance of tsunami researches. Numerical simulations are a powerful tool to investigate the generation, propagation and inundation process of tsunamis, and to analyze its relevance to sediment transport and deposition. The simulations provide temporal and spatial variation of flow depths and speeds. In case of the Tohoku-oki tsunami, numbers of observational data and video footages are applicable for validation of the simulated results. In this presentation, the tsunami sedimentation by the Tohoku-oki event will be discussed from the viewpoint of numerical

  7. Shelter from the storm? Use and misuse of coastal vegetation bioshields for managing natural disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Feagin, R. A.; Mukherjee, N.; Shanker, K; Baird, A. H.; Cinner, J. E.; Kerr, A M; N. Koedam; Sridhar, A; Arthur, R.; Jayatissa, L.P.; Lo Seen, D; M. Menon; Rodriguez, S; Shamsuddoha, Md.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.

    2010-01-01

    Vegetated coastal ecosystems provide goods and services to billions of people. In the aftermath of a series of recent natural disasters, including the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina and Cyclone Nargis, coastal vegetation has been widely promoted for the purpose of reducing the impact of large storm surges and tsunami. In this paper, we review the use of coastal vegetation as a “bioshield” against these extreme events. Our objective is to alter bioshield policy and reduce ...

  8. Shelter from the storm? Use and misuse of coastal vegetation bioshields for managing natural disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Rusty A. Feagin; Mukherjee, Nibedita; Shanker, Kartik; Baird, Andrew H.; Cinner, Joshua; Kerr, Alexander M.; Koedam, Nico; Sridhar, Aarthi; Arthur, Rohan; Jayatissa, Loku Pulukkuttige; Lo Seen, Danny; Menon, Manju; Rodriguez, Sudarshan; Shamsuddoha, Md.; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Vegetated coastal ecosystems provide goods and services to billions of people. In the aftermath of a series of recent natural disasters, including the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina and Cyclone Nargis, coastal vegetation has been widely promoted for the purpose of reducing the impact of large storm surges and tsunami. In this paper, we review the use of coastal vegetation as a "bioshield" against these extreme events. Our objective is to alter bioshield policy and reduce the long-ter...

  9. 长江口外近岸环流对厄尔尼诺事件的响应%Anomaly response to El Ni?o events of nearshore circulation off Yangtze Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雯燕; 张长宽; 龚政; 谭伟

    2014-01-01

    建立了东中国海环流大模型,在此基础上建立包含长江口、杭州湾及邻近海域在内的区域环流模型,较准确地刻画东中国海外海流系和沿岸流系,以及长江口外精细的流系结构。选择典型厄尔尼诺年,模拟长江口外近岸环流的异常变化,探讨长江口外近岸环流与厄尔尼诺事件的响应关系。研究表明:长江口外近岸环流与厄尔尼诺事件存在强烈的响应关系,冬季厄尔尼诺现象发生时长江口及邻近海域的环流明显减弱;台湾暖流受厄尔尼诺事件影响程度显著,流速减小、流幅变窄,台湾暖流对长江口外近岸环流的影响也因此减弱。%In this study, an East China Sea circulation model was built. Based on this, a small-scale circulation model including the domain of the Yangtze Estuary, Hangzhou Bay, and adjacent water areas was built. With this model, the oceanic current system and coastal current system of the East China Sea, and the flow structure off the Yangtze Estuary were accurately simulated. In order to study the anomalies, typical El Niño years were chosen to analyze the response relationship between the nearshore circulation off the Yangtze Estuary and El Niño events. The results show that there was a significantly responsive relationship between the nearshore circulation off the Yangtze Estuary and El Niño events. In the winter, the circulation at the Yangtze Estuary and adjacent water areas weakened significantly when the El Niño phenomenon occurred. The Taiwan warm current was greatly affected, with decreased flow velocity and narrowed flow amplitude, which weakened the impact of the Taiwan warm current on the nearshore circulation off the Yangtze Estuary.

  10. What is coastal climate?

    OpenAIRE

    Kruk, Michael; Gibney, Ethan; Hennon, Paula; Levinson, David

    2010-01-01

    Historical definitions of what determines whether one lives in a coastal area or not have varied over time. According to Culliton (1998), a “coastal county” is defined as a county with at least 15% of its total land area located within a nation’s coastal watershed. This emphasizes the land areas within which water flows into the ocean or Great Lakes, but may be better suited for ecosystems or water quality research (Crowell et al. 2007). Some Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) documen...

  11. Sedimentation in the coastal reefs of Abrolhos over the last decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. S.; Leão, Z. M. A. N.; Kikuchi, R. K. P.; Costa, A. B.; Souza, J. R. B.

    2013-11-01

    Coral reefs of the coastal area of Abrolhos are located in an environment with a high influx of terrigenous sediments that are carried out to the sea, either as a result of natural processes (river output, coastal erosion, and torrents) or due to anthropogenic influences (deforestation, coastal development, and dredging). Excessive terrigenous sediment in coastal areas has been identified as one of the major threats to coral reefs, leading to their worldwide decline. The present study assessed the evolution of sedimentation in the Abrolhos coastal reefs during the past decades by analyzing samples from sediment cores collected near the reefs of Coroa Vermelha (located 15 km from the coast), Pedra de Leste (located 12 km from the coast) and Popa Verde (located 35 km from the coast). The purpose of this assessment was to observe whether the previously described pattern of surficial bottom sediment distribution in Abrolhos, which consisted of terrigenous mud in the nearshore reefs, to carbonate-dominant sediments towards the offshore reefs, is still a prevalent feature. Sediment color, texture, CaCO3 percentage, biogenic compounds and clay minerals, as well as the sedimentation rate and the geochronology of the sediment cores were analyzed. The results showed indications of an increase in the deposition of terrigenous mud, over the last decade, in the vicinity of the reefs nearest to the coast, though this does not yet constitute a definitive evidence of such a change. However, this observation therefore suggests that local processes resulting from anthropogenic actions are most likely causing an increase of the sedimentation rate of continent-derived sediment runoff in the Abrolhos coastal areas. To minimize this situation, there is an urgent need for the development of new management strategies to protect the already disturbed Abrolhos coastal reefs, especially during times of global changes.

  12. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the...

  13. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  14. Peat accumulation in coastal-plain mires: a model for coals of the Fruitland Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of southern Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Roberts L.N.; McCabe, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the northwestern part of the San Juan basin, Colorado, thick high-volatile B bituminous coal deposits in the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation are associated with nearshore marine sandstones of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. Detailed work along the outcrop and examination of drill cores, revealed two coal-bearing zones in the lower 60 m of the Fruitland Formation. Each zone is up to 13 m thick and consists of interbedded bright and dull coal (average ash values of 17 and 34% on a moisture-free basis, respectively), thin fine-grained clastic partings and abundant altered volcanic ash partings. Isopachs of the interval between the top of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone and a marker bed (Huerfanito Bentonite Bed) in the underlying Lewis Shale show linear zones where the interval abruptly thickens. These zones, which trend northwest to southeast, represent areas where the shoreline paused during an overall migration to the northeast. Isopach maps of coal in the lower part of the Fruitland Formation and subsurface correlation of shoreface sandstones with coal zones show that the thickest accumulation of coal is 20-25 km landward of these coeval shorelines. The Fruitland coals may be compared to the high-ash peats of the Dismal Swamp in the southeastern U.S.A., which form in pocosin mires about 20 km inland from the Atlantic coast. Clastic deposirion, resulting from coastal processes, precludes the formation of peat in low-lying mires adjacent to the shoreline. The high ash yield, numerous partings and the relationship with the coeval shoreline suggest that the coals in the lower part of the Fruitland Formation accumulated in mires that were transitional from low-lying to raised. ?? 1992.

  15. Effect of High-Resolution Meteorological Forcing on Nearshore Wave and Current Model Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bricheno, Lucy M.; Soret, Albert; Wolf, Judith; Jorba, Oriol; Baldasano, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Accurate representation of wind forcing and mean sea level pressure is important for modeling waves and surges. This is especially important for complex coastal zone areas. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been run at 12-, 4-, and 1.33-km resolution for a storm event over the Irish Sea. The outputs were used to force the coupled hydrodynamic and the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modeling System (POLCOMS)–Wave Model (WAM) and the effect on storm surge and ...

  16. Feeding ecology of marine birds in the nearshore waters of Kodiak Island: Final report to the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The feeding habits of marine birds in the nearshore waters of Kodiak Island were studied during winter 1976-1977 and February 1978 and during summer 1977 and 1978....

  17. NANA1M.TIF - Anacapa Island Reserve sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Big Sycamore reserve area was mosaicked from data collected in 1998. A Klein...

  18. SANP1M.TIF - South Anacapa Passage sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the southern Anacapa Passage area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999 and...

  19. SECRU1M.TIF - Southeast Santa Cruz sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Southeast Santa Cruz area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999. A Klein...

  20. SANA1M.TIF - South Anacapa Island sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the South Anacapa area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999 and 2000. A Klein...

  1. NANP1M.TIF - North Anacapa Passage sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the North Anacapa Passage area was mosaicked from data collected in 2000. A Klein...

  2. BSYC1M.TIF - Big Sycamore Reserve sidescan sonar backscatter image in the Nearshore Benthic Habitat Mapping Project S. California map series. (UTM 11N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Big Sycamore reserve area was mosaicked from data collected in 1998. A Klein...

  3. Gulf Watch Alaska Nearshore Component: Intertidal Mussel Site Data from Prince William Sound, Katmai National Park and Preserve, and Kenai Fjords National Park, 2008-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data is part of the Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) long term monitoring program, nearshore monitoring component. Specifically, these data describe mussel sampling and...

  4. Evaluation of trophic state and plankton abundance from the environmental parameters of Visakhapatnam Harbour and near-shore waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripathy, S.C.; KusumaKumari, B.A.V.L.; Sarma, V.V.; Murty, T.V.R.

    of water quality on spatial basis towards the near-shore environment from the polluted harbour zone. Multiple regression equations have been utilized to evaluate the plankton abundance and the influencing parameters controlling plankton distribution...

  5. Nearshore and offshore environmental effects monitoring at the Sable Offshore Energy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring program to determine whether any temporary or permanent environmental perturbations may be attributable to the Sable offshore gas pipeline project as it approaches landfall at Goldboro through an outer bay is discussed, This nearshore region is an active fishing region for the residents of Goldboro, hence the concern about possible contamination. The monitoring project began with a baseline study, followed by monitoring the construction and the recovery period following construction, to ensure that any persistent changes to the nearshore aquatic environment were documented. The monitoring study included representatives of the fishing community to ensure that concerns are addressed early and on a continuing basis. At various phases of the project water properties,sediment modelling, the effects of construction on sea bottom conditions, benthic biota and cultivated mussels, water quality, phytoplankton, and resuspension of toxic cysts, terns and other seabirds were studied. Monitoring programs were also established for sea urchins and mussels, two important commercial species. Commercial-sized sea urchins showed a decrease of 60 per cent between 1998 and 1999 (i.e. the construction period). Recovery of sea urchin population in the immediate trench region will be the special focus of the post-construction monitoring phase. Mussel spat settlement and mussel tissue condition, lobster trapping, water properties, and bird behaviour showed no measurable changes during construction monitoring. In addition to these studies there is an ongoing offshore monitoring program in effect by Sable Offshore Energy Inc., put in place as a condition of approval of its Development Plan by the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board. This program monitors attributes such as water quality, suspended particulate matter in the benthic boundary layer, sediment quality, the benthic habitat and megafaunal community, shellfish body burden and taint, marine mammals and seabirds

  6. EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  7. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  8. Intertidal and nearshore Nereididae (Annelida) of the Falkland Islands, southwestern Atlantic, including a new species of Gymnonereis

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Darbyshire

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The intertidal and nearshore Nereididae of the Falkland Islands are detailed and a new species of Gymnonereis described. The new species, Gymnonereis tenera sp. n., is the first record of the genus for the Falkland Islands. It is, so far, only known from a few intertidal locations in fine and muddy sands. Main distinguishing characters are: jaw teeth absent (in adults), 3 papillae in Area V–VI, falcigers absent, second ventral cirrus present throughout. Nereis atlantica McIntosh, 188...

  9. Acidification of subsurface coastal waters enhanced by eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uptake of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere has acidified the surface ocean by ~0.1 pH units and driven down the carbonate saturation state. Ocean acidification is a threat to marine ecosystems and may alter key biogeochemical cycles. Coastal oceans have also b...

  10. Surf-Zone Drifters: A New Tool for Observing Nearshore Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Guza, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The drifter was designed by coastal oceanography professor Robert Guza, Sea Grant trainee Wilford Schmidt, and engineers Brian Woodward and Kimball Millikan, all at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California. Its exterior hull is made of 11-cm-in-diameter PVC piping. Sealed inside, is a GPS receiver, a datalogger and a radio transmitter.

  11. The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS): Developing A Coastal Observation System To Enable Both Science Based Decision Making And Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, E.; John, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS) is a consortium that extends from Northern Baja CA in Mexico to Morro Bay at the southern edge of central California, and aims to streamline, coordinate, and further develop individual institutional efforts by creating an integrated, multidisciplinary coastal observatory in the Bight of Southern California for the benefit of society. By leveraging existing infrastructure, partnerships, and private, local, state, and federal resources, SCCOOS is developing a fully operational coastal observation system to address issues related to coastal water quality, marine life resources, and coastal hazards for end user communities spanning local, state, and federal interests. However, to establish a sensible observational approach to address these societal drivers, sound scientific approaches are required in both the system design and the transformation of data to useful products. Since IOOS and coastal components of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are not mutually exclusive within this framework, the SCCOOS consortium of observatory implementers have created an organizational structure that encourages dovetailing of OOI into the routine observations provided by the operational components of a regional IOOS. To begin the development, SCCOOS has grant funding from the California Coastal Conservancy as part of a $21M, statewide initiative to establish a Coastal Ocean Currents Monitoring Program, and funding from NOAA's Coastal Observing Technology System (COTS). In addition, SCCOOS is leveraging IT development that has been supported by the NSF Information Technology Research program Real-time observatories, Applications,and Data Manageemnt Network (ROADNET), and anticipates using developments which will result from the NSF Laboratory for Ocean Observatory Knowledge Integration Grid (LOOKING) program. The observational components now funded at SCCOOS include surface current mapping by HF radar; high

  12. Evaluation of the physical process controlling beach changes adjacent to nearshore dredge pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedet, L.; List, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical modeling of a beach nourishment project is conducted to enable a detailed evaluation of the processes associated with the effects of nearshore dredge pits on nourishment evolution and formation of erosion hot spots. A process-based numerical model, Delft3D, is used for this purpose. The analysis is based on the modification of existing bathymetry to simulate "what if" scenarios with/without the bathymetric features of interest. Borrow pits dredged about 30??years ago to provide sand for the nourishment project have a significant influence on project performance and formation of erosional hot spots. It was found that the main processes controlling beach response to these offshore bathymetric features were feedbacks between wave forces (roller force or alongshore component of the radiation stress), pressure gradients due to differentials in wave set-up/set-down and bed shear stress. Modeling results also indicated that backfilling of selected borrow sites showed a net positive effect within the beach fill limits and caused a reduction in the magnitude of hot spot erosion. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oil in nearshore subtidal sediments of Saudi Arabia from the Gulf War spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed sedimentological and dynamic-process studies of the shallow, subtidal habitats of Dawhats ad Dafi and al Mussallamiyah and the bays at Tanaqib on the Saudi Arabian coast were carried out one year after the Gulf War oil spill. These studies were part of Leg II of the NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell cruise. Satellite imagery and space shuttle photography were used extensively to develop detailed study plans. Work accomplished during the study included deployment of three current meters, a tide gauge, and suspended sediment traps (at seven locations). Bathymetric surveys were conducted along 14 transects, and 197 bottom observation dives were carried out. More than 170 bottom sediment samples were collected for chemical and/or textural analysis. Sediment hydrocarbon screening by HPLC fluorescence was conducted on board to verify and refine the sampling plan. The results to date show no evidence of large-scale sinking of oil as a result of the spill. Subtidal oil, as sparse tar balls, was visually observed by divers at three locations, all of which were associated with the erosion of oiled sand from outer beaches. On-board chemical results showed that subtidal sediments have been contaminated at levels ranging from 20 to 2,000 mg petroleum hydrocarbons/kg, with the highest contamination up in the sheltered, muddy basins. However, the oil initially stranded in the intertidal zone does not appear to be accumulating in the nearshore subtidal region in significant quantities one year later

  14. Temporal variation of surface chlorophyll a in the Romanian near-shore waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. VASILIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a (Chl a dynamics in the near-shore waters of the NW Black Sea was investigated between 2002 and 2010 in the Mamaia Bay (north of Constanta, Romania in relation to some physical-chemical parameters. Chl a ranged from values below detection limit (0.17 μg.l–1 to 76.13 μg.l–1, and showed large temporal variability (CV = 142.3%, strongly related to the Danube’s discharges, meteorological conditions, and anthropogenic pressures. Seasonally, Chl a showed a winter/early spring maximum, sometimes followed by a stronger one in April/early May, closely linked to the Danube’s higher discharges in spring. After significantly lower concentrations in late spring/early summer, Chl a exhibited its strongest maximum in summer (July-August, followed by another one in autumn (late September–October. Interannual variation of Chl a seems to be controlled by the hydrometeorological conditions in summer. Thus, the highest annual Chl a means were observed in 2006 (8.56 ± 8.35 μg.l–1 and 2010 (9.20 ± 11.72 μg.l -1, when, also, the summer Chl a concentrations were maximal due to the large riverine discharges. The lowest annual Chl a mean was observed in 2004 (4.57 ± 9.81μg.l–1, closely linked to minimal summer Chl a resulted from a strong P limitation during summertime.

  15. Parameterization of Time-Averaged Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Nearshore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Doug Yoon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the effect of wave breaking turbulence on sediment transport in the nearshore, the vertical distribution of time-averaged suspended sediment concentration (SSC in the surf zone was parameterized in terms of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE at different cross-shore locations, including the bar crest, bar trough, and inner surf zone. Using data from a large-scale laboratory experiment, a simple relationship was developed between the time-averaged SSC and the time-averaged TKE. The vertical variation of the time-averaged SSC was fitted to an equation analogous to the turbulent dissipation rate term. At the bar crest, the proposed equation was slightly modified to incorporate the effect of near-bed sediment processes and yielded reasonable agreement. This parameterization yielded the best agreement at the bar trough, with a coefficient of determination R2 ≥ 0.72 above the bottom boundary layer. The time-averaged SSC in the inner surf zone showed good agreement near the bed but poor agreement near the water surface, suggesting that there is a different sedimentation mechanism that controls the SSC in the inner surf zone.

  16. An Improved Nearshore Wave Breaking Model Based on the Fully Nonlinear Boussinesq Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-wu; LI Chun-ying; SHI Zhong; GU Han-bin

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to propose an improved numerical model for wave breaking in the nearshore region based on the fully nonlinear form of Boussinesq equations. The model uses the κ equation turbulence scheme to determine the eddy viscosity in the Boussinesq equations. To calculate the turbulence production term in the equation, a new formula is derived based on the concept of surface roller. By use of this formula, the turbulence production in the one-equation turbulence scheme is directly related to the difference between the water particle velocity and the wave celerity. The model is verified by Hansen and Svendsen's experimental data (1979) in terms of wave height and setup and setdown. The comparison between the model and experimental results of wave height and setup and setdown shows satisfactory agreement. The modeled turbulence energy decreases as waves attenuate in the surf zone. The modeled production term peaks at the breaking point and decreases as waves propagate shoreward. It is also suggested that both convection and diffusion play their important roles in the transport of turbulence energy immediately after wave breaking. When waves approach to the shoreline, the production and dissipation of turbulence energy are almost balanced. By use of the slot technique for the simulation of the movable shoreline boundary, wave runup in the swash zone is well simulated by the present model.

  17. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, F.

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  18. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  19. Towards more Manageable Coastal Building; Initial Coastal Building Construction Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Roslan Talib; Mohd Z. Sulieman

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: As we may not be aware that the coastal construction is different from inland construction. Building in a coastal environment is different from building in an inland area. In general, buildings in coastal areas must be designed and built to withstand higher loads due to its more extreme conditions. Nowadays, the issue of global warming, uncertainty of global weather and the climate change effect indirectly creating the coastal area with much more expose to extreme condition...

  20. Biological and geophysical aspects of coastal structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    , tides and shallow currents. Thus the sedimentary history of the shelves and nearshore environments reflect the ever-changing relationship between tectonic subsidence, sea level oscillations and the dynamic processes acting at these water depths...

