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  1. Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons revisited: mating status alters cuticular profiles.

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    Claude Everaerts

    Full Text Available Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs, or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA, affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combined Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry. This allowed us (i to identify 59 cuticular compounds, including 17 new CHs; (ii to precisely quantify the amount of each compound that could be detected by another fly, and (iii to measure the variation of these substances as a function of aging and mating. Sex-specific variation appeared with age, while mating affected cuticular compounds in both sexes with three possible patterns: variation was (i reciprocal in the two sexes, suggesting a passive mechanical transfer during mating, (ii parallel in both sexes, such as for cVA which strikingly appeared during mating, or (iii unilateral, presumably as a result of sexual interaction. We provide a complete reassessment of all Drosophila CHs and suggest that the chemical conversation between male and female flies is far more complex than is generally accepted. We conclude that focusing on individual compounds will not provide a satisfactory understanding of the evolution and function of chemical communication in Drosophila.

  2. The cuticular profile of the aristiform hair as a characteristic feature of Abrawayaomys (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

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    Tarcísio de Souza Duarte; Gisele Lessa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cuticle is the outermost of the three cellular layers of the mammalian hair. It comprises numerous keratinized scales, whose morphology, combined with other microscopic characteristics of the hair, confers characteristic signature traits to various different species. This study aimed to analyze whether the cuticular patterns of the aristiform hair had any signature implications for the two species of the genus Abrawayaomys Cunha & Cruz, 1979. We identified the cuticular profiles ...

  3. The cuticular profile of the aristiform hair as a characteristic feature of Abrawayaomys (Rodentia: Cricetidae

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    Tarcísio de Souza Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cuticle is the outermost of the three cellular layers of the mammalian hair. It comprises numerous keratinized scales, whose morphology, combined with other microscopic characteristics of the hair, confers characteristic signature traits to various different species. This study aimed to analyze whether the cuticular patterns of the aristiform hair had any signature implications for the two species of the genus Abrawayaomys Cunha & Cruz, 1979. We identified the cuticular profiles of A. ruschi and A. chebezi. Both species have similar hair pattern. The base of the hair shows "irregular waved" scales with smooth and continuous edges, and the apex showed "transversal waved" small-sized scales with continuous and ornamented edges. The middle portion of the hair exhibits different cuticular patterns on different sides of a single hair follicle: "transversal waved" on the dorsal side and "narrow losangled" on the ventral side. This distribution pattern of the cuticular scales is an unprecedented record for any mammal, and it is an important generic feature that allows the identification of single samples, such as those found in predators' gastrointestinal contents. The species in question are considered rare due to the restricted number of specimens deposited in scientific collections. Our findings may contribute to expanding the species' geographic range by making it possible to identify it in various situations. These results highlight the relevance of studies pertaining the identification of the micromorphology of the aristiform hair, which can be used as a tool to accurately identify rodents.

  4. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria. PMID:26775199

  5. The genetics of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in the Fruit Fly Drosophila simulans.

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    Sharma, Manmohan D; Mitchell, Christopher; Hunt, John; Tregenza, Tom; Hosken, David J

    2012-01-01

    Female mate choice is one mechanism of sexual selection and, provided there is adequate genetic variation in the male traits that are the target of this selection, they will evolve via female choice. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are important in Drosophila mate choice, but relatively little is known about the underlying genetic architecture of CHC profiles in Drosophila simulans. Here, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to investigate patterns of genetic variation in the CHC profiles of male and female D. simulans using isofemale lines. We found substantial genetic variation for CHC profiles and individual CHC components, and individual CHCs were frequently strongly genetically correlated, with a tendency for negative covariance between long- and short-chain CHCs in males. Intersexual genetic covariances were often weak and frequently differed in sign. These findings are novel and significant, highlighting the previously unexplored genetic architecture of CHCs in D. simulans and suggest that this architecture may facilitate sex-specific CHC evolution. PMID:22268163

  6. Personality composition alters the transmission of cuticular bacteria in social groups.

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    Keiser, Carl N; Howell, Kimberly A; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2016-07-01

    The initial stages of a disease outbreak can determine the magnitude of the ensuing epidemic. Though rarely tested in unison, two factors with important consequences for the transmission dynamics of infectious agents are the collective traits of the susceptible population and the individual traits of the index case (i.e. 'patient zero'). Here, we test whether the personality composition of a social group can explain horizontal transmission dynamics of cuticular bacteria using the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola We exposed focal spiders of known behavioural phenotypes with a GFP-transformed cuticular bacterium (Pantoea sp.) and placed them in groups of 10 susceptible individuals (i.e. those with no experience with this bacterium). We measured bacterial transmission to groups composed of either all shy spiders, 10% bold spiders or 40% bold spiders. We found that colonies with 40% bold spiders experienced over twice the incidence of transmission compared to colonies with just 10% bold individuals after only 24 h of interaction. Colonies of all shy spiders experienced an intermediate degree of transmission. Interestingly, we did not detect an effect of the traits of the index case on transmission. These data suggest that the phenotypic composition of the susceptible population can have a greater influence on the degree of early transmission events than the traits of the index case. PMID:27381885

  7. Gene expression profiling of cuticular proteins across the moult cycle of the crab Portunus pelagicus

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    Kuballa Anna V

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crustaceans represent an attractive model to study biomineralization and cuticle matrix formation, as these events are precisely timed to occur at certain stages of the moult cycle. Moulting, the process by which crustaceans shed their exoskeleton, involves the partial breakdown of the old exoskeleton and the synthesis of a new cuticle. This cuticle is subdivided into layers, some of which become calcified while others remain uncalcified. The cuticle matrix consists of many different proteins that confer the physical properties, such as pliability, of the exoskeleton. Results We have used a custom cDNA microarray chip, developed for the blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus, to generate expression profiles of genes involved in exoskeletal formation across the moult cycle. A total of 21 distinct moult-cycle related differentially expressed transcripts representing crustacean cuticular proteins were isolated. Of these, 13 contained copies of the cuticle_1 domain previously isolated from calcified regions of the crustacean exoskeleton, four transcripts contained a chitin_bind_4 domain (RR consensus sequence associated with both the calcified and un-calcified cuticle of crustaceans, and four transcripts contained an unannotated domain (PfamB_109992 previously isolated from C. pagurus. Additionally, cryptocyanin, a hemolymph protein involved in cuticle synthesis and structural integrity, also displays differential expression related to the moult cycle. Moult stage-specific expression analysis of these transcripts revealed that differential gene expression occurs both among transcripts containing the same domain and among transcripts containing different domains. Conclusion The large variety of genes associated with cuticle formation, and their differential expression across the crustacean moult cycle, point to the complexity of the processes associated with cuticle formation and hardening. This study provides a molecular entry path

  8. Social closure, aggressive behavior, and cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in the polydomous antCataglyphis iberica (hymenoptera, Formicidae).

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    Dahbi, A; Cerdá, X; Hefetz, A; Lenoir, A

    1996-12-01

    Nestmate recognition was studied in the polydomous antCataglyphis iberica (Formicinae) in the laboratory. The study examined six colonies collected from two different populations 600 km apart in the Iberian peninsula (Barcelona and Murcia). Introduction of an alien worker into an allocolonial arena always ended in death to the intruder, demonstrating that in this species societies are extremely closed. Dyadic encounters composed of individuals from different colonies in a neutral arena confirmed the existence of high aggression between allocolonial individuals. We also investigated variability in the composition of the major cuticular hydrocarbons between the colonies used in the behaviorial tests. There were marked quantitative differences between the profiles of ants from the two populations, suggesting that the populations are completely segregated. Cuticular profiles within a population tended to be more similar, but were nevertheless colony specific. The degree of colony closure inC. iberica seemed to be independent of geographic distance since aggression between the colonies was always at its maximum, irrespective of their population origin. PMID:24227295

  9. Weak patriline effects are present in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of isolated Formica exsecta ants but they disappear in the colony environment.

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    Martin, Stephen; Trontti, Kalevi; Shemilt, Sue; Drijfhout, Falko; Butlin, Roger; Jackson, Duncan

    2012-09-01

    Chemical recognition cues are used to discriminate among species, con-specifics, and potentially between patrilines in social insect colonies. There is an ongoing debate about the possible persistence of patriline cues despite evidence for the mixing of colony odors via a "gestalt" mechanism in social insects, because patriline recognition could lead to nepotism. We analyzed the variation in recognition cues (cuticular hydrocarbons) with different mating frequencies or queen numbers in 688 Formica exsecta ants from 76 colonies. We found no increase in the profile variance as genetic diversity increased, indicating that patriline effects were absent or possibly obscured by a gestalt mechanism. We then demonstrated that an isolated individual's profile changed considerably relative to their colony profile, before stabilizing after 5 days. We used these isolated individuals to eliminate the masking effects of the gestalt mechanism, and we detected a weak but statistically significant patriline effect in isolated adult workers and also in newly emerged callow workers. Thus, our evidence suggests that genetic variation in the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of F. exsecta ants (n-alkanes and alkenes) resulted in differences among patrilines, but they were obscured in the colony environment, thereby avoiding costly nepotistic behaviors. PMID:23139891

  10. Intraspecific and Intracolonial Variation in the Profile of Venom Alkaloids and Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the Fire Ant Solenopsis saevissima Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire ants are aggressive Neotropical ants that are extensively similar in general biology and morphology, making species identification difficult. Some fire ant species are top-rated pests spreading throughout the world by trade vessels. Many researchers attempted to sort between invasive and native species by using chemical characters, including patterns of venom alkaloids. The present study is the first to report intraspecific variation in some chemical characters, namely, cuticular hydrocarbons and venom alkaloids, within the Brazilian fire ant species Solenopsis saevissima and also reports on within-nest variations among members of different castes. Two different haplotypes (cryptic species of S. saevissima were clearly identified, one presenting a predominant combination of the venom alkaloids cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-undecylpiperidine with the cuticular hydrocarbons C23, 3-Me-C23, 10-C25 : 1, C25, and 3-Me-C25, and the other a predominant combination of cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-tridecenylpiperidine with predominance of 12-C25 : 1, C25, 11-Me-C25, 3-Me-C25, 13-C27 : 1, C27, and 13-Me-C27. Intranest variations revealed that the proportions among these compounds varied sensibly among workers of different sizes, gynes, and males (no alkaloids were detected in the latter. Larva contained vestiges of the same compounds. The recorded chemical profiles are quite different from previous reports with S. saevissima samples from São Paulo. The finds thus support other recent claims that S. saevissima includes cryptic species; the study, moreover, adds the find that they can occur in the same geographical location.

  11. Replicated evolutionary divergence in the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of male crickets associated with the loss of song in the Hawaiian archipelago.

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    Simmons, L W; Thomas, M L; Gray, B; Zuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Female choice based on male secondary sexual traits is well documented, although the extent to which this selection can drive an evolutionary divergence in male traits among populations is less clear. Male field crickets Teleogryllus oceanicus attract females using a calling song and once contacted switch to courtship song to persuade them to mate. These crickets also secrete onto their cuticle a cocktail of long-chained fatty acids or cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Females choose among potential mates based on the structure of male acoustic signals and on the composition of male CHC profiles. Here, we utilize two naturally occurring mutations that have arisen independently on two Hawaiian islands and render the male silent to ask whether the evolutionary loss of acoustic signalling can drive an evolutionary divergence in the alternative signalling modality, male CHC profiles. QST -FST comparisons revealed strong patterns of CHC divergence among three populations of crickets on the islands of Hawaii, Oahu and Kauai. Contrasts between wild-type and flatwing males on the islands of Oahu and Kauai indicated that variation in male CHC profiles within populations is associated with the loss of acoustic signalling; flatwing males had a relatively low abundance of long-chained CHCs relative to the short-chained CHCs that females find attractive. Given their dual functions in desiccation resistance and sexual signalling, insect CHCs may be particularly important traits for reproductive isolation and ultimately speciation. PMID:25228329

  12. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  13. Carbon Nanomaterials Alter Global Gene Expression Profiles.

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    Woodman, Sara; Short, John C W; McDermott, Hyoeun; Linan, Alexander; Bartlett, Katelyn; Gadila, Shiva Kumar Goud; Schmelzle, Katie; Wanekaya, Adam; Kim, Kyoungtae

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), which include carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their derivatives, have diverse technological and biomedical applications. The potential toxicity of CNMs to cells and tissues has become an important emerging question in nanotechnology. To assess the toxicity of CNTs and fullerenol C60(OH)24, we in the present work used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the simplest eukaryotic organisms that share fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. We found that treatment with CNMs, regardless of their physical shape, negatively affected the growth rates, end-point cell densities and doubling times of CNM-exposed yeast cells when compared to unexposed cells. To investigate potential mechanisms behind the CNMs-induced growth defects, we performed RNA-Seq dependent transcriptional analysis and constructed global gene expression profiles of fullerenol C60(OH)24- and CNT-treated cells. When compared to non-treated control cells, CNM-treated cells displayed differential expression of genes whose functions are implicated in membrane transporters and stress response, although differentially expressed genes were not consistent between CNT- and fullerenol C60(OH)24-treated groups, leading to our conclusion that CNMs could serve as environmental toxic factors to eukaryotic cells. PMID:27483901

  14. How does the mite Varroa destructor kill the honeybee Apis mellifera? Alteration of cuticular hydrcarbons and water loss in infested honeybees.

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    Annoscia, Desiderato; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Nazzi, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Several factors threaten the health of honeybees; among them the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the Deformed Wing Virus play a major role. Recently, the dangerous interplay between the mite and the virus was studied in detail and the transition, triggered by mite feeding, from a benign covert infection to a devastating viral outbreak, characterized by an intense viral replication, associated with some characteristic symptoms, was described. In order to gain insight into the events preceding that crucial transition we carried out standardized lab experiments aiming at studying the effects of parasitization in asymptomatic bees to establish a relationship between such effects and bee mortality. It appears that parasitization alters the capacity of the honeybee to regulate water exchange; this, in turn, has severe effects on bee survival. These results are discussed in light of possible novel strategies aiming at mitigating the impact of the parasite on honeybee health. PMID:23041382

  15. The Tomato MIXTA-Like Transcription Factor Coordinates Fruit Epidermis Conical Cell Development and Cuticular Lipid Biosynthesis and Assembly.

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    Lashbrooke, Justin; Adato, Avital; Lotan, Orfa; Alkan, Noam; Tsimbalist, Tatiana; Rechav, Katya; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Widemann, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Pinot, Franck; Granell, Antonio; Costa, Fabrizio; Aharoni, Asaph

    2015-12-01

    The epidermis of aerial plant organs is the primary source of building blocks forming the outer surface cuticular layer. To examine the relationship between epidermal cell development and cuticle assembly in the context of fruit surface, we investigated the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MIXTA-like gene. MIXTA/MIXTA-like proteins, initially described in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) petals, are known regulators of epidermal cell differentiation. Fruit of transgenically silenced SlMIXTA-like tomato plants displayed defects in patterning of conical epidermal cells. They also showed altered postharvest water loss and resistance to pathogens. Transcriptome and cuticular lipids profiling coupled with comprehensive microscopy revealed significant modifications to cuticle assembly and suggested SlMIXTA-like to regulate cutin biosynthesis. Candidate genes likely acting downstream of SlMIXTA-like included cytochrome P450s (CYPs) of the CYP77A and CYP86A subfamilies, LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE2, GLYCEROL-3-PHOSPHATE SN-2-ACYLTRANSFERASE4, and the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE11 cuticular lipids transporter. As part of a larger regulatory network of epidermal cell patterning and L1-layer identity, we found that SlMIXTA-like acts downstream of SlSHINE3 and possibly cooperates with homeodomain Leu zipper IV transcription factors. Hence, SlMIXTA-like is a positive regulator of both cuticle and conical epidermal cell formation in tomato fruit, acting as a mediator of the tight association between fruit cutin polymer formation, cuticle assembly, and epidermal cell patterning.

  16. Serum amino acid profiles and their alterations in colorectal cancer.

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    Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Ceglarek, Uta; Kase, Julia; Conrad, Tim; Witzigmann, Helmut; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin

    2012-08-01

    Mass spectrometry-based serum metabolic profiling is a promising tool to analyse complex cancer associated metabolic alterations, which may broaden our pathophysiological understanding of the disease and may function as a source of new cancer-associated biomarkers. Highly standardized serum samples of patients suffering from colon cancer (n = 59) and controls (n = 58) were collected at the University Hospital Leipzig. We based our investigations on amino acid screening profiles using electrospray tandem-mass spectrometry. Metabolic profiles were evaluated using the Analyst 1.4.2 software. General, comparative and equivalence statistics were performed by R 2.12.2. 11 out of 26 serum amino acid concentrations were significantly different between colorectal cancer patients and healthy controls. We found a model including CEA, glycine, and tyrosine as best discriminating and superior to CEA alone with an AUROC of 0.878 (95% CI 0.815-0.941). Our serum metabolic profiling in colon cancer revealed multiple significant disease-associated alterations in the amino acid profile with promising diagnostic power. Further large-scale studies are necessary to elucidate the potential of our model also to discriminate between cancer and potential differential diagnoses. In conclusion, serum glycine and tyrosine in combination with CEA are superior to CEA for the discrimination between colorectal cancer patients and controls.

  17. Gene Expression Profiling of Biological Pathway Alterations by Radiation Exposure

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    Kuei-Fang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though damage caused by radiation has been the focus of rigorous research, the mechanisms through which radiation exerts harmful effects on cells are complex and not well-understood. In particular, the influence of low dose radiation exposure on the regulation of genes and pathways remains unclear. In an attempt to investigate the molecular alterations induced by varying doses of radiation, a genome-wide expression analysis was conducted. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from five participants and each sample was subjected to 0.5 Gy, 1 Gy, 2.5 Gy, and 5 Gy of cobalt 60 radiation, followed by array-based expression profiling. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the immune system and cancer development pathways appeared to be the major affected targets by radiation exposure. Therefore, 1 Gy radioactive exposure seemed to be a critical threshold dosage. In fact, after 1 Gy radiation exposure, expression levels of several genes including FADD, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF8, TNFRSF10A, TNFSF10, TNFSF8, CASP1, and CASP4 that are associated with carcinogenesis and metabolic disorders showed significant alterations. Our results suggest that exposure to low-dose radiation may elicit changes in metabolic and immune pathways, potentially increasing the risk of immune dysfunctions and metabolic disorders.

  18. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles.

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    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings. PMID:27126064

  19. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0–30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0–20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30–60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0–20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  20. Mycorrhiza alters the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange.

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    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, De-Jian; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-Hua; Wu, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Root hairs and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) coexist in root systems for nutrient and water absorption, but the relation between AM and root hairs is poorly known. A pot study was performed to evaluate the effects of four different AM fungi (AMF), namely, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Diversispora versiformis, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices on root hair development in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings grown in sand. Mycorrhizal seedlings showed significantly higher root hair density than non-mycorrhizal seedlings, irrespective of AMF species. AMF inoculation generally significantly decreased root hair length in the first- and second-order lateral roots but increased it in the third- and fourth-order lateral roots. AMF colonization induced diverse responses in root hair diameter of different order lateral roots. Considerably greater concentrations of phosphorus (P), nitric oxide (NO), glucose, sucrose, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were found in roots of AM seedlings than in non-AM seedlings. Levels of P, NO, carbohydrates, IAA, and MeJA in roots were correlated with AM formation and root hair development. These results suggest that AMF could alter the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange through modulation of physiological activities. F. mosseae, which had the greatest positive effects, could represent an efficient AM fungus for increasing fruit yields or decreasing fertilizer inputs in citrus production.

  1. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Li; Zhongjun Jia; Qingye Sun; Jing Zhan; Yang Yang; Dan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) wi...

  2. Altered Bacterial Profiles in Saliva from Adults with Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, D; Fiehn, N-E; Nielsen, C H;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn whether presence of caries in an adult population was associated with a salivary bacterial profile different from that of individuals without untreated caries. Stimulated saliva samples from 621 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey were analyzed...

  3. Gene Expression Profiling of Biological Pathway Alterations by Radiation Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kuei-Fang; Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Chi, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Ching-Kai; Liu, Ingrid Y.; CHEN, YI-CHENG; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Though damage caused by radiation has been the focus of rigorous research, the mechanisms through which radiation exerts harmful effects on cells are complex and not well-understood. In particular, the influence of low dose radiation exposure on the regulation of genes and pathways remains unclear. In an attempt to investigate the molecular alterations induced by varying doses of radiation, a genome-wide expression analysis was conducted. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from...

  4. A gene-alteration profile of human lung cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    R. Blanco; Iwakawa, R.; Tang, M; Kohno, T.; Angulo, B; Pio, R. (Rubén); Montuenga, L M; Minna, J D; Yokota, J; Sanchez-Cespedes, M.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Aberrant proteins encoded from genes altered in tumors drive cancer development and may also be therapeutic targets. Here we derived a comprehensive gene-alteration profile of lung cancer cell lines. We tested 17 genes in a panel of 88 lung cancer cell lines and found the rates of alteration to be higher than previously thought. Nearly all cells feature inactivation at TP53 and CDKN2A or RB1, whereas BRAF, MET, ERBB2, and NRAS alterations were infrequent. A p...

  5. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 1H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS−/− C57BLKS and eNOS−/− C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS−/− C57BLKS and eNOS−/− C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be useful new tools in metabolomic

  6. Light-Induced Alterations in Striatal Neurochemical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Much of our present knowledge regarding circadian rhythms and biological activity during space flight has been derived from those missions orbiting the Earth. During space missions, astronauts can become exposed to bright/dark cycles that vary considerably from those that entrain the mammalian biological timing system to the 24-hour cycle found on Earth. As a spacecraft orbits the Earth, the duration of the light/dark period experienced becomes a function of the time it takes to circumnavigate the planet which in turn depends upon the altitude of the craft. Orbiting the Earth at an altitude of 200-800 km provides a light/dark cycle lasting between 80 and 140 minutes, whereas a voyage to the moon or even another planet would provide a light condition of constant light. Currently, little is known regarding the effects of altered light/dark cycles on neurochemical levels within the central nervous system (CNS). Many biochemical, physiological and behavioral phenomena are under circadian control, governed primarily by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. As such, these phenomena are subject to influence by the environmental light/dark cycle. Circadian variations in locomotor and behavioral activities have been correlated to both the environmental light/dark cycle and to dopamine (DA) levels within the CNS. It has been postulated by Martin-Iverson et al. that DA's role in the control of motor activity is subject to modulation by circadian rhythms (CR), environmental lighting and excitatory amino acids (EAAs). In addition, DA and EAA receptor regulated pathways are involved in both the photic entrainment of CR and the control of motor activity. The cellular mechanisms by which DA and EAA-receptor ligands execute these functions, is still unclear. In order to help elucidate these mechanisms, we set out to determine the effects of altered environmental light/dark cycles on CNS neurotransmitter levels. In this study, we focused on the striatum, a region of the brain

  7. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stec, Donald F. [Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Wang, Suwan; Stothers, Cody [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Avance, Josh [Berea College, 1916 CPO, Berea, KY 40404 (United States); Denson, Deon [Choctaw Central High School, Philadelphia, MS 39350 (United States); Harris, Raymond [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Voziyan, Paul, E-mail: paul.voziyan@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be

  8. Cuticular hydrocarbons from the bed bug Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentane extracts of male and female bed bugs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in an effort to identify cuticular hydrocarbons. Seventeen hydrocarbons accounting for nearly 99% of the compounds eluting in the cuticular hydrocarbon region were identified. The sample contained ...

  9. The renal metallothionein expression profile is altered in human lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Penkowa, Milena; Andersen, Claus Bøgelund;

    2008-01-01

    -I+II expression profile is altered during lupus nephritis. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on renal biopsies from 37 patients with lupus nephritis. Four specimens of healthy renal tissue served as controls. Clinicopathological correlation studies and renal survival analyses were performed by means...

  10. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  11. Immunological recognition of cuticular transplants in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackie, A M

    1983-01-01

    Transplantation of allogeneic and xenogeneic cuticle onto the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, was carried out in order to compare the specificity of immune recognition of these 'skin grafts' with that of implanted tissues. In order to facilitate interpretation of results, the technique of transplanting cuticle from nymphal donors onto nymphal recipients was adopted - if donor subcuticular epidermis is not recognised as 'foreign', it will grow, fuse with the recipient's epidermal sheet and will be stimulated by the recipient's hormonal signals to produce new cuticle of donor type at the next moult. Neither allogeneic cuticle nor xenogeneic cuticle from Blatta orientalis were recognised as foreign by the immune system of P. americana - dark patches of Blatta-type cuticle were produced at the graft site post-moult. Conversely, xenogeneic cuticle of Blaberus craniifer was not visible post-moult. These results corroborate those from implantation studies, that allogeneic tissues from P. americana and xenogeneic tissues from B. orientalis are immunologically compatible with P. americana, whereas xenogeneic tissue from Blaberus craniifer is incompatible. Whether this incompatibility is immunological or 'positional' has not yet been determined; the observation that xenografts from Nauphoeta cinerea do not reappear on P. americana post-moult, whereas 50% of N. cinerea implants are not recognised as 'foreign', suggests that 'positional incompatibility' (i.e. the signals responsible for formation of cuticular pattern are incorrect for the donor epidermis) may also play an important part in the rejection of N. cinerea cuticular grafts. PMID:6341106

  12. Cuticular hydrocarbon discrimination/variation among strains of the mosquito, Anopheles (Cellia) stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, G I; Davies, D H; Molyneux, D H; Phillips, A; Milligan, P J

    1993-06-01

    Cuticular lipids were removed from adult female Anopheles stephensi Liston and the hydrocarbons present were separated and quantified by gas chromatography. Comparison was made between the hydrocarbons of four An. stephensi strains: Russ, sensitive to DDT and malathion and originally isolated in the former U.S.S.R.; Beech, a DDT-resistant Indian strain with high sensitivity to Plasmodium species; St Mal, a strain from Pakistan shown to be resistant to malathion; and Iraq, a DDT-susceptible strain from Iraq. Discriminant analysis indicated that the four groups were distinct and that, on average, 78% of the population could be separated on the basis of the quantities of some of the cuticular hydrocarbons. The profiles of Beech and Russ or Russ and St Mal could be separated in 98% of the cases. There was reduced segregation between the profiles of St. Mal and Iraq, suggesting greater similarity in the hydrocarbons of these two strains. The usefulness of cuticular hydrocarbon in determining species relationships is discussed. PMID:8257238

  13. Blochmannia endosymbionts and their host, the ant Camponotus fellah: cuticular hydrocarbons and melanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José de Souza, Danival; Devers, Séverine; Lenoir, Alain

    2011-10-01

    Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus) have mutualistic, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Blochmannia whose main contribution to their hosts is alimentary. It was also recently demonstrated that they play a role in improving immune function as well. In this study, we show that treatment with an antibiotic produces a physiological response inducing an increase in both the quantity of cuticular hydrocarbons and in the melanization of the cuticle probably due to a nutritive and immunological deficit. We suggest that this is because it enhances the protection the cuticle provides from desiccation and also from invasions by pathogens and parasites. Nevertheless, the cuticular hydrocarbon profile is not modified by the antibiotic treatment, which indicates that nestmate recognition is not modified. PMID:21943523

  14. Blochmannia endosymbionts and their host, the ant Camponotus fellah: cuticular hydrocarbons and melanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José de Souza, Danival; Devers, Séverine; Lenoir, Alain

    2011-10-01

    Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus) have mutualistic, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Blochmannia whose main contribution to their hosts is alimentary. It was also recently demonstrated that they play a role in improving immune function as well. In this study, we show that treatment with an antibiotic produces a physiological response inducing an increase in both the quantity of cuticular hydrocarbons and in the melanization of the cuticle probably due to a nutritive and immunological deficit. We suggest that this is because it enhances the protection the cuticle provides from desiccation and also from invasions by pathogens and parasites. Nevertheless, the cuticular hydrocarbon profile is not modified by the antibiotic treatment, which indicates that nestmate recognition is not modified.

  15. Cuticular chemistry of males and females in the ant Formica fusca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernenko, Anton; Holman, Luke; Helanterä, Heikki;

    2012-01-01

    Communication between organisms involves visual, auditory, and olfactory pathways. In solitary insects, chemical recognition cues are influenced mainly by selection regimes related to species recognition and sexual selection. In social insects, chemical recognition cues have an additional role...... in mediating recognition of society members and, thereby, allowing kin selection to operate. Here, we examined whether cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are sex-specific and whether males and young queens of the ant Formica fusca have colony-specific profiles. We also investigated whether there is a relationship...

  16. Oxidative Stress Alters miRNA and Gene Expression Profiles in Villous First Trimester Trophoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney E. Cross

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and miRNA changes in placenta as a potential mechanism involved in preeclampsia (PE is not fully elucidated. We investigated the impact of oxidative stress on miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles of genes associated with PE in villous 3A first trimester trophoblast cells exposed to H2O2 at 12 different concentrations (0-1 mM for 0.5, 4, 24, and 48 h. Cytotoxicity, determined using the SRB assay, was used to calculate the IC50 of H2O2. RNA was extracted after 4 h exposure to H2O2 for miRNA and gene expression profiling. H2O2 exerted a concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity on 3A trophoblast cells. Short-term exposure of 3A cells to low concentration of H2O2 (5% of IC50 significantly altered miRNA profile as evidenced by significant changes in 195 out of 595 evaluable miRNAs. Tool for annotations of microRNAs (TAM analysis indicated that these altered miRNAs fall into 43 clusters and 34 families, with 41 functions identified. Exposure to H2O2 altered mRNA expression of 22 out of 84 key genes involved in dysregulation of placental development. In conclusion, short-term exposure of villous first trimester trophoblasts to low concentrations of H2O2 significantly alters miRNA profile and expression of genes implicated in placental development.

  17. Gyroid cuticular structures in butterfly wing scales : biological photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the cuticular structure in the butterfly wing scales of some papilionids (Parides sesostris and Teinopalpus imperialis) and lycaenids (Callophrys rubi, Cyanophrys remus, Mitoura gryneus and Callophrys dumetorum). Using published scanning and transmission electron mic

  18. Tropical parabiotic ants: Highly unusual cuticular substances and low interspecific discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between animal species require that at least one of the species recognizes its partner. Parabioses are associations of two ant species which co-inhabit the same nest. Ants usually possess an elaborate nestmate recognition system, which is based on cuticular hydrocarbons and allows them to distinguish nestmates from non-nestmates through quantitative or qualitative differences in the hydrocarbon composition. Hence, living in a parabiotic association probably necessitates changes of the nestmate recognition system in both species, since heterospecific ants have to be accepted as nestmates. Results In the present study we report highly unusual cuticular profiles in the parabiotic species Crematogaster modiglianii and Camponotus rufifemur from the tropical rainforest of Borneo. The cuticle of both species is covered by a set of steroids, which are highly unusual surface compounds. They also occur in the Dufour gland of Crematogaster modiglianii in high quantities. The composition of these steroids differed between colonies but was highly similar among the two species of a parabiotic nest. In contrast, hydrocarbon composition of Cr. modiglianii and Ca. rufifemur differed strongly and only overlapped in three regularly occurring and three trace compounds. The hydrocarbon profile of Camponotus rufifemur consisted almost exclusively of methyl-branched alkenes of unusually high chain lengths (up to C49. This species occurred in two sympatric, chemically distinct varieties with almost no hydrocarbons in common. Cr. modiglianii discriminated between these two varieties. It only tolerated workers of the Ca. rufifemur variety it was associated with, but attacked the respective others. However, Cr. modiglianii did not distinguish its own Ca. rufifemur partner from allocolonial Ca. rufifemur workers of the same variety. Conclusion We conclude that there is a mutual substance transfer between Cr. modiglianii and Ca. rufifemur

  19. Gyroid cuticular structures in butterfly wing scales: biological photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Michielsen, K.; Stavenga, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the cuticular structure in the butterfly wing scales of some papilionids (Parides sesostris and Teinopalpus imperialis) and lycaenids (Callophrys rubi, Cyanophrys remus, Mitoura gryneus and Callophrys dumetorum). Using published scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, analytical modelling and computer-generated TEM micrographs, we find that the three-dimensional cuticular structures can be modelled by gyroid structures with various filling ...

  20. Sorption of 1-naphthol by plant cuticular fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of aliphatic-rich plant biopolymer to sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds is significantly important because of their preservation and accumulation in the soil environment, but sorption mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study,sorption of 1-naphthol by plant cuticular fractions was examined to better understand the contributions of respective fraction. Toward this end, cuticular materials were isolated from the fruits of tomato by chemical method. The tomato cuticle sheet consisted of waxes(6.5 wt%), cuticular monomer (69.5 wt%), and polysaccharide (24.0 wt%). Isotherms of 1-naphthol to the cuticular fractions were nonlinear (N value (0.82 - 0.90)) at the whole tested concentration ranges. The Koc/Kow ratios for bulk cuticle (TC1), dewaxed cuticle(TC2), cutin (TC4), and desugared cuticle (TC5) were larger than unity, suggested that tomato bulk cuticle and cutin are much powerful sorption medium. Sorption capability of cutin (TC4) was 2.4 times higher than the nonsaponifiable fraction (TC3). The 1-naphthol interactions with tomato cuticular materials were governed by both hydrophobic-type interactions and polar (H-bonding) interactions.Removal of the wax and polysaccharide materials from the bulk tomato cuticle caused a significant increase in the sorption ability of the cuticular material. There was a linear negative trend between Koc values and the amount of polysaccharides or fraction's polarities((N+O)/C); while a linear positive relationship between Koc values and the content of cutin monomer (linear R2 = 0.993) was observed for present in the cuticular fractions. Predominant sorbent of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in the plant cuticular fraction was the cutin monomer, contributing to 91.7% of the total sorption of tomato bulk cuticle.

  1. Cuticular wax biosynthesis as a way of inducing drought resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Plants have evolved diverse adaptive strategies to cope with drought or water deficit conditions, such as stomatal closure, maintenance of root growth and water uptake, and biosynthesis of osmoprotectants. Accumulation of cuticular waxes also contributes to drought resistance. However, it is still unclear how cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated in response to drought and how it is associated with plant responses to drought at the molecular level. The abscisic acid (ABA)-inducible MYB96 tr...

  2. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  3. The composition of cuticular compounds indicates body parts, sex and age in the model butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eHeuskin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals with low or no volatility exchanged during precopulatory gustatory contacts. Yet, knowledge on this latter type of chemicals is so far mostly restricted to the Drosophila fly model. Here we provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the cuticular chemical profile, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds, of a model butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. First, we characterized the body distribution of 103 cuticular lipids, mostly alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Second, we developed a multivariate statistical approach to cope with such complex chemical profiles and showed that variation in the presence or abundance of a subset of the cuticular lipids indicated body parts, and traits involved in B. anynana mate choice, namely sex and age. Third, we identified the chemical structure of the 20 most indicative compounds, which were on average more abundant (1346.4 ± 1994.6 ng; mean ± SD than other, likely less indicative, compounds (225.9 ± 507.2 ng; mean ± SD. Fourth, we showed that wings and legs displayed most of the chemical information found on the entire body of the butterflies. Fifth, we showed that non-random gustatory contacts occurred between specific male and female body parts during courtship. The body parts mostly touched by the conspecific displayed the largest between-sex differentiation in cuticular composition. Altogether, the large diversity of cuticular lipids in B. anynana, which exceeds the one of Drosophila flies, and its non-random distribution and evaluation across individuals, together suggest that gustatory information is likely exchanged during sexual interactions in Lepidoptera.

  4. Experimental alteration of molybdenite: evaluation of the Re-Os system, infrared spectroscopic profile and polytype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Nara, Masayuki; Takano, Bokuichiro; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to clarify the effect of alteration on Re-Os system, near infrared (NIR)-infrared (IR) spectroscopic characteristics and polytype of a natural molybdenite mineral (MoS 2). The molybdenite sample was placed in H 2O and various media of 0.1 mol/L NaCl, NaHCO 3, CaCl 2, and AlCl 3 solutions, and heated in a sealed quartz tube at a temperature of 180°C for 20 d. The unaltered and altered samples were subsequently used for analysis of Re and Os, NIR microscopic observation, and NIR-IR spectroscopy, and microfocus X-ray diffraction (XRD). Molybdenites subjected to NaCl and NaHCO 3 solutions give younger Re-Os ages than that of the original unaltered molybdenite. No significant changes in d spacing and width of micro-XRD patterns can be found in these altered molybdenite, indicating the possibility of Re-Os fractionation without significant structural conversion of molybdenite mineral. These results strongly suggest that the Re-Os system in molybdenite would be frequently disturbed if it has experienced alteration, because alteration by the low salinity (<1%), low temperature (˜180°C) hydrothermal solution containing NaCl and/or CO 2 is commonly found in the natural environment. We maintain, therefore, that one set of analyses of Re and Os in a sample is not enough to determine whether the obtained Re-Os age has been affected by postdepositional alteration, but systematic replicate analyses are indispensable. Additionally, pulverizing all the collected molybdenite in a sample might give misleading results because portions, which have been altered and experienced Re-Os fractionation, may possibly mix into the undisturbed sample and be homogenized. The molybdenite used for the experiment was originally opaque under NIR light. Infrared microscopic and spectroscopic profiles show that some parts of the molybdenite subjected to CaCl 2 and AlCl 3 solutions become transparent to NIR. Increased NIR transmittance is possibly attributed to the

  5. Altered circadian rhythm and metabolic gene profile in rats subjected to advanced light phase shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Herrero

    Full Text Available The circadian clock regulates metabolic homeostasis and its disruption predisposes to obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the effect of phase shifts on metabolism is not completely understood. We examined whether alterations in the circadian rhythm caused by phase shifts induce metabolic changes in crucial genes that would predispose to obesity. Three-month-old rats were maintained on a standard diet under lighting conditions with chronic phase shifts consisting of advances, delays or advances plus delays. Serum leptin, insulin and glucose levels decreased only in rats subjected to advances. The expression of the clock gene Bmal 1 increased in the hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT and liver of the advanced group compared to control rats. The advanced group showed an increase in hypothalamic AgRP and NPY mRNA, and their lipid metabolism gene profile was altered in liver, WAT and BAT. WAT showed an increase in inflammation and ER stress and brown adipocytes suffered a brown-to-white transformation and decreased UCP-1 expression. Our results indicate that chronic phase advances lead to significant changes in neuropeptides, lipid metabolism, inflammation and ER stress gene profile in metabolically relevant tissues such as the hypothalamus, liver, WAT and BAT. This highlights a link between alteration of the circadian rhythm and metabolism at the transcriptional level.

  6. Genome profiling of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: frequent alterations of RAS and RUNX1 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olschwang Sylviane

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML is a hematological disease close to, but separate from both myeloproliferative disorders (MPD and myelodysplastic syndromes and may show either myeloproliferative (MP-CMML or myelodysplastic (MD-CMML features. Not much is known about the molecular biology of this disease. Methods We studied a series of 30 CMML samples (13 MP- and 11 MD-CMMLs, and 6 acutely transformed cases from 29 patients by using Agilent high density array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and sequencing of 12 candidate genes. Results Two-thirds of samples did not show any obvious alteration of aCGH profiles. In one-third we observed chromosome abnormalities (e.g. trisomy 8, del20q and gain or loss of genes (e.g. NF1, RB1 and CDK6. RAS mutations were detected in 4 cases (including an uncommon codon 146 mutation in KRAS and PTPN11 mutations in 3 cases. We detected 11 RUNX1 alterations (9 mutations and 2 rearrangements. The rearrangements were a new, cryptic inversion of chromosomal region 21q21-22 leading to break and fusion of RUNX1 to USP16. RAS and RUNX1 alterations were not mutually exclusive. RAS pathway mutations occurred in MP-CMMLs (~46% but not in MD-CMMLs. RUNX1 alterations (mutations and cryptic rearrangement occurred in both MP and MD classes (~38%. Conclusion We detected RAS pathway mutations and RUNX1 alterations. The latter included a new cryptic USP16-RUNX1 fusion. In some samples, two alterations coexisted already at this early chronic stage.

  7. Cytokine profile and clinical metabolic alterations in HIV-1 infected individuals with and without lipodistrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. R. Pontes-Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART has transformed HIV infection into a chronic condition. Thus, metabolic alterations including lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia have been associated with the use of such medications. The objective of the present study was to analyze clinical metabolic alterations and the profile of TNF-alpha, IFN-Y, IL-2, IL-10, and TNF-alpha type II soluble receptor in serum of HIV-1 individuals with and without lipodystrophy. Eighty-four adults were evaluated, 42 males and 42 females, mean age 37 years, and HAART time of at least 15 months. Two groups were formed, G1: 42 individuals with lipodystrophy, and G2: 42 without lipodistropy. From the HAART used, stavudine was more associated with the lipodystrophy group and zidovudine with the non-lipodystrophy group. CD4 and CD8 values, viral load, glucose, albumin, and lipids were not different between groups, except for triglycerides, which were high in the lipodystrophy group, and HDL, whose concentration was reduced in G1. TNF-alpha, TNF-RII, and IL-10 profiles were high and had positive correlation; IL-2 and IFN-gamma had reduced levels in the lipodystrophy group. High TNF-alpha and its receptor levels seem to be associated with lipodystrophy development in individuals under HAART therapy.

  8. Genetic control of cuticular wax compounds in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, Benjamin J; Potts, Brad M; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Vaillancourt, René E; Fitzgerald, Hugh; Davies, Noel W; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular wax compounds perform functions that are essential for the survival of terrestrial plants. Despite their importance, the genetic control of these compounds is poorly understood outside of model taxa. Here we investigate the genetic basis of variation in cuticular compounds in Eucalyptus globulus using quantitative genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. Quantitative genetic analysis was conducted using 246 open-pollinated progeny from 13 native sub-races throughout the geographic range. QTL analysis was conducted using 112 clonally replicated progeny from an outcross F2 population. Nine compounds exhibited significant genetic variation among sub-races with three exhibiting signals of diversifying selection. Fifty-two QTL were found with co-location of QTL for related compounds commonly observed. Notable among these was the QTL for five wax esters, which co-located with a gene from the KCS family, previously implicated in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes in Arabidopsis. In combination, the QTL and quantitative genetic analyses suggest the variation and differentiation in cuticular wax compounds within E. globulus has a complex genetic origin. Sub-races exhibited independent latitudinal and longitudinal differentiation in cuticular wax compounds, likely reflecting processes such as historic gene flow and diversifying selection acting upon genes that have diverse functions in distinct biochemical pathways.

  9. Alterations in plasma lipid profile patterns in head and neck cancer and oral precancerous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Prabhudas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The changes in lipid profile have long been associated with cancer because lipids play a key role in maintenance of cell integrity. AIMS : The present study evaluated alterations in plasma lipid profile in untreated head and neck cancer patients as well as patients with oral precancerous conditions (OPC and its association with habit of tobacco consumption. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This hospital-based case control study included 184 head and neck cancer patients, 153 patients with OPC and 52 controls. Plasma lipids including: (i Total cholesterol, (ii LDL cholesterol (LDLC, (iii HDL cholesterol (HDLC (iv VLDL cholesterol (VLDLC and (v triglycerides were analysed by spectrophotometric kits. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Student′s t-test was performed to compare mean values of the parameters. RESULTS : A significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol and HDLC was observed in cancer patients (P=0.008 and P=0.000 respectively as well as in patients with OPC (P=0.014 and P=0.000, respectively as compared to the controls. The plasma VLDL and triglycerides levels were significantly lower in cancer patients as compared to the patients with OPC (P=0.04 and controls (P=0.059. The tobacco habituates showed lower plasma lipid levels than the non-habituates. Our data strengthen the evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma lipid levels and head and neck malignancies as well as OPC. CONCLUSION :The lower levels of plasma cholesterol and other lipid constituents in patients might be due to their increased utilization by neoplastic cells for new membrane biogenesis. The findings strongly warrant an in-depth study of alterations in plasma lipid profile in head neck cancer patients.

  10. SERUM LIPID PROFILE AND TRANSAMINASES LEVELS IN HIV PATIENTS ON HAART WITH ADIPOSE TISSUE ALTERATIONS

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    Vijay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND HIV patients receiving highly active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART usually suffer from side effects like hepatitis, neurological problems, abnormal fat distribution etc. Among these, the most physical, mental and cosmetically disturbing side effect is adipose tissue alterations (ATA, also called as lipodystrophy, which is abnormal fat deposition (Lipohypertrophy and/or fat atrophy (Lipoatrophy. AIM Several studies have shown dyslipidemia in patients on HAART, but there are very few studies on the lipid profile changes in patients on ART with ATA. Hence a study was conducted to assess the serum lipid profile and transaminases activity in patients on ART with ATA and also to evaluate whether lipid profile parameters can predict ATA changes in HIV patients on HAART. METHOD Randomly selected HIV positive patients, who were attending ART centre, were included in the study. Twenty five of these patients in whom HAART was yet to be started were considered as Control group, 25 patients on HAART for more than 12 months but without ATA as ART group and 23 patients on HAART with ATA as ATA group. Lipid profile and serum transaminases in all the groups were assayed by standard methods. RESULTS Serum cholesterol and LDL were significantly increased in ART group and ATA group when compared to control group, but there was no significant difference in lipid profile parameters between ART group and ATA group. Serum AST and ALT levels were significantly increased (p<0.02 in ATA group when compared to ART group. Buffalo hump was seen only in females in our study. Lipoatrophy (facial and limbs and central obesity was seen in males. CONCLUSION There was no significant change in lipid profile parameters in ATA group when compared with ART group. Hence lipid profile parameters are not good predictors of ATA changes in HIV patients on HAART. Significant increase in transaminase levels suggests increased hepatotoxity in ATA patients due to HAART drugs. There

  11. cuticleDB: a relational database of Arthropod cuticular proteins

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    Willis Judith H

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect exoskeleton or cuticle is a bi-partite composite of proteins and chitin that provides protective, skeletal and structural functions. Little information is available about the molecular structure of this important complex that exhibits a helicoidal architecture. Scores of sequences of cuticular proteins have been obtained from direct protein sequencing, from cDNAs, and from genomic analyses. Most of these cuticular protein sequences contain motifs found only in arthropod proteins. Description cuticleDB is a relational database containing all structural proteins of Arthropod cuticle identified to date. Many come from direct sequencing of proteins isolated from cuticle and from sequences from cDNAs that share common features with these authentic cuticular proteins. It also includes proteins from the Drosophila melanogaster and the Anopheles gambiae genomes, that have been predicted to be cuticular proteins, based on a Pfam motif (PF00379 responsible for chitin binding in Arthropod cuticle. The total number of the database entries is 445: 370 derive from insects, 60 from Crustacea and 15 from Chelicerata. The database can be accessed from our web server at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/cuticleDB. Conclusions CuticleDB was primarily designed to contain correct and full annotation of cuticular protein data. The database will be of help to future genome annotators. Users will be able to test hypotheses for the existence of known and also of yet unknown motifs in cuticular proteins. An analysis of motifs may contribute to understanding how proteins contribute to the physical properties of cuticle as well as to the precise nature of their interaction with chitin.

  12. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers

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    Lehto Kirsi

    2011-04-01

    -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM were also decreased in these plants, apparently leading to decreased transmethylation capacity. The proteome analysis using 2D-PAGE indicated significantly altered proteome profile, which may have been both due to altered transcript levels, decreased translation, and increased proteosomal/protease activity. Conclusion Expression of the HC-Pro RSS mimics transcriptional changes previously shown to occur in plants infected with intact viruses (e.g. Tobacco etch virus, TEV. The results indicate that the HC-Pro RSS contributes a significant part of virus-plant interactions by changing the levels of multiple cellular RNAs and proteins.

  13. Microarray-bioinformatics analysis of altered genomic expression profiles between human fetal and infant myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Bo; LIU Ying-long; L(U) Xiao-dong

    2008-01-01

    Background The physiological differences between fetal and postnatal heart have been well characterized at the cellular level. However, the genetic mechanisms governing and regulating these differences have only been partially elucidated. Elucidation of the differentially expressed genes profile before and after birth has never been systematically proposed and analyzed.Methods The human oligonuclectide microarray and bioinformatics analysis approaches were applied to isolate and classify the differentially expressed genes between fetal and infant cardiac tissue samples. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the results from the microarray.Results Two hundred and forty-two differentially expressed genes were discovered and classified into 13 categories, including genes related to energy metabolism, myocyte hyperplasia, development, muscle contraction, protein synthesis and degradation, extraceUular matrix components, transcription factors, apoptosis, signal pathway molecules, organelle organization and several other biological processes. Moreover, 95 genes were identified which had not previously been reported to be expressed in the heart.Conclusions The study systematically analyzed the alteration of the gene expression profile between the human fetal and infant myocardium. A number of genes were discovered which had not been reported to be expressed in the heart. The data provided insight into the physical development mechanisms of the heart before and after birth.KONG Bo and LU Xiao-dong contributed equally to this study.

  14. MicroRNA Expression Profiling Altered by Variant Dosage of Radiation Exposure

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    Kuei-Fang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various biological effects are associated with radiation exposure. Irradiated cells may elevate the risk for genetic instability, mutation, and cancer under low levels of radiation exposure, in addition to being able to extend the postradiation side effects in normal tissues. Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is the focus of rigorous research as it may promote the development of cancer even at low radiation doses. Alterations in the DNA sequence could not explain these biological effects of radiation and it is thought that epigenetics factors may be involved. Indeed, some microRNAs (or miRNAs have been found to correlate radiation-induced damages and may be potential biomarkers for the various biological effects caused by different levels of radiation exposure. However, the regulatory role that miRNA plays in this aspect remains elusive. In this study, we profiled the expression changes in miRNA under fractionated radiation exposure in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. By utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and performing cross validations with our previous gene expression profiling under the same radiation condition, we identified various miRNA-gene interactions specific to different doses of radiation treatment, providing new insights for the molecular underpinnings of radiation injury.

  15. A STUDY ON ALTER ATION OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN GESTATIONAL PROTEINURIC HYPERTENSION

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    Evelyn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in lipid metabolism occurs in normal pregnancy during third trimester. This dyslipidemia indicative of insulin resistance is accentuated with Pre - eclampsia and Eclampsia. It contributes to both the pathogenesis of pre - eclampsia and to the risk of later - life cardiovascular disease in these patients. I have attempted to study the alterations in lipid profile in normal pregnancy, pre - eclampsia and eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in Govt . Medical College for a period of 6 months. 25 normotensive non - pregnant women, 25 normal pregnant women, 25 pre eclampsia patients and 25 eclampsia patients were selected All the antenatal were in third trimester. Serum lipid profile was determined. Data analysis was done by excel sheet and SPSS software. RESULTS : Serum Triglycerides, VLDL, Total Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and HDL Cholesterol were significantly elevated in last trimester of normal pregnancy when compared to normal non - pregnant women. Also a significant increase in serum triglycerides and VLDL were seen in pre - eclampsia when compared to that of normal pregnancy. Also a significant decrease in HDL Cholesterol levels were seen in eclampsia when compared to normal pregnancy. CONCLUSION : Dyslipidemia suggestive of an exaggerated insulin resistance was found in pre eclampsia and eclampsia. Early interventions like prevention of obesity, exercise and balanced diet can reduce the risk of future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients.

  16. Microenvironment alters epigenetic and gene expression profiles in Swarm rat chondrosarcoma tumors

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    Hamm Christopher A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage tumors that do not respond to traditional chemotherapy or radiation. The 5-year survival rate of histologic grade III chondrosarcoma is less than 30%. An animal model of chondrosarcoma has been established - namely, the Swarm Rat Chondrosarcoma (SRC - and shown to resemble the human disease. Previous studies with this model revealed that tumor microenvironment could significantly influence chondrosarcoma malignancy. Methods To examine the effect of the microenvironment, SRC tumors were initiated at different transplantation sites. Pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the DNA methylation of the tumors, and SAGE libraries were constructed and sequenced to determine the gene expression profiles of the tumors. Based on the gene expression analysis, subsequent functional assays were designed to determine the relevancy of the specific genes in the development and progression of the SRC. Results The site of transplantation had a significant impact on the epigenetic and gene expression profiles of SRC tumors. Our analyses revealed that SRC tumors were hypomethylated compared to control tissue, and that tumors at each transplantation site had a unique expression profile. Subsequent functional analysis of differentially expressed genes, albeit preliminary, provided some insight into the role that thymosin-β4, c-fos, and CTGF may play in chondrosarcoma development and progression. Conclusion This report describes the first global molecular characterization of the SRC model, and it demonstrates that the tumor microenvironment can induce epigenetic alterations and changes in gene expression in the SRC tumors. We documented changes in gene expression that accompany changes in tumor phenotype, and these gene expression changes provide insight into the pathways that may play a role in the development and progression of chondrosarcoma. Furthermore, specific functional analysis indicates that

  17. Geographical mapping of a multifocal thyroid tumour using genetic alteration analysis & miRNA profiling

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    Li Jing

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC frequently presents as multiple tumour-foci within a single thyroid gland or pluriform, with synchronous tumours comprising different histological variants, raising questions regarding its clonality. Among the genetic aberrations described in PTC, the BRAF V600E mutation and ret/PTC activation occur most commonly. Several studies have investigated the genetic alteration status of multifocal thyroid tumours, with discordant results. To address the question of clonality this study examined disparate geographical and morphological areas from a single PTC (classic PTC, insular and anaplastic foci, and tumour cells adjacent to vascular invasion and lymphocytic infiltrate for the presence of ret/PTC 1 or BRAF mutations. Moreover, we wanted to investigate the consistency of miRNA signatures within disparate areas of a tumour, and geographical data was further correlated with expression profiles of 330 different miRNAs. Putative miRNA gene targets were predicted for differentially regulated miRNAs and immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue sections in an effort to investigate phenotypic variations in microvascular density (MVD, and cytokeratin and p53 protein expression levels. Results All of the morphological areas proved negative for ret/PTC 1 rearrangement. Two distinct foci with classic morphology harboured the BRAF mutation. All other regions, including the insular and anaplastic areas were negative for the mutation. MiRNA profiles were found to distinguish tumours containing the BRAF mutation from the other tumour types, and to differentiate between the more aggressive insular & anaplastic tumours, and the classic variant. Our data corroborated miRNAs previously discovered in this carcinoma, and additional miRNAs linked to various processes involved in tumour growth and proliferation. Conclusion The initial genetic alteration analysis indicated that pluriform PTC did not necessarily evolve

  18. Cuticular behavior of cadmium studies using isolated plant cuticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamel, A.R.; Gambonnet, B.; Genova, C.; Jourdain, A.

    The cuticular retention and penetration of /sup 115m/Cd (metastable cadmium-115) were studied using isolated pear (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) leaves, and apple (Malus pumila Mill. Akane) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cuticles to obtain a better understanding of the behavior of Cd deposited on the aerial parts of plants. Results show that Cd, as CdCl/sub 2/, may be taken up by isolated cuticles. The mean value calculated from results obtained with different cuticular species was 1.4 ..mu..g/ Cd/cm/sup 2/ with CdCl/sub 2/ (11.8 mg Cd/L, pH approx. = 6). The cuticular retention depended greatly on the plant species when results are expressed on the basis of the dry weight. The study of the washing with water or exchange solutions suggests that the retention corresponds to a fraction sorbed as solute and to another fraction constituted by exchangeable Cd ions. At first it increased rapidly, then progressively tended to a saturation level as the concentration varied from 0.5 mg to 1.1 Cd/L. It was observed with dewaxed cuticles that the cuticular matrix was predominantly implicated in the retention. There appeared an interaction with Zn, suggesting a competition for the same sites of fixation. It was possible to reveal the cuticular penetration of Cd through intact cuticles; it was very slow but was greater with diluted HCl than with pure water as a receiver. These results are consistent with data obtained from experiments on the entire plants, showing that the greatest part of Cd deposited on leaves is recovered at the deposit place.

  19. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida species subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Gustavo Mario Calderon-Fernandez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae were ana-lysed by gas chromatography and their structures identified by mass spectrometry. They comprised mostly n-alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes with one-four methyl substitutions. n-alkanes consisted of a homologous series from C21-C33 and represented 33-45% of the hydrocarbon fraction; n-C29 was the major component. Methyl-branched alkanes showed alkyl chains from C24-C43. High molecular weight dimethyl and trimethylalkanes (from C35-C39 represented most of the methyl-branched fraction. A few tetramethylalkanes were also detected, comprising mostly even-numbered chains. Several components such as odd-numbered 3-methylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes of C37 and C39 showed patterns of variation that allowed the differentiation of the species and populations studied. Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma patagonica showed the most distinct hydrocarbon patterns within the subcomplex. The T. sordida populations from Brazil and Argentina showed significantly different hydrocarbon profiles that posed concerns regarding the homogeneity of the species. Triatoma garciabesi had a more complex hydrocarbon pattern, but it shared some similarity with T. sordida. The quantitative and qualitative variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons may help to elucidate the relationships between species and populations of this insect group.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure alters the expression profile of microRNAs associated with vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Petriello, Michael C; Perkins, Jordan T; Shen, Shu; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is correlated with multiple vascular complications including endothelial cell dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PCB-induced activation of the vasculature subsequently leads to oxidative stress and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion proteins. Gene expression of these cytokines/proteins is known to be regulated by small, endogenous oligonucleotides known as microRNAs that interact with messenger RNA. MicroRNAs are an acknowledged component of the epigenome, but the role of environmentally-driven epigenetic changes such as toxicant-induced changes in microRNA profiles is currently understudied. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of PCB exposure on microRNA expression profile in primary human endothelial cells using the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1260. Samples were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip® miRNA 4.0 arrays for high throughput detection and selected microRNA gene expression was validated (RT-PCR). Microarray analysis identified 557 out of 6658 microRNAs that were changed with PCB exposure (p<0.05). In-silico analysis using MetaCore database identified 21 of these microRNAs to be associated with vascular diseases. Further validation showed that Aroclor 1260 increased miR-21, miR-31, miR-126, miR-221 and miR-222 expression levels. Upregulated miR-21 has been reported in cardiac injury while miR-126 and miR-31 modulate inflammation. Our results demonstrated evidence of altered microRNA expression with PCB exposure, thus providing novel insights into mechanisms of PCB toxicity. PMID:27288564

  1. OsWS1 involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated by osa-miR1848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kuaifei; Ou, Xiaojin; Gao, Chunzhi; Tang, Huadan; Jia, Yongxia; Deng, Rufang; Xu, Xinlan; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-12-01

    Cuticular wax forms a hydrophobic layer covering aerial plant organs and acting as a protective barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses. Compared with well-known wax biosynthetic pathway, molecular regulation of wax biosynthesis is less known. Here, we show that rice OsWS1, a member of the membrane-bound O-acyl transferase gene family, involved in wax biosynthesis and was regulated by an osa-miR1848. OsWS1-tagged green fluorescent protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Compared with wild-type rice, OsWS1 overexpression plants displayed a 3% increase in total wax, especially a 35% increase in very long-chain fatty acids, denser wax papillae around the stoma, more cuticular wax crystals formed on leaf and stem surfaces, pollen coats were thicker and more seedlings survived after water-deficit treatment. In contrast, OsWS1-RNAi and osa-miR1848 overexpression plants exhibited opposing changes. Gene expression analysis showed that overexpression of osa-miR1848 down-regulated OsWS1 transcripts; furthermore, expression profiles of OsWS1 and osa-miR1848 were inversely correlated in the leaf, panicle and stem, and upon water-deficit treatment. These results suggest that OsWS1 is regulated by osa-miR1848 and participates in cuticular wax formation.

  2. Matrine alters microRNA expression profiles in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Xie, Shoupin; Liu, Xiaojun; Wu, Hongyan; Lin, Xingyao; Gu, Jing; Wang, Huping; Duan, Yongqiang

    2014-11-01

    Matrine, a major alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens, has been reported to possess antitumor properties in several types of cancers, including gastric cancer. However, its mechanisms of action on gastric cancer remain poorly understood. Dysregulation of microRNAs, a class of small, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules involved in gene expression, is strongly correlated with cancer. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that matrine treatment altered miRNA expression in SGC7901 cells. Using miRCURY™ microarray analysis, we identified 128 miRNAs substantially exhibiting >2-fold expression changes in matrine-treated cells relative to their expression levels in untreated cells. RT-qPCR was used to show that the levels of 8 miRNAs whose target genes were clustered in the cell cycle pathway increased, while levels of 14 miRNAs whose target genes were clustered in the MAPK signaling pathway decreased. These results were consistent with those from the miRNA microarray experiment. Bioinformatical analysis revealed that the majority of 57 identified enrichment pathways were highly involved in tumorigenesis. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that matrine induces considerable changes in the miRNA expression profiles of SGC7901 cells, suggesting miRNA microarray combined with RT-qPCR validation and bioinformatical analysis provide a novel and promising approach to identify anticancer targets and the mechanisms of matrine involved.

  3. Alteration of gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle of rats exposed to microgravity during a spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Wayne E.; Bhasin, Shalender; Lalani, Rukhsana; Datta, Anuj; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F.

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of skeletal muscle wasting during spaceflights, we investigated whether intramuscular gene expression profiles are affected, by using DNA microarray methods. Male rats sent on the 17-day NASA STS-90 Neurolab spaceflight were sacrificed 24 hours after return to earth (MG group). Ground control rats were maintained for 17 days in flight-simulated cages (CS group). Spaceflight induced a 19% and 23% loss of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle mass, respectively, as compared to ground controls. Muscle RNA was analyzed by the Clontech Atlas DNA expression array in four rats, with two MG/ CS pairs for the tibialis anterior, and one pair for the gastrocnemius. Alterations in gene expression were verified for selected genes by reverse-transcription PCR. In both muscles of MG rats, mRNAs for 12 genes were up-regulated by over 2-fold, and 38 were down-regulated compared to controls. There was inhibