WorldWideScience

Sample records for alters nearshore coastal

  1. Development of multi-year land cover data to assess wildfire impacts to coastal watersheds and the nearshore environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Katherine D.

    In the Mediterranean ecosystems of coastal California, wildfire is a common disturbance that can significantly alter vegetation in watersheds that transport sediment and nutrients to the adjacent nearshore oceanic environment. We assess the impact of two wildfires that burned in 2008 on land cover and to the nearshore environment along the Big Sur coast in central California. We created a multi-year land cover dataset to assess changes to coastal watersheds as a result of fire. This land cover dataset was then used to model changes in nonpoint source pollutants transported to the nearshore environment. Results indicate post-fire increases in percent export compared to pre-fire years and also link wildfire severity to the specific land cover changes that subsequently increase exports of pollutants and sediment to the nearshore environment. This approach is a replicable across watersheds and also provides a framework for including the nearshore environment as a value at risk terrestrial land management revolving around wildfire, including suppression, thinning, and other activities that change land cover at a landscape scale.

  2. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research: U.S. Integrated Coastal Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Hapke, C. J.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Mulligan, R. P.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.

    2016-02-01

    The authors, representing the acting Nearshore Advisory Council, have developed an implementation plan for a U.S. Nearshore Research Program based on the 2015 Future of Nearshore Processes report that was authored by the nearshore community. The objectives of the plan are to link research programs across federal agencies, NGOs, industry, and academia into an integrated national program and to increase academic and NGO participation in federal agency nearshore processes research. A primary recommendation is interagency collaboration to build a research program that will coordinate and fund U.S. nearshore processes research across three broad research themes: 1) long-term coastal evolution due to natural and anthropogenic processes; 2) extreme events; and 3) physical, biological and chemical processes impacting human and ecosystem health. The plan calls for a new program to be developed by an executive committee of federal agency leaders, NGOs, and an academic representative, created similarly to the existing NOPP program. This leadership will be established prior to the 2016 Ocean Sciences meeting and will have agreed on responsibilities and a schedule for development of the research program. To begin to understand the scope of today's U.S. coastal research investment, a survey was distributed to ten federal agency R&D program heads. Six of the ten agencies indicated that they fund coastal research, with a combined annual coastal research budget of nearly 100 million (NSF has not responded). The priority of the three research themes were ranked nearly equally and potential research support ranged from 15-19 million for each theme, with approximately 12 million as direct contribution to academic research. Beyond addressing our fundamental science questions, it is critical that the nearshore community stay organized to represent academic interests on the new executive committee. The program goal is the integration of academic, NGO, and federal agencies.

  3. Modeling the impacts of wildfire on runoff and pollutant transport from coastal watersheds to the nearshore environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Katherine D; Kolden, Crystal A

    2015-03-15

    Wildfire is a common disturbance that can significantly alter vegetation in watersheds and affect the rate of sediment and nutrient transport to adjacent nearshore oceanic environments. Changes in runoff resulting from heterogeneous wildfire effects are not well-understood due to both limitations in the field measurement of runoff and temporally-limited spatial data available to parameterize runoff models. We apply replicable, scalable methods for modeling wildfire impacts on sediment and nonpoint source pollutant export into the nearshore environment, and assess relationships between wildfire severity and runoff. Nonpoint source pollutants were modeled using a GIS-based empirical deterministic model parameterized with multi-year land cover data to quantify fire-induced increases in transport to the nearshore environment. Results indicate post-fire concentration increases in phosphorus by 161 percent, sediments by 350 percent and total suspended solids (TSS) by 53 percent above pre-fire years. Higher wildfire severity was associated with the greater increase in exports of pollutants and sediment to the nearshore environment, primarily resulting from the conversion of forest and shrubland to grassland. This suggests that increasing wildfire severity with climate change will increase potential negative impacts to adjacent marine ecosystems. The approach used is replicable and can be utilized to assess the effects of other types of land cover change at landscape scales. It also provides a planning and prioritization framework for management activities associated with wildfire, including suppression, thinning, and post-fire rehabilitation, allowing for quantification of potential negative impacts to the nearshore environment in coastal basins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Macrobenthos in the nearshore coastal system of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mathew, A.; Govindan, K.

    . Selected water quality parameters like S ppt, DO, BOD, nutrients etc. were monitored. Macrobenthos and water quality of the Harbour-Thana creek-System (HTS) and the Bassein creek-coastal system (BCS) were studied and compared. HTS sustained relatively...

  5. Benthic foraminifera baseline assemblages from a coastal nearshore reef complex on the central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie; Perry, Chris; Smithers, Scott; Morgan, Kyle

    2016-04-01

    Declining water quality due to river catchment modification since European settlement (c. 1850 A.D.) represents a major threat to the health of coral reefs on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), particularly for those located in the coastal waters of the GBR's inner-shelf. These nearshore reefs are widely perceived to be most susceptible to declining water quality owing to their close proximity to river point sources. Despite this, nearshore reefs have been relatively poorly studied with the impacts and magnitudes of environmental degradation still remaining unclear. This is largely due to ongoing debates concerning the significance of increased sediment yields against naturally high background sedimentary regimes. Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as tools for monitoring environmental and ecological change on coral reefs. On the GBR, the majority of studies have focussed on the spatial distributions of contemporary benthic foraminiferal assemblages. While baseline assemblages from other environments (e.g. inshore reefs and mangroves) have been described, very few records exist for nearshore reefs. Here, we present preliminary results from the first palaeoecological study of foraminiferal assemblages of nearshore reefs on the central GBR. Cores were recovered from the nearshore reef complex at Paluma Shoals using percussion techniques. Recovery was 100%, capturing the entire Holocene reef sequence of the selected reef structures. Radiocarbon dating and subsequent age-depth modelling techniques were used to identify reef sequences pre-dating European settlement. Benthic foraminifera assemblages were reconstructed from the identified sequences to establish pre-European ecological baselines with the aim of providing a record of foraminiferal distribution during vertical reef accretion and against which contemporary ecological change may be assessed.

  6. The European water framework directive: A challenge for nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Ángel

    2005-09-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of groundwater, inland surface waters, estuarine waters, and coastal waters. The WFD constitutes a new view of the water resources management in Europe because, for the first time, water management is: (i) based mainly upon biological and ecological elements, with ecosystems being at the centre of the management decisions; (ii) applied to European water bodies, as a whole; and (iii) based upon the whole river basin, including also the adjacent coastal area. Although the marine water bodies affected by the WFD relate to only 19.8% of the whole of the European continental shelf, its application constitutes a challenge and an opportunity in nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research. This contribution highlights some of the main tasks and the research to be undertaken in the coming years, proposing investigations into: typologies; physico-chemical processes; indicator species; reference conditions; integration of the quality assessment; methodologies in determining ecological status, etc.

  7. Dynamics of oxygen depletion in the nearshore of a coastal embayment of the southern Benguela upwelling system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pitcher, GC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available is characterized by seasonally recurrent hypoxia (<1.42 ml l(sup-1)) associated with a deep pool of oxygen-depleted water and episodic anoxia (<0.02 ml l(sup-1)) driven by the nearshore (<20 m isobath) decay of red tide. Coastal wind forcing influences DO...

  8. Remote sensing of Qatar nearshore habitats with perspectives for coastal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Christopher; Dupont, Jennifer; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Hobeichi, Sanaa; Palandro, David; Purkis, Sam

    2016-04-30

    A framework is proposed for utilizing remote sensing and ground-truthing field data to map benthic habitats in the State of Qatar, with potential application across the Arabian Gulf. Ideally the methodology can be applied to optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of mapping the nearshore environment to identify sensitive habitats, monitor for change, and assist in management decisions. The framework is applied to a case study for northeastern Qatar with a key focus on identifying high sensitivity coral habitat. The study helps confirm the presence of known coral and provides detail on a region in the area of interest where corals have not been previously mapped. Challenges for the remote sensing methodology associated with natural heterogeneity of the physical and biological environment are addressed. Recommendations on the application of this approach to coastal environmental risk assessment and management planning are discussed as well as future opportunities for improvement of the framework. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of a Land-Based, Dual-Parameter Analyzer for Tracking Ocean Acidification in Nearshore Coastal Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M.; Alin, S. R.; Evans, W.; Sutton, A.; Hales, B. R.; Newton, J.; Feely, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    In 2007 to 2008, U.S. Pacific Northwest shellfish hatcheries experienced unprecedented larval mortality, attributed to upwelling along the Washington-Oregon coast that brought seawater enriched in anthropogenic CO2 and undersaturated with respect to aragonite to the surface. In response, several hatcheries have been outfitted with land-based analyzers to measure CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and total dissolved CO2 (TCO2) through U.S. IOOS and NOAA OAP funding. This analyzer, developed at Oregon State University and known as the `Burke-O-Lator,' allows users to track CO2 system parameters in real-time. The data are available in near real-time on the IOOS Pacific Region Ocean Acidification (IPACOA) data portal, which feeds to the Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network (GOA-ON). Here, we explore the broader use of this system as an environmental monitoring tool. Most of the high-quality OA time-series locations in GOA-ON are in the open and coastal ocean, yet many areas of biological interest—such as shellfish hatcheries, shellfish farms, and coastal laboratories—are in the nearshore area of the coastal zone. A truly globally integrated assessment of OA must include nearshore conditions, which have been shown to be quite different in terms of variability, drivers, and range. We evaluated two pCO2 time-series from the coastal nearshore: the Taylor Shellfish Hatchery Burke-O-Lator system on the shore of Dabob Bay in Puget Sound, WA, and the nearby but offshore Dabob ORCA buoy MAPCO2 system within the bay. Preliminary comparison of three years of data reveals similar patterns despite differences in location and seawater intake depth, highlighting the opportunity for the addition of coupled nearshore biology and biogeochemistry measurements in GOA-ON. In addition, the well-calibrated, dual-parameter nature of the system is important for constraining nearshore chemistry, as biology, groundwater, and river inputs can lead to strong variability in carbonate

  10. Nearshore Coastal Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Micro-Tidal Beach (NCSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu, A.; Figlus, J.; Mendoza, T.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.; Pieterse, A.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; DiCosmo, N. R.; Wellman, N.; Garcia-Nava, H.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; Roberts, T.; López-González, J.; Bravo, M.; Ojeda, E.; Medellín, G.; Appendini, C. M.; Figueroa, B.; González-Leija, M.; Enriquez, C.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Salles, P.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive field experiment devoted to the study of coastal processes on a micro-tidal beach was conducted from March 30th to April 12th 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán México. Wave conditions in the study area are controlled by local (i.e., sea-breezes) and meso-scale (i.e., Nortes) meteorological events. Simultaneous measurements of waves, tides, winds, currents, sediment transport, runup, and beach morphology were obtained in this experiment. Very dense nearshore instrumentation arrays allow us the study of the cross-/along- shore variability of surf/swash zone dynamics during different forcing conditions. Strong sea-breeze wind events produced a diurnal cycle with a maximum wind speed of 14 m/s. The persistent sea-breeze system forces small-amplitude (Hs1 m) Norte event, lasting 48 hours, reached the coast on April 8th generating a long-period swell (Tp>10 s) arriving from the NNW. This event induced an eastward net sediment transport across a wide surf zone. However, long-term observations of sand impoundment at a groin located near the study area suggests that the net sediment transport in the northern Yucatan peninsula is controlled by sea-breeze events and hence swash zone dynamics play an important role in the net sediment budget of this region. A comparative study of surf and swash zone dynamics during both sea-breeze and Norte events will be presented. The Institute of Engineering of UNAM, throughout an International Collaborative Project with the University of Delaware, and CONACYT (CB-167692) provided financial support. The first author acknowledges ONR Global for providing financial support throughout the Visiting Scientist Program.

  11. The future of nearshore processes research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, Nicole A.; Feddersen, Falk; Foster, Diane; Hapke, Cheryl J.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Tuba Ӧzkan-Haller, H.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Raubenheimer, Britt

    2014-01-01

    The nearshore is the transition region between land and the continental shelf including (from onshore to offshore) coastal plains, wetlands, estuaries, coastal cliffs, dunes, beaches, surf zones (regions of wave breaking), and the inner shelf (Figure ES-1). Nearshore regions are vital to the national economy, security, commerce, and recreation. The nearshore is dynamically evolving, is often densely populated, and is under increasing threat from sea level rise, long-term erosion, extreme storms, and anthropogenic influences. Worldwide, almost one billion people live at elevations within 10 m of present sea level. Long-term erosion threatens communities, infrastructure, ecosystems, and habitat. Extreme storms can cause billions of dollars of damage. Degraded water quality impacts ecosystem and human health. Nearshore processes, the complex interactions between water, sediment, biota, and humans, must be understood and predicted to manage this often highly developed yet vulnerable nearshore environment. Over the past three decades, the understanding of nearshore processes has improved. However, societal needs are growing with increased coastal urbanization and threats of future climate change, and significant scientific challenges remain. To address these challenges, members of academia, industry, and federal agencies (USGS, USACE, NPS, NOAA, FEMA, ONR) met at the “The Past and Future of Nearshore Processes Research: Reflections on the Sallenger Years and a New Vision for the Future” workshop to develop a nearshore processes research vision where societal needs and science challenges intersect. The resulting vision is comprised of three broad research themes: Long-term coastal evolution due to natural and anthropogenic processes: As global climate change alters the rates of sea level rise and potentially storm patterns and coastal urbanization increases over the coming decades, an understanding of coastal evolution is critical. Improved knowledge of long

  12. Trophic dynamics of few selected nearshore coastal finfishes with emphasis on prawns as prey item

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velip, Dinesh T.; Rivonker, Chandrashekher U.

    2018-06-01

    A trophic dynamic study of marine finfishes was undertaken based on stomach content analysis of twenty four species (N = 1742) collected from the nearshore coastal waters off Goa, west coast of India (15°29‧07.6″ N to 15°34‧44.3″ N, and 73°38‧10.5″ E to 73°46‧03.1″ E) during November 2010 to May 2013. This study aimed to thoroughly understand the feeding attributes of finfishes, and comprehend the possible effects of bycatch-related loss of biomass on trophic ecology. The study assessed diet preferences of the finfishes, their feeding guilds, significance of prawns as prey items, and the influence of mouth parts in prey selection. Altogether 84 prey taxa were identified from the stomach contents. Percentage Index of Relative Importance (IRI) values revealed that zooplankton (34.74), prawns (21.71), phytoplankton (19.80), and teleosts (18.62) were the major prey categories, and, among prawns, Metapenaeus dobsoni (%IRI = 19.34) was the single-most important prey item. Cluster analysis revealed three major trophic guilds namely 'teleost feeders' (mean Trophic Level (TrL) = 4.06 ± 0.42; mean B = 0.46 ± 0.24), 'zooplankton feeders' (mean TrL = 3.43 ± 0.29; mean B = 0.23 ± 0.13), and 'prawn feeders' (mean TrL = 3.86 ± 0.25; mean B = 0.48 ± 0.32), with low diet overlap among them. Principal Component Analysis of prey categories and mouth parts of finfishes suggested that zooplanktivory is associated with gill raker density as well as number of gill arches bearing rakers, whereas gape height determined the size of large-sized prey (fish and invertebrates). The study identified M. dobsoni, mysis and teleosts as highly influential prey for predatory finfishes. The present results could be useful to resolve broader issues in fisheries management.

  13. Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound: A Research Plan in Support of the Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    2Puget Sound nearshore ecosystems encompass the bluffs, beaches, tide flats, estuaries, rocky shores, lagoons , salt marshes, and other shoreline features...investigations of intertidal benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages along Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca (e.g., Long and others, 1983

  14. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for nearshore observations at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Haas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    An oceanographic field study conducted in February 2010 investigated processes that control nearshore flow and sediment transport dynamics at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation setup, and locations of the sensor deployments. The data collected, and supporting meteorological and streamflow observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, the data are available as part of this report.

  15. Anthropogenic influences on shoreline and nearshore evolution in the San Francisco Bay coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, K.L.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of four historical bathymetric surveys over a 132-year period has revealed significant changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar, an ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay estuary. From 1873 to 2005 the San Francisco Bar vertically-eroded an average of 80 cm over a 125 km2 area, which equates to a total volume loss of 100 ± 52 million m3 of fine- to coarse-grained sand. Comparison of the surveys indicates the entire ebb-tidal delta contracted radially, with the crest moving landward an average of 1 km. Long-term erosion of the ebb-tidal delta is hypothesized to be due to a reduction in the tidal prism of San Francisco Bay and a decrease in coastal sediment supply, both as a result of anthropogenic activities. Prior research indicates that the tidal prism of the estuary was reduced by 9% from filling, diking, and sedimentation. Compilation of historical records dating back to 1900 reveals that a minimum of 200 million m3 of sediment has been permanently removed from the San Francisco Bay coastal system through dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining. Of this total, ~54 million m3 of sand-sized or coarser sediment was removed from central San Francisco Bay. With grain sizes comparable to the ebb-tidal delta, and its direct connection to the bay mouth, removal of sediments from central San Francisco Bay may limit the sand supply to the delta and open coast beaches. SWAN wave modeling illustrates that changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar have altered the alongshore wave energy distribution at adjacent Ocean Beach, and thus may be a significant factor in a persistent beach erosion ‘hot spot’ occurring in the area. Shoreline change analyses show that the sandy shoreline in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta experienced long-term (1850s/1890s to 2002) and short-term (1960s/1980s to 2002) accretion while the adjacent sandy shoreline exposed to open-ocean waves experienced long-term and short-term erosion. Therefore

  16. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The open ocean is a modest source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other natural and anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Coastal regions are more intense sources of CH4 to the atmosphere than open oceanic waters, in particular estuarine zones. The CH4 emission to the atmosphere from coastal areas is sustained by riverine inputs and methanogenesis in the sediments due to high organic matter (OM) deposition. Additionally, natural gas seeps are sources of CH4 to bottom waters leading to high dissolved CH4 concentrations in bottom waters (from tenths of nmol L-1 up to several µmol L-1). We report a data set of dissolved CH4 concentrations obtained at nine fixed stations in the Belgian coastal zone (Southern North Sea), during one yearly cycle, with a bi-monthly frequency in spring, and a monthly frequency during the rest of the year. This is a coastal area with multiple possible sources of CH4 such as from rivers and gassy sediments, and where intense phytoplankton blooms are dominated by the high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producing micro-algae Phaeocystis globosa, leading to DMSP and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations. Furthermore, the BCZ is a site of important OM sedimentation and accumulation unlike the rest of the North Sea. Spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were very marked with a minimum yearly average of 9 nmol L-1 in one of the most off-shore stations and maximum yearly average of 139 nmol L-1 at one of the most near-shore stations. The spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were related to the organic matter (OM) content of sediments, although the highest concentrations seemed to also be related to inputs of CH4 from gassy sediments associated to submerged peat. In the near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments with a high OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration closely followed the seasonal cycle of water temperature, suggesting the control of methanogenesis by temperature in these OM

  17. Contribution from coastal laterites to the nearshore placers of central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Srinivas, K.

    and basalts. The pebbles show genetic relation with the coastal laterites and Deccan trap basalts indicating their derivation from them before the last Holocene transgression. The petrography, mineralogical and geochemical analyses suggest that the minerals...

  18. Nearshore coastal bathymetry data collected in 2016 from West Ship Island to Horn Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Stalk, Chelsea A.; Fredericks, Jake J.; Flocks, James G.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Farmer, Andrew S.; Tuten, Thomas M.; Buster, Noreen A.

    2018-04-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, conducted bathymetric surveys of the nearshore waters surrounding Ship and Horn Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi. The objective of this study was to establish base-level elevation conditions around West Ship, East Ship, and Horn Islands and their associated active littoral system prior to restoration activities. These activities include the closure of Camille Cut and the placement of sediment in the littoral zone of East Ship Island. These surveys can be compared with future surveys to monitor sediment migration patterns post-restoration and can also be measured against historic bathymetric datasets to further our understanding of island evolution.The USGS collected 667 line-kilometers (km) of single-beam bathymetry data and 844 line-km of interferometric swath bathymetry data in July 2016 under Field Activity Number 2016-347-FA. Data are provided in three datums: (1) the International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 (ellipsoid height); (2) the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) CORS96 realization and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 with respect to the GEOID12B model (orthometric height); and (3) NAD83 (CORS96) and Mean Lower Low Water (tidal datum). Data products, including x,y,zpoint datasets, trackline shapefiles, digital and handwritten Field Activity Collection Systems logs, 50-meter digital elevation model, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata, are available for download.

  19. A conceptual framework for Lake Michigan coastal/nearshore ecosystems, with application to Lake Michigan Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelbach, Paul W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Bunnell, David Bo; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rogers, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs) within the Great Lakes region are examples of broad-scale, collaborative resource-management efforts that require a sound ecosystems approach. Yet, the LaMP process is lacking a holistic framework that allows these individual actions to be planned and understood within the broader context of the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this paper we (1) introduce a conceptual framework that unifies ideas and language among Great Lakes managers and scientists, whose focus areas range from tributary watersheds to open-lake waters, and (2) illustrate how the framework can be used to outline the geomorphic, hydrologic biological, and societal processes that underlie several goals of the Lake Michigan LaMP, thus providing a holistic and fairly comprehensive roadmap for tackling these challenges. For each selected goal, we developed a matrix that identifies the key ecosystem processes within the cell for each lake zone and each discipline; we then provide one example where a process is poorly understood and a second where a process is understood, but its impact or importance is unclear. Implicit in these objectives was our intention to highlight the importance of the Great Lakes coastal/nearshore zone. Although the coastal/nearshore zone is the important linkage zone between the watershed and open-lake zones—and is the zone where most LaMP issues are focused--scientists and managers have a relatively poor understanding of how the coastal/nearshore zone functions. We envision follow-up steps including (1) collaborative development of a more detailed and more complete conceptual model of how (and where) identified processes are thought to function, and (2) a subsequent gap analysis of science and monitoring priorities.

  20. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography

  1. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water Research...

  2. Organic Carbon Loading in Tropical Near-Shore Ecosystems: the Role of Mangrove Lagoons and Channels in Coastal Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E.; Morell, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Low energy tropical Caribbean shores are often dominated by highly productive mangrove ecosystems that thrive on land borne inorganic nutrient inputs and whose net production results in significant export of litter and dissolved organic compounds (DOC). These organic matrixes can be effectively transported to nearby ecosystems, including coral reefs whose vulnerability to excessive organic loading has been widely documented. This study documents the seaward transport and transformation of organic carbon from mangrove bays, trough near-shore reef ecosystems and out to open waters in the La Parguera Marine Reserve (LPMR). Considering in-situ colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) as a tracer for DOC, absorption coefficient values (a350) were observed in the 6.13-0.02 m-1 and 14.08-0.06 m-1 during the dry (from 0 to 0.18 inches of rain) and wet seasons (from 0.68 to 4.76 inches of rain), respectively. Spectral properties (S275-295 and SR) calculations indicate that DOC is predominantly of terrestrial origin and found in high concentrations in enclosed mangrove bays and canals. Data evidences a strong gradient in CDOM concentration decreasing t from inshore to outer shelf waters. Rain precipitation correlated well with high CDOM values (aλ values doubled) and forced LPMR to behave similarly to a river influenced estuary as shown when CDOM is correlated with salinity, contrary to its predominant negative estuary profile. When correlating CDOM with pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations, it is evident that high organic matter content is driving ocean acidification in the nearshore areas. The non-conservative behavior of CDOM implies that other processes besides dilution may play a significant role in its spatial distribution.

  3. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  4. Nearshoring Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Brazinskas, Sigitas; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The principal objective of this paper is to unravel and assess current nearshoring practices and their outlook in the Baltic region. Design/methodology/approach: We draw on the offshoring and outsourcing literature and use mixed methods of enquiry, including case studies, survey techniques...... and secondary statistical data. Part of the empirical base of the study is an examination of three Scandinavian firms that offshore their operations to vendors in the Baltics. To provide a more complete view of the practices and processes of offshoring in the region, we complement the case studies of Swedish...

  5. USING FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED (FTIR TO CHARACTERIZE TSUNAMI DEPOSITS IN NEAR-SHORE AND COASTAL WATERS OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pongpiachan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the tsunami cycle requires a simple method for identification of tsunami backwash deposits. This study investigates Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy followed by careful analysis of variance (ANOVA, Gaussian distribution, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA for the discrimination of typical marine sediments and tsunami backwash deposits. In order to test the suitability of FTIR spectra as innovative methods for classifications of tsunami deposits, typical marine sediments and terrestrial soils were classified into three zones, namely zone-1 (i.e. typical marine sediments, zone-2 (i.e. including tsunami backwash deposits and zone-3 (i.e. coastal terrestrial soils. HCA was performed to group the spectra according to their spectral similarity in a dendrogram and successfully separate FTIR spectra of all three sampling zones into two main clusters with five sub-clusters. The simplicifolious (i.e. single-leafed type of dendrogram was observed with the strong dissimilarity of terrestrial components in subcluster- 5. Graphical displays of PC1 vs PC2 highlight the prominent features of zone-1, which is explicitly different from those of zone-2 and zone-3. The acceptable discrimination of typical marine sediments and tsunami backwash deposits, even six years after the tsunami on Boxing Day 2004, dramatically demonstrates the potential of the method for the identification of paleotsunami.

  6. Dynamics of Nearshore Sand Bars and Infra-gravity Waves: The Optimal Theory Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchette, F.; Mohammadi, B.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that the dynamics of near-shore sand bars are partly controlled by the features (location of nodes, amplitude, length, period) of the so-called infra-gravity waves. Reciprocally, changes in the location, size and shape of near-shore sand bars can control wave/wave interactions which in their turn alter the infra-gravity content of the near-shore wave energy spectrum. The coupling infra-gravity / near-shore bar is thus definitely two ways. Regarding numerical modelling, several approaches have already been considered to analyze such coupled dynamics. Most of them are based on the following strategy: 1) define an energy spectrum including infra-gravity, 2) tentatively compute the radiation stresses driven by this energy spectrum, 3) compute sediment transport and changes in the seabottom elevation including sand bars, 4) loop on the computation of infra-gravity taking into account the morphological changes. In this work, we consider an alternative approach named Nearshore Optimal Theory, which is a kind of breakdown point of view for the modeling of near-shore hydro-morphodynamics and wave/ wave/ seabottom interactions. Optimal theory applied to near-shore hydro-morphodynamics arose with the design of solid coastal defense structures by shape optimization methods, and is being now extended in order to model dynamics of any near-shore system combining waves and sand. The basics are the following: the near-shore system state is through a functional J representative of the energy of the system in some way. This J is computed from a model embedding the physics to be studied only (here hydrodynamics forced by simple infra-gravity). Then the paradigm is to say that the system will evolve so that the energy J tends to minimize. No really matter the complexity of wave propagation nor wave/bottom interactions. As soon as J embeds the physics to be explored, the method does not require a comprehensive modeling. Near-shore Optimal Theory has already given

  7. Effect of transient wave forcing on the behavior of arsenic in a sandy nearshore aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimbekova, S.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Waves cause large quantities of coastal water to recirculate across the groundwater-coastal water interface in addition to inducing complex groundwater flows in the nearshore aquifer. Due to the distinct chemical composition of recirculating coastal water compared with discharging terrestrial groundwater, wave-induced recirculations and flows can alter geochemical gradients in the nearshore aquifer which may subsequently affect the mobilization and transport of reactive pollutants (e.g., arsenic). The impact of seasonal geochemical and hydrological variability on the occurrence and mobility of arsenic near the groundwater-surface water interface has been shown previously in riverine settings, however, the impact of high frequency geochemical variations (e.g., varying wave conditions) on arsenic mobility in groundwater-surface water environments is unclear. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of intensified wave conditions on the behavior of arsenic in a nearshore aquifer to determine the factors regulating its mobility and transport to receiving coastal waters. Field investigations were conducted at a permeable beach on the Great Lakes during a period of intensified wave conditions (wave event). High spatial resolution pore water sampling captured the geochemical conditions in the nearshore aquifer prior to the wave event, immediately after the wave event and over a recovery period of 3 weeks following the wave event. Shifts in pH and redox potential (ORP) gradients in response to varying wave conditions caused shifts in the iron and arsenic distributions in the aquifer. Sediment analysis was combined with the pore water distributions to assess the release of sediment-bound arsenic in response to the varying wave conditions. Insight into the effect of transient forcing on arsenic mobility and transport in groundwater-surface water environments is important for evaluating the potential risks associated with this toxic metalloid. The findings of this

  8. UNEP-IOC-WMO-IUCN meeting of experts on a long-term global monitoring system of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change, pilot projects and mangroves and coral reefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting was held to develop strategies for long-term global monitoring of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change, specifically mangroves and coral reefs. The agenda included an overview of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) initiative, modules and pilot phase activities. Action plans for the implementation of long-term monitoring of mangrove and coral reef ecosystems were developed including; potential impacts of climate change and sea level rise on mangroves and coral reefs, consideration of parameters, consideration of methodologies, relationships of proposed activities to relevant national, regional and international developments, consideration of monitoring sites, and future implementation.

  9. Impact of Varying Wave Conditions on the Mobility of Arsenic in a Nearshore Aquifer on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimbekova, S.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater-coastal water interactions play an important role in controlling the behavior of inorganic chemicals in nearshore aquifers and the subsequent flux of these chemicals to receiving coastal waters. Previous studies have shown that dynamic groundwater flows and water exchange across the sediment-water interface can set up strong geochemical gradients and an important reaction zone in a nearshore aquifer that affect the fate of reactive chemicals. There is limited understanding of the impact of transient coastal forcing such as wave conditions on groundwater dynamics and geochemistry in a nearshore aquifer. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of intensified wave conditions on the behavior of arsenic in a nearshore aquifer and to determine the hydrological and geochemical factors controlling its fate and ultimate delivery to receiving coastal waters. Field investigations were conducted over the period of intensified wave conditions on a freshwater beach on Lake Erie, Canada. High spatial resolution aqueous and sediment sampling was conducted to characterize the subsurface distribution of inorganic species in the nearshore aquifer. Numerical groundwater flow and transport simulations were conducted to evaluate wave-induced perturbations in the flow dynamics including characterizing changes in the groundwater flow recirculations in the nearshore aquifer. The combination of field data and numerical simulations reveal that varying wave conditions alter groundwater flows and set up geochemical transition zones within the aquifer resulting in the release and sequestration of arsenic. Interactions between oxic surface water, mildly reducing shallow groundwater, and reducing sulfur- and iron-rich deep groundwater promote dynamic iron, sulfur and manganese cycling which control the mobility of arsenic in the aquifer. The findings of this study have potential implications for the fate and transport of other reactive chemicals (e.g. phosphorus, mercury) in

  10. The first US National Coastal Condition Assessment survey in the Great Lakes: Development of the GIS frame and exploration of spatial variation in nearshore water quality results

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive approach to assess conditions in the Great Lakes nearshore zone has been lacking for decades. We had the opportunity to conduct a pilot survey in Lake Erie (45 sites) in summer 2009 and to develop a full survey across the 5 lakes (~400 sites) as part of the US N...

  11. User's Manual for the Simulating Waves Nearshore Model (SWAN)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model is a numerical wave model used to obtain realistic estimates of wave parameters in coastal areas, lakes, and estuaries from given wind, bottom, and current conditions...

  12. Thirty Years of Nearshore Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, T. P.

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of Ed Thornton's contributions to nearshore wave, current and morphology research on the eve of his retirement reveals his ability to identify important unresolved processes, and to participate in multidisciplinary research programs that address those issues. While doing this, he has consistently helped foster the new generations of field scientists both by supervising strong masters and PhD students from around the world, and through working with successful postdoctoral students, many of whom will present talks in this session. This presentation will summarize the major field programs that he has very actively participated in starting from my first field work with him as a colleague/helper in the NSTS Blacks Beach and Santa Barbara experiments. In reviewing these experiments it is interesting to see the evolution of our understanding of the surf zone from simplified 2D wave breaking processes to the 3D wave/current/sediment transport problems seen in morphologically controlled rip currents, both through our ability to measure these processes, but also in the sophistication of numerical models of the nearshore. This review also shows how the consistent and well directed basic research funding from the Coastal Geosciences program at ONR has greatly benefited the Navy and the community at large. I know the nearshore community looks forward to continued associations with him during his very active retirement.

  13. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-04-03

    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  14. Variability In Long-Wave Runup as a Function of Nearshore Bathymetric Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkin, Lauren McNeill [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Beaches and barrier islands are vulnerable to extreme storm events, such as hurricanes, that can cause severe erosion and overwash to the system. Having dunes and a wide beach in front of coastal infrastructure can provide protection during a storm, but the influence that nearshore bathymetric features have in protecting the beach and barrier island system is not completely understood. The spatial variation in nearshore features, such as sand bars and beach cusps, can alter nearshore hydrodynamics, including wave setup and runup. The influence of bathymetric features on long-wave runup can be used in evaluating the vulnerability of coastal regions to erosion and dune overtopping, evaluating the changing morphology, and implementing plans to protect infrastructure. In this thesis, long-wave runup variation due to changing bathymetric features as determined with the numerical model XBeach is quantified (eXtreme Beach behavior model). Wave heights are analyzed to determine the energy through the surfzone. XBeach assumes that coastal erosion at the land-sea interface is dominated by bound long-wave processes. Several hydrodynamic conditions are used to force the numerical model. The XBeach simulation results suggest that bathymetric irregularity induces significant changes in the extreme long-wave runup at the beach and the energy indicator through the surfzone.

  15. Evaluation of trophic state and plankton abundance from the environmental parameters of Visakhapatnam Harbour and near-shore waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripathy, S.C.; KusumaKumari, B.A.V.L.; Sarma, V.V.; Murty, T.V.R.

    The present work describes the nutrient indices of the Visakhapatnam harbour and near-shore waters. The inner channels of Visakhapatnam harbour are considered to be eutrophic while near-shore waters (coastal and inshore waters) associated...

  16. What is the impact on fish recruitment of anthropogenic physical and structural habitat change in shallow nearshore areas in temperate systems? A systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacUra, B.; Lönnstedt, O.M.; Byström, P.

    2016-01-01

    and spawning habitats of many fish and other aquatic species. Several coastal fish populations have seen marked declines in abundance and diversity during the past two decades. A systematic review on the topic would clarify if anthropogenic physical and structural changes of near-shore areas have effects...... on fish recruitment and which these effects are. Methods: The review will examine how various physical and structural anthropogenic changes of nearshore fish habitats affect fish recruitment. Relevant studies include small- and large-scale field studies in marine and brackish systems or large lakes......Background: Shallow nearshore marine ecosystems are changing at an increasing rate due to a range of human activities such as urbanisation and commercial development. The growing numbers of constructions and other physical and structural alterations of the shoreline often take place in nursery...

  17. Shell alterations in limpets as putative biomarkers for multi-impacted coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begliomini, Felipe Nincao; Maciel, Daniele Claudino; de Almeida, Sérgio Mendonça; Abessa, Denis Moledo; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Pereira, Camilo Seabra; Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi; Zanardi-Lamardo, Eliete; Castro, Ítalo Braga

    2017-07-01

    During the last years, shell alterations in gastropods have been proposed as tools to be used in monitoring programs. However, no studies were so far performed investigating the relationships among shell parameters and classical biomarkers of damage. The relationship between shell alterations (biometrics, shape and elemental composition) and biomarkers (LPO and DNA strand break) was evaluated in the limpet L. subrugosa sampled along a contamination gradient in a multi-impacted coastal zone from southeastern Brazil. Statistically significant differences were detected among sites under different pollution levels. The occurrence of shell malformations was consistent with environmental levels of several hazardous substances reported for the studied area and related to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. In addition, considering the low mobility, wide geographic distribution, ease of collection and abundance of limpets in coastal zones, this putative tool may be a cost-effective alternative to traditional biomarkers. Thus, shell alterations in limpets seem to be good proxies for assessing biological adverse effects in multi-impacted coastal zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mercury Sources and Cycling in the Great Lakes: Dramatic Changes Resulting from Altered Atmospheric Loads and the Near-Shore Shunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; DeWild, J. F.; Maglio, M. M.; Tate, M. T.; Ogorek, J. M.; Hurley, J. P.; Lepak, R.

    2013-12-01

    there have been large declines in surface water total Hg concentrations (50-75%) across the Great Lakes since about 2000, an observation in agreement with concurrent declines in atmospheric deposition. In addition to a decline in inputs, we hypothesize that appreciable increases in volatilization of gaseous Hg have occurred. Mercury volatilization is directly related to water clarity (via the photo-reduction process), which has increased substantially in the Great Lakes since the invasion of zebra mussels and quagga mussels. Finally, although substantial declines in total aqueous Hg levels are apparent, fish mercury levels over the same time period appear to be relatively steady, and in some locations increasing. We submit this apparent discordance is also the outcome of the invasive mussels, which have caused near-shore eutrophication and off-shore oligotrophication commonly referred to as the near-shore shunt. Initial sampling by this project has revealed that these eutrophied zones are markedly enriched in MeHg. Therefore, it appears that while the open water regions of the Great Lakes appear to have experienced significant aqueous Hg declines, fish Hg levels may be responding to a new site of methylation in the near-shore zone.

  19. Distribution of mesopredatory fish determined by habitat variables in a predator-depleted coastal system

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstr?m, Lena; Karlsson, Martin; Bergstr?m, Ulf; Pihl, Leif; Kraufvelin, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Shallow nearshore habitats are highly valued for supporting marine ecosystems, but are subject to intense human-induced pressures. Mesopredatory fish are key components in coastal food webs, and alterations in their abundance may have evident effects also on other parts of the ecosystem. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the abundance of coastal mesopredatory fish, defined as mid-trophic level demersal and benthic species with a diet consisting predominantly of inv...

  20. Review of Nearshore Morphologic Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, N. G.; Dalyander, S.; Long, J.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of the world's erodible coastlines will determine the balance between the benefits and costs associated with human and ecological utilization of shores, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries. So, we would like to predict coastal evolution to guide management and planning of human and ecological response to coastal changes. After decades of research investment in data collection, theoretical and statistical analysis, and model development we have a number of empirical, statistical, and deterministic models that can predict the evolution of the shoreline, beaches, dunes, and wetlands over time scales of hours to decades, and even predict the evolution of geologic strata over the course of millennia. Comparisons of predictions to data have demonstrated that these models can have meaningful predictive skill. But these comparisons also highlight the deficiencies in fundamental understanding, formulations, or data that are responsible for prediction errors and uncertainty. Here, we review a subset of predictive models of the nearshore to illustrate tradeoffs in complexity, predictive skill, and sensitivity to input data and parameterization errors. We identify where future improvement in prediction skill will result from improved theoretical understanding, and data collection, and model-data assimilation.

  1. DISCOVERING OPTIMUM METHOD TO EXTRACT DEPTH INFORMATION FOR NEARSHORE COASTAL WATERS FROM SENTINEL-2A IMAGERY- CASE STUDY: NAYBAND BAY, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kabiri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of Sentinel-2A imagery to determine bathymetric information in shallow coastal waters were examined. In this regard, two Sentinel-2A images (acquired on February and March 2016 in calm weather and relatively low turbidity were selected from Nayband Bay, located in the northern Persian Gulf. In addition, a precise and accurate bathymetric map for the study area were obtained and used for both calibrating the models and validating the results. Traditional linear and ratio transform techniques, as well as a novel integrated method, were employed to determine depth values. All possible combinations of the three bands (Band 2: blue (458-523 nm, Band 3: green (543-578 nm, and Band 4: red (650-680 nm, spatial resolution: 10 m have been considered (11 options using the traditional linear and ratio transform techniques, together with 10 model options for the integrated method. The accuracy of each model was assessed by comparing the determined bathymetric information with field measured values. The correlation coefficients (R2, and root mean square errors (RMSE for validation points were calculated for all models and for two satellite images. When compared with the linear transform method, the method employing ratio transformation with a combination of all three bands yielded more accurate results (R2Mac = 0.795, R2Feb = 0.777, RMSEMac = 1.889 m, and RMSEFeb =2.039 m. Although most of the integrated transform methods (specifically the method including all bands and band ratios have yielded the highest accuracy, these increments were not significant, hence the ratio transformation has selected as optimum method.

  2. Nearshore Survey System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering , geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental...CRAB: A Unique Nearshore Surveying Vehicle.” American Society of Civil Engineers , Journal of Surveying Engineering 110(1): 1–7. Clausner, J. E., W...unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and

  3. The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Algoa Bay nearshore region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Algoa Bay nearshore region in relation to coastal zone utilization by juvenile fish. ... The various taxa occurring in the ichthyoplankton are discussed in terms of distribution of adults and juveniles, breeding biology and available information on early life history. The paucity of larvae of ...

  4. Recurrent Neural Network Modeling of Nearshore Sandbar Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pape, L.; Ruessink, B.G.; Wiering, M.A.; Turner, I.L.

    2007-01-01

    The temporal evolution of nearshore sandbars (alongshore ridges of sand fringing coasts in water depths less than 10 m and of paramount importance for coastal safety) is commonly predicted using process-based models. These models are autoregressive and require offshore wave characteristics as

  5. Recurrent neural network modeling of nearshore sandbar behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pape, Leo; Ruessink, B.G.; Wiering, Marco A.; Turner, Ian L.

    2007-01-01

    The temporal evolution of nearshore sandbars (alongshore ridges of sand fringing coasts in water depths less than 10 m and of paramount importance for coastal safety) is commonly predicted using process-based models. These models are autoregressive and require offshore wave characteristics as input,

  6. Coastal and nearshore circulation off Mangalore

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gouveia, A.D.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Studies on currents off Mangalore (west coast of India) showed a strong tidal influence very near the shore which decreased with increasing distance from the shore. At 2 km and further offshore, the onshore component of the current was mostly absent...

  7. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    coring and GIS-based interpolation techniques. Additionally, pilot studies were conducted to characterize in place sediment redox, organic composition, and sulfide impacts to nearshore flora and fauna. We found that the presence of wood-waste in Thatcher Bay may alter the quality of the benthic habitat by contributing to elevated levels of total organic composition (TOC) of the sediment. Increased TOC favors anaerobic respiration in marine sediments, and sulfide, a toxic by-product of this process, was found at levels as high as 17.5 mg L-1 in Thatcher Bay. The Thatcher Bay sulfide levels are several orders of magnitude higher than those known to impact benthic invertebrates. Eelgrass, Zostera marina, located on the western margin of Thatcher Bay, was surveyed by using underwater video surveys. This baseline distribution will in part be used to measure the impact of any future remediation efforts. Additionally, the distribution and survey data can provide an estimate of propagule source for future colonization of restored sediment. Three restoration alternatives were considered, and a ranking matrix was developed to score each alternative against site-specific and regional criteria. The process identified the removal of wood-waste from a water-based platform as the preferred alternative. Our multidisciplinary investigation identified the location, thickness, and potential impacts of wood-waste that has persisted in the nearshore environment of Thatcher Bay since at least 1942. We also provide a process to efficiently evaluate alternatives to remediate the impact of this historical disturbance and to potentially contribute to an increase of nearshore diversity and productivity at this site. Elements of this approach could inform restoration planning at similarly impacted sites throughout the region.

  8. Storms do not alter long-term watershed development influences on coastal water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Cebrian, Just; Lehrter, John; Christiaen, Bart; Stutes, Jason; Goff, Josh

    2017-09-15

    A twelve year (2000-2011) study of three coastal lagoons in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted to assess the impacts of local watershed development and tropical storms on water quality. The lagoons have similar physical and hydrological characteristics, but differ substantially in the degree of watershed urban development and nutrient loading rates. In total the lagoons experienced 22 storm events during the period studied. Specifically, we examine (1) whether there are influences on water quality in the lagoons from watershed development, (2) whether there are influences on water quality in the lagoons from storm activity, and (3) whether water quality is affected to a greater degree by watershed development versus storm activity. The two urbanized lagoons typically showed higher water-column nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen, and phosphate compared with the non-urbanized lagoon. One of the urbanized lagoons had higher water-column chlorophyll a concentrations than the other two lagoons on most sampling dates, and higher light extinction coefficients on some sampling dates. The non-urbanized lagoon had higher water-column dissolved oxygen concentrations than other lagoons on many sampling dates. Our results suggest long-term influences of watershed development on coastal water quality. We also found some evidence of significant storm effects on water quality, such as increased nitrate, phosphate, and dissolved oxygen, and decreased salinity and water temperature. However, the influences of watershed development on water quality were greater. These results suggest that changes in water quality induced by human watershed development pervade despite the storm effects. These findings may be useful for environmental management since they suggest that storms do not profoundly alter long-term changes in water quality that resulted from human development of watersheds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulai, H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Smith, C.G.; Dimova, N.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Prouty, N.G.; Gingerich, S.B.; Glenn, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef.Study focusCoastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore ecosystems and material budgets. A unique combined geochemical tracer and oceanographic time-series study addressed rates and oceanic forcings of submarine groundwater discharge at a submarine spring site off west Maui, Hawaii.New hydrological insights for the regionEstimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d) mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn,t1/2 = 56 s) groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  10. Increased sediment load during a large-scale dam removal changes nearshore subtidal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Rubin

    Full Text Available The coastal marine ecosystem near the Elwha River was altered by a massive sediment influx-over 10 million tonnes-during the staged three-year removal of two hydropower dams. We used time series of bathymetry, substrate grain size, remotely sensed turbidity, scuba dive surveys, and towed video observations collected before and during dam removal to assess responses of the nearshore subtidal community (3 m to 17 m depth. Biological changes were primarily driven by sediment deposition and elevated suspended sediment concentrations. Macroalgae, predominantly kelp and foliose red algae, were abundant before dam removal with combined cover levels greater than 50%. Where persistent sediment deposits formed, macroalgae decreased greatly or were eliminated. In areas lacking deposition, macroalgae cover decreased inversely to suspended sediment concentration, suggesting impacts from light reduction or scour. Densities of most invertebrate and fish taxa decreased in areas with persistent sediment deposition; however, bivalve densities increased where mud deposited over sand, and flatfish and Pacific sand lance densities increased where sand deposited over gravel. In areas without sediment deposition, most invertebrate and fish taxa were unaffected by increased suspended sediment or the loss of algae cover associated with it; however, densities of tubeworms and flatfish, and primary cover of sessile invertebrates increased suggesting benefits of increased particulate matter or relaxed competition with macroalgae for space. As dam removal neared completion, we saw evidence of macroalgal recovery that likely owed to water column clearing, indicating that long-term recovery from dam removal effects may be starting. Our results are relevant to future dam removal projects in coastal areas and more generally to understanding effects of increased sedimentation on nearshore subtidal benthic communities.

  11. Increased sediment load during a large-scale dam removal changes nearshore subtidal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Miller, Ian M.; Foley, Melissa M.; Berry, Helen D.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Hudson, Benjamin; Elder, Nancy E.; Beirne, Matthew M.; Warrick, Jonathan; McHenry, Michael L.; Stevens, Andrew; Eidam, Emily; Ogston, Andrea; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Pedersen, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The coastal marine ecosystem near the Elwha River was altered by a massive sediment influx—over 10 million tonnes—during the staged three-year removal of two hydropower dams. We used time series of bathymetry, substrate grain size, remotely sensed turbidity, scuba dive surveys, and towed video observations collected before and during dam removal to assess responses of the nearshore subtidal community (3 m to 17 m depth). Biological changes were primarily driven by sediment deposition and elevated suspended sediment concentrations. Macroalgae, predominantly kelp and foliose red algae, were abundant before dam removal with combined cover levels greater than 50%. Where persistent sediment deposits formed, macroalgae decreased greatly or were eliminated. In areas lacking deposition, macroalgae cover decreased inversely to suspended sediment concentration, suggesting impacts from light reduction or scour. Densities of most invertebrate and fish taxa decreased in areas with persistent sediment deposition; however, bivalve densities increased where mud deposited over sand, and flatfish and Pacific sand lance densities increased where sand deposited over gravel. In areas without sediment deposition, most invertebrate and fish taxa were unaffected by increased suspended sediment or the loss of algae cover associated with it; however, densities of tubeworms and flatfish, and primary cover of sessile invertebrates increased suggesting benefits of increased particulate matter or relaxed competition with macroalgae for space. As dam removal neared completion, we saw evidence of macroalgal recovery that likely owed to water column clearing, indicating that long-term recovery from dam removal effects may be starting. Our results are relevant to future dam removal projects in coastal areas and more generally to understanding effects of increased sedimentation on nearshore subtidal benthic communities.

  12. Data on nearshore wave process and surficial beach deposits, central Tamil Nadu coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V; Chandrasekar, N

    2017-08-01

    The chronicles of nearshore morphology and surficial beach deposits provide valuable information about the nature of the beach condition and the depositional environment. It imparts an understanding about the spatial and temporal relationship of nearshore waves and its influence over the distribution of beach sediments. This article contains data about wave and sediment dynamics of the ten sandy beaches along the central Tamil Nadu coast, India. This present dataset comprises nearshore wave parameters, breaker wave type, beach morphodynamic state, grain size distribution and weight percentage of heavy and light mineral distribution. The dataset will figure out the beach morphology and hydrodynamic condition with respect to the different monsoonal season. This will act as a field reference to realize the coastal dynamics in an open sea condition. The nearshore entities were obtained from the intensive field survey between January 2011 and December 2011, while characteristics of beach sediments are examined by the chemical process in the laboratory environment.

  13. GoM Coastal Biopsy Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small vessel surveys were conducted within estuarine and nearshore coastal waters of Barataria Bay, LA and Mississippi Sound, MS to collect tissue biopsy samples...

  14. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  15. Salinity as the main factor structuring small-bodied fish assemblages in hydrologically altered Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Rodríguez-Climent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Ebro Delta coastal lagoons, one of the main anthropogenic pressures is the artificial freshwater input. Each coastal lagoon has different water management schemes causing profound changes in its physicochemical characteristics. The main objective of this water management is to favour some bird species with interest either for conservation or hunting activities. The present study assesses the influence of hydrological alteration on the fish assemblages of three coastal lagoons in the Ebro Delta. The small-bodied fish fauna was mainly composed of five families: Gobiidae, Poecilidae, Cyprinodontidae, Atherinidae and Mugilidae. Salinity was found to be the main factor structuring fish community in the lagoons. The dominant species was the common goby (Pomatochistus microps when the lagoons reached higher salinity values, whereas the invasive eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki dominated during the period of higher freshwater inputs. The juveniles of the family Mugilidae showed low catch per unit effort, especially during the period of lower salinity. This same pattern was found for the endangered Spanish toothcarp (Aphanius iberus. Overall, introduced species were favoured by low salinity, which highlights the importance of changing the present water management by reducing the freshwater inputs in order to maintain suitable levels of salinity to favour native species that are important for both commercial and conservation purposes.