  1. COASTAL STUDY, ASSUMPTION PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  2. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  3. COASTAL STUDY, LINCOLN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  4. Coastal Applications of the Canopy Biomass Lidar (CBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, I.; Saenz, E.; Peri, F.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Erb, A.; Yang, Y.; Rouhani, S.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.; Chen, R. F.; Oktay, S.; Gontz, A. M.; Douglas, E. M.; Kim, J.; Sun, Q.; Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.; van Aardt, J. A.; Kelbe, D.; Romanczyk, P.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne discrete and full waveform lidars have increasingly been utilized to augment multispectral and hyperspectral imaging of coastal ecosystems. While these data provide important landscape assessments of the shore and nearshore environment, they often lack the frequency that is really needed to monitor complex vegetative systems such as salt marshes and mangroves and provide rapid evaluations in the aftermath of severe storms. One solution is to augment the sparse airborne and satellite acquisitions with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) information. However, most institutions with fine resolution discrete or full waveform TLS instruments are unwilling to risk these expensive (and often heavy) lidar in marine or estuarine environments. The Canopy Biomass Lidar (CBL) is an inexpensive, highly portable, fast-scanning, time-of-flight, TLS instrument, originally conceived by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL) and refined by the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). Two new CBLs, constructed by the University of Massachusetts Boston (UMB), have been successfully deployed in deciduous and conifer forests at Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) and National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) sites in Massachusetts (Harvard Forest) and California (Sierra National Forest), and in eucalypt forests at long-term and Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) sites in Queensland, Australia. Both the UMB and RIT CBLs have also been deployed in savanna systems at the San Joaquin Rangeland (and NEON site) in California. The UMB CBLs are now being deployed in salt marsh systems in Massachusetts with plans underway to deploy them in mangrove forests later in the year. In particular, they are being used to characterize the water facing edge of saltmarsh at UMB's Nantucket Island field station and remnant salt marshes on the highly urbanized Neponset estuary draining into Boston Harbor. While CBL's 905nm nearIR wavelength is of little use in nearshore inundated

  5. Using remotely-sensed nearshore suspended sediment as an indicator of environmental change on the Alaskan North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Anne Carrie Hickey

    The effects of climate change are increasing the vulnerability the delicate Arctic system on the North Slope of Alaska. Concurrently, oil and gas development is projected to expand across the region, the wide-scale effects of which are largely unknown in a less-resilient system. This research provides the framework for using satellite data to assess and monitor suspended sediment conditions in the nearshore Alaskan Beaufort Sea, which provide a key indicator of environmental change. Satellite monitoring of suspended sediment levels provides a cost-effective means to obtain nearly real-time, synoptic information about environmental change on the North Slope. This information can be incorporated into cumulative effects analyses and enhance their capability to assess and predict the environmental effects of oil and gas development in a changing climate. Surface reflectance data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors were calibrated to total suspended sediment (TSS) concentrations in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and used to construct time series of proxy TSS data for 2000--2005 and 1981--2004, respectively. These time series produced a baseline quantifying the interannual variability and 24-year trends in median annual TSS concentrations at locations in the nearshore Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Increasing trends over the analysis period were identified in the outflow areas of the Ikpikpuk, Colville, Kuparuk and Sagavanirktok Rivers, as well as in Admiralty Bay. Additionally, TSS levels in 1994 and 2000 exceeded the normal range of variability at several of the nearshore locations investigated. Different areas along the nearshore had varying TSS magnitudes and modes of variability, a function of the terrestrial and nearshore processes controlling TSS conditions at each location. An empirical model explained 65 percent of the variability in annual median TSS values using precipitation factors that

  6. ASBAT 近岸风场产品与近岸浮标观测风场对比%Evaluation of ASBAT Boastal Wind Product Using Nearshore Buoy Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小萍; 魏建苏; 黄亮

    2014-01-01

    The new scatterometer advanced scatterometer (ASCAT)on board MetOp-A satellite provides surface wind speed and direction over global ocean.Providing accurate nearshore wind data from satellites is chal-lenging because satellite data are unavailable very close to shore due to the contaminating effect of the land.Besides,land-sea breezes and shore topography produce small space scale and time-scale wind varia-tions that can be smoothed by the satellite’s space averaging and aliased by the satellite’s twice-a-day sam-pling.The complexity of nearshore winds is one of the prime causes that the regions are so important.For example,over one-third of the total marine fish catch occurs within nearshore zone. The accuracy of ASCAT coastal wind product is determined through various comparisons with buoys. The nearshore buoys used in the comparisons locate in US West Coast and China Coast.As the time inter-val of US West Coast buoy wind is 10-minute interval and the spatial resolution of ASCAT wind product is 12.5 km,a scatterometer wind and a buoy wind measurement are considered to be collocated if the distance between the wind vector cell center and the buoy location is less than 12.5 km and if the acquisition time difference is less than 5 minutes in US West Coast.As the time interval of China Coast buoy wind is 1 hour,the acquisition time difference is less than 30 minutes in China Coast.The buoy winds at a given an-emometer height are converted to 10 m neutral winds in order to enable a good comparison with the 10 m scatteromter winds.The time ranges of wind data used for comparison from US West Coast buoys and China Coast buoys are the whole year of 2012 and the first half year of 2012 individually. It shows that the accuracy of the wind speed of ASCAT product is high and the accuracy of the wind direction of ASCAT product is influenced by several factors,such as the distance from coast,wind speed and wind direction.The overall wind speed correlation coefficient

  7. Observational study of atmospheric surface layer and coastal weather in northern Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Dhrubajyoti; Sadr, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric surface layer is the interaction medium between atmosphere and Earth's surface. Better understanding of its turbulence nature is essential in characterizing the local weather, climate variability and modeling of turbulent exchange processes. The importance of Middle East region, with its unique geographical, economical and weather condition is well recognized. However, high quality micrometeorological observational studies are rare in this region. Here we show experimental results from micrometeorological observations from an experimental site in the coastal region of Qatar during August-December 2015. Measurements of winds are obtained from three sonic anemometers installed on a 9 m tower placed at Al Ghariyah beach in northern Qatar (26.08 °N, 51.36 °E). Different surface layer characteristics is analyzed and compared with earlier studies in equivalent weather conditions. Monthly statistics of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity and heat index are made from concurrent observations from sonic anemometer and weather station to explore variations with surface layer characteristics. The results also highlights potential impact of sea breeze circulation on local weather and atmospheric turbulence. The observed daily maximum temperature and heat index during morning period may be related to sea breeze circulations. Along with the operational micrometeorological observation system, a camera system and ultrasonic wave measurement system are installed recently in the site to study coastline development and nearshore wave dynamics. Overall, the complete observational set up is going to provide new insights about nearshore wind dynamics and wind-wave interaction in Qatar.

  8. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blakeway

    Full Text Available A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements. Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  9. Aspects of benthic decapod diversity and distribution from rocky nearshore habitat at geographically widely dispersed sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Pohle

    Full Text Available Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean = 4.5. Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in

  10. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeway, David; Byers, Michael; Stoddart, James; Rossendell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements). Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2) over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2) at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2) at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations. PMID:24040405

  11. Pb-210 and Pu-239,240 in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pb-210, Ra-226, and Pu-239,240 activities were measured in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments. Sediment cores were collected from the Mississippi delta, and the western Gulf of Mexico shelf. Mississippi delta cores which exhibit significantly higher sedimentation rates show larger inventories of Pb-210. The measured Pu levels from the western shelf are lower than from the delta at comparable depths. In three of the western shelf cores, the observed Pu inventory is considerably less than predicted from atmospheric flux. Therefore, Pu is not being removed to the sediment, or is being released following deposition. A key difference between these isotopes is that Pu exists in a less particle-reactive state. The ratio of excess Pb-210 to Pu levels increases with water depth in the delta and the western shelf. Water depth acts as an integrator of depth-sensitive processes. Pu scavenging is more sensitive to these processes. A sub-surface Pu maximum has been observed. Excess Pb-210 and Pu levels correlate well with sedimentation rates. This suggests that particle flux is important in removal of Pb-210 and Pu to the sediment. The flux of Mn out of the sediment is correlated with inventory data, suggesting that redox cycling of Mn may play a role in increasing Pb-210 and Pu sediment inventories. It is unclear whether the effects of increased sedimentation rates and increased Mn fluxes can be evaluated independently. Mixing of surface sediment correlates with inventory data. Increased sediment mixing allows for additional scavenging of Pb-210 and Pu from overlying waters. Mixing of sediment at depths below the mixed surface layer may play a role in increasing sediment inventories of Pb-210 and Pu

  12. King County Nearshore Habitat Mapping Data Report: Picnic Point to Shilshole Bay Marina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Farley, Paul J.; Borde, Amy B.; Southard, John A.; Thom, Ronald M.

    2000-12-31

    The objective of this study is to provide accurate, georeferenced maps of benthic habitats to assist in the siting of a new wastewater treatment plant outfall and the assessment of habitats of endangered, threatened, and economically important species. The mapping was conducted in the fall of 1999 using two complementary techniques: side-scan sonar and underwater videography. Products derived from these techniques include geographic information system (GIS) compatible polygon data of substrate type and vegetation cover, including eelgrass and kelp. Additional GIS overlays include underwater video track line data of total macroalgae, selected macroalgal species, fish, and macroinvertebrates. The combined tools of geo-referenced side-scan sonar and underwater video is a powerful technique for assessing and mapping of nearshore habitat in Puget Sound. Side-scan sonar offers the ability to map eelgrass with high spatial accuracy and resolution, and provides information on patch size, shape, and coverage. It also provides information on substrate change and location of specific targets (e.g., piers, docks, pilings, large boulders, debris piles). The addition of underwater video is a complementary tool providing both groundtruthing for the sonar and additional information on macro fauna and flora. As a groundtruthing technique, the video was able to confirm differences between substrate types, as well as detect subtle spatial changes in substrate. It also verified information related to eelgrass, including the density classification categories and the type of substrate associated with eelgrass, which could not be determined easily with side- scan sonar. Video is also a powerful tool for mapping the location of macroalgae, (including kelp and Ulva), fish and macroinvertebrates. The ability to geo-locate these resources in their functional habitat provides an added layer of information and analytical potential.

  13. Survey of the state of the art in near-shore pipeline location and burial assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project's objective is to evaluate state-of-the-art methods for locating pipelines in shallow (less than 15 ft) water and for determining and monitoring their burial depths. The following recommendations are made on the research needed in three areas for locating near-shore, shallowly buried pipelines: (1) Sensors: The pipeline industry has selected the magnetic gradiometer array (GA) as a preferred sensor method. Other potential methods exist as backups. No additional research is recommended. (2) Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs): The Pipeline Research Committee is pursuing development of a prototype ROV is deliver the GA or other similar equipment to pipeline locations. (3) Phenomena: The data being collected from research on the phenomena affecting seabed conditions and the bathymetric data being collected along the Gulf Coast should be synthesized. This new effort should focus on identifying erosion-prone areas with respect to present and potential future pipeline locations. Technical approach is to get the broadest perspective on the concerns related to the determination of burial conditions for offshore pipelines, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contacted individuals and organizations from the gas and petroleum industries, hardware and software vendors, academicians, and representatives from the government. A literature survey yielded the names of persons within academia who are presently working on similar applications with sensors. In the oil and gas industry, individuals and organizations involved in the Pipeline Research Committee made extensive contributions to the review and also provided the names of meaningful contacts from among their vendors. Discussions were held with the various persons both on the telephone and face to face. Vendors provided background materials and overview presentations on their capabilities for ANL to review

  14. Development of two-dimensional models to estimate nearshore bathymetry and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Kristen D. M.

    We examine the interactions and feedbacks between bathymetry, waves, currents, and sediment transport. Utilizing remotely-sensed wave refraction patterns of nearshore waves, we estimate bathymetry gradients in the nearshore through the 2D irrotationality of the wave number equation. The model, discussed in Chapter 2, uses an augmented form of the refraction equation that relates gradients in bathymetry to gradients in wavenumber and wave angle through the chain rule. The equations are cast in a form that is independent of wave period, so can be solved using wavenumber and direction data from a single snapshot rather than the normally-required time series of images. Secondly, remotely sensed images of wave breaking over complex bathymetry are used to study the nonlinear feedbacks between two-dimensional (horizontal), 2DH, morphology and cross-shore migration rates of the alongshore averaged bar. We first test a linear model on a subset of 4 years of data at Palm Beach, Australia. The results are discussed in Chapter 3. The model requires eight free parameters, solved for using linear regression of the data to model the relationship between alongshore averaged bar position, x, alongshore sinuosity of the bar, a, and wave forcing, F = H2o. The linear model suggests that 2DH bathymetry is linked to cross-shore bar migration rates. Nevertheless, the primary limitation is that variations in bar position and variability are required to be temporally uncorrelated with forcing in order to achieve meaningful results. In Chapter 4 a nonlinear model is subsequently developed and tested on the same data set. Initial equations for cross-shore sediment transport are formulated from commonly accepted theory using energetics-type equations. Cross-shore transport is based on the deviations around an equilibrium amount of roller contribution with the nonlinearity of the model forcing sediment transport to zero in the absence of wave breaking. The extension to 2DH is based on

  15. Studies of artificial radioactivity in the coastal environment of northern Scotland: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review brings measurements that have been made over the last 10-15 years of the concentrations of a number of artificial radionuclides in various media in the northern-Scottish coastal environment. The radionuclides include 60Co, 90Sr, 136Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, and 241Am. The media include nearshore and offshore seawater, beach sand and sediments, seaweeds, winkles, spume, deposits on rocks and soils, sheep faeces, and atmospheric deposition. The various radionuclide sources that contribute to the study area are described. Some transfer mechanisms that operate between different media for different radionuclides are discussed, and the radiological significance of the observed radionuclide concentrations is briefly described. (Author)

  16. Towards more Manageable Coastal Building; Initial Coastal Building Construction Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslan Talib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As we may not be aware that the coastal construction is different from inland construction. Building in a coastal environment is different from building in an inland area. In general, buildings in coastal areas must be designed and built to withstand higher loads due to its more extreme conditions. Nowadays, the issue of global warming, uncertainty of global weather and the climate change effect indirectly creating the coastal area with much more expose to extreme condition. Formulate initial guidelines with certain degree of details how coastal construction requirements are different from those for inland construction. Approach: Due to the exposure to higher loads and extreme conditions, these structures in coastal areas will cost more to design, construct, maintain, repair and insure. Proper and right usage of building materials including electrical and mechanical equipments, are crucial in order to minimize damage. Nowadays, the issue of global warming, uncertainty of global weather and the climate change effect indirectly creating the coastal area with much more expose to extreme condition. Feedback has been gathered from the government local engineers who are doing the management of the Government’s local buildings located along the coastal area of Peninsular Malaysia. Data findings through research method, discussion with the suppliers and discussion with coastal buildings maintenance crews also has been done. Results: The research finding discus the specific characteristics that makes for successful coastal buildings focusing in tropical region. Conclusion: We must accept on the idea of building in coastal areas will require more maintenance and upkeep. By having proper coastal building guideline may create more positive awareness in constructing better management coastal buildings and can save time and money to maintain the said structures.

  17. Synoptic conditions and hazards in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkova, Galina; Arkhipkin, Victor; Kislov, Alexsandr

    2013-04-01

    This work is an approach to the methodology of prediction of hazards in the coastal zone. For the past 60 years, according to the observations and reanalysis, meteorological conditions are rough in connection with the storm waves and strong winds resulting in catastrophic damage in the coastal zone of the Black and Caspian Seas. Forecast of similar events is taken from CMIP3 modeled for the future climate 2046-2065 by general global atmosphere and ocean circulation model MPI-ECHAM5. The research was conducted for the three types of calendar data samples: 1) storm wave and surge from observations (1948-2012), 2) storm simulations with wave height of 4 m and more (1948-2010), and 3) prognostic climate scenarios for 2046-2065. In the first sample especially rare events were chosen, accompanied by a large damage in the coastal zone. Second sample of cases was derived from modeling of SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The third sample was derived from projections of cases from group 1 in the MPI-ECHAM5 climate forecasts for 2046-2065. For each sample the data of large-scale fields of surface pressure, height 500 hPa isobaric surfaces, 700gPa (Reanalysis NCEP / NCAR) was analyzed. On the basis of statistical techniques (decomposition of fields in the natural orthogonal functions (EOF) and cluster analysis) the synoptic situations associated with these events were classified. Centroids of pressure fields for dominated cases show that there are two basic types of synoptic situations in case of storm waves for the Black Sea. In the first case main role play the Mediterranean cyclones located in the east of the Mediterranean Sea, they are spread over the Black Sea, and often form a local center of low pressure. Their movement is blocked by the high pressure over the European Russia and Eastern Europe. If the center of the cyclone is over Asia and the southern part of the Black Sea, the weather is dominated by the north-eastern, eastern, south-easterly winds. In some cases

  18. Modeling Water Exchange and Contaminant Transport through a Baltic Coastal Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water exchange of the Baltic coastal zone is characterized by its seasonally varying regimes. In the safety assessment of a potential repository for spent nuclear fuel, it is important to assess the consequences of a hypothetical leak of radionuclides through the seabed into a waterborne transport phase. In particular, estimates of the associated residence times in the near-shore coastal zone are of interest. There are several methods to quantify such measures, of which three are presented here. Using the coastal location of Forsmark (Sweden) as an example, methods based on passive tracers, particle trajectories, and the average age distribution of exogenous water parcels are compared for a representative one-year cycle. Tracer-based methods can simulate diffusivity more realistically than the other methods. Trajectory-based methods can handle Lagrangian dispersion processes due to advection but neglect diffusion on the sub-grid scale. The method based on the concept of average age (AvA) of exogenous water can include all such sources simultaneously not only boundary water bodies but also various (fresh)water discharges. Due to the inclusion of sub-grid diffusion this method gives a smoother measure of the water renewal. It is shown that backward in time trajectories and AvA-times are basically equipollent methods, yielding correlated results within the limits set by the diffusivity

  19. Heavy metal contamination of coastal lagoon sediments: Fongafale Islet, Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masafumi; Ide, Yoichi; Sato, Daisaku; Kench, Paul S; Kuwahara, Yuji; Yokoki, Hiromune; Kayanne, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate contamination of coastal sediments along Fongafale Islet, Central Pacific, a field survey was conducted in densely populated, sparsely populated, open dumping and undisturbed natural areas. Current measurements in shallow water of the lagoon indicated that contaminants from the densely populated area would only be transported for a small proportion of a tidal cycle. Acid-volatile sulfides were detected in both the intertidal beach and nearshore zones of the densely populated area, whereas these were no detection in the other areas. This observation lends support to argument that the coastal pollution mechanism that during ebb tide, domestic wastewater leaking from poorly constructed sanitary facilities seeps into the coast. The total concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were relatively high in all of the areas except the undisturbed natural area. The indices of contamination factor, pollution load index and geoaccumulation index were indicative of heavy metal pollution in the three areas. The densely populated area has the most significant contamination; domestic wastewater led to significant contamination of coastal sediments with Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The open dumping area is noteworthy with respect to Mn and Ni, which can be derived from disposed batteries. PMID:24200049

  20. A multi-tracer approach for determining the sources and spatial variability of groundwater-delivered nutrients to coastal waters: Maunalua Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C. M.; Dulaiova, H.; Whittier, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient pollution of coastal waters commonly arises from terrestrial non-point sources of N and P such as on-site disposal systems (OSDS) and fertilizer leachate. Elevated nutrient loading of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been documented in the western edge of Maunalua Bay, Oahu, an area with high OSDS density. We examined coastal groundwater and nearshore marine water quality in two adjacent aquifers (Waialae West and Waialae East) within the study region with differing land-use and hydrogeological characteristics to better understand 1) the spatial variability of SGD nutrient and water fluxes and 2) the reasons for this spatial variability. Nutrient concentrations and NO3- stable isotope ratios were measured in coastal and terrestrial groundwater as well as nearshore marine water and integrated with SGD flux, land-use, and recharge data to examine potential nutrient sources in each aquifer. Regionally-elevated NO3- concentrations (169 µM) and δ15N-NO3- values (10.9 ‰) were apparent in SGD in the Waialae West Aquifer where OSDS density is highest. Coastal sites sampled in the neighboring Waialae East Aquifer exhibited significantly lower values for these parameters, with δ15N-NO3- values ranging from 5.7 - 5.9‰ and NO3- concentrations from 43 - 69 µM. The isotopic composition of NO3- in SGD originating from the Waialae West Aquifer was primarily influenced by mixing of a wastewater source, with wastewater effluent accounting for nearly 4.4% of total recharge and 79 - 97% of total N and P loads within the aquifer. These findings illustrate the utility of synthesizing nutrient concentrations and stable isotope parameters together with SGD flux determination, and aquifer-scale land-use and recharge data in determining the contribution of terrestrial sources to coastal nutrient loading via SGD.

  1. Performance of coastal sea-defense infrastructure at El Jadida (Morocco against tsunami threat: lessons learned from the Japanese 11 March 2011 tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the effectiveness of sea-defense structures in preventing/reducing the tsunami overtopping as well as evaluating the resulting tsunami impact at El Jadida, Morocco. Different tsunami wave conditions are generated by considering various earthquake scenarios of magnitudes ranging from Mw = 8.0 to Mw = 8.6. These scenarios represent the main active earthquake faults in the SW Iberia margin and are consistent with two past events that generated tsunamis along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The behaviour of incident tsunami waves when interacting with coastal infrastructures is analysed on the basis of numerical simulations of near-shore tsunami waves' propagation. Tsunami impact at the affected site is assessed through computing inundation and current velocity using a high-resolution digital terrain model that incorporates bathymetric, topographic and coastal structures data. Results, in terms of near-shore tsunami propagation snapshots, waves' interaction with coastal barriers, and spatial distributions of flow depths and speeds, are presented and discussed in light of what was observed during the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. Predicted results show different levels of impact that different tsunami wave conditions could generate in the region. Existing coastal barriers around the El Jadida harbour succeeded in reflecting relatively small waves generated by some scenarios, but failed in preventing the overtopping caused by waves from others. Considering the scenario highly impacting the El Jadida coast, significant inundations are computed at the sandy beach and unprotected areas. The modelled dramatic tsunami impact in the region shows the need for additional tsunami standards not only for sea-defense structures but also for the coastal dwellings and houses to provide potential in-place evacuation.

  2. Economic and Spatial Study of the Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change of Coastal Areas in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The African coastal countries are facing several environmental and socio-economic challenges, such as unplanned urban and economic development, fueled by a growing rural exodus; non-functional or non-existent public infrastructures to handle the demographic growth along the coastline; air, water and soil pollution; and alteration of coastal ecosystems. West Africa, in particular, is facing ...

  3. Dispersion of Outflow from Small Rivers and Coastal Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largier, J. L.; Basdurak, N. B.

    2013-05-01

    Along many tropical and subtropical coasts, waters enter the ocean via small streams or lagoons. These outflow plumes are known to be important to coastal productivity, but as pollutant loading increases they are also seen as an increasing source of coastal pollution. Physical processes in these small plumes interact in ways that are different to larger plumes, e.g., flow rate varies on short time scales, and the coriolis term is typically unimportant. After a brief review of dominant terms, attention will be given to observed plume patterns with a focus on the presence of low-salinity and outflow-related constituents nearshore. Data from studies off California and elsewhere will be used to suggest that there are common transport and mixing patterns at this scale. While the ultimate aim is to understand and model physical processes controlling dispersion of land-derived pollutants, at the very least one can recognize a spatial pattern of probability that can be characterized by primary physical parameters. Due to limited data on physical processes at the requisite resolution, numerical modeling is used to better understand processes and phenomena including inertial jets, buoyant plumes, alongshore flow, mixing and surface stresses. Ultimately, one can expect that a reasonable estimate of a probabilistic "zone of impact" can be obtained from knowledge of fundamental physical parameters that control transport and mixing. This link between physical forcing and response needs both a dynamical explanation and statistical support - yielding a general model that can be used for countless small inflows along many coasts. These features may be small but they are very common, and it is argued that their importance for coastal pollution and ecology is disproportionately big. The benefit of recognizing a transport-based zone of impact is that this pattern is the basis of distribution patterns for a variety of constituents, including dissolved and particulate contaminants

  4. Seismic reflection surveys at Horonobe coastal land area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carried out a series of seismic surveys at the coastal land area of Horonobe district. Hokkaido to clarify subsurface structure of the shallow zone around Horonobe town located at the west coast of northern part of the Teshio plain. The series of surveys included a P-wave reflection survey targeting relatively shallow zone and an S-wave reflection survey targeting extremely shallow zone. We interpreted subsurface geological structure by comparing the seismic survey results with the borehole data acquired in a borehole drilled at the research area. P-wave reflection survey clarified that each Quaternary to Neogene layer thickly deposited at west end of survey line makes deposition depth shallower while making its layer thickness rapidly thinner toward the Sarobetsu fold located at the eastern part of a survey line. S-wave reflection survey clearly images two major reflection events. The former one is the reflection from the boundaries between nearshore sediments and lower sediments at the depth range of about 30-40 m. The lower sediments are composed with clayey to silty deposits at the most part of the survey line, and with lagoon deposits at the central part of the survey line. The latter one is the reflection from the basement of the alluvial deposit at a depth of about 80 m. From those results, we can conclude that we revealed the sedimental environment of approximately the last 10,000 years in detail. (author)

  5. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  6. Simulating decadal coastal morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; van Maanen, Barend

    2016-03-01

    Coastal geomorphic systems provide many services of key importance to humankind, including protection from flood and erosion hazards, diverse habitats and amenity values (Agardy et al., 2005; Jones et al., 2011). However, these systems are widely undergoing degradation that can be substantially attributed to the cumulative direct and indirect effects of human interference. Declining sediment inputs and throughputs are frequently a factor driving a shift towards progressive coastal erosion (Valiela, 2006; Nicholls et al., 2007). Such sediment starved systems have reduced resilience and are further threatened by human-induced climate change, not only due to accelerated sea-level rise, but also through possible shifts in wave and surge climate (Wong et al., 2014).

  7. Coastal research: Observational challenge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    coast al and meteorological research and monitoring. These often large and very stable platforms typically have space and fa cilities for manned research laboratories and are equipped with adequate power and other needed services making them ideal... coastal and space technologists are attractive. Considerations for future sensors and systems to be de ployed from the platforms described above include: response time, sensor and clock drift characteristics, size, power re quirements, durability...

  8. Extreme coastal storms along the north coast of Ireland: hydrodynamic forcing and beach response during the winter seasons of 2013/14 and 2014/15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carlos; Marianne, O'Connor; Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    coastal and nearshore responses have implications for the assessment and forecasting of local coastal physical response under a changing climate.

  9. Louisiana Coastal Wetlands and Louisiana Coastal Grey Literature: Vanishing Treasures

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Gina R. (LSU); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2006-01-01

    Over the last century Louisiana has lost an alarming amount of coastal wetlands to coastal erosion. Natural disasters and manmade solutions to problems alike have contributed to this national tragedy. A vast amount of grey literature documenting the history of land loss in Louisiana has been produced, but never collocated for researchers' use. The Louisiana Coastal Grey Literature Project endeavored to locate, organize and provide access to these valuable hidden treasures. Includes: Confer...

  10. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic...

  11. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Insights into High-Resolution Physico-Biogeochemical Processes in Nearshore Environments of Lake Erie Using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehm, C. L.; Vermette, S.; Perrelli, M.; Bauer, K.; Jerla, B.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of the physico-chemical-biological dynamics in nearshore areas of Lake Erie as a function of environmental and climate change. Nearshore processes in the Great Lakes are complex and drive many efforts in remediating areas of concern (AoCs). Long term studies of the processes and the dynamics of these environments are necessary to determine the success of management strategies and the application of policies. A network of monitoring buoys can provide an insight into long term temporal changes in the system, however, the spatial resolution is rather coarse. As part of a nearshore buoy observations study on the long-term impacts of climate and environmental change on Lake Erie the deployment of an automated underwater vehicle (AUV) compliments and augments the data obtained by the buoys by providing direct high spatial resolution observations. The high resolution data will be used to improve parameter estimates of water circulation and water quality parameters for models (FVCOM) that often cannot accurately predict nearshore surface and subsurface dynamics. An AUV equipped with water quality instrumentation as well as an acoustic doppler current profiler and side scan sonar was deployed in a gridded pattern at multiple locations along the shoreline of Lake Erie throughout the summer of 2012. The data presented here describe and capture at, high spatial resolution, the nearshore-offshore characteristics and inter-relationships of lake bottom morphology, water quality and current patterns and provide an insight into the complex processes and dynamics of these regions. These data will provide a better understanding of nearshore lake processes that can be used to improve current model parameters and inform both science at large and management strategies.

  13. Factors controlling physico-chemical characteristics in the coastal waters off Mangalore-A multivariate approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water quality parameters (temperature, pH, salinity, DO, BOD, suspended solids, nutrients, PHc, phenols, trace metals-Pb, Cd and Hg, chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and phaeopigments) and the sediment quality parameters (total phosphorous, total nitrogen, organic carbon and trace metals) were analysed from samples collected at 15 stations along 3 transects off Karnataka coast (Mangalore harbour in the south to Suratkal in the north), west coast of India during 2007. The analyses showed high ammonia off Suratkal, high nitrite (NO2-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) in the nearshore waters off Kulai and high nitrite (NO2-N) and ammonia (NH3-N) in the harbour area. Similarly, high petroleum hydrocarbon (PHc) values were observed near the harbour, while phenols remained high in the nearshore waters of Kulai and Suratkal. Significantly, high concentrations of cadmium and mercury with respect to the earlier studies were observed off Kulai and harbour regions, respectively. R-mode varimax factor analyses were applied separately to surface and bottom water data sets due to existing stratification in the water column caused by riverine inflow and to sediment data. This helped to understand the interrelationships between the variables and to identify probable source components for explaining the environmental status of the area. Six factors (each for surface and bottom waters) were found responsible for variance (86.9% in surface and 82.4% in bottom) in the coastal waters between Mangalore and Suratkal. In sediments, 4 factors explained 86.8% of the observed total variance. The variances indicated addition of nutrients and suspended solids to the coastal waters due to weathering and riverine transport and are categorized as natural sources. The observed contamination of coastal waters indicated anthropogenic inputs of Cd and phenol from industrial effluent sources at Kulai and Suratkal, ammonia from wastewater discharges off Kulai and harbour, PHc and Hg from boat traffic and harbour activities

  14. Sustainable Management of Coastal Environments Through Coupled Terrestrial-Coastal Ocean Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrenz, S. E.; Cai, W.; Tian, H.; He, R.; Xue, Z.; Fennel, K.; Hopkinson, C.; Howden, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Changing climate and land use practices have the potential to dramatically alter coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical processes and associated movement of water, carbon and nutrients through various terrestrial reservoirs into rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters. Consequences of climate- and land use-related changes will be particularly evident in large river basins and their associated coastal outflow regions. The large spatial extent of such systems necessitates a combination of satellite observations and model-based approaches coupled with targeted ground-based site studies to adequately characterize relationships among climate forcing (e.g., wind, precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, humidity, extreme weather), land use practice/land cover change, and transport of materials through watersheds and, ultimately, to coastal regions. Here, we describe a NASA Interdisciplinary Science project that employs an integrated suite of models in conjunction with remotely sensed as well as targeted in situ observations with the objectives of describing processes controlling fluxes on land and their coupling to riverine, estuarine and ocean ecosystems. The objectives of this effort are to 1) assemble and evaluate long term datasets for the assessment of impacts of climate variability, extreme weather events, and land use practices on transport of water, carbon and nitrogen within terrestrial systems and the delivery of materials to waterways and rivers; 2) using the Mississippi River as a testbed, develop and evaluate an integrated suite of models to describe linkages between terrestrial and riverine systems, transport of carbon and nutrients in the Mississippi river and its tributaries, and associated cycling of carbon and nutrients in coastal ocean waters; and 3) evaluate uncertainty in model products and parameters and identify areas where improved model performance is needed through model refinement and data assimilation. The effort employs the Dynamic Land

  15. High frequency (hourly) variation in vertical distribution and abundance of meroplanktonic larvae in nearshore waters during strong internal tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévana MacTavish, A.; Ladah, L. B.; Lavín, M. F.; Filonov, A.; Tapia, Fabian J.; Leichter, J.

    2016-04-01

    We related the vertical distribution and abundance of nearshore meroplankton at hourly time scales with internal tidal wave events. We proposed that significant changes in plankter abundance would occur across internal tidal fronts, and that surface and bottom strata would respond in opposite fashions. First-mode internal tidal bores propagating in the alongshore direction were detected in water-column currents and baroclinic temperature changes. Surface and bottom currents always flowed in opposite directions, and abrupt flow reversals coincided with large temperature changes during arrival of bores. Crab zoeae and barnacle cyprids were more abundant in the bottom strata, whereas barnacle nauplii showed the opposite pattern. Significant changes in vertical distribution and abundance of target meroplankters occurred across internal tidal fronts, especially for crabs at depth, with surface and bottom organisms responding in opposite fashions. Changes in plankter abundance were significantly correlated with current flows in the strata where they were most abundant. The manner in which plankters were affected (increasing or decreasing abundance) appeared to be modulated by their vertical position within the water column. The significant differences found at the high frequencies of this study, maintained across sampling days, suggest that nearshore meroplankton populations may have greater and more consistent temporal and vertical variability than previously considered.

  16. Offshore siting near the coast of wind turbines. An evaluation of the visual effects of erecting large wind turbines in coastal areas; Kystnaere havvindmoelleplaceringer - en vurdering af de visuelle forhold ved opstilling af store vindmoeller naer kystomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmer, C.; Birk Nielsen, F. (Sweco Architects A/S, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2012-06-15

    Areas within a certain distance off the open coastal areas, cottage areas and cities may be suitable for the installation of coastal offshore wind turbines. Landscapes with coasts with visibly opposing country may be vulnerable to erection of major near-shore wind farms. It is recommended that small groups of wind turbines in coastal locations are erected in simple geometric patterns depending on the landscape to achieve the most easily perceivable order and visual coherence with the environment. An array of single rows is easiest perceivable pattern where the turbines appear visually distinct from almost all angles. For an array in a rectangular grid, it is difficult to perceive the overall grid-array and the turbine rows will cause more problems in the landscape. Few turbines (3 - 10) should be placed in a straight line, whereas for the larger wind farms may be preferable to set the turbines in several rows to minimize the extent of the area. (LN)

  17. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  18. Coastal Analysis, King George County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  19. Scour around coastal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Whiteouse, J. S.; Tørum, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the European Union Marine Science and Technology (EU MAST) III project "Scour Around Coastal Structures" (SCARCOST). The summary is presented under three headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Flow and scour processes with the subheadings: flow and scour processes...... around vertical cylinders; flow and scour processes at detached breakwaters; flow and scour processes at submerged breakwaters; and the effect of turbulence on sediment transport; and (3) Sediment behaviour close to the structure with the subheadings: field measurement and analysis of wave-induced pore...

  20. Recife: Coastal protection plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kibrit, B.; Imambaks, R.; Anijs, M.; Tarigheh, A.S.; Mungar, S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades the north-eastern coast of Brazil has been degrading due to erosion. This degradation has both natural- and men-made causes. Brazil has no specific laws and acts which relate to coastal protection and management up to this date. Beaches in the metropolitan area of Recife show variety in beach width according to the seasons. However the local factors play such a significant role in this, that it is not possible to establish a direct link between the seasons and beach widt...

  1. Integrated coastal management in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated coastal management in Uruguay Carmelo includes the following areas-Nueva Palmira challenges and opportunities for local development in a context of large-scale industrial (Conchillas Uruguay), coastal management and stream Arroyo Solis Solis Chico Grande, Punta Colorada and Punta Negra, Maldonado Province Arroyo Valizas and sustainable tourism.

  2. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  3. EAARL Coastal Topography-Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, 2010: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nagle, David B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and submerged topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Chandeleur Islands, acquired March 3, 2010. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom

  4. A Review of Studies on the Nearshore Impact of Wave Energy Arrays: What have we learned and what is still needed? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    In the past five years a number of modelling studies on the nearshore impact of arrays of Wave Energy Converters (WEC) have appeared in the literature. These studies have focused on field sites where wave energy conversion is either actively being developed or on candidate sites for potential future development. Necessarily, the applications have primarily been to field sites in European waters. The suite of studies demonstrates a wide range of: numerical wave and current modelling approaches, WEC array parameterizations, and proxies for what constitutes nearshore impact. We will review these studies, summarize what has been learned and identify where common approaches have been agreed upon. We will also point out where things are poorly constrained, for example in how WECs influence the hydrodynamics and as to what constitutes nearshore impact. This leads us to identify some specific knowledge gaps that future work should address. Finally, we will present some new generalized modelling results that help bound the problem of estimating future nearshore impacts of WEC arrays.

  5. Molecular-based approaches to characterize coastal microbial community and their potential relation to the trophic state of Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Mohd Ikram

    2015-03-11

    Molecular-based approaches were used to characterize the coastal microbiota and to elucidate the trophic state of Red Sea. Nutrient content and enterococci numbers were monitored, and used to correlate with the abundance of microbial markers. Microbial source tracking revealed the presence of >1 human-associated Bacteroides spp. at some of the near-shore sampling sites and at a heavily frequented beach. Water samples collected from the beaches had occasional exceedances in enterococci numbers, higher total organic carbon (TOC, 1.48-2.18 mg/L) and nitrogen (TN, 0.15-0.27 mg/L) than that detected in the near-shore waters. Enterococci abundances obtained from next-generation sequencing did not correlate well with the cultured enterococci numbers. The abundance of certain genera, for example Arcobacter, Pseudomonas and unclassified Campylobacterales, was observed to exhibit slight correlation with TOC and TN. Low abundance of functional genes accounting for up to 41 copies/L of each Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Campylobacter coli were detected. Arcobacter butzleri was also detected in abundance ranging from 111 to 238 copies/L. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus, Ostreococcus spp. and Gramella were more prevalent in waters that were likely impacted by urban runoffs and recreational activities. These OTUs could potentially serve as quantifiable markers indicative of the water quality.

  6. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the US nearshore zone of Lake Erie, 2009: Status and linkages to landscape-derived stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been used as indicators of ecological condition because their responses integrate localized environmental conditions of the sediments and overlying water. Assemblages of benthic invertebrates in the near coastal region are of particular...

  7. JPEG images of chirp seismic data from a 2005 nearshore survey collected by Virginia Institute of Marine Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  8. JPEG images of chirp seismic data from a 2002 nearshore survey collected by Virginia Institute of Marine Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  9. Location of vibracores collected from nearshore off of Duck, North Carolina in 2005 (vims_cores.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  10. Studies on impact of release of liquid industrial waste from soda ash industry in the nearshore water of north Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    the natural variability of coastal waters. The sediments wherever studied did not indicate any anthropogenic contamination. It is concluded that the pollution impact was localised and the marine life in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Mithapur...

  11. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near-shore Wave Fields: Model Generation Validation and Evaluation - Kaneohe Bay HI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01

    The numerical model, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) , was used to simulate wave conditions in Kaneohe Bay, HI in order to determine the effects of wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices on the propagation of waves into shore. A nested SWAN model was validated then used to evaluate a range of initial wave conditions: significant wave heights (H s ) , peak periods (T p ) , and mean wave directions ( MWD) . Differences between wave height s in the presence and absence of WEC device s were assessed at locations in shore of the WEC array. The maximum decrease in wave height due to the WEC s was predicted to be approximately 6% at 5 m and 10 m water depths. Th is occurred for model initiation parameters of H s = 3 m (for 5 m water depth) or 4 m (10 m water depth) , T p = 10 s, and MWD = 330deg . Subsequently, bottom orbital velocities were found to decrease by about 6%.

  12. Intertidal and nearshore Nereididae (Annelida) of the Falkland Islands, southwestern Atlantic, including a new species of Gymnonereis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The intertidal and nearshore Nereididae of the Falkland Islands are detailed and a new species of Gymnonereis described. The new species, Gymnonereis tenera sp. n., is the first record of the genus for the Falkland Islands. It is, so far, only known from a few intertidal locations in fine and muddy sands. Main distinguishing characters are: jaw teeth absent (in adults), 3 papillae in Area V-VI, falcigers absent, second ventral cirrus present throughout. Nereis atlantica McIntosh, 1885, known only from the description of a single specimen and one doubtful record from the Falkland Islands, is reviewed and transferred to Perinereis on the basis of the presence of shield-shaped bars in Area VI of the proboscis and the absence of notopodial falcigers. A key to all seven species discussed is provided. PMID:25147465

  13. Predicting Species Diversity of Benthic Communities within Turbid Nearshore Using Full-Waveform Bathymetric LiDAR and Machine Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine Collin; Phillippe Archambault; Bernard Long

    2011-01-01

    Epi-macrobenthic species richness, abundance and composition are linked with type, assemblage and structural complexity of seabed habitat within coastal ecosystems. However, the evaluation of these habitats is highly hindered by limitations related to both waterborne surveys (slow acquisition, shallow water and low reactivity) and water clarity (turbid for most coastal areas). Substratum type/diversity and bathymetric features were elucidated using a supervised method applied to airborne bath...

  14. Channel Shallowing as Mitigation of Coastal Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Orton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate that reductions in the depth of inlets or estuary channels can be used to reduce or prevent coastal flooding. A validated hydrodynamic model of Jamaica Bay, New York City (NYC, is used to test nature-based adaptation measures in ameliorating flooding for NYC's two largest historical coastal flood events. In addition to control runs with modern bathymetry, three altered landscape scenarios are tested: (1 increasing the area of wetlands to their 1879 footprint and bathymetry, but leaving deep shipping channels unaltered; (2 shallowing all areas deeper than 2 m in the bay to be 2 m below Mean Low Water; (3 shallowing only the narrowest part of the inlet to the bay. These three scenarios are deliberately extreme and designed to evaluate the leverage each approach exerts on water levels. They result in peak water level reductions of 0.3%, 15%, and 6.8% for Hurricane Sandy, and 2.4%, 46% and 30% for the Category-3 hurricane of 1821, respectively (bay-wide averages. These results suggest that shallowing can provide greater flood protection than wetland restoration, and it is particularly effective at reducing "fast-pulse" storm surges that rise and fall quickly over several hours, like that of the 1821 storm. Nonetheless, the goal of flood mitigation must be weighed against economic, navigation, and ecological needs, and practical concerns such as the availability of sediment.

  15. Comparing nearshore benthic and pelagic prey as mercury sources to lake fish: the importance of prey quality and mercury content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Roxanne; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L

    2016-09-15

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in fish poses well-known health risks to wildlife and humans through fish consumption. Yet fish Hg concentrations are highly variable, and key factors driving this variability remain unclear. One little studied source of variation is the influence of habitat-specific feeding on Hg accumulation in lake fish. However, this is likely important because most lake fish feed in multiple habitats during their lives, and the Hg and caloric content of prey from different habitats can differ. This study used a three-pronged approach to investigate the extent to which habitat-specific prey determine differences in Hg bioaccumulation in fish. This study first compared Hg concentrations in common nearshore benthic invertebrates and pelagic zooplankton across five lakes and over the summer season in one lake, and found that pelagic zooplankton generally had higher Hg concentrations than most benthic taxa across lakes, and over a season in one lake. Second, using a bioenergetics model, the effects of prey caloric content from habitat-specific diets on fish growth and Hg accumulation were calculated. This model predicted that the consumption of benthic prey results in lower fish Hg concentrations due to higher prey caloric content and growth dilution (high weight gain relative to Hg from food), in addition to lower prey Hg levels. Third, using data from the literature, links between fish Hg content and the degree of benthivory, were examined, and showed that benthivory was associated with reduced Hg concentrations in lake fish. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that higher Hg content and lower caloric content make pelagic zooplankton prey greater sources of Hg for fish than nearshore benthic prey in lakes. Hence, habitat-specific foraging is likely to be a strong driver of variation in Hg levels within and between fish species. PMID:27173839

  16. Aeolian Coastal Landscapes in changes (a study from Tahkuna, Estonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A.

    2012-04-01

    berms. Erosion can cause lost of some habitats. Changes of landfroms can also be due to human activities (construction of roads, buildings, harbours), which affect sediment transportation along the coast. Changes in habitats are caused by their own development and also invasion of non-indigenous species. Aeolian coastal landscapes are unique, but easily altered ecosystems in Estonia. Therefore it is essential to improve the strategies for preserving these valuable areas. Aeolian coastal landscapes require greater attention and more complex scientific studies that contribute to the maintaining of natural values.

  17. distributions of radioisotopes in sediment cores from nearshore off Xinghua Bay mouth, Fujian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes-distributions in two sediment cores have been measured. The cores were collected from nearshore off Xinghua Bay mouth in Fujian, China. The core ZK6 was collected at 25021'02'N, 119047'' 15E, near Haitan Island and the length was 300 cm and was sliced into 150 samples at 2 cm interval. The core ZK18 was collected at 25010'14''N, 119037'09''E, near Nanri Island, and the length was 250 cm and was sliced into 116 samples at 2 or 4 cm interval. The upper 0∼170 cm of the core ZK6 is gray silt, and it is darker below depth of 170 cm. The core of ZK18 was gray silt-sand beside it is yellow fine pebbles in the zones of 108∼120 cm and 125∼140 cm. 210Pb activity in ZK6 increase in upper 17 cm with depth and decrease exponentially in the zone of 17-37 cm but increased rapidly from 37 cm to 50 cm, and then exponentially declined with depth in the zone of 50-100 cm. 210Pb is in secular equilibrium with 226Ra below the depth of 100 cm. For core ZK18, 210Pb concentration is comparable within measured error in upper 23 cm and then decline exponentially with depth from 20 cm to 50 cm. 2l0Pb is in secular equilibrium with 226Ra below the depth of 50 cm. Sedimentation rates of two cores have been estimated by the excess 210Pb data of the exponential decline zone. The sedimentation rate of core ZK6 is 0.607 cm/a above 50 cm and 0.737 cm/a below depth of 50 cm. The sedimentation rate of the core ZK18 was 0.179 cm/a. For the core ZK6, the activities of 40K, 137CS, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 238U are 684- 795, 2.36- 3.60, 22.4- 27.9, 54.4- 71.9, 53.0- 73.2, 28.6- 67.8 Bq/kg and the averages are 734±58, 3.10±0.46, 24.8±1.3, 63.7±2.8, 64.4±4.3 and 42.6±6.3 Bq/kg respectively. The activity of 40K is comparable within measured error in the whole core. The 137CS has been detected only in upper 17 cm and the zone of 52-80 cm. 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Th increase in upper 20 cm and in zone of 60-100 cm, but they decrease in zone of 20-60 cm, the activities of all nuclides are

  18. Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land nd sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of near-shore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. A joint project of the UNESCO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has examined several methods of SGD assessment and carried out a series of five intercomparison experiments in different hydrogeologic environments coastal plain, karst, glacial till, fractured crystalline rock, and volcanic terrains). This report reviews the scientific and management significance of SGD, measurement approaches, and the results of the intercomparison experiments. We conclude that while the process is essentially ubiquitous in coastal areas, the assessment of its magnitude at any one location is subject to enough variability that measurements should be made by a variety of techniques and over large enough spatial and temporal scales to capture the majority of these changing conditions. We feel that all the measurement techniques described here are valid although they each have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is recommended that multiple approaches be applied whenever possible. In addition, a continuing effort is required in order to capture long-period tidal fluctuations, storm effects, and seasonal variations. (author)

  19. Analysis of Coastal Sediment Plume Dynamics in Puerto Rico using MODIS/Terra 250-m Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, D. B.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Mendez-Lazaro, P.; McCarthy, M.; Chen, F. R.

    2014-12-01

    Anomalous events of suspended sediments can degrade water quality in nearshore ecosystems by reducing light penetration, inhibiting primary production, and delivering pollutants associated with the sediment particles. Coral reefs, for example, are subject to stress by anomalous sediment loads. The island of Puerto Rico has a diverse topography, with steep mountain slopes, episodic high-intensity rainfall events, and weathered soils that lead to episodes of high sediment volumes being delivered to the coastal zone by rivers. We developed a time series of turbidity observations based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for use in the coastal areas of Puerto Rico. The product uses remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) of Band 1 (645 nm) at a spatial resolution of 250 m. These estimates were compared to in-situ turbidity measurements collected in San Juan Bay. Sediment plumes from the major rivers of Puerto Rico were assessed quantitatively and compared with time-series of meteorological and other parameters, including precipitation, river discharge, and wind velocity. The spatial extent of plumes, the timing and duration of plume events, and their potential impact on coral reefs are examined. Results show that plume events are episodic and short-lived, but that they may affect coral reefs located several kilometers offshore.

  20. A Seamless, High-Resolution, Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hoover, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A seamless, 3-meter digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed for the entire Southern California coastal zone, extending 473 km from Point Conception to the Mexican border. The goal was to integrate the most recent, high-resolution datasets available (for example, Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) topography, multibeam and single beam sonar bathymetry, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) topography) into a continuous surface from at least the 20-m isobath to the 20-m elevation contour. This dataset was produced to provide critical boundary conditions (bathymetry and topography) for a modeling effort designed to predict the impacts of severe winter storms on the Southern California coast (Barnard and others, 2009). The hazards model, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, incorporates atmospheric information (wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of water levels, run-up, wave heights, and currents. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also included. The DEM was constructed to define the general shape of nearshore, beach and cliff surfaces as accurately as possible, with less emphasis on the detailed variations in elevation inland of the coast and on bathymetry inside harbors. As a result this DEM should not be used for navigation purposes.

  1. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

  2. High Arctic Coasts At Risk - The Impact of Coastal Hazards on Scientific and Community Infrastructure in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, M. C.; Pawlowski, L.; Jaskolski, M.; Lim, M.; Zagorski, P.; Long, A. J.; Jensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid climate warming being observed in the Svalbard is leading to an increase in human activities in the coastal zone, leading to an increased need for coastal hazard assessment. Present-day Svalbard coastal landscapes are modified by increased degradation of permafrost accelerated sediment supply from deglaciated catchments, and prolonged periods of open-water conditions and wave activity. Since the second half of 20thcentury there is also an observed increase in the number and intensity of storms entering the Arctic particularly in summer months when coastlines are free of protective ice cover. Despite the potential significance of these coastal hazards on the security of scientific (research bases and devices) and community (ports, airports, roads, buildings) infrastructure on Svalbard, relatively little is known on the present-day rate of Svalbard coastal zone changes and how they might impact the nearshore infrastructure in the future. Here we report the results of a project that focused on rates of coastal zone changes in Svalbard and examined the impact of extreme coastal processes on scientific and community infrastructure. The project applied combination of remote sensing and field-based mapping techniques to characterise coastal changes observed in the surroundings of main research stations in Svalbard in Hornsund (PPS), Petuniabukta (AMUPS) and Bellsund (Calypsobyen) as well as a major towns: Longyearbyen, Piramiden, Barentsburg and Svea. Our results document dramatic changes of Svalbard coastal zone under intervals characterised by a warming climate, retreating local ice masses, a shortened winter sea-ice season and melting permafrost. The study confirmed the growing importance of extreme processes in shaping coasts of Svalbard and the impact of these changes on human infrastructure. Our study proposes a risk assessment for a development and protection of infrastructure along the coasts of Svalbard under scenarios of climate change, sea level rise

  3. A satellite view of riverine turbidity plumes on the NE-E Brazilian coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Negri de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity plumes of São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, and Paraiba do Sul river systems, located along the NE/E Brazilian coast, are analyzed for their dispersal patterns of Total Suspended Solids (TSS concentration using Landsat images and a logarithmic algorithm proposed by Tassan (1987 to convert satellite reflectance values to TSS. The TSS results obtained were compared to in situ collected TSS data. The analysis of the satellite image data set revealed that each river system exhibits a distinct turbidity plume dispersal pattern. The behavior, dimension and degree of turbidity of the São Francisco River plume have been greatly altered by the construction of a cascade of hydroelectric dam reservoirs in its hydrological basin. The plume has lost its typical unimodal seasonal pattern of material dispersion and its turbidity has decreased due to the regulation of river flow by the dams and TSS retainance by the reservoirs. In contrast, the Doce and Paraíba do Sul river plumes are still subject to seasonal pulsations and show more turbid conditions than the SF plume, as dams are less numerous, set in the middle river sections and the natural river flow has been maintained. The Caravelas Coastal System river plume is restricted to near shore shallow waters dominated by resuspension processes. During austral spring and summer when NE-E winds prevail, all plumes generally disperse southward. Short-term northward reversals may occur in winter with the passage of atmospheric cold fronts. The São Francisco and Doce river plumes tend to disperse obliquely to the coast and transport materials further offshore, while the Caravelas and Paraíba do Sul plumes tend to disperse mainly parallel to the coast, enhancing TSS retention nearshore.O presente estudo analisa as plumas de turbidez dos sistemas dos rios São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, e Paraiba do Sul localizados na costa NE/E do Brasil utilizando imagens Landsat e o algoritmo logarítmico para Total

  4. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  5. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  6. Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.

  7. NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products from the Remote Sensing Division are primarily for application to the nautical charts produced by NOAA's Office of Coast...

  8. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  9. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — During the summer of 2010, state and EPA crews conducted field sampling for the fifth National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA). The assessment is in the data...

  10. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  11. Multiple indicators reveal river plume influence on sediments and benthos in a New Zealand coastal embayment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple physico-chemical and biological indicators were used to delineate the spatial influence of the Motueka River plume on coastal surface sediments and associated biota in Tasman Bay, New Zealand. Sediments were primarily muds at nearshore sites on all transects and comprised coarser sediments at the most seaward sites in Tasman Bay. Organic carbon/nitrogen ratios, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures, and certain lipid biomarkers and trace metals provided suitable indicators of terrestrial and riverine influence on subtidal sediments. Analysis of these parameters revealed a discernible catchment influence extending at least 6 km offshore in the river outwelling plume, with a pronounced signature evident at two sampling stations within approximately 2 km of the Motueka River mouth. At these two nearshore sites, nickel and chromium from natural upper-catchment sources were present at concentrations greatly exceeding sediment quality thresholds for probable ecological effects. The infaunal assemblage at these sites comprised low densities of a few opportunistic taxa, with the spatial distribution of organisms strongly correlated with trace metal concentrations. Although a causal relationship with trace metals is possible, other unmeasured influences such as gradients of salinity, depth and physical disturbance could conceivably be the primary drivers of the biological pattern. By contrast with the effects on infauna, analyses of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and trace metals in epibenthic shellfish did not reveal any evidence of a direct terrestrial or riverine influence. Overall, the results from this work indicate a relatively localised river plume effect on subtidal sediments and the associated infaunal assemblage. However, because previous work has shown that the river plume can extend tens of kilometres offshore during flood flows, further investigation is required to understand changes in seabed parameters within the context of spatio

  12. Characterizing storm water dispersion and dilution from small coastal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Leonel; Siegel, David A.; McWilliams, James C.; Uchiyama, Yusuke; Jones, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Characterizing the dispersion and dilution of storm water from small coastal creeks is important for understanding the importance of land-derived subsidies to nearby ecosystems and the management of anthropogenic pollutants. In Southern California, creek runoff is episodic, intense, and short-lived while the plumes are buoyant, all of which make the field sampling of freshwater plumes challenging. Numerical modeling offers a viable way to characterize these systems. The dilution and dispersion of freshwater from two creeks that discharge into the Santa Barbara Channel, California is investigated using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) simulations with a horizontal resolution of 100 m. Tight coupling is found among precipitation, hydrologic discharge, wind forcing, and submesoscale flow structures which all contribute to plume evolution. During flooding, plumes are narrow and attached to the coast, due to downwelling/onshore wind forcing and intense vorticity filaments lying parallel to the shelf. As the storm passes, the winds typically shift to offshore/upwelling favorable conditions and the plume is advected offshore which enhances its dilution. Plumes reach the bottom nearshore while they form thin layers a few meters thick offshore. Dilution field of passive tracers released with the runoff is strongly anisotropic with stronger cross-shelf gradients than along-shelf. Dispersion analysis of statistical moments of the passive tracer distribution results in scale-dependent diffusivities consistent with the particle-pair analysis of Romero et al. Model validation, the roles of submesoscale processes, and wind forcing on plume evolution and application to ecological issues and marine resource management are discussed.

  13. Coastal Virginia to Coastal North Carolina RGB Aerial Photography: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product (IOCM). The images were acquired from a nominal altitude of 7,500 feet above ground level (AGL), using an Applanix...

  14. Coastal Virginia to Coastal North Carolina IR Aerial Photography: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product (IOCM). The images were acquired from a nominal altitude of 7,500 feet above ground level (AGL), using an Applanix...

  15. Accumulation and bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a nearshore estuarine environment near a Pensacola (Florida) creosote contamination site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J.F.; Dresler, P.V.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term accumulation of creosote wastes at a wood-preserving facility near Pensacola, Florida, has produced high levels of organic contamination of groundwaters near Pensacola Bay. Impacts of this contamination on the nearshore environment of the bay were examined by analysis of water, sediment and tissues of two mollusc species. One of the species (Thais haemastoma) was native to the study area. Individuals of the other test species (Crassostrea virginica) were placed in cages at the test sites for a 6-week period. Contamination at the nearshore estuarine sites was assessed by comparison to a control site in an uncontaminated area of the bay, as well as a small stream which forms a direct surface-water link between the creosote storage ponds and the bay. The study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the primary components of creosote. Very little PAH in water or in the surface layer of estuarine sediments was detected, despite heavy pollution of the stream sediments. This is attributed to various degradation processes which attack the PAH compounds once they discharge into the estuary, and to the likelihood of intermittent and localised release of contaminants to the estuary. Examination of sediment cores and mollusc tissues, which provide a record integrated over time and space, revealed some accumulation of a few PAH, notably fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. In the sediments, the highest concentrations of these compounds appeared below the surface, within a depth range of 8-13 cm. Bioaccumulation of fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene in both mollusc species was up to ten times greater at test sites than at the control site. This contrasts with naphthalene, the bioaccumulation of which was no greater at test sites than at the control site. These differences in bioaccumulation factors relate to structural chemistry of the compounds which control their solubility, bioavailability, susceptibility to degradation

  16. A threshold method for coastal line feature extraction from optical satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, L. F. V.; Golovanov, C. Ionescu; Zoran, M. A.

    2007-10-01

    The coastal zone of world is under increasing stress due to development of industries, trade and commerce, tourism and resultant human population growth and migration, and deteriorating water quality. Satellite imagery is used for mapping of coastal zone ecosystems as well as to assess the extent and alteration in land cover/land use in coastal ecosystem. Beside anthropogenic activities, episodic events, such as storms, floods, induce certain changes or accelerate the process of change, so in order to conserve the coastal ecosystems and habitats is an urgent need to define coastal line and its spatio-temporal changes. Coastlines have never been stable in terms of their long term and short term positions. Coastal line is a simple but important type of feature in remote sensed images. In remote sensing have been proposed many valid approaches for automatically identifying of this feature, of which the accuracy and speed is the most important. The aim of the paper is to develop a threshold-based morphological approach for coastline feature extraction from optical remote sensing satellite images (LandsatTM 5, ETM 7 + and IKONOS) and to apply it for Romanian Black Sea coastal zone for period of 20 years (1985-2005).

  17. SVAN1M.TIF - Point Agruello (South Vandenberg Reserve) sidescan sonar backscatter image in the Nearshore Benthic Habitat Mapping Project S. California map series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the Big Sycamore reserve area was mosaicked from data collected in 1998. A Klein...

  18. Physical, chemical, and biological data collected in the Beaufort Sea as part of the Arctic Nearshore Impact Monitoring in the Development Area (ANIMIDA) from 1999 to 2007 (NODC Accession 0001921)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains information specifically for the Arctic Nearshore Impact Monitoring in the Development Area (ANIMIDA 1999 - 2002) and continuation of Arctic...

  19. Nearshore fish survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska conducted from 2009-07 to 2009-08 by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Resource Ecology and Fisheries Management division (NCEI Accession 0144625)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project consisted of a nearshore fish, invertebrate, and habitat survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska. A 32-ft. gillnet vessel, the F/V Willow was chartered...

  20. Impacts of Cyclone Yasi on nearshore, terrigenous sediment-dominated reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. T.; Smithers, S. G.; Kench, P. S.; Pears, B.

    2014-10-01

    Tropical Cyclone (TC) Yasi (Category 5) was a large (~ 700 km across) cyclone that crossed Australia's Queensland coast on the 3rd of February 2011. TC Yasi was one of the region's most powerful recorded cyclones, with winds gusting to 290 km/h and wave heights exceeding 7 m. Here we describe the impacts of TC Yasi on a number of nearshore, turbid-zone coral reefs, that include several in the immediate vicinity of the cyclone's landfall path (King Reef, Lugger Shoal and Dunk Island), as well as a more distally located reef (Paluma Shoals) ~ 150 km to the south in Halifax Bay. These reefs were the focus of recent (between 2006 and 2009) pre-Yasi studies into their geomorphology, sedimentology and community structure, and here we discuss data from a recent (August 2011) post-Yasi re-assessment. This provided a unique opportunity to identify and describe the impacts of an intense tropical cyclone on nearshore reefs, which are often assumed to be vulnerable to physical disturbance and reworking due to their poorly lithified framework. Observed impacts of TC Yasi were site specific and spatially highly heterogeneous, but appear to have been strongly influenced by the contemporary evolutionary stage and ecological make-up of the individual reefs, with site setting (i.e. exposure to prevailing wave action) apparently more important than proximity to the landfall path. The most significant ecological impacts occurred at King Reef (probably a result of freshwater bleaching) and at Paluma Shoals, where widespread physical destruction of branched Acropora occurred. New coral recruits are, however, common at all sites and colony re-growth clearly evident at King Reef. Only localised geomorphic change was evident, mainly in the form of coral fracturing, rubble deposition, and sediment movement, but again these impacts were highly site specific. The dominant impact at Paluma Shoals was localised storm ridge/shingle sheet deposition, at Lugger Shoal major offshore fine sediment

  1. EAARL Coastal Topography - Fire Island National Seashore 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) and bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Fire Island National Seashore in New York, acquired on April 29-30 and May 15-16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography--Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2009: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Plant, Nathaniel; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Serafin, K.S.; Klipp, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline beachface, acquired on May 28, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed

  3. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northeast Barrier Islands 2007: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C. Wayne; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northeast coastal barrier islands in New York and New Jersey, acquired April 29-30 and May 15-16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a

  4. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northeast Barrier Islands 2007: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C. Wayne; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northeast coastal barrier islands in New York and New Jersey, acquired April 29-30 and May 15-16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom

  5. Coastal defence through low crested breakwater structures: jumping out of the frying pan into the fire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Cristina; Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto; Mistri, Michele

    2011-08-01

    The Adriatic coast of Punta Marina (Ravenna) is protected by 3-km long low crested breakwater structures (LCSs). Through a 3-years long multidisciplinar study, we assessed the impact of such defensive structures on environmental and biological condition. LCSs create pools where conditions are very different from the surrounding nearshore system. Mechanical disturbance by currents and waves varied greatly in intensity and frequency between seaward and landward sides of the structures. Sedimentary budget was positive at the landward side, but it was due to a gain on the seafloor and not on the emerged beach. The budget at seaward was negative. LCSs determine differences in benthic assemblages, alter the seasonal pattern of communities, and modify seasonal fluctuations of animal assemblages. Landward sheltered areas can be seen as "lagoonal island" surrounded by a "sea of marine habitat". Differences in ecological quality status, obtained through M-AMBI, are due to the sum of these factors. PMID:21722927

  6. Use of radon-222 to evaluate the influence of groundwater discharge on fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, J. A.; Burton, C.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2011-12-01

    To protect beach-goers from waterborne disease, California requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at beaches having more than 50,000 visits annually. The source(s) of FIB in ocean beaches in excess of marine recreational water standards is often not known, or may be incorrectly identified. Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage have been implicated by regulatory agencies as a possible source of FIB to recreational ocean beaches, near Malibu, California. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater prior to discharge at the ocean. Groundwater discharge to the ocean near Malibu Lagoon (the estuary of Malibu Creek) is complicated by seasonally changing water levels in the lagoon. The lagoon is isolated from the ocean by a sand berm that develops across the mouth of the lagoon during the dry season. Higher water levels in the lagoon during the dry season, and lower water-levels during the wet season, cause seasonal changes in the direction of groundwater flow and the magnitude of discharge from the adjacent small (3,400 hectare), alluvial aquifer. Radon-222, an indicator of groundwater discharge, was measured in Malibu Lagoon, in the near-shore ocean adjacent to the lagoon, and in the near-shore ocean adjacent to unsewered residential development to determine the timing and magnitude of groundwater discharge. During the dry season, when the berm of the lagoon was closed and the lagoon was isolated from the ocean, radon-222 concentrations in the near-shore ocean during low tide increased as water discharged from the lagoon through the berm. Enterococcus concentrations in the near-shore ocean increased to almost 600 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliter at this time. Radon-222 concentrations also increased at low tide as groundwater discharged to the ocean from the adjacent alluvial aquifer underlying the unsewered residential development, but there was

  7. Using GIS Mapping of the Extent of Nearshore Rocky Reefs to Estimate the Abundance and Reproductive Output of Important Fishery Species

    OpenAIRE

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Sadd, James

    2012-01-01

    Kelp Bass (Paralabrax clathratus) and California Sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) are economically and ecologically valuable rocky reef fishes in southern California, making them likely indicator species for evaluating resource management actions. Multiple spatial datasets, aerial and satellite photography, underwater observations and expert judgment were used to produce a comprehensive map of nearshore natural rocky reef habitat for the Santa Monica Bay region (California, USA). It was then...

  8. A framework for examining climate-driven changes to the seasonality and geographical range of coastal pathogens and harmful algae

    OpenAIRE

    John Jacobs; Stephanie K. Moore; Kenneth E. Kunkel; Liqiang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter coastal ecosystems in ways which may have predictable consequences for the seasonality and geographical distribution of human pathogens and harmful algae. Here we demonstrate relatively simple approaches for evaluating the risk of occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in the genus Vibrio and outbreaks of toxin-producing harmful algae in the genus Alexandrium, with estimates of uncertainty, in U.S. coastal waters under future climate change scenarios through the...

  9. Exploring scenarios of light pollution from coastal development reaching sea turtle nesting beaches near Cabo Pulmo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    VERUTES, GREGORY M.; Charles Huang; Ricardo Rodríguez Estrella; Kara Loyd

    2014-01-01

    New coastal development may offer economic benefits to resort builders and even local communities, but these projects can also impact local ecosystems, key wildlife, and the draw for tourists. We explore how light from Cabo Cortés, a proposed coastal development in Baja California Sur, Mexico, may alter natural light cues used by sea turtle hatchlings. We adapt a viewshed approach to model exterior light originating from the resort under plausible zoning scenarios. This spatially explicit inf...

  10. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  11. Age-0 Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker nearshore habitat use in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: A patch occupancy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, S.M.; Hendrixson, H.A.; VanderKooi, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    We examined habitat use by age-0 Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris over six substrate classes and in vegetated and nonvegetated areas of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. We used a patch occupancy approach to model the effect of physical habitat and water quality conditions on habitat use. Our models accounted for potential inconsistencies in detection probability among sites and sampling occasions as a result of differences in fishing gear types and techniques, habitat characteristics, and age-0 fish size and abundance. Detection probability was greatest during mid- to late summer, when water temperatures were highest and age-0 suckers were the largest. The proportion of sites used by age-0 suckers was inversely related to depth (range = 0.4-3.0 m), particularly during late summer. Age-0 suckers were more likely to use habitats containing small substrate (64 mm) and habitats with vegetation than those without vegetation. Relatively narrow ranges in dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH prevented us from detecting effects of these water quality features on age-0 sucker nearshore habitat use.

  12. Identifying Rhodamine Dye Plume Sources in Near-Shore Oceanic Environments by Integration of Chemical and Visual Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangchen Yu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China, successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions.

  13. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The sediment source controls the distribution of the heavy metals. • There is no Cu, Pb, Zn and As pollution instead of slight Cd pollution. • Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic while Cd and As are mixed in origin. • Cd in polluted stations showed obvious anthropogenic origin. - Abstract: Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, 210Pbexcess and 137Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin

  14. Flood Damage Estimation of Coastal Area Considering Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, K.; Choi, C.; Han, D.; Kim, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are various researches to respond to the natural disasters efficiently such as floods caused by climate change. Most of the studies have assessed the impact of climate change on floods by the increase of future rainfall and the sea level rise separately. However, we have to consider the effects of the combined floods by future heavy rainfall and sea level rise. This means the urban floods in coastal area can be occurred due to the combined inundation by overflow of urban drainage system and by sea level rise. Then we can estimate the flood damage from the combined floods due to the climate change. Hence, this study selected Taehwa River basin, Korea which flows from the west to the east and extends to Ulsan bay. This study analysed on the influence of hydrologic alteration in the coastal area by considering the sea level rise as well as the future precipitation according to climate change. It is prepared the flood inundation map which is related to the increase of precipitation and sea level for assuring how the sea level rise effects on the coastal area caused by the climate change, and the flood damage assessment is estimated to compare the hydrologic alteration quantitatively. The study result showed that flood level in the channel flows to the mouth rose as the water surface elevation rose due to the rise in sea level. In addition, the extent of increase in flood level caused by sea level rise was greater at a location nearer the outlet and it was smaller at a place farther from the outlet. It could be verified that the change of the inundation depth and damage area caused by the rise in sea level can have an effect on the flood damage assessment. It is important factor to analyse not only the increase of precipitation cuased of climate change in coastal rivers but also the change of rise in sea level, the flood water level, the flood inundation and the flood damage assessment. The result of this study could be used as basic data for creating technology

  15. Vertical and horizontal particle transport in the coastal waters of a large lake: An assessment by sediment trap and thorium-234 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waples, James T.; Klump, J. Val

    2013-10-01

    The horizontal and vertical flux of particulate material in the nearshore of southern Lake Michigan (0-40 m) was estimated with the naturally occurring radionuclide 234Th. Horizontal fluxes of 234Th supplemented apparent vertical fluxes of 234Th in the water column (based on local 234Th/238U disequilibria) by a factor of 7-14, reinforcing the importance of lateral transport in coastal environments. Calculated onshore transport of particulate material across the 40 m isobath was as high as 1.1 × 106 kg km-1 d-1, and exceeds estimates of terrigenous (riverine and bluff erosion) loading. Estimates of onshore flux of organic carbon exceeded areal primary productivity by as much as ˜300%, and should be considered in nearshore carbon budgets. Bottom-tethered sediment traps (placed 5 m above the bottom) measured sedimentation rates that were ˜1 order of magnitude lower than 234Th derived mass fluxes from the water column and ˜2 orders of magnitude lower than 234Th derived mass fluxes to the lakebed. We ascribe this difference to under collecting by the sediment trap either because of trap hydrodynamics or flux occurring below the trap capture plane. Cross-shore fluxes showed a periodicity of ˜4 days and correlated strongly with a topographic vorticity wave that is present throughout the year in southern Lake Michigan. The impact of this wave (as a driver of bidirectional cross-shore flux) on biogeochemical cycling and both nearshore and offshore food webs has not yet been explicitly considered.

  16. Fluvial fluxes of water, suspended particulate matter, and nutrients and potential impacts on tropical coastal water Biogeochemistry: Oahu, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D.J.; MacKenzie, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    Baseflow and storm runoff fluxes of water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and nutrients (N and P) were assessed in conservation, urban, and agricultural streams discharging to coastal waters around the tropical island of Oahu, Hawai'i. Despite unusually low storm frequency and intensity during the study, storms accounted for 8-77% (median 30%) of discharge, 57-99% (median 93%) of SPM fluxes, 11-79% (median 36%) of dissolved nutrient fluxes and 52-99% (median 85%) of particulate nutrient fluxes to coastal waters. Fluvial nutrient concentrations varied with hydrologic conditions and land use; land use also affected water and particulate fluxes at some sites. Reactive dissolved N:P ratios typically were ???16 (the 'Redfield ratio' for marine phytoplankton), indicating that inputs could support new production by coastal phytoplankton, but uptake of dissolved nutrients is probably inefficient due to rapid dilution and export of fluvial dissolved inputs. Particulate N and P fluxes were similar to or larger than dissolved fluxes at all sites (median 49% of total nitrogen, range 22-82%; median 69% of total phosphorus, range 49-93%). Impacts of particulate nutrients on coastal ecosystems will depend on how efficiently SPM is retained in nearshore areas, and on the timing and degree of transformation to reactive dissolved forms. Nevertheless, the magnitude of particulate nutrient fluxes suggests that they represent a significant nutrient source for many coastal ecosystems over relatively long time scales (weeks-years), and that reductions in particulate nutrient loading actually may have negative impacts on some coastal ecosystems.

  17. Coastal flood management in Semarang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfai, Muh Aris; King, Lorenz

    2008-10-01

    Semarang is one of the biggest cities in Indonesia and is nowadays suffering from coastal flooding. Land subsidences, high water tide, and inadequate structural measures play important roles in the coastal inundations. Structural and non-structural methods for controlling coastal flooding including dykes, drainage systems, pump stations, polder systems, coastal-land reclamations, coastal planning and management, public education, as well as the establishment of an institutional framework for disaster management have been implemented in the Semarang coastal area. Although some improvements have been made, the current flood management system has generally failed to address a wide range of coastal inundation problems. Some improvement actions have been proposed including stakeholders involvement on the disaster mitigation. For a long period coastal management, accelerated sea level rises due to global warming should also be taken into account.

  18. COASTAL Analysis Submission for Middlesex County, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping (April 2003) and Atlantic Ocean...

  19. 2010 Coastal Georgia Elevation Project Lidar Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between January and March 2010, lidar data was collected in southeast/coastal Georgia under a multi-agency partnership between the Coastal Georgia Regional...

  20. COASTAL STUDY, ESSEX COUNTY,MASSACHUSETTS USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  1. COASTAL STUDY, KITSAP COUNTY,WASHINGTON USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal analysis data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  2. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  3. U.S. Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  4. Coastal maintenance in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The government of The Netherlands has decided in the summer of 1990 to maintai.n the coastline at the position of 1990. This will be done mainly by artificial beach nourishment. The costs will be paid by the national government. The purpose of this coastal maintenance is to maintain a sufficient level of safety and to maintain the various functions of beach and dune areas. As a criterion for coastal erosion the movement of the "coastline" is used. In this paper the definition of coastline is ...

  5. Mechanics of dispersion of pollutants in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships between energy dissipation (turbulence) and mixing and analogy with classical diffusion theory are reviewed. Typical solutions of the differential equations, for various initial and boundary conditions related to practical cases are presented. The natural processes that control the dispersion in the nearshore regions were studied in a wind-wave channel and in the field and interpretive conclusions are drawn on the practice of nearshore disposal of effluents

  6. Coastal flood risks and seasonal tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Kellens, W.; Maeyer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Since coastal tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of tourism industry, coastal areas have become increasingly vulnerable in case of flooding. Yet, coastal tourism is a seasonal phenomenon, with variations according to climate, holiday seasons and seasonal traditions. Despite its relevance in environmental issues, the effects of seasonal tourism have only scarcely been studied in coastal flood risk management. In this study, GIS and detailed tourist census data are used to analyze th...

  7. Introduction to the Special Issue: Coastal GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Nyerges

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the ISPRS International Journal of Geographic Information about “Coastal GIS” is motivated by many circumstances. More than one-half of the world’s human population lives in coastal areas (within 200 kilometers of coast) as of 2000 [1]. The trend toward coastal habitation is expected to continue in the US with the total being 75 percent by 2025, meaning that coastal human–environment interactions will likely increase and intensify [2]. Geographic information systems (GIS...

  8. An ecosystem approach towards Belgian coastal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Eede, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Belgian coastal zone hosts a complex of space-use and resource-use activities with a myriad of pressures impairing environmental conditions both on the coastline and on coastal waters Specifically at the beach zone, predictions on sea level rise, intensified storms accelerated erosion and flood risk for the North Sea have led to the drafting of the Belgian Integrated Coastal Safety Plan. The preferred coastal defence measure is beach nourishment as it safeguards the natural dynamics of th...

  9. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  10. On the significance of incorporating shoreline changes for evaluating coastal hydrodynamics under sea level rise scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) threatens coastal environments with loss of land, inundation of coastal wetlands, and increased flooding during extreme storm events. Research has shown that SLR is a major factor in the long-term, gradual retreat of shorelines (Fitzgerald et al., 2008). Along sandy shorelines, retreat has a more dynamic effect than just inundation due to rising water levels, including the physical process of erosion in which sand is removed from the shoreface and deposited offshore. This has the potential to affect ecological habitats as well as coastal communities. Although SLR induces seaward retreat of shorelines, many shorelines especially within the vicinity of inlets may experience accretion due to sediment trapping or beach replenishment (Aubrey and Giese, 1993, Browder and R.G., 1999). This study examines the influence of including projected shoreline changes under future sea states into hydrodynamic modeling within the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). The NGOM coastline is an economically and ecologically significant area, comprised of various bays, barrier islands and mainland beaches. Projected shorelines and nearshore morphology for the year 2050 are derived from the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) shoreline change rates (Thieler and Hammer-Klose, 1999) and used in conjunction with the 'Bruun Rule effect'(Bruun, 1962). A large scale hydrodynamic model forced by astronomic tides and hurricane winds and pressures is used to simulate present conditions, a high projection of the 2050 sea state (18 in of SLR in accordance with Parris et al. (2012)) and the 2050 high sea state with 2050 shorelines to test the sensitivity of the system to the projected shoreline changes. Results show that shoreline changes coupled with sea level rise increases tidal inundation along shorelines, amplifies overtopping of barrier islands during storm surge events, and heightens inland storm surge inundation. It is critical to include estimates of shoreline and barrier

  11. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  12. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  13. Aerosol extinction in coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzola, J.; Kaloshin, G.; Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2004-01-01

    The performance of electro-optical systems can be substantially affected by aerosol particles that scatter and absorb electromagnetic radiation. A few years ago, an empirical model was developed describing the aerosol size distributions in the Mediterranean coastal atmosphere near Toulon (France). T

  14. Coastal maintenance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The government of The Netherlands has decided in the summer of 1990 to maintai.n the coastline at the position of 1990. This will be done mainly by artificial beach nourishment. The costs will be paid by the national government. The purpose of this coastal maintenance is to maintain a sufficient lev

  15. Coastal dynamics in western Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the coastal band. More than half the world population lives in coastal regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the coastal system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct coastal management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown

  16. Onshore and nearshore explorations along the Maharashtra Coast: With a view to locating ancient ports and submerged sites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.

    of India. The present paper discusses the results of coastal explorations at Elephanta Island, Malvan, Vijaydurg, Sopara and Chaul (Fig. I). These sites were important ports located on the west coast of India. Offshore explorations were only carried.... Amphorae fragments, Red Polished Ware (RPW), copper coins (Kakinis), etc. recovered from the earliest level suggest that Man and Environment XXII (2) - 1997 Rajbandar was a port with trade contacts with the Roman world (Rao 1987). It is believed...

  17. Cycling of radionuclides and impact of operational releases in the near-shore ecosystem off the west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioecology of the near-shore environment was investigated at Bombay and Tarapur on the west coast of India. The major radionuclides released from the processing plant at Bombay were 137Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru and were discharged through a pipeline to Bombay Harbour bay. At Tarapur the major radionuclides discharged were 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs and 60Co. After dilution with condenser-coolant sea water, releases were carried out through open channels along the shoreline to the sea. Studies on radionuclide cycling in clam-bed sediment, the indicator type benthic organism Anadara granosa, and the fish gobiid mudskipper in Bombay Harbour bay showed that the effective half-life of 137Cs is short compared with the physical half-life (30 years). This is attributable to the desorption of 137Cs from sediment and the fact that the benthic organism readily equilibrates with its environment. The dose to the benthic organism was calculated to be about 0.06 to 3μGy/h. Desorption of 144Ce and 106Ru was not observed. Investigations at Tarapur showed the effective distribution of radionuclides in sea water, sediment, seaweed and marine organisms. It was observed that the radionuclides discharged were mainly confined to a region 2 km from the outfall. The highest activity found in these matrices was only 7% of the derived maximum permissible concentration. The highest thyroid dose due to 131I by fresh seafood intake was 3% of the permissible dose and the highest whole-body dose due to other radionuclides was only 1% of the permissible dose. (author)

  18. What we have lost and cannot become: societal outcomes of coastal erosion in southern Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Karlsson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Countries in the Caribbean region, including Belize, are vulnerable to coastal erosion. Experts and scholars have assessed the effects of coastal erosion in the region in physical and economic terms, most often from a sectoral perspective. However, less attention has been directed to the localized and nonquantifiable effects of coastal erosion in the region. We address this research gap by presenting an empirical study of a village in southern Belize that has experienced significant coastal erosion since the mid-1980s. Drawing on interviews, a mapping exercise, and a literature review, we analyze how villagers are experiencing the impacts of coastal change, and what the resulting risks and losses mean for the socioeconomic stability of the village. We identify five categories of local values affected by coastal erosion, ranging from alteration of social activities to the loss of properties. We demonstrate that the totality of impacts bear consequences to the village's continued viability, which adds uncertainty to the lives of local residents.

  19. PENATAAN RUANG LAUT BERDASARKAN INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Sunyowati

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The planning of coastal spatial arrangement must be put in the valid spatial planning system. Law Number 26 of 2007 on Spatial Planning and it is in fact related with land spatial planning, although that ocean and air spatial management will be arranged in separate law. The legal for coastal zone management is determined by using the principles of integrated coastal management by focusing on area or zone authority system. The integrated of coastal zones management regulations should be followed by the planning of coastal spatial arrange­ment. Therefore, certain synchronization at coastal zones governance is very important issue since by integrating and coordinating other related regulations and therefore conflict of norm can be minimized in the spatial planning coastal zone.

  20. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took...... place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities...

  1. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  2. Loss of an ecological baseline through the eradication of oyster reefs from coastal ecosystems and human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleway, Heidi K; Connell, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Oyster reefs form over extensive areas and the diversity and productivity of sheltered coasts depend on them. Due to the relatively recent population growth of coastal settlements in Australia, we were able to evaluate the collapse and extirpation of native oyster reefs (Ostrea angasi) over the course of a commercial fishery. We used historical records to quantify commercial catch of O. angasi in southern Australia from early colonization, around 1836, to some of the last recorded catches in 1944 and used our estimates of catch and effort to map their past distribution and assess oyster abundance over 180 years. Significant declines in catch and effort occurred from 1886 to 1946 and no native oyster reefs occur today, but historically oyster reefs extended across more than 1,500 km of coastline. That oyster reefs were characteristic of much of the coastline of South Australia from 1836 to 1910 appears not to be known because there is no contemporary consideration of their ecological and economic value. Based on the concept of a shifted baseline, we consider this contemporary state to reflect a collective, intergenerational amnesia. Our model of generational amnesia accounts for differences in intergenerational expectations of food, economic value, and ecosystem services of nearshore areas. An ecological system that once surrounded much of the coast and possibly the past presence of oyster reefs altogether may be forgotten and could not only undermine progress towards their recovery, but also reduce our expectations of these coastal ecosystems. PMID:25588455

  3. Optimal Groundwater Development in Coastal Aquifers Near Beihai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater resources occur in a multi-aquifer system in the alluvial coastal plain near Beihai, China. The aquifers receive recharge from precipitation, canal and reservoir infiltration, and discharge through subterranean drainage into the sea and through artificial pumping. A quasithree-dimensional finite element model has been used to simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater levels in the aquifers. Various input parameters were considered in the simulation model. A linear optimization model has been developed for groundwater development within the coastal aquifers. The objective function of the model is to maximize the total groundwater pumpage from the confined aquifer. The control of sea water intrusion is examined by the restriction of the water levels at points along the coast and of the pumping rates in coastal management cells. The response matrix used in the optimization model was generated from the simulation model by forecasting drawdown produced by pumping at a unit impulse discharge. Groundwater development can be primarily optimized by the alteration of the pumping rates of the existing wells.

  4. Coastal erosion: Coast problem of the Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erosion promoted by the sea, affects different sectors of the coast of the Colombian Caribbean. The erosion is particularly clear in the central and western sector of the coast. The coastal problem of Punta Sabanilla - Puerto Salgar - Puerto Colombia; Pueblo Nuevo - Lomarena; Manzanillo del Mar; La Boquilla; sector Tolu - Covenas and Arboletes areas are described. This discussion is presented comform to the data obtained in field and of the revision of maps, pictures and other documents related with the coast design. The coastal erosion is not only affecting to low areas conformed by beaches, but rather this phenomenon impacts on rocky cliffs of different elevation; it is the case of El Castillo and Punta Sabanilla to Barranquilla (west Part) sectors . The causes of the setback that it experiences the coast of the Colombian Caribbean are not known in clear form; however they can be contributing such factors as: the elevation of the sea level, phenomenon that has been checked in different costs of the world; equally it can be due to a decrease in the volume of silts contributed by the Magdalena River, inside the coastal area. A third factor would be related with the diapirism of mud, that possibly would be altering the conformation of the Caribbean littoral

  5. Factors affecting the evolution of coastal wetlands of the Laurential Great Lakes: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, T.; Edsall, T.; Munawar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal wetlands play a pivotal role in the Great Lakes ecosystem. As buffer zones between the land and open waters of the Great Lakes, they perform a variety of essential functions providing both direct and indirect anthropogenic benefits. Geology, morphology and climate are the dominant variables that influence Laurentian Great Lakes wetland development. However, anthropogenic factors are the major contributors to alteration of natural wetland processes. This paper provides an overview of natural and anthropogenic factors important in Great Lakes coastal wetland development and provides statistical information describing the Great Lakes Basin. A brief description of wetlands classification and research issues is also presented.

  6. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    83 National Park Service (NPS) units contain nearly 12,000 miles of coastal, estuarine and Great Lakes shoreline and their associated resources. Iconic natural features exist along active shorelines in NPS units, including, e.g., Cape Cod, Padre Island, Hawaii Volcanoes, and the Everglades. Iconic cultural resources managed by NPS include the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, Fort Sumter, the Golden Gate, and heiaus and fish traps along the coast of Hawaii. Impacts anticipated from sea level rise include inundation and flooding of beaches and low lying marshes, shoreline erosion of coastal areas, and saltwater intrusion into the water table. These impacts and other coastal hazards will threaten park beaches, marshes, and other resources and values; alter the viability of coastal roads; and require the NPS to re-evaluate the financial, safety, and environmental implications of maintaining current projects and implementing future projects in ocean and coastal parks in the context of sea level rise. Coastal erosion will increase as sea levels rise. Barrier islands along the coast of Louisiana and North Carolina may have already passed the threshold for maintaining island integrity in any scenario of sea level rise (U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Program Report 4.1). Consequently, sea level rise is expected to hasten the disappearance of historic coastal villages, coastal wetlands, forests, and beaches, and threaten coastal roads, homes, and businesses. While sea level is rising in most coastal parks, some parks are experiencing lower water levels due to isostatic rebound and lower lake levels. NPS funded a Coastal Vulnerability Project to evaluate the physical and geologic factors affecting 25 coastal parks. The USGS Open File Reports for each park are available at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/. These reports were designed to inform park planning efforts. NPS conducted a Storm Vulnerability Project to provide ocean and coastal

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Caithness and Sutherland. Pt. 10: Studies of artificial radioactivity in the coastal environment of Northern Scotland: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review brings together measurements which have been made over the last 10-15 years of the concentrations of a number of artificial radionuclides in various media in the northern Scottish coastal environment. The radionuclides include 60Co, 90Sr, 134Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 241Am. The media include nearshore and offshore seawater, beach sand and sediments, seaweeds, winkles, spume, deposits on rocks and soils, sheep faeces and atmospheric deposition. The various radionuclide sources which contribute to the study area are described. Some transfer mechanisms which operate between different media for different radionuclides are discussed, and the radiological significance of the observed radionuclide concentrations is briefly described. (UK)

  8. Climate change impacts on U.S. coastal and marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Field, John C.; Boesch, Donald F.; Buddemeier, Robert W.; Burkett, Virginia; Cayan, Daniel R.; Fogarty, Michael; Harwell, Mark A.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mason, Curt; Reed, Denise J.; Royer, Thomas C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Titus, James G.

    2002-01-01

    Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001) was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector review of potential impacts on shorelines, estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, and ocean margin ecosystems. The assessment considered the impacts of several key drivers of climate change: sea level change; alterations in precipitation patterns and subsequent delivery of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment; increased ocean temperature; alterations in circulation patterns; changes in frequency and intensity of coastal storms; and increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Increasing rates of sea-level rise and intensity and frequency of coastal storms and hurricanes over the next decades will increase threats to shorelines, wetlands, and coastal development. Estuarine productivity will change in response to alteration in the timing and amount of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment delivery. Higher water temperatures and changes in freshwater delivery will alter estuarine stratification, residence time, and eutrophication. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to increase coral bleaching and higher CO2 levels may reduce coral calcification, making it more difficult for corals to recover from other disturbances, and inhibiting poleward shifts. Ocean warming is expected to cause poleward shifts in the ranges of many other organisms, including commercial species, and these shifts may have secondary effects on their predators and prey. Although these potential impacts of climate change and variability will vary from system to system, it is important to recognize that they will be superimposed upon, and in many cases intensify, other ecosystem stresses (pollution, harvesting, habitat destruction

  9. Metals in coastal zooplanktons - A coastal living resource hazard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paimpillil, J.S.; Joseph, T.; Rejomon, G.; Gerson, V.J.

    analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GFAAS, ZL-4110). Mn was determined separately by GFAAS, using sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (Na-DDC)-MIBK extraction. The zooplankton samples were first powdered and aliquots of about 300 mg... coastal stations. This may be due to the land drainage in the investigated region. DISCUSSION Oceanographers usually held fast to the idea that phosphorus and nitrogen are the only nutrients vital in determining the distribution of the world's algae...

  10. Conserving intertidal habitats: What is the potential of ecological engineering to mitigate impacts of coastal structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew J.; Ng, Terence P. T.; Dudgeon, David; Bonebrake, Timothy C.; Leung, Kenneth M. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, coastlines are under pressure as coastal human population growth and urbanization continues, while climatic change leads to stormier seas and rising tides. These trends create a strong and sustained demand for land reclamation and infrastructure protection in coastal areas, requiring engineered coastal defence structures such as sea walls. Here, we review the nature of ecological impacts of coastal structures on intertidal ecosystems, seek to understand the extent to which ecological engineering can mitigate these impacts, and evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation as a tool to contribute to conservation of intertidal habitats. By so doing, we identify critical knowledge gaps to inform future research. Coastal structures alter important physical, chemical and biological processes of intertidal habitats, and strongly impact community structure, inter-habitat linkages and ecosystem services while also driving habitat loss. Such impacts occur diffusely across localised sites but scale to significant regional and global levels. Recent advances in ecological engineering have focused on developing habitat complexity on coastal structures to increase biodiversity. 'Soft' engineering options maximise habitat complexity through inclusion of natural materials, species and processes, while simultaneously delivering engineering objectives such as coastal protection. Soft options additionally sustain multiple services, providing greater economic benefits for society, and resilience to climatic change. Currently however, a lack of inclusion and economic undervaluation of intertidal ecosystem services may undermine best practice in coastline management. Importantly, reviewed evidence shows mitigation and even restoration do not support intertidal communities or processes equivalent to pre-disturbance conditions. Crucially, an absence of comprehensive empirical baseline biodiversity data, or data comprising additional ecological parameters such as ecosystem functions

  11. Quantifying Holocene Coastal Retreat From River Morphology in Southern England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attal, M.; Mudd, S. M.; Hurst, M. D.; Crickmore, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    of minimum coastal retreat to be made but the uncertainty is high due to presence of multiple convexities in the river profiles. Attal, M. et al. (2011) Testing fluvial erosion models using the transient response of bedrock rivers to tectonic forcing in the Apennines, Italy. J. Geophys. Res., 116, F02005, doi:10.1029/2010JF001875. Ishihara, T. et al. (2012) Fluvial response to sea-level changes since the latest Pleistocene in the near-coastal lowland, central Kanto Plain, Japan. Geomorphology, 147-148, 49-60, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.08.022. Leyland, J. and Darby, S.E. (2008) An empirical-conceptual gully evolution model for channelled sea cliffs. Geomorphology, 102, 419-434, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.04.017. Leyland, J. and Darby, S.E. (2009) Effects of Holocene climate and sea-level changes on coastal gully evolution: insights from numerical modelling. Earth Surf. Proc. and Land., 34, 1878-1893, doi:10.1002/esp.1872. Shennan, I. and Horton, B. (2002) Holocene land- and sea-level changes in Great Britain. J. Quat. Sc., 17, 511-526, doi:10.1002/jqs.710. Snyder, N.P. et al. (2002) Interactions between onshore bedrock-channel incision and nearshore wave-base erosion forced by eustasy and tectonics. Basin Res., 14, 105-127.

  12. Linking scientists, decision makers, and organizations to improve understanding of climate-driven changes in coastal storms and their impacts in Western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. H.; Murphy, K.

    2012-12-01

    The coastal zones of Western Alaska are expected to experience a nexus of climate-driven changes in landform processes resulting from the impacts of sea ice loss; sea level change; permafrost thaw; and changes in frequency, intensity, and direction of coastal storms, etc. These climate-driven changes will cascade through the near-shore and coastal physical systems, ecological systems, and human communities, and thus present major sources of uncertainty for a wide variety of the region's decision makers. To effectively and efficiently address some of the information needs of these decision makers, the Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative created a two-year program of applied science focused on 'Changes in Coastal Storms and their Impacts'. We summarize program components that successfully advanced applied science to address these decision maker information needs. All the components share a common feature of promoting linkages: (i) among resource decision makers, stakeholders and scientists, to identify and address key areas of uncertainty associated with coastal storms and thus align the science activities with decision maker needs for a variety of climate vulnerability assessments; (ii) among researchers, to mutually advance their science efforts; and (iii) among organizations, to efficiently address shared science needs. Resulting applied science benefits include (i) integrative projects using very fine resolution surge modeling to assess impacts of saltwater inundation on migratory waterfowl breeding populations and habitat; (ii) coordinating the selection of historic storms for reanalysis by two surge modeling efforts of differing resolution and domain, thus allowing for cross-model comparisons of performance over their shared spatial domain and future regional-scale application of the higher resolution model; and (iii) collaborative, cross-agency efforts to establish a water level network that meets multiple purposes (from model calibration to

  13. Fate of metals in coastal sediments of a Mediterranean flood-dominated system: An approach based on total and labile fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussiez, Vincent; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Radakovitch, Olivier; Probst, Jean-Luc; Monaco, André; Charrière, Bruno; Buscail, Roselyne

    2011-05-01

    The dynamics of sediment-bound metals (Cs, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn) were studied off the Têt River (western Gulf of Lion), a typical Mediterranean coastal river punctuated by short and violent flash-floods. Spatial and temporal sampling strategies were combined to elucidate the fate of these elements in response to both the riverine sediment input and the offshore transport of these sediments through hydrodynamics. Our results show the temporal entrapment of riverborne particles and associated metals, consecutively to a major flood event, in the nearshore sedimentary unit called prodelta. Here, deposition and resuspension mechanisms define a sedimentological cycle that could be followed completely in this study. In terms of speciation between reactive (labile) and residual fractions along the fluvio-deltaic continuum, our results show that Cu, Pb and Zn are the most labile (potentially mobile) metals in the river, in accordance with their contributions from anthropogenic sources. But in the marine surficial sediments, two main behaviours can be discriminated when compared to the riverine suspended particulate matter. While Pb and Zn depict rather a constant labile fraction, Cu is characterized by decreasing levels (up to 50% difference). In terms of environmental impact, these contrasting trends have direct repercussions for the contaminant dispersal in the coastal area. Whereas Pb and Zn conserve their enhanced levels because of their stronger affinity with fine sediments, Cu is marked by the entire loss of its anthropogenic component that is progressively transferred to the dissolved phase, likely mediated by organic ligands. We ascribe these behaviours to different post-depositional partition mechanisms with respect to oxidation of the particulate organic phase at the bottom sediment/water interface. Also, analysis of one sediment core from the prodelta indicates that these early diagenetic processes govern the chemical forms of land-derived contaminants

  14. EAARL Coastal Topography-Fire Island National Seashore, New York, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Fredericks, Xan; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Fire Island National Seashore in New York, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on December 4, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne

  15. Detection of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges: a case study from the central-southern Siena Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ivan; Arragoni, Simone; Aldinucci, Mauro; Foresi, Luca Maria; Bambini, Anna Maria; Sandrelli, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    The detection of detached nearshore wedges formed in response to relative sea-level drops is considered one of the hottest topics in sequence stratigraphic analysis due to their importance as reservoir analogues. In fact, they usually constitute sandy and porous bodies generally encased in impermeable clay, thus presenting a good potential as traps for fluids. This paper focuses on the sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Pliocene deposits cropping out in the central-southern sector of the Siena Basin (Tuscany, Italy), a post-collisional basin of the Northern Apennines. The exposed sedimentary succession was investigated through a detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic approach, integrated by biostratigraphic analyses, aimed at a better characterization of the infilling history of this sector of the basin. Specifically, this study revealed the occurrence of repeated facies shifts that allowed the identification of two depositional sequences. In detail, a thick sand-rich body far from the basin margins, and previously considered as a turbiditic lobe, has been reinterpreted as formed in a nearshore setting during a fall in relative sea level. This body is totally encased in offshore clay, and due to the lack of physical connection with the related HST deposits, it has to be considered as a detached forced-regressive wedge. The present work led to the recognition of some sedimentological and stratigraphic features typical of falling stage systems tract deposits (e.g. presence of intrabasinal recycled materials, sedimentological evidence of a pre-existing fluvial network subsequently eroded) that can provide useful clues for the identification of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges in core studies and poorly exposed settings.

  16. Evaluation of anthropogenic influence in probabilistic forecasting of coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, C. J.; Wilson, K.; Adams, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of large scale coastal behavior is especially challenging in areas of pervasive human activity. Many coastal zones on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts are moderately to highly modified through the use of soft sediment and hard stabilization techniques. These practices have the potential to alter sediment transport and availability, as well as reshape the beach profile, ultimately transforming the natural evolution of the coastal system. We present the results of a series of probabilistic models, designed to predict the observed geomorphic response to high wave events at Fire Island, New York. The island comprises a variety of land use types, including inhabited communities with modified beaches, where beach nourishment and artificial dune construction (scraping) occur, unmodified zones, and protected national seashore. This variation in land use presents an opportunity for comparison of model accuracy across highly modified and rarely modified stretches of coastline. Eight models with basic and expanded structures were developed, resulting in sixteen models, informed with observational data from Fire Island. The basic model type does not include anthropogenic modification. The expanded model includes records of nourishment and scraping, designed to quantify the improved accuracy when anthropogenic activity is represented. Modification was included as frequency of occurrence divided by the time since the most recent event, to distinguish between recent and historic events. All but one model reported improved predictive accuracy from the basic to expanded form. The addition of nourishment and scraping parameters resulted in a maximum reduction in predictive error of 36%. The seven improved models reported an average 23% reduction in error. These results indicate that it is advantageous to incorporate the human forcing into a coastal hazards probability model framework.

  17. Impacts of shoreline erosion on coastal ecosystems in Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipaporn Chusrinuan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Songkhla Province is located on the eastern coast of the southern Thai Peninsula, bordering the Gulf of Thailand for approximately 107 km. Most of the basin’s foreshores have been extensively developed for housing, tourism and shrimp farming. The beaches are under deteriorating impacts, often causing sediment transport which leads to an unnaturally high erosion rate. This natural phenomenon is considered to be a critical problem in the coastal areas affected by the hazard of coastal infrastructure and reduced beach esthetics for recreation. In this study, shoreline changes were compared between 1975 and 2006 using aerial photographs and Landsat imageries using Geographic Information System (GIS. The results revealed that 18.5 km2 of the coastal areas were altered during the period. Of this, 17.3 km2 suffered erosion and 1.2 km2were subjected to accretion. The most significant changes occurred between 1975-2006. Shoreline erosion was found at Ban Paktrae, Ranot District, with an average erosion rate of 5.3 m/year, while accretion occurred at Laem Samila, MuangSongkhla District with an average accretion rate of 2.04 m/year. The occurrences of shoreline erosion have contributed to the degradation of coastal soil and water quality, destruction of beach and mangrove forests, loss of human settlements and livelihood.These processes have led to deterioration of the quality of life of the residents. Prevention and mitigation measures to lessen economic and social impacts due to shoreline erosion are discussed.

  18. Macroalgae as 'sentinel' of trace and heavy metals in the management of coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In continuation of the studies of the interactions of various heavy and trace metals and their radionuclides in the nearshore ecosystems of the west coast of India, the radioecology of brown seeweed Sargassum tenerrimum, a macroalgae from Tarapur coastal waters is studied and its role as a 'sentinel' of heavy and trace metals and radionuclides in controlled low level aqueous wastes from a 400 MWe BWR nuclear power plant of Tarapur is discussed. Samples of the species were detached along the holdfast, washed off detritus and epiphytes in running sea water, ovendried and homogenized. The whole thallus from holdfast to the apex was used to study the distribution and concentration of a few heavy and trace metals by atomic absorption spectroscopy and of radionuclides by gamma spectroscopy. Results of the studies on temporal distribution of trace elements, and 131I, 134Cs, 60Co, and 90Sr in thallus and its various parts are presented. Bioaccumulation of above mentioned radionuclides in the species is discussed. The turnover of 90Sr in the species was found to be a function of its alginate content and to be influenced by possible changes occurring in other constituents of the ionogenic groups and the physicochemical parameters. The biological half-life and the ecological half-life of the above four radionuclides were also determined. (M.G.B.)

  19. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    KAUST Repository

    Wild, Christian

    2014-09-16

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29%) when compared to the other sites (4–19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  20. Coupling of FVCOM and CFD Model for Simulation of Multiscale Coastal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Qu, K.

    2013-12-01

    In correspondence with the need to simulate many emerging problems, especially those in nearshore regions such as deepwater oil spill, it is necessary to develop capabilities to predict small-scale, fully 3D phenomena in coastal ocean flows. A feasible as well as effective approach for the development is a hybrid method that couples different models designed for physics at different scales. We have developed a two-way coupling between a fully 3D CFD model and the FVCOM, in which the former captures small-scale 3D flows and the latter predicts large-scale background currents. In this presentation, a few new applications of such approach will be illustrated. The following figures show a result on tidal flow in a bay and past bridge peers. Tests and analysis are made on solution accuracy and computation efficiency, and discussions are presented on how to achieve seamless solution transition at the model interfaces. Computed large-scale background flow Simulated flow past a brigde

  1. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wild

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km: Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore, Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore, and Lighthouse Reef (offshore. In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29% when compared to the other sites (4–19%. The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia, particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  2. An Airborne Scanning LiDAR System for Ocean and Coastal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Castel, D.; Melville, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed an airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system and demonstrated its functionality for terrestrial and oceanographic measurements. Differential GPS (DGPS) and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) are synchronized with the LiDAR, providing end result vertical rms errors of approximately 6~cm. Flying 170~m above the surface, we achieve a point density of ~ 0.7 m-2 and a swath width of 90 to 120~m over ocean and 200~m over land. Georeferencing algorithms were developed in-house and earth-referenced data are available several hours after acquisition. Surveys from the system are compared with ground DGPS surveys and existing airborne surveys of fixed targets. Twelve research flights in a Piper Twin Comanche from August 2007 to July 2008 have provided topography of the Southern California coastline and sea surface wave fields in the nearshore ocean environment. Two of the flights also documented the results of the October 2007 landslide on Mt.~Soledad in La Jolla, California. Eight research flights aboard a Cessna Caravan surveyed the topography, lagoon, reef, and surrounding seas of Lady Elliot Island (LEI) in Australia's Great Barrier Reef in April 2008. We describe applications for the system, including coastal topographic surveys, wave measurements, reef research, and ship wake studies.

  3. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  4. Origin and Depositional Processes of Coastal Sands Revealed by Grain-Size Analysis (golfe du Lion, Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barusseau, J. P.; Braud, R.

    2014-12-01

    The study focused on the lower beach and nearshore zone of the Golfe du Lion (northwestern Mediterranean Sea -France). We looked at grain-size distribution in the berm, collision zone, inner and outer bars, lower shoreface applying parametric methods, grain-size modal analysis and a deconvolution program (LNDoGS).Results indicate a mixture of three recognizable sedimentary types (ST1 - ST3 - ST4) and explain grain-size distribution (GSD) of the sands in both multimodal and apparently unimodal GSDs. ST1 flows from the River Rhone, ST3 and 4 are local components originating from either fluvial input or nearshore reworking of Quaternary sediments.A fourth component (ST2), derived in situ from ST1, is found far from the overwhelming footprint of the Rhone river sands, westward in the lower shoreface.The mixing process entails significant variations in grain-size indices and skewness appears as a very sensitive and meaningful parameter. Skewness and bimodality, generated in all zones, are two aspects of the mixing process, depending on the relative proportions of STs.Using LNDoGS makes deciphering the STs a lot easier. It also reveals that some GSDs can result from a combination of 3 sedimentary variants (SVs) belonging to the same ST (monotype grain-size distributions). Monotype mixtures are very abundant on the lower shoreface, significantly present on the berm and inner bar but rare in the most dynamic zones. On the berm they tend towards a lognormal model for only bedload is present in the swash. This trend towards a lognormal model can also be observed on the lower shoreface, possibly indicating the occurrence of suspension as a dominant process.Thus, each segment of the nearshore - foreshore profile can be characterized using coarseness, skewness sign, the presence of locally generated ST2, abundance of bimodalities, occurrence of SVs. Finally, a more detailed description of the spatial properties of grain-size distributions could help explore possible mechanisms

  5. Modeling Channelization in Coastal Wetlands with Ecological Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Z. J.; Mahadevan, A.; Pennings, S.; FitzGerald, D.

    2014-12-01

    In coastal wetlands in Georgia and South Carolina, dendritic channel networks are actively incising headward at the rate of nearly 2 m/yr. The future geomorphic evolution of these marshes remains in question as rates of relative sea-level rise increase. Our objective is to understand the mechanisms that lead to the evolution of these channel networks through field observations and modeling. We model the geomorphological evolution of tidal creeks by viewing the wetland as a permeable medium. The porosity of the medium affects its hydraulic conductivity, which in turn is altered by erosion. Our multiphase model spontaneously generates channelization and branching networks through flow and erosion. In our field studies, we find that crabs play an active role in grazing vegetation and in the bioturbation of sediments. These effects are incorporated in our model based on field and laboratory observations of crab behavior and its effects on the marsh. We find the erosional patterns and channelization are significantly altered by the faunal feedback. Crabs enhance the growth of channels, inducing the headward erosion of creeks where flow-induced stresses are weakest. They are instrumental in generating high rates of creek extension, which channelize the marsh more effectively in response to sea-level rise. This indicates that the evolution of coastal wetlands is responding to interactions between physics and ecology and highlights the importance of the faunal contribution to these feedbacks.

  6. Invasions and extinctions reshape coastal marine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jarrett E; Reynolds, Pamela L; Stachowicz, John J

    2007-01-01

    The biodiversity of ecosystems worldwide is changing because of species loss due to human-caused extinctions and species gain through intentional and accidental introductions. Here we show that the combined effect of these two processes is altering the trophic structure of food webs in coastal marine systems. This is because most extinctions ( approximately 70%) occur at high trophic levels (top predators and other carnivores), while most invasions are by species from lower trophic levels (70% macroplanktivores, deposit feeders, and detritivores). These opposing changes thus alter the shape of marine food webs from a trophic pyramid capped by a diverse array of predators and consumers to a shorter, squatter configuration dominated by filter feeders and scavengers. The consequences of the simultaneous loss of diversity at top trophic levels and gain at lower trophic levels is largely unknown. However, current research suggests that a better understanding of how such simultaneous changes in diversity can impact ecosystem function will be required to manage coastal ecosystems and forecast future changes. PMID:17356703

  7. Coastal Tourism: Opportunity and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Tuhin Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Coasts provide some unique features for being an attractive place for the tourists. Different types of coasts according their own character offer variety of flavours to the tourists as the compound features produced from the triad of sun, sea, and sand are unique in nature. There are several problems in coastal tourism and associated activities along with the immense scope for developing a sustainable tourism with high return of investment. The economic growth and environmental destruction ar...

  8. Bacterial chemoautotrophy in coastal sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez Cardenas, D.

    2016-01-01

    Chemoautotrophy is the process by which micro-organisms fix CO2 by obtainingenergy from the oxidation of reduced compounds such sulfide and ammonium (e.g.sulfur oxidation and nitrification). This metabolism is widespread in nature and isvastly studied in extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents and chemoclinesin hypoxic basins where it contributes greatly to primary production. However, chemoautotrophsare easily overlooked in coastal areas where the photoautotrophicorganisms are the ma...

  9. A preliminary study of iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates (chitons, Mollusca) in near-shore environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2014-10-01

    tidal regions. Our preliminary results suggest that while chitons are not simple recorders of the ambient seawater Fe isotopic signature, Fe isotopes provide valuable information concerning Fe biogeochemical cycling in near-shore environments, and may potentially be used to probe sources of Fe recorded in different organisms.

  10. EAARL coastal topography--Alligator Point, Louisiana, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan; Barras, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of Alligator Point, Louisiana, acquired on March 5 and 6, 2010. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have

  11. EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Michael, D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the

  12. EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the

  13. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) elevation data were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. The project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of select barrier islands and peninsular regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, acquired June 27-30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system

  14. Barriers to and opportunities for landward migration of coastal wetlands with sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Osland, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, accelerated sea-level rise and continued coastal development are expected to greatly alter coastal landscapes across the globe. Historically, many coastal ecosystems have responded to sea-level fluctuations via horizontal and vertical movement on the landscape. However, anthropogenic activities, including urbanization and the construction of flood-prevention infrastructure, can produce barriers that impede ecosystem migration. Here we show where tidal saline wetlands have the potential to migrate landward along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, one of the most sea-level rise sensitive and wetland-rich regions of the world. Our findings can be used to identify migration corridors and develop sea-level rise adaptation strategies to help ensure the continued availability of wetland-associated ecosystem goods and services.

  15. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. PMID:24361729

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. The near coastal environment monitored from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical information required for monitoring the marine environment from space is discussed and applied for the near coastal area. By categorizing coastal features it is possible to recognize coastal regions to a high degree and to indentify water masses derived from land sources and sewage dumping sites. It is concluded that monitoring from space can be used as a tool in environmental planning. (orig.)

  10. Coastal Dune Flora, Nallavadu Village, Puducherry, India

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy, K.; Poyyamoli, G.; Balachandran, N

    2010-01-01

    Coastal sand dunes (CSD) are sensitive and fragile ecosystems with variety of specific floral species. Thoughthere are few confined studies on coastal sand dunes in temperate regions, the coastal dunes of tropics, especially the Indiancoramandal coast has received scanty attention. Hence, a detailed vegetation survey of 10 belt transects (5 × 100m) alongcoastal dune in December 2008 was done. A total of 41 species belonging to 35 genera and 20 families were identifiedat different distances fr...

  11. Hydrodynamic design in coastal wetland restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Brett F.; Arega, Feleke

    2002-01-01

    Coastal wetlands in California are critically positioned at the interface between increasingly developed watersheds and the coastal ocean. These wetlands provide habitat for fish and wildlife, provide nutrients to surrounding coastal waters, and create recreational opportunities (Mitsch and Gosselink 1986). This report describes a circulation and transport model that is designed for tidal wetland circulation and mixing studies. Given the importance of wetland restoration projects to offset th...

  12. Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Craig E.; Tom Allen; Todd Cherry; John C. Whitehead

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of coastal wind turbines on coastal tourism and recreation for residents of the northern CAMA counties in North Carolina. A combination of telephone and web survey data are used to assess the impact of coastal wind farms on trip behavior and site choice. Most of the respondents to our telephone survey claim to support offshore wind energy development, and independent survey data suggest that the observed levels of support may be indicative of the broader population in th...

  13. Nearshore versus Offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of whichoffshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The question betweennearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of...

  14. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  15. An integrated multispectral video and environmental monitoring system for the study of coastal processes and the support of beach management operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghionis, George; Trygonis, Vassilis; Karydis, Antonis; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Alexandrakis, George; Drakopoulos, Panos; Amdreadis, Olympos; Psarros, Fotis; Velegrakis, Antonis; Poulos, Serafim

    2016-04-01

    Effective beach management requires environmental assessments that are based on sound science, are cost-effective and are available to beach users and managers in an accessible, timely and transparent manner. The most common problems are: 1) The available field data are scarce and of sub-optimal spatio-temporal resolution and coverage, 2) our understanding of local beach processes needs to be improved in order to accurately model/forecast beach dynamics under a changing climate, and 3) the information provided by coastal scientists/engineers in the form of data, models and scientific interpretation is often too complicated to be of direct use by coastal managers/decision makers. A multispectral video system has been developed, consisting of one or more video cameras operating in the visible part of the spectrum, a passive near-infrared (NIR) camera, an active NIR camera system, a thermal infrared camera and a spherical video camera, coupled with innovative image processing algorithms and a telemetric system for the monitoring of coastal environmental parameters. The complete system has the capability to record, process and communicate (in quasi-real time) high frequency information on shoreline position, wave breaking zones, wave run-up, erosion hot spots along the shoreline, nearshore wave height, turbidity, underwater visibility, wind speed and direction, air and sea temperature, solar radiation, UV radiation, relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall. An innovative, remotely-controlled interactive visual monitoring system, based on the spherical video camera (with 360°field of view), combines the video streams from all cameras and can be used by beach managers to monitor (in real time) beach user numbers, flow activities and safety at beaches of high touristic value. The high resolution near infrared cameras permit 24-hour monitoring of beach processes, while the thermal camera provides information on beach sediment temperature and moisture, can

  16. Using nocturnal flight calls to assess the fall migration of warblers and sparrows along a coastal ecological barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Smith

    Full Text Available Atmospheric conditions fundamentally influence the timing, intensity, energetics, and geography of avian migration. While radar is typically used to infer the influence of weather on the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of nocturnal bird migration, monitoring the flight calls produced by many bird species during nocturnal migration represents an alternative methodology and provides information regarding the species composition of nocturnal migration. We used nocturnal flight call (NFC recordings of at least 22 migratory songbirds (14 warbler and 8 sparrow species during fall migration from eight sites along the mainland and island coasts of Rhode Island to evaluate five hypotheses regarding NFC detections. Patterns of warbler and sparrow NFC detections largely supported our expectations in that (1 NFC detections associated positively and strongly with wind conditions that influence the intensity of coastal bird migration and negatively with regional precipitation; (2 NFCs increased during conditions with reduced visibility (e.g., high cloud cover; (3 NFCs decreased with higher wind speeds, presumably due mostly to increased ambient noise; and (4 coastal mainland sites recorded five to nine times more NFCs, on average, than coastal nearshore or offshore island sites. However, we found little evidence that (5 nightly or intra-night patterns of NFCs reflected the well-documented latitudinal patterns of migrant abundance on an offshore island. Despite some potential complications in inferring migration intensity and species composition from NFC data, the acoustic monitoring of NFCs provides a viable and complementary methodology for exploring the spatiotemporal patterns of songbird migration as well as evaluating the atmospheric conditions that shape these patterns.

  17. Using Nocturnal Flight Calls to Assess the Fall Migration of Warblers and Sparrows along a Coastal Ecological Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam D.; Paton, Peter W. C.; McWilliams, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions fundamentally influence the timing, intensity, energetics, and geography of avian migration. While radar is typically used to infer the influence of weather on the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of nocturnal bird migration, monitoring the flight calls produced by many bird species during nocturnal migration represents an alternative methodology and provides information regarding the species composition of nocturnal migration. We used nocturnal flight call (NFC) recordings of at least 22 migratory songbirds (14 warbler and 8 sparrow species) during fall migration from eight sites along the mainland and island coasts of Rhode Island to evaluate five hypotheses regarding NFC detections. Patterns of warbler and sparrow NFC detections largely supported our expectations in that (1) NFC detections associated positively and strongly with wind conditions that influence the intensity of coastal bird migration and negatively with regional precipitation; (2) NFCs increased during conditions with reduced visibility (e.g., high cloud cover); (3) NFCs decreased with higher wind speeds, presumably due mostly to increased ambient noise; and (4) coastal mainland sites recorded five to nine times more NFCs, on average, than coastal nearshore or offshore island sites. However, we found little evidence that (5) nightly or intra-night patterns of NFCs reflected the well-documented latitudinal patterns of migrant abundance on an offshore island. Despite some potential complications in inferring migration intensity and species composition from NFC data, the acoustic monitoring of NFCs provides a viable and complementary methodology for exploring the spatiotemporal patterns of songbird migration as well as evaluating the atmospheric conditions that shape these patterns. PMID:24643060

  18. Nitrogen cycling in shallow low-oxygen coastal waters off Peru from nitrite and nitrate nitrogen and oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Happy; Bourbonnais, Annie; Larkum, Jennifer; Bange, Hermann W.; Altabet, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    O2 deficient zones (ODZs) of the world's oceans are important locations for microbial dissimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction and subsequent loss of combined nitrogen (N) to biogenic N2 gas. ODZs are generally coupled to regions of high productivity leading to high rates of N-loss as found in the coastal upwelling region off Peru. Stable N and O isotope ratios can be used as natural tracers of ODZ N-cycling because of distinct kinetic isotope effects associated with microbially mediated N-cycle transformations. Here we present NO3- and nitrite (NO2-) stable isotope data from the nearshore upwelling region off Callao, Peru. Subsurface oxygen was generally depleted below about 30 m depth with concentrations less than 10 µM, while NO2- concentrations were high, ranging from 6 to 10 µM, and NO3- was in places strongly depleted to near 0 µM. We observed for the first time a positive linear relationship between NO2-δ15N and δ18O at our coastal stations, analogous to that of NO3- N and O isotopes during NO3- uptake and dissimilatory reduction. This relationship is likely the result of rapid NO2- turnover due to higher organic matter flux in these coastal upwelling waters. No such relationship was observed at offshore stations where slower turnover of NO2- facilitates dominance of isotope exchange with water. We also evaluate the overall isotope fractionation effect for N-loss in this system using several approaches that vary in their underlying assumptions. While there are differences in apparent fractionation factor (ɛ) for N-loss as calculated from the δ15N of NO3-, dissolved inorganic N, or biogenic N2, values for ɛ are generally much lower than previously reported, reaching as low as 6.5 ‰. A possible explanation is the influence of sedimentary N-loss at our inshore stations which incurs highly suppressed isotope fractionation.

  19. How sea level rise and storm climate impact the looming morpho-economic bubble in coastal property value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.; Smith, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Murray, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the United States, the coastal region is now the most densely populated zone in the country and as a result has become a significant source of tax revenue and has some of the highest property values in the country. The loss of land at the coastline from erosion and damage to property from storms has always been a source of vulnerability to coastal economies. To manage this vulnerability, humans have long engaged in the act of nourishing the coastline - placing sand, typically from offshore sources, onto the beach to widen the beach and increase the height of dunes. As humans alter natural coastal dynamics by nourishing, the altered natural dynamics then influence future beach management decisions. In this way human-occupied coastlines are a strongly coupled dynamical system and because of this coupling, the act of nourishment has become an intrinsic part of the economic value of a coastline. Predictions of increased rates of sea level rise and changing storminess suggest that coastal vulnerability is likely to increase. The evolving vulnerability of the coast has already caused changes to occur in the way humans manage the coastline. For example, the federal government has recently reduced subsidies to help coastal communities nourish their beaches. With a future of changing environmental forcing from sea level and storms, the prospect of changes in nourishment cost could have profound consequences on coastal value and sustainability. We utilize two modeling approaches to investigate how disappearing nourishment subsidies reduce coastal property value and to explore the potential for a bubble and subsequent crash in coastal property value as subsidies dwindle and vulnerability rises. The first model is an optimal control model that couples a cost benefit analysis to coastline dynamics. In the second model, we couple a numerical coastline model with an agent-based model for real estate markets. Results from both models suggest the total present value of coastal

  20. Coastal Lagoon: Present Status and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Mahapatro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper the present status of coastal lagoon and future challenges which will be faced by the coastal lagoon is discussed. Coastal lagoon provides great livelihood for a larger portion of human population through fisheries and tourism point of view thus crucial in socio economic aspect. Due to natural and anthropogenic activity, stress on coastal lagoon is increasing day by day. Thus steps should be taken for regular monitoring and planning for better management is found to be imperative in regards to present day situation.

  1. The wave criteria for coastal zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, J. V.; Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; del Saz Cordero, S.

    2012-04-01

    THE WAVE CRITERIA FOR THE COASTAL ZONE DEFINITION Coastal nations define along their shores a strip of intense administrative intervention entailing strong restrictions to landowners domainial powers. The exact determination of the spatial extent of this zone is always blurred by coastal dynamics which cast some degree of legal uncertainty on the adjacent real rights. Criterion adopted for this determination shall seek to be practical enough to be effectively implemented, and at the same time robust enough in order to remain reliable at least in the mid term. In short, the aim of this paper is to integrate technical tools taken from coastal engineering and coastal law in order to better understand the relationship between human societies and the coastal substratum. The first step of our document aims to highlight those reasons that lead human societies to set back from the coast, and for this purpose we will proceed to a systematical scanning through the "Legal Findings" sections of several coastal laws. As a second step, we will make a review of the most common coastal features that constitute the final object of the administrative protection. Those coastal features, present in almost all coastal laws, are cliffs, dunes, wetlands and beaches, all of them closely related to waves. In this second point, the review will point out the reasons for the protection of those geomorphological elements and their role and utility for coastal human societies. The last part of this document will take advantage of the elements resulting from the first two steps in order to draw some conclusions. As a first achievement, and at the light of the fundamentals for coastal administrative protection identified in the first part, we will sort out a classification of coastal setbacks, according to the leading idea by which they are based. Finally will we will put into practice the concepts obtained from both the first and second steps - fundamentals for coastal administrative

  2. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Management Plan (ISFMP) for Coastal Sharks. Subsequently, the Commission referred the matter to NMFS, under... out its responsibilities under the Coastal Sharks ISFMP, and if the measures it failed to...

  3. Effect of Estuarine Wetland Degradation on Transport of Toxoplasma gondii Surrogates from Land to Sea▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Karen; Conrad, Patricia A.; Jonna A K Mazet; Wesley W. Wallender; Miller, Woutrina A.; Largier, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The flux of terrestrially derived pathogens to coastal waters presents a significant health risk to marine wildlife, as well as to humans who utilize the nearshore for recreation and seafood harvest. Anthropogenic changes in natural habitats may result in increased transmission of zoonotic pathogens to coastal waters. The objective of our work was to evaluate how human-caused alterations of coastal landscapes in California affect the transport of Toxoplasma gondii to estuarine waters. Toxopla...

  4. Using GIS mapping of the extent of nearshore rocky reefs to estimate the abundance and reproductive output of important fishery species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Williams, Jonathan P; Sadd, James

    2012-01-01

    Kelp Bass (Paralabrax clathratus) and California Sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) are economically and ecologically valuable rocky reef fishes in southern California, making them likely indicator species for evaluating resource management actions. Multiple spatial datasets, aerial and satellite photography, underwater observations and expert judgment were used to produce a comprehensive map of nearshore natural rocky reef habitat for the Santa Monica Bay region (California, USA). It was then used to examine the relative contribution of individual reefs to a regional estimate of abundance and reproductive potential of the focal species. For the reefs surveyed for fishes (i.e. 18 out of the 22 in the region, comprising 82% the natural rocky reef habitat 30%) was produced from a relatively small proportion of the regional reef area (c. 10%). Natural nearshore rocky reefs make up only 11% of the area in the newly designated MPAs in this region, but results provide some optimism that regional fisheries could benefit through an increase in overall reproductive output, if adequate increases in size structure of targeted species are realized. PMID:22272326

  5. Using GIS mapping of the extent of nearshore rocky reefs to estimate the abundance and reproductive output of important fishery species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Claisse

    Full Text Available Kelp Bass (Paralabrax clathratus and California Sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher are economically and ecologically valuable rocky reef fishes in southern California, making them likely indicator species for evaluating resource management actions. Multiple spatial datasets, aerial and satellite photography, underwater observations and expert judgment were used to produce a comprehensive map of nearshore natural rocky reef habitat for the Santa Monica Bay region (California, USA. It was then used to examine the relative contribution of individual reefs to a regional estimate of abundance and reproductive potential of the focal species. For the reefs surveyed for fishes (i.e. 18 out of the 22 in the region, comprising 82% the natural rocky reef habitat 30% was produced from a relatively small proportion of the regional reef area (c. 10%. Natural nearshore rocky reefs make up only 11% of the area in the newly designated MPAs in this region, but results provide some optimism that regional fisheries could benefit through an increase in overall reproductive output, if adequate increases in size structure of targeted species are realized.

  6. Using GIS Mapping of the Extent of Nearshore Rocky Reefs to Estimate the Abundance and Reproductive Output of Important Fishery Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Sadd, James

    2012-01-01

    Kelp Bass (Paralabrax clathratus) and California Sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) are economically and ecologically valuable rocky reef fishes in southern California, making them likely indicator species for evaluating resource management actions. Multiple spatial datasets, aerial and satellite photography, underwater observations and expert judgment were used to produce a comprehensive map of nearshore natural rocky reef habitat for the Santa Monica Bay region (California, USA). It was then used to examine the relative contribution of individual reefs to a regional estimate of abundance and reproductive potential of the focal species. For the reefs surveyed for fishes (i.e. 18 out of the 22 in the region, comprising 82% the natural rocky reef habitat 30%) was produced from a relatively small proportion of the regional reef area (c. 10%). Natural nearshore rocky reefs make up only 11% of the area in the newly designated MPAs in this region, but results provide some optimism that regional fisheries could benefit through an increase in overall reproductive output, if adequate increases in size structure of targeted species are realized. PMID:22272326

  7. Quality and Behavior of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary and Nearshore Ocean and Effects of the Ocean Environment on the Survival of Columbia River Juvenile Salmonids, 1989-1994 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, R.C.; Schiewe, Michael H.; Fisher, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    In response to this limited understanding of the factors responsible for the continuing decline of spring chinook salmon in the Columbia River, this research plan was developed. The overall goal of the proposed research is to investigate and identify relationships among smolt quality (measured in the hatchery and after recovery in the estuary and nearshore ocean), environmental conditions in the estuary and nearshore ocean during smolt migration, and long-term survival (as measured by adult returns to the hatchery of origin and contributions to the recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries). 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. 76 FR 80342 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...: NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM) announces availability of the...

  9. 76 FR 57022 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Impact Statement (DEIS) prepared by NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. The...

  10. 77 FR 8219 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U... Federal Approval of the Illinois Coastal Management Program (ICMP). SUMMARY: NOAA's OCRM announces...

  11. 77 FR 53224 - Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ...: Ecosystem inventory and mapping Coastal and marine spatial planning ] Marine Protected Area selection... Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard AGENCY: Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. ACTION: Notice of endorsement of coastal and marine ecological...

  12. Environmental security of coastal seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The bottoms of the coastal seas are contaminated by many man-made objects including a variety of ammunition. This contamination is world wide spread with some areas being highly polluted presenting a serious threat to local population and to visitors as well. All littoral nations are investing lots of effort into the remediation of their coastal areas. In this report an effort to identify the nature of the object on the sea bottom is presented. Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water is confirmed (by visual identification and by using one or several sensors, namely magnetometer, sonar and optical cameras) it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive and/or chemical warfare charge. In our work we propose this to be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel - 'Surveyor'. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system inspects the object for the presence of the threat material by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. The inside of the first prototype of the underwater system 'Surveyor' containing neutron generator, shielding and gamma ray detector is shown in figure. The neutron generator used by the 'Surveyor' is rotated by two step motors so that different volume elements chosen by the relative position of the neutron generator and gamma ray detector could be inspected. In such a way a profile of concentrations could also be measured. The preliminary results from the laboratory tests are presented

  13. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Fire Island National Seashore to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Thieler, E. Robert

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), New York. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. Fire Island consists of stable and washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by lagoons, tidal wetlands and marsh. The areas most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest historic occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change. Implementation of large-scale beach nourishment and other coastal engineering alternatives being considered for Fire Island could alter the CVI computed here. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  14. GREATEM survey in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd allah, S.; Mogi, T.; Femonko, E.

    2014-12-01

    To determine the electric-resistivity structure in coastal areas, airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been used many places. These results showed AEM can reveal seawater depth, sediment thickness, and depth to bedrock. However, until now, AEM could only reveal the resistivity structure to a depth of ˜200 m in coastal areas. Conventional AEM, using an airborne inductive source limits the depth of exploration because the presence of a conductor, such as saline surface water, decreases the penetration of the AEM signal. In order to enhance the depth of exploration, we used a grounded electrical source aligned parallel to the coast line and towed a magnetic receiver in the air. The method, called grounded-electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics, or GREATEM (Mogi et al., 1998), should enhance survey depth in coastal areas, since this method galvanically injects electric current into the ground. The method has increased the depth of exploration to 800 m in on-shore areas (Mogi et al., 2009, Ito et al. 2014). We have carried out a GREATEM survey at Kujukuri beach in central Japan, where an alluvial plain is dominated by sedimentary rocks and shallow water. Another GREATEM survey was performed at northwestern Awaji Island, where granitic rocks crop out onshore. In these studies, we faced issues how do we evaluate an effect of sea water on the data. To circumvent this problem, we used a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) modeling scheme based on the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method (Fomenko and Mogi, 2002) to study the effects of oceanic saltwater on GREATEM survey data at coastal areas. The models consisted of two adjacent layers where sea is a conductive thin sheet placed on top of a unifirm half space ( 100 Ohm-m). Then, we performed numerical forward modeling using the SFD method to generate a 3-D resistivity structure models from GREATEM field survey data at both of Kujukuri beach and the Nojima fault. As a result, we have

  15. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang He; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Bo Li; Guoqian Chen; Coverdale, Tyler C; Altieri, Andrew H; Junhong Bai; Tao Sun; Steven C Pennings; Jianguo Liu; Paul R Ehrlich; Baoshan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impact...

  16. A Robot for Coastal Marine Studies Under Hostile Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consi, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    Robots have long been used for scientific exploration of extremely remote environments such as planetary surfaces and the deep ocean. In addition to these physically remote places, there are many environments that are transiently remote in the sense that they are inaccessible to humans for a period of time. Coastal marine environments fall into this category. While quite accessible (and enjoyable) during good weather, the coast can become as remote as the moon when it is impacted by severe storms or hurricanes. For near shore and shallow water marine science unmanned underwater ground vehicles (UUGVs) are the robots of choice for reliable access under a variety of conditions. Ground vehicles are inherently amphibious being able to operate in complex coastal environments that can range from the completely dry beach, through the transiently wet swash zone, into the surf zone and beyond. During storms, UUGVs provide stable sensor platforms resistant to waves and currents by virtue of being locked to the substrate. In such situations free-swimming robots would be swept away. Mobility during storms enables a UUGV to orient itself to optimally resist forces that would dislodge fixed, moored platforms. Mobility can also enable a UUGV to either avoid burial, or unbury itself after a storm. Finally, the ability to submerge provides a great advantage over buoys and surface vehicles which would be smashed by heavy wave action. We have developed a prototype UUGV to enable new science in the surf zone and other shallow water environments. Named LMAR for Lake Michigan Amphibious Robot, it is designed to be deployed from the dry beach, enter the water to perform a near-shore survey, and return to the deployment point for recovery. The body of the robot is a heavy flattened box (base dimensions: 1.07 m X 1.10 m X .393 m, dry weight: ~127 kg, displacement: ~ 45 kg) with a low center of gravity for stability and robust construction to withstand waves and currents. It is topped by a

  17. Impact of environmental change on primary production in model marine coastal ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems, including estuaries, provide a range of services to humans, mediated by the species within these ecosystems. Microphytobenthos (MPB) play a vital role in many key processes within estuarine ecosystems, and provide a food source for higher trophic levels. Anthropogenic activity is already causing changes to ecosystems, through pollution, overexploitation and, more recently, climate change. Increasing temperature and carbon dioxide levels, and altered biodiver...

  18. The bivalve Laternula elliptica: physiological and molecular response to changing coastal Antarctic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Husmann, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and glacier-disintegration at the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are presently altering environmental conditions in shallow coastal areas. Rising water temperatures, enhanced ice scouring impacts as well as increasing input of inorganic sediments from melt water runoff are anticipated to particularly affect slow growing sessile benthic filter feeders like the Antarctic soft shell clam Laternula elliptica, a long-lived species which is a major component of the nearsh...

  19. Human resources training in coastal science

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayaraghavan, S.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Curr_Trends_Coastal_Mar_Sci_1990_130.pdf.txt stream_source_info Curr_Trends_Coastal_Mar_Sci_1990_130.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  20. Types and Functions of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; A. Hughes, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives include sheltering of harbour basins and harbour entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection of...

  1. Remote sensing of coastal processes and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.

    1981-01-01

    The use of remote sensors and multispectral analysis techniques in solving environmental and resource management problems in the coastal zone is illustrated. The specific applications discussed include the analysis of coastal vegetation and productivity, remote sensing of estuarine fronts and their effects on oil dispersion, drift and dispersion of ocean-dumped wastes, and multispectral analysis of water pollutants and suspended sediment concentration.

  2. Reliability-Based Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the application of reliability theory for conceptual design and evaluation of coastal structures. It is without the scope to discuss the validity and quality of the various design formulae available for coastal structures. The contents of the paper is a...

  3. Carbon exchange among tropical coastal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillon, S.; Connolly, R.; Nagelkerken, I.

    2009-01-01

    Tropical rivers provide about 60% of the global transport of organic and inorganic carbon from continents to the coastal zone. These inputs combine with organic material from productive mangrove forests, seagrass beds, and coral reefs to make tropical coastal ecosystems important components in the g

  4. Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;

    2014-01-01

    Existing coastal management and defense approaches are not well suited to meet the challenges of climate change and related uncertanities. Professionals in this field need a more dynamic, systematic and multidisciplinary approach. Written by an international group of experts, Coastal Risk Managem...

  5. The use of mangroves in coastal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Apart from many ecological advantages, mangroves in front of a coastal defence may lower the construction and maintenance costs of the defence. Although mangroves have hardly any reducing effect on water levels (and on tsunami impact) mangroves may significantly reduce wave attack on a coastal dike,

  6. Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Existing coastal management and defense approaches are not well suited to meet the challenges of climate change and related uncertanities. Professionals in this field need a more dynamic, systematic and multidisciplinary approach. Written by an international group of experts, "Coastal Risk...... Management in a Changing Climate" provides innovative, multidisciplinary best practices for mitigating the effects of climate change on coastal structures. Based on the Theseus program, the book includes eight study sites across Europe, with specific attention to the most vulnerable coastal environments such...... as deltas, estuaries and wetlands, where many large cities and industrial areas are located. Integrated risk assessment tools for considering the effects of climate change and related uncertainties. Presents latest insights on coastal engineering defenses. Provides integrated guidelines for setting...

  7. A Review Paper on Coastal Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing Bhable

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the coastal population increasing, storms have been inflicting unprecedented losses on coastal communities. Coastal agencies require advance information on the predicted path, intensity and progress of a storm and associated waves and storm surges; Near-real-time information during the peak of the storm to monitor flooding and control rescue operations; And post storm reports to assess the damage and plan the recovery. The same holds true for other disasters, such as oil spills and algal blooms. Coastal communities are also facing a rising sea level, caused mainly by global warming. Airborne and satellite remote sensors, such as multispectral imagers, LIDAR and RADAR, are now able to provide Most of the information required for emergency response and coastal management.

  8. Salt Marsh as a Coastal Filter for the Oceans: Changes in Function with Experimental Increases in Nitrogen Loading and Sea-Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joanna L.; Zavaleta, Erika S.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes are among Earth's most productive ecosystems and provide a number of ecosystem services, including interception of watershed-derived nitrogen (N) before it reaches nearshore oceans. Nitrogen pollution and climate change are two dominant drivers of global-change impacts on ecosystems, yet their interacting effects at the land-sea interface are poorly understood. We addressed how sea-level rise and anthropogenic N additions affect the salt marsh ecosystem process of nitrogen uptake using a field-based, manipulative experiment. We crossed simulated sea-level change and ammonium-nitrate (NH4NO3)-addition treatments in a fully factorial design to examine their potentially interacting effects on emergent marsh plants in a central California estuary. We measured above- and belowground biomass and tissue nutrient concentrations seasonally and found that N-addition had a significant, positive effect on a) aboveground biomass, b) plant tissue N concentrations, c) N stock sequestered in plants, and d) shoot:root ratios in summer. Relative sea-level rise did not significantly affect biomass, with the exception of the most extreme sea-level-rise simulation, in which all plants died by the summer of the second year. Although there was a strong response to N-addition treatments, salt marsh responses varied by season. Our results suggest that in our site at Coyote Marsh, Elkhorn Slough, coastal salt marsh plants serve as a robust N trap and coastal filter; this function is not saturated by high background annual N inputs from upstream agriculture. However, if the marsh is drowned by rising seas, as in our most extreme sea-level rise treatment, marsh plants will no longer provide the ecosystem service of buffering the coastal ocean from eutrophication. PMID:22879873

  9. Salt marsh as a coastal filter for the oceans: changes in function with experimental increases in nitrogen loading and sea-level rise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna L Nelson

    Full Text Available Coastal salt marshes are among Earth's most productive ecosystems and provide a number of ecosystem services, including interception of watershed-derived nitrogen (N before it reaches nearshore oceans. Nitrogen pollution and climate change are two dominant drivers of global-change impacts on ecosystems, yet their interacting effects at the land-sea interface are poorly understood. We addressed how sea-level rise and anthropogenic N additions affect the salt marsh ecosystem process of nitrogen uptake using a field-based, manipulative experiment. We crossed simulated sea-level change and ammonium-nitrate (NH(4NO(3-addition treatments in a fully factorial design to examine their potentially interacting effects on emergent marsh plants in a central California estuary. We measured above- and belowground biomass and tissue nutrient concentrations seasonally and found that N-addition had a significant, positive effect on a aboveground biomass, b plant tissue N concentrations, c N stock sequestered in plants, and d shoot:root ratios in summer. Relative sea-level rise did not significantly affect biomass, with the exception of the most extreme sea-level-rise simulation, in which all plants died by the summer of the second year. Although there was a strong response to N-addition treatments, salt marsh responses varied by season. Our results suggest that in our site at Coyote Marsh, Elkhorn Slough, coastal salt marsh plants serve as a robust N trap and coastal filter; this function is not saturated by high background annual N inputs from upstream agriculture. However, if the marsh is drowned by rising seas, as in our most extreme sea-level rise treatment, marsh plants will no longer provide the ecosystem service of buffering the coastal ocean from eutrophication.

  10. EAARL Coastal Topography-Maryland and Delaware, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Nayegandhi, Amar; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline beachface, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on November 28 and 30, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA

  11. EAARL Coastal Topography-Mississippi and Alabama Barrier Islands, Post-Hurricane Gustav, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands, acquired post-Hurricane Gustav (September 2008 hurricane) on September 8, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the

  12. EAARL Coastal Topography-Eastern Florida, Post-Hurricane Jeanne, 2004: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.; Klipp, E.S.; Nagle, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Jeanne (September 2004 hurricane) on October 1, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the

  13. EAARL Coastal Topography-Eastern Louisiana Barrier Islands, Post-Hurricane Gustav, 2008: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Louisiana barrier islands, acquired post-Hurricane Gustav (September 2008 hurricane) on September 6 and 7, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using

  14. Nuclear and isotopic techniques for the characterization of submarine groundwater discharge in coastal zones. Results of a coordinated research project 2001-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of nearshore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability, making direct assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. An initiative on SGD characterization was developed by the IAEA and UNESCO in 2000 as a 5-year plan to assess methodologies and importance of SGD for coastal zone management. The IAEA component included a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques for the Characterization of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) in Coastal Zones, carried out jointly by the IAEA's Isotope Hydrology Section in Vienna and the Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco, together with 9 laboratories from 8 countries. In addition to the IAEA, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) have provided support. This overall effort originally grew from a project sponsored by the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR) who established a Working Group (112) on SGD. The activities included joint meetings (Vienna 2000, 2002, and 2005; Syracuse, Italy, 2001; and Monaco 2004), sampling expeditions (Australia 2000; Sicily 2001 and 2002; New York 2002; Brazil 2003; and Mauritius 2005), joint analytical work, data evaluation, and preparation of joint publications. The objectives of the CRP included the improvement of capabilities for water resources and environmental management of coastal zones; application of recently developed nuclear and isotopic techniques suitable for quantitative estimation of various components of SGD; understanding of the influence of SGD on coastal processes and on groundwater

  15. Phytoplankton Community Structure in the Tianjin Nearshore Waters during the Summer and Autumn of 2013%2013年春夏季天津近岸海域浮游植物的群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞少伟; 孙韧; 梅鹏蔚; 张震; 刘宪斌

    2015-01-01

    Tianjin is a coastal city of the western Bohai Sea.Rapid economic growth,especially in the port area, has increased pollutant loads discharged to nearshore waters and led to more severe environmental deterioration in recent years.Bohai Bay is a typical semi-closed bay,and low exchange with the open waters has caused the accu-mulation of nutrients and resulted in the frequent occurrence of red tides.The phytoplankton community is sensitive to the environmental change and widely used to assess the status of coastal aquatic ecosystems.In June and August of 2013,phytoplankton and water samples were collected in the Tianjin nearshore waters at 15 sites.The phyto-plankton community structure was analyzed and the physical-chemical parameters of the water were determined to provide basic data on the coastal ecosystem.Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)was used to analyze the re-lationship between the phytoplankton community and environmental variables in order to predict community succes-sion and establish the level of pollution control necessary to protect the environment of this region.Phytoplankton was collected with a type III plankton net towed vertically from the bottom to the surface at each sampling site,fixed with 1 .5% Lugol′s solution and preserved with 5% formaldehyde.The identification and counting of the phyto-plankton was conducted under an Olympus BX5 1 microscope.Water temperature,pH,dissolved oxygen and salini-ty were measured in situ with a multifunctional water quality analyzer,transparency was measured with a secchi disk,and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP),nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N),nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N),ammonia ni-trogen (NH4-N)and silicates(SiO3 )were measured in the laboratory.A total of 72 phytoplankton species were re-corded in the two seasons,39 in summer and 63 in autumn.The phytoplankton community was composed primarily of Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta,with Bacillariophyta dominating,and fewer species of Cyanophyta and Eugleno

  16. Disjoint geographical distribution of intertidal and nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Southern Hemisphere Distribuciones geográficas disyuntas de invertebrados bentónicos intermareales y del submareal somero en el Hemisferio Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Juan C.; RICARDO GUIÑEZ

    2000-01-01

    Biogeographical explanations for the extant and paleo disjoint geographical distribution in the southern hemisphere of five species of nearshore marine benthic invertebrates: Gaimardia trapesina, Ostrea chilensis, Pyura stolonifera taxonomic complex, Aulacomya ater and Concholepas concholepas, showing distinctive reproductive strategies and early life history characteristics are reviewed and analyzed. Through the use of published and new information we contrasted the following hypotheses: a) ...

  17. Using models in Integrated Ecosystem Assessment of coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Melaku Canu, Donata; Libralato, Simone

    2014-05-01

    Numerical Models can greatly contribute to integrated ecological assessment of coastal and marine systems. Indeed, models can: i) assist in the identification of efficient sampling strategy; ii) provide space interpolation and time extrapolation of experiemtanl data which are based on the knowedge on processes dynamics and causal realtionships which is coded within the model, iii) provide estimates of hardly measurable indicators. Furthermore model can provide indication on potential effects of implementation of alternative management policies. Finally, by providing a synthetic representation of an ideal system, based on its essential dynamic, model return a picture of ideal behaviour of a system in the absence of external perturbation, alteration, noise, which might help in the identification of reference behaivuor. As an important example, model based reanalyses of biogeochemical and ecological properties are an urgent need for the estimate of the environmental status and the assessment of efficacy of conservation and environmental policies, also with reference to the enforcement of the European MSFD. However, the use of numerical models, and particularly of ecological models, in modeling and in environmental management still is far from be the rule, possibly because of a lack in realizing the benefits which a full integration of modeling and montoring systems might provide, possibly because of a lack of trust in modeling results, or because many problems still exists in the development, validation and implementation of models. For istance, assessing the validity of model results is a complex process that requires the definition of appropriate indicators, metrics, methodologies and faces with the scarcity of real-time in-situ biogeochemical data. Furthermore, biogeochemical models typically consider dozens of variables which are heavily undersampled. Here we show how the integration of mathematical model and monitoring data can support integrated ecosystem

  18. Chirp navigation tracklines collected by Virginia Institute of Marine Science in 2005 along the nearshore region of the northern Outer Banks, NC (nsc2005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  19. Chirp shotpoint navigation collected by Virginia Institute of Marine Science along the nearshore region of the northern Outer Banks, NC (nsc2002_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. 0.6 meter backscatter JPEG image (with world file) of the nearshore seafloor north of Duck, NC (mosaic1.jpg UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...