  16. Storms do not alter long-term watershed development influences on coastal water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve year (2000 − 2011) study of three coastal lagoons in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted to assess the impacts of local watershed development and tropical storms on water quality. The lagoons have similar physical and hydrological characteristics, but differ substantially i...

  17. A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Estuarine and coastal hydrodynamic processes are sometimes neglected in the design and planning of nearshore restoration actions. Despite best intentions, efforts to restore nearshore habitats can result in poor outcomes if circulation and transport which also affect freshwater-saltwater interactions are not properly addressed. Limitations due to current land use can lead to selection of sub-optimal restoration alternatives that may result in undesirable consequences, such as flooding, deterioration of water quality, and erosion, requiring immediate remedies and costly repairs. Uncertainty with achieving restoration goals, such as recovery of tidal exchange, supply of sediment and nutrients, and establishment of fish migration pathways, may be minimized by using numerical models designed for application to the nearshore environment. A high resolution circulation and transport model of the Puget Sound, in the state of Washington, was developed to assist with nearshore habitat restoration design and analysis, and to answer the question 'can we achieve beneficial restoration outcomes at small local scale, as well as at a large estuary-wide scale?' The Puget Sound model is based on an unstructured grid framework to define the complex Puget Sound shoreline using a finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). The capability of the model for simulating the important nearshore processes, such as circulation in complex multiple tidal channels, wetting and drying of tide flats, and water quality and sediment transport as part of restoration feasibility, are illustrated through examples of restoration projects in Puget Sound.

  18. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Swarzenski

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn, t1/2 = 56 s groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  19. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C; Atkinson, Philip W; Robinson, Leonie A; Green, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making.

  20. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Warwick-Evans

    Full Text Available During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making.

  1. A CRITICAL REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF APPLYING SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (SVOCS AS A GEOCHEMICAL TRACER TO INDICATE TSUNAMI BACKWASH: The Bilateral, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG and National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT Funded Project “Tsunami Deposits in Near-Shore- and Coastal Waters of Thailand (TUNWAT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwatt Pongpiachan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis symbolize one of the most harmful natural disasters for low-lying coastal zones and their residents, due to both its destructive power and irregularity. The 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, which attack the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand, resulted 5,395 of deaths and inestimable casualties, interrupted economies and social well-being in numerous coastal villages and caused in extreme alterations of both onshore and offshore coastal morphology. The Great Indian Ocean tsunami also highlighted that there are many missing jigsaw puzzle pieces in scientific knowledge, starting from the generating of tsunamis offshore to the countless influences to the marine ecosystems on the continental shelf, coastal areas and on land and to the economic and social systems consequences. As with all deposits that do not have a direct physical link to their causative sources, marine tsunami deposits must be distinguished from other deposits through regional correlation, dating and criteria for recognition within the deposits themselves. This study aims to provide comprehensive reviews on using Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs as a chemical proxy to discriminate tsunami relateddeposits from typical marine sediments. The advantages and disadvantages of this chemical tracer will be critically reviewed and further discussed.

  2. California coast nearshore processes study. [nearshore currents, sediment transport, estuaries, and river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers form detectable seasonal patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. The ocean current systems, as plotted from three California coast ERTS mosaics, were identified. Offshore patterns of sediment in areas such as the Santa Barbara Channel are traceable. These patterns extend offshore to heretofore unanticipated ranges as shown on the ERTS-1 imagery. Flying spot scanner enhancements of NASA tapes resulted in details of subtle and often invisible (to the eye) nearshore features. The suspended sediments off San Francisco and in Monterey Bay are emphasized in detail. These are areas of extremely changeable offshore sediment transport patterns. Computer generated contouring of radiance levels resulted in maps that can be used in determining surface and nearsurface suspended sediment distribution. Tentative calibrations of ERTS-1 spectral brightness against sediment load have been made using shipboard measurements. Information from the combined enhancement and interpretation techniques is applicable to operational coastal engineering programs.

  3. Cooperative trap survey for nearshore groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This pilot study is designed to evaluate a fishery-independent, cooperative sampling methodology for nearshore groundfish species, with an emphasis on species in the...

  4. Nearshore regional behavior of lightning interaction with wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert A. Malinga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of lightning strikes on offshore wind turbines built along coastal and nearshore regions can pose safety concerns that are often overlooked. In this research study the behavior of electrical discharges for wind turbines that might be located in the nearshore regions along the East Coast of China and Sea of Japan were characterized using a physics-based model that accounted for a total of eleven different geometrical and lightning parameters. Utilizing the electrical potential field predicted using this model it was then possible to estimate the frequency of lightning strikes and the distribution of electrical loads utilizing established semi-empirical relationships and available data. The total number of annual lightning strikes on an offshore wind turbine was found to vary with hub elevation, extent of cloud cover, season and geographical location. The annual lightning strike rate on a wind turbine along the nearshore region on the Sea of Japan during the winter season was shown to be moderately larger compared to the lightning strike frequency on a turbine structure on the East Coast of China. Short duration electrical discharges, represented using marginal probability functions, were found to vary with season and geographical location, exhibiting trends consistent with the distribution of the electrical peak current. It was demonstrated that electrical discharges of moderately long duration typically occur in the winter months on the East Coast of China and the summer season along the Sea of Japan. In contrast, severe electrical discharges are typical of summer thunderstorms on the East Coast of China and winter frontal storm systems along the West Coast of Japan. The electrical charge and specific energy dissipated during lightning discharges on an offshore wind turbine was found to vary stochastically, with severe electrical discharges corresponding to large electrical currents of long duration.

  5. GoM Coastal and Estuarine Biopsy Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small vessel surveys are conducted within estuarine and nearshore coastal waters to collect tissue biopsy samples from bottlenose dolphins. Visual surveys are...

  6. Historical bathymetry and bathymetric change in the Mississippi-Alabama coastal region, 1847-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, Noreen A.; Morton, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Land loss and seafloor change around the Mississippi and Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands are of great concern to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies. The islands provide wildlife protected areas and recreational land, and they serve as a natural first line of defense for the mainland against storm activity (index map on poster). Principal physical conditions that drive morphological seafloor and coastal change in this area include decreased sediment supply, sea-level rise, storms, and human activities (Otvos, 1970; Byrnes and others, 1991; Morton and others, 2004; Morton, 2008). Seafloor responses to the same processes can also affect the entire coastal zone. Sediment eroded from the barrier islands is entrained in the littoral system, where it is redistributed by alongshore currents. Wave and current activity is partially controlled by the profile of the seafloor, and this interdependency along with natural and anthropogenic influences has significant effects on nearshore environments. When a coastal system is altered by human activity such as dredging, as is the case of the MS-AL coastal region, the natural state and processes are altered, and alongshore sediment transport can be disrupted. As a result of deeply dredged channels, adjacent island migration is blocked, nearshore environments downdrift in the littoral system become sediment starved, and sedimentation around the channels is modified. Sediment deposition and erosion are reflected through seafloor evolution. In a rapidly changing coastal environment, understanding historically where and why changes are occurring is essential. To better assess the comprehensive dynamics of the MS-AL coastal zone, a 160-year evaluation of the bathymetry and bathymetric change of the region was conducted.

  7. Centennial-scale human alterations, unintended natural-system responses, and event-driven mitigation within a coupled fluvial-coastal system: Lessons for collective management and long-term coastal change planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, C. J.; Hoagland, P.; Huang, J. C.; Canuel, E. A.; Fitzsimons, G.; Rosen, P.; Shi, W.; Fallon, A. R.; Shawler, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    On decadal to millennial timescales, human modifications of linked riparian and coastal landscapes have altered the natural transport of sediments to the coast, causing time-varying sediment fluxes to estuaries, wetlands, and beaches. This study explored the role of historical changes in land use and river/coastal engineering on patterns of coastal erosion in the coupled system comprising the Merrimack River and the Plum Island barrier beach (northern Massachusetts, USA). Recreational values of the beach, attendant impacts on the local housing market, human perceptions of future beach utilization, and collective management options were investigated. Key historical changes included the installation of dams to benefit industry and control flooding in the early 19th century; river-mouth jetties to maintain navigation and allow for the residential development of a more stable barrier in the early 20th century; and the progressive hardening of the shoreline in response to multi-decadal cyclical erosion and house losses throughout the latter 20th and 21st centuries. The tools of sedimentology, shoreline-change analysis, historic documentation, population surveys, and economic modeling were used to examine these changes and the dynamic linked responses of the natural system and human populations. We found cascading effects of human alterations to the river that changed sediment fluxes to the coastal zone, driving a need for mitigation over centennial timescales. More recently, multidecadal erosion-accretion cycles of the beach have had little impact on the housing market, which is instead more responsive to public shoreline stabilization efforts in response to short-term (sustainable management of coupled fluvial-coastal systems.

  8. Coastal Inlets Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Geomorphic  Evolution • ADCP Currents  • ADCP Backscatter • Total Suspended  Solids • Turbidity  Sensor  Array • Wave Array • Light Attenuation • Surface...shore for both East and West Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory 38 Coast Applications Summary and New Initiatives http://cirp.usace.army.milCIRP...Nearshore Berm Target Date: Sep FY15- Sep FY17 • Coastal experiments on Atlantic • Estuary experiments in Currituck Sound • Overland

  9. Geomorphometry in coastal morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphometry is a cross-cutting discipline that has interwoven itself into multiple research themes due to its ability to encompass topographic quantification on many fronts. Its operational focus is largely defined as the extraction of land-surface parameters and earth surface characterisation. In particular, the coastal sciences have been enriched by the use of digital terrain production techniques both on land and in the nearshore/marine area. Numerous examples exist in which the utilisation of field instrumentation (e.g. LIDAR, GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, multi-beam echo-sounders) are used for surface sampling and development of Digital Terrain Models, monitoring topographic change and creation of nearshore bathymetry, and have become central elements in modern investigations of coastal morphodynamics. The coastal zone is a highly dynamic system that embraces variable and at times, inter-related environments (sand dunes, sandy beaches, shoreline and nearshore) all of which require accurate and integrated monitoring. Although coastal studies can be widely diverse (with interconnected links to other related disciplines such as geology or biology), the characterisation of the landforms (coastal geomorphology) and associated processes (morphodynamics, hydrodynamics, aeolian processes) is perhaps where geomorphometry (topo-bathymetry quantification) is best highlighted. In this respect, many tools have been developed (or improved upon) for the acquisition of topographic data that now commands a high degree of accuracy, simplicity, and ultimately acquisition cost reduction. We present a series of field data acquisitions examples that have produced land surface characterisation using a range of techniques including traditional GPS surveys to more recent Terrestrial Laser Scanning and airborne LIDAR. These have been conducted within beach and dune environments and have helped describe erosion and depositional processes driven by wind and wave energy (high

  10. Simulating Radionuclide Migrations of Low-level Wastes in Nearshore Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. C.; Li, M. H.; Chen, J. S.; Yeh, G. T.

    2016-12-01

    Tunnel disposal into nearshore mountains was tentatively selected as one of final disposal sites for low-level wastes in Taiwan. Safety assessment on radionuclide migrations in far-filed may involve geosphere processes under coastal environments and into nearshore ocean. In this study the 3-D HYDROFEOCHE5.6 numerical model was used to perform simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport with decay chains. Domain of interest on the surface includes nearby watersheds delineated by digital elevation models and nearshore seabed. As deep as 800 m below the surface and 400 m below sea bed were considered for simulations. The disposal site was located at 200m below the surface. Release rates of radionuclides from near-field was estimated by analytical solutions of radionuclide diffusion with decay out of engineered barriers. Far-field safety assessments were performed starting from the release of radionuclides out of engineered barriers to a time scale of 10,000 years. Sensitivity analyses of geosphere and transport parameters were performed to improve our understanding of safety on final disposal of low-level waste in nearshore environments.

  11. A Nested Nearshore Nutrient Model (N&Sup3;M) for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearshore conditions drive phenomena like harmful algal blooms (HABs), and the nearshore and coastal margin are the parts of the Great Lakes most used by humans. To assess conditions, optimize monitoring, and evaluate management options, a model of nearshore nutrient transport and algal dynamics is being developed. The model targets a “regional” spatial scale, similar to the Great Lakes Aquatic Habitat Framework's sub-basins, which divide the nearshore into 30 regions. Model runs are 365 days, a whole season temporal scale, reporting at 3 hour intervals. N³M uses output from existing hydrodynamic models and simple transport kinetics. The nutrient transport component of this model is largely complete, and is being tested with various hydrodynamic data sets. The first test case covers a 200 km² area between two major tributaries to Lake Michigan, the Grand and Muskegon. N³M currently simulates phosphorous and chloride, selected for their distinct in-lake transport dynamics; nitrogen will be added. Initial results for 2003, 2010, and 2015 show encouraging correlations with field measurements. Initially implemented in MatLab, the model is currently implemented in Python and leverages multi-processor computation. The 4D in-browser visualizer Cesium is used to view model output, time varying satellite imagery, and field observations. not applicable

  12. Field observations of nearshore bar formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

      The formation of an inner nearshore bar was observed during a high-energy event at the sandy beach of Vejers, Denmark. The bar accreted in situ during surf zone conditions and the growth of the bar was associated with the development of a trough landward of the bar. Measurements of hydrodynamics...

  13. Covariance Function for Nearshore Wave Assimilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-30

    which is applicable for any spectral wave model. The four dimensional variational (4DVar) assimilation methods are based on the mathematical ...covariance can be modeled by a parameterized Gaussian function, for nearshore wave assimilation applications , the covariance function depends primarily on...SPECTRAL ACTION DENSITY, RESPECTIVELY. ............................ 5 FIGURE 2. TOP ROW: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WAVE-FIELD PROPERTIES AT THE

  14. Formation and evolution of nearshore sandbars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand whether hydrodynamic processes or geometrical characteristics play a dominant role in the response of the nearshore sandbar system to hydrodynamic conditions. To that end a depth-averaged (2DH) process-based model has been used to compute the morphological

  15. Influence of Cladophora-Quagga Mussel Assemblages on Nearshore Methylmercury Production in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Ryan F; Krabbenhoft, David P; Ogorek, Jacob M; Tate, Michael T; Bootsma, Harvey A; Hurley, James P

    2015-07-07

    Recent spread of invasive mussels in Lake Michigan has altered primary productivity in the nearshore zone, resulting in proliferation of filamentous benthic green algae (Cladophora glomerata). In areas of dense Cladophora and quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) assemblages, as well as in regions where sloughed Cladophora accumulates, methylmercury (MeHg) production is enhanced. A shoreline transect from a river mouth through waters overlying Cladophora/quagga-rich zones showed that aqueous MeHg concentrations increased, despite river dilution. Cladophora, as primary producers, ranged from 0.6 to 7.5 ng g(-1) MeHg [4-47% of total mercury (Hg) as MeHg], and were higher than MeHg concentrations in offshore-collected seston. Concentrations of MeHg in decaying Cladophora accumulated onshore ranged from 2.6 to 18.0 ng g(-1) MeHg (18-41% as MeHg) and from 0.1 to 3.0 ng g(-1) MeHg (2-21% as MeHg) in deposits of recently sloughed and accumulated Cladophora in a nearshore topographical depression. Relative to offshore open waters, interstitial waters within decaying Cladophora from onshore and nearshore deposits were elevated in MeHg concentration, 1000- and 10-fold, respectively. Percent Hg as MeHg was also elevated (65-75% and 9-19%, respectively for onshore interstitial water and nearshore interstitial water, compared to 0.2-3.3% as MeHg for open water). Quagga mussels collected within growing Cladophora beds in the nearshore zone were significantly higher in MeHg than offshore counterparts. Our combined results suggest that recent changes in nearshore primary production contributes to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in Lake Michigan.

  16. Predominant Nearshore Sediment Dispersal Patterns in Manila Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siringan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Net nearshore sediment drift patterns in Manila Bay were determined by combining the coastal geomorphology depicted in 1 : 50,000scale topographic maps and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, with changes in shoreline position and predominant longshore current directions derived from the interaction of locally generated waves and bay morphology.Manila Bay is fringed by a variety of coastal subenvironments that reflect changing balances of fluvial, wave, and tidal processes. Along the northern coast, a broad tidal-river delta plain stretching from Bataan to Bulacan indicates the importance of tides, where the lateral extent of tidal influences is amplified by the very gentle coastal gradients. In contrast, along the Cavite coast sandy strandplains, spits, and wave-dominated deltas attest to the geomorphic importance of waves that enter the bay from the South China Sea.The estimates of net sediment drift derived from geomorphological, shoreline-change, and meteorological information are generally in good agreement. Sediment drift directions are predominantly to the northeast along Cavite, to the northwest along Manila and Bulacan, and to the north along Bataan. Wave refraction and eddy formation at the tip of the Cavite Spit cause southwestward sediment drift along the coast from Zapote to Kawit. Geomorphology indicates that onshore-offshore sediment transport is probably more important than alongshore transport along the coast fronting the tidal delta plain of northern Manila Bay. Disagreements between the geomorphic-derived and predicted net sediment drift directions may be due to interactions of wave-generated longshore currents with wind- and tide-generated currents.

  17. Fate and effects of nearshore discharges of OCS produced waters. Volume 2. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabalais, N.N.; McKee, B.A.; Reed, D.J.; Means, J.C.

    1991-06-01

    While the number of facilities that discharge OCS produced waters into coastal environments of Louisiana are few in number, they account for large volumes, individually and collectively. Of the 15 facilities which discharge OCS-generated produced water into coastal environments of Louisiana (as of February 1990), 10 discharges in seven areas were studied. The discharge volumes of the study areas range from 3,000 to 106,000/bbl.d. The receiving environments for these effluents are varied, but include the shallow, nearshore continental shelf; high energy, freshwater distributaries of the Mississippi River delta; and brackish and saline coastal environments with moderately to poorly flushed waters. All study areas are within the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. The study expanded on the initial assessment of Boesch and Rabalais (1989a) with increased temporal and spatial studies of three areas, additional study sites including an abandoned discharge, and additional analytical and field observations

  18. The growing human footprint on coastal and open-ocean biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Scott C

    2010-06-18

    Climate change, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide, excess nutrient inputs, and pollution in its many forms are fundamentally altering the chemistry of the ocean, often on a global scale and, in some cases, at rates greatly exceeding those in the historical and recent geological record. Major observed trends include a shift in the acid-base chemistry of seawater, reduced subsurface oxygen both in near-shore coastal water and in the open ocean, rising coastal nitrogen levels, and widespread increase in mercury and persistent organic pollutants. Most of these perturbations, tied either directly or indirectly to human fossil fuel combustion, fertilizer use, and industrial activity, are projected to grow in coming decades, resulting in increasing negative impacts on ocean biota and marine resources.

  19. Tracing multi-habitat support of coastal fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrologic linkages among coastal wetland and nearshore areas allow coastal fish to move among the habitats, which has led to a variety of habitat use patterns. In the Great Lakes, fine-scale microchemical analyses of yellow perch otoliths have revealed life-history categories th...

  20. Who should own the nearshore wind turbines?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Krog; Sperling, Karl

    This report examines the possibility for non-profit organisations to participate in tenders for nearshore wind turbines in Denmark under the current frame-work conditions in the area. The point of departure is a case study of the non-profit organisation Wind People’s attempt to participate...... with a popular project in the Danish tender for 350 MW nearshore wind turbines. A series of in-depth interviews have been carried out with Wind People’s staff in order to make an in-depth analysis of their actions and experiences of entering into the market for nearshore wind turbines. The report concludes...... the way for non-profit organisations to be able to enter the market, however, as the study shows that the established actors in the market also have a large influence on who is allowed to enter the market. The results of the report are a number of recommendations to the Danish politicians and the Danish...

  1. Spartina alterniflora alters ecosystem DMS and CH4 emissions and their relationship along interacting tidal and vegetation gradients within a coastal salt marsh in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinxin; Wang, Jinshu

    2017-10-01

    Invasive Spartina alterniflora accumulates organic carbon rapidly and can utilize a wide range of potential precursors for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production, as well as a wide variety of methanogenic substrates. Therefore, we predicted that S. alterniflora invasion would alter the relationships between DMS and methane (CH4) fluxes along the interacting gradients of tidal influence and vegetation, as well as the ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of DMS and CH4. In this study, we used static flux chambers to measure DMS and CH4 fluxes in August (growing season) and December (non-growing season) of 2013, along creek and vegetation transects in an Eastern Chinese coastal salt marsh. S. alterniflora invasion dramatically increased DMS and CH4 emission rates by 3.8-513.0 and 2.0-127.1 times the emission rates within non-vegetated regions and regions populated with native species, respectively, and significantly altered the spatial distribution of DMS and CH4 emissions. We also observed a substantial amount of variation in the DMS and CH4 fluxes along the elevation gradient in the salt marsh studied. A significant relationship between DMS and CH4 fluxes was observed, with the CH4 flux passively related to the DMS flux. The correlation between CH4 and DMS emissions along the vegetation transects was more significant than along the tidal creek. In the S. alterniflora salt marsh, the relationship between DMS and CH4 fluxes was more significant than within any other salt marsh. Additionally, CH4 emissions within the S. alterniflora salt marsh were more sensitive to the variation in DMS emissions than within any other vegetation zone. The spatial variability in the relationship observed between DMS and CH4 fluxes appears to be at least partly due to the alteration of substrates involved in DMS and CH4 by S. alterniflora invasion. In the S. alterniflora salt marsh, methanogenesis was more likely to be derived from non-competitive substrates than competitive substrates, but within

  2. Modeling sediment transport in Qatar: Application for coastal development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ruqaiya; Warren, Christopher; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Husrevoglu, Sinan

    2018-03-01

    Hydrodynamics and sediment transport are key physical processes contributing to habitat structure within the marine environment. Coastal development that results in the alteration of these processes (e.g., changing water flushing and/or sedimentation rates) can have detrimental impacts on sensitive systems. This is a current, relevant issue in Qatar as its coastal regions continue to be developed, not only around the capital of Doha, but in many areas around this Arabian Gulf peninsula. The northeastern Qatari coast is comprised of diverse and sensitive flora and fauna such as seagrass and macroalgae meadows, coral reefs and patches, turtles, and dugongs that tolerate harsh environmental conditions. In the near future, this area may see a rise in anthropogenic activity in the form of coastal development projects. These projects will add to existing natural stresses, such as high temperature, high salinity, and low rates of precipitation. Consequently, there is a need to characterize this area and assess the potential impacts that these anthropogenic activities may have on the region. In the present study, a novel sediment transport model is described and used to demonstrate the potential impact of altering hydrodynamics and subsequent sediment transport along the northeastern Qatar nearshore marine environment. The developed models will be tested using potential scenarios of future anthropogenic activities forecasted to take place in the area. The results will show the effects on water and sediment behavior and provide a scientific approach for key stakeholders to make decisions with respect to the management of the considered coastal zone. Furthermore, it provides a tool and framework that can be utilized in environmental impact assessment and associated hydrodynamic studies along other areas of the Qatari coastal zone. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:240-251. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Evidence of bottom-up limitations in nearshore marine systems based on otolith proxies of fish growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Mueter, Franz J.; Black, Bryan A.; Douglas, David C.; Helser, Thomas E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2015-01-01

    Fish otolith growth increments were used as indices of annual production at nine nearshore sites within the Alaska Coastal Current (downwelling region) and California Current (upwelling region) systems (~36–60°N). Black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus) were identified as useful indicators in pelagic and benthic nearshore food webs, respectively. To examine the support for bottom-up limitations, common oceanographic indices of production [sea surface temperature (SST), upwelling, and chlorophyll-a concentration] during summer (April–September) were compared to spatial and temporal differences in fish growth using linear mixed models. The relationship between pelagic black rockfish growth and SST was positive in the cooler Alaska Coastal Current and negative in the warmer California Current. These contrasting growth responses to SST among current systems are consistent with the optimal stability window hypothesis in which pelagic production is maximized at intermediate levels of water column stability. Increased growth rates of black rockfish were associated with higher chlorophyll concentrations in the California Current only, but black rockfish growth was unrelated to the upwelling index in either current system. Benthic kelp greenling growth rates were positively associated with warmer temperatures and relaxation of downwelling (upwelling index near zero) in the Alaska Coastal Current, while none of the oceanographic indices were related to their growth in the California Current. Overall, our results are consistent with bottom-up forcing of nearshore marine ecosystems—light and nutrients constrain primary production in pelagic food webs, and temperature constrains benthic food webs.

  4. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  5. Using science to strengthen our Nation's resilience to tomorrow's challenges: understanding and preparing for coastal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Dale L.; Andersen, Matthew E.; Dean, Teresa A.; Focazio, Michael J.; Fulton, John W.; Haines, John W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Young, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused unprecedented damage across some of the most densely populated coastal areas of the northeastern United States. The costly, landscape-altering destruction left in the wake of this storm is a stark reminder of our Nation’s need to become more resilient as we inevitably face future coastal hazards. As our Nation recovers from this devastating natural disaster, it is clear that accurate scientific information is essential as we seek to identify and develop strategies to address trends in coastal landscape change and reduce our future vulnerability to major storm events. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received $43.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to conduct the scientific research needed to guide response, recovery, and rebuilding activities and to develop effective strategies for protecting coastal communities and resources in the future. This fact sheet describes how the USGS is combining interdisciplinary science with state-of-the-art technologies to achieve a comprehensive understanding of coastal change caused by Hurricane Sandy. By assessing coastal change impacts through research and by developing tools that enhance our science capabilities, support coastal stakeholders, and facilitate effective decision making, we continue to build a greater understanding of the processes at work across our Nation’s complex coastal environment—from wetlands, estuaries, barrier islands, and nearshore marine areas to infrastructure and human communities. This improved understanding will increase our resilience as we prepare for future short-term, extreme events as well as long-term coastal change.

  6. Hydrothermal influence on nearshore sediments of Kos Island, Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalovasilis, Pavlos; Godelitsas, Athanasios

    2015-04-01

    The Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre is a long-active, Plio-Pleistocene magmatic system in the subduction zone along the easternmost edge of the active Hellenic volcanic arc in the Aegean Sea. Although today there are signs of relative quiescence in volcanic activity, active onshore fumaroles and shallow-sea hydrothermal vents persist on, amongst others, the island of Kos. The present study explores the large-scale imprint of hydrothermally sourced heavy metals and nutrients on the island's coastal marine environment, based on geochemical data collected in September 2007 from hydrothermal waters and surficial nearshore sediments (Kos is severely influenced by ongoing submarine hydrothermal activity, and confirm that shallow-water sediment Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb levels are substantially higher than those of other islands along the Hellenic volcanic arc, and even exceed those of some deep-water hydrothermal vents in other world regions. Evidently, there may be significant metallic sulphide deposits of hydrothermal origin at depth beneath Kos.

  7. Detailed Characterization of Nearshore Processes During NCEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, K.; Kaihatu, J. M.; Plant, N.

    2004-12-01

    Recent technology advances have allowed the coupling of remote sensing methods with advanced wave and circulation models to yield detailed characterizations of nearshore processes. This methodology was demonstrated as part of the Nearshore Canyon EXperiment (NCEX) in La Jolla, CA during Fall 2003. An array of high-resolution, color digital cameras was installed to monitor an alongshore distance of nearly 2 km out to depths of 25 m. This digital imagery was analyzed over the three-month period through an automated process to produce hourly estimates of wave period, wave direction, breaker height, shoreline position, sandbar location, and bathymetry at numerous locations during daylight hours. Interesting wave propagation patterns in the vicinity of the canyons were observed. In addition, directional wave spectra and swash / surf flow velocities were estimated using more computationally intensive methods. These measurements were used to provide forcing and boundary conditions for the Delft3D wave and circulation model, giving additional estimates of nearshore processes such as dissipation and rip currents. An optimal approach for coupling these remotely sensed observations to the numerical model was selected to yield accurate, but also timely characterizations. This involved assimilation of directional spectral estimates near the offshore boundary to mimic forcing conditions achieved under traditional approaches involving nested domains. Measurements of breaker heights and flow speeds were also used to adaptively tune model parameters to provide enhanced accuracy. Comparisons of model predictions and video observations show significant correlation. As compared to nesting within larger-scale and coarser resolution models, the advantages of providing boundary conditions data using remote sensing is much improved resolution and fidelity. For example, rip current development was both modeled and observed. These results indicate that this approach to data-model coupling

  8. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    and transmission characteristics are approximated to functions of wave height, period and obliquity. Their order of magnitude are 20% and 80%, respectively. It is imagined that an array of DEXA is deployed in front of Marina di Ravenna beach (IT), a highly touristic site of the Adriatic Coast. Based on the CERC......Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...

  9. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Values for Unaltered and Hydrothermally Altered Samples from the Cretaceous Linga Plutonic Complex of the Peruvian Coastal Batholith near Ica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L. U.; Holk, G. J.; Clausen, B. L.; Poma Porras, O. A.

    2015-12-01

    A portion of the Peruvian Coastal Batholith near Ica, Peru is being studied using stable isotopes to determine the source of hydrothermal fluids that caused propylitic, phyllic, and potassic alteration in the mineralized Linga plutonic complex. Sources of hydrothermal fluids and water/rock ratios are estimated to understand the role of such fluids in alteration during cooling. A set of 64 mineral analysis from 18 igneous samples, 7 unaltered and 11 altered, were analyzed for D/H and 18O/16O isotopes. The δ18O values for whole rocks with no apparent alteration vary from +6.8‰ to +7.9‰, with sets of δ18O mineral values indicating isotopic equilibrium at closure temperatures from 571°C to 651°C, and no interaction with meteoric water. This conclusion is bolstered by hornblende (-87‰ to -64‰) and biotite (-81‰ to -74‰) δD values Most δ18O values for samples with hydrothermal alteration suggest that alteration results from magmatic fluids; however, several analyses indicate interaction with other fluids. The high δ18O values for plagioclase (+9.3‰) and hornblende (+6.3‰) from a metamorphic aureole in volcanic host rock near a plutonic intrusion may be due to interaction with metamorphic or low temperature magmatic fluids. Plagioclase (+2.6‰) and biotite (+0.1‰) δ18O values in a sample from the Jurassic volcanic envelope indicate a significant effect from meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. An altered monzonite yielded δ18O values for quartz (+5.5‰), K-spar (+5.6‰), and magnetite (+0.4‰), also suggesting interaction with meteoric fluids. A diorite from an area with strong epidotization produced an epidote δD value of -25.8‰ and a monzonite from a highly veined area has an epidote δD value of -36.1‰ suggesting interaction with sea water. This new data indicate that the Linga complex was primarily influenced by magmatic hydrothermal fluids, but metamorphic, meteoric, and sea water may have had some influence in producing alteration

  10. Microlevel mapping of coastal geomorphology and coastal resources of Rameswaram island, India: A remote sensing and GIS perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nobi, E.P.; Shivaprasad, A.; Karikalan, R.; Dilipan, E.; Thangaradjou, T.; Sivakumar, K.

    Coastal areas are facing serious threats from both manmade and natural disturbances; coastal erosion, sea-level variation, and cyclones are the major factors that alter the coastal topography and coastal resources of the island ecosystems...

  11. Patterns of Hits to the Nearshore from a Major Fairway in the Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikmae, B.; Soomere, T.

    2012-04-01

    The Baltic Sea hosts one of the heaviest ship traffic in the world. Although relatively small in size, still up to 15% of the world's cargo is transported along its numerous fairways. The largest threat to the environment is oil transportation that has increased more than by a factor of two in 2000-2008 and a 40% increase is expected by the year 2015. One of the major marine highways in the European waters enters the Baltic Sea through the Danish Straits, crosses the Baltic Proper and stretches through the Gulf of Finland to Saint Petersburg. An area that is highly vulnerable to ship pollution is the nearshore that usually has the largest ecological value. While the probability of coastal pollution for open ocean coasts can be reduced by shifting ship routes farther offshore, the problem for narrow bays, like the Gulf of Finland, is how to minimize the probability of hitting any of the coasts. To a certain extent, light can be shed to this problem by means of quantification of the offshore areas in terms of their ability to serve a danger to coastal environment if pollution would happen in these areas. A convenient way to address this problem is to use statistical analysis of a large number of Lagrangian trajectories of test particles representing the potential pollution and passively carried by surface currents. In this paper, we make and attempt to quantify the link between potential sources of pollution along an existing fairway and the sections of the coast reached by current-driven pollution. The problem is analysed by means of considering hits to the nearshore from a major fairway in the Gulf of Finland and by making sure whether certain parts of the coast are hit by pollution particles most frequently and whether or not these pollution particles stem from certain specific parts of the fairway. Trajectories are simulated in the Gulf of Finland by placing tracers among a line that follows one of the major fairways from the Baltic Proper to Saint Petersburg

  12. Shallow-water, nearshore current dynamics in Algoa Bay, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nearshore currents play a vital role in the transport of eggs and larval stages of fish. However, little is known about their complexity and the implications for dispersal of fish larvae. The study describes the complexity of the shallow nearshore environment in eastern Algoa Bay, on the south-east coast of South Africa, and its ...

  13. Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (δ15N and δ13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average δ13C for all individuals was −25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted δ13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average δ15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

  14. Effects of Changing Weather, Oceanographic Conditions, and Land Uses on Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sedimentation Dynamics along Near-Shore Coral Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimarie Otaño-Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a critical threat to coral reefs worldwide. Major land use alteration at steep, highly erodible semi-arid islands accelerates the potential of soil erosion, runoff, and sedimentation stress to nearshore coral reefs during extreme rainfall events. The goal of this study was to assess spatio-temporal variation of sedimentation dynamics across nearshore coral reefs as a function of land use patterns, weather and oceanographic dynamics, to identify marine ecosystem conservation strategies. Sediment was collected at a distance gradient from shore at Bahia Tamarindo (BTA and Punta Soldado (PSO coral reefs at Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Sediment texture and composition were analyzed by dry sieving and loss-on-ignition techniques, and were contrasted with environmental variables for the research period (February 2014 to April 2015. Rainfall and oceanographic data were analyzed to address their potential role on affecting sediment distribution with BEST BIO-ENV, RELATE correlation, and linear regression analysis. A significant difference in sedimentation rate was observed by time and distance from shore (PERMANOVA, p < 0.0100, mostly attributed to higher sediment exposure at reef zones closer to shore due to strong relationships with coastal runoff. Sedimentation rate positively correlated with strong rainfall events (Rho = 0.301, p = 0.0400 associated with storms and rainfall intensity exceeding 15 mm/h. At BTA, sediment deposited were mostly composed of sand, suggesting a potential influence of resuspension produced by waves and swells. In contrast, PSO sediments were mostly composed of silt-clay and terrigenous material, mainly attributed to a deforestation event that occurred at adjacent steep sub-watershed during the study period. Spatial and temporal variation of sedimentation pulses and terrigenous sediment input implies that coral reefs exposure to sediment stress is determined by local land use patterns, weather, and

  15. Distribution of mesopredatory fish determined by habitat variables in a predator-depleted coastal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Lena; Karlsson, Martin; Bergström, Ulf; Pihl, Leif; Kraufvelin, Patrik

    Shallow nearshore habitats are highly valued for supporting marine ecosystems, but are subject to intense human-induced pressures. Mesopredatory fish are key components in coastal food webs, and alterations in their abundance may have evident effects also on other parts of the ecosystem. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the abundance of coastal mesopredatory fish, defined as mid-trophic level demersal and benthic species with a diet consisting predominantly of invertebrates, and ambient environmental variables in a fjord system influenced by both eutrophication and overfishing. A field survey was conducted over a coastal gradient comprising 300 data points sampled consistently for fish community and environmental data. Results from multivariate and univariate analyses supported each other, demonstrating that mesopredatory fish abundance at species and functional group level was positively related to the cover of structurally complex vegetation and negatively related to eutrophication, as measured by water transparency. Contrary to other studies showing an inverse relationship to piscivore abundance over time, the spatial distribution of mesopredatory fish was not locally regulated by the abundance of piscivorous fish, probably attributed to piscivores being at historically low levels due to previous overfishing. Mesopredatory fish abundance was highest in areas with high habitat quality and positively related to the abundance of piscivores, suggesting a predominance of bottom-up processes. We conclude that, in parallel with ongoing regulations of fishing pressure, measures to restore habitat function and food web productivity are important for the recovery of coastal fish communities in the area.

  16. Nearshoring Practices of Scandinavian MNCs in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Brazinskas, Sigitas; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to unravel and assess current nearshoring practices of Scandinavian MNCs. In addressing this issue, we draw on the literature within the areas of offshoring and outsourcing. We use mixed methods of enquiry involving case studies, survey techniques as well...... as secondary statistical data. To provide a more refined view on the practices and processes of nearshoring, we complement the case studies of Scandinavian manufacturers with a survey of 55 Lithuanian vendor companies and other statistical data. The paper outlines the main drivers of nearshoring...

  17. Coastal ecosystems on a tipping point: global warming and parasitism combine to alter community structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Kim N; Sørensen, Mikkel M; Poulin, Robert; Fredensborg, Brian L

    2018-05-16

    Mounting evidence suggests that the transmission of certain parasites is facilitated by increasing temperatures, causing their host population to decline. However, no study has yet addressed how temperature and parasitism may combine to shape the functional structure of a whole host community in the face of global warming. Here, we apply an outdoor mesocosm approach supported by field surveys to elucidate this question in a diverse intertidal community of amphipods infected by the pathogenic microphallid trematode, Maritrema novaezealandensis. Under present temperature (17°C) and level of parasitism, the parasite had little impact on the host community. However, elevating the temperature to 21°C in presence of parasites induced massive structural changes: amphipod abundances decreased species-specifically, affecting epibenthic species but leaving infaunal species largely untouched. In effect, species diversity dropped significantly. In contrast, 4-degree higher temperatures in absence of parasitism had limited influence on the amphipod community. Further elevating temperatures (19-26°C) and parasitism, simulating a prolonged heat-wave scenario, resulted in an almost complete parasite-induced extermination of the amphipod community at 26°C. In addition, at 19°C, just two degrees above the present average, a similar temperature-parasite synergistic impact on community structure emerged as seen at 21°C under lower parasite pressure. The heat-wave temperature of 26°C per se affected the amphipod community in a comparable way: species diversity declined and the infaunal species were favoured at the expense of epibenthic species. Our experimental findings are corroborated by field data demonstrating a strong negative relationship between current amphipod species richness and the level of Maritrema parasitism across 12 sites. Hence, owing to the synergistic impact of temperature and parasitism, our study predicts that coastal amphipod communities will deteriorate

  18. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Kevin A.; Warner, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales.

  19. Controls of multi-modal wave conditions in a complex coastal setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegermiller, Christie; Rueda, Ana C.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Antolinez, J.A.A.; Mendez, Fernando J.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal hazards emerge from the combined effect of wave conditions and sea level anomalies associated with storms or low-frequency atmosphere-ocean oscillations. Rigorous characterization of wave climate is limited by the availability of spectral wave observations, the computational cost of dynamical simulations, and the ability to link wave-generating atmospheric patterns with coastal conditions. We present a hybrid statistical-dynamical approach to simulating nearshore wave climate in complex coastal settings, demonstrated in the Southern California Bight, where waves arriving from distant, disparate locations are refracted over complex bathymetry and shadowed by offshore islands. Contributions of wave families and large-scale atmospheric drivers to nearshore wave energy flux are analyzed. Results highlight the variability of influences controlling wave conditions along neighboring coastlines. The universal method demonstrated here can be applied to complex coastal settings worldwide, facilitating analysis of the effects of climate change on nearshore wave climate.

  20. Report on RUNE’s coastal experiment and first inter-comparisons between measurements systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Lea, Guillaume; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    Accurate description of the wind energy resource in the coastal zone is crucial for countries developing near-shore wind farms. The RUNE experiment aims to use lidar measurements and mesoscale modelling to study the behaviour of the flow in the coastal zone and find the most effective way...

  1. Attenuation of landscape signals through the coastal zone: A basin-wide analysis for the US Great Lakes shoreline, circa 2002-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compare statistical models developed to describe a) the relationship between watershed properties and Great Lakes coastal wetlands with b) the relationship developed between watershed properties and the Great Lakes nearshore. Using landscape metrics from the GLEI project (Dan...

  2. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 06 (NS06): Pohnpei, Micronesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  3. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 08 (NS08): Koror, Palau

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  4. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 11 (NS11): Saipan, CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  5. Nearshore hydrography off Visakhapatnam, East coast of India, during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RameshBabu, V.

    . The near bottom region in the offshore area, rather than the nearshore area, seems to be promising dumping ground for industrial waste material during winter period when the thermal inversion in the water column are major mechanisms of vertical mixing...

  6. DEEPWATER AND NEARSHORE FOOD WEB CHARACTERIZATIONS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the difficulty associated with sampling deep aquatic systems, food web relationships among deepwater fauna are often poorly known. We are characterizing nearshore versus offshore habitats in the Great Lakes and investigating food web linkages among profundal, pelagic, and ...

  7. Rising CO2 interacts with growth light and growth rate to alter photosystem II photoinactivation of the coastal diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available We studied the interactive effects of pCO(2 and growth light on the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP 1335 growing under ambient and expected end-of-the-century pCO(2 (750 ppmv, and a range of growth light from 30 to 380 µmol photons·m(-2·s(-1. Elevated pCO(2 significantly stimulated the growth of T. pseudonana under sub-saturating growth light, but not under saturating to super-saturating growth light. Under ambient pCO(2 susceptibility to photoinactivation of photosystem II (σ(i increased with increasing growth rate, but cells growing under elevated pCO(2 showed no dependence between growth rate and σ(i, so under high growth light cells under elevated pCO(2 were less susceptible to photoinactivation of photosystem II, and thus incurred a lower running cost to maintain photosystem II function. Growth light altered the contents of RbcL (RUBISCO and PsaC (PSI protein subunits, and the ratios among the subunits, but there were only limited effects on these and other protein pools between cells grown under ambient and elevated pCO(2.

  8. Nearshore Versus Offshore: Comparative Cost and Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of which offshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The choice between nearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of...... of increased public resistance due to visual disamenities produced by nearshore projects, and because of the potential cost reduction benefits attained by building wind farms closer to the shore....

  9. An Ephemeral Dinoflagellate Bloom during Summer Season in Nearshore Water of Puri, East Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsingh, Sanjiba Kumar; Dwivedi, Rashmin; Lotliker, Aneesh A.; Jayashankar, Reeta; Sahu, Biraja Kumar; Srichandan, Suchismita; Samanta, Alakes; Parida, Chandanlal; Srinivasakumar, Tummala; Sahu, Kali Charan

    2018-03-01

    The present paper reports on the phenomenon of pinkish-red discoloration of the nearshore water of Puri, Odisha on 12th May 2016. Many local newspapers covered this event, as Puri city is a major tourist and pilgrimage place on the east coast of India. Field observations were carried out in order to provide a scientific basis to the event and to elicit possible causes of this discoloration. Taxonomic analysis of the phytoplankton samples revealed the dominance of red colored dinoflagellate species Gonyaulax polygramma, contributing 90% to total phytoplankton population. The localized concentration of G. polygramma was responsible for the pinkish-red discoloration of nearshore water. The exact factor that lay behind the genesis of this bloom could not be delineated due to the short period of its persistence. But two factors - upwelling and anthropogenic nutrient influx - can be viewed as the main cause for this ephemeral bloom. Non-hypoxic conditions in the coastal water following the ephemeral bloom event indicated no significant risk of ecological deterioration to the ambient medium.

  10. Nearshore circulation revealed by wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall, Aveiro Coast, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Figueiredo da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and climatic conditions of the Atlantic coast of northern Portugal result in a prevailing upwelling circulation over the continental shelf. A submarine outfall releases wastewater into the ocean c. 3 km directly offshore (at ∼16 m water depth from S. Jacinto, 5 km to the north of the inlet to the estuarine coastal lagoon system of the Ria de Aveiro. The buoyant plume has a distinctive reddish brown colour and is clearly visible at the water surface. The transport and dispersion of the plume was monitored by airborne photography and by in situ water sampling. Results revealed the surface currents present and water mass fronts in the nearshore zone of the Aveiro coast. During the spring and summer, the plume was not transported offshore in the manner expected by the upwelling shelf circulation. Instead, it was commonly observed to be transported alongshore with the prevailing southerly circulation or with an onshore component. The transport to the south caused the outfall plume to interact with the circulation associated with the tidal currents generated in the inlet channel to the Ria de Aveiro. The observations suggest that the trophic status of the Ria de Aveiro is unlikely to change because of the operation of the submarine outfall. Furthermore, this study demonstrates how simple observations of wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall can be used to improve understanding of nearshore circulation. Keywords: water circulation, upwelling, ocean outfall, remote sensing, eutrophication, Ria de Aveiro

  11. Whitecapping and wave field evolution in a coastal bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, R.P.; Bowen, A.J.; Hay, A.E.; Van der Westhuysen, A.J.; Battjes, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of the wave field in a coastal bay is investigated, by comparison between field observations and numerical simulations using a spectral wave model (Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN)). The simulations were conducted for the passage of an extratropical storm, during which surface elevation

  12. What is the impact on fish recruitment of anthropogenic physical and structural habitat change in shallow nearshore areas in temperate systems? : A systematic review protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macura, Biljana; Lönnstedt, Oona; Byström, Pär; Airoldi, Laura; Eriksson, Britas; Rudstam, Lars; Støttrup, Josianne

    2016-01-01

    Shallow nearshore marine ecosystems are changing at an increasing rate due to a range of human activities such as urbanisation and commercial development. The growing numbers of constructions and other physical and structural alterations of the shoreline often take place in nursery and spawning

  13. Latitudinal discontinuity in thermal conditions along the nearshore of central-northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Fabian J; Largier, John L; Castillo, Manuel; Wieters, Evie A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidence of abrupt latitudinal changes in the dynamics, structure and genetic variability of intertidal and subtidal benthic communities along central-northern Chile has been found consistently at 30-32°S. Changes in the advective and thermal environment in nearshore waters have been inferred from ecological patterns, since analyses of in situ physical data have thus far been missing. Here we analyze a unique set of shoreline temperature data, gathered over 4-10 years at 15 sites between 28-35°S, and combine it with satellite-derived winds and sea surface temperatures to investigate the latitudinal transition in nearshore oceanographic conditions suggested by recent ecological studies. Our results show a marked transition in thermal conditions at 30-31°S, superimposed on a broad latitudinal trend, and small-scale structures associated with cape-and-bay topography. The seasonal cycle dominated temperature variability throughout the region, but its relative importance decreased abruptly south of 30-31°S, as variability at synoptic and intra-seasonal scales became more important. The response of shoreline temperatures to meridional wind stress also changed abruptly at the transition, leading to a sharp drop in the occurrence of low-temperature waters at northern sites, and a concurrent decrease in corticated algal biomass. Together, these results suggest a limitation of nitrate availability in nearshore waters north of the transition. The localized alongshore change results from the interaction of latitudinal trends (e.g., wind stress, surface warming, inertial period) with a major headland-bay system (Punta Lengua de Vaca at 30.25°S), which juxtaposes a southern stretch of coast characterized by upwelling with a northern stretch of coast characterized by warm surface waters and stratification. This transition likely generates a number of latitude-dependent controls on ecological processes in the nearshore that can explain species

  14. Nearshore circulation on a sea breeze dominated beach during intense wind events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Freyermuth, Alec; Puleo, Jack A.; DiCosmo, Nick; Allende-Arandía, Ma. Eugenia; Chardón-Maldonado, Patricia; López, José; Figueroa-Espinoza, Bernardo; de Alegria-Arzaburu, Amaia Ruiz; Figlus, Jens; Roberts Briggs, Tiffany M.; de la Roza, Jacobo; Candela, Julio

    2017-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted on the northern Yucatan coast from April 1 to April 12, 2014 to investigate the role of intense wind events on coastal circulation from the inner shelf to the swash zone. The study area is characterized by a micro-tidal environment, low-energy wave conditions, and a wide and shallow continental shelf. Furthermore, easterly trade winds, local breezes, and synoptic-scale events, associated with the passage of cold-fronts known as Nortes, are ubiquitous in this region. Currents were measured concurrently at different cross-shore locations during both local and synoptic-scale intense wind events to investigate the influence of different forcing mechanisms (i.e., large-scale currents, winds, tides, and waves) on the nearshore circulation. Field observations revealed that nearshore circulation across the shelf is predominantly alongshore-directed (westward) during intense winds. However, the mechanisms responsible for driving instantaneous spatial and temporal current variability depend on the weather conditions and the across-shelf location. During local strong sea breeze events (W > 10 m s-1 from the NE) occurring during spring tide, westward circulation is controlled by the tides, wind, and waves at the inner-shelf, shallow waters, and inside the surf/swash zone, respectively. The nearshore circulation is relaxed during intense land breeze events (W ≈ 9 m s-1 from the SE) associated with the low atmospheric pressure system that preceded a Norte event. During the Norte event (Wmax≈ 15 m s-1 from the NNW), westward circulation dominated outside the surf zone and was correlated to the Yucatan Current, whereas wave breaking forces eastward currents inside the surf/swash zone. The latter finding implies the existence of large alongshore velocity shear at the offshore edge of the surf zone during the Norte event, which enhances mixing between the surf zone and the inner shelf. These findings suggest that both sea breezes and Nortes play

  15. A hydrodynamic model of nearshore waves and wave-induced currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khaled Seif

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In This study develops a quasi-three dimensional numerical model of wave driven coastal currents with accounting the effects of the wave-current interaction and the surface rollers. In the wave model, the current effects on wave breaking and energy dissipation are taken into account as well as the wave diffraction effect. The surface roller associated with wave breaking was modeled based on a modification of the equations by Dally and Brown (1995 and Larson and Kraus (2002. Furthermore, the quasi-three dimensional model, which based on Navier-Stokes equations, was modified in association with the surface roller effect, and solved using frictional step method. The model was validated by data sets obtained during experiments on the Large Scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF basin and the Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station (HORS. Then, a model test against detached breakwater was carried out to investigate the performance of the model around coastal structures. Finally, the model was applied to Akasaki port to verify the hydrodynamics around coastal structures. Good agreements between computations and measurements were obtained with regard to the cross-shore variation in waves and currents in nearshore and surf zone.

  16. Upwelling and Other Environmental Influences on Growth of a Nearshore Benthic Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, V. R.; Zimmerman, C. E.; Kruse, G. H.; Mueter, F. J.; Black, B.; Douglas, D. C.; Bodkin, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    The role of upwelling in nearshore benthic systems is more uncertain compared to the relatively strong positive associations with pelagic production. To understand how upwelling and other environmental conditions influence nearshore benthic production, we developed an annual index of production from growth increments recorded in otoliths of kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus) at nine sites in the seasonally-upwelling California Current and downwelling Alaska Coastal currents. Kelp greenling are a benthic-feeding fish common in kelp forests with food webs sustained by both kelp and phytoplankton primary production. We explored the influence of basin- and local-scale conditions, including upwelling, across all seasons at lags up to two years taken to represent changes in the quantity and quality of prey. Upwelling strength was positively related to fish growth in both current systems, although relationships in the Alaska Coastal Current were indicative of faster growth with relaxed downwelling, rather than upwelling. Looking across a suite of basin- and local-scale environmental indicators, complex relationships emerged in the California Current, with faster growth related to within-year warm conditions and lagged-year cool conditions. In contrast, fish in the downwelling system grew faster both during and subsequent to warm conditions. The complex lag-dependent dynamics in the upwelling system may reflect differences in conditions that promote quantity versus quality of benthic invertebrate prey. Thus, we hypothesize that benthic production is maximized when cool and warm years alternate during periods of high frequency climate variability in the California Current. Such a pattern is consistent with previous findings suggesting that benthic invertebrate abundance (e.g., recruitment) is food-limited during warm years with reduced upwelling, while quality (e.g., energy content) is temperature-limited during cool years.

  17. Cross-Shore Environmental Gradients in the Western Mediterranean Coast and Their Influence on Nearshore Phytoplankton Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzon Basterretxea

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During summer, when oligotrophic conditions prevail offshore in the Mediterranean Sea, enhanced phytoplankton stripes are often observed in nearshore waters. In this study, we examine the cross-shore hydrographic variability and the associated microbial plankton communities in this zone. Detailed cross-shore underway sampling at 47 coastal sites spread along the Balearic and Catalan coasts revealed the widespread existence of narrow bands of warm and decreased salinity water beholding high phytoplankton biomass (up to 50-fold vs. offshore chlorophyll. Most intense physical and biological anomalies along these transects were generally constrained to the first hundred meters from the shoreline (i.e., a transition zone starting at ~400 m. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA and k-means cluster analysis to categorize temperature, salinity and chlorophyll (T, S and Chl in three main types of cross-shore trends. Prevalence of exponential-shaped Chl trends was observed particularly in areas with shoreward directed winds (B1-type. The other two trends (B2 and B3 presented variations off the coast produced by alongshore structures like river plumes, city outfalls and other features. Exponential-shaped cross-shore chlorophyll distribution (B1-type accumulated 90% of the total transect Chl variation in the first 367 ± 190 m from the shoreline, whereas this distance was variable in the other profile types. Repeated daily sampling at one site with this transect typology revealed that wind forcing variations produced fast response on cross-shore T and S properties. Chl was less sensitive to changes at this time-scale. Phytoplankton communities exhibited site-dependent responses to the nearshore environment. Pico- and nanoplankton assemblages, typically dominating coastal assemblages during summer in the Mediterranean Sea, showed lower cross-shore variation. Conversely, larger response to nearshore conditions was observed in microplankton populations

  18. Marine geology and bathymetry of nearshore shelf of Chukchi Sea, Ogotoruk Creek area, northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Sainsbury, C.L.

    1960-01-01

    During July and August 1958 the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in behalf of the Atomic Energy Commission of the oceanography, bathymetry, and marine geology of the nearshore shelf of the Chukchi Sea off the Ogotoruk Creek area, northwest Alaska. Ogotoruk Creek enters the Chukchi Sea about 32 miles southeast of the large cuapate spit of Point Hope at long 165 degrees 4446 W. and lat 68 degrees 0551 N. The Ogotoruk Creek area extends approximately 10 miles west and 7 miles east of the creek mouth. Knowledge of the marine geology and oceanography is confined primarily to the nearshore shelf, which includes about 70 square miles of the shelf and is defined as the sea floor lying shoreward of the 50-foot submarine contour. The 50-foot contour generally lies from 2 to 4 miles from shore. Submarine topography was studied to a distance of 15 miles from shore over an area of approximately 340 square miles. A northwest coastal current flows past the Ogotoruk Creek area and during July and August averaged 0.5 mile per hour. Persistent northerly winds cause general upwelling near shore and at times of pronounced upwelling the coastal current was reversed or appreciably reduced in speed. Longshore currents shoreward of the breaker zone averaged 0.3 mile per hour and moved to the east for the greater part of the time of the study. The overall seaward slope of the inner 15 miles of the Chukchi shelf from a depth of 40 to 135 feet is approximately 0 degrees 04, or about 6 feet per mile. Slopes near shore to depths of 15-20 feet are steep and average 2 degrees 30. Beyond these depths they increase gradually out to a depth of 40-45 feet. Seaward of this point the shelf is flattest and slopes are as low as 0 degree 01. This terrace or flat part of the nearshore shelf is about 2 miles wide and descends to a depth of 50-55 feet beyond which the gradient increases to about 0 degree 06. At depths greater than 85 feet the submarine declivity gradually decreases to 0 degree 03 at

  19. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High

  20. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  1. Estimating near-shore wind resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Peña, Alfredo

    An evaluation and sensitivity study using the WRF mesoscale model to estimate the wind in a coastal area is performed using a unique data set consisting of scanning, profiling and floating lidars. The ability of the WRF model to represent the wind speed was evaluated by running the model for a four...... grid spacings were performed for each of the two schemes. An evaluation of the wind profile using vertical profilers revealed small differences in modelled mean wind speed between the different set-ups, with the YSU scheme predicting slightly higher mean wind speeds. Larger differences between...... the different simulations were observed when comparing the root-mean-square error (RMSE) between modelled and measured wind, with the ERA interim-based simulations having the lowest errors. The simulations with finer horizontal grid spacing had a larger MSE. Horizontal transects of mean wind speed across...

  2. Near-shore distribution of Heaviside's ( Cephalorhynchus heavisidii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heaviside's dolphins were found in shallower, cooler water than dusky dolphins and were more likely to be seen during brighter phases of the moon (when nocturnal light conditions may influence the vertical migration patterns of prey) and in areas of high hake abundance. Near-shore fishing activity was higher in the ...

  3. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis to Support Nearshore Restoration Projects in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To re-establish the intertidal wetlands with full tidal exchange and improve salmonid rearing habitat in the Skagit River estuary, State of Washington, USA, a diked agriculture farm land along the Skagit Bay front is proposed to be restored to a fully functional tidal wetland. The complex and dynamic Skagit River estuarine system calls for the need of a multi-facet and multi-dimensional analysis using observed data, numerical and analytical methods. To assist the feasibility study of the restoration project, a hydrodynamic modeling analysis was conducted using a high-resolution unstructured-grid coastal ocean model to evaluate the hydrodynamic response to restoration alternatives and to provide guidance to the engineering design of a new levee in the restoration site. A set of parameters were defined to quantify the hydrodynamic response of the nearshore restoration project, such as inundation area, duration of inundation, water depth and salinity of the inundated area. To assist the design of the new levee in the restoration site, the maximum water level near the project site was estimated with consideration of extreme high tide, wind-induced storm surge, significant wave height and future sea-level rise based on numerical model results and coastal engineering calculation.

  4. Hierarchical multi-scale classification of nearshore aquatic habitats of the Great Lakes: Western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, J.E.; Castiglione, C.

    2010-01-01

    Classification is a valuable conservation tool for examining natural resource status and problems and is being developed for coastal aquatic habitats. We present an objective, multi-scale hydrospatial framework for nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. The hydrospatial framework consists of spatial units at eight hierarchical scales from the North American Continent to the individual 270-m spatial cell. Characterization of spatial units based on fish abundance and diversity provides a fish-guided classification of aquatic areas at each spatial scale and demonstrates how classifications may be generated from that framework. Those classification units then provide information about habitat, as well as biotic conditions, which can be compared, contrasted, and hierarchically related spatially. Examples within several representative coastal or open water zones of the Western Lake Erie pilot area highlight potential application of this classification system to management problems. This classification system can assist natural resource managers with planning and establishing priorities for aquatic habitat protection, developing rehabilitation strategies, or identifying special management actions.

  5. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  6. Monitoring in the nearshore: A process for making reasoned decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Dean, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, a conceptual framework for the GEM nearshore monitoring program has been developed through a series of workshops. However, details of the proposed monitoring program, e.g. what to sample, where to sample, when to sample and at how many sites, have yet to be determined. In FY 03 we were funded under Project 03687 to outline a process whereby specific alternatives to monitoring are developed and presented to the EVOS Trustee Council for consideration. As part of this process, two key elements are required before reasoned decisions can be made. These are: 1) a comprehensive historical perspective of locations and types of past studies conducted in the nearshore marine communities within Gulf of Alaska, and 2) estimates of costs for each element of a proposed monitoring program. We have developed a GIS database that details available information from past studies of selected nearshore habitats and species in the Gulf of Alaska and provide a visual means of selecting sites based (in part) on the locations for which historical data of interest are available. We also provide cost estimates for specific monitoring plan alternatives and outline several alternative plans that can be accomplished within reasonable budgetary constraints. The products that we will provide are: 1) A GIS database and maps showing the location and types of information available from the nearshore in the Gulf of Alaska; 2) A list of several specific monitoring alternatives that can be conducted within reasonable budgetary constraints; and 3) Cost estimates for proposed tasks to be conducted as part of the nearshore program. Because data compilation and management will not be completed until late in FY03 we are requesting support for close-out of this project in FY 04.

  7. Blinded by the light? Nearshore energy pathway coupling and relative predator biomass increase with reduced water transparency across lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, Tyler D; McCann, Kevin S; Jarvis, Lauren; Lester, Nigel P; Shuter, Brian J

    2018-04-01

    Habitat coupling is a concept that refers to consumer integration of resources derived from different habitats. This coupling unites fundamental food web pathways (e.g., cross-habitat trophic linkages) that mediate key ecological processes such as biomass flows, nutrient cycling, and stability. We consider the influence of water transparency, an important environmental driver in aquatic ecosystems, on habitat coupling by a light-sensitive predator, walleye (Sander vitreus), and its prey in 33 Canadian lakes. Our large-scale, across-lake study shows that the contribution of nearshore carbon (δ 13 C) relative to offshore carbon (δ 13 C) to walleye is higher in less transparent lakes. To a lesser degree, the contribution of nearshore carbon increased with a greater proportion of prey in nearshore compared to offshore habitats. Interestingly, water transparency and habitat coupling predict among-lake variation in walleye relative biomass. These findings support the idea that predator responses to changing conditions (e.g., water transparency) can fundamentally alter carbon pathways, and predator biomass, in aquatic ecosystems. Identifying environmental factors that influence habitat coupling is an important step toward understanding spatial food web structure in a changing world.

  8. Evaluating Carbonate System Algorithms in a Nearshore System: Does Total Alkalinity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan M; Sweet, Julia; Brzezinski, Mark A; McNair, Heather M; Passow, Uta

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification is a threat to many marine organisms, especially those that use calcium carbonate to form their shells and skeletons. The ability to accurately measure the carbonate system is the first step in characterizing the drivers behind this threat. Due to logistical realities, regular carbonate system sampling is not possible in many nearshore ocean habitats, particularly in remote, difficult-to-access locations. The ability to autonomously measure the carbonate system in situ relieves many of the logistical challenges; however, it is not always possible to measure the two required carbonate parameters autonomously. Observed relationships between sea surface salinity and total alkalinity can frequently provide a second carbonate parameter thus allowing for the calculation of the entire carbonate system. Here, we assessed the rigor of estimating total alkalinity from salinity at a depth sampling water from a pier in southern California for several carbonate system parameters. Carbonate system parameters based on measured values were compared with those based on estimated TA values. Total alkalinity was not predictable from salinity or from a combination of salinity and temperature at this site. However, dissolved inorganic carbon and the calcium carbonate saturation state of these nearshore surface waters could both be estimated within on average 5% of measured values using measured pH and salinity-derived or regionally averaged total alkalinity. Thus we find that the autonomous measurement of pH and salinity can be used to monitor trends in coastal changes in DIC and saturation state and be a useful method for high-frequency, long-term monitoring of ocean acidification.

  9. Tsunami-Induced Nearshore Hydrodynamic Modeling using a 3D VOF Method: A Gulf of Mexico Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, R.; Horrillo, J. J.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term morphology changes can be interrupted by extreme events such as hurricanes and tsunamis. In particular, the impact of tsunamis on coastal erosion and accretion patterns is presently not well understood. In order to understand the sediment movement during coastal tsunami impact a numerical sediment transport model is added to a 3D VOF model. This model allows for spatially varying bottom sediment characteristics and entails functions for entrainment, bedload, and suspended load transport. As a case study, a Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal study site is selected to investigate the effect of a landslide-tsunami on the coastal morphology. The GOM is recognized as a vast and productive body of water with great ecologic and economic value. The morphodynamic response of the nearshore environment to the tsunami hydrodynamic forcing is influenced by many factors including bathymetry, topography, tsunami wave and current magnitude, and the characteristics of the local bottom substrate. The 3D model addition can account for all these factors. Finally, necessary strategies for reduction of the potential tsunami impact and management of the morphological changes are discussed.

  10. Characteristics and parameters of bed-load movement for multi-bar near-shore zone on the base of tracer field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchnicki, R.

    1997-01-01

    The radiotracer method for field investigation of marine bed sediments in Baltic Sea near-shore zone has been elaborated and successfully used. The artificial sand made of special glass containing Ir-192 and quartz like density has been used as a tracer. The field experiments have been carried out at Coastal Station of the Institute of Hydroengineering in Lubiatowo. The tracer movement has been observed at different weather and wave conditions. On the base of obtained data the next characteristics and parameters of sand transport have been defined and discussed: critical velocities of sand grains; sediment velocities versus the long shore current; thickness of the layer transported; intensity of the transport. For the purpose of coastal engineering practice the global transport intensity in the multi bar-coastal zone conditions has been determined as a function of main parameters describing breaking waves (height and propagation angle)

  11. Coastal wind study based on Sentinel-1 and ground-based scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    Winds in the coastal zone have importance for near-shore wind farm planning. Recently the Danish Energy Agency gave new options for placing offshore wind farms much closer to the coastlines than previously. The new tender areas are located from 3 to 8 km from the coast. Ground-based scanning lidar...... located on land can partly cover this area out to around 15 km. In order to improve wind farm planning for near-shore coastal areas, the project‘Reducing the Uncertainty of Near-shore Energy estimates from meso- and micro-scale wind models’ (RUNE) is established. The measurement campaign starts October....... The various observation types have advantages and limitations; one advantage of both the Sentinel-1 and the scanning lidar is that they both observe wind fields covering a large area and so can be combined for studying the spatial variability of winds. Sentinel-1 are being processed near-real-time at DTU Wind...

  12. Sources of Nutrients to Nearshore Areas of a Eutrophic Estuary: Implications for Nutrient-Enhanced Acidification in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification has recently been highlighted as a major stressor for coastal organisms. Further work is needed to assess the role of anthropogenic nutrient additions in eutrophied systems on local biological processes, and how this interacts with CO2 emission-driven acidification. This study sought to distinguish changes in pH caused by natural versus anthropogenically affected processes. We quantified the variability in water column pH attributable to primary production and respiration fueled by anthropogenically derived nitrogen in a shallow nearshore area. Two study sites were located in shallow subtidal areas of the Snohomish River estuary, a eutrophic system located in central Puget Sound, Washington. These sites were chosen due to the presence of heavy agricultural activity, urbanized areas with associated waste water treatment, as well as influence from deep, high CO2 marine waters transported through the Strait of Juan de Fuca and upwelled into the area during spring and summer. Data was collected from July-December 2015 utilizing continuous moorings and discrete water column sampling. Analysis of stable isotopes, δ15N, δ18O-NO3, δ15N-NH4, was used to estimate the relative contributions of anthropogenic versus upwelled marine nitrogen sources. Continuous monitoring of pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity was conducted at both study sites to link changes in nutrient source and availability with changes in pH. We predicted that isotope data would indicate greater contributions of nitrogen from agriculture and wastewater rather than upwelling in the shallow, nearshore study sites. This study seeks to distinguish the relative magnitude of pH change stimulated by anthropogenic versus natural sources of nitrogen to inform public policy decisions in critically important nearshore ecosystems.

  13. Native Shellfish in Nearshore Ecosystems of Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    California Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). California Fish and Game 63:43-51. Griffin, K. 1997. Commercial oyster cultivation and eelgrass...A.M. 2007. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2007-06. Published by Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of...non-native Pacific oyster, but more than $40 million is from native crabs , clams, and mussels. Recreationally, personal harvest of shellfish is a

  14. Nearshore Water Quality Estimation Using Atmospherically Corrected AVIRIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Bagheri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to characterize the surface spectral reflectance of the nearshore waters using atmospheric correction code—Tafkaa for retrieval of the marine water constituent concentrations from hyperspectral data. The study area is the nearshore waters of New York/New Jersey considered as a valued ecological, economic and recreational resource within the New York metropolitan area. Comparison of the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS measured radiance and in situ reflectance measurement shows the effect of the solar source and atmosphere in the total upwelling spectral radiance measured by AVIRIS. Radiative transfer code, Tafkaa was applied to remove the effects of the atmosphere and to generate accurate reflectance (R(0 from the AVIRIS radiance for retrieving water quality parameters (i.e., total chlorophyll. Chlorophyll estimation as index of phytoplankton abundance was optimized using AVIRIS band ratio at 675 nm and 702 nm resulting in a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.98. Use of the radiative transfer code in conjunction with bio optical model is the main tool for using ocean color remote sensing as an operational tool for monitoring of the key nearshore ecological communities of phytoplankton important in global change studies.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF A GOLF COMPLEX ON COASTAL WETLANDS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal wetlands and other near-shore areas. The chemical and biological magnitude of the problem is almost unknown. To provide perspective on this issue, the effects of golf complex r...

  16. Advances in Shallow-Water, High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping: Integrating an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) Into Nearshore Geophysical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, J. F.; O'Brien, T. F.; Bergeron, E.; Twichell, D.; Worley, C. R.; Danforth, W. W.; Andrews, B. A.; Irwin, B.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been heavily involved in geological mapping of the seafloor since the 1970s. Early mapping efforts such as GLORIA provided broad-scale imagery of deep waters (depths > 400 meters) within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In the early 1990's, the USGS research emphasis shifted from deep- to shallow-water environments (inner continental shelf, nearshore, estuaries) to address pertinent coastal issues such as erosion, sediment availability, sediment transport, vulnerability of coastal areas to natural and anthropogenic hazards, and resource management. Geologic framework mapping in these shallow- water environments has provided valuable data used to 1) define modern sediment distribution and thickness, 2) determine underlying stratigraphic and structural controls on shoreline behavior, and 3) enable onshore-to- offshore geologic mapping within the coastal zone when coupled with subaerial techniques such as GPR and topographic LIDAR. Research in nearshore areas presents technological challenges due to the dynamics of the environment, high volume of data collected, and the geophysical limitations of operating in very shallow water. In 2004, the USGS, in collaboration with NOAA's Coastal Services Center, began a multi-year seafloor mapping effort to better define oyster habitats within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, a shallow water estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bay poses a technological challenge due to its shallow depths (turbidity that prohibits the use of bathymetric LIDAR. To address this extreme shallow water setting, the USGS incorporated an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) into seafloor mapping operations, in June 2006. The ASV is configured with a chirp sub-bottom profiler (4 24 kHz), dual-frequency chirp sidescan-sonar (100/500 kHz), single-beam echosounder (235 kHz), and forward-looking digital camera, and will be used to delineate the distribution and thickness of surficial sediment, presence of oyster beds

  17. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  18. Exotic Spartina alterniflora invasion alters ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CH4 and N2O and carbon sequestration in a coastal salt marsh in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junji; Ding, Weixin; Liu, Deyan; Kang, Hojeong; Freeman, Chris; Xiang, Jian; Lin, Yongxin

    2015-04-01

    Coastal salt marshes are sensitive to global climate change and may play an important role in mitigating global warming. To evaluate the impacts of Spartina alterniflora invasion on global warming potential (GWP) in Chinese coastal areas, we measured CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil organic carbon sequestration rates along a transect of coastal wetlands in Jiangsu province, China, including open water; bare tidal flat; and invasive S. alterniflora, native Suaeda salsa, and Phragmites australis marshes. Annual CH4 emissions were estimated as 2.81, 4.16, 4.88, 10.79, and 16.98 kg CH4 ha(-1) for open water, bare tidal flat, and P. australis, S. salsa, and S. alterniflora marshes, respectively, indicating that S. alterniflora invasion increased CH4 emissions by 57-505%. In contrast, negative N2O fluxes were found to be significantly and negatively correlated (P carbon sequestration rate of S. alterniflora marsh amounted to 3.16 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) in the top 100 cm soil profile, a value that was 2.63- to 8.78-fold higher than in native plant marshes. The estimated GWP was 1.78, -0.60, -4.09, and -1.14 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in open water, bare tidal flat, P. australis marsh and S. salsa marsh, respectively, but dropped to -11.30 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in S. alterniflora marsh. Our results indicate that although S. alterniflora invasion stimulates CH4 emissions, it can efficiently mitigate increases in atmospheric CO2 and N2O along the coast of China. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Analysis of the impacts of Wave Energy Converter arrays on the nearshore wave climate in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    through the external modification of the wave spectra at the device locations, based on a new experimentally determined Power Transfer Function established in an earlier WEC-array laboratory study. Changes in nearshore forcing conditions for each array size and configuration are compared in order to determine the scale of the far-field effects of WEC arrays and which array sizes and configurations could have the most significant impacts on coastal processes.

  20. Morphological deformities of benthic foraminifera in response to nearshore pollution of the Red Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kahawy, R; El-Shafeiy, M; Helal, S A; Aboul-Ela, N; El-Wahab, M Abd

    2018-04-28

    The Red Sea encompasses a wide range of tropical marine habitats that are stressed due to anthropogenic activities. The main anthropogenic activities are hydrocarbon exploration and important trading harbors. This work aims to assess the influence of the Red Sea coastal heavy metal contamination on the marine meiofauna along three sites (Ras Gharib, Safaga, and Quseir). Eight heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and Mn) contents are considered in four benthic foraminiferal species (Elphidium striatopunctatum, Amphistegina lobifera, Amphisorus hemprichii, and Ammonia beccarii). Quseir Harbor showed the highest level of pollution followed by Safaga and Ras Gharib sites. The analyzed benthic foraminiferal tests displayed noteworthy high concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in Quseir Harbor which could be attributed to the anthropogenic activities in the nearshore areas. Some foraminiferal tests exhibited abnormalities in their apertures, coiling, and shape of chambers. A comparison between normal and deformed foraminiferal tests revealed that the deformed ones are highly contaminated with elevated heavy metal contents such as Fe, Mn, Ni, and Cd. Statistics in addition to geo-accumulation and pollution load indices reveal a whistling alarm for the Quseir harbor. The present data are necessary to improve conservation and management of the Red Sea ecosystem in the near future.

  1. Approach to downstream planning for nearshore response and sensitive areas protection outside Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCola, E.G.; Robertson, T.L.; Robertson, R.; Banta, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the need for an oil spill response plan for downstream coastal communities that could be affected by oil spilled from tankers travelling in Prince William Sound, Alaska. For the purpose of oil spill contingency planning, the State of Alaska has been divided into the Kodiak and Cook Inlet sub-areas that are at risk for downstream impacts from a Prince William Sound oil spill. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill provided an example of a worst-case scenario oil spill from a tanker in Prince William Sound, but the oil spill planning system that has evolved in Alaska does not adequately plan for on oil spill that originates in one sub-area of the state, but impacts other sub-areas in the downstream spill path. This study analyzed the gaps that exist in the current response planning system in the Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet and Kodiak sub-areas. A method was proposed to improve the existing response plans so that emergency response teams are better prepared to manage cross-boundary oil spills originating in Prince William Sound. The proposed method focuses on nearshore response and sensitive areas protection for coastlines and communities that are at risk for oil spills from a tanker travelling the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). 11 refs., 3 figs

  2. Evaluating the potential for near-shore bathymetry on the Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, using Landsat 8 and WorldView-3 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Gesch, Dean B.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Tyler, Dean J.

    2018-04-16

    Satellite-derived near-shore bathymetry (SDB) is becoming an increasingly important method for assessing vulnerability to climate change and natural hazards in low-lying atolls of the northern tropical Pacific Ocean. Satellite imagery has become a cost-effective means for mapping near-shore bathymetry because ships cannot collect soundings safely while operating close to the shore. Also, green laser light detection and ranging (lidar) acquisitions are expensive in remote locations. Previous research has demonstrated that spectral band ratio-based techniques, commonly called the natural logarithm approach, may lead to more precise measurements and modeling of bathymetry because of the phenomenon that different substrates at the same depth have approximately equal ratio values. The goal of this research was to apply the band ratio technique to Landsat 8 at-sensor radiance imagery and WorldView-3 atmospherically corrected imagery in the coastal waters surrounding the Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, to derive near-shore bathymetry that could be incorporated into a seamless topobathymetric digital elevation model of Majuro. Attenuation of light within the water column was characterized by measuring at-sensor radiance and reflectance at different depths and calculating an attenuation coefficient. Bathymetric lidar data, collected by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office in 2006, were used to calibrate the SDB results. The bathymetric lidar yielded a strong linear relation with water depths. The Landsat 8-derived SDB estimates derived from the blue/green band ratio exhibited a water attenuation extinction depth of 6 meters with a coefficient of determination R2=0.9324. Estimates derived from the coastal/red band ratio had an R2=0.9597. At the same extinction depth, SDB estimates derived from WorldView-3 imagery exhibited an R2=0.9574. Because highly dynamic coastal shorelines can be affected by erosion, wetland loss, hurricanes, sea-level rise, urban

  3. Study on the influence of the distance to shore for a wave energy farm operating in the central part of the Portuguese nearshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Eugen; Onea, Florin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nearshore impact of the wave farm (significant wave height fields and wave vectors). Conditions for a wave farm operating at 7 km from the shore, where: (a) average conditions for total time; (b) average conditions for winter time; (c) high energy non storm conditions. (MA) – Moderate absoption, (HA) – High absorption. - Highlights: • The coastal influence of a generic wave farm is assessed. • The target area is located in the central part of Portugal. • The wave decay down wave the farm is evaluated. • The impact on the coastal circulation is also assessed. - Abstract: The objective of the present work is to assess the coastal impact induced by a generic wave farm operating in the central part of the Portuguese continental coastal environment, south of Lisbon. In order to identify better the most relevant wave patterns in the target area, two data sets were processed and analyzed. The first is represented by the ‘in situ’ measurements provided by the Sines buoy, which operates in the immediate vicinity south of the target area, and the second consists in the wave data coming from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, in a point located offshore close to the target area. Three scenarios were considered for the numerical simulations that were carried out with a computational framework combining a wave and a circulation model. A generic wave farm was defined in the computational domain considering various distances from the shore: 1 km, 4 km and 7 km, respectively. In the first part of the work, the down-wave effect of the farm was evaluated taking into account the local wave characteristics in the target area and analyzing various wave parameters, as for example the wave power, wave height and mean wave direction. In the second part of the work, the influence of the farm on the nearshore circulation was also assessed. Based on the results of the present work it can be concluded that the nearshore impact of such a

  4. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of SPM that originates the river plume settles in the coastal zone; only the coarser material settles at the mouth of the river while the finer one is deposited further

  5. The effect of tides on nearshore environmental DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P; Gallego, Ramón; Jacobs-Palmer, Emily

    2018-01-01

    We can recover genetic information from organisms of all kinds using environmental sampling. In recent years, sequencing this environmental DNA (eDNA) has become a tractable means of surveying many species using water, air, or soil samples. The technique is beginning to become a core tool for ecologists, environmental scientists, and biologists of many kinds, but the temporal resolution of eDNA sampling is often unclear, limiting the ecological interpretations of the resulting datasets. Here, in a temporally and spatially replicated field study using ca. 313 bp of eukaryotic COI mtDNA as a marker, we find that nearshore organismal communities are largely consistent across tides. Our findings suggest that nearshore eDNA from both benthic and planktonic taxa tends to be endogenous to the site and water mass sampled, rather than changing with each tidal cycle. However, where physiochemical water mass characteristics change, we find that the relative contributions of a broad range of organisms to eDNA communities shift in concert.

  6. The effect of bathymetric filtering on nearshore process model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, N.G.; Edwards, K.L.; Kaihatu, J.M.; Veeramony, J.; Hsu, L.; Holland, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    Nearshore wave and flow model results are shown to exhibit a strong sensitivity to the resolution of the input bathymetry. In this analysis, bathymetric resolution was varied by applying smoothing filters to high-resolution survey data to produce a number of bathymetric grid surfaces. We demonstrate that the sensitivity of model-predicted wave height and flow to variations in bathymetric resolution had different characteristics. Wave height predictions were most sensitive to resolution of cross-shore variability associated with the structure of nearshore sandbars. Flow predictions were most sensitive to the resolution of intermediate scale alongshore variability associated with the prominent sandbar rhythmicity. Flow sensitivity increased in cases where a sandbar was closer to shore and shallower. Perhaps the most surprising implication of these results is that the interpolation and smoothing of bathymetric data could be optimized differently for the wave and flow models. We show that errors between observed and modeled flow and wave heights are well predicted by comparing model simulation results using progressively filtered bathymetry to results from the highest resolution simulation. The damage done by over smoothing or inadequate sampling can therefore be estimated using model simulations. We conclude that the ability to quantify prediction errors will be useful for supporting future data assimilation efforts that require this information.

  7. The RUNE Experiment—A Database of Remote-Sensing Observations of Near-Shore Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo; Lea, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive database of near-shore wind observations that were carried out during the experimental campaign of the RUNE project. RUNE aims at reducing the uncertainty of the near-shore wind resource estimates from model outputs by using lidar, ocean, and satellite observations. Here...

  8. Development of MODIS data-based algorithm for retrieving sea surface temperature in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-01

    A new algorithm was developed for retrieving sea surface temperature (SST) in coastal waters using satellite remote sensing data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua platform. The new SST algorithm was trained using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method and tested using 8 years of remote sensing data from MODIS Aqua sensor and in situ sensing data from the US coastal waters in Louisiana, Texas, Florida, California, and New Jersey. The ANN algorithm could be utilized to map SST in both deep offshore and particularly shallow nearshore waters at the high spatial resolution of 1 km, greatly expanding the coverage of remote sensing-based SST data from offshore waters to nearshore waters. Applications of the ANN algorithm require only the remotely sensed reflectance values from the two MODIS Aqua thermal bands 31 and 32 as input data. Application results indicated that the ANN algorithm was able to explaining 82-90% variations in observed SST in US coastal waters. While the algorithm is generally applicable to the retrieval of SST, it works best for nearshore waters where important coastal resources are located and existing algorithms are either not applicable or do not work well, making the new ANN-based SST algorithm unique and particularly useful to coastal resource management.

  9. Coastal habitat and biological community response to dam removal on the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Stevens, Andrew; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Duda, Jeff; Beirne, Matthew M.; Paradis, Rebecca; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; McCoy, Randall; Cubley, Erin S.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat diversity and heterogeneity play a fundamental role in structuring ecological communities. Dam emplacement and removal can fundamentally alter habitat characteristics, which in turn can affect associated biological communities. Beginning in the early 1900s, the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams in Washington, USA, withheld an estimated 30 million tonnes of sediment from river, coastal, and nearshore habitats. During the staged removal of these dams—the largest dam removal project in history—over 14 million tonnes of sediment were released from the former reservoirs. Our interdisciplinary study in coastal habitats—the first of its kind—shows how the physical changes to the river delta and estuary habitats during dam removal were linked to responses in biological communities. Sediment released during dam removal resulted in over a meter of sedimentation in the estuary and over 400 m of expansion of the river mouth delta landform. These changes increased the amount of supratidal and intertidal habitat, but also reduced the influx of seawater into the pre-removal estuary complex. The effects of these geomorphic and hydrologic changes cascaded to biological systems, reducing the abundance of macroinvertebrates and fish in the estuary and shifting community composition from brackish to freshwater-dominated species. Vegetation did not significantly change on the delta, but pioneer vegetation increased during dam removal, coinciding with the addition of newly available habitat. Understanding how coastal habitats respond to large-scale human stressors—and in some cases the removal of those stressors—is increasingly important as human uses and restoration activities increase in these habitats.

  10. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  11. Estimation of nearshore groundwater discharge and its potential effects on a fringing coral reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Ariel C.; Watanabe, Atsushi; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Motooka, Shunsuke; Herrera, Eugene C.; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We characterized SGD in a fringing coral reef using radon tracing. → End-member Rn and gas transfer rate significantly affect flux estimation accuracy. → Reef SGD is strongly influenced by tidal pumping and hydraulic gradient. → SGD elevated nitrate concentrations, which drastically increased nearshore Chl-a. → SGD significantly induced the proliferation of cyanobacteria in nearshore reef areas. - Abstract: Radon ( 222 Rn) measurements were conducted in Shiraho Reef (Okinawa, Japan) to investigate nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGD nearshore ) dynamics. Estimated average groundwater flux was 2-3 cm/h (maximum 7-8 cm/h). End-member radon concentration and gas transfer coefficient were identified as major factors influencing flux estimation accuracy. For the 7-km long reef, SGD nearshore was 0.39-0.58 m 3 /s, less than 30% of Todoroki River's baseflow discharge. SGD nearshore was spatially and temporally variable, reflecting the strong influence of subsurface geology, tidal pumping, groundwater recharge, and hydraulic gradient. SGD nearshore elevated nearshore nitrate concentrations (0.8-2.2 mg/l) to half of Todoroki River's baseflow NO 3 - N (2-4 mg/L). This increased nearshore Chl-a from 0.5-2 μg/l compared to the typically low Chl-a (<0.1-0.4 μg/l) in the moat. Diatoms and cyanobacteria concentrations exhibited an increasing trend. However, the percentage contributions of diatoms and cyanobacteria significantly decreased and increased, respectively. SGD may significantly induce the proliferation of cyanobacteria in nearshore reef areas.

  12. Coastal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, J.A.; Steetzel, H.J.; Bliek, A.; Rakhorst, H.D.; Roelse, P.; Bakker, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,

  13. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial communities associated with Cladophora glomerata mats along the nearshore of Lake Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Michael; Fernando, Dinesh M; Kumar, Ayush; Kirkwood, Andrea E

    2017-05-01

    The alga Cladophora glomerata can erupt in nuisance blooms throughout the lower Great Lakes. Since bacterial abundance increases with the emergence and decay of Cladophora, we investigated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in Cladophora-associated bacterial communities up-gradient and down-gradient from a large sewage treatment plant (STP) on Lake Ontario. Although STPs are well-known sources of ABR, we also expected detectable ABR from up-gradient wetland communities, since they receive surface run-off from urban and agricultural sources. Statistically significant differences in aquatic bacterial abundance and ABR were found between down-gradient beach samples and up-gradient coastal wetland samples (ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test, p Cladophora sampled near the STP had the highest bacterial densities overall, including on ampicillin- and vancomycin-treated plates. However, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the ABR genes ampC, tetA, tetB, and vanA from environmental communities showed a different pattern. Some of the highest ABR gene levels occurred at the 2 coastal wetland sites (vanA). Overall, bacterial ABR profiles from environmental samples were distinguishable between living and decaying Cladophora, inferring that Cladophora may control bacterial ABR depending on its life-cycle stage. Our results also show how spatially and temporally dynamic ABR is in nearshore aquatic bacteria, which warrants further research.

  14. Coastal nutrification and coral health at Porto Seguro reefs, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, O.; Attrill, M.; Nimmo, M.

    2003-04-01

    Human activities have substantially increased the natural flux of nutrients to coastal systems worldwide. In Brazilian reefs, all major stresses (sedimentation, overfishing, tourism-related activities and nutrification) are human induced. To assess nutrification levels in Brazilian coastal reefs, measurements of the distribution patterns of nutrients and chlorophyll concentrations were conducted in three nearshore and offshore reefs with distinct nutrient inputs along the south coast of Bahia State. Seawater and porewater samples were analysed for soluble reactive phosphorus, total oxidised nitrogen and reactive silica. Benthic surveys were performed at all sites to investigate the relationships between benthic community composition and nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling was undertaken in dry and rainy seasons. Results of both seawater and porewater nutrient measurements revealed the occurrence of consistent spatial and temporal patterns. An inshore-offshore gradient reflects the occurrence of land-based point sources, with significant amount of nutrients being delivered by human activities on the coast (untreated sewage and groundwater seepage). Another spatial gradient is related to distance from a localized source of pollution (an urban settlement without sewerage treatment) with two nearshore reefs presenting distinct nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations. Seasonal variations suggest that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the primary source of nutrients for the coastal reefs during rainy season. The data also suggests that the SGD effect is not restricted to nearshore reefs, and may be an important factor controlling the differences between landward and seaward sides on the offshore reef. Benthic community assessment revealed that turf alga is the dominant group in all studied reefs and that zoanthids are the organisms most adapted to take advantage of nutrient increase in coastal areas. At nearshore reefs, there was a negative

  15. Deriving nearshore wave climate along South African coast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rossouw, M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study addressed aspects of the highly interrelated study area of coastal safety and vulnerability, climate change and setback lines for South African coast. A medium resolution numerical wave analysis was undertaken, in the form...

  16. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  17. Coastal Upwelling Drives Intertidal Assemblage Structure and Trophic Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddin, Carl J; Docmac, Felipe; O'Connor, Nessa E; Bothwell, John H; Harrod, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Similar environmental driving forces can produce similarity among geographically distant ecosystems. Coastal oceanic upwelling, for example, has been associated with elevated biomass and abundance patterns of certain functional groups, e.g., corticated macroalgae. In the upwelling system of Northern Chile, we examined measures of intertidal macrobenthic composition, structure and trophic ecology across eighteen shores varying in their proximity to two coastal upwelling centres, in a hierarchical sampling design (spatial scales of >1 and >10 km). The influence of coastal upwelling on intertidal communities was confirmed by the stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) of consumers, including a dominant suspension feeder, grazers, and their putative resources of POM, epilithic biofilm, and macroalgae. We highlight the utility of muscle δ15N from the suspension feeding mussel, Perumytilus purpuratus, as a proxy for upwelling, supported by satellite data and previous studies. Where possible, we used corrections for broader-scale trends, spatial autocorrelation, ontogenetic dietary shifts and spatial baseline isotopic variation prior to analysis. Our results showed macroalgal assemblage composition, and benthic consumer assemblage structure, varied significantly with the intertidal influence of coastal upwelling, especially contrasting bays and coastal headlands. Coastal topography also separated differences in consumer resource use. This suggested that coastal upwelling, itself driven by coastline topography, influences intertidal communities by advecting nearshore phytoplankton populations offshore and cooling coastal water temperatures. We recommend the isotopic values of benthic organisms, specifically long-lived suspension feeders, as in situ alternatives to offshore measurements of upwelling influence.

  18. Cross-shelf transport into nearshore waters due to shoaling internal tides in San Pedro Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Burt Jones,; Peter Hamilton,; Xu, Jingping; George Robertson,; Rosenfeld, Leslie; John Largier,

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, a coastal ocean measurement program in the southeastern portion of San Pedro Bay, CA, was designed and carried out. One aim of the program was to determine the strength and effectiveness of local cross-shelf transport processes. A particular objective was to assess the ability of semidiurnal internal tidal currents to move suspended material a net distance across the shelf. Hence, a dense array of moorings was deployed across the shelf to monitor the transport patterns associated with fluctuations in currents, temperature and salinity. An associated hydrographic program periodically monitored synoptic changes in the spatial patterns of temperature, salinity, nutrients and bacteria. This set of measurements show that a series of energetic internal tides can, but do not always, transport subthermocline water, dissolved and suspended material from the middle of the shelf into the surfzone. Effective cross-shelf transport occurs only when (1) internal tides at the shelf break are strong and (2) subtidal currents flow strongly downcoast. The subtidal downcoast flow causes isotherms to tilt upward toward the coast, which allows energetic, nonlinear internal tidal currents to carry subthermocline waters into the surfzone. During these events, which may last for several days, the transported water remains in the surfzone until the internal tidal current pulses and/or the downcoast subtidal currents disappear. This nonlinear internal tide cross-shelf transport process was capable of carrying water and the associated suspended or dissolved material from the mid-shelf into the surfzone, but there were no observation of transport from the shelf break into the surfzone. Dissolved nutrients and suspended particulates (such as phytoplankton) transported from the mid-shelf into the nearshore region by nonlinear internal tides may contribute to nearshore algal blooms, including harmful algal blooms that occur off local beaches.

  19. Inland and Near-Shore Water Profiles Derived from the High-Altitude Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Stoll, Jeremy D.; Cook, William B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Stengel, Eric; Brunt, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) mission is a six beam, low energy, high repetition rate, 532-nanometer laser transmitter with photon counting detectors. Although designed primarily for detecting height changes in ice caps, sea ice, and vegetation, the polar-orbiting satellite will observe global surface water during its designed three-year life span, including inland waterbodies, coasts, and open oceans. In preparation for the mission, an ICESat-2 prototype, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was built and flown on high-altitude aircraft experiments over a range of inland and near-shore targets. The purpose was to test the ATLAS concept and to provide a database for developing an algorithm that detects along track surface water height and light penetration under a range of atmospheric and water conditions. The current analysis examines the data sets of three MABEL transects observed from 20 kilometers above ground of coastal and inland waters conducted in 2012 and 2013. Transects ranged from about 2 to 12 kilometers in length and included the middle Chesapeake Bay, the near-shore Atlantic coast at Virginia Beach, and Lake Mead. Results indicate MABEL's high capability for retrieving surface water height statistics with a mean height precision ofapproximately 5-7 centimeters per 100-meter segment length. Profiles of attenuated subsurface backscatter, characterized using a Signal to Background Ratio written in Log10 base, or LSBR (sub 0), were observed over a range of 1.3 to 9.3 meters, depending on water clarity and atmospheric background. Results indicate that observable penetration depth, although primarily dependent on water properties, was greatest when the solar background rate was low. Near-shore bottom reflectance was detected only at the Lake Mead site down to a maximum of 10 meters under a clear night sky and low turbidity of approximately 1

  20. Understanding Nearshore Processes Of a Large Arctic Delta Using Combined Seabed Mapping, In Situ Observations, Remote Sensing and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. M.; Couture, N. J.; Forbes, D. L.; Hoque, A.; Jenner, K. A.; Lintern, G.; Mulligan, R. P.; Perrie, W. A.; Stevens, C. W.; Toulany, B.; Whalen, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Mackenzie River Delta and the adjacent continental shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea are known to host significant quantities of hydrocarbons. Recent environmental reviews of proposed hydrocarbon development have highlighted the need for a better understanding of the processes that control sediment transport and coastal stability. Over the past several years field surveys have been undertaken in winter, spring and summer to acquire data on seabed morphology, sediment properties, sea ice, river-ocean interaction and nearshore oceanography. These data are being used to improve conceptual models of nearshore processes and to develop and validate numerical models of waves, circulation and sediment transport. The timing and location of sediment erosion, transport and deposition is complex, driven by a combination of open water season storms and spring floods. Unlike temperate counterparts, the interaction between the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea during spring freshet is mediated by the presence of ice cover. Increasing discharge exceeds the under-ice flow capacity leading to flooding of the ice surface, followed by vortex drainage through the ice and scour of the seabed below (“strudel” drainage and scour). During winter months, nearshore circulation slows beneath a thickening ice canopy. Recent surveys have shown that the low gradient inner shelf is composed of extensive shoals where ice freezes to the seabed and intervening zones which are slightly deeper than the ice is thick. The duration of ice contact with the bed determines the thermal characteristics of the seabed. Analysis of cores shows that the silts comprising the shoals are up to 6 m thick. The predominantly well sorted and cross-laminated nature of the silts at the top of the cores suggests an active delta front environment. Measurements of waves, currents, conductivity, temperature and sediment concentration during spring and late summer have been acquired. During moderate August

  1. Exploring the nearshore marine wind profile from field measurements and numerical hindcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Jesus, F.; Menendez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wind power is the predominant offshore renewable energy resource. In the last years, offshore wind farms have become a technically feasible source of electrical power. The economic feasibility of offshore wind farms depends on the quality of the offshore wind conditions compared to that of onshore sites. Installation and maintenance costs must be balanced with more hours and a higher quality of the available resources. European offshore wind development has revealed that the optimum offshore sites are those in which the distance from the coast is limited with high available resource. Due to the growth in the height of the turbines and the complexity of the coast, with interactions between inland wind/coastal orography and ocean winds, there is a need for field measurements and validation of numerical models to understand the marine wind profile near the coast. Moreover, recent studies have pointed out that the logarithmic law describing the vertical wind profile presents limitations. The aim of this work is to characterize the nearshore vertical wind profile in the medium atmosphere boundary layer. Instrumental observations analyzed in this work come from the Idermar project (www.Idermar.es). Three floating masts deployed at different locations on the Cantabrian coast provide wind measurements from a height of 20 to 90 meters. Wind speed and direction are measured as well as several meteorological variables at different heights of the profile. The shortest wind time series has over one year of data. A 20 year high-resolution atmospheric hindcast, using the WRF-ARW model and focusing on hourly offshore wind fields, is also analyzed. Two datasets have been evaluated: a European reanalysis with a ~15 Km spatial resolution, and a hybrid downscaling of wind fields with a spatial resolution of one nautical mile over the northern coast of Spain.. These numerical hindcasts have been validated based on field measurement data. Several parameterizations of the vertical wind

  2. An Integrated Numerical Model for the Design of Coastal Protection Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophanis V. Karambas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an integrated coastal engineering numerical model is presented. The model simulates the linear wave propagation, wave-induced circulation, and sediment transport and bed morphology evolution. It consists of three main modules: WAVE_L, WICIR, and SEDTR. The nearshore wave transformation module WAVE_L (WAVE_Linear is based on the hyperbolic-type mild slope equation and is valid for a compound linear wave field near coastal structures where the waves are subjected to the combined effects of shoaling, refraction, diffraction, reflection (total and partial, and breaking. Radiation stress components (calculated from WAVE_L drive the depth averaged circulation module WICIR (Wave Induced CIRculation for the description of the nearshore wave-induced currents. Sediment transport and bed morphology evolution in the nearshore, surf, and swash zone are simulated by the SEDTR (SEDiment TRansport module. The model is tested against experimental data to study the effect of representative coastal protection structures and is applied to a real case study of a coastal engineering project in North Greece, producing accurate and consistent results for a versatile range of layouts.

  3. SICS: the Southern Inland and Coastal System interdisciplinary project of the USGS South Florida Ecosystem Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    State and Federal agencies are working jointly on structural modifications and improved water-delivery strategies to reestablish more natural surface-water flows through the Everglades wetlands and into Florida Bay. Changes in the magnitude, duration, timing, and distribution of inflows from the headwaters of the Taylor Slough and canal C-111 drainage basins have shifted the seasonal distribution and extent of wetland inundation, and also contributed to the development of hypersaline conditions in nearshore embayments of Florida Bay. Such changes are altering biological and vegetative communities in the wetlands and creating stresses on aquatic habitat. Affected biotic resources include federally listed species such as the Cape Sable seaside sparrow, American crocodile, wood stork, and roseate spoonbill. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is synthesizing scientific findings from hydrologic process studies, collecting data to characterize the ecosystem properties and functions, and integrating the results of these efforts into a research tool and management model for this Southern Inland and Coastal System(SICS). Scientists from all four disciplinary divisions of the USGS, Biological Resources, Geology, National Mapping, and Water Resources are contributing to this interdisciplinary project.

  4. Joint effect of freshwater plume and coastal upwelling on phytoplankton growth off the Changjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Y.-F.; Lin, J.; Dai, M.; Kao, S.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze) River discharges vast amount of unbalanced nutrients (dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus with N / P ratio > 80 in general) into the East China Sea in summer. To study nutrient dynamics and P-stress potential for phytoplankton, a cruise was conducted in the Changjiang plume during summer 2011. With 3-D observations of nutrients, chlorophyll a (Chl a), and bulk alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), we concluded that the Changjiang Diluted Water and coastal upwelling significantly influenced the horizontal and vertical heterogeneities of phytoplankton P deficiency in the Changjiang plume. Allochthonous APA was detected at nutrient-enriched freshwater end. Excessive N (~ 10 to 112 μM) was observed throughout the entire plume surface. In the plume fringe featuring stratification and excess N, diapycnal phosphate supply was blocked and phytoplankton APA was stimulated for growth. We observed an upwelling just attaching to the turbidity front at seaward side where Chl a peaked yet much less APA was detected. An external phosphate supply from subsurface, which promoted phytoplankton growth but inhibited APA, was suggested to be sourced from the Nearshore Kuroshio Branch Current. In the so hydrographically complicated Changjiang plume, phosphate supply instead of its concentration may be more important in determining the expression of APA. Meanwhile, allochthonous APA may also alter the usefulness of APA as a P-stress indicator.

  5. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 16 (NS16): Wailupe, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  6. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 10 (NS10): Maunalua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  7. Nearshore Benthic Habitats of Timor-Leste Derived from WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat classes were derived for nearshore waters (< 20 m depths) around Timor-Leste from DigitalGlobe WorldView-2 satellite imagery, acquired from Jan 26...

  8. AFSC/REFM: Nearshore fish survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska, July-August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project consisted of a nearshore fish, invertebrate, and habitat survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska. A 32-ft. gillnet vessel, the F/V Willow was chartered...

  9. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 01 (NS01): Waikiki Yacht Club, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  10. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 02 (NS02): Hawaii Yacht Club, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  11. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 13 (NS13): Kahului, Maui, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  12. Wave-induced nearshore flow patterns in the vicinity of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Vethamony, P.; Murty, C.S.

    . Anonymous, Nearshore processes along the Silver Strand littoral cell. Design Memorandum No. 4. US Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles, 1974, 71 pp. 15. Prasanna Kumar, S., Shenoi, S. S. C. & Kurup, P. G., Littoral drift along shoreline between Munambam...

  13. Foraminiferal studies in nearshore regions of western coast of India and Laccadives Islands: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhalla, S.N.; Khare, N.; Shanmukha, D.H.; Henriques, P.J.

    The literature published on foraminiferal investigations carried out till date on nearshore, shallow water regions up to a depth of 50 m, along western coast of India, including Laccadive Archipelago has been reviewed. The aim is to prepare a...

  14. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 05 (NS05): Pago Pago, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  15. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 09 (NS09): Cetti Bay, Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  16. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 15 (NS15): Pago Bay, Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  17. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 07 (NS07): Majuro, Marshall Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  18. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 12 (NS12): Kalama Beach Park, Maui, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  19. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 04 (NS04): Waikiki Aquarium, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  20. Wave-induced nearshore circulation along the Calangute-Candolim beach, Goa, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumar, V.; Murty, C.S.; Heblekar, A.K.

    The wave-induced nearshore circulation model suggested by Noda has been modified and applied for three small segments along the coast of Goa. The present model incorporates the prevailing bottom topography and considers its variation along...

  1. PacIOOS Nearshore Sensor 03 (NS03): Hilton Hawaiian Pier, Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nearshore sensors are part of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) and are designed to measure a variety of ocean parameters at fixed point...

  2. Diurnal variation of phytoplankton pigments and population in the nearshore waters off Thal (Maharashtra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam, M.J.; Desai, B.N.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    with high tide. The number of phytoplankton species was maximum during day time at the offshore station whereas minimum number of species was obtained at the nearshore station. Pleurosigma, Coscinodiscus, Nitzschia, Navicula, Thalassionema, Thalassiothrix...

  3. Production and associations of zooplankton in estuarine and nearshore waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    Zooplankton production in the Zuari and Mandovi estuaries indicated 2 peaks-one in November and another in March/April. In the nearshore waters very high value of zooplankton biomass was observed in April associated with Trichodesmium bloom. Mean...

  4. Coastal morphology and dynamics of two beaches of Favignana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasanisi, Francesco; Tebano, Carlo; Grauso, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Results of an investigation on the coastal morphology and dynamics of two pocket beaches of Favignana, Cala Azzurra and Lido Burrone, are presented. Four detailed hydrographic surveys were performed using multibeam echo sounder with sidescan sonar and differential marine GPS. Surveys were repeated in different periods following the same navigation project. Moreover, incident wave climate and coastal hydrodynamics were investigated using state-of-the-art numerical models. Results of in-situ activities indicate little bathymetric variations among different surveys and suggest a substantial stability of submerged beach profiles limited to surveyed area. Slightly greater bathymetric changes and a generally more intense coastal dynamics were observed at Cala Azzurra compared to Lido Burrone. Simulations of wave propagation and nearshore circulation currents provided results consistent with field observations [it

  5. Experimental study of sediment fluxes on Barcelona's nearshore

    OpenAIRE

    Armengou Gallardo, Carla

    2011-01-01

    The presence of suspended sediment in marine waters has several impacts, such as a degradation of the coastal ecosystem, pollution or a damaging effect on the tourism-oriented economies. FIELD_AC is a European project that aims to provide an improved operational service for coastal areas and generate added value for GMES predictions. This is achieved by the analysis of field cases. In this context, this minor thesis is based on the study of the information obtained in a field campaign car...

  6. Using SST and land cover data from EO Missions for improved mesoscale modelling of the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Lea, Guillaume

    was to evaluate the uncertainty of the modelled wind in the coastal zone and further improve it. Moreover LIDAR measurements were used to evaluate the wind speed retrieval from high resolution SAR systems (Sentinel-1 and TerraSAR-X). The WRF model used a high-resolution satellite SST reanalysis product from...... be implemented in the meso-scale model to better represent the actual conditions in the study area. Such improvements are expected to strengthen the model’s ability to represent land- sea and air-sea interactions, the atmospheric stability and the local topographic features that partly affect the coastal zone......Existing wind measurements in near-shore and offshore areas are sparse and scarce, therefore simulations from state-of-the-art meso-scale models are used for wind resource predictions. In coastal and near-shore areas, models are inaccurate and uncertain, mainly because of numerical approximations...

  7. Development of a wave-induced forcing threshold for nearshore impact of Wave Energy Converter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.

    2016-02-01

    Wave-induced forcing is a function of spatial gradients in the wave radiation stresses and is the main driver of alongshore currents, rip currents, and nearshore sediment transport. The installation of nearshore Wave Energy Converter (WEC) arrays may cause significant changes in the surf zone radiation stresses and could therefore impact nearshore littoral processes. In the first part of this study, a new threshold for nearshore hydrodynamic impact due to the presence of WEC devices is established based on changes in the alongshore radiation stress gradients shoreward of WEC arrays. The threshold is defined based on the relationship between nearshore radiation stresses and alongshore currents as observed in field data. Next, we perform a parametric study of the nearshore impact of WEC arrays using the SWAN wave model. Trials are conducted on an idealized, alongshore-uniform beach with a range of WEC array configurations, locations, and incident wave conditions, and conditions that generate radiation stress gradients above the impact threshold are identified. Finally, the same methodology is applied to two wave energy test sites off the coast of Newport, OR with more complicated bathymetries. Although the trends at the field sites are similar to those seen in the parametric study, the location and extent of the changes in the alongshore radiation stress gradients appear to be heavily influenced by the local bathymetry.

  8. Larval fish variability in response to oceanographic features in a nearshore nursery area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattrick, P; Strydom, N A

    2014-09-01

    The influence of oceanographic features on ichthyoplankton assemblages in the warm temperate nearshore region of Algoa Bay, South Africa, was assessed. The nearshore ichthyoplankton comprised 88 taxa from 34 families. Samples were collected at six stations between August 2010 and July 2012 using a plankton ring net of 750 mm diameter and 500 µm mesh aperture. The majority of larvae collected were in a preflexion stage, indicating the potential importance of the nearshore for newly hatched larvae. Engraulidae dominated the catch (38·4%), followed by Cynoglossidae (28·1%) and Sparidae (8·4%). Larval fish abundance was highest during austral spring and summer (September to February). Unique patterns in responses of each dominant fish species to oceanographic features in the nearshore indicate the sensitivity of the early developmental stage to environmental variables. Using generalized linear models, ichthyoplankton abundance responded positively to upwelling and when warm water plumes originating from an Agulhas Current meander entered Algoa Bay. Highest abundances of Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardinops sagax were observed during Agulhas Plume intrusions into Algoa Bay. When a mixed and stratified water column persisted in the nearshore region of Algoa Bay, larval fish abundance decreased. The nearshore region of Algoa Bay appears to serve as a favourable environment for the accumulation of ichthyoplankton. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Nearshore dynamics of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; McLaughlin, Molly R.

    2015-01-01

    Weathered oil can mix with sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) that can cause beach re-oiling for years after a spill. Few studies have focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. In this study, artificial SOAs (aSOAs) were created and deployed in the nearshore, and shear stress-based mobility formulations were assessed to predict SOA response. Prediction sensitivity to uncertainty in hydrodynamic conditions and shear stress parameterizations were explored. Critical stress estimates accounting for large particle exposure in a mixed bed gave the best predictions of mobility under shoaling and breaking waves. In the surf zone, the 10-cm aSOA was immobile and began to bury in the seafloor while smaller size classes dispersed alongshore. aSOAs up to 5 cm in diameter were frequently mobilized in the swash zone. The uncertainty in predicting aSOA dynamics reflects a broader uncertainty in applying mobility and transport formulations to cm-sized particles.

  10. Predicting Output Power for Nearshore Wave Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henock Mamo Deberneh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvested from a Wave Energy Converter (WEC varies greatly with the location of its installation. Determining an optimal location that can result in maximum output power is therefore critical. In this paper, we present a novel approach to predicting the output power of a nearshore WEC by characterizing ocean waves using floating buoys. We monitored the movement of the buoys using an Arduino-based data collection module, including a gyro-accelerometer sensor and a wireless transceiver. The collected data were utilized to train and test prediction models. The models were developed using machine learning algorithms: SVM, RF and ANN. The results of the experiments showed that measurements from the data collection module can yield a reliable predictor of output power. Furthermore, we found that the predictors work better when the regressors are combined with a classifier. The accuracy of the proposed prediction model suggests that it could be extremely useful in both locating optimal placement for wave energy harvesting plants and designing the shape of the buoys used by them.

  11. Thermography of the New River Inlet plume and nearshore currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickadel, C.; Jessup, A.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the DARLA and RIVET experiments, thermal imaging systems mounted on a tower and in an airplane captured water flow in the New River Inlet, NC, USA. Kilometer-scale, airborne thermal imagery of the inlet details the ebb flow of the estuarine plume water mixing with ocean water. Multiple fronts, corresponding to the preferred channels through the ebb tidal delta, are imaged in the aerial data. A series of internal fronts suggest discreet sources of the tidal plume that vary with time. Focused thermal measurements made from a tower on the south side of the inlet viewed an area within a radius of a few hundred meters. Sub-meter resolution video from the tower revealed fine-scale flow features and the interaction of tidal exchange and wave-forced surfzone currents. Using the tower and airborne thermal image data we plan to provide geophysical information to compare with numerical models and in situ measurements made by other investigators. From the overflights, we will map the spatial and temporal extent of the estuarine plume to correlate with tidal phase and local wind conditions. From the tower data, we will investigate the structure of the nearshore flow using a thermal particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique, which is based on tracking motion of the surface temperature patterns. Long term variability of the mean and turbulent two-dimensional PIV currents will be correlated to local wave, tidal, and wind forcing parameters.

  12. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  13. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of south-west Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; DebRoy, Chitrita; Flint, Paul L.; Safine, David E.; Schamber, Jason L.; Riddle, Ann E.; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.

  14. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of south-west Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E; Debroy, Chitrita; Flint, Paul L; Safine, David E; Schamber, Jason L; Riddle, Ann E; Trust, Kimberly A

    2011-04-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  16. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  17. Integration of Web-GIS and oil spill simulation applications for environmental management of near-shore spill accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, S.; Miyata, D.; Varlamov, S.M.; Kim, S.-W.

    2001-01-01

    In the event of a near-shore oil spill, the use of a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) can greatly improve emergency response management and oil recovery operations by providing real-time information support. This paper presented a Web-GIS that is used in combination with an oil spill simulation model. The structure and content of the system was defined after the Nakhodka vessel spilled oil in the Sea of Japan in January 1997, leaving serious environmental damage to the coastal area of the Ishikawa prefecture. The Web-GIS provides a wide range of environmental and oil spill related information, presented in a geographical form. The system also consolidates spill and environmental damage related information from different sources and provides links to the specialized environmental and socio-economical information of other GIS databases. The oil spill modeling subsystem is part of an application for protection planning and oil recovery operations. With this system, oil-drift simulation begins at the onset of any oil spill and then remote sensing data are used to estimate the position and state of the spilled oil. The spill information is then assimilated into the spill model and the observed simulated results are uploaded to the Web page for public information. The applicability of the Web-GIS is extended by support for information gathering from the public and the responsible agencies. The relative simplicity of the system interface is an added advantage. 9 refs., 4 figs

  18. Near-shore Antarctic pH variability has implications for the design of ocean acidification experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsenberg, Lydia; Kelley, Amanda L.; Shaw, Emily C.; Martz, Todd R.; Hofmann, Gretchen E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how declining seawater pH caused by anthropogenic carbon emissions, or ocean acidification, impacts Southern Ocean biota is limited by a paucity of pH time-series. Here, we present the first high-frequency in-situ pH time-series in near-shore Antarctica from spring to winter under annual sea ice. Observations from autonomous pH sensors revealed a seasonal increase of 0.3 pH units. The summer season was marked by an increase in temporal pH variability relative to spring and early winter, matching coastal pH variability observed at lower latitudes. Using our data, simulations of ocean acidification show a future period of deleterious wintertime pH levels potentially expanding to 7–11 months annually by 2100. Given the presence of (sub)seasonal pH variability, Antarctica marine species have an existing physiological tolerance of temporal pH change that may influence adaptation to future acidification. Yet, pH-induced ecosystem changes remain difficult to characterize in the absence of sufficient physiological data on present-day tolerances. It is therefore essential to incorporate natural and projected temporal pH variability in the design of experiments intended to study ocean acidification biology.

  19. Implementation and validation of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Inghilesi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A coastal forecasting system was implemented to provide wind wave forecasts over the whole Mediterranean Sea area, and with the added capability to focus on selected coastal areas. The goal of the system was to achieve a representation of the small-scale coastal processes influencing the propagation of waves towards the coasts. The system was based on a chain of nested wave models and adopted the WAve Model (WAM to analyse the large-scale, deep-sea propagation of waves; and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN to simulate waves in key coastal areas. Regional intermediate-scale WAM grids were introduced to bridge the gap between the large-scale and each coastal area. Even applying two consecutive nestings (Mediterranean grid → regional grid → coastal grid, a very high resolution was still required for the large scale WAM implementation in order to get a final resolution of about 400 m on the shores. In this study three regional areas in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected, with a single coastal area embedded in each of them. The number of regional and coastal grids in the system could easily be modified without significantly affecting the efficiency of the system. The coastal system was tested in three Italian coastal regions in order to optimize the numerical parameters and to check the results in orographically complex zones for which wave records were available. Fifteen storm events in the period 2004–2009 were considered.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Coastal and Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    USGS Western Region Coastal and Ocean Science is interdisciplinary, collaborative, and integrates expertise from all USGS Disciplines, and ten of its major Science Centers, in Alaska, Hawai'i, California, Washington, and Oregon. The scientific talent, laboratories, and research vessels in the Western Region and across the Nation, strategically position the USGS to address broad geographic and oceanographic research topics. USGS information products inform resource managers and policy makers who must balance conservation mandates with increasing demands for resources that sustain the Nation's economy. This fact sheet describes but a few examples of the breadth of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore, and ocean environments along our Nation's West Coast and Pacific Islands.

  1. Modern sedimentation processes in a wave-dominated coastal embayment: Espírito Santo Bay, southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Costa Moscon, Daphnne Moraes; Carmo, Dannilo; Neto, José Antonio Baptista; da Silva Quaresma, Valéria

    2015-02-01

    Sediment dynamics in wave-dominated coastal embayments are generally controlled by seasonal meteorological conditions, storms having a particularly strong influence. In the present study, such hydrodynamic processes and associated deposits have been investigated in a coastal embayment located along the southeast coast of Brazil, i.e. Espírito Santo Bay, in the winter (June/July) of 2008. The bay has undergone a series of human interventions that have altered the local hydrodynamic processes and, consequently, the sediment transport patterns. Facies distribution and sediment dynamics were examined by acoustic seabed mapping, sediment and core sampling, hydrodynamic measurements and sand transport modelling. The results show that sediment distribution can be described in terms of nearshore and offshore zones. The offshore bay sector is predominantly composed of "palimpsest" lithoclastic medium-coarse sands deposited in the course of the early Holocene transgression that peaked about 5,000 years ago. In the inner bay or nearshore zone (up to depths of 4-8 m), these older transgressive deposits are today overlain by a thin (up to 30-cm-thick) and partly patchy blanket of younger regressive fine sand/muddy fine sands. Both coarse- and fine-grained facies are being reworked during high-energy events (Hs>1.5 m) when fine sediment is resuspended, weak tide-induced drift currents causing the sand patches to be displaced. The coarser sediment, by contrast, is mobilized as bedload to produce wave ripples with spacings of up to 1.2 m. These processes lead to a sharp spatial delimitation between a fine sand/mud facies and a rippled coarse sand facies. The fine sand patches have a relief of about 20-30 cm and reveal a typical internal tempestite depositional sequence. Fair-weather wave-induced sediment transport (Hs<1 m), supported by weak tidal currents, seems to only affect the fine sediment facies. Sediment dynamics in Espírito Santo Bay is thus essentially controlled by

  2. Coastal resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1991-11-01

    There are several potential mechanisms for the suspension in air of radioactive or other pollutants from coastal sea water, beaches, mud banks and salt marshes. Available measurements rarely allow these mechanisms to be distinguished. The limited data show a broad spread of results. When normalised by the concentration of radionuclides in beach sediments most of the data indicate concentrations equivalent to 1 to 30 μg m -3 of sediment suspended in air, both for sampling sites on open coasts and near estuaries. Limited evidence for sampling sites located on salt marshes indicates about 0.2 μg m -3 of suspended sediment. These values represent the aggregate effect of the mechanisms that operate at a limited number of coastal locations. At other locations it is possible that additional mechanisms will contribute to the suspension of sediment. (Author)

  3. Comparison of fishes in nearshore areas of the St. Lawrence River, New York over 35 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Douglas M.; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Fishes of the nearshore waters of the St. Lawrence River provide forage for valuable sport fisheries and are important biological indicators of condition and change. This fish community differs slightly among various reaches of the St. Lawrence River from New York to Quebec (Carlson et al. 2006, Eckert and Hanlon 1977, Kapuscinski 2011, LaViolette et al. 2003, Mandrak et al. 2006, McKenna et al. 2005). Nearshore habitat has been described by McKenna et al. (2012), and others have suggested that there were changes over the last few decades (Clapsadl 1993, Kapuscinski and Farrell 2013). More definitive work needs to be completed on submerged aquatic vegetation habitats. In this paper, changes in the nearshore fish species composition for the New York reach from Cape Vincent to Moses-Saunders Dam are examined through comparison of results from 2009-2010 (McKenna et al. 2012) and 1976 surveys (Eckert and Hanlon 1977).

  4. Preliminary Nearshore Sedimentation Rate Analysis of the Tuungane Project Northern Mahale Conservation Area, Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, R. A.; McGlue, M. M.; Yeager, K. M.; Soreghan, M. J.; Lucas, J.; Kimirei, I.; Mbonde, A.; Limbu, P.; Apse, C.

    2017-12-01

    The combined effects of climate change, overfishing, and sediment pollution are altering Lake Tanganyika's littoral fisheries in profoundly negative ways. One method for conserving critical fish resources and safeguarding biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika is by establishing small-scale nearshore protected zones, which can be administrated by lakeshore villagers organized into beach management units (BMUs). Each BMU endeavors to manage offshore "no-catch" protected zones, prohibit the use of illegal fishing gear, and promote sustainable agriculture that abates erosion in the lake watershed, in order to mitigate sediment pollution in the lake. We adopted a limnogeological approach to assist in characterizing the littoral zone associated with BMUs in the northern Mahale region of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania), a critical conservation area for the Nature Conservancy's Tuungane Project (https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/africa/wherewework/tuungane-project.xml). We hypothesized that BMUs with heavy onshore agricultural activity would experience relatively high offshore sedimentation rates, due to enhanced sediment-laden runoff in the wet season. Such changes are predicted to alter benthic substrates and degrade habitat available for fish spawning. We mapped bathymetry and sediment types along a 29 km2 area of the littoral zone using high-resolution geophysical tools, and assessed short-term sedimentation rates using sediment cores and radionuclide geochronology (210Pb). Initial results from 210Pb analyses show that sedimentation rates at the mud-line ( 85-100 m water depth) are relatively slow but spatially variable in the northern Mahale area. Offshore of the Kalilani village BMU, linear sedimentation rates are 0.50 mm/yr. By contrast, sedimentation rates offshore from the Igualula village BMU are 0.90-1.30 mm/yr. Higher sedimentation rates near Igualula are consistent with greater sediment inputs from the nearby Lagosa River and its watershed, which has been

  5. Landing Marine-derived Renewable Energy: Optimising Power Cable Routing in the Nearshore Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rosalind, ,, Dr.; Keane, Tom; Mullins, Brian; Phipps, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that a vast unexploited source of energy can be derived from the marine environment. Recent evolution of the energy market and looming EU renewable energy uptake targets for 2020 have driven a huge explosion of interest in exploiting this resource, triggering both governments and industry to move forward in undertaking feasibility assessments and demonstration projects for wave, tidal and offshore wind farms across coastlines. The locations which naturally lend themselves to high yield energy capture, are by definition, exposed and may be remote, located far from the end user of the electricity generated. A fundamental constraint to successfully exploiting these resources will be whether electricity generated in high energy, variable and constantly evolving environments can be brought safely and reliably to shore without the need for constant monitoring and maintenance of the subsea cables and landfall sites. In the case of riverine cable crossings superficial sediments would typically be used to trench and bury the cable. High energy coastal environments may be stripped of soft sediments. Any superficial sediments present at the site may be highly mobile and subject to re-suspension throughout the tidal cycle or under stormy conditions. EirGrid Plc. and Mott MacDonald Ireland Ltd. have been investigating the potential for routing a cable across the exposed Shannon estuary in Ireland. Information regarding the geological ground model, meteo-oceanographic and archaeological conditions of the proposed site was limited, necessitating a clear investigation strategy. The investigation included gathering site information on currents, bathymetry and geology through desk studies, hydrographic and geophysical surveys, an intrusive ground investigation and coastal erosion assessments at the landfall sites. The study identified a number of difficulties for trenching and protecting a cable through an exposed environment such as the Shannon

  6. Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2010-04-22

    In this study, a hydrodynamic model based on the unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was developed for Bellingham Bay, Washington. The model simulates water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity in a three-dimensional domain that covers the entire Bellingham Bay and adjacent water bodies, including Lummi Bay, Samish Bay, Padilla Bay, and Rosario Strait. The model was developed using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s high-resolution Puget Sound and Northwest Straits circulation and transport model. A sub-model grid for Bellingham Bay and adjacent coastal waters was extracted from the Puget Sound model and refined in Bellingham Bay using bathymetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and river channel cross-section data. The model uses tides, river inflows, and meteorological inputs to predict water surface elevations, currents, salinity, and temperature. A tidal open boundary condition was specified using standard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) predictions. Temperature and salinity open boundary conditions were specified based on observed data. Meteorological forcing (wind, solar radiation, and net surface heat flux) was obtained from NOAA real observations and National Center for Environmental Prediction North American Regional Analysis outputs. The model was run in parallel with 48 cores using a time step of 2.5 seconds. It took 18 hours of cpu time to complete 26 days of simulation. The model was calibrated with oceanographic field data for the period of 6/1/2009 to 6/26/2009. These data were collected specifically for the purpose of model development and calibration. They include time series of water-surface elevation, currents, temperature, and salinity as well as temperature and salinity profiles during instrument deployment and retrieval. Comparisons between model predictions and field observations show an overall reasonable agreement in both temporal and spatial scales. Comparisons of

  7. Land-use planning for nearshore ecosystem services—the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    The 2,500 miles of shoreline and nearshore areas of Puget Sound, Washington, provide multiple benefits to people—"ecosystem services"—including important fishing, shellfishing, and recreation industries. To help resource managers plan for expected growth in coming decades, the U.S. Geological Survey Western Geographic Science Center has developed the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model (PSEPM). Scenarios of urban growth and shoreline modifications serve as model inputs to develop alternative futures of important nearshore features such as water quality and beach habitats. Model results will support regional long-term planning decisions for the Puget Sound region.

  8. Icefield-to-ocean linkages across the northern Pacific coastal temperate rainforest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Hood, Eran; Bidlack, Allison L.; Fleming, Sean W.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Arendt, Anthony; Burgess, Evan W.; Sergeant, Christopher J.; Beaudreau, Anne E.; Timm, Kristin; Hayward, Gregory D.; Reynolds, Joel H.; Pyare, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Rates of glacier mass loss in the northern Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) are among the highest on Earth, and changes in glacier volume and extent will affect the flow regime and chemistry of coastal rivers, as well as the nearshore marine ecosystem of the Gulf of Alaska. Here we synthesize physical, chemical and biological linkages that characterize the northern PCTR ecosystem, with particular emphasis on the potential impacts of glacier change in the coastal mountain ranges on the surface–water hydrology, biogeochemistry, coastal oceanography and aquatic ecology. We also evaluate the relative importance and interplay between interannual variability and long-term trends in key physical drivers and ecological responses. To advance our knowledge of the northern PCTR, we advocate for cross-disciplinary research bridging the icefield-to-ocean ecosystem that can be paired with long-term scientific records and designed to inform decisionmakers.

  9. Report on data from the Nearshore Sediment Transport Study experiment at Leadbetter Beach, Santa Barbara, California, January-February 1980 (NODC Accession 8200080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — THIS DATA SET CONSISTS OF THE RESULTS OF THE NEARSHORE SEDIMENT Nearshore Sediment Transport Study at Leadbetter Beach, Santa Barbara, California. These data from 28...

  10. COASTAL, Pacific, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  11. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  12. Low Frequencies of Interference to EPA Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) Methods for Microbial Water Quality Monitoring in U.S. Rivers and Streams and Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    In collaboration with U.S States and Tribes, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts periodic and rotating, statistically based surveys of U.S. rivers and streams (National Rivers and Streams Assessment, NRSA), estuarine and Great Lakes nearshore coastal ...

  13. Extended abstracts from the Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound (CHIPS) 2006 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Fuentes, Tracy L.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Grossman, Eric E.; Takesue, Renee K.

    2010-01-01

    Puget Sound is the second largest estuary in the United States. Its unique geology, climate, and nutrient-rich waters produce and sustain biologically productive coastal habitats. These same natural characteristics also contribute to a high quality of life that has led to a significant growth in human population and associated development. This population growth, and the accompanying rural and urban development, has played a role in degrading Puget Sound ecosystems, including declines in fish and wildlife populations, water-quality issues, and loss and degradation of coastal habitats.In response to these ecosystem declines and the potential for strategic large-scale preservation and restoration, a coalition of local, State, and Federal agencies, including the private sector, Tribes, and local universities, initiated the Puget Sound Nearshore Ecosystem Restoration Project (PSNERP). The Nearshore Science Team (NST) of PSNERP, along with the U.S. Geological Survey, developed a Science Strategy and Research Plan (Gelfenbaum and others, 2006) to help guide science activities associated with nearshore ecosystem restoration. Implementation of the Research Plan includes a call for State and Federal agencies to direct scientific studies to support PSNERP information needs. In addition, the overall Science Strategy promotes greater communication with decision makers and dissemination of scientific results to the broader scientific community.On November 14–16, 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored an interdisciplinary Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound (CHIPS) Research Workshop at Fort Worden State Park, Port Townsend, Washington. The main goals of the workshop were to coordinate, integrate, and link research on the nearshore of Puget Sound. Presented research focused on three themes: (1) restoration of large river deltas; (2) recovery of the nearshore ecosystem of the Elwha River; and (3) effects of urbanization on nearshore ecosystems. The more than 35 presentations

  14. Biological and geophysical aspects of coastal structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Geological processes, that occur in the nearshore environment : The nearshore, environments have been strongly influencEd. by sealevel changes throughout the geological history. Much of the shallow-water region is also strongly affectEd. by waves...

  15. Implications of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, V.; Li, N.; Cheung, K.; Lane, P.; Evans, R. L.; Donnelly, J. P.; Ashton, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent global and local projections suggest the sea level will be on the order of 1 m or higher than the current level by the end of the century. Coastal communities and ecosystems in low-lying areas are vulnerable to impacts resulting from hurricane or large swell events in combination with sea-level rise. This study presents the implementation and results of an integrated numerical modeling package to delineate coastal inundation due to storm landfalls at future sea levels. The modeling package utilizes a suite of numerical models to capture both large-scale phenomena in the open ocean and small-scale processes in coastal areas. It contains four components to simulate (1) meteorological conditions, (2) astronomical tides and surge, (3) wave generation, propagation, and nearshore transformation, and (4) surf-zone processes and inundation onto dry land associated with a storm event. Important aspects of this package are the two-way coupling of a spectral wave model and a storm surge model as well as a detailed representation of surf and swash zone dynamics by a higher-order Boussinesq-type wave model. The package was validated with field data from Hurricane Ivan of 2005 on the US Gulf coast and applied to tropical and extratropical storm scenarios respectively at Eglin, Florida and Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The results show a nonlinear increase of storm surge level and nearshore wave energy with a rising sea level. The exacerbated flood hazard can have major consequences for coastal communities with respect to erosion and damage to infrastructure.

  16. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald M.; Fuller, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  17. The biological assessment of flora and fauna as standards for changes in the near-shore ocean environment: a study of Barbers Point Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Y; Wachi, K M; Shiraki, A; Goo, C; Ebesu, J S

    2001-02-01

    The biological assessments of the flora and fauna in the near-shore ocean environment, specifically Barbers Point Harbor (BPH), demonstrate the usefulness of these biological analyses for evaluation of the changes occurring following man-made excavation for expansion of the harbor. The study included identification and enumeration of macroalgae and dinoflagellates and analyses of herbivores and carnivores in four areas within the perimeter of the harbor and the north and south entrances into the harbor. Numbers of macroalgae varied between 1994 and 1999 surveys, with significant decrease in numbers in stations C, D and E. Stations A and B were similar between 1994 and 1999 with a slight increase in 1999. The significant differences were shown with the appearance of Gambierdiscus toxicus (G toxicus) in 1999 among the algae in stations A and B. Assessment of herbivores and carnivores with the immunological membrane immunobead assay using monoclonal antibody to ciguatoxin and related polyethers demonstrated an increase in fish toxicity among the herbivore from 1994-1999 (22% increase) with a decrease (22%) in non-toxic fish. This was also demonstrated in the carnivores, but to a lesser degree. It is suggested that the biological analyses of the flora and the fauna of the near-shore ocean environment are appropriate to assess the changes that occur from natural and man-made alterations.

  18. Preferences for Management of Near-Shore Marine Ecosystems: A Choice Experiment in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophal Chhun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in New Zealand in establishing “Customary Management Areas” (taiāpure and mātaitai and Marine Reserves to support Māori cultural practices and restore declining biodiversity and fish stocks. Allocation of near-shore marine areas for these management systems potentially benefits the larger public, but it has often been vigorously opposed by recreational and commercial fishers. This paper reports estimates of the relative values held by the public toward four potentially conflicting uses of near-shore marine areas. These estimates come from a web-based choice survey completed by 1055 respondents recruited from throughout New Zealand. The response rate was especially high at 60%. We present results weighted to the characteristics of the population and test the results against a variety of well-known sources of survey bias. Scenario development suggests that some reallocation of near-shore marine areas to any of the management systems under discussion alternative to the status quo is likely to yield a welfare gain. A combination of marine reserves and taiāpure is most preferred. The exercise supports the use of discrete choice experiments to provide crucial information about difficult-to-quantify public values for aspects of management of near-shore marine areas, such as proposed taiāpure, mātaitai, or marine reserves.

  19. On the anatomy of nearshore sandbars : A systematic exposition of inter-annual sandbar dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Nearshore sandbars have a lifetime of many years, during which they exhibit cyclic, offshore directed behaviour with strong alongshore coherence. A bar is generated near the shoreline and grows in height and width while migrating offshore, before finally decaying at the seaward limit of the surf

  20. Concentration and toxicity of some metals in zooplankton from nearshore waters of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Narvekar, P.V.; Desai, B.N.

    Zooplankton samples collected from 4 stations located in the nearshore waters of Bombay were analysed for Cu, Co, Mn, Ni and Cd. Concentrations of Co, Mn and Ni were more in copepods and gelatinous organisms than in mysids and decapods. High...

  1. Biomass and composition of zooplankton in the nearshore waters of Thal, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Gajbhiye, S.N; Krishnakumari, L; Desai, B.N

    Biomass and composition of zooplankton in the nearshore waters of Thal, Maharashtra, India were studied at 9 stations during Feb. 1980 to Jan. 1981. The recorded variation in zooplankton biomass was 4.8-80.6 ml.(100 m super(3))/1 [av. 22.9 ml.(100 m...

  2. Severe impacts of brown tides caused by Sargassum spp. on near-shore Caribbean seagrass communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I; Hernández Arana, Héctor A; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rosa E; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio; Canizales-Flores, Hazel M; González-Godoy, Carlos E; Barba-Santos, M Guadalupe; Vega-Zepeda, Alejandro; Collado-Vides, Ligia

    2017-09-15

    From mid-2014 until the end of 2015, the Mexican Caribbean coast experienced a massive influx of drifting Sargassum spp. that accumulated on the shores, resulting in build-up of decaying beach-cast material and near-shore murky brown waters (Sargassum-brown-tides, Sbt). The effects of Sbt on four near-shore waters included reduction in light, oxygen (hypoxia or anoxia) and pH. The monthly influx of nitrogen, and phosphorus by drifting Sargassum spp. was estimated at 6150 and 61kgkm -1 respectively, resulting in eutrophication. Near-shore seagrass meadows dominated by Thalassia testudinum were replaced by a community dominated by calcareous rhizophytic algae and drifting algae and/or epiphytes, resulting in 61.6-99.5% loss of below-ground biomass. Near-shore corals suffered total or partial mortality. Recovery of affected seagrass meadows may take years or even decades, or changes could be permanent if massive influxes of Sargassum spp. recur. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Near-shore wind power - protected seascapes, environmentalists' attitudes, and the technocratic planning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    In contested wind farm developments, the dominant issue concerns scenic impact and the landscape at the proposed site. The number of large wind power schemes that have failed is growing. The case analysed here is a near-shore wind farm in the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea, in 2001 the largest wind

  4. Winds and the distribution of nearshore phytoplankton in a stratified lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Hélène

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of phytoplankton in lakes is notoriously patchy and dynamic, but wind-driven currents and algal buoyancy/motility are thought to determine where algae accumulate. In this study, nearshore phytoplankton were sampled from different parts of a lake basin twice a day for 4-5 consecutive days, in the spring and in late summer, to test whether short-term changes in phytoplankton biomass and community composition can be predicted from wind-driven currents. On windy days, phytoplankton biomass was higher at downwind than at upwind nearshore sites, and the magnitude of this difference increased linearly with increasing wind speed. However, contrary to the generally assumed downwind phytoplankton aggregations, these differences were mostly due to upwelling activity and the dilution of phytoplankton at upwind nearshore sites. The distribution of individual taxa was also related to wind speed, but only during late stratification (except for cryptophytes), and these relationships were consistent with the buoyancy and motility of each group. On windy days, large diatoms and cyanobacteria concentrated upwind, neutrally buoyant taxa (green algae, small diatoms) were homogeneously distributed, and motile taxa (cryptophytes, chrysophytes, dinoflagellates) concentrated downwind. Predictable differences in the biomass and composition of phytoplankton communities could affect the efficiency of trophic transfers in nearshore areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coastal upwelling seasonality and variability of temperature and chlorophyll in a small coastal embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ryan K.; Armenta, Kevin J.; Shearer, Brandon; Robbins, Ian; Steinbeck, John

    2018-02-01

    While the seasonality of wind-driven coastal upwelling in eastern boundary upwelling systems has long been established, many studies describe two distinct seasons (upwelling and non-upwelling), a generalized framework that does not capture details relevant to marine ecosystems. In this contribution, we present a more detailed description of the annual cycle and upwelling seasonality for an understudied location along the central California coast. Using both the mean monthly upwelling favorable wind stress and the monthly standard deviation, we define the following seasons (contiguous months) and a transitional period (non-contiguous months): "Winter Storms" season (Dec-Jan-Feb), "Upwelling Transition" period (Mar and Jun), "Peak Upwelling" season (Apr-May), "Upwelling Relaxation" season (Jul-Aug-Sep), and "Winter Transition" season (Oct-Nov). In order to describe the oceanic response to this upwelling wind seasonality, we take advantage of nearly a decade of full water-column measurements of temperature and chlorophyll made using an automated profiling system at the end of the California Polytechnic State University Pier in San Luis Obispo Bay, a small ( 2 km wide near study site) and shallow ( 10 m average bay depth) coastal embayment. Variability and average-year patterns are described inside the bay during the various upwelling seasons. Moreover, the role of the local coastline orientation and topography on bay dynamics is also assessed using long-term measurements collected outside of the bay. The formation of a seasonally variable upwelling shadow system and potential nearshore retention zone is discussed. The observations presented provide a framework on which to study interannual changes to the average-year seasonal cycle, assess the contribution of higher-frequency features to nearshore variability, and better predict dynamically and ecologically important events.

  6. Evaluation of the Wave Energy Conversion Efficiency in Various Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Rusu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work was to assess and compare the wave power resources in various offshore and nearshore areas. From this perspective, three different groups of coastal environments were considered: the western Iberian nearshore, islands and an enclosed environment with sea waves, respectively. Some of the most representative existent wave converters were evaluated in the analysis and a second objective was to compare their performances at the considered locations, and in this way to determine which is better suited for potential commercial exploitation. In order to estimate the electric power production expected in a certain location, the bivariate distributions of the occurrences corresponding to the sea states, defined by the significant wave height and the energy period, were constructed in each coastal area. The wave data were provided by hindcast studies performed with numerical wave models or based on measurements. The transformation efficiency of the wave energy into electricity is evaluated via the load factor and also through the capture width, defined as the ratio between the electric power estimated to be produced by each specific wave energy converters (WEC and the expected wave power corresponding to the location considered. Finally, by evaluating these two different indicators, comparisons of the performances of three WEC types (Aqua Buoy, Pelamis and Wave Dragon in the three different groups of coastal environments considered have been also carried out. The work provides valuable information related to the effectiveness of various technologies for the wave energy extraction that would operate in different coastal environments.

  7. Distribution and abundance of diatom species from coastal waters of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, F. N.; Burhan, Z.; Iqbal, P.; Abbasi, J.; Siddiqui, P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive study on the distribution and abundance of diatom species from the coastal and nearshore waters of Karachi, Pakistan, bordering northern Arabian Sea. A total of 20 genera are recorded in high abundance (Cerataulina, Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Cylindrotheca, Eucampia, Guinardia, Haslea, Hemiaulus, Lauderia, Lennoxia, Leptocylindrus, Navicula, Nitzschia, Trieres, Planktoniella, Pleurosigma, Pseudo-nitzschia, Rhizosolenia, Thalassionema and Thalassiosira). The most abundant genera were observed Guinardia, Chaetoceros, Leptocylindrus, Nitzschia and Lennoxia at all stations. Manora coastal station (MI-1) had high abundance corresponding with high Chlorophyll a (130 meu gL- l) values. Minimum abundance and low chlorophyll a value (0.05μgL-l) were observed at Mubarak Village coastal station (MV-1). Diatom abundance showed significant correlation with Chlorophyll a. In present study 12 centric and 8 pennate forms were recorded and similarly high diversity of centric taxa was observed compared to pennate forms. A total of 134 species are recorded of which 40 species were observed at four stations, 31species at three stations, 23 at two stations and 40 species only at one station. The total phytoplankton and diatom peak abundance was observed during NE monsoon (winter season) associated with nutrient loading through up-sloping of nutrient rich water upwelled off of Oman during South West monsoon. Overall higher diversity was observed at Manora coastal and nearshore stations (MI-1, MI-2) indicating the influence of organic pollution loading from Layari and Malir rivers. (author)

  8. Circulation, mixing, and transport in nearshore Lake Erie in the vicinity of Villa Angela Beach and Euclid Creek, Cleveland, Ohio, September 11-12, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Villa Angela Beach, on the Lake Erie lakeshore near Cleveland, Ohio, is adjacent to the mouth of Euclid Creek, a small, flashy stream draining approximately 23 square miles and susceptible to periodic contamination from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) (97 and 163 CSO events in 2010 and 2011, respectively). Concerns over high concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water samples taken along this beach and frequent beach closures led to the collection of synoptic data in the nearshore area in an attempt to gain insights into mixing processes, circulation, and the potential for transport of bacteria and other CSO-related pollutants from various sources in Euclid Creek and along the lakefront. An integrated synoptic survey was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey on September 11–12, 2012, during low-flow conditions on Euclid Creek, which followed rain-induced high flows in the creek on September 8–9, 2012. Data-collection methods included deployment of an autonomous underwater vehicle and use of a manned boat equipped with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Spatial distributions of water-quality measures and nearshore currents indicated that the mixing zone encompassing the mouth of Euclid Creek and Villa Angela Beach is dynamic and highly variable in extent, but can exhibit a large zone of recirculation that can, at times, be decoupled from local wind forcing. Observed circulation patterns during September 2012 indicated that pollutants from CSOs in Euclid Creek and water discharged from three shoreline CSO points within 2,000 feet of the beach could be trapped along Villa Angela Beach by interaction of nearshore currents and shoreline structures. In spite of observed coastal downwelling, denser water from Euclid Creek is shown to mix to the surface via offshore turbulent structures that span the full depth of flow. While the southwesterly longshore currents driving the recirculation pattern along the beach front were observed during the 2011–12

  9. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Matthew Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Craig A. [Integral Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible by all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  10. Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.

    2001-01-01

    A primary focus of coastal science during the past 3 decades has been the question: How does anthropogenic nutrient enrichment cause change in the structure or function of nearshore coastal ecosystems? This theme of environmental science is recent, so our conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem continues to change rapidly. In this review, I suggest that the early (Phase I) conceptual model was strongly influenced by limnologists, who began intense study of lake eutrophication by the 1960s. The Phase I model emphasized changing nutrient input as a signal, and responses to that signal as increased phytoplankton biomass and primary production, decomposition of phytoplankton-derived organic matter, and enhanced depletion of oxygen from bottom waters. Coastal research in recent decades has identified key differences in the responses of lakes and coastal-estuarine ecosystems to nutrient enrichment. The contemporary (Phase II) conceptual model reflects those differences and includes explicit recognition of (1) system-specific attributes that act as a filter to modulate the responses to enrichment (leading to large differences among estuarine-coastal systems in their sensitivity to nutrient enrichment); and (2) a complex suite of direct and indirect responses including linked changes in: water transparency, distribution of vascular plants and biomass of macroalgae, sediment biogeochemistry and nutrient cycling, nutrient ratios and their regulation of phytoplankton community composition, frequency of toxic/harmful algal blooms, habitat quality for metazoans, reproduction/growth/survival of pelagic and benthic invertebrates, and subtle changes such as shifts in the seasonality of ecosystem functions. Each aspect of the Phase II model is illustrated here with examples from coastal ecosystems around the world. In the last section of this review I present one vision of the next (Phase III) stage in the evolution of our conceptual model, organized around 5

  11. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    demonstrated in autumn 2010 when the storm Becky reached the Santander Bay, Spain. As reported by THESEUS, the FP-7 EU project (2009-2013), the peak of nearshore significant wave height was about 8 m, the storm surge reached 0.6 m, with tidal level of 90% of the tidal range. The latest storm in December 2010, which hit the Nile Delta and which was the severest in the last decades showed that generated surges, up to 1.0 m as well as a maximum of 7.5 m wave height in the offshore of Alexandria presented a major natural hazard in coastal zones in terms of wave run up and overtopping. Along the US Atlantic Coast, where Hurricane Sandy this autumn and Hurricane Irene in 2011 left chaos in their wakes, a perfect storm of rising sea levels and dense coastal development at high risk . Super storm Sandy sent a storm surge of 4-5 m onto New Jersey's and New York's fragile barrier island and urban shorelines, causing an estimated 70 billion (USD) in damages and widespread misery for coastal inhabitants. Sea Level Rise and Impact on Upgrade of Coastal Structures: Williams (2013) highlights in his recent paper that adaptation planning on national scales in the USA for projected sea-level rise of 0.5-2 m by A.D. 2100 is advisable. Further he points out that sea-level rise, as a major driving force of change for coastal regions, is becoming increasingly important as a hazard to humans and urban areas in the coastal zone worldwide as global climate change takes effect. During the 20th century, sea level began rising at a global average rate of 1.7 mm/yr (). The current average rise rate is 3.1 mm/yr, a 50% increase over the past two decades. Many regions are experiencing even greater rise rates due to local geophysical (e.g., Louisiana, Chesapeake Bay) and oceanographic (mid-Atlantic coast) forces. Further the Mississippi River Delta plain region of Louisiana has much higher than average rates of LRSL rise due to geologic factors such as subsidence and man-made alterations to the delta plain

  12. Predicting species diversity of benthic communities within turbid nearshore using full-waveform bathymetric LiDAR and machine learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Collin

    Full Text Available Epi-macrobenthic species richness, abundance and composition are linked with type, assemblage and structural complexity of seabed habitat within coastal ecosystems. However, the evaluation of these habitats is highly hindered by limitations related to both waterborne surveys (slow acquisition, shallow water and low reactivity and water clarity (turbid for most coastal areas. Substratum type/diversity and bathymetric features were elucidated using a supervised method applied to airborne bathymetric LiDAR waveforms over Saint-Siméon-Bonaventure's nearshore area (Gulf of Saint-Lawrence, Québec, Canada. High-resolution underwater photographs were taken at three hundred stations across an 8-km(2 study area. Seven models based upon state-of-the-art machine learning techniques such as Naïve Bayes, Regression Tree, Classification Tree, C 4.5, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and CN2 learners were tested for predicting eight epi-macrobenthic species diversity metrics as a function of the class number. The Random Forest outperformed other models with a three-discretized Simpson index applied to epi-macrobenthic communities, explaining 69% (Classification Accuracy of its variability by mean bathymetry, time range and skewness derived from the LiDAR waveform. Corroborating marine ecological theory, areas with low Simpson epi-macrobenthic diversity responded to low water depths, high skewness and time range, whereas higher Simpson diversity relied upon deeper bottoms (correlated with stronger hydrodynamics and low skewness and time range. The degree of species heterogeneity was therefore positively linked with the degree of the structural complexity of the benthic cover. This work underpins that fully exploited bathymetric LiDAR (not only bathymetrically derived by-products, coupled with proficient machine learner, is able to rapidly predict habitat characteristics at a spatial resolution relevant to epi-macrobenthos diversity, ranging from clear to

  13. Coastal hypoxia and sediment biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Middelburg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensity, duration and frequency of coastal hypoxia (oxygen concentration <63 μM are increasing due to human alteration of coastal ecosystems and changes in oceanographic conditions due to global warming. Here we provide a concise review of the consequences of coastal hypoxia for sediment biogeochemistry. Changes in bottom-water oxygen levels have consequences for early diagenetic pathways (more anaerobic at expense of aerobic pathways, the efficiency of re-oxidation of reduced metabolites and the nature, direction and magnitude of sediment-water exchange fluxes. Hypoxia may also lead to more organic matter accumulation and burial and the organic matter eventually buried is also of higher quality, i.e. less degraded. Bottom-water oxygen levels also affect the organisms involved in organic matter processing with the contribution of metazoans decreasing as oxygen levels drop. Hypoxia has a significant effect on benthic animals with the consequences that ecosystem functions related to macrofauna such as bio-irrigation and bioturbation are significantly affected by hypoxia as well. Since many microbes and microbial-mediated biogeochemical processes depend on animal-induced transport processes (e.g. re-oxidation of particulate reduced sulphur and denitrification, there are indirect hypoxia effects on biogeochemistry via the benthos. Severe long-lasting hypoxia and anoxia may result in the accumulation of reduced compounds in sediments and elimination of macrobenthic communities with the consequences that biogeochemical properties during trajectories of decreasing and increasing oxygen may be different (hysteresis with consequences for coastal ecosystem dynamics.

  14. Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. Coastal development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study sites, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove sites (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on coastal sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of coastal fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.

  15. Studies on impact of release of liquid industrial waste from soda ash industry in the nearshore water of north Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    The nearshore waters of Mithapur, Porbandar and Sutrapada received 18-100 mid (million litres per day) of wastewater from soda ash manufacturing industries either through point discharges (Mithapur, Porbandar) or through submarine outfall (Sutrapada...

  16. Transport of microplastics in coastal seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua

    2017-12-01

    Microplastic pollution of the marine environment has received increasing attention from scientists, the public, and policy makers over the last few years. Marine microplastics predominantly originate near the coast and can remain in the nearshore zone for some time. However, at present, there is little understanding of the fate and transport of microplastics in coastal regions. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the physical processes involved in the movement of microplastics from estuaries to the continental shelf. The trajectory and speed of microplastics are controlled by their physical characteristics (density, size, and shape) and ocean dynamic conditions (wind, waves, tides, thermohaline gradients, and the influence of benthic sediments). Microplastic particles can be subjected to beaching, surface drifting, vertical mixing, and biofouling, as well as bed-load and suspended load transport processes, until reaching terminal deposition on beaches, in coastal marshes, in benthic sediments or until they are carried by ocean currents to subtropical convergence zones. The dynamic interaction of released microplastics with the shoreline is regulated by onshore/offshore transport, which is impacted by the source location as well as the geometry, vegetation, tidal regime, and wave direction. Wind and wave conditions dominate surface drifting of buoyant particles through Ekman drift, windage, and Stokes drift mechanisms. Neustic microplastic particles travel in the subsurface because of vertical mixing through wind-driven Langmuir circulation and heat cycling. Increasing accumulation of microplastics in benthic sediments needs to be quantitatively explored in terms of biofouling, deposition, entrainment, and transport dynamics. Further studies are required to understand the following: 1) the primary parameters (e.g., windage, terminal velocity, diffusivity, critical shear stress) that determine microplastic transport in different pathways; 2) dynamic

  17. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  18. Sources and sinks of microplastics in Canadian Lake Ontario nearshore, tributary and beach sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballent, Anika; Corcoran, Patricia L; Madden, Odile; Helm, Paul A; Longstaffe, Fred J

    2016-09-15

    Microplastics contamination of Lake Ontario sediments is investigated with the aim of identifying distribution patterns and hotspots in nearshore, tributary and beach depositional environments. Microplastics are concentrated in nearshore sediments in the vicinity of urban and industrial regions. In Humber Bay and Toronto Harbour microplastic concentrations were consistently >500 particles per kg dry sediment. Maximum concentrations of ~28,000 particles per kg dry sediment were determined in Etobicoke Creek. The microplastic particles were primarily fibres and fragments microplastics in terms of how and where to implement preventative measures to reduce the contaminant influx. Although the impacts of microplastics contamination on ecosystem health and functioning is uncertain, understanding, monitoring and preventing further microplastics contamination in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural fluctuations in nearshore turbidity and the relative influences of beach renourishment

    OpenAIRE

    Dompe, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    Turbidity is a measure of the clarity of water. Turbidity depends upon the scattering and absorption of light by suspended particles. The focus of this study was to obtain quantitative measurements of turbidity in the nearshore zone, along with measurements of associated wave parameters and currents occurring naturally and during a beach nourishment project. The objectives were to make quantitative and qualitative comparisons between natural events and those induced by the dred...

  20. Nearshore hydrodynamics at pocket beaches with contrasting wave exposure in southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, João; Oliveira, Sónia; Moura, Delminda; Ferreira, Óscar

    2018-05-01

    Pocket beaches on rocky coasts with headlands that control hydro-sedimentary processes are considered to be constrained sedimentary systems, generally with limited sediment inputs. Pocket beaches face severe changes over time. Under worst-case scenarios, these changes can result in the loss of the beach, causing waves to directly attack adjacent cliffs. Studies of nearshore hydrodynamics can help to understand such changes and optimise sediment nourishment procedures. The present work contributes to the knowledge of hydrodynamic forcing mechanisms at pocket beaches by providing a comprehensive description of the nearshore circulation at two beaches with contrasting wave exposures. Two pocket beaches in southern Portugal were studied by combining field measurements of waves and currents with numerical models (STWAVE and BOUSS-2D). The aim of this analysis was to evaluate nearshore hydrodynamics under different wave exposure forcing conditions (e.g. variable wave heights/directions and different tidal levels). The results show that the beach circulation can rapidly shift from longshore-to rip-dominated depending on changes in both the offshore wave direction and tidal levels. Waves with higher obliquity (for both low and moderate wave energy conditions) tend to generate longshore circulation in all considered tidal stages, while waves with lower obliquity tend to produce rip flow with higher-velocity rip currents during low to intermediate tidal stages. The results indicate that the location and intensity of rip currents strongly depend on geomorphological constraints, that is, the control exerted by shore platforms. A larger morphological control is observed at mean sea level because most platforms are submerged/exposed during high/low tide and therefore exert less control on nearshore circulation.

  1. Nearshore Navigation and Communication Based on Deliberate EM Signals and Theoretical, Numerical and Observational Studies of Coastal Ocean Electrdynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Thomas B; Tyler, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    ...) and other autonomous sensor systems, such as moored instruments. There is a need for non-acoustical methods to navigate and control AUVs, communicate with autonomous instruments, and detect submerged and buried objects in shallow water...

  2. The growth and dynamics of Ensis directus in the near-shore Dutch coastal zne of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witbaard, R.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Witte, H.IJ.; Groot, de L.; Rozemeijer, M.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present data on the wax and wane of a subtidal Ensis directus population which settled in 2009 off the coast of Egmond (North Holland Coast in The Netherlands). Initial densities decreased from a maximum of 700 m- 2 in early 2010 to about 50 m- 2 in June 2013. In this period the average

  3. In Situ Hydrocarbon Degradation by Indigenous Nearshore Bacterial Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrier, J.

    2005-01-01

    Potential episodic hydrocarbon inputs associated with oil mining and transportation together with chronic introduction of hydrocarbons via urban runoff into the relatively pristine coastal Florida waters poses a significant threat to Florida's fragile marine environment. It is therefore important to understand the extent to which indigenous bacterial populations are able to degrade hydrocarbon compounds and also determine factors that could potentially control and promote the rate at which these compounds are broken down in situ. Previous controlled laboratory experiments carried out by our research group demonstrated that separately both photo-oxidation and cometabolism stimulate bacterial hydrocarbon degradation by natural bacterial assemblages collected from a chronically petroleum contaminated site in Bayboro Bay, Florida. Additionally, we also demonstrated that stable carbon and radiocarbon abundances of respired CO 2 could be used to trace in situ hydrocarbon degradation by indigenous bacterial populations at this same site. This current proposal had two main objectives: (a) to evaluate the cumulative impact of cometabolism and photo-oxidation on hydrocarbon degradation by natural bacterial assemblages collected the same site in Bayboro Bay, Florida and (b) to determine if in situ hydrocarbon degradation by indigenous bacterial populations this site could be traced using natural radiocarbon and stable carbon abundances of assimilated bacterial carbon. Funds were used for 2 years of full support for one ESI Ph.D. student, April Croxton. To address our first objective a series of closed system bacterial incubations were carried out using photo-oxidized petroleum and pinfish (i.e. cometabolite). Bacterial production of CO 2 was used as the indicator of hydrocarbon degradation and (delta) 13 C analysis of the resultant CO 2 was used to evaluate the source of the respired CO 2 (i.e. petroleum hydrocarbons or the pinfish cometabolite). Results from these time

  4. Southern African Coastal vulnerability assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rautenbach, C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available or business. The CSIR coastal systems group uses specialist skills in coastal engineering, geographic engineering systems and numerical modelling to assess and map vulnerable coastal ecosystems to develop specific adaptation measures and coastal protection...

  5. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  6. Alterations of gene expression indicating effects on estrogen signaling and lipid homeostasis in seabream hepatocytes exposed to extracts of seawater sampled from a coastal area of the central Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocci, Paolo; Capriotti, Martina; Mosconi, Gilberto; Campanelli, Alessandra; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Marini, Mauro; Caprioli, Giovanni; Sagratini, Gianni; Aretusi, Graziano; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidences suggest that the toxicological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) involve multiple nuclear receptor-mediated pathways, including estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling systems. Thus, our objective in this study was to detect the summated endocrine effects of EDCs with metabolic activity in coastal waters of the central Adriatic Sea by means of a toxicogenomic approach using seabream hepatocytes. Gene expression patterns were also correlated with seawater levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We found that seawater extracts taken at certain areas induced gene expression profiles of ERα/vitellogenin, PPARα/Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1A, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and metallothionein. These increased levels of biomarkers responses correlated with spatial distribution of PAHs/PCBs concentrations observed by chemical analysis in the different study areas. Collectively, our data give a snapshot of the presence of complex EDC mixtures that are able to perturb metabolic signaling in coastal marine waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Dynamics of Mercury Speciation and Transport at a Central California Coastal Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Dimova, N. T.; Merckling, J.; Kehrlein, N. C.; Hohn, R. A.; Richardson, C. M.; Johnson, C. D.; Fisher, A. T.; Lamborg, C. H.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal trends in total mercury and monomethylmercury (MMHg) in groundwater, lagoon water, and nearshore seawater to assess the drivers of MMHg production in a coastal lagoon system. Many West Coast streams transition from estuarine to lagoon conditions in the dry season when a sand berm develops at the stream mouth, restricting surface water exchange with the ocean. Because lagoons accumulate nutrients from their upstream watershed they are susceptible to eutrophication, which can promote the growth of anaerobic bacteria. In nearshore settings, these bacteria are primarily responsible for producing MMHg, a bioaccumulative neurotoxin. We found that MMHg concentrations in lagoon water (1 - 5 pM) were higher than in groundwater (0.2 - 1 pM) and coastal seawater (0.1 - 0.6 pM). Groundwater depth profiles combined with subsurface resistivity images suggest MMHg in lagoon water was transported through the sand berm to adjacent seawater. MMHg in seawater and groundwater followed similar trends, providing additional evidence of groundwater-surface water interaction. MMHg in groundwater directly below the lagoon was consistently higher where dissolved oxygen and NO3- decreased, implying MMHg production by anaerobic bacteria. Over a ~7-hour period we observed a 0.6 pM decrease in groundwater MMHg (1 to 0.4 pM) that coincided with a decrease in water temperature (16.5 to 13 °C). We hypothesize that microbial activity, and consequently MMHg production, were enhanced in warmer water. Because coastal lagoons support intricate food webs and serve as nurseries for a variety of organisms, processes that influence mercury speciation and transport in these ecosystems may have a disproportionate impact on nearshore mercury biogeochemical cycling.

  8. Multi-scale modeling of Puget Sound using an unstructured-grid coastal ocean model: from tide flats to estuaries and coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2010-01-01

    Water circulation in Puget Sound, a large complex estuary system in the Pacific Northwest coastal ocean of the United States, is governed by multiple spatially and temporally varying forcings from tides, atmosphere (wind, heating/cooling, precipitation/evaporation, pressure), and river inflows. In addition, the hydrodynamic response is affected strongly by geomorphic features, such as fjord-like bathymetry and complex shoreline features, resulting in many distinguishing characteristics in its main and sub-basins. To better understand the details of circulation features in Puget Sound and to assist with proposed nearshore restoration actions for improving water quality and the ecological health of Puget Sound, a high-resolution (around 50 m in estuaries and tide flats) hydrodynamic model for the entire Puget Sound was needed. Here, a threedimensional circulation model of Puget Sound using an unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model is presented. The model was constructed with sufficient resolution in the nearshore region to address the complex coastline, multi-tidal channels, and tide flats. Model open boundaries were extended to the entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the northern end of the Strait of Georgia to account for the influences of ocean water intrusion from the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Fraser River plume from the Strait of Georgia, respectively. Comparisons of model results, observed data, and associated error statistics for tidal elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity indicate that the model is capable of simulating the general circulation patterns on the scale of a large estuarine system as well as detailed hydrodynamics in the nearshore tide flats. Tidal characteristics, temperature/salinity stratification, mean circulation, and river plumes in estuaries with tide flats are discussed.

  9. The Impact of Sea Ice Loss on Wave Dynamics and Coastal Erosion Along the Arctic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Anderson, R. S.; Wobus, C. W.; Matell, N.; Urban, F. E.; Clow, G. D.; Stanton, T. P.

    2010-12-01

    The extent of Arctic sea ice has been shrinking rapidly over the past few decades, and attendant acceleration of erosion is now occurring along the Arctic coast. This both brings coastal infrastructure into harm’s way and promotes a complex response of the adjacent landscape to global change. We quantify the effects of declining sea ice extent on coastal erosion rates along a 75-km stretch of coastal permafrost bluffs adjacent to the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, where present-day erosion rates are among the highest in the world at ~14 m yr-1. Our own observations reinforce those of others, and suggest that the rate-limiting process is thermal erosion at the base of the several-meter tall bluffs. Here we focus on the interaction between the nearshore sea ice concentration, the location of the sea ice margin, and the fetch-limited, shallow water wave field, since these parameters ultimately control both sea surface temperatures and the height to which these waters can bathe the frozen bluffs. Thirty years of daily or bi-daily passive microwave data from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I satellites reveal that the nearshore open water season lengthened ~54 days over 1979-2009. The open water season, centered in August, expands more rapidly into the fall (September and October~0.92 day yr-1) than into the early summer (July~0.71 days yr-1). Average fetch, defined for our purposes as the distance from the sea ice margin to the coast over which the wind is blowing, increased by a factor 1.7 over the same time-span. Given these time series, we modeled daily nearshore wave heights during the open water season for each year, which we integrated to provide a quantitative metric for the annual exposure of the coastal bluffs to thermal erosion. This “annual wave exposure” increased by 250% during 1979-2009. In the same interval, coastal erosion rates reconstructed from satellite and aerial photo records show less acceleration. We attribute this to a disproportionate extension of the

  10. Wind Stress Variability Observed Over Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Laxague, N.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-02-01

    The wind stress on the ocean surface generates waves, drives currents, and enhances gas exchange; and a significant amount of work has been done to characterize the air-sea momentum flux in terms of bulk oceanographic and atmospheric parameters. However, the majority of this work to develop operational algorithms has been focused on the deep ocean and the suitability of these methods in the coastal regime has not been evaluated. The findings from a two-part field campaign will be presented which highlight the divergence of nearshore wind stress observations from conventional, deep water results. The first set of data comes from a coastal region near a relatively small, natural tidal inlet. A high degree of spatial variability was observed in both the wind stress magnitude and direction, suggestive of coastal processes (e.g., depth-limited wave affects and horizontal current shear) modulating the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean surface. These shallow-water processes are typically not accounted for in conventional parameterizations. Across the experimental domain and for a given wind speed, the stress magnitude was found to be nearly 2.5 times that predicted by conventional methods; also, a high propensity for stress steering off the mean azimuthal wind direction (up to ±70 degrees) was observed and linked to horizontal current gradients produced by the tidal inlet. The preliminary findings from a second data set taken in the vicinity of the macrotidal Columbia River Mouth will also be presented. Compared to the first data set, a similar degree of variability is observed here, but the processes responsible for this are present at a much larger scale. Specifically, the Columbia River Mouth observations were made in the presence of significant swell wave energy and during periods of very high estuarine discharge. The relative angle between the wind and swell direction is expected to be significant with regards to the observed momentum flux. Also, these

  11. Wave-induced mass transport affects daily Escherichia coli fluctuations in nearshore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of diel variability of fecal indicator bacteria concentration in nearshore waters is of particular importance for development of water sampling standards and protection of public health. Significant nighttime increase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in beach water, previously observed at marine sites, has also been identified in summer 2000 from fixed locations in waist- and knee-deep waters at Chicago 63rd Street Beach, an embayed, tideless, freshwater beach with low currents at night (approximately 0.015 m s–1). A theoretical model using wave-induced mass transport velocity for advection was developed to assess the contribution of surface waves to the observed nighttime E. coli replenishment in the nearshore water. Using average wave conditions for the summer season of year 2000, the model predicted an amount of E. coli transported from water of intermediate depth, where sediment resuspension occurred intermittently, that would be sufficient to have elevated E. coli concentration in the surf and swash zones as observed. The nighttime replenishment of E. coli in the surf and swash zones revealed here is an important phase in the cycle of diel variations of E. coli concentration in nearshore water. According to previous findings in Ge et al. (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 6731–6737), enhanced current circulation in the embayment during the day tends to displace and deposit material offshore, which partially sets up the system by the early evening for a new period of nighttime onshore movement. This wave-induced mass transport effect, although facilitating a significant base supply of material shoreward, can be perturbed or significantly influenced by high currents (orders of magnitude larger than a typical wave-induced mass transport velocity), current-induced turbulence, and tidal forcing.

  12. Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington- Biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    This report includes chapters that summarize the results of multidisciplinary studies to quantify and characterize the current (2011) status and baseline conditions of the lower Elwha River, its estuary, and the adjacent nearshore ecosystems prior to the historic removal of two long-standing dams that have strongly influenced river, estuary, and nearshore conditions. The studies were conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Multi-disciplinary Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound (MD-CHIPS) project. Chapter 1 is the introductory chapter that provides background and a historical context for the Elwha River dam removal and ecosystem restoration project. In chapter 2, the volume and timing of sediment delivery to the estuary and nearshore are discussed, providing an overview of the sediment stored in the two reservoirs and the expected erosion mechanics of the reservoir sediment deposits after removal of the dams. Chapter 3 describes the geological background of the Olympic Peninsula and the geomorphology of the Elwha River and nearshore. Chapter 4 details a series of hydrological data collected by the MD-CHIPS Elwha project. These include groundwater monitoring, surface water-groundwater interactions in the estuary, an estimated surface-water budget to the estuary, and a series of temperature and salinity measurements. Chapter 5 details the work that has been completed in the nearshore, including the measurement of waves, tides, and currents; the development of a numerical hydrodynamic model; and a description of the freshwater plume entering the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Chapter 6 includes a characterization of the nearshore benthic substrate developed using sonar, which formed a habitat template used to design scuba surveys of the benthic biological communities. Chapter 7 describes the ecological studies conducted in the lower river and estuary and includes characterization of juvenile salmon diets and seasonal estuary utilization patterns using otolith analysis to

  13. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  14. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-12-31

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  15. A study of fish and shellfish radioactivity levels in Cumbrian near-shore waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Szweda, C.

    1987-07-01

    Fish (cod, plaice, whiting and skate), crustacea (shrimp, Nephrops, crab and lobster) and mollusc (winkle) samples were collected from Cumbrian near-shore waters between November 1984 and the end of December 1986. The samples were analysed for total beta activity and a range of gamma and alpha emitters. In general the radionuclide levels were lower in 1986 than in 1985. On the assumption of constant consumption rates, the intakes of all consumers have decreased. In particular, the doses incurred by the critical group of local seafood consumers near Sellafield, mainly due to winkle consumption, were below the ICRP dose limit for the public of 1 mSv year -1 . (author)

  16. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  17. Coliform contamination of a coastal embayment: Sources and transport pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, P.K.; Howes, B.L.; Heufelder, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fecal bacterial contamination of nearshore waters has direct economic impacts to coastal communities through the loss of shellfisheries and restrictions of recreational uses. We conducted seasonal measurements of fecal coliform (FC) sources and transport pathways contributing to FC contamination of Buttermilk Bay, a shallow embayment adjacent to Buzzards Bay, MA. Typical of most coastal embayments, there were no direct sewage discharges (i.e., outfalls), and fecal bacteria from human, domestic animal, and wildlife pools entered open waters primarily through direct deposition or after transport through surface waters or groundwaters. Direct fecal coliform inputs to bay waters occurred primarily in winter (December-March) from waterfowl, ~33 x 1012 FC yr-1 or ~67% of the total annual loading. Effects of waterfowl inputs on bay FC densities were mitigated by their seasonality, wide distribution across the bay surface, and the apparent limited dispersal from fecal pellets. On-site disposal of sewage by septic systems was the single largest FC source in the watershed-embayment system, 460 x 1012 FC yr-1, but due to attenuation during subsurface transport only a minute fraction, rain events with discharge concentrated in nearshore zones, wet-weather flows were found to have a disproportionately high impact on nearshore FC levels. Elution of FC from shoreline deposits of decaying vegetation (wrack) comprised an additional coliform source. Both laboratory and field experiments suggest significant elution of bacteria from wrack, ~3 x 1012 FC yr-1 on a bay-wide basis (6% of annual input), primarily by periodic tidal flooding and possibly by major rain events. Release of coliforms during resuspension of subtidal sediments was estimated to be a minor source in this system (<1.5 x 1012 FC yr-1 or < 3% of annual input), primarily associated with large storm events in the fall and winter. Based upon the relative source strengths and the spatial and temporal patterns of FC input

  18. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L.; Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J.

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site's retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ( 3 H, 90 Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge

  19. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Campbell, K.R.; Wood, M.A.; Rash, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir

  20. Organic Geochemistry of Sediments in Nearshore Areas of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers: I. General Organic Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lerch, Harry E.; Corum, Margo D.; Bates, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents results on the general organic characteristics of sediment cores collected from the coastal zone of the Mississippi River system, including distributions of the important nutrient elements (C, N, P, and S). This was part of a larger study conducted from 2001-2005 to examine the delivery of sediment-associated contaminants to the Gulf of Mexico by the Mississippi River system, funded by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Companion reports emphasize organic contaminants (Rosenbauer and others, 2006), and metals (Swarzenski and others, 2006). The level of contamination within the deltaic system of the Mississippi River system was determined through the collection of sediment cores from interdistributary bays, and offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, including the zone of hypoxia. Results provide the basis for reconstructing contaminant inventories from which to develop historic perspectives on nutrient loading and hypoxia, and to better understand how sediment-hosted contaminants either directly or indirectly move through biota and ultimately affect ecosystem health. Concentrations of C, N, P, and S in sediments varied by a factor of 10 between sites, and in down core profiles. Nearshore cores collected in 2001 proved to have erratic downcore C, N, P, and S profiles and sediment deposition rates, suggesting a high energy regime controlled more by variability in river flow rather than by geochemical processes and reactions within the system. These results focused further coring activities further offshore. Atomic C/N ratios suggest that organic matter deposited at all sites is a mix of microbial (algal) and terrestrial (vascular plant) remains, but with algal material dominant. Concentrations of total sulfur in sediments from cores in the zone of hypoxia were often higher than those in nearby zones with oxic water columns. Corresponding atomic C/S ratios were typically lower in sediments from sites in the zone of hypoxia compared to nearby

  1. Geochemical behavior of 210Pb and 210Po in the nearshore waters off western Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Ching-Ling; Lin, Shiao-Yu; Wen, Liang-Saw; Sheu, David D.-D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 210 Pb and 210 Po in the nearshore waters were determined off western coast of Taiwan. ► Partitioning of the radionuclides in turbid waters was discussed. ► Removal flux of particulate organic carbon was quantified using 210 Po proxy. - Abstract: Dissolved and particulate 210 Pb and 210 Po were determined at 15 stations along the coastline off western Taiwan in April 2007. The 210 Pb activities in dissolved and particulate phases fell within a relatively small range of 2.4–5.2 dpm 100 L −1 and 1.0–3.2 dpm 100 L −1 , respectively. The dissolved and particulate 210 Po activities also fell within a small range of 0.8–3.4 dpm 100 L −1 and 1.1–2.9 dpm 100 L −1 , respectively. The correlation of the distribution coefficients (K d ) of 210 Pb and 210 Po with particle concentration in turbid waters are not as evident as in the open ocean. The mass balance calculation shows that the residence times of 210 Pb and 210 Po with respect to particle removal from the nearshore waters ranges from 3 to 15 days and from 14 to 125 days, respectively. The flux of particulate organic carbon was estimated by 210 Po proxy and ranged from 4.8 to 33.7 mmol-C m −2 d −1 .

  2. Nearshore waves and longshore sediment transport along Rameshwaram Island off the east coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam Gowthaman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wave-induced Longshore Sediment Transport (LST play an important role in the dynamics of the Dhanushkodi sandspit located southeast of Rameshwaram. The LST along the Dhanushkodi coast is studied based on data collected simultaneously in Gulf of Mannar (GoM and Palk Bay (PB using directional waverider buoys. The numerical model REF/DIF1 was used to calculate the nearshore waves and the LST rate was estimated using three different formulae. The model validation was done based on the measured nearshore waves using InterOcean S4DW. Numerical model LITPACK was also used for simulating non-cohesive sediment transport and the LITLINE module was used to study the shoreline evolution over 5 years. Low net annual LST along PB (~0.01 × 106 m3 compared to the GoM region (0.3 × 106 m3 were due to the weak waves. Accretion in the region led to growth of the Dhanushkodi sandspit by 65 m during the period 2010-2015.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the physical impacts of a nearshore sand extraction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anctil, F.; Ouellet, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the potential physical impacts of a nearshore sand extraction project in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In Canada, sand extraction is mainly limited to the Beaufort Sea area, where in 1982 alone 15 million tonnes of aggregate was dredged to satisfy the requirements of offshore petroleum exploration; but there is much experience in nearshore dredging in Europe. Criteria related to impacts, developed for conditions prevailing in the North Sea (England) and the Gulf of Gascogne (France) are adapted to meet the more moderate hydrodynamic impacts of an extraction project in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Potential impacts of extraction projects include destruction of sand bars or dunes, direct erosion resulting from beach drawdown or sedimentation interference, and impacts on littoral drift due to modified wave refraction patterns. Three schemes for the sand extraction are considered, and from the results, a fourth scheme is elaborated in such a way as to limit the negative impacts to the minor category. 17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Coastal Innovation Imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Glavovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two articles that explores the coastal innovation paradox and imperative. Paradoxically, innovation is necessary to escape the vulnerability trap created by past innovations that have degraded coastal ecosystems and imperil coastal livelihoods. The innovation imperative is to reframe and underpin business and technology with coherent governance innovations that lead to social transformation for coastal sustainability. How might coastal management help to facilitate this transition? It is argued that coastal management needs to be reconceptualised as a transformative practice of deliberative coastal governance. A foundation comprising four deliberative or process outcomes is posited. The point of departure is to build human and social capital through issue learning and improved democratic attitudes and skills. Attention then shifts to facilitating community-oriented action and improving institutional capacity and decision-making. Together, these endeavours enable improved community problem-solving. The ultimate process goal is to build more collaborative communities. Instituting transformative deliberative coastal governance will help to stimulate innovations that chart new sustainability pathways and help to resolve the coastal problems. This framework could be adapted and applied in other geographical settings.

  5. Queen conch (Strombus gigas testis regresses during the reproductive season at nearshore sites in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Spade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Queen conch (Strombus gigas reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01 in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992, spermatogenesis (GO:0007283, small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264, and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue

  6. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

  7. Fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and toxic organics in Louisiana coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaune, R.D.; Gambrell, R.P.; Pardue, J.H.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous potentially toxic compounds are entering Louisiana's inshore and nearshore coastal environments. To a large degree there is insufficient information for predicting the fate and effect of these materials in aquatic environments. Studies documenting the impact of petroleum hydrocarbons entering Louisiana coastal wetlands are summarized. Also included are research findings on factors affecting the persistence of petroleum hydrocarbons and other toxic organics (pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), creosote, etc.) in sediment-water systems. Sediment pH and redox conditions have been found to play an important role in the microbial degradation of toxic organics. Most of the hydrocarbons investigated degrade more rapidly under high redox (aerobic) conditions although there are exceptions (e.g., 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)(DDT) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs)). Some of these compounds, due to their slow degradation in anaerobic sediment, may persist in the system for decades

  8. Coastal Analysis, Nassau,NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  9. Coastal Analysis, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  10. Global patterns of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, H.; Yin, Kedong; Cloern, J.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific Committee on Ocean Research Working Group 137 Meeting; Hangzhou, China, 17-21 October 2010; Phytoplankton biomass and community structure have undergone dramatic changes in coastal ecosystems over the past several decades in response to climate variability and human disturbance. These changes have short- and long-term impacts on global carbon and nutrient cycling, food web structure and productivity, and coastal ecosystem services. There is a need to identify the underlying processes and measure the rates at which they alter coastal ecosystems on a global scale. Hence, the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR) formed Working Group 137 (WG 137), "Global Patterns of Phytoplankton Dynamics in Coastal Ecosystems: A Comparative Analysis of Time Series Observations" (http://wg137.net/). This group evolved from a 2007 AGU-sponsored Chapman Conference entitled "Long Time-Series Observations in Coastal Ecosystems: Comparative Analyses of Phytoplankton Dynamics on Regional to Global Scales.".

  11. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  12. Climatic variability and trends in the surface waters of coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Patrick F.; Masson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Multi-decadal records of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) collected at a set of lighthouse stations are used to examine climatic variability and trends in the coastal waters of British Columbia. Particular attention is given to relations between the water property anomalies and variability in coastal freshwater discharge and alongshore wind stress. Within the Strait of Georgia, SSS anomalies are closely related to Fraser River discharge anomalies. Along the Pacific coast, anomalies in alongshore wind stress and freshwater runoff have the characteristics of white noise processes. A cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that SST and SSS variability along the open west coast is consistent with the response of a first-order autoregressive process driven by anomalous alongshore wind stress and coastal freshwater discharge, respectively. Thus climatic variability of SST and SSS along the Pacific coast of British Columbia occurs, in part, through the integration of noisy atmospheric forcing and coastal precipitation. Seasonal correlations show that SST is strongly related to wind stress during winter and fall. Conversely, SSS is relatively weakly related to the alongshore wind during spring, suggesting that variability in upwelling makes only a modest contribution to variability of SSS in the nearshore environment. Consistent with previous studies, secular trends indicate long-term warming and freshening of the coastal ocean at most stations. It is shown that long-term SST trends can be obscured by the pronounced climatic variability of these waters, requiring that time series extend for several decades to be reliably detected.

  13. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Nearshore currents on the southern Namaqua shelf of the Benguela upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, A. L.; Pitcher, G. C.; Shillington, F. A.

    2008-05-01

    Nearshore currents of the southern Namaqua shelf were investigated using data from a mooring situated three and a half kilometres offshore of Lambert's Bay, downstream of the Cape Columbine upwelling cell, on the west coast of South Africa. This area is susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and wind-forced variations in currents and water column structure are critical in determining the development, transport and dissipation of blooms. Time series of local wind data, and current and temperature profile data are described for three periods, considered to be representative of the latter part of the upwelling season (27 January-22 February), winter conditions (5-29 May) and the early part of the upwelling season (10 November-12 December) in 2005. Differences observed in mean wind strength and direction between data sets are indicative of seasonal changes in synoptic meteorological conditions. These quasi-seasonal variations in wind forcing affect nearshore current flow, leading to mean northward flow in surface waters early in the upwelling season when equatorward, upwelling-favourable winds are persistent. Mean near-surface currents are southward during the latter part of the upwelling season, consistent with more prolonged periods of relaxation from equatorward winds, and under winter conditions when winds were predominantly poleward. Within these seasonal variations in mean near-surface current direction, two scales of current variability were evident within all data sets: strong inertial oscillations were driven by diurnal winds and introduced vertical shear into the water column enhancing mixing across the thermocline, while sub-inertial current variability was driven by north-south wind reversals at periods of 2-5 days. Sub-inertial currents were found to lag wind reversals by approximately 12 h, with a tendency for near-surface currents to flow poleward in the absence of wind forcing. Consistent with similar sites along the Californian and Iberian coasts

  15. Southwest Washington littoral drift restoration—Beach and nearshore morphological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M.

    2012-01-01

    A morphological monitoring program has documented the placement and initial dispersal of beach nourishment material (280,000 m3) placed between the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) North Jetty and North Head, at the southern end of the Long Beach Peninsula in southwestern Washington State. A total of 21 topographic surveys and 8 nearshore bathymetric surveys were performed between July 11, 2010, and November 4, 2011. During placement, southerly alongshore transport resulted in movement of nourishment material to the south towards the MCR North Jetty. Moderate wave conditions (significant wave height around 4 m) following the completion of the nourishment resulted in cross-shore sediment transport, with most of the nourishment material transported into the nearshore bars. The nourishment acted as a buffer to the more severe erosion, including dune overtopping and retreat, that was observed at the northern end of the study area throughout the winter. One year after placement of the nourishment, onshore transport and beach recovery were most pronounced within the permit area and to the south toward the MCR North Jetty. This suggests that there is some long-term benefit of the nourishment for reducing erosion rates locally, although the enhanced recovery also could be due to natural gradients in alongshore transport causing net movement of the sediment from north to south. Measurements made during the morphological monitoring program documented the seasonal movement and decay of nearshore sand bars. Low-energy conditions in late summer resulted in onshore bar migration early in the monitoring program. Moderate wave conditions in the autumn resulted in offshore movement of the middle bar and continued onshore migration of the outer bar. High-energy wave conditions early in the winter resulted in strong cross-shore transport and creation of a 3-bar system along portions of the coast. More southerly wave events occurred later in the winter and early spring and coincided

  16. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D.M.; Kirby, J.T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient- forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  17. A comparison of the marine and estuarine benthic fauna of the nearshore regions of the Arabian Sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    The distribution and abundance of the benthic fauna of the Arabian sea were studied in the nearshore region at a depth of 10 fathoms, about 7 miles off Cochin. The results showed that the macrofauna was more abundant than the meiofauna...

  18. Wave hindcast studies using SWAN nested in WAVEWATCH III - comparison with measured nearshore buoy data off Karwar, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Sandhya, K.G.; Nair, T.M.B; Rathod, J.L.

    Waves in the nearshore waters (~15 m water-depth) of eastern Arabian Sea were simulated using SWAN nested in WAVEWATCH III (WW3) for the year 2014. The sensitivity of the numerical wave model WW3 towards different source term (ST) packages...

  19. Spatial and temporal variations of carbonate content in the beach and nearshore environments off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.

    -90%) in the foreshore regions of individual beaches whereas low CaCO sub(3) (less than 20%) in the dune and backshore areas of these beaches and adjoining nearshore environs up to 10 m isobath. The observed spatial distribution shows the occurrence of modern carbonate...

  20. Baseline studies North Sea wind farms: Lot 5 marine birds in and around the future site Nearshore Windfarm (NSW)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Camphuysen, C.J.; Lieshout, S.M.J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Dijkman, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft de zeevogelgemeenschap die zich in de loop van het jaar bevindt in een zeegebied voor de Noord-Hollandse kust, waar in de nabije toekomst een experimenteel windmolenpark gebouwd zal worden, de zogenaamde Nearshore Windfarm (NSW). Om deze `T-nul` situatie te kunnen vastleggen

  1. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project final report: Monitoring for evaluation of recovery and restoration of injured nearshore resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Kloecker, Kim; Dean, Tom; Colettie, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, we completed three consecutive years of full field sampling in WPWS for EVOS Restoration Project 10100750. Nearshore monitoring was conducted in collaboration with the NPS SWAN I&M program and, beginning in 2012, as part of the EVOSTC GWA program. Data collection was done in accordance with standard operating procedures set forth to monitor marine water chemistry and quality, marine intertidal invertebrates, kelps and seagrasses, marine birds, black oystercatchers, and sea otters. Summer sampling in 2012 represented the fourth year of sampling in WPWS (an initial year of sampling was done in WPWS in 2007; EVOS Restoration Project 070750). Based on our monitoring of nearshore species in WPWS, and comparisons of data from WPWS and other areas within the Gulf of Alaska, we have no evidence of continued injury to biological resources at the spatial scales we are monitoring. A key finding is that recovery of the sea otter population is no longer constrained by exposure to lingering oil; this is consistent with related EVOSTC studies on harlequin ducks (Restoration Project 12120114-Q). We anticipate continued annual nearshore monitoring in WPWS and at KATM and KEFJ under GWA, with data summaries and analyses including all three areas to provide a larger spatial and temporal context to the understanding of processes and patterns in nearshore ecosystems of the GOA which were impacted by the EVOS of 1989.

  2. Post-Hurricane Ivan coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Crawfordville, Florida, to Petit Bois Island, Mississippi, September 17, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Peterson, Russell D.; Thompson, Philip R.; Subino, Janice A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On September 17, 2004, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Crawfordville, Florida, to Petit Bois Island, Mississippi aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Ivan data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey in 2001, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  3. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  4. Plankton studies in the estuarine and nearshore regions of Mandovi and Zuari

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajagopal, M.D.

    Biological and chemical data collected for the preparation of a masterplan for pollution control in the rivers Mandovi and Zauri and the adjacent coastal area were processed to study the ecological conditions. Both phytoplankton and zooplankton...

  5. The tidal influence on oil and gas emissions from an abandoned oil well: Nearshore Summerland, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Wilson, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Oil and gas emissions were quantified for natural and human sources in nearshore waters off Summerland, California through deployment of custom designed collection tents. Seepage was measured at a repeatedly abandoned well, on the seabed from a caisson located along the historical location of the Treadwell Wharf, where the world's first off-shore oil wells were drilled at the end of the 19th century. Seepage rates at the capped T-10 Well, located in ∼5 m water, showed high correlation to tides. Site emissions were 2.4 and 38.7 L day -1 oil and gas, respectively. Emissions were measured from two areas of seepage at the T-10 Well Site. Oil and gas ratios were inversely correlated between the two seepage areas, demonstrating connectivity. Data were interpreted in terms of an electronic circuit model of seepage with respect to the time lag between local low tide and peak oil emissions

  6. Inferred fish behavior its implications for hydroacoustic surveys in nearshore habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Qian, Song S.; Vandergoot, Christopher; Kraus, Richard T.; Kocovsky, Patrick; Warner, David M.

    2018-01-01

    Population availability and vessel avoidance effects on hydroacoustic abundance estimates may be scale dependent; therefore, it is important to evaluate these biases across systems. We performed an inter-ship comparison survey to determine the effect of vessel size, day-night period, depth, and environmental gradients on walleye (Sander vitreus) density estimates in Lake Erie, an intermediate-scaled system. Consistent near-bottom depth distributions coupled with horizontal fish movements relative to vessel paths indicated avoidance behavior contributed to higher walleye densities from smaller vessels in shallow water (i.e., abundance estimates. Quantifying availability and avoidance behavior effects and partitioning sources of variation provides informed flexibility for designing future hydroacoustic surveys in shallow-water nearshore environments.

  7. Benthic status of near-shore fishing grounds in the central Philippines and associated seahorse densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, J E; Samoilys, M A; Meeuwig, J J; Villongco, Z A D; Vincent, A C J

    2007-09-01

    Benthic status of 28 near-shore, artisanal, coral reef fishing grounds in the central Philippines was assessed (2000-2002) together with surveys of the seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Our measures of benthic quality and seahorse densities reveal some of the most degraded coral reefs in the world. Abiotic structure dominated the fishing grounds: 69% of the benthos comprised rubble (32%), sand/silt (28%) and dead coral (9%). Predominant biotic structure included live coral (12%) and Sargassum (11%). Rubble cover increased with increasing distance from municipal enforcement centers and coincided with substantial blast fishing in this region of the Philippines. Over 2 years, we measured a significant decrease in benthic 'heterogeneity' and a 16% increase in rubble cover. Poor benthic quality was concomitant with extremely low seahorse densities (524 fish per km(2)). Spatial management, such as marine reserves, may help to minimize habitat damage and to rebuild depleted populations of seahorses and other reef fauna.

  8. A survey of fish and shellfish radioactivity levels in Cumbrian near-shore waters (1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, W A; Memmott, S D

    1991-09-01

    Fish (cod and plaice), crustacea, (crab and lobster), and molluscs (winkle) samples were collected from Cumbrian near-shore waters in 1990. The samples were analysed for total beta activity and a range of gamma and alpha emitters. In general, the radionuclide levels are lower than those measured in the previous 3 years of the study and the intake of radioactivity by all consumers should have reflected this. The dose estimated to have been incurred by the critical group of local seafood consumers near Sellafield in 1990, mainly due to winkle consumption, is less than 0.1 mSv and thus significantly below the limit of 1 mSv per year for long term radiation exposure recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author).

  9. A survey of fish and shellfish radioactivity levels in Cumbrian near-shore waters (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Memmott, S.D.

    1991-09-01

    Fish (cod and plaice), crustacea, (crab and lobster), and molluscs (winkle) samples were collected from Cumbrian near-shore waters in 1990. The samples were analysed for total beta activity and a range of gamma and alpha emitters. In general, the radionuclide levels are lower than those measured in the previous 3 years of the study and the intake of radioactivity by all consumers should have reflected this. The dose estimated to have been incurred by the critical group of local seafood consumers near Sellafield in 1990, mainly due to winkle consumption, is less than 0.1 mSv and thus significantly below the limit of 1 mSv per year for long term radiation exposure recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  10. Coastal Geographic Structures in Coastal-Marine Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, P. Ya.; Ganzei, K. S.; Ermoshin, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    It has been proposed to distinguish the coastal geographic structures consisting of a spatial combination of three interconnected and mutually conditioned parts (coastal-territorial, coastal, coastal-marine), which are interlinked with each other by the cumulative effect of real-energy flows. Distinguishing specific resource features of the coastal structures, by which they play a connecting role in the complex coastalmarine management, has been considered. The main integral resource feature of the coastal structures is their connecting functions, which form transitional parts mutually connecting the coastal-territorial and coastalmarine environmental management.

  11. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  12. Provenance, Source Rock Characteristics And Paleoweathering Conditions Of The Nearshore Continental Sediments Off Pondicherry, South East Coast Of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, T.; Seshachalam, S.; Ponniah, J.; Varadhan, R.; M, S.

    2008-05-01

    Geochemical studies, comprising major elements and trace elements, including the Rare Earth Elements (REE), have been carried out on the modern sediments of inner continental shelf representing nearshore marine environments. Concentrations were normalized with Chondrite and PAAS show LREE enriched and flat HREE patterns with slight positive Eu anomaly which is due to the influence of feldspar rich source materials. The LREE enriched and flat HREE patterns with positive Eu anomaly have been considered as the typical character of post- Archaean Sediments. The La/Th ratio ranges from 1.66 to 8.84 with an average value of 4.09, which indicates a heterogenitic source for the sediments of the study area. The La-Th-Sc ternary plot suggests all the samples fall close to the field dominated by tonalite to granite and away from the basalt and komatiite compositions and appear to be derived from sources enriched in felsic components. The transition metal ratios such as Cr/V, Ni/CO and V/Ni indicate both Archaean and Post-Archaean nature to the sediments indicating that the sediments have been derived from heterogenitic sources. The ternary diagram plot of Th-Hf-Co and La-Th-Sc falls in the field of upper continental crust of post Archaean age. This clearly indicates the terrestrial source for the sediments from the nearby landmass. The data are slightly offset from the upper crustal composition away from the Hf apex. This is probably a result of Zircon concentration. Geochemical data have also helped in ascertaining the weathering trends. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) has been used to quantify the degree of weathering. The calculated CIA values for sediments demonstrate both low CIA values of less than 50 percent (low silicate weathering) and intermediate CIA values (60-70 percent) indicating that the sediments are possibly the product of sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks that have undergone intermediate chemical weathering. On an A—CN—K diagram, the data

  13. A 3D unstructured grid nearshore hydrodynamic model based on the vortex force formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Peng; Li, Ming; van der A, Dominic A.; van der Zanden, Joep; Wolf, Judith; Chen, Xueen; Wang, Caixia

    2017-08-01

    A new three-dimensional nearshore hydrodynamic model system is developed based on the unstructured-grid version of the third generation spectral wave model SWAN (Un-SWAN) coupled with the three-dimensional ocean circulation model FVCOM to enable the full representation of the wave-current interaction in the nearshore region. A new wave-current coupling scheme is developed by adopting the vortex-force (VF) scheme to represent the wave-current interaction. The GLS turbulence model is also modified to better reproduce wave-breaking enhanced turbulence, together with a roller transport model to account for the effect of surface wave roller. This new model system is validated first against a theoretical case of obliquely incident waves on a planar beach, and then applied to three test cases: a laboratory scale experiment of normal waves on a beach with a fixed breaker bar, a field experiment of oblique incident waves on a natural, sandy barred beach (Duck'94 experiment), and a laboratory study of normal-incident waves propagating around a shore-parallel breakwater. Overall, the model predictions agree well with the available measurements in these tests, illustrating the robustness and efficiency of the present model for very different spatial scales and hydrodynamic conditions. Sensitivity tests indicate the importance of roller effects and wave energy dissipation on the mean flow (undertow) profile over the depth. These tests further suggest to adopt a spatially varying value for roller effects across the beach. In addition, the parameter values in the GLS turbulence model should be spatially inhomogeneous, which leads to better prediction of the turbulent kinetic energy and an improved prediction of the undertow velocity profile.

  14. Multi-disciplinary investigation into the role of regional event beds in near-shore landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, M. E.; L'Heureux, J.; Vanneste, M. W.; Longva, O.; Forsberg, C. F.; Steiner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Near-shore landslides in fjords are a widely observed geohazard with a potential for causing damage through tsunami generation and the removal of near-shore infrastructure. Often these events cross the border between terrestrial and submarine landslides, involving the failure of material on the shoreline and foreshore slope. Here we focus on a multi-disciplinary investigation of the 1996 landslide near Finneidfjord, Norway. This event back-stepped 100-150 m inland, removing a 250 m long section of the main north-south highway and several houses, at a cost of four human lives. Acquisition of an extensive and multidisciplinary data set, including high-resolution swath bathymetry, 2D/3D seismic data, multiple short (up to 6 m) and two long (12 m and 14 m, respectively) sediment cores and in situ Free-Fall Piezocone Penetrometer (FF-CPTU) profiles complemented with geotechnical laboratory data, has provided a detailed analysis of both the landslide morphology and stratigraphic controls. Correlating the geophysical (include remote physical properties inverted from seismic reflection profiles), geological and geotechnical data identifies the landslide glide plane as a thin (< 0.5 m), laminated, clay-rich bed with high pore water content (45 - 65 %) and low shear strength (4 - 8 kPa), deposited as a result of terrestrial quick-clay landslides in the hinterland. The relative weakness of the layer is thought to be a result of both the rapid deposition and excess pore pressure caused by artesian groundwater flow. Together, these act as preconditioning factors for failure, controlling the failure depth and probability if not the exact timing of the event.

  15. Modeling nearshore dispersal of river-derived multi-class suspended sediments and radionuclides during a flood event around the mouth of Niida River, Fukushima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Y.; Yamanishi, T.; Iwasaki, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Tsumune, D.; Misumi, K.; Onda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    A quadruple nested synoptic oceanic downscale modeling based on ROMS was carried out to investigate hydrodynamics, multi-class non-cohesive sediment transport and associated dispersal of suspended radionuclides (cesium-137; 137Cs) originated from the nuclear accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Power Plant in March 2011. The innermost model has horizontal grid resolution of 50 m to marginally resolve the topography around the river mouth including the surf zone. The model is forced by the JCOPE2 oceanic reanalysis as the outermost boundary conditions, the GPV-MSM atmospheric reanalysis, and an in-house SWAN spectral wave hindcast embedded in the operational GPV-CWM wave reanalysis. A particular attention is paid to nearshore behaviors and inventory of the nuclides attached to terrestrial minerals with grain sizes ranging from 5 to 79 micrometers that have been occasionally discharged out to the coastal ocean through hydrological processes within the river basin even after several years since the accident. We examine oceanic dispersal of sediment and suspended 137Cs influxes from Niida River, Fukushima, evaluated with the iRIC-Nays2DH river model. Our focus is on the first flood event in late May of 2011 after the accident. Alongshore asymmetry in transport of suspended sediments and 137Cs is exhibited, comprising storm-driven southward transport confined in the shallow area due to shoreward Ekman transport associated with strong northerly wind, followed by northwestward wide-spread transport under mild southerly wind condition. About 70 % of the Niida River-derived suspended 137Cs remains near the mouth for 20 days after the flood event. Nevertheless, our model results as well as an observation suggest that the area is dominated by erosion as for high bed shear stress all the time, thus suspended radionuclides are redistributed to dissipate away in long term.

  16. Hydrogeologic controls on chemical transport at Malibu Lagoon, CA: Implications for land to sea exchange in coastal lagoon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dimova

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Nearshore lagoons that are seasonally disconnected from the coastal ocean occupy about 10% of coastal areas worldwide. Lagoon systems often are poorly flushed and thus sensitive to nutrient over-enrichment that can lead to eutrophication, oxygen depletion, and/or pervasive algal blooms. This sensitivity is exacerbated in lagoons that are intermittently closed to surface water exchange with the sea and occur in populous coastal areas. Such estuarine systems are disconnected from the sea during most of the year by wave-built barriers, but during the rainy season these berms can breach, enabling direct water exchange. Using naturally-occurring 222Rn as groundwater tracer, we estimate that groundwater discharge to Malibu Lagoon during open berm conditions was one order of magnitude higher (21 ± 17 cm/day than during closed berm conditions (1.8 ± 1.4 cm/day. The SGD (submarine groundwater discharge into nearshore coastal waters at the SurferRider and Colony Malibu was 4.2 cm/day on average. The exported total dissolved nitrogen (TDN through the berm during closed berm was 1.6 × 10−3 mol/day, whereas during open berm (exported by the Creek was 3.5 × 103 mol/day. Although these evaluations are specific to the collection campaigns the 2009 and 2010 hydro years, these two distinct hydrologic scenarios play an important role in the seasonality and geochemical impact of land/sea exchange, and highlight the sensitivity of such systems to future impacts such as sea level rise and increasing coastal populations.

  17. Spatial distribution of nearshore fish in the vicinity of two thermal generating stations, Nanticoke and Douglas Point, on the Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minns, C.K.; Kelso, J.R.M.; Hyatt, W.

    1978-01-01

    At Nanticoke, Lake Erie, 1974, mean fish density varied considerably, range 162-14 204/10 000 m 3 , as estimated by digital acoustic fish enumeration. At Douglas Point, Lake Huron, 1975, mean density varied less, range 108-671/10 000 m 3 . At both sites fish densities were generally greatest in the shallowest, 3-5 m, depths. At Nanticoke, where the nearshore has low relief, there were no distinguishable communities. At Douglas Point, where depth increases rapidly offshore, there was evidence of benthic and pelagic communities. There was no evidence of altered fish distribution in relation to temperature. At Nanticoke there was no vertical variation in temperature and no vertical response was to be expected. At Douglas Point there was thermal stratification present in the summer and there was no apparent response. The influence of incident radiation was uncertain because of the effects of diurnal migrations. At both locations fish were clustered horizontally to varying degrees in the spring and fall, while in the summer fish were distributed more evenly. Densest clusters were usually in the vicinity of the turbulent discharge at both locations. The lack of temperature response and the similarity of Nanticoke with situations at nearby streams on Lake Erie suggest that the fish are responding to currents and perhaps topography. (author)

  18. Topobathymetric elevation model development using a new methodology: Coastal National Elevation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Poppenga, Sandra K.; Brock, John C.; Evans, Gayla A.; Tyler, Dean; Gesch, Dean B.; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John

    2016-01-01

    During the coming decades, coastlines will respond to widely predicted sea-level rise, storm surge, and coastalinundation flooding from disastrous events. Because physical processes in coastal environments are controlled by the geomorphology of over-the-land topography and underwater bathymetry, many applications of geospatial data in coastal environments require detailed knowledge of the near-shore topography and bathymetry. In this paper, an updated methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal National Elevation Database (CoNED) Applications Project is presented for developing coastal topobathymetric elevation models (TBDEMs) from multiple topographic data sources with adjacent intertidal topobathymetric and offshore bathymetric sources to generate seamlessly integrated TBDEMs. This repeatable, updatable, and logically consistent methodology assimilates topographic data (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) into a seamless coastal elevation model. Within the overarching framework, vertical datum transformations are standardized in a workflow that interweaves spatially consistent interpolation (gridding) techniques with a land/water boundary mask delineation approach. Output gridded raster TBDEMs are stacked into a file storage system of mosaic datasets within an Esri ArcGIS geodatabase for efficient updating while maintaining current and updated spatially referenced metadata. Topobathymetric data provide a required seamless elevation product for several science application studies, such as shoreline delineation, coastal inundation mapping, sediment-transport, sea-level rise, storm surge models, and tsunami impact assessment. These detailed coastal elevation data are critical to depict regions prone to climate change impacts and are essential to planners and managers responsible for mitigating the associated risks and costs to both human communities and ecosystems. The CoNED methodology approach has been used to construct integrated TBDEM models

  19. Feedback Limiting the Coastal Response to Irregularities in Shelf Bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, J. H.; Benedet, L.

    2007-12-01

    Observations and engineering studies have shown that non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry can influence longshore sediment transport gradients and create patterns of shoreline change. One classic example is from Grand Isle, Louisiana, where two offshore borrow pits caused two zones of shoreline accretion landward of the pits. In addition to anthropogenic cases, many natural situations exist in which irregularities in coastal planform are thought to result from offshore shoals or depressions. Recent studies using the hydrodynamic model Delft3D have successfully simulated the observed nearshore erosion and accretion patterns landward of an inner shelf borrow pit. An analysis of the momentum balance in a steady-state simulation has demonstrated that both alongshore pressure gradients (due to alongshore variations in wave setup) and radiation stress gradients (terms relevant to alongshore forcing) are important for forcing the initial pattern of nearshore sedimentation in response to the borrow pit. The response of the coast to non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry appears to be limited, however, because observed shoreline undulations are often rather subtle. (An exception may exist in the case of a very high angle wave climate.) Therefore, feedbacks in processes must exist such that growth of the shoreline salient itself modifies the transport processes in a way that limits further growth (assuming the perturbation in inner shelf bathymetry itself remains unchanged). Examination of the Delft3D momentum balance for an inner shelf pit test case demonstrates that after a certain degree of morphologic development the forcing associated with the well-known shoreline smoothing process (a.k.a., diffusion) counteracts the forcing associated with the inner shelf pit, producing a negative feedback which arrests further growth of the shoreline salient. These results provide insights into the physical processes that control shoreline changes behind inner shelf bathymetric anomalies (i

  20. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  1. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  2. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  3. Pollution of Coastal Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These are the things ideally required for locating industries also. The mega-cities .... waste water released into coastal seas raises the ambient temperature causing .... Problems of ozone holes and greenhouse gases were, perhaps, beyond ...

  4. National Coastal Condition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's coastal waters and the Great Lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  5. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  6. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  7. Nitrogen balance for a plantation forest drainage canal on the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy W. Appelboom; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; J. Wendell Gilliam; Devendra M. Amatya

    2009-01-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has led to increased riverine nitrogen loads, contributing to the eutrophication of lakes, streams, estuaries, and near-coastal oceans. These riverine nitrogen loads are usually less...

  8. Quantity, distribution, and impacts of coastal driftwood triggered by a typhoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doong, Dong-Jiing; Chuang, Hui-Chieh; Shieh, Chjeng-Lun; Hu, Jian-Hwa

    2011-07-01

    Typhoon Morakot pounded Taiwan in 2009 with record-breaking rainfall, washing an unprecedented amount of driftwood into the sea that was partially deposited at the coastal areas. According to the satellite imagery analysis, more than three million trees fell and were washed away to occupy 83.2% of the Taiwanese coastline, including 52 fishing harbors. The amount cleaned-up was only 1/7 of the total coastal driftwood. It was found that the amount of coastal driftwood is not only related to the amount of precipitation but is also related to the distance from the location of the landslide to the river mouth and to the landslide area. The amount of accumulated coastal driftwood demonstrated log-profile declines with increasing distance to the river mouth. Nearshore current and wave motion are the critical factors for driftwood deposition. Much of the driftwood washed into the sea harmed the tourism and fishing industries, endangered navigation and oceanic activities, and impacted the marine environment and ecosystem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Net uptake of atmospheric CO2 by coastal submerged aquatic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Tatsuki; Hosokawa, Shinya; Miyoshi, Eiichi; Tada, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Kenta; Montani, Shigeru; Kayanne, Hajime; Kuwae, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    ‘Blue Carbon’, which is carbon captured by marine living organisms, has recently been highlighted as a new option for climate change mitigation initiatives. In particular, coastal ecosystems have been recognized as significant carbon stocks because of their high burial rates and long-term sequestration of carbon. However, the direct contribution of Blue Carbon to the uptake of atmospheric CO2 through air-sea gas exchange remains unclear. We performed in situ measurements of carbon flows, including air-sea CO2 fluxes, dissolved inorganic carbon changes, net ecosystem production, and carbon burial rates in the boreal (Furen), temperate (Kurihama), and subtropical (Fukido) seagrass meadows of Japan from 2010 to 2013. In particular, the air-sea CO2 flux was measured using three methods: the bulk formula method, the floating chamber method, and the eddy covariance method. Our empirical results show that submerged autotrophic vegetation in shallow coastal waters can be functionally a sink for atmospheric CO2. This finding is contrary to the conventional perception that most near-shore ecosystems are sources of atmospheric CO2. The key factor determining whether or not coastal ecosystems directly decrease the concentration of atmospheric CO2 may be net ecosystem production. This study thus identifies a new ecosystem function of coastal vegetated systems; they are direct sinks of atmospheric CO2. PMID:24623530

  10. Tidal Wetlands and Coastal Ocean Carbon Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, C.; Wang, S. R.; Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A. E.; Cai, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent overviews of coastal ocean C dynamics have tidal wetlands in a prominent position: a local sink for atmospheric CO2, a local store of OC, and a source of DIC and OC for the adjacent estuary and nearshore ocean. Over the past decade there have been great strides made in quantifying and understanding these flows and linkages. GPP and R of the wetlands are not nearly as imbalanced as thought 30 yrs ago. Heterotrophy of adjacent estuarine waters is not solely due to the respiration of OC exported from the marsh, rather we see the marsh directly respiring into the water during tidal inundation and accumulated marsh DIC draining into tidal creeks. Organic carbon burial on the marsh is still a relatively minor flux, but it is large relative to marsh NEE. Using literature and unpublished data on marsh DIC export, we used examples from Sapelo Island GA USA and Plum Island MA USA to constrain estimates of NEP and potential OC export. P. There remain large uncertainties in quantifying C dynamics of coupled wetland - estuary systems. Gas exchange from the water to atmosphere is one of the largest uncertainties. Work at Sapelo suggests that upwards of 40% of all daily exchange occurs from water flooding the marsh, which is but a few hours a day. This estimate is based on the intercept value for gas exchange vs wind velocity. Another major uncertainty comes from converting between O2 based estimates of metabolism to C. At Sapelo we find PQ and RQ values diverging greatly from Redfield. Finally, C dynamics of the coastal ocean, especially the role of tidal wetlands is likely to change substantially in the future. Studies at Plum Island show a reversal of the 4000 yr process of marsh progradation with marshes eroding away at their edges because of inadequate sediment supply and rising sea level. The fate of eroded OC is questionable. Landward transgression with SLR is the only likely counter to continued wetland loss - but that's a complex social issue requiring new

  11. Morphologic Response and Sediment Redistribution of the Beach and Nearshore Sand Bars due to Extratropical and Tropical Storm Forcing: a Spatial and Temporal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, J. L.; McNinch, J. E.

    2005-05-01

    Shore-oblique bars and associated exposures of an underlying geologic stratum in the nearshore have been documented along the US East Coast and have been linked to shoreline erosional hotspots. While earlier studies acknowledged that the bedforms responded to extratropical and tropical storms, neither quantified the extent of sediment redistribution after the events. An approach that encompasses actual volume measurements across the nearshore-beach down to a non-sandy stratum and quantifies the response of the beach and the nearshore to the same hydrodynamic forcing will enable a better understanding of the exchange of sediment between the two regions. Total nearshore sediment volume has been shown to be a first-order contributor to the behavior of the shoreline. This volumetric approach is employed in the analysis of morphological changes and the redistribution of sediment in the nearshore and beach following storms. A regional survey from 2002 provides the initial, fair-weather morphologic state of the nearshore (1.5-15m water depth) spanning 40 km of the North Carolina Outer Banks. Four small-scale surveys were conducted in subsequent years, focusing on four 1-km2 regions within the initial 2002 survey area. The smaller regions were selected on the basis of the morphological state observed during the 2002 survey and historical shoreline behavior. Data were collected in March 2003 following a Northeaster; in May 2003 following an extended period of fair weather conditions; in November 2003 following Hurricane Isabel; and finally, in June 2004 after another period of fair weather. A swath bathymetry system was used to collect bathymetry and side scan sonar (acoustic backscatter) and a high-resolution chirp sub-bottom profiler imaged the shallow sub-surface geology of the nearshore. In addition, RTK-GPS was used to map the sub-aerial beach at each 1-km2 site from the toe of the dune to the water line for the May 2003, November 2003, and June 2004 sampling periods

  12. Nearshore and offshore environmental effects monitoring at the Sable Offshore Energy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, G. V.

    2000-01-01

    A monitoring program to determine whether any temporary or permanent environmental perturbations may be attributable to the Sable offshore gas pipeline project as it approaches landfall at Goldboro through an outer bay is discussed, This nearshore region is an active fishing region for the residents of Goldboro, hence the concern about possible contamination. The monitoring project began with a baseline study, followed by monitoring the construction and the recovery period following construction, to ensure that any persistent changes to the nearshore aquatic environment were documented. The monitoring study included representatives of the fishing community to ensure that concerns are addressed early and on a continuing basis. At various phases of the project water properties,sediment modelling, the effects of construction on sea bottom conditions, benthic biota and cultivated mussels, water quality, phytoplankton, and resuspension of toxic cysts, terns and other seabirds were studied. Monitoring programs were also established for sea urchins and mussels, two important commercial species. Commercial-sized sea urchins showed a decrease of 60 per cent between 1998 and 1999 (i.e. the construction period). Recovery of sea urchin population in the immediate trench region will be the special focus of the post-construction monitoring phase. Mussel spat settlement and mussel tissue condition, lobster trapping, water properties, and bird behaviour showed no measurable changes during construction monitoring. In addition to these studies there is an ongoing offshore monitoring program in effect by Sable Offshore Energy Inc., put in place as a condition of approval of its Development Plan by the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board. This program monitors attributes such as water quality, suspended particulate matter in the benthic boundary layer, sediment quality, the benthic habitat and megafaunal community, shellfish body burden and taint, marine mammals and seabirds

  13. Trace metal pollution assessment in the surface sediments of nearshore area, off Calicut, southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Reji; Shynu, R; Sreeraj, M K; Ramachandran, K K

    2017-07-15

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb), grain size, and total organic carbon content in 29 surface sediment samples from the nearshore area off Calicut were analyzed to determine their distribution and pollution status. Surface sediments were dominantly silts with low percentage of clay and sand at nearshore and offshore areas. The mean metal concentrations were in the following order: Cr>Ni>Zn>Pb>Cu. The enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index of metals suggest that the surface sediments were not polluted by Zn and moderately polluted by Cu and Ni. By contrast, Cr and Pb showed significant enrichment levels. Results from a multivariate statistical analysis suggested that the spatial enrichment of these heavy metals was related to sediment type. Thus, the sediment distribution and their metal enrichment were mainly controlled by local hydrodynamic conditions that caused the winnowing of fine-grained sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  15. Occurrence of Escherichia coli and Enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in Nearshore Water and Beach Sand of Lake Michigan†

    OpenAIRE

    Whitman, Richard L.; Shively, Dawn A.; Pawlik, Heather; Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2003-01-01

    Each summer, the nuisance green alga Cladophora (mostly Cladophora glomerata) amasses along Lake Michigan beaches, creating nearshore anoxia and unsightly, malodorous mats that can attract problem animals and detract from visitor enjoyment. Traditionally, elevated counts of Escherichia coli are presumed to indicate the presence of sewage, mostly derived from nearby point sources. The relationship between fecal indicator bacteria and Cladophora remains essentially unstudied. This investigation...

  16. The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS): Developing A Coastal Observation System To Enable Both Science Based Decision Making And Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, E.; John, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS) is a consortium that extends from Northern Baja CA in Mexico to Morro Bay at the southern edge of central California, and aims to streamline, coordinate, and further develop individual institutional efforts by creating an integrated, multidisciplinary coastal observatory in the Bight of Southern California for the benefit of society. By leveraging existing infrastructure, partnerships, and private, local, state, and federal resources, SCCOOS is developing a fully operational coastal observation system to address issues related to coastal water quality, marine life resources, and coastal hazards for end user communities spanning local, state, and federal interests. However, to establish a sensible observational approach to address these societal drivers, sound scientific approaches are required in both the system design and the transformation of data to useful products. Since IOOS and coastal components of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are not mutually exclusive within this framework, the SCCOOS consortium of observatory implementers have created an organizational structure that encourages dovetailing of OOI into the routine observations provided by the operational components of a regional IOOS. To begin the development, SCCOOS has grant funding from the California Coastal Conservancy as part of a $21M, statewide initiative to establish a Coastal Ocean Currents Monitoring Program, and funding from NOAA's Coastal Observing Technology System (COTS). In addition, SCCOOS is leveraging IT development that has been supported by the NSF Information Technology Research program Real-time observatories, Applications,and Data Manageemnt Network (ROADNET), and anticipates using developments which will result from the NSF Laboratory for Ocean Observatory Knowledge Integration Grid (LOOKING) program. The observational components now funded at SCCOOS include surface current mapping by HF radar; high

  17. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian; Lessa, G.C.; Wild, C.; Kikuchi, R.K.P.; Naumann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  18. Parametrisation and empirical model for bedload movement in the multibar coastal zone on the base of field radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, A.; Wierzchnicki, R.; Pruszak, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The near-shore zone is the most interesting sea region is coastal engineering. In this region the most effective changes in coastal morphodynamic takes place due to intensive sediment transport generated by waves and currents. The processes occurring in this zone are of great importance for coast protection and hydrotechnic activities as well as recreation. They are extremely complicated due to their stochastic character in the time and space domain. The most valuable information concerning the dynamics of bedload transport and its local character is provided by the field surveys. Such investigations are carried out under natural conditions and take into account the characteristic properties of the region. The subject of the work was the study of bedload movement for the multibar conditions

  19. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  20. Coastal estuaries and lagoons: The delicate balance at the edge of the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Rodgers, Kirk D.; Passeri, Davina L.; Prinos, Scott T.; Smith, Christopher; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2018-04-19

    Coastal communities are increasingly concerned about the dynamic balance between freshwater and saltwater because of its implications for societal, economic, and ecological resources. While the mixing of freshwater and saltwater sources defines coastal estuaries and lagoons, sudden changes in this balance can have a large effect on critical ecosystems and infrastructure. Any change to the delivery of water from either source has the potential to affect the health of both humans and natural biota and also to damage coastal infrastructure. This fact sheet discusses the potential of major shifts in the dynamic freshwater-saltwater balance to alter the environment and coastal stability.

  1. 77 FR 40586 - Coastal Programs Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Programs Division AGENCY: Coastal Programs Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kerry Kehoe, Coastal Programs Division (NORM/3), Office of Ocean and...

  2. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting freshwater lenses in coastal dunes of the Adriatic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Davide; Greggio, Nicolas; Antonellini, Marco; Giambastiani, Beatrice Maria Sole

    2017-08-01

    This study characterizes the near-shore portion of the shallow coastal aquifer included in the Ravenna area (Northern Italy) with special attention to the roles of coastal dunes as freshwater reservoirs and their buffer on groundwater salinity. The paper focuses on the presence and evolution of freshwater lenses below coastal dunes and highlights the existing differences between preserved natural dunes and dunes strongly affected by human intervention. The influence that multiple natural and anthropogenic factors, such as land cover, local drainage network, and beach erosion have on the presence, size and evolution of the freshwater lenses in the aquifer is quantified and discussed. The methodology includes multiple seasonal monitoring and sampling campaigns of physical (water level, salinity, and temperature) and chemical (major cations and anions) groundwater parameters. Results indicate that freshwater lenses, where existing, are limited in thickness (about 1-2 m). Proximity to drainage ditches as well as limited dune elevation and size do not allow the formation and permanent storage of large freshwater lenses in the aquifer below the dunes. The pine forest land cover, that replaced the typical bush or sand cover, intensifies evapotranspiration reducing net infiltration and freshwater storage. The cation species distribution in the water shows that a freshening process is ongoing in preserved natural sites with stable or advancing beaches, whereas a salinization process is ongoing in anthropogenic-impacted areas with strongly-fragmented dune systems. Currently, the thin freshwater lenses in the shallow Ravenna coastal aquifer are limited in space and have no relevance for irrigation or any other human activity. The dune-beach system, however, is the recharge zone of the coastal aquifer and its protection is important to reduce water and soil salinization, which in turn control the health of the whole coastal ecosystem.

  3. Trophic Ecology and Movement Patters of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo Cuvier) off the Western North Atlantic Coastal and Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, G.; Edman, R.; Frazier, B.; Bubley, W.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the trophic dynamics and habitat utilization of apex predators is central to inferring their influence on different marine landscapes and to help design effective management plans for these animals. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are abundant in shelf and offshore Gulf Stream waters of the western North Atlantic Ocean, and based on movements from individuals captured in Florida and Bahamas, seem to avoid coastal and shelf waters off South Carolina and Georgia. This contradicts reports of tiger sharks regularly being caught nearshore by anglers in these states, indicating that separate sub-populations may exist in the western North Atlantic. In the present study we captured Tiger Sharks in coastal waters off South Carolina in 2014 and 2015 in order to describe their movement patterns through acoustic and satellite tagging, and trophic dynamics through stable isotope analyses. Movement data show that these tiger sharks repeatedly visit particular inshore areas and mainly travel over the continental shelf, but rarely venture offshore beyond the continental shelf edge. Ongoing C and N stable isotope analyses of muscle, blood and skin tissues from adult and juvenile tiger sharks, as well as from potential prey species and primary producers, will help determine if their diets are based on inshore, shelf or offshore based food webs. Tiger sharks exploiting nearshore environments and shelf waters have much higher probabilities of interacting with humans than individuals occupying far offshore Gulf Stream habitats.

  4. Benthic Exchange of Biogenic Elements in the Estuarine and Nearshore Waters of Western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pratihary, A.K.

    chosen sites i.e. Mandovi estuary (15.502oN, 73.825oE) and a coastal station (15.509oN, 73.65 oE) ~15 Km off Goa coast during 2004 to 2006. Monthly variation of relevant physico-chemical and biological parameters were also recorded at these sites. Benthic...

  5. Spatio-temporal scaling effects on longshore sediment transport pattern along the nearshore zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, Saeed; Ergil, Mustafa

    2018-03-01

    A measure of uncertainties, entropy has been employed in such different applications as coastal engineering probability inferences. Entropy sediment transport integration theories present novel visions in coastal analyses/modeling the application and development of which are still far-reaching. Effort has been made in the present paper to propose a method that needs an entropy-power index for spatio-temporal patterns analyses. Results have shown that the index is suitable for marine/hydrological ecosystem components analyses based on a beach area case study. The method makes use of six Makran Coastal monthly data (1970-2015) and studies variables such as spatio-temporal patterns, LSTR (long-shore sediment transport rate), wind speed, and wave height all of which are time-dependent and play considerable roles in terrestrial coastal investigations; the mentioned variables show meaningful spatio-temporal variability most of the time, but explanation of their combined performance is not easy. Accordingly, the use of an entropy-power index can show considerable signals that facilitate the evaluation of water resources and will provide an insight regarding hydrological parameters' interactions at scales as large as beach areas. Results have revealed that an STDDPI (entropy based spatio-temporal disorder dynamics power index) can simulate wave, long-shore sediment transport rate, and wind when granulometry, concentration, and flow conditions vary.

  6. 234Th/238U disequilibrium in near-shore sediment: particle reworking and diagenetic time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aller, R.C.; Cochran, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of 234 Th (tsub(1.2)=24.1 days) in excess of its parent 238 U in the upper layers of near-shore sediment makes possible the evaluation of short-term sediment reworking and diagenetic rates. 234 Th has a maximum residence time in Long Island Sound water of 1.4 days. Seasonal measurement of 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium in sediment at a single station in central Long Island Sound demonstrates rapid particle reworking and high 234 Thsub(XS)(>1 dpm/g) in the upper 4 cm of sediment with slower, irregular reworking and low 234 Thsub(XS) to at least 12 cm. The rate of rapid particle reworking varies seasonally and is highest in the fall. The rapidly mixed zone is characterized by steep gradients in sediment chemistry implying fast reactions spanned by 234 Th decay time scales. 238 U is depleted in the upper mixed zone and shows addition in reducing sediment at depth. (Auth.)

  7. Establishment of two invasive crustaceans (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) on the nearshore sands of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas G.; Whitman, Richard L.; Last, Laurel L.

    2001-01-01

    Benthic copepods (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in the nearshore sediments of southern Lake Michigan appear to be dominated by two new invasive species. We report the first occurrence in North America of Schizopera borutzkyi Montschenko, a native to the Danube River delta, and Heteropsyllus nr. nunni, likely a new species that is morphologically similar to the marine species Heteropsyllus nunni and represents the first occurrence of this genus in freshwater. Schizopera borutzkyi is a euryhaline species occurring in shallow sands in its native habitat and in deeper sands (6-15 m) in southern Lake Michigan. Based on the absence of these species from previous studies, we suggest that they are recent introductions. Heteropsyllus nr. nunni dominated (55-100%) the harpacticoid abundance to depths of 9 m, but S. borutzkyi comprised 75% of the harpacticoid abundance at 15 m. Native harpacticoids were always greatly outnumbered by invasive harpacticoids in our samples, which suggests that the natives are being replaced rapidly or that the invasive species are finding unused resources. The ecological implications of these introductions are not known, but these invasions may represent continued 'invasional meltdown' in Lake Michigan.

  8. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  9. Oil in nearshore subtidal sediments of Saudi Arabia from the Gulf War spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.; Hayes, M.O.; Keenan, R.S.; Jensen, J.R.; Narumalani, S.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed sedimentological and dynamic-process studies of the shallow, subtidal habitats of Dawhats ad Dafi and al Mussallamiyah and the bays at Tanaqib on the Saudi Arabian coast were carried out one year after the Gulf War oil spill. These studies were part of Leg II of the NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell cruise. Satellite imagery and space shuttle photography were used extensively to develop detailed study plans. Work accomplished during the study included deployment of three current meters, a tide gauge, and suspended sediment traps (at seven locations). Bathymetric surveys were conducted along 14 transects, and 197 bottom observation dives were carried out. More than 170 bottom sediment samples were collected for chemical and/or textural analysis. Sediment hydrocarbon screening by HPLC fluorescence was conducted on board to verify and refine the sampling plan. The results to date show no evidence of large-scale sinking of oil as a result of the spill. Subtidal oil, as sparse tar balls, was visually observed by divers at three locations, all of which were associated with the erosion of oiled sand from outer beaches. On-board chemical results showed that subtidal sediments have been contaminated at levels ranging from 20 to 2,000 mg petroleum hydrocarbons/kg, with the highest contamination up in the sheltered, muddy basins. However, the oil initially stranded in the intertidal zone does not appear to be accumulating in the nearshore subtidal region in significant quantities one year later

  10. Mapping South Baltic Near-Shore Bathymetry Using Sentinel-2 Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chybicki Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising new applications of remote observation satellite systems (RO is the near-shore bathymetry estimation based on spaceborn multispectral imageries. In recent years, many experiments aiming to estimate bathymetry in optically shallow water with the use of remote optical observations have been presented. In this paper, optimal models of satellite derived bathymetry (SDB for relatively turbid waters of the South Baltic Sea were presented. The obtained results were analysed in terms of depth error estimation, spatial distribution, and overall quality. The models were calibrated based on sounding (in-situ data obtained by a single-beam echo sounder, which was retrieved from the Maritime Office in Gdynia, Poland. The remote observations for this study were delivered by the recently deployed European Space Agency Sentinel-2 satellite observation system. A detailed analysis of the obtained results has shown that the tested methods can be successfully applied for the South Baltic region at depths of 12-18 meters. However, significant limitations were observed. The performed experiments have revealed that the error of model calibration, expressed in meters (RMSE, equals up to 10-20% of the real depth and is, generally, case dependent. To overcome this drawback, a novel indicator of determining the maximal SDB depth was proposed. What is important, the proposed SDB quality indicator is derived only on the basis of remotely registered data and therefore can be applied operationally.

  11. Trophic dynamics in marine nearshore systems of the Alaskan high arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunton, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation describes two ecological studies in the arctic Alaskan nearshore zone: the productivity and growth strategies of arctic kelp and the use of natural carbon isotope abundances to examine food web structure and energy flow in the marine ecosystem. Linear growth of the kelp, Laminaria solidungula is greatest in winter and early spring when nutrients are available for new tissue growth. Since over 90% of this growth occurs in complete darkness beneath a turbid ice canopy, the plant draws on stored food reserves and is in a carbon deficit during the ice covered period. Annual productivity of L. solidungula under these conditions is about 6 g C m -2 compared to about 10 g c m -2 if light penetrates the ice canopy. Carbon isotope abundances were used to assess food web structure and energy flow in the Boulder Patch, an isolated kelp bed community, and in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea fauna. Isotopic analyses of the resident fauna of the Boulder Patch revealed that kelp carbon contributes significantly to the diet of many benthic animals, including suspension feeders. Across the shelf of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a distinct gradient in the isotopic composition of marine zooplankton and benthic fauna was related to the intrusion of the Bering Sea water and upwelling in the eastern Beaufort Sea near Barter Island. The 13 C depletion in fauna of the eastern Beaufort Sea is presumed due to the cycling of 13 C depleted inorganic carbon into the euphotic zone

  12. Inferred fish behavior its implications for hydroacoustic surveys in nearshore habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Qian, Song S.; Vandergoot, Christopher; Kraus, Richard T.; Kocovsky, Patrick; Warner, David M.

    2018-01-01

    Population availability and vessel avoidance effects on hydroacoustic abundance estimates may be scale dependent; therefore, it is important to evaluate these biases across systems. We performed an inter-ship comparison survey to determine the effect of vessel size, day-night period, depth, and environmental gradients on walleye (Sander vitreus) density estimates in Lake Erie, an intermediate-scaled system. Consistent near-bottom depth distributions coupled with horizontal fish movements relative to vessel paths indicated avoidance behavior contributed to higher walleye densities from smaller vessels in shallow water (i.e., <15 m), although the difference decreased with increasing depth. Diel bank migrations in response to seasonally varying onshore-to-offshore environmental gradients likely contributed to day-night differences in densities between sampling locations and seasons. Spatial and unexplained variation accounted for a high proportion of total variation; however, increasing sampling intensity can mitigate effects on precision. Therefore, researchers should minimize systematic avoidance and availability related biases (i.e., vessel and day-night period) to improve population abundance estimates. Quantifying availability and avoidance behavior effects and partitioning sources of variation provides informed flexibility for designing future hydroacoustic surveys in shallow-water nearshore environments.

  13. An efficient mode-splitting method for a curvilinear nearshore circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    A mode-splitting method is applied to the quasi-3D nearshore circulation equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The gravity wave mode and the vorticity wave mode of the equations are derived using the two-step projection method. Using an implicit algorithm for the gravity mode and an explicit algorithm for the vorticity mode, we combine the two modes to derive a mixed difference–differential equation with respect to surface elevation. McKee et al.'s [McKee, S., Wall, D.P., and Wilson, S.K., 1996. An alternating direction implicit scheme for parabolic equations with mixed derivative and convective terms. J. Comput. Phys., 126, 64–76.] ADI scheme is then used to solve the parabolic-type equation in dealing with the mixed derivative and convective terms from the curvilinear coordinate transformation. Good convergence rates are found in two typical cases which represent respectively the motions dominated by the gravity mode and the vorticity mode. Time step limitations imposed by the vorticity convective Courant number in vorticity-mode-dominant cases are discussed. Model efficiency and accuracy are verified in model application to tidal current simulations in San Francisco Bight.

  14. Spectral Wave Characteristics in the Nearshore Waters of Northwestern Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjali Nair, M.; Sanil Kumar, V.; Amrutha, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    The spectral wave characteristics in the nearshore waters of northwestern Bay of Bengal are presented based on the buoy-measured data from February 2013 to December 2015 off Gopalpur at 15-m water depth. The mean seasonal significant wave height and mean wave period indicate that the occurrence of higher wave heights and wave periods is during the southwest monsoon period (June-September). 74% of the sea surface height variance in a year is a result of waves from 138 to 228° and 16% are from 48 to 138°. Strong inter-annual variability is observed in the monthly average wave parameters due to the occurrence of tropical cyclones. Due to the influence of the tropical cyclone Phailin, maximum significant wave height of 6.7 m is observed on 12 October 2013 and that due to tropical cyclone Hudhud whose track is 250 southwest of the study location is 5.84 m on 12 October 2014. Analysis revealed that a single tropical cyclone influenced the annual maximum significant wave height and not the annual average value which is almost same ( 1 m) in 2014 and 2015. The waves in the northwestern Bay of Bengal are influenced by the southwest and northeast monsoons, southern ocean swells and cyclones.

  15. Population structure of Cladophora-borne Escherichia coli in nearshore water of Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Whitman, Richard L; Shively, Dawn A; Ferguson, John; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    We previously reported that the macrophytic green alga Cladophora harbors high densities (up to 10(6) colony-forming units/g dry weight) of the fecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and enterococci, in shoreline waters of Lake Michigan. However, the population structure and genetic relatedness of Cladophora-borne indicator bacteria remain poorly understood. In this study, 835 E. coli isolates were collected from Cladophora tufts (mats) growing on rocks from a breakwater located within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in northwest Indiana. The horizontal fluorophore enhanced rep-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting technique was used to determine the genetic relatedness of the isolates to each other and to those in a library of E. coli DNA fingerprints. While the E. coli isolates from Cladophora showed a high degree of genetic relatedness (92% similarity), in most cases, however, the isolates were genetically distinct. The Shannon diversity index for the population was very high (5.39). Both spatial and temporal influences contributed to the genetic diversity. There was a strong association of isolate genotypes by location (79% and 80% for lake- and ditch-side samplings, respectively), and isolates collected from 2002 were distinctly different from those obtained in 2003. Cladophora-borne E. coli isolates represented a unique group, which was distinct from other E. coli isolates in the DNA fingerprint library tested. Taken together, these results indicate that E. coli strains associated with Cladophora may be a recurring source of indicator bacteria to the nearshore beach.

  16. Parameterization of Time-Averaged Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Nearshore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Doug Yoon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the effect of wave breaking turbulence on sediment transport in the nearshore, the vertical distribution of time-averaged suspended sediment concentration (SSC in the surf zone was parameterized in terms of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE at different cross-shore locations, including the bar crest, bar trough, and inner surf zone. Using data from a large-scale laboratory experiment, a simple relationship was developed between the time-averaged SSC and the time-averaged TKE. The vertical variation of the time-averaged SSC was fitted to an equation analogous to the turbulent dissipation rate term. At the bar crest, the proposed equation was slightly modified to incorporate the effect of near-bed sediment processes and yielded reasonable agreement. This parameterization yielded the best agreement at the bar trough, with a coefficient of determination R2 ≥ 0.72 above the bottom boundary layer. The time-averaged SSC in the inner surf zone showed good agreement near the bed but poor agreement near the water surface, suggesting that there is a different sedimentation mechanism that controls the SSC in the inner surf zone.

  17. A modeling approach to assess coastal management effects on benthic habitat quality: a case study on coastal defense and navigability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozzoli, F.; Smolders, S.; Eelkema, M.; Ysebaert, T.; Escavarage, V.; Temmerman, S.; Meire, P.; Herman, P.; Bouma, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    The natural coastal hydrodynamics and morphology worldwide is altered by human interventions such as embankments, shipping and dredging, which may have consequences for ecosystem functionality. To ensure long-term ecological sustainability, requires capability to predict long-term large-scale

  18. COASTAL STUDY, LINCOLN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  19. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  20. COASTAL STUDY, SOLANO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  1. Sources and diagenetic alteration of organic matter in coastal waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inter-site differences in 13C and 15N could be related to the sources of OM. In the Msansani Bay the material is derived from seagrasses while in the Dar es Salaam harbour and Msimbazi micro-bay, large proportion is derived from the continent. Other parameters of OC, nitrogen and C/N ratios for these three sites show ...

  2. Observational study of atmospheric surface layer and coastal weather in northern Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Dhrubajyoti; Sadr, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric surface layer is the interaction medium between atmosphere and Earth's surface. Better understanding of its turbulence nature is essential in characterizing the local weather, climate variability and modeling of turbulent exchange processes. The importance of Middle East region, with its unique geographical, economical and weather condition is well recognized. However, high quality micrometeorological observational studies are rare in this region. Here we show experimental results from micrometeorological observations from an experimental site in the coastal region of Qatar during August-December 2015. Measurements of winds are obtained from three sonic anemometers installed on a 9 m tower placed at Al Ghariyah beach in northern Qatar (26.08 °N, 51.36 °E). Different surface layer characteristics is analyzed and compared with earlier studies in equivalent weather conditions. Monthly statistics of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity and heat index are made from concurrent observations from sonic anemometer and weather station to explore variations with surface layer characteristics. The results also highlights potential impact of sea breeze circulation on local weather and atmospheric turbulence. The observed daily maximum temperature and heat index during morning period may be related to sea breeze circulations. Along with the operational micrometeorological observation system, a camera system and ultrasonic wave measurement system are installed recently in the site to study coastline development and nearshore wave dynamics. Overall, the complete observational set up is going to provide new insights about nearshore wind dynamics and wind-wave interaction in Qatar.

  3. Coping with Coastal Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, Robert J.; Stive, Marcel J.F.; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how to cope with coastal change and its implications. There are two major types of response: mitigation representing source control of drivers, such as greenhouse gas emissions and groundwater withdrawal, and adaptation referring to behavioral changes that range from

  4. Managing Coastal Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the growing incidence of pollution in the Caribbean has been on the rise, as it has the potential to affect livelihoods dependent on fishing and tourism. The IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation launched a regional project on the use of nuclear techniques to address coastal management issues in the Caribbean.

  5. Nearshore Processes, Currents and Directional Wave Spectra Monitoring Using Coherent and Non-coherent Imaging Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizna, D.; Hathaway, K.

    2007-05-01

    Two new radar systems have been developed for real-time measurement of near-shore processes, and results are presented for measurements of ocean wave spectra, near-shore sand bar structure, and ocean currents. The first is a non-coherent radar based on a modified version of the Sitex radar family, with a data acquisition system designed around an ISR digital receiver card. The card operates in a PC computer with inputs from a Sitex radar modified for extraction of analogue signals for digitization. Using a 9' antenna and 25 kW transmit power system, data were collected during 2007 at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF), Duck, NC during winter and spring of 2007. The directional wave spectrum measurements made are based on using a sequence of 64 to 640 antenna rotations to form a snapshot series of radar images of propagating waves. A square window is extracted from each image, typically 64 x 64 pixels at 3-m resolution. Then ten sets of 64 windows are submitted to a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform process to generate radar image spectra in the frequency-wavenumber space. The relation between the radar image spectral intensity and wave spectral intensity derived from the FRF pressure gauge array was used for a test set of data, in order to establish a modulation transfer function (MTF) for each frequency component. For 640 rotations, 10 of such spectra are averaged for improved statistics. The wave spectrum so generated was compared for extended data sets beyond those used to establish the MTF, and those results are presented here. Some differences between the radar and pressure sensor data that are observed are found to be due to the influence of the wind field, as the radar echo image weakens for light winds. A model is developed to account for such an effect to improve the radar estimate of the directional wave spectrum. The radar ocean wave imagery is severely influenced only by extremely heavy rain-fall rates, so that

  6. Coastal hazards: hurricanes, tsunamis, coastal erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Stephen; Mersfelder, Lynne; Farrar, Frank; France, Rigoberto Guardado; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Oceans are the largest geographic feature on the surface of the Earth, covering approximately 70% of the planet's surface. As a result, oceans have a tremendous impact on the Earth, its climate, and its inhabitants. The coast or shoreline is the boundary between ocean environments and land habitats. By the year 2025, it is estimated that approximately two-thirds of the world's population will be living within 200 kilometers of a coast. In many ways, we treat the coast just like any other type of land area, as a safe and stable place to live and play. However, coastal environments are dynamic, and they constantly change in response to natural processes and to human activities.

  7. A Model-Coupling Framework for Nearshore Waves, Currents, Sediment Transport, and Seabed Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    1008.3 ADOR/Director NCST E. R. Franchi , 7000 1. Paper or abstract was released 2. A copy is filed in this office. WfcfeF Public Affairs...have been developed to simulate and predict their behaviors in the past few decades. For example, models have been designed to forecast global ...Smedstad LF. Rhodes RC Validation of interannual simulations from the 1/8° global Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). Ocean Model 2006;11:376-98. |5| Van

  8. Nearshore waves and longshore sediment transport along Rameshwaram Island off the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.; Dwarakish, G.S.; Shanas, P.R.; Jena, B.K.; Singh, J.

    changing. The accurate demarcation and monitoring of a shoreline are necessary for understanding coastal processes (Natesan, 2008). Remote sensing technology is commonly used to map the shoreline and offers the potential of updating maps frequently (Frihy... influence is less at 2 m water depth may be due to the frictional dissipation and breaking. Fig. 5 indicates that the numerical model will not give good results during tropical storm/depression. During the study period, the breaking wave height varied...

  9. Survey of the state of the art in near-shore pipeline location and burial assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, P.L.

    1991-11-01

    Project's objective is to evaluate state-of-the-art methods for locating pipelines in shallow (less than 15 ft) water and for determining and monitoring their burial depths. The following recommendations are made on the research needed in three areas for locating near-shore, shallowly buried pipelines: (1) Sensors: The pipeline industry has selected the magnetic gradiometer array (GA) as a preferred sensor method. Other potential methods exist as backups. No additional research is recommended. (2) Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs): The Pipeline Research Committee is pursuing development of a prototype ROV is deliver the GA or other similar equipment to pipeline locations. (3) Phenomena: The data being collected from research on the phenomena affecting seabed conditions and the bathymetric data being collected along the Gulf Coast should be synthesized. This new effort should focus on identifying erosion-prone areas with respect to present and potential future pipeline locations. Technical approach is to get the broadest perspective on the concerns related to the determination of burial conditions for offshore pipelines, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contacted individuals and organizations from the gas and petroleum industries, hardware and software vendors, academicians, and representatives from the government. A literature survey yielded the names of persons within academia who are presently working on similar applications with sensors. In the oil and gas industry, individuals and organizations involved in the Pipeline Research Committee made extensive contributions to the review and also provided the names of meaningful contacts from among their vendors. Discussions were held with the various persons both on the telephone and face to face. Vendors provided background materials and overview presentations on their capabilities for ANL to review

  10. Aspects of benthic decapod diversity and distribution from rocky nearshore habitat at geographically widely dispersed sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Pohle

    Full Text Available Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean = 4.5. Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in

  11. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blakeway

    Full Text Available A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements. Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  12. Pb-210 and Pu-239,240 in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Pb-210, Ra-226, and Pu-239,240 activities were measured in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments. Sediment cores were collected from the Mississippi delta, and the western Gulf of Mexico shelf. Mississippi delta cores which exhibit significantly higher sedimentation rates show larger inventories of Pb-210. The measured Pu levels from the western shelf are lower than from the delta at comparable depths. In three of the western shelf cores, the observed Pu inventory is considerably less than predicted from atmospheric flux. Therefore, Pu is not being removed to the sediment, or is being released following deposition. A key difference between these isotopes is that Pu exists in a less particle-reactive state. The ratio of excess Pb-210 to Pu levels increases with water depth in the delta and the western shelf. Water depth acts as an integrator of depth-sensitive processes. Pu scavenging is more sensitive to these processes. A sub-surface Pu maximum has been observed. Excess Pb-210 and Pu levels correlate well with sedimentation rates. This suggests that particle flux is important in removal of Pb-210 and Pu to the sediment. The flux of Mn out of the sediment is correlated with inventory data, suggesting that redox cycling of Mn may play a role in increasing Pb-210 and Pu sediment inventories. It is unclear whether the effects of increased sedimentation rates and increased Mn fluxes can be evaluated independently. Mixing of surface sediment correlates with inventory data. Increased sediment mixing allows for additional scavenging of Pb-210 and Pu from overlying waters. Mixing of sediment at depths below the mixed surface layer may play a role in increasing sediment inventories of Pb-210 and Pu

  13. Geological survey of Maryland using EREP flight data. [mining, mapping, Chesapeake Bay islands, coastal water features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Underflight photography has been used in the Baltimore County mined land inventory to determine areas of disturbed land where surface mining of sand and ground clay, or stone has taken place. Both active and abandoned pits and quarries were located. Aircraft data has been used to update cultural features of Calvert, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties. Islands have been located and catalogued for comparison with older film and map data for erosion data. Strip mined areas are being mapped to obtain total area disturbed to aid in future mining and reclamation problems. Coastal estuarine and Atlantic Coast features are being studied to determine nearshore bedforms, sedimentary, and erosional patterns, and manmade influence on natural systems.

  14. Performance of coastal sea-defense infrastructure at El Jadida (Morocco against tsunami threat: lessons learned from the Japanese 11 March 2011 tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the effectiveness of sea-defense structures in preventing/reducing the tsunami overtopping as well as evaluating the resulting tsunami impact at El Jadida, Morocco. Different tsunami wave conditions are generated by considering various earthquake scenarios of magnitudes ranging from Mw = 8.0 to Mw = 8.6. These scenarios represent the main active earthquake faults in the SW Iberia margin and are consistent with two past events that generated tsunamis along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The behaviour of incident tsunami waves when interacting with coastal infrastructures is analysed on the basis of numerical simulations of near-shore tsunami waves' propagation. Tsunami impact at the affected site is assessed through computing inundation and current velocity using a high-resolution digital terrain model that incorporates bathymetric, topographic and coastal structures data. Results, in terms of near-shore tsunami propagation snapshots, waves' interaction with coastal barriers, and spatial distributions of flow depths and speeds, are presented and discussed in light of what was observed during the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. Predicted results show different levels of impact that different tsunami wave conditions could generate in the region. Existing coastal barriers around the El Jadida harbour succeeded in reflecting relatively small waves generated by some scenarios, but failed in preventing the overtopping caused by waves from others. Considering the scenario highly impacting the El Jadida coast, significant inundations are computed at the sandy beach and unprotected areas. The modelled dramatic tsunami impact in the region shows the need for additional tsunami standards not only for sea-defense structures but also for the coastal dwellings and houses to provide potential in-place evacuation.

  15. Estimating the beam attenuation coefficient in coastal waters from AVHRR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Richard W.; Arnone, Robert A.

    1997-09-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to estimate particle beam attenuation at 660 nm ( cp660) in coastal areas using the red and near-infrared channels of the NOAA AVHRR satellite sensor. In situ reflectance spectra and cp660 measurements were collected at 23 stations in Case I and II waters during an April 1993 cruise in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The reflectance spectra were weighted by the spectral response of the AVHRR sensor and integrated over the channel 1 waveband to estimate the atmospherically corrected signal recorded by the satellite. An empirical relationship between integrated reflectance and cp660 values was derived with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.88. Because the AVHRR sensor requires a strong channel 1 signal, the algorithm is applicable in highly turbid areas ( cp660 > 1.5 m -1) where scattering from suspended sediment strongly controls the shape and magnitude of the red (550-650 nm) reflectance spectrum. The algorithm was tested on a data set collected 2 years later in different coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico and satellite estimates of cp660 averaged within 37% of measured values. Application of the algorithm provides daily images of nearshore regions at 1 km resolution for evaluating processes affecting ocean color distribution patterns (tides, winds, currents, river discharge). Further validation and refinement of the algorithm are in progress to permit quantitative application in other coastal areas. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd

  16. Modeling Water Exchange and Contaminant Transport through a Baltic Coastal Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, Anders; Doeoes, Kristofer; Andrejev, Oleg

    2006-01-01

    The water exchange of the Baltic coastal zone is characterized by its seasonally varying regimes. In the safety assessment of a potential repository for spent nuclear fuel, it is important to assess the consequences of a hypothetical leak of radionuclides through the seabed into a waterborne transport phase. In particular, estimates of the associated residence times in the near-shore coastal zone are of interest. There are several methods to quantify such measures, of which three are presented here. Using the coastal location of Forsmark (Sweden) as an example, methods based on passive tracers, particle trajectories, and the average age distribution of exogenous water parcels are compared for a representative one-year cycle. Tracer-based methods can simulate diffusivity more realistically than the other methods. Trajectory-based methods can handle Lagrangian dispersion processes due to advection but neglect diffusion on the sub-grid scale. The method based on the concept of average age (AvA) of exogenous water can include all such sources simultaneously not only boundary water bodies but also various (fresh)water discharges. Due to the inclusion of sub-grid diffusion this method gives a smoother measure of the water renewal. It is shown that backward in time trajectories and AvA-times are basically equipollent methods, yielding correlated results within the limits set by the diffusivity

  17. Coastal bathymetry data collected in 2011 from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Bernier, Julie C.; Buster, Noreen A.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Flocks, James G.; Reynolds, Billy J.; Wiese, Dana S.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Barrier Island Evolution Research project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted nearshore geophysical surveys off the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, in June of 2011. The overall objectives of the study are to better understand barrier-island geomorphic evolution, particularly storm-related depositional and erosional processes that shape the islands over annual to interannual timescales (1-5 years). Collection of geophysical data will allow us to identify relationships between the geologic history of the island and its present day morphology and sediment distribution. This mapping effort was the first in a series of three planned surveys in this area. High resolution geophysical data collected in each of three consecutive years along this rapidly changing barrier-island system will provide a unique time-series dataset that will significantly further the analyses and geomorphological interpretations of this and other coastal systems, improving our understanding of coastal response and evolution over short time scales (1-5 years).

  18. Diurnal variability of CO2 flux at coastal zone of Taiwan based on eddy covariance observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hwa; Zhong, Yao-Zhao; Yang, Kang-Hung; Cheng, Hao-Yuan

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we employed shore-based eddy covariance systems for a continuous measurement of the coastal CO2 flux near the northwestern coast of Taiwan from 2011 to 2015. To ensure the validity of the analysis, the data was selected and filtered with a footprint model and an empirical mode decomposition method. The results indicate that the nearshore air-sea and air-land CO2 fluxes exhibited a significant diurnal variability and a substantial day-night difference. The net air-sea CO2 flux was -1.75 ± 0.98 μmol-C m-2 s-1, whereas the net air-land CO2 flux was 0.54 ± 7.35 μmol-C m-2 s-1, which indicated that in northwestern Taiwan, the coastal water acts as a sink of atmospheric CO2 but the coastal land acts as a source. The Random Forest Method was applied to hierarchize the influence of Chl-a, SST, DO, pH and U10 on air-sea CO2 fluxes. The result suggests that the strength of the diurnal air-sea CO2 flux is strongly influenced by the local wind speed.

  19. Advancing coastal ocean modelling, analysis, and prediction for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, John L.; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Allen, Arthur; Baltes, Rebecca; Baptista, Antonio; He, Ruoying; Hogan, Patrick; Kurapov, Alexander; Mehra, Avichal; Quintrell, Josie; Schwab, David; Signell, Richard; Smith, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines strategies that would advance coastal ocean modelling, analysis and prediction as a complement to the observing and data management activities of the coastal components of the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). The views presented are the consensus of a group of US-based researchers with a cross-section of coastal oceanography and ocean modelling expertise and community representation drawn from Regional and US Federal partners in IOOS. Priorities for research and development are suggested that would enhance the value of IOOS observations through model-based synthesis, deliver better model-based information products, and assist the design, evaluation, and operation of the observing system itself. The proposed priorities are: model coupling, data assimilation, nearshore processes, cyberinfrastructure and model skill assessment, modelling for observing system design, evaluation and operation, ensemble prediction, and fast predictors. Approaches are suggested to accomplish substantial progress in a 3–8-year timeframe. In addition, the group proposes steps to promote collaboration between research and operations groups in Regional Associations, US Federal Agencies, and the international ocean research community in general that would foster coordination on scientific and technical issues, and strengthen federal–academic partnerships benefiting IOOS stakeholders and end users.

  20. Integration of coastal inundation modeling from storm tides to individual waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Roeber, Volker; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Heitmann, Troy W.; Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai

    2014-11-01

    Modeling of storm-induced coastal inundation has primarily focused on the surge generated by atmospheric pressure and surface winds with phase-averaged effects of the waves as setup. Through an interoperable model package, we investigate the role of phase-resolving wave processes in simulation of coastal flood hazards. A spectral ocean wave model describes generation and propagation of storm waves from deep to intermediate water, while a non-hydrostatic storm-tide model has the option to couple with a spectral coastal wave model for computation of phase-averaged processes in a near-shore region. The ocean wave and storm-tide models can alternatively provide the wave spectrum and the surface elevation as the boundary and initial conditions for a nested Boussinesq model. Additional surface-gradient terms in the Boussinesq equations maintain the quasi-steady, non-uniform storm tide for modeling of phase-resolving surf and swash-zone processes as well as combined tide, surge, and wave inundation. The two nesting schemes are demonstrated through a case study of Hurricane Iniki, which made landfall on the Hawaiian Island of Kauai in 1992. With input from a parametric hurricane model and global reanalysis and tidal datasets, the two approaches produce comparable significant wave heights and phase-averaged surface elevations in the surf zone. The nesting of the Boussinesq model provides a seamless approach to augment the inundation due to the individual waves in matching the recorded debris line along the coast.

  1. Synoptic conditions and hazards in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkova, Galina; Arkhipkin, Victor; Kislov, Alexsandr

    2013-04-01

    This work is an approach to the methodology of prediction of hazards in the coastal zone. For the past 60 years, according to the observations and reanalysis, meteorological conditions are rough in connection with the storm waves and strong winds resulting in catastrophic damage in the coastal zone of the Black and Caspian Seas. Forecast of similar events is taken from CMIP3 modeled for the future climate 2046-2065 by general global atmosphere and ocean circulation model MPI-ECHAM5. The research was conducted for the three types of calendar data samples: 1) storm wave and surge from observations (1948-2012), 2) storm simulations with wave height of 4 m and more (1948-2010), and 3) prognostic climate scenarios for 2046-2065. In the first sample especially rare events were chosen, accompanied by a large damage in the coastal zone. Second sample of cases was derived from modeling of SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The third sample was derived from projections of cases from group 1 in the MPI-ECHAM5 climate forecasts for 2046-2065. For each sample the data of large-scale fields of surface pressure, height 500 hPa isobaric surfaces, 700gPa (Reanalysis NCEP / NCAR) was analyzed. On the basis of statistical techniques (decomposition of fields in the natural orthogonal functions (EOF) and cluster analysis) the synoptic situations associated with these events were classified. Centroids of pressure fields for dominated cases show that there are two basic types of synoptic situations in case of storm waves for the Black Sea. In the first case main role play the Mediterranean cyclones located in the east of the Mediterranean Sea, they are spread over the Black Sea, and often form a local center of low pressure. Their movement is blocked by the high pressure over the European Russia and Eastern Europe. If the center of the cyclone is over Asia and the southern part of the Black Sea, the weather is dominated by the north-eastern, eastern, south-easterly winds. In some cases

  2. Increasing coastal slump activity impacts the release of sediment and organic carbon into the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ramage

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs are among the most active thermokarst landforms in the Arctic and deliver a large amount of material to the Arctic Ocean. However, their contribution to the organic carbon (OC budget is unknown. We provide the first estimate of the contribution of RTSs to the nearshore OC budget of the Yukon Coast, Canada, and describe the evolution of coastal RTSs between 1952 and 2011 in this area. We (1 describe the evolution of RTSs between 1952 and 2011; (2 calculate the volume of eroded material and stocks of OC mobilized through slumping, including soil organic carbon (SOC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC; and (3 estimate the OC fluxes mobilized through slumping between 1972 and 2011. We identified RTSs using high-resolution satellite imagery from 2011 and geocoded aerial photographs from 1952 and 1972. To estimate the volume of eroded material, we applied spline interpolation on an airborne lidar dataset acquired in July 2013. We inferred the stocks of mobilized SOC and DOC from existing related literature. Our results show a 73 % increase in the number of RTSs and 14 % areal expansion between 1952 and 2011. In the study area, RTSs displaced at least 16.6×106 m3 of material, 53 % of which was ice, and mobilized 145.9×106 kg of OC. Between 1972 and 2011, 49 RTSs displaced 8.6×103 m3 yr−1 of material, adding 0.6 % to the OC flux released by coastal retreat along the Yukon Coast. Our results show that the contribution of RTSs to the nearshore OC budget is non-negligible and should be included when estimating the quantity of OC released from the Arctic coast to the ocean.

  3. The Alaska Coastal Communities Cooperative: The concept and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hann, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    A new initiative is described which further prepares Alaska to deal with oil spills in the future by focusing on the needs of shoreline protection and nearshore response. The Alaskan Coastal Communities Cooperative (ACCC) has been formed to organize local resources and provide appropriate training, equipment, and coordination to deal with both small spills, local product spills, and catastrophic spills. Advantages of the ACCC to industry and governments include a significant enhancement of oil spill response capability in Alaska. For example, the ACCC will ensure that the response equipment it acquires is compatible with existing resources, thus creating maximum response capability at minimum cost. Other advantages include greater public trust, low costs, ability to provide a combination of local knowledge and technical knowledge, provision of a pooling of spill response resources, and the ability of the ACCC to handle contracting of local fishing and other vessels used in oil spill response. The ACCC organizational structure and vessel contracting program are described along with its equipment and operating format. 1 fig

  4. Impact of environmental factors on recruitment and hatching patterns of Horse Mackerel (L. collected in a nearshore rocky reef system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Linnaeus, 1758 is a highly exploited fish species, common throughout the North-East Atlantic. As a pelagic-neritic fish it typically occurs over the shelf at 100-200 m depth on sandy bottom and most research has focused on adults or early life stages (eggs and larvae, caught or examined in deeper waters. Nevertheless, larvae and early stages of Trachurus species have been observed in the nearshore environment of a rocky reef system in Portugal. More research is needed in order to understand the importance of nearshore environments for horse mackerel. In addition little is known on how environmental processes might affect early life parameters of this species. In this study we monitored the arrival of early juvenile horse mackerel to the reef environment at a fine time scale, and analyzed the relationship of environmental factors with patterns of recruitment and hatching, revealed by otolith microstructure analysis. In total around 2500 fish were collected with Standard Monitoring Units for the Recruitment of Fish (SMURF and a distinct depth preference was recorded as 99% of fish were sampled with surface SMURFs. A GAM and GAMM analysis of the recruitment and hatching pattern, respectively, revealed a strong relationship with the lunar cycle and local up-welling. Both recruitment and hatching had a periodic pattern with peaks near the new moon; upwelling had a negative impact. Further, the study indicated that the nearshore environment might be an important nursery area for the post-larval growth of horse mackerel.

  5. Changes in nearshore waves during the active sea/land breeze period off Vengurla, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Singh, J.

    zones with use of mechanized boats and this area is also extensively used for tourism-related activities. Therefore, it is important to un- derstand the changes in wave parameters during the active land/sea breeze system in the nearshore region... and interaction. The wave computations in Delft3D-wave are stable due to the fully implicit schemes that have been implemented. In the Delft3D-wave module, the governing equation of wave transformation is based on action balance spectrum, in ge- ographical space...

  6. Survey of Radiological and Chemical Contaminants in the Near-Shore Environment at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Van Verst, Scott P.; Tiller, Brett L.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Poston, Ted M.

    2003-01-01

    This updates the original report by correcting some errors and adding new information. This assessment of the 300 Area was completed to identify any contamination present and determine if it could present a risk to humans and plant and animal life. The assessment characterized the radiological and chemical conditions existing in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River at the 300 Area by collecting water, biota, and sediment samples and measuring radiation levels during a time when the effects of riverbank spring discharges and groundwater upwelling into the river was likely to be present

  7. Coastal research: Observational challenge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    research. Modeling has also benefited from new tech nologies and is playing an increasingly important tole as well. Problems such as global climate change as affected by and affecting the oceans, variability in biomass and fish abun dance and regime... will be needed. Further, numerical modeling is central to these collective programs. Many of the societally important coastal problems, like their atmospheric counterparts, require forecasting and rapid information dissemination to decision-makers and the public...

  8. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  9. Coastal risk forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, André; Poseiro, Pedro; Rodrigues, Armanda; Reis, Maria Teresa; Fortes, Conceição J.; Reis, Rui; Araújo, João

    2018-03-01

    The run-up and overtopping by sea waves are two of the main processes that threaten coastal structures, leading to flooding, destruction of both property and the environment, and harm to people. To build early warning systems, the consequences and associated risks in the affected areas must be evaluated. It is also important to understand how these two types of spatial information integrate with sensor data sources and the risk assessment methodology. This paper describes the relationship between consequences and risk maps, their role in risk management and how the HIDRALERTA system integrates both aspects in its risk methodology. It describes a case study for Praia da Vitória Port, Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal, showing that the main innovations in this system are twofold: it represents the overtopping flow and consequent flooding, which are critical for coastal and port areas protected by maritime structures, and it works also as a risk assessment tool, extremely important for long-term planning and decision-making. Moreover, the implementation of the system considers possible known variability issues, enabling changes in its behaviour as needs arise. This system has the potential to become a useful tool for the management of coastal and port areas, due to its capacity to effectively issue warnings and assess risks.

  10. Coastal risk forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, André; Poseiro, Pedro; Rodrigues, Armanda; Reis, Maria Teresa; Fortes, Conceição J.; Reis, Rui; Araújo, João

    2018-04-01

    The run-up and overtopping by sea waves are two of the main processes that threaten coastal structures, leading to flooding, destruction of both property and the environment, and harm to people. To build early warning systems, the consequences and associated risks in the affected areas must be evaluated. It is also important to understand how these two types of spatial information integrate with sensor data sources and the risk assessment methodology. This paper describes the relationship between consequences and risk maps, their role in risk management and how the HIDRALERTA system integrates both aspects in its risk methodology. It describes a case study for Praia da Vitória Port, Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal, showing that the main innovations in this system are twofold: it represents the overtopping flow and consequent flooding, which are critical for coastal and port areas protected by maritime structures, and it works also as a risk assessment tool, extremely important for long-term planning and decision-making. Moreover, the implementation of the system considers possible known variability issues, enabling changes in its behaviour as needs arise. This system has the potential to become a useful tool for the management of coastal and port areas, due to its capacity to effectively issue warnings and assess risks.

  11. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS...

  12. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Commission's Interstate Fishery Management Plan (ISFMP) for Coastal Sharks. Subsequently, the Commission... New Jersey failed to carry out its responsibilities under the Coastal Sharks ISFMP, and if the...

  13. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  14. ECORS Truc Vert'08: a Multi-Institutional International Nearshore Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senechal, N.; Ardhuin, F.

    2008-12-01

    A large multi-institutional international field experiment (ECORS Truc Vert'08) was conducted Feb-April 2008 on the southern part of the French Atlantic coastline. More than 120 scientists, students and technicians participated to this effort coming from 3 continents and 6 countries : Australia (University of New South Wales), France (SHOM, University Bordeaux I, University Pau et Pays de l'Adour, University Sud-Toulon Var, University Joseph Fourier, University Perpignan, BRGM, University Lyon 1), Great Britain (Plymouth University), New Zealand (NIWA), The Netherlands (Delft University of Technology, University of Utrecht) and USA (Naval Postgraduate School, University of Miami, Franklin and Marshall College). Truc Vert beach is a high-energy, dynamic, macrotidal, double-barred beach representative of most of the beaches on this 250 km long coastline. The inner bar can go through all the states within the intermediate classification and usually exhibits a transverse bar and rip morphology (380 m alongshore wavelength). The outer bar is changeable from linear to crescentic (720 m alongshore wavelength). The goals were to measure the hydrodynamic processes, sedimentary processes and morphologic responses on a macrotidal beach during energetic wave conditions and covering a large spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. This dataset will facilitate the validation of surf zone wave, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic models, it will lend insight into the morphodynamic evolution of three dimensional beaches and it will fill the gaps in previous nearshore data sets. A wide range of unique instrumentation was used including continuously sampled 2Hz high-resolution surfzone video cameras, daily topographic surveys, bathymetric surveys from the French naval vessels and personal watercrafts, high frequency velocity and pressure sensors, acoustic Doppler current profilers, sediment transport devices, sand porosity and grain size devices, and position-tracking drifters

  15. Modeling global mangrove soil carbon stocks: filling the gaps in coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, A.; Twilley, R.

    2017-12-01

    We provide an overview of contemporaneous global mangrove soil organic carbon (SOC) estimates, focusing on a framework to explain disproportionate differences among observed data as a way to improve global estimates. This framework is based on a former conceptual model, the coastal environmental setting, in contrast to the more popular latitude-based hypotheses largely believed to explain hemispheric variation in mangrove ecosystem properties. To demonstrate how local and regional estimates of SOC linked to coastal environmental settings can render more realistic global mangrove SOC extrapolations we combined published and unpublished data, yielding a total of 106 studies, reporting on 552 sites from 43 countries. These sites were classified into distinct coastal environmental setting types according to two concurrent worldwide typology of nearshore coastal systems classifications. Mangrove SOC density varied substantially across coastal environmental settings, ranging from 14.9 ± 0.8 in river dominated (deltaic) soils to 53.9 ± 1.6 mg cm-3 (mean ± SE) in karstic coastlines. Our findings reveal striking differences between published values and contemporary global mangrove SOC extrapolation based on country-level mean reference values, particularly for karstic-dominated coastlines where mangrove SOC stocks have been underestimated by up to 50%. Correspondingly, climate-based global estimates predicted lower mangrove SOC density values (32-41 mg C cm-3) for mangroves in karstic environments, differing from published (21-126 mg C cm-3) and unpublished (47-58 mg C cm-3) values. Moreover, climate-based projections yielded higher SOC density values (27-70 mg C cm-3) for river-dominated mangroves compared to lower ranges reported in the literature (11-24 mg C cm-3). We argue that this inconsistent reporting of SOC stock estimates between river-dominated and karstic coastal environmental settings is likely due to the omission of geomorphological and geophysical

  16. Factors controlling physico-chemical characteristics in the coastal waters off Mangalore-A multivariate approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Mesquita, A.; Pradhan, U.K.; Verlekar, X.N.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality parameters (temperature, pH, salinity, DO, BOD, suspended solids, nutrients, PHc, phenols, trace metals-Pb, Cd and Hg, chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and phaeopigments) and the sediment quality parameters (total phosphorous, total nitrogen, organic carbon and trace metals) were analysed from samples collected at 15 stations along 3 transects off Karnataka coast (Mangalore harbour in the south to Suratkal in the north), west coast of India during 2007. The analyses showed high ammonia off Suratkal, high nitrite (NO 2 -N) and nitrate (NO 3 -N) in the nearshore waters off Kulai and high nitrite (NO 2 -N) and ammonia (NH 3 -N) in the harbour area. Similarly, high petroleum hydrocarbon (PHc) values were observed near the harbour, while phenols remained high in the nearshore waters of Kulai and Suratkal. Significantly, high concentrations of cadmium and mercury with respect to the earlier studies were observed off Kulai and harbour regions, respectively. R-mode varimax factor analyses were applied separately to surface and bottom water data sets due to existing stratification in the water column caused by riverine inflow and to sediment data. This helped to understand the interrelationships between the variables and to identify probable source components for explaining the environmental status of the area. Six factors (each for surface and bottom waters) were found responsible for variance (86.9% in surface and 82.4% in bottom) in the coastal waters between Mangalore and Suratkal. In sediments, 4 factors explained 86.8% of the observed total variance. The variances indicated addition of nutrients and suspended solids to the coastal waters due to weathering and riverine transport and are categorized as natural sources. The observed contamination of coastal waters indicated anthropogenic inputs of Cd and phenol from industrial effluent sources at Kulai and Suratkal, ammonia from wastewater discharges off Kulai and harbour, PHc and Hg from boat traffic and harbour

  17. Eastern Africa Coastal Forest Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Younge, A.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...

  18. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  19. Post-Hurricane Irene coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, August 30-31, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Krohn, M. Dennis

    2016-02-17

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On August 30-31, 2011, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, to Virginia Beach, Virginia, aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Irene data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown in May 2008, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  20. Assessing the Nation's Coastal Waters....Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA has been assessing estuarine and coastal condition in the United States since 1999 via the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) and National Aquatic Resources Surveys (NARS) programs. Approximately 1500 randomly selected coastal sites were surveyed annually during summers ...

  1. Legislation Amendment Impact on Coastal Management Pattern: An Edge of Chaos towards Punctuated Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Dian

    2017-07-01

    Management of coastal areas and small islands in Indonesia refers to a set of coordination consists of planning, utilizing, monitoring, and controlling coastal resources that are carried out by every level of the government and many related sectors. An alteration has occurred in National Act about Local Government, Act No. 23/2014, which has the implications in the coastal management territorial zone. The issues started by the shifting of the seaward delineation authorities, it is stated that from 0 - 12 Nautical Miles (nmi) are under provincial government which previously 0 - 4 nmi were under city government, and 4 - 12 nmi were under provincial government. That said, there are no territorial management that is handled by the city/local government, including permit regulation. In hierarchy, provincial government are in upper level than city government. Chaos are happening especially in the context of authorities’ management level, but to reach the main purpose of the National Act there should be an equilibrium point to normalize the situation and get the stakeholders understand the principles and keep engaged in the new form of management. This article aims to assess the impact of the National Act alteration to the sustainability of coastal management. A case study to simplify the model is in the East Java province. Theoretical framework to assess the alteration impact were related to Integrated Coastal Zone Management principles and regulatory review of the coastal zones. The analytical methods used in this article is descriptive comparative to observe the alteration in the pattern of coastal zone management variables. The comparative study was then mapped in a flow diagram to be compared on different management situation. As a result, significant changes were revealed in the pattern of the coastal management factors: (i) Authorities delineation; (ii) Planning documents; (iii) Permit system; (iv) Control; and (iii) Program Accreditation.

  2. Integrated coastal management in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Integrated coastal management in Uruguay Carmelo includes the following areas-Nueva Palmira challenges and opportunities for local development in a context of large-scale industrial (Conchillas Uruguay), coastal management and stream Arroyo Solis Solis Chico Grande, Punta Colorada and Punta Negra, Maldonado Province Arroyo Valizas and sustainable tourism.

  3. Extreme water level and wave estimation for nearshore of Ningde City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. D.; Wang, E. K.; Xu, G. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The high and low design water levels are calculated by observation tidal data in sea areas of Ningde offshore wind power project from September 2010 to August 2011, with the value 318 cm and -246 cm, respectively. The extreme high and low levels are also calculated using synchronous difference ratio method based on station data from 1973 to 2005 at Sansha station. The value is 431 cm and -378 cm respectively. The design wave elements are estimated using the wave data from Beishuang Station and Pingtan station. On this basis, the SWAN wave model is applied to calculating the design wave elements in the engineering sea areas. The results show that the southern sea area is mainly affected by the wave effect on ESE, and the northern is mainly affected by the E waves. This paper is helpful and useful for design and construction of offshore and coastal engineering.

  4. Recently Discovered Near-Shore Gascharged Sediments and Pockmarks, Northern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.; Driscol, N.; Detrick, R. S.; Fornari, D.; Brandsdottir, B.

    2003-12-01

    The approx. 150 km long and 50 km wide Tjornes Fracture Zone (TFZ), formed in response to the eastward jump of the spreading axis in N-Iceland that began in late Miocene time (7-9 Ma). The fracture zone is made up of three N-S trending extensional half graben, Eyjafjordur, Skjalfandi and Oxarfjordur, and bordered to the south by a WNW-trending transtensional fault, the Husavik-Flatey fault (HFF). A 0.5-4 km thick sedimentary sequence has accumulated within the TFZ graben. Near-shore marine sediments are exposed on the Tjornes peninsula, at the eastern margin of the Skjalfandi graben, where approx. 500 m thick Miocene-Pliocene sediments contain several lignite layers. Natural gas emitting from geothermal areas at the shore of Oxarfjordur contain high concentrations of evolved hydrocarbons. The gas probably originates from marine sediments and lignites similar to those observed on the Tjornes peninsula. In 2001, a sidescan sonar imaging and CHIRP subbottom profiling were conducted along the HFF, within Skjalfandi Bay. CHIRP data show amplitude anomalies and acoustic wipe-out zones, indicative of gas accumulation within the sediments. In addition, the sidescan data reveal a number of shallow, circular and elongated depressions up to 30 m in diameter along the northern edge of the HFF. Areas of large, elongated and circular depressions (pockmarks) within Skjalfandi Bay were mapped during a multibeam bathymetric survey in 2002. A second Chirp subbottom and sidescan-sonar survey was conducted this summer along with gravity coring and digital bottom photography in order to assess the origin of these pockmarks and define the distribution of the gas charged sediments. Where present, acoustic wipe-out zones associated with the gas obscured all underlying reflectors as shallow as 5 meters below the ocean floor, in areas as large as 2 square km. The gas charged sediments are more widespread than previously observed within the bay. In northern Skjalfandi the gas seems connected

  5. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  6. Ocean and Coastal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.

    First of all, this is not the typical book that one expects to see reviewed in Eos, but, read on. It should be clear, by now, even to the most esoteric geophysicist, that lawyers and jurists are taking very close looks at many coastal zone and offshore marine activities. More importantly, there are a wide variety of laws (both at the state and the national levels) and international regulations that determine how we now use or will use our coastal region including how and where we will do marine scientific research. Recently, a Presidential Proclamation (March 1983) declared a 200-mile exclusive economic zone for the United States. The President, in the accompanying statements to the Proclamation, has called special attention to polymetallic sulfide deposits (Is someone in the White House reading Eos?) in what will now be U.S. waters (i.e., the Juan de Fuca region). Well, if you or your colleagues want to know more about U.S. and individual state rules for management and use of our marine areas, this might be the book for you.

  7. Estimating the dynamics of groundwater input into the coastal zone via continuous radon-222 measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, William C.; Dulaiova, Henrieta

    2003-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal zone has received increased attention in the last few years as it is now recognized that this process represents an important pathway for material transport. Assessing these material fluxes is difficult, as there is no simple means to gauge the water flux. To meet this challenge, we have explored the use of a continuous radon monitor to measure radon concentrations in coastal zone waters over time periods from hours to days. Changes in the radon inventories over time can be converted to fluxes after one makes allowances for tidal effects, losses to the atmosphere, and mixing with offshore waters. If one assumes that advective flow of radon-enriched groundwater (pore waters) represent the main input of 222 Rn in the coastal zone, the calculated radon fluxes may be converted to water fluxes by dividing by the estimated or measured 222 Rn pore water activity. We have also used short-lived radium isotopes ( 223 Ra and 224 Ra) to assess mixing between near-shore and offshore waters in the manner pioneered by . During an experiment in the coastal Gulf of Mexico, we showed that the mixing loss derived from the 223 Ra gradient agreed very favorably to the estimated range based on the calculated radon fluxes. This allowed an independent constraint on the mixing loss of radon--an important parameter in the mass balance approach. Groundwater discharge was also estimated independently by the radium isotopic approach and was within a factor of two of that determined by the continuous radon measurements and an automated seepage meter deployed at the same site

  8. Molecular-based approaches to characterize coastal microbial community and their potential relation to the trophic state of Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Mohd Ikram

    2015-03-11

    Molecular-based approaches were used to characterize the coastal microbiota and to elucidate the trophic state of Red Sea. Nutrient content and enterococci numbers were monitored, and used to correlate with the abundance of microbial markers. Microbial source tracking revealed the presence of >1 human-associated Bacteroides spp. at some of the near-shore sampling sites and at a heavily frequented beach. Water samples collected from the beaches had occasional exceedances in enterococci numbers, higher total organic carbon (TOC, 1.48-2.18 mg/L) and nitrogen (TN, 0.15-0.27 mg/L) than that detected in the near-shore waters. Enterococci abundances obtained from next-generation sequencing did not correlate well with the cultured enterococci numbers. The abundance of certain genera, for example Arcobacter, Pseudomonas and unclassified Campylobacterales, was observed to exhibit slight correlation with TOC and TN. Low abundance of functional genes accounting for up to 41 copies/L of each Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Campylobacter coli were detected. Arcobacter butzleri was also detected in abundance ranging from 111 to 238 copies/L. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus, Ostreococcus spp. and Gramella were more prevalent in waters that were likely impacted by urban runoffs and recreational activities. These OTUs could potentially serve as quantifiable markers indicative of the water quality.

  9. Baseline studies North Sea wind farms: Lot 5 marine birds in and around the future sites Nearshore Windfarm (NSW) and Q7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Camphuysen, C.J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Dijkman, E.M.; Kersting, K.; Lieshout, S.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft de zeevogelgemeenschap die zich in de loop van het jaar bevindt in een zeegebied voor de Noord-Hollandse kust, waar in de nabije toekomst twee windmolenparken gebouwd zullen worden, de zogenaamde Nearshore Windfarm (NSW) en het windmolenpark Q7. Om deze ¿T-nul¿ situatie te

  10. Development of DNA-based Identification methods to track the species composition of fish larvae within nearshore areas of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to track the identity and abundance of larval fish, which are ubiquitous during spawning season, may lead to a greater understanding of fish species distributions in Great Lakes nearshore areas including early-detection of invasive fish species before they become esta...

  11. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal topographic and bathymetric data to support hurricane impact assessment and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers • Impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology • Impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures • Impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry. This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry.

  12. Coastal circulation and hydrography in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico, during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E. D.; Lavín, M. F.; Trasviña, A.

    2009-02-01

    Winter observations of shelf and slope hydrography and currents in the inner Gulf of Tehuantepec are analysed from two field studies in 1989 and 1996 to specify the variability of near-shore conditions under varying wind stress. During the winter period frequent outbursts of 'Norte' winds over the central Gulf result in persistent alongshore inflows along both its eastern and western coasts. Wind-induced variability on time scales of several days strongly influences the shelf currents, but has greater effect on its western coast because of the generation and separation of anticyclonic eddies there. The steadier inflow (˜0.2 m s -1) on the eastern shelf is evident in a strong down-bowing of shallow isosurfaces towards the coast within 100 km of shore, below a wedge of warmer, fresher and lighter water. This persistent entry of less saline (33.4-34.0), warmer water from the southeast clearly originates in buoyancy input by rivers along the Central American coast, but is augmented by a general shoreward tendency (0.2 m s -1) in the southeastern Gulf. The resultant shallow tongue of anomalous water is generally swept offshore in the head of the Gulf and mixed away by the strong outflow and vertical overturning of the frequent 'Norte' events but during wind relaxations the warm, low-salinity coastal flow may briefly extend further west. In the head of the Gulf, flow is predominantly offshore (depression, respectively, of the pycnocline against the shore. More saline, open ocean water is introduced from the north-western side of the Gulf by the inflow along the west coast. During extended wind relaxations, the flow becomes predominantly eastward beyond the shelf while nearshore the coastally trapped buoyant inflow from the southeast penetrates across the entire head of the gulf at least as far as its western limit. On the basis of these and other recent observations, it seems that the accepted view of a broad, persistent Costa Rica Coastal Current (CRCC) is the result

  13. Channel Shallowing as Mitigation of Coastal Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Orton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate that reductions in the depth of inlets or estuary channels can be used to reduce or prevent coastal flooding. A validated hydrodynamic model of Jamaica Bay, New York City (NYC, is used to test nature-based adaptation measures in ameliorating flooding for NYC's two largest historical coastal flood events. In addition to control runs with modern bathymetry, three altered landscape scenarios are tested: (1 increasing the area of wetlands to their 1879 footprint and bathymetry, but leaving deep shipping channels unaltered; (2 shallowing all areas deeper than 2 m in the bay to be 2 m below Mean Low Water; (3 shallowing only the narrowest part of the inlet to the bay. These three scenarios are deliberately extreme and designed to evaluate the leverage each approach exerts on water levels. They result in peak water level reductions of 0.3%, 15%, and 6.8% for Hurricane Sandy, and 2.4%, 46% and 30% for the Category-3 hurricane of 1821, respectively (bay-wide averages. These results suggest that shallowing can provide greater flood protection than wetland restoration, and it is particularly effective at reducing "fast-pulse" storm surges that rise and fall quickly over several hours, like that of the 1821 storm. Nonetheless, the goal of flood mitigation must be weighed against economic, navigation, and ecological needs, and practical concerns such as the availability of sediment.

  14. Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Aureli, A.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Cable, J.E.; Charette, M.A.; Kontar, E.; Krupa, S.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Loveless, A.; Moore, W.S.; Oberdorfer, J.A.; Oliveira, J.; Ozyurt, N.; Povinec, P.; Privitera, A.M.G.; Rajar, R.; Ramessur, R.T.; Scholten, J.; Stieglitz, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Turner, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of near-shore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. A joint project of UNESCO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has examined several methods of SGD assessment and carried out a series of five intercomparison experiments in different hydrogeologic environments (coastal plain, karst, glacial till, fractured crystalline rock, and volcanic terrains). This report reviews the scientific and management significance of SGD, measurement approaches, and the results of the intercomparison experiments. We conclude that while the process is essentially ubiquitous in coastal areas, the assessment of its magnitude at any one location is subject to enough variability that measurements should be made by a variety of techniques and over large enough spatial and temporal scales to capture the majority of these changing conditions. We feel that all the measurement techniques described here are valid although they each have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is recommended that multiple approaches be applied whenever possible. In addition, a continuing effort is required in order to capture long-period tidal fluctuations, storm effects, and seasonal variations

  15. Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, W.C. [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Aggarwal, P.K.; Kulkarni, K.M. [Isotope Hydrology Section, International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria); Aureli, A. [Department Water Resources Management, University of Palermo, Catania (Italy); Bokuniewicz, H. [Marine Science Research Center, Stony Brook University (United States); Cable, J.E. [Department Oceanography, Louisiana State University (United States); Charette, M.A. [Department Marine Chemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (United States); Kontar, E. [Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (Russian Federation); Krupa, S. [South Florida Water Management District (United States); Loveless, A. [University of Western Australia (Australia); Moore, W.S. [Department Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina (United States); Oberdorfer, J.A. [Department Geology, San Jose State University (United States); Oliveira, J. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil); Ozyurt, N. [Department Geological Engineering, Hacettepe (Turkey); Povinec, P.; Scholten, J. [Marine Environment Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency (Monaco); Privitera, A.M.G. [U.O. 4.17 of the G.N.D.C.I., National Research Council (Italy); Rajar, R. [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ramessur, R.T. [Department Chemistry, University of Mauritius (Mauritius); Stieglitz, T. [Mathematical and Physical Sciences, James Cook University (Australia); Taniguchi, M. [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (Japan); Turner, J.V. [CSIRO, Land and Water, Perth (Australia)

    2006-08-31

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of near-shore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. A joint project of UNESCO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has examined several methods of SGD assessment and carried out a series of five intercomparison experiments in different hydrogeologic environments (coastal plain, karst, glacial till, fractured crystalline rock, and volcanic terrains). This report reviews the scientific and management significance of SGD, measurement approaches, and the results of the intercomparison experiments. We conclude that while the process is essentially ubiquitous in coastal areas, the assessment of its magnitude at any one location is subject to enough variability that measurements should be made by a variety of techniques and over large enough spatial and temporal scales to capture the majority of these changing conditions. We feel that all the measurement techniques described here are valid although they each have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is recommended that multiple approaches be applied whenever possible. In addition, a continuing effort is required in order to capture long-period tidal fluctuations, storm effects, and seasonal variations. (author)

  16. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

  17. A 35 year high-resolution wave atlas for nearshore energy production and economics at the Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Lavidas, George; Venugopal, Vengatesan

    2017-01-01

    The study enhances the coastal resource knowledge and discusses opportunities for wave energy in theAegean Sea. A fine-resolution numerical wave model is utilised to provide results for the Greek coastalregions. The model ran for 35 years (1980e2014) estimating wave characteristics, and quantifying thewave energy potential in coastal areas. The results deliver the energy potential, variability, and sitecharacterisation for the Aegean Sea.The dataset is coupled with wave energy converters powe...

  18. Monitoring plant tissue nitrogen isotopes to assess nearshore inputs of nitrogen to Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Fradkin, Steven C.

    2016-05-31

    Mats of filamentous-periphytic algae present in some nearshore areas of Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington, may indicate early stages of eutrophication from nutrient enrichment of an otherwise highly oligotrophic lake. Natural abundance ratios of stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) measured in plant tissue growing in nearshore areas of the lake indicate that the major source of nitrogen used by these primary producing plants is derived mainly from atmospherically fixed nitrogen in an undeveloped forested ecosystem. Exceptions to this pattern occurred in the Barnes Point area where elevated δ15N ratios indicate that effluent from septic systems also contribute nitrogen to filamentous-periphytic algae growing in the littoral zone of that area. Near the Lyre River outlet of Lake Crescent, the δ15N of filamentous-periphytic algae growing in close proximity to the spawning areas of a unique species of trout show little evidence of elevated δ15N indicating that nitrogen from on-site septic systems is not a substantial source of nitrogen for these plants. The δ15N data corroborate estimates that nitrogen input to Lake Crescent from septic sources is comparatively small relative to input from motor vehicle exhaust and vegetative sources in undeveloped forests, including litterfall, pollen, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The seasonal timing of blooms of filamentous-periphytic algal near the lake shoreline is also consistent with nitrogen exported from stands of red alder trees (Alnus rubra). Isotope biomonitoring of filamentous-periphytic algae may be an effective approach to monitoring the littoral zone for nutrient input to Lake Crescent from septic sources.

  19. High Arctic Coasts At Risk - The Impact of Coastal Hazards on Scientific and Community Infrastructure in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, M. C.; Pawlowski, L.; Jaskolski, M.; Lim, M.; Zagorski, P.; Long, A. J.; Jensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid climate warming being observed in the Svalbard is leading to an increase in human activities in the coastal zone, leading to an increased need for coastal hazard assessment. Present-day Svalbard coastal landscapes are modified by increased degradation of permafrost accelerated sediment supply from deglaciated catchments, and prolonged periods of open-water conditions and wave activity. Since the second half of 20thcentury there is also an observed increase in the number and intensity of storms entering the Arctic particularly in summer months when coastlines are free of protective ice cover. Despite the potential significance of these coastal hazards on the security of scientific (research bases and devices) and community (ports, airports, roads, buildings) infrastructure on Svalbard, relatively little is known on the present-day rate of Svalbard coastal zone changes and how they might impact the nearshore infrastructure in the future. Here we report the results of a project that focused on rates of coastal zone changes in Svalbard and examined the impact of extreme coastal processes on scientific and community infrastructure. The project applied combination of remote sensing and field-based mapping techniques to characterise coastal changes observed in the surroundings of main research stations in Svalbard in Hornsund (PPS), Petuniabukta (AMUPS) and Bellsund (Calypsobyen) as well as a major towns: Longyearbyen, Piramiden, Barentsburg and Svea. Our results document dramatic changes of Svalbard coastal zone under intervals characterised by a warming climate, retreating local ice masses, a shortened winter sea-ice season and melting permafrost. The study confirmed the growing importance of extreme processes in shaping coasts of Svalbard and the impact of these changes on human infrastructure. Our study proposes a risk assessment for a development and protection of infrastructure along the coasts of Svalbard under scenarios of climate change, sea level rise

  20. 24 CFR 574.645 - Coastal barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coastal barriers. 574.645 Section....645 Coastal barriers. In accordance with the Coastal Barrier Resources Act, 16 U.S.C. 3501, no financial assistance under this part may be made available within the Coastal Barrier Resources System. ...

  1. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the... Fisheries Commission's (Commission) Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Coastal...

  2. Coastal remote sensing – towards integrated coastal research and management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available coastal resources and anthropogenic infrastructure for a safer future. What is the role of remote sensing? The coastal zone connects terrestrial biophysical systems with marine systems. Some marine ecosystems cannot function without intact inland... for the development of sound integrated management solutions. To date, however, remote sensing applications usually focus on areas landward from the highwater line (?terrestrial? remote sensing), while ?marine? remote sensing does not pay attention to the shallow...

  3. Agrochemical loading in drains and rivers and its connection with pollution in coastal lagoons of the Mexican Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Aguilar, Omar; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Ponce de Leon-Hill, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    The state of Sinaloa in Mexico is an industrialized agricultural region with a documented pesticide usage of 700 t year -1 ; which at least 17 of the pesticides are classified as moderately to highly toxic. Pollutants in the water column of rivers and drains are of great concern because the water flows into coastal lagoons and nearshore waters and thereby affects aquatic organisms. This study was done in four municipalities in the state of Sinaloa that produce food intensively. To investigate the link between pollution in the lagoons and their proximity to agricultural sites, water was sampled in three coastal lagoons and in the rivers and drains that flow into them. Seawater from the Gulf of California, 10 km from the coast, was also analyzed. Concentrations of nutrients, organochlorines, and organophosphorus pesticides were determined. Nutrient determination showed an unhealthy environment with N/P ratios of pollution of the coastal lagoon of Pabellones could be traced mainly to the drains from the agricultural sites. Accumulation of OC pesticides was also observed in the Gulf of California. Tests for 22 organophosphates revealed only five (diazinon, disulfoton, methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos, and mevinphos); diazinon was detected at all the sites, although methyl parathion was present at some sites at concentrations one order of magnitude higher than diazinon.

  4. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, F.; Lessa, G.C.; Wild, C.; Kikuchi, R.K.P.; Naumann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ 13 C org and δ 15 N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. - Highlights: •Pollution by untreated sewage discharge is evident at the outfall and in Salvador's coastal zone. •Seasonal wind- and tide-driven surface currents control advective transport of discharged sewage. •Water quality at Salvador's recreational beaches is impacted by a plume of untreated sewage.

  5. Nearshore hydrodynamics as loading and forcing factors for Escherichia coli contamination at an embayed beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the transport and fate of Escherichia coli were conducted at Chicago's 63rd Street Beach, an embayed beach that had the highest mean E. coli concentration among 23 similar Lake Michigan beaches during summer months of 2000-2005, in order to find the cause for the high bacterial contamination. The numerical model was based on the transport of E. coli by current circulation patterns in the embayment driven by longshore main currents and the loss of E. coli in the water column, taking settling as well as bacterial dark- and solar-related decay into account. Two E. coli loading scenarios were considered: one from the open boundary north of the embayment and the other from the shallow water near the beachfront. Simulations showed that the embayed beach behaves as a sink for E. coli in that it generally receives E. coli more efficiently than it releases them. This is a result of the significantly different hydrodynamic forcing factors between the inside of the embayment and the main coastal flow outside. The settled E. coli inside the embayment can be a potential source of contamination during subsequent sediment resuspension events, suggesting that deposition-resuspension cycles of E. coli have resulted in excessive bacterial contamination of beach water. A further hypothetical case with a breakwater shortened to half its original length, which was anticipated to enhance the current circulation in the embayment, showed a reduction in E. coli concentrations of nearly 20%.

  6. A satellite view of riverine turbidity plumes on the NE-E Brazilian coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Negri de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity plumes of São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, and Paraiba do Sul river systems, located along the NE/E Brazilian coast, are analyzed for their dispersal patterns of Total Suspended Solids (TSS concentration using Landsat images and a logarithmic algorithm proposed by Tassan (1987 to convert satellite reflectance values to TSS. The TSS results obtained were compared to in situ collected TSS data. The analysis of the satellite image data set revealed that each river system exhibits a distinct turbidity plume dispersal pattern. The behavior, dimension and degree of turbidity of the São Francisco River plume have been greatly altered by the construction of a cascade of hydroelectric dam reservoirs in its hydrological basin. The plume has lost its typical unimodal seasonal pattern of material dispersion and its turbidity has decreased due to the regulation of river flow by the dams and TSS retainance by the reservoirs. In contrast, the Doce and Paraíba do Sul river plumes are still subject to seasonal pulsations and show more turbid conditions than the SF plume, as dams are less numerous, set in the middle river sections and the natural river flow has been maintained. The Caravelas Coastal System river plume is restricted to near shore shallow waters dominated by resuspension processes. During austral spring and summer when NE-E winds prevail, all plumes generally disperse southward. Short-term northward reversals may occur in winter with the passage of atmospheric cold fronts. The São Francisco and Doce river plumes tend to disperse obliquely to the coast and transport materials further offshore, while the Caravelas and Paraíba do Sul plumes tend to disperse mainly parallel to the coast, enhancing TSS retention nearshore.O presente estudo analisa as plumas de turbidez dos sistemas dos rios São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, e Paraiba do Sul localizados na costa NE/E do Brasil utilizando imagens Landsat e o algoritmo logarítmico para Total

  7. Does connectivity exist for remnant boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou along the Lake Superior Coastal Range? Options for landscape restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine C. Drake

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis can provide important information on the dynamic and spatial structure of groups of animals or populations. Little is known of the genetic population structure of caribou that inhabit the Lake Superior Coastal Range (LSCR and the level of gene flow between individuals within the range and beyond. From a landscape perspective, this range is spatially isolated and genetic connectivity within the range is presumed limited due to large water crossings on Lake Superior. This study aims to answer if animal movement can be discerned, using genetic population and relatedness analyses, within and beyond the LSCR. Faecal and hair samples collected between 2005 and 2015 in Pukaskwa National Park were analyzed for genetic markers and compared to 131 unique genotypes previously obtained from both within the LSCR and in the two next closest ranges. Animals from one nearshore island (i.e. Otter were more closely associated with offshore islands than other mainland caribou, likely a result of past movement and translocation rather than ongoing movement. Conversely, on another nearshore island (i.e. Pic, individuals assigned to a different genetic cluster and were related to animals further north outside the range, demonstrating some connectivity through the discontinuous distribution to the coast. Long-term population declines have been observed in the LSCR range despite genetic connectivity within the range and relatively low total habitat disturbance. Restoring connectivity of the LSCR so that it is not isolated from populations to the north is required for the recovery of the mainland portion of the coastal range. These genetic analyses provide some insights on where movements may occur and where landscape restoration efforts may best be directed to enhance connectivity.

  8. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — During the summer of 2010, state and EPA crews conducted field sampling for the fifth National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA). The assessment is in the data...

  9. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  10. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  11. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  12. NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products from the Remote Sensing Division are primarily for application to the nautical charts produced by NOAA's Office of Coast...

  13. Field Observations of Coastal Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the nearshore zone wind, waves, and currents generated from different forcing mechanisms converge in shallow water. This can profoundly affect the physical nature of the ocean surface, which can significantly modulate the exchange of momentum, heat, and mass across the air-sea interface. For decades, the focus of air-sea interaction research has been on the open ocean while the shallow water regime has been relatively under-explored. This bears implications for efforts to understand and model various coastal processes, such as mixing, surface transport, and air-sea gas flux. The results from a recent study conducted at the New River Inlet in North Carolina showed that directly measured air-sea flux parameters, such as the atmospheric drag coefficient, are strong functions of space as well as the ambient conditions (i.e. wind speed and direction). The drag is typically used to parameterize the wind stress magnitude. It is generally assumed that the wind direction is the direction of the atmospheric forcing (i.e. wind stress), however significant wind stress steering off of the azimuthal wind direction was observed and was found to be related to the horizontal surface current shear. The authors have just returned from a field campaign carried out within Monterey Bay in California. Surface observations made from two research vessels were complimented by an array of beach and inland flux stations, high-resolution wind forecasts, and satellite image acquisitions. This is a rich data set and several case studies will be analyzed to highlight the importance of various processes for understanding the air-sea fluxes. Preliminary findings show that interactions between the local wind-sea and the shoaling, incident swell can have a profound effect on the wind stress magnitude. The Monterey Bay coastline contains a variety of topographical features and the importance of land-air-sea interactions will also be investigated.

  14. Large-scale coastal behaviour in relation to coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of coastal erosion management - addressing typical traditional erosion problems - towards coastal zone management addressing the evaluation of alternative solutions to guarantee a variety of coastal zone functions on their economic time scale - has necessitated the formulation of

  15. Climatic-eustatic control of Holocene nearshore parasequence development, southeastern Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Stewart, Laura B.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores, seismic profiles, radiocarbon dates, and faunal assemblages were used to interpret the depositional setting and geological evolution of the southeastern Texas coast during the last glacio-eustatic cycle. Discrete lithofacies and biofacies zones in the ebb-dominated Sabine Lake estuary and adjacent chenier plain record alternating periods of rapid marine flooding and gradual shoaling related to linked climatic/eustatic fluctuations. Monospecific zones of the mollusks Rangia cuneata and Crassostrea virginica, respectively, indicate high fresh water outflow followed by invasion of marine water, whereas intervening organic-rich zones record bayhead delta deposition. High-frequency parasequence stacking patterns within the valley fill and across the adjacent interfluve reflect an initial rapid rise in sea level about 9 ka that flooded abandoned alluvial terraces and caused onlap of Holocene marsh in the incised valley. The rapid rise was followed by slowly rising and oscillating sea level that filled the deepest portions of the incised valleys with fluvially dominated estuarine deposits, and then a maximum highstand (+1 m msl) about 5 ka that flooded the former subaerial coastal plain between the incised valleys and constructed the highest beach ridges. Between 3.5 and 1.5 ka, sea level oscillated and gradually fell, causing a forced regression and rapid progradation of both the chenier plain and accretionary barrier islands. The only significant sands in the valley fill are (1) falling-stage and lowstand-fluvial sediments between the basal sequence boundary and transgressive surface unconformity, and (2) highstand beach-ridge sediments of the chenier plain.

  16. Marine natural hazards in coastal zone: observations, analysis and modelling (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenkulova, Ira

    2010-05-01

    Giant surface waves approaching the coast frequently cause extensive coastal flooding, destruction of coastal constructions and loss of lives. Such waves can be generated by various phenomena: strong storms and cyclones, underwater earthquakes, high-speed ferries, aerial and submarine landslides. The most famous examples of such events are the catastrophic tsunami in the Indian Ocean, which occurred on 26 December 2004 and hurricane Katrina (28 August 2005) in the Atlantic Ocean. The huge storm in the Baltic Sea on 9 January 2005, which produced unexpectedly long waves in many areas of the Baltic Sea and the influence of unusually high surge created by long waves from high-speed ferries, should also be mentioned as examples of regional marine natural hazards connected with extensive runup of certain types of waves. The processes of wave shoaling and runup for all these different marine natural hazards (tsunami, coastal freak waves, ship waves) are studied based on rigorous solutions of nonlinear shallow-water theory. The key and novel results presented here are: i) parameterization of basic formulas for extreme runup characteristics for bell-shape waves, showing that they weakly depend on the initial wave shape, which is usually unknown in real sea conditions; ii) runup analysis of periodic asymmetric waves with a steep front, as such waves are penetrating inland over large distances and with larger velocities than symmetric waves; iii) statistical analysis of irregular wave runup demonstrating that wave nonlinearity nearshore does not influence on the probability distribution of the velocity of the moving shoreline and its moments, and influences on the vertical displacement of the moving shoreline (runup). Wave runup on convex beaches and in narrow bays, which allow abnormal wave amplification is also discussed. Described analytical results are used for explanation of observed extreme runup of tsunami, freak (sneaker) waves and ship waves on different coasts

  17. Intercomparison of the Charnock and COARE bulk wind stress formulations for coastal ocean modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The accurate parameterisation of momentum and heat transfer across the air–sea interface is vital for realistic simulation of the atmosphere–ocean system. In most modelling applications accurate representation of the wind stress is required to numerically reproduce surge, coastal ocean circulation, surface waves, turbulence and mixing. Different formulations can be implemented and impact the accuracy of the instantaneous and long-term residual circulation, the surface mixed layer, and the generation of wave-surge conditions. This, in turn, affects predictions of storm impact, sediment pathways, and coastal resilience to climate change. The specific numerical formulation needs careful selection to ensure the accuracy of the simulation. Two wind stress parameterisations widely used in the ocean circulation and the storm surge communities respectively are studied with focus on an application to the NW region of the UK. Model–observation validation is performed at two nearshore and one estuarine ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler stations in Liverpool Bay, a hypertidal region of freshwater influence (ROFI with vast intertidal areas. The period of study covers both calm and extreme conditions to test the robustness of the 10 m wind stress component of the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE bulk formulae and the standard Charnock relation. In this coastal application a realistic barotropic–baroclinic simulation of the circulation and surge elevation is set-up, demonstrating greater accuracy occurs when using the Charnock relation, with a constant Charnock coefficient of 0.0185, for surface wind stress during this one month period.

  18. Characterizing Feedbacks Between Environmental Forcing and Sediment Characteristics in Fluvial and Coastal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehan, S.; Ruggiero, P.; Hempel, L. A.; Anderson, D. L.; Cohn, N.

    2016-12-01

    Characterizing Feedbacks Between Environmental Forcing and Sediment Characteristics in Fluvial and Coastal Systems American Geophysical Union, 2016 Fall Meeting: San Francisco, CA Authors: Scott Feehan, Peter Ruggiero, Laura Hempel, and Dylan Anderson Linking transport processes and sediment characteristics within different environments along the source to sink continuum provides critical insight into the dominant feedbacks between grain size distributions and morphological evolution. This research is focused on evaluating differences in sediment size distributions across both fluvial and coastal environments in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The Cascades' high relief is characterized by diverse flow regimes with high peak/flashy flows and sub-threshold flows occurring in relative proximity and one of the most energetic wave climates in the world. Combining analyses of both fluvial and coastal environments provides a broader understanding of the dominant forces driving differences between each system's grain size distributions, sediment transport processes, and resultant evolution. We consider sediment samples taken during a large-scale flume experiment that simulated floods representative of both high/flashy peak flows analogous to runoff dominated rivers and sub-threshold flows, analogous to spring-fed rivers. High discharge flows resulted in narrower grain size distributions while low flows where less skewed. Relative sediment size showed clear dependence on distance from source and the environments' dominant fluid motion. Grain size distributions and sediment transport rates were also quantified in both wave dominated nearshore and aeolian dominated backshore portions of Long Beach Peninsula, Washington during SEDEX2, the Sandbar-aEolian-Dune EXchange Experiment of summer 2016. The distributions showed spatial patterns in mean grain size, skewness, and kurtosis dependent on the dominant sediment transport process. The feedback between these grain size

  19. EAARL Coastal Topography--Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2009: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Plant, Nathaniel; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Serafin, K.S.; Klipp, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline beachface, acquired on May 28, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed

  20. Biomarkers of physiological responses of Octopus vulgaris to different coastal environments in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillero-Ríos, J; Sureda, A; Capó, X; Oliver-Codorniú, M; Arechavala-Lopez, P

    2018-03-01

    The increase of pollutants in coastal seawater could produce several harmful biological effects on marine organisms related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing cellular and tissue damages through oxidative stress mechanisms. Common octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) inhabiting coastal areas under high anthropogenic activity of Mallorca (W-Mediterranean Sea) have the ability to control oxidative damage by triggering antioxidant enzyme responses. Analyzing the digestive glands, octopuses from human-altered coastal areas showed higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared to octopuses from non-influenced coastal waters (i.e. marine reserve area). Higher metallothionein (MT) concentrations and lack of malondialdehyde (MDA) variations also reflect adaptations of O. vulgaris to polluted areas. This is the first study assessing the levels of the oxidative stress biomarkers on O. vulgaris in the Mediterranean Sea, revealing their usefulness to assess diverse environmental pollution effects on this relevant ecological and commercial species.

  1. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Warren H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry

  2. Coastal defence through low crested breakwater structures: jumping out of the frying pan into the fire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Cristina; Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto; Mistri, Michele

    2011-08-01

    The Adriatic coast of Punta Marina (Ravenna) is protected by 3-km long low crested breakwater structures (LCSs). Through a 3-years long multidisciplinar study, we assessed the impact of such defensive structures on environmental and biological condition. LCSs create pools where conditions are very different from the surrounding nearshore system. Mechanical disturbance by currents and waves varied greatly in intensity and frequency between seaward and landward sides of the structures. Sedimentary budget was positive at the landward side, but it was due to a gain on the seafloor and not on the emerged beach. The budget at seaward was negative. LCSs determine differences in benthic assemblages, alter the seasonal pattern of communities, and modify seasonal fluctuations of animal assemblages. Landward sheltered areas can be seen as "lagoonal island" surrounded by a "sea of marine habitat". Differences in ecological quality status, obtained through M-AMBI, are due to the sum of these factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical, chemical, and biological data collected in the Beaufort Sea as part of the Arctic Nearshore Impact Monitoring in the Development Area (ANIMIDA) from 1999 to 2007 (NODC Accession 0001921)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains information specifically for the Arctic Nearshore Impact Monitoring in the Development Area (ANIMIDA 1999 - 2002) and continuation of Arctic...

  4. Nearshore fish survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska conducted from 2009-07 to 2009-08 by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Resource Ecology and Fisheries Management division (NCEI Accession 0144625)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project consisted of a nearshore fish, invertebrate, and habitat survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska. A 32-ft. gillnet vessel, the F/V Willow was chartered...

  5. Cultivable mycobacteria in sphagnum vegetation of moors in South Sweden and coastal Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazda, J; Müller, K; Irgens, L M

    1979-04-01

    Intact sphagnum vegetation from moors in south Sweden and coastal areas of west Norway contained cultivable mycobacteria in 32% and 30% of the specimens, respectively. This frequency of specimens is lower than the 50% previously found in the partly altered moors of northwestern Germany, but the Scandinavian moors contained a larger variety of species. On both intact and altered moors M. chelonei and M. sphagni sp. nov. were found, the latter a homologous group of 151 strains. In south Sweden the highest frequency was found in S. balticum, S. recurvum. S. tenellum and S. compactum & molle. (40-65%). In coastal Norway the highest frequency was found in S. rubellum (48%) which offers favourable conditions for the accumulation of solar energy due to the red brown colour in the upper parts. Combined with a high humidity in coastal Norway in summer, this may contribute to the growth of mesophilic mycobacteria. A significant affinity of M. chelonei to S. tenellum was stated.

  6. Implementation of remote sensing data in research of coastal dynamics at the Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, D. E.; Belova, N.; Noskov, A.; Ogorodov, S.

    2011-12-01

    The development of Arctic coastal regions is now in progress due to significant amount of hydrocarbon deposits discovered. In high latitudes, natural hazards such as coastal erosion and thermoerosion, deflation, linear erosion and thermal denudation, ice gouging can make petroleum production and transport unprofitable. A prominent feature of Kara Sea, as well as other Arctic seas, is the development of coast in permafrost conditions. Despite the long ice period (up to 9 months), during the ice free period coastal dynamics are very intensive. If pipeline landfall site occurs at a shore section with high retreat rate (1 - 3m/year and higher), danger of pipeline damage due to exposure, line sagging and mechanical deformations becomes high. Protective measures may appear inefficient, since shore sections with active coastal erosion are subject not only to bluff retreat, but also to nearshore zone and coastal slope erosion. Exposed pipeline sections also get in danger of sea ice effect. For correct definition of coastal dynamics setting we use dual approach. The first part is perennial instrumental monitoring of shore morphology, relying on system of benchmarks used for repeated measures, together with in-field geomorphologic expertise. Measures include direct observations and geodetic leveling onshore and echosounding offshore. Being the most precise method, direct measurements are expensive. The other drawback is that they can't give an overview of long-span tendencies of coastal evolution for prolonged shore sections, which is essential for shore deformation forecast complying with lifetime of structures (usually 30 to 50 years). This is where the importance of the 2nd part, analysis of the different time remote sensing data, becomes decisive. Most important sources of remote sensing data include Corona imagery from 1960s - 70s, aerial photos of different times (but most of them are inaccessible for Russian Arctic coast), Landsat imagery (covering a long time span

  7. Coastal zones : shifting shores, sharing adaptation strategies for coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.E. [Waikato Univ. (New Zealand); Morneau, F.; Savard, J.P. [Ouranos, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Madruga, R.P. [Centre of Investigation on the Global Economy (Cuba); Leslie, K.R. [Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (Belize); Agricole, W. [Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Seychelles); Burkett, V. [United States Geological Survey (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A parallel event to the eleventh Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change was held to demonstrate examples of adaptation from around the world in the areas of food security, water resources, coastal zones, and communities/infrastructure. Panels on each theme presented examples from developing countries, countries in economic transition, and developed countries. These 4 themes were chosen because both mitigation and adaptation are essential to meeting the challenge of climate change. The objective of the event was to improve the knowledge of Canada's vulnerabilities to climate change, identify ways to minimize the negative effects of future impacts, and explore opportunities that take advantage of any positive impacts. This third session focused on how coastal communities are adapting to climate change in such places as Quebec, the Caribbean, and small Island States. It also presented the example of how a developed country became vulnerable to Hurricane Katrina which hit the coastal zone in the United States Gulf of Mexico. The presentations addressed the challenges facing coastal communities along with progress in risk assessment and adaptation both globally and in the Pacific. Examples of coastal erosion in Quebec resulting from climate change were presented along with climate change and variability impacts over the coastal zones of Seychelles. Cuba's vulnerability and adaptation to climate change was discussed together with an integrated operational approach to climate change, adaptation, biodiversity and land utilization in the Caribbean region. The lessons learned from around the world emphasize that adaptation is needed to reduce unavoidable risks posed by climate change and to better prepare for the changes ahead. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. A modeling approach to assess coastal management effects on benthic habitat quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozzoli, Francesco; Smolders, Sven; Eelkema, Menno; Ysebaert, Tom; Escaravage, Vincent; Temmerman, Stijn; Meire, Patrick; Herman, Peter M.J.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2017-01-01

    The natural coastal hydrodynamics and morphology worldwide is altered by human interventions such as embankments, shipping and dredging, which may have consequences for ecosystem functionality. To ensure long-term ecological sustainability, requires capability to predict long-term large-scale

  9. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Baeye, M.; Francken, F.; Lauwaert, B.; Van den Eynde, D.; Van Lancker, V.; Martens, C.; Michielsen, T.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub...

  10. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Baeye, M.; Francken, F.; Lauwaert, B.; Van den Eynde, D.; Van Lancker, V.; Martens, C.; Michielsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub...

  11. Demarcation of coastal vulnerability line along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ajai; Baba, M.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Rajawat, A.S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Ratheesh, R.; Kurian, N.P.; Hameed, S.; Sundar, D.

    been considered. Changes along the shoreline are considered as net impact of dynamic coastal processes and are mapped using multidate satellite data. Vulnerability due to coastal erosion has been assessed based on rate of coastal erosion. Coastal...

  12. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean and the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P. R. (Principal Investigator); Conomos, T. J.; Janda, R. J.; Peterson, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 multispectral scanner imagery of the nearshore surface waters of the Northeast Pacific Ocean is proving to be a useful tool for determining source and dispersal of suspended particulate matter. The principal sources of the turbid water, seen best on the green and red bands, are river and stream effluents and actively eroding coastlines; secondary sources are waste effluents and production of planktonic organisms, but these may sometimes be masked by the very turbid plumes of suspended sediment being discharged into the nearshore zone during times of high river discharge. The configuration and distribution of the plumes of turbid water also can be used to infer near-surface current directions. Comparison of imagery of the nearshore water off the northern California coast from October 1972 and January 1973 shows a reversal of the near-surface currents, from predominantly south-setting in the fall (California Current) to north-setting in the winter (Davidson Current).

  13. Exposure of coastal ecosystems to river plume spreading across a near-equatorial continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarya, A.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; Vegt, M. Van der; van Katwijk, M. M.; Hoeksema, B. W.; Bouma, T. J.; Lamers, L. P. M.; Christianen, M. J. A.

    2018-02-01

    The Berau Continental Shelf (BCS) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, harbours various tropical marine ecosystems, including mangroves, seagrass meadows and coral reefs. These ecosystem are located partly within reach of the Berau River plume, which may affect ecosystem health through exposure to land-derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants carried by the plume. This study aims (1) to assess the exposure risk of the BCS coastal ecosystems to river plume water, measured as exposure time to three different salinity levels, (2) to identify the relationships between these salinity levels and the abundance and diversity of coral and seagrass ecosystems, and (3) to determine a suitable indicator for the impacts of salinity on coral reef and seagrass health. We analysed hydrodynamic models, classified salinity levels, and quantified the correlations between the salinity model parameters and ecological metrics for the BCS systems. An Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis revealed three modes of river plume dispersal patterns, which strongly reflect monsoon seasonality. The first mode, explaining 39% of the variability, was associated with the southward movement of the plume due to northerly winds, while the second and third modes (explaining 29% and 26% of the variability, respectively) were associated with the northeastward migration of the plume related to southwesterly and southerly winds. Exposure to low salinity showed higher correlations with biological indicators than mean salinity, indicating that low salinity is a more suitable indicator for coastal ecosystem health. Significant correlations (R2) were found between exposure time to low salinity (days with salinity values below 25 PSU) with coral cover, coral species richness, seagrass cover, the number of seagrass species, seagrass leaf phosphorus, nitrogen, C:N ratio and iron content. By comparing the correlation coefficients and the slopes of the regression lines, our study suggests that coral reefs are

  14. Mechanics of dispersion of pollutants in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordaan, J.M. Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The relationships between energy dissipation (turbulence) and mixing and analogy with classical diffusion theory are reviewed. Typical solutions of the differential equations, for various initial and boundary conditions related to practical cases are presented. The natural processes that control the dispersion in the nearshore regions were studied in a wind-wave channel and in the field and interpretive conclusions are drawn on the practice of nearshore disposal of effluents

  15. Strategic Placement of Mixed Sediment in the Form of a Nearshore Berm along Fort Myers Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    during that time appeared to be negligible . Note that the beach remained stable during the first 2 years post-placement (Figure 2). During the third year...Coastal Processes; Tokyo, Japan, 7-11 September 2009. Singapore : World Scientific. Brutsché, K. E. 2011. First year sedimentological characteristics

  16. Sources of nutrients to nearshore areas of a eutrophic estuary: Implications for nutrient-enhanced acidification in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean acidification has recently been highlighted as a major stressor for coastal organisms. Further work is needed to assess the role of anthropogenic nutrient additions in eutrophied systems on local biological processes, and how this interacts with CO2emission-driven acidific...

  17. Variation in Spring Nearshore Resident Fish Species Composition and Life Histories in the Lower San Joaquin Watershed and Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing freshwater to human populations while protecting or rehabilitating ecosystem health is a significant challenge to water resource managers and requires accurate knowledge of aquatic resources. Previous studies of fish assemblages in the San Francisco Estuary and watershed have focused on specific habitat types, water bodies, or geographic subregions. In this study, we use seining data from two monitoring programs to provide an integrated view of spring nearshore resident fish species composition and life history characteristics in five regions: the San Joaquin River, the upper Sacramento River, the lower Sacramento River, the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (North Delta, and the Interior Delta. Data for the period March-May from 1994 to 2002, showed that spring species composition of the San Joaquin River was very different from the other four regions. Total catch in the San Joaquin River was dominated by small, short-lived batch spawning alien species (93%, particularly red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis (>75% of total catch. The upper and lower Sacramento River were very similar in species composition and life history characteristics and less dominated by alien fish (

  18. The impact of Cyclone Nargis on the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) River delta shoreline and nearshore zone (Myanmar): Towards degraded delta resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besset, Manon; Anthony, Edward J.; Dussouillez, Philippe; Goichot, Marc

    2017-10-01

    The Ayeyarwady River delta (Myanmar) is exposed to tropical cyclones, of which the most devastating has been cyclone Nargis (2-4 May 2008). We analysed waves, flooded area, nearshore suspended sediments, and shoreline change from satellite images. Suspended sediment concentrations up to 40% above average during the cyclone may reflect fluvial mud supply following heavy rainfall and wave reworking of shoreface mud. Massive recession of the high-water line resulted from backshore flooding by cyclone surge. The shoreline showed a mean retreat of 47 m following Nargis. Erosion was stronger afterwards (-148 m between August 2008 and April 2010), largely exceeding rates prior to Nargis (2000-2005: -2.14 m/year) and over 41 years (1974-2015: -0.62 m/year). This implies that resilience was weak following cyclone impact. Consequently, the increasingly more populous Ayeyarwady delta, rendered more and more vulnerable by decreasing fluvial sediment supply, could, potentially, become more severely impacted by future high-energy events.

  19. Occurrence of Escherichia coli and Enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in Nearshore Water and Beach Sand of Lake Michigan†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L.; Shively, Dawn A.; Pawlik, Heather; Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2003-01-01

    Each summer, the nuisance green alga Cladophora (mostly Cladophora glomerata) amasses along Lake Michigan beaches, creating nearshore anoxia and unsightly, malodorous mats that can attract problem animals and detract from visitor enjoyment. Traditionally, elevated counts of Escherichia coli are presumed to indicate the presence of sewage, mostly derived from nearby point sources. The relationship between fecal indicator bacteria and Cladophora remains essentially unstudied. This investigation describes the local and regional density of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Cladophora mats along beaches in the four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan) bordering Lake Michigan. Samples of Cladophora strands collected from 10 beaches (n = 41) were assayed for concentrations of E. coli and enterococci during the summer of 2002. Both E. coli and enterococci were ubiquitous (up to 97% occurrence), with overall log mean densities (± standard errors) of 5.3 (± 4.8) and 4.8 (± 4.5) per g (dry weight). E. coli and enterococci were strongly correlated in southern Lake Michigan beaches (P Cladophora mats stored at 4°C; the residual bacteria in the dried alga readily grew upon rehydration. These findings suggest that Cladophora amassing along the beaches of Lake Michigan may be an important environmental source of indicator bacteria and call into question the reliability of E. coli and enterococci as indicators of water quality for freshwater recreational beaches. PMID:12902262

  20. Occurrence of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in nearshore water and beach sand of Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L; Shively, Dawn A; Pawlik, Heather; Nevers, Meredith B; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N

    2003-08-01

    Each summer, the nuisance green alga Cladophora (mostly Cladophora glomerata) amasses along Lake Michigan beaches, creating nearshore anoxia and unsightly, malodorous mats that can attract problem animals and detract from visitor enjoyment. Traditionally, elevated counts of Escherichia coli are presumed to indicate the presence of sewage, mostly derived from nearby point sources. The relationship between fecal indicator bacteria and Cladophora remains essentially unstudied. This investigation describes the local and regional density of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Cladophora mats along beaches in the four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan) bordering Lake Michigan. Samples of Cladophora strands collected from 10 beaches (n = 41) were assayed for concentrations of E. coli and enterococci during the summer of 2002. Both E. coli and enterococci were ubiquitous (up to 97% occurrence), with overall log mean densities (+/- standard errors) of 5.3 (+/- 4.8) and 4.8 (+/- 4.5) per g (dry weight). E. coli and enterococci were strongly correlated in southern Lake Michigan beaches (P Cladophora mats stored at 4 degrees C; the residual bacteria in the dried alga readily grew upon rehydration. These findings suggest that Cladophora amassing along the beaches of Lake Michigan may be an important environmental source of indicator bacteria and call into question the reliability of E. coli and enterococci as indicators of water quality for freshwater recreational beaches.

  1. Coastal Erosion Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, V.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal erosion is bad because the ecosystem there will be washed away and the animals could drown or be displaced and have to adapt to a new ecosystem that they are not prepared for. I'm interested in this problem because if there aren't beaches when I grow up I won't be able to do the things I would really like to do. I would like to be a marine biologist. Secondly, I don't want to see beach houses washed away. I would like to see people live in harmony with their environment. So, to study ways in which to preserve beaches I will make and use models that test different erosion controls. Two different ideas for erosion control I tested are using seaweed or a rock berm. I think the rock berm will work better than the model of seaweed because the seaweed is under water and the waves can carry the sand over the seaweed, and the rock berm will work better because the rocks will help break the waves up before they reach the shore and the waves can not carry the sand over the rocks that are above the water. To investigate this I got a container to use to model the Gulf of Mexico coastline. I performed several test runs using sand and water in the container to mimic the beach and waves from the Gulf of Mexico hitting the shoreline. I did three trials for the control (no erosion control), seaweed and a rock berm. Rock berms are a border of a raised area of rock. The model for seaweed that I used was plastic shopping bags cut into strips and glued to the bottom of my container to mimic seaweed. My results were that the control had the most erosion which ranged from 2.75 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The seaweed was a little better than the control but was very variable and ranged from 1.5 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The rock berm worked the best out of all at controlling erosion with erosion ranging from 1.5 - 2 inches. My hypothesis was correct because the rock berm did best to control erosion compared to the control which had no erosion control and the model with seaweed.

  2. Types and Functions of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; A. Hughes, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives include sheltering of harbour basins and harbour entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection...

  3. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  4. U.S. Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  5. COASTAL Analysis Submission for Middlesex County, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping (April 2003) and Atlantic Ocean...

  6. Coastal Analysis Submission for Pierce County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Final Draft Guidelines for Coastal Flood Hazard Analysis and Mapping for the Pacific...

  7. National Coastal Condition Report IV Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall condition of the Nation’s coastal waters is fair. This rating is based on five indices of ecologicalcondition: water quality index, sediment quality index, benthic index, coastal habitat index, and fish tissue contaminants index.

  8. Integrated Assessment of Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal areas are experiencing change due to a range of natural and human-induced drivers. Of particular concern is climate change, particularly sea-level rise (SLR). In low gradient coastal areas, small changes in water levels can have profound consequences. Hence SLR is rightly considered a major threat. However, to properly diagnose a problem and find sustainable solutions, a systems approach is essential as the impacts of SLR will be modified by the other drivers. This paper will consider these issues from a multi-disciplinary perspective drawing on examples from around the world.

  9. Application of State of Art Modeling Techniques to Predict Flooding and Waves for an Exposed Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. Spaulding

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs are developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA to provide guidance in establishing the risk to structures and infrastructure in the coastal zone from storm surge and coincidental waves. The maps are used by state agencies and municipalities to help guide coastal planning and establish the minimum elevation standard for new or substantially improved structures. A summary of the methods used and results of 2012 FIRM mapping are presented for Charlestown, RI; a coastal community located along the exposed, southern shoreline of the state. Concerns with the methods used in the 2012 analysis are put in context with the National Research Council’s (NRC 2009 review of the FEMA coastal mapping program. New mapping is then performed using state of the art, fully coupled surge and wave modeling and data analysis methods to address the concerns in the NRC review. The new maps and methodologies are in compliance with FEMA regulations and guidelines. The approach makes extensive use of the numerical modeling results from the recent US Army Corp of Engineers (USACE, North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS 2015. Revised flood maps are presented and compared with the 2012 FIRM map to provide insight into the differences. The new maps highlight the importance of developing better estimates of offshore surge dynamics and its coupling to waves, dune erosion based on local observations, and the advancement in nearshore mapping of waves in flood inundated areas by the use of state of the art, two-dimensional wave transformation models.

  10. Detection of coastal and submarine discharge on the Florida Gulf Coast with an airborne thermal-infrared mapping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen; Stonehouse, David; Ebersol, Kristin; Holland, Kathryn; Robbins, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Florida north of Tampa Bay lies a region characterized by an open marsh coast, low topographic gradient, water-bearing limestone, and scattered springs. The Floridan aquifer system is at or near land surface in this region, discharging water at a consistent 70-72°F. The thermal contrast between ambient water and aquifer discharge during winter months can be distinguished using airborne thermal-infrared imagery. An airborne thermal-infrared mapping system was used to collect imagery along 126 miles of the Gulf Coast from Jefferson to Levy County, FL, in March 2009. The imagery depicts a large number of discharge locations and associated warm-water plumes in ponds, creeks, rivers, and nearshore waters. A thermal contrast of 6°F or more was set as a conservative threshold for identifying sites, statistically significant at the 99% confidence interval. Almost 900 such coastal and submarine-discharge locations were detected, averaging seven to nine per mile along this section of coast. This represents approximately one hundred times the number of previously known discharge sites in the same area. Several known coastal springs in Taylor and Levy Counties were positively identified with the imagery and were used to estimate regional discharge equivalent to one 1st-order spring, discharging 100 cubic feet per second or more, for every two miles of coastline. The number of identified discharge sites is a conservative estimate and may represent two-thirds of existing features due to low groundwater levels at time of overflight. The role of aquifer discharge in coastal and estuarine health is indisputable; however, mapping and quantifying discharge in a complex karst environment can be an elusive goal. The results of this effort illustrate the effectiveness of the instrument and underscore the influence of coastal springs along this stretch of the Florida coast.

  11. Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Existing coastal management and defense approaches are not well suited to meet the challenges of climate change and related uncertanities. Professionals in this field need a more dynamic, systematic and multidisciplinary approach. Written by an international group of experts, Coastal Risk...... Management in a Changing Climate provides innovative, multidisciplinary best practices for mitigating the effects of climate change on coastal structures. Based on the Theseus program, the book includes eight study sites across Europe, with specific attention to the most vulnerable coastal environments...

  12. Preliminary assessment of coastal erosion and local community adaptation in Sayung coastal area, central Java – Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Marfai, Muh Aris

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic environment in coastal area, especially due to coastal erosion process, has negative impact on human environment. Sayung coastal area, located in Central Java-Indonesia, has experienced severe impact of coastal erosion. As the result of the coastal erosion, hundreds of settlement located in coastal area has been destructed. Moreover, fishponds as the land use dominated in the coastal area also has been severely destroyed. Besides the coastal erosion, increasing of inundated area due t...

  13. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  14. Reliability-Based Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the application of reliability theory for conceptual design and evaluation of coastal structures. It is without the scope to discuss the validity and quality of the various design formulae available for coastal structures. The contents of the paper is a....... Proceedings Conference of Port and Coastal Engineering in developing countries. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1995....

  15. Urbanisation, coastal development and vulnerability, and catchments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, Cebile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of urban areas that form coastal cities, especially in the WIO, places an increasing demand on natural coastal extractive and non-extractive resources. The use and conversion of coastal land and catchments is considered a permanent effect...

  16. National Coastal Condition Report I Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Coastal Condition Report describes the ecological and environmental conditions in U.S. coastal waters. This first-of-its-kind Report, presents a broad baseline picture of the overall condition of U.S. coastal waters as fair to poor.

  17. Joint Calibration of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) with Tidal Pumping: Modeling Variable-density Groundwater Flow in Unconfined Coastal Aquifer of Apalachee Bay, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Hu, B.; Burnett, W.; Santos, I.

    2008-05-01

    Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) as an unseen phenomenon is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making quantification difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, and temporally variable, and thus makes the estimation of its magnitude and components is a challenging enterprise. A two-dimensional hydrogeological model is developed to the near-shore environment of an unconfined aquifer at a Florida coastal area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Intense geological survey and slug tests are set to investigate the heterogeneity of this layered aquifer. By applying SEAWAT2000, considering the uncertainties caused by changes of boundary conditions, a series of variable-density-flow models incorporates the tidal-influenced seawater recirculation and the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone under the dynamics of tidal pattern, tidal amplitude and variation of water table. These are thought as the contributing factors of tidal pumping and hydraulic gradient which are the driven forces of SGD. A tidal-influenced mixing zone in the near-shore aquifer shows the importance of tidal mechanism to flow and salt transport in the process of submarine pore water exchange. Freshwater ratio in SGD is also analyzed through the comparison of Submarine Groundwater Recharge and freshwater inflow. The joint calibration with other methods (natural tracer model and seepage meter) is also discussed.

  18. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, Peter [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States); Afjeh, Abdollah [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Jamali, Mohsin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Bingman, Verner [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  19. Coastal Management in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Pilarczyk, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    The coast is a very important aspect of life in the Netherlands. 60 % of the Netherlands is below the sea level, everyone lives less than 200 km from a beach, and for most people the sea is less than 50 km away. But in the Netherlands there is officially no Agency for Coastal Zone Management,

  20. Guidelines for Measuring Coastal Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide EPA colleagues in region 1 with background information related to, and a description of, the recently published document entitled "Guidelines for Measuring Changes in seawater pH and associated carbonate chemistry in coastal env...

  1. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  2. Seasonal breaching of coastal barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuan, Thieu Quang

    2007-01-01

    Natural or unintended breaching can be catastrophic, causing loss of human lives and damage to infrastructures, buildings and natural habitats. Quantitative understand-ing of coastal barrier breaching is therefore of great importance to vulnerability as-sessment of protection works as well as to

  3. Wave Overtopping at Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geeraearts, Jimmy; De Rouck, Julien; Troch, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The European research project CLASH (EVK3-CT-2001-00058) investigated wave overtopping at coastal structures. More specific it was to develop a generic prediction method for wave overtopping and to solve the problem of suspected scale effects. The paper summarizes the main results concerning...

  4. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  5. Bacterial chemoautotrophy in coastal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasquez Cardenas, D.

    2016-01-01

    A key process in the biogeochemistry of coastal sediments is the reoxidation of reduced intermediates formed during anaerobic mineralization which in part is performed by chemoautotrophic bacteria. These bacteria fix inorganic carbon using the energy derived from reoxidation reactions. However the

  6. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...

  7. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  8. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.; Sutula, Martha; Caron, David A.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Jones, Burton; Robertson, George; McLaughlin, Karen; Sengupta, Ashmita

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  9. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Innovative GOCI algorithm to derive turbidity in highly turbid waters: a case study in the Zhejiang coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongfeng; Zheng, Lufei; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Deyong; Wang, Shengqiang; Wu, Wei

    2015-09-21

    An innovative algorithm is developed and validated to estimate the turbidity in Zhejiang coastal area (highly turbid waters) using data from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). First, satellite-ground synchronous data (n = 850) was collected from 2014 to 2015 using 11 buoys equipped with a Yellow Spring Instrument (YSI) multi-parameter sonde capable of taking hourly turbidity measurements. The GOCI data-derived Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (R(rc)) was used in place of the widely used remote sensing reflectance (R(rs)) to model turbidity. Various band characteristics, including single band, band ratio, band subtraction, and selected band combinations, were analyzed to identify correlations with turbidity. The results indicated that band 6 had the closest relationship to turbidity; however, the combined bands 3 and 6 model simulated turbidity most accurately (R(2) = 0.821, pcoastal waters is feasible. As an example, the developed model was applied to 8 hourly GOCI images on 30 December 2014. Three cross sections were selected to identify the spatiotemporal variation of turbidity in the study area. Turbidity generally decreased from near-shore to offshore and from morning to afternoon. Overall, the findings of this study provide a simple and practical method, based on GOCI data, to estimate turbidity in highly turbid coastal waters at high temporal resolutions.

  11. Loss of an ecological baseline through the eradication of oyster reefs from coastal ecosystems and human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleway, Heidi K; Connell, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Oyster reefs form over extensive areas and the diversity and productivity of sheltered coasts depend on them. Due to the relatively recent population growth of coastal settlements in Australia, we were able to evaluate the collapse and extirpation of native oyster reefs (Ostrea angasi) over the course of a commercial fishery. We used historical records to quantify commercial catch of O. angasi in southern Australia from early colonization, around 1836, to some of the last recorded catches in 1944 and used our estimates of catch and effort to map their past distribution and assess oyster abundance over 180 years. Significant declines in catch and effort occurred from 1886 to 1946 and no native oyster reefs occur today, but historically oyster reefs extended across more than 1,500 km of coastline. That oyster reefs were characteristic of much of the coastline of South Australia from 1836 to 1910 appears not to be known because there is no contemporary consideration of their ecological and economic value. Based on the concept of a shifted baseline, we consider this contemporary state to reflect a collective, intergenerational amnesia. Our model of generational amnesia accounts for differences in intergenerational expectations of food, economic value, and ecosystem services of nearshore areas. An ecological system that once surrounded much of the coast and possibly the past presence of oyster reefs altogether may be forgotten and could not only undermine progress towards their recovery, but also reduce our expectations of these coastal ecosystems. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. PENATAAN RUANG LAUT BERDASARKAN INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Sunyowati

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The planning of coastal spatial arrangement must be put in the valid spatial planning system. Law Number 26 of 2007 on Spatial Planning and it is in fact related with land spatial planning, although that ocean and air spatial management will be arranged in separate law. The legal for coastal zone management is determined by using the principles of integrated coastal management by focusing on area or zone authority system. The integrated of coastal zones management regulations should be followed by the planning of coastal spatial arrange­ment. Therefore, certain synchronization at coastal zones governance is very important issue since by integrating and coordinating other related regulations and therefore conflict of norm can be minimized in the spatial planning coastal zone.

  13. Recent trends in the abundance of plaice Pleuronectes platessa and cod Gadus morhua in shallow coastal waters of the Northeastern Atlantic continental shelf – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Stenberg, Claus

    2016-01-01

    of the southern distribution boundary in the Bay of Biscay and deepening of stocks in the North Sea. In contrast, no trend in shallow water abundance of plaice similar to a decline in deep-water stocks during the 1970s and their slow recovery during the 2000s is apparent in the Skagerrak/Kattegat. Although......Shallow, near-shore water habitats on the continental shelf of the Northeast Atlantic have been productive fishing areas in the past. Here, we review the present knowledge about (i) recent trends in the abundance of plaice and cod in these habitats and (ii) hypotheses regarding the factors...... responsible for any trends. At present, only a few studies exist on the trends of abundance of plaice or cod, namely from the Bay of Biscay, the North Sea and the Skagerrak/Kattegat. They suggest a declining abundance in coastal, shallow areas and – at least for plaice – a latitudinal gradient with an erosion...

  14. Onshore and nearshore explorations along the Maharashtra Coast: With a view to locating ancient ports and submerged sites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.

    . Amphorae fragments, Red Polished Ware (RPW), copper coins (Kakinis), etc. recovered from the earliest level suggest that Man and Environment XXII (2) - 1997 Rajbandar was a port with trade contacts with the Roman world (Rao 1987). It is believed... times. Schoff (1974) refers to Aurannoboas which McCrindle (1879) identified with modern Malvan. These minor ports had direct contact with Sopara and Kalyan. Shivaji, the great Maratha king constructed several coastal forts including the one...

  15. Effects of oil and chemically treated oil on nearshore under-ice meiofauna studied in-situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, W.E.; Martin, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Meiofauna were collected during May 1982 in the soft bottom layer of nearshore landfast ice at Cape Hatt, northern Baffin Island. Average abundance of all ice meiofauna was 54,000 individualsm/sup -2/. Densities of all meiofauna groups were spatially variable, but only nematodes and cyclopoid copepods showed evidence of progressive temporal change between 18 May and 2 June. Undisturbed, enclosed areas of the under-ice surface were treated with oil on 23-24 May. Dispersed oil was in contact with the ice for 5 hours, whereas untreated oil and solidified oil remained in the enclosures for the duration of the study (12 days post-treatment). Sampling was carried out in areas where oil contacted the ice and moved away or in areas near oil that remained in contact with the under-ice surface. Five hours after treatment, oil concentrations in the water within the enclosures were similar (0.15-0.28 ppm) in untreated oil, solidified oil and control enclosures. In contrast, dispersed oil concentrations were 5.8-36.5 ppm. Densities of all copepods and polychaetes decreased dramatically in each dispersed oil enclosure by the second post-spill day, and slight density increases were evident by the tenth post-spill day. Harpacticoid copepods apparently were more sensitive to dispersed oil than were cyclopoid copepods. Densities of nematodes and cyclopoid copepod nauplii were not affected by dispersed oil. Densities of nematodes, polychaetes and all copepods were not affected by untreated or solidified oil, but there was some evidence of a stimulatory effect of those treatments on some copepod groups and life stages. 24 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Paleoecological Evidence for Late Holocene Range Shifting of Acropora palmata and Orbicella annularis on the Nearshore Southeast Florida Reef Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modys, A. B.; Zuccarelli, C. L.; Oleinik, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    Climate fluctuations on the southeast Florida reef tract have been linked to long-term geographic distribution shifts in framework-building coral species Acropora palmata and Orbicella annularis. Previous data suggest that the boundary for active reef accretion driven by these corals contracted southward to its current position at Biscayne Bay throughout the early to middle Holocene ( 8500-5500 cal BP). However, recent observations have shown that while A. palmata and O. annularis are still functionally absent north of this boundary, they are well represented within late Holocene sub-fossil death assemblages found at 3-4 m depths on the nearshore ridge complex (NRC). To assess this disparity, we performed a systematic comparison of taxonomic composition and diversity of living and dead coral assemblages at two locations on the northern NRC. We also determined an estimated age range for the death assemblages from 2 samples of A. palmata and 1 sample of O. annularis using high-resolution AMS radiocarbon dating. Our results show a clear transition from a late Holocene reef assemblage dominated by A. palmata and O. annularis to a modern reef assemblage dominated by less sensitive Porites astreoides. Sub-fossil A. palmata samples dated to 2950-3140 cal BP and 1820-1960 cal BP (2σ), and the sub-fossil O. annularis sample dated to 2290-2420 cal BP (2σ), indicating a total growth period of at least 1000 years. Our findings provide new evidence for a distinct late Holocene range shift in A. palmata and O. annularis on the northern shallow-water ridge complex of the southeast Florida reef tract system.

  17. Wave-induced coherent turbulence structures and sediment resuspension in the nearshore of a prototype-scale sandy barrier beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Hachem; Thompson, Charlotte E. L.; Amos, Carl L.; Townend, Ian H.

    2015-10-01

    The suspension of sediments by oscillatory flows is a complex case of fluid-particle interaction. The aim of this study is to provide insight into the spatial (time) and scale (frequency) relationships between wave-generated boundary layer turbulence and event-driven sediment transport beneath irregular shoaling and breaking waves in the nearshore of a prototype sandy barrier beach, using data collected through the Barrier Dynamics Experiment II (BARDEX II). Statistical, quadrant and spectral analyses reveal the anisotropic and intermittent nature of Reynolds' stresses (momentum exchange) in the wave boundary layer, in all three orthogonal planes of motion. The fractional contribution of coherent turbulence structures appears to be dictated by the structural form of eddies beneath plunging and spilling breakers, which in turn define the net sediment mobilisation towards or away from the barrier, and hence ensuing erosion and accretion trends. A standing transverse wave is also observed in the flume, contributing to the substantial skewness of spanwise turbulence. Observed low frequency suspensions are closely linked to the mean flow (wave) properties. Wavelet analysis reveals that the entrainment and maintenance of sediment in suspension through a cluster of bursting sequence is associated with the passage of intermittent slowly-evolving large structures, which can modulate the frequency of smaller motions. Outside the boundary layer, small scale, higher frequency turbulence drives the suspension. The extent to which these spatially varied perturbation clusters persist is associated with suspension events in the high frequency scales, decaying as the turbulent motion ceases to supply momentum, with an observed hysteresis effect.

  18. Occurrence of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Cladophora (Clorophyta) in nearshore water and beach sand of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L.; Shively, Dawn A.; Pawlik, Heather; Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2003-01-01

    Each summer, the nuisance green alga Cladophora (mostly Cladophora glomerata) amasses along Lake Michigan beaches, creating nearshore anoxia and unsightly, malodorous mats that can attract problem animals and detract from visitor enjoyment. Traditionally, elevated counts of Escherichia coli are presumed to indicate the presence of sewage, mostly derived from nearby point sources. The relationship between fecal indicator bacteria and Cladophora remains essentially unstudied. This investigation describes the local and regional density of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Cladophora mats along beaches in the four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan) bordering Lake Michigan. Samples of Cladophora strands collected from 10 beaches (n = 41) were assayed for concentrations of E. coli and enterococci during the summer of 2002. Both E. coli and enterococci were ubiquitous (up to 97% occurrence), with overall log mean densities (± standard errors) of 5.3 (± 4.8) and 4.8 (± 4.5) per g (dry weight). E. coli and enterococci were strongly correlated in southern Lake Michigan beaches (P R2 = 0.73, n = 17) but not in northern beaches (P = 0.892, n = 16). Both E. coli and enterococci survived for over 6 months in sun-dried Cladophora mats stored at 4°C; the residual bacteria in the dried alga readily grew upon rehydration. These findings suggest that Cladophora amassing along the beaches of Lake Michigan may be an important environmental source of indicator bacteria and call into question the reliability of E. coli and enterococci as indicators of water quality for freshwater recreational beaches.

  19. Coastal erosion: Coast problem of the Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Jaime Orlando

    1986-11-01

    The erosion promoted by the sea, affects different sectors of the coast of the Colombian Caribbean. The erosion is particularly clear in the central and western sector of the coast. The coastal problem of Punta Sabanilla - Puerto Salgar - Puerto Colombia; Pueblo Nuevo - Lomarena; Manzanillo del Mar; La Boquilla; sector Tolu - Covenas and Arboletes areas are described. This discussion is presented comform to the data obtained in field and of the revision of maps, pictures and other documents related with the coast design. The coastal erosion is not only affecting to low areas conformed by beaches, but rather this phenomenon impacts on rocky cliffs of different elevation; it is the case of El Castillo and Punta Sabanilla to Barranquilla (west Part) sectors . The causes of the setback that it experiences the coast of the Colombian Caribbean are not known in clear form; however they can be contributing such factors as: the elevation of the sea level, phenomenon that has been checked in different costs of the world; equally it can be due to a decrease in the volume of silts contributed by the Magdalena River, inside the coastal area. A third factor would be related with the diapirism of mud, that possibly would be altering the conformation of the Caribbean littoral

  20. Observations of inner shelf cross-shore surface material transport adjacent to a coastal inlet in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Mathias K.; MacMahan, Jamie; Reniers, Ad; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Woodall, Kate; Haus, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Surfzone and Coastal Oil Pathways Experiment obtained Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) Eulerian and GPS-drifter based Lagrangian "surface" (Mexico to describe the influence of small-scale river plumes on surface material transport pathways in the nearshore. Lagrangian paths are qualitatively similar to surface pathlines derived from non-traditional, near-surface ADCP velocities, but both differ significantly from depth-averaged subsurface pathlines. Near-surface currents are linearly correlated with wind velocities (r =0.76 in the alongshore and r =0.85 in the cross-shore) at the 95% confidence level, and are 4-7 times larger than theoretical estimates of wind and wave-driven surface flow in an un-stratified water column. Differences in near-surface flow are attributed to the presence of a buoyant river plume forced by winds from passing extratropical storms. Plume boundary fronts induce a horizontal velocity gradient where drifters deployed outside of the plume in oceanic water routinely converge, slow, and are re-directed. When the plume flows west parallel to the beach, the seaward plume boundary front acts as a coastal barrier that prevents 100% of oceanic drifters from beaching within 27 km of the inlet. As a result, small-scale, wind-driven river plumes in the northern Gulf of Mexico act as coastal barriers that prevent offshore surface pollution from washing ashore west of river inlets.

  1. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    83 National Park Service (NPS) units contain nearly 12,000 miles of coastal, estuarine and Great Lakes shoreline and their associated resources. Iconic natural features exist along active shorelines in NPS units, including, e.g., Cape Cod, Padre Island, Hawaii Volcanoes, and the Everglades. Iconic cultural resources managed by NPS include the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, Fort Sumter, the Golden Gate, and heiaus and fish traps along the coast of Hawaii. Impacts anticipated from sea level rise include inundation and flooding of beaches and low lying marshes, shoreline erosion of coastal areas, and saltwater intrusion into the water table. These impacts and other coastal hazards will threaten park beaches, marshes, and other resources and values; alter the viability of coastal roads; and require the NPS to re-evaluate the financial, safety, and environmental implications of maintaining current projects and implementing future projects in ocean and coastal parks in the context of sea level rise. Coastal erosion will increase as sea levels rise. Barrier islands along the coast of Louisiana and North Carolina may have already passed the threshold for maintaining island integrity in any scenario of sea level rise (U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Program Report 4.1). Consequently, sea level rise is expected to hasten the disappearance of historic coastal villages, coastal wetlands, forests, and beaches, and threaten coastal roads, homes, and businesses. While sea level is rising in most coastal parks, some parks are experiencing lower water levels due to isostatic rebound and lower lake levels. NPS funded a Coastal Vulnerability Project to evaluate the physical and geologic factors affecting 25 coastal parks. The USGS Open File Reports for each park are available at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/. These reports were designed to inform park planning efforts. NPS conducted a Storm Vulnerability Project to provide ocean and coastal

  2. Climate change impacts on U.S. coastal and marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Field, John C.; Boesch, Donald F.; Buddemeier, Robert W.; Burkett, Virginia; Cayan, Daniel R.; Fogarty, Michael; Harwell, Mark A.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mason, Curt; Reed, Denise J.; Royer, Thomas C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Titus, James G.

    2002-01-01

    Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001) was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector review of potential impacts on shorelines, estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, and ocean margin ecosystems. The assessment considered the impacts of several key drivers of climate change: sea level change; alterations in precipitation patterns and subsequent delivery of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment; increased ocean temperature; alterations in circulation patterns; changes in frequency and intensity of coastal storms; and increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Increasing rates of sea-level rise and intensity and frequency of coastal storms and hurricanes over the next decades will increase threats to shorelines, wetlands, and coastal development. Estuarine productivity will change in response to alteration in the timing and amount of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment delivery. Higher water temperatures and changes in freshwater delivery will alter estuarine stratification, residence time, and eutrophication. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to increase coral bleaching and higher CO2 levels may reduce coral calcification, making it more difficult for corals to recover from other disturbances, and inhibiting poleward shifts. Ocean warming is expected to cause poleward shifts in the ranges of many other organisms, including commercial species, and these shifts may have secondary effects on their predators and prey. Although these potential impacts of climate change and variability will vary from system to system, it is important to recognize that they will be superimposed upon, and in many cases intensify, other ecosystem stresses (pollution, harvesting, habitat destruction

  3. Application of State of the Art Modeling Techniques to Predict Flooding and Waves for a Coastal Area within a Protected Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. Spaulding

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs are developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA to provide guidance in establishing the risk to structures and infrastructure from storm surge sand associated waves in the coastal zone. The maps are used by state agencies and municipalities to help guide coastal planning and establish the minimum elevation and construction standards for new or substantially improved structures. A summary of the methods used and a comparison with the results of 2013 FIRM mapping are presented for Warwick, Rhode Island (RI, a coastal community located within Narragansett Bay. Because of its location, Warwick is protected from significant coastal erosion and wave attacks, but is subject to surge amplification. Concerns surrounding the FEMA methods used in the 2013 FIRM analysis are put in context with the National Research Council’s (NRC 2009 review of the FEMA coastal mapping program. New mapping is then performed using state of the art, fully coupled surge and wave modeling, and data analysis methods, to address the NRC concerns. The new maps and methodologies are in compliance with FEMA regulations and guidelines. This new approach makes extensive use of the numerical modeling results from the recent US Army Corp of Engineers, North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS, 2015. Revised flooding maps are presented and compared to the 2013 FIRM maps, to provide insight into the differences. The new maps highlight the importance of developing better estimates of surge dynamics and the advancement in nearshore mapping of waves in flood inundated areas by the use of state of the art, two-dimensional, wave transformation models.

  4. Human impacts quantification on the coastal landforms of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Valero, Nicolás; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.

    2017-06-01

    The coastal areas of the Canary Islands are particularly sensitive to changes, both from a natural perspective and for their potential socio-economic implications. In this paper, the state of conservation of an insular coast is approached from a geomorphological point of view, considering recent changes induced by urban and tourism development. The analysis is applied to the coast of Gran Canaria, a small Atlantic island of volcanic origin, subject to a high degree of human pressure on its coastal areas, especially in recent decades. Currently, much of the economic activity of Gran Canaria is linked to mass tourism, associated with climatic and geomorphological features of the coast. This work is addressed through detailed mapping of coastal landforms across the island (256 km perimeter), corresponding to the period before the urban and tourism development (late 19th century for the island's capital, mid-20th century for the rest of the island) and today. The comparison between the coastal geomorphology before and after the urban and tourism development was established through four categories of human impacts, related to their conservation state: unaltered, altered, semi-destroyed and extinct. The results indicate that 43% of coastal landforms have been affected by human impacts, while 57% remain unaltered. The most affected are sedimentary landforms, namely coastal dunes, palaeo-dunes, beaches and wetlands. Geodiversity loss was also evaluated by applying two diversity indices. The coastal geodiversity loss by total or partial destruction of landforms is estimated at - 15.2%, according to Shannon index (H‧), while it increases to - 32.1% according to an index proposed in this paper. We conclude that the transformations of the coast of Gran Canaria induced by urban and tourism development have heavily affected the most singular coastal landforms (dunes, palaeo-dunes and wetlands), reducing significantly its geodiversity.

  5. Relative contributions of local wind and topography to the coastal upwelling intensity in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxiao; Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Hu, Jianyu; Chen, Ju; Zhuang, Wei; Zu, TingTing; Xu, Jindian

    2014-04-01

    Topographically induced upwelling caused by the interaction between large-scale currents and topography was observed during four cruises in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) when the upwelling favorable wind retreated. Using a high-resolution version of the Princeton Ocean Model, we investigate relative contributions of local wind and topography to the upwelling intensity in the NSCS. The results show that the topographically induced upwelling is sensitive to alongshore large-scale currents, which have an important contribution to the upwelling intensity. The topographically induced upwelling is comparable with the wind-driven upwelling at surface and has a stronger contribution to the upwelling intensity than the local wind does at bottom in the near-shore shelf region. The widened shelf to the southwest of Shanwei and west of the Taiwan Banks intensifies the bottom friction, especially off Shantou, which is a key factor for topographically induced upwelling in terms of bottom Ekman transport and Ekman pumping. The local upwelling favorable wind enhances the bottom friction as well as net onshore transport along the 50 m isobath, whereas it has less influence along the 30 m isobath. This implies the local wind is more important in upwelling intensity in the offshore region than in the nearshore region. The contribution of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity is comparable with that of topography along the 50 m isobath. The effects of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity are twofold: on one hand, the wind transports surface warm water offshore, and as a compensation of mass the bottom current transports cold water onshore; on the other hand, the wind enhances the coastal current, and the bottom friction in turn increases the topographically induced upwelling intensity.

  6. EAARL Coastal Topography-Fire Island National Seashore, New York, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Fredericks, Xan; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Fire Island National Seashore in New York, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on December 4, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne

  7. Long-term nutrient reductions lead to the unprecedented recovery of a temperate coastal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Orth, Robert J; Dennison, William C; Wilcox, David J; Murphy, Rebecca R; Keisman, Jennifer; Gurbisz, Cassie; Hannam, Michael; Landry, J Brooke; Moore, Kenneth A; Patrick, Christopher J; Testa, Jeremy; Weller, Donald E; Batiuk, Richard A

    2018-04-03

    Humans strongly impact the dynamics of coastal systems, yet surprisingly few studies mechanistically link management of anthropogenic stressors and successful restoration of nearshore habitats over large spatial and temporal scales. Such examples are sorely needed to ensure the success of ecosystem restoration efforts worldwide. Here, we unite 30 consecutive years of watershed modeling, biogeochemical data, and comprehensive aerial surveys of Chesapeake Bay, United States to quantify the cascading effects of anthropogenic impacts on submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV), an ecologically and economically valuable habitat. We employ structural equation models to link land use change to higher nutrient loads, which in turn reduce SAV cover through multiple, independent pathways. We also show through our models that high biodiversity of SAV consistently promotes cover, an unexpected finding that corroborates emerging evidence from other terrestrial and marine systems. Due to sustained management actions that have reduced nitrogen concentrations in Chesapeake Bay by 23% since 1984, SAV has regained 17,000 ha to achieve its highest cover in almost half a century. Our study empirically demonstrates that nutrient reductions and biodiversity conservation are effective strategies to aid the successful recovery of degraded systems at regional scales, a finding which is highly relevant to the utility of environmental management programs worldwide.

  8. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    KAUST Repository

    Wild, Christian

    2014-09-16

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29%) when compared to the other sites (4–19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  9. Analyzing the Impacts of Land Use Land Change on Near Shore Coastal Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, R. D.; Ta, E.; Boyle, C.; Alwood, B.

    2017-12-01

    The natural beauty of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) has continued to attract visitors and residents, which overtime has increased human development and impact. The resulting land use change increases sediment loads and the flow of pollutants into surrounding nearshore environments such as coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. Compounded with regional climate-related processes such as rising ocean temperatures and acidification, future land-use change poses a formidable threat to coral reefs and other susceptible marine environments. Without a healthy environment, the USVI economy also becomes endangered because it is mainly supported by tourism and recreation. Using Google Earth Engine, we created a tool to composite yearly Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS and Sentinel-2 MSI images identify changes from 1985 to present day. Using these land cover change maps we then analyzed trends at a watershed scale using hydrological data. We found there is a spatial relationship between development intensity and the health of coral reefs. Our work supports the existing knowledge of the link between land use and coastal ecosystem health.

  10. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Christian; Jantzen, Carin; Kremb, Stephan Georg

    2014-01-01

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12-70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26-29%) when compared to the other sites (4-19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  11. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    KAUST Repository

    Wild, Christian; Jantzen, Carin; Kremb, Stephan Georg

    2014-01-01

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29%) when compared to the other sites (4–19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  12. Underwater Topography Detection in Coastal Areas Using Fully Polarimetric SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Bian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR can provide detailed information on scattering mechanisms that could enable the target or structure to be identified. This paper presents a method to detect underwater topography in coastal areas using high resolution fully polarimetric SAR data, while less prior information is required. The method is based on the shoaling and refraction of long surface gravity waves as they propagate shoreward. First, the surface scattering component is obtained by polarization decomposition. Then, wave fields are retrieved from the two-dimensional (2D spectra by the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT. Finally, shallow water depths are estimated from the dispersion relation. Applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology are tested by using C-band fine quad-polarization mode RADARSAT-2 SAR data over the near-shore area of the Hainan province, China. By comparing with the values from an official electronic navigational chart (ENC, the estimated water depths are in good agreement with them. The average relative error of the detected results from the scattering mechanisms based method and single polarization SAR data are 9.73% and 11.53% respectively. The validation results indicate that the scattering mechanisms based methodology is more effective than only using the single polarization SAR data for underwater topography detection, and will inspire further research on underwater topography detection with fully polarimetric SAR data.

  13. The June 2016 Australian East Coast Low: Importance of Wave Direction for Coastal Erosion Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Mortlock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In June 2016, an unusual East Coast Low storm affected some 2000 km of the eastern seaboard of Australia bringing heavy rain, strong winds and powerful wave conditions. While wave heights offshore of Sydney were not exceptional, nearshore wave conditions were such that beaches experienced some of the worst erosion in 40 years. Hydrodynamic modelling of wave and current behaviour as well as contemporaneous sand transport shows the east to north-east storm wave direction to be the major determinant of erosion magnitude. This arises because of reduced energy attenuation across the continental shelf and the focussing of wave energy on coastal sections not equilibrated with such wave exposure under the prevailing south-easterly wave climate. Narrabeen–Collaroy, a well-known erosion hot spot on Sydney’s Northern Beaches, is shown to be particularly vulnerable to storms from this direction because the destructive erosion potential is amplified by the influence of the local embayment geometry. We demonstrate the magnified erosion response that occurs when there is bi-directionality between an extreme wave event and preceding modal conditions and the importance of considering wave direction in extreme value analyses.

  14. Analysis of bathymetric surveys to identify coastal vulnerabilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Hansen, Mark E.

    2015-10-07

    Cape Canaveral, Florida, is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline. The region includes Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, and a large portion of Canaveral National Seashore. The actual promontory of the modern Cape falls within the jurisdictional boundaries of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Erosion hazards result from winter and tropical storms, changes in sand resources, sediment budgets, and sea-level rise. Previous work by the USGS has focused on the vulnerability of the dunes to storms, where updated bathymetry and topography have been used for modeling efforts. Existing research indicates that submerged shoals, ridges, and sandbars affect patterns of wave refraction and height, coastal currents, and control sediment transport. These seabed anomalies indicate the availability and movement of sand within the nearshore environment, which may be directly related to the stability of the Cape Canaveral shoreline. Understanding the complex dynamics of the offshore bathymetry and associated sediment pathways can help identify current and future erosion vulnerabilities due to short-term (for example, hurricane and other extreme storms) and long-term (for example, sea-level rise) hazards.

  15. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  16. Limitations and potential of satellite imagery to monitor environmental response to coastal flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Werle, Dirk; Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Rangoonwala, Amina; Lu, Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Storm-surge flooding and marsh response throughout the coastal wetlands of Louisiana were mapped using several types of remote sensing data collected before and after Hurricanes Gustav and Ike in 2008. These included synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data obtained from the (1) C-band advance SAR (ASAR) aboard the Environmental Satellite, (2) phased-array type L-band SAR (PALSAR) aboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite, and (3) optical data obtained from Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor aboard the Land Satellite (Landsat). In estuarine marshes, L-band SAR and C-band ASAR provided accurate flood extent information when depths averaged at least 80 cm, but only L-band SAR provided consistent subcanopy detection when depths averaged 50 cm or less. Low performance of inundation mapping based on C-band ASAR was attributed to an apparent inundation detection limit (>30 cm deep) in tall Spartina alterniflora marshes, a possible canopy collapse of shoreline fresh marsh exposed to repeated storm-surge inundations, wind-roughened water surfaces where water levels reached marsh canopy heights, and relatively high backscatter in the near-range portion of the SAR imagery. A TM-based vegetation index of live biomass indicated that the severity of marsh dieback was linked to differences in dominant species. The severest impacts were not necessarily caused by longer inundation but rather could be caused by repeated exposure of the palustrine marsh to elevated salinity floodwaters. Differential impacts occurred in estuarine marshes. The more brackish marshes on average suffered higher impacts than the more saline marshes, particularly the nearshore coastal marshes occupied by S. alterniflora.

  17. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  18. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  19. Impacts of shoreline erosion on coastal ecosystems in Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipaporn Chusrinuan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Songkhla Province is located on the eastern coast of the southern Thai Peninsula, bordering the Gulf of Thailand for approximately 107 km. Most of the basin’s foreshores have been extensively developed for housing, tourism and shrimp farming. The beaches are under deteriorating impacts, often causing sediment transport which leads to an unnaturally high erosion rate. This natural phenomenon is considered to be a critical problem in the coastal areas affected by the hazard of coastal infrastructure and reduced beach esthetics for recreation. In this study, shoreline changes were compared between 1975 and 2006 using aerial photographs and Landsat imageries using Geographic Information System (GIS. The results revealed that 18.5 km2 of the coastal areas were altered during the period. Of this, 17.3 km2 suffered erosion and 1.2 km2were subjected to accretion. The most significant changes occurred between 1975-2006. Shoreline erosion was found at Ban Paktrae, Ranot District, with an average erosion rate of 5.3 m/year, while accretion occurred at Laem Samila, MuangSongkhla District with an average accretion rate of 2.04 m/year. The occurrences of shoreline erosion have contributed to the degradation of coastal soil and water quality, destruction of beach and mangrove forests, loss of human settlements and livelihood.These processes have led to deterioration of the quality of life of the residents. Prevention and mitigation measures to lessen economic and social impacts due to shoreline erosion are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of anthropogenic influence in probabilistic forecasting of coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, C. J.; Wilson, K.; Adams, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of large scale coastal behavior is especially challenging in areas of pervasive human activity. Many coastal zones on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts are moderately to highly modified through the use of soft sediment and hard stabilization techniques. These practices have the potential to alter sediment transport and availability, as well as reshape the beach profile, ultimately transforming the natural evolution of the coastal system. We present the results of a series of probabilistic models, designed to predict the observed geomorphic response to high wave events at Fire Island, New York. The island comprises a variety of land use types, including inhabited communities with modified beaches, where beach nourishment and artificial dune construction (scraping) occur, unmodified zones, and protected national seashore. This variation in land use presents an opportunity for comparison of model accuracy across highly modified and rarely modified stretches of coastline. Eight models with basic and expanded structures were developed, resulting in sixteen models, informed with observational data from Fire Island. The basic model type does not include anthropogenic modification. The expanded model includes records of nourishment and scraping, designed to quantify the improved accuracy when anthropogenic activity is represented. Modification was included as frequency of occurrence divided by the time since the most recent event, to distinguish between recent and historic events. All but one model reported improved predictive accuracy from the basic to expanded form. The addition of nourishment and scraping parameters resulted in a maximum reduction in predictive error of 36%. The seven improved models reported an average 23% reduction in error. These results indicate that it is advantageous to incorporate the human forcing into a coastal hazards probability model framework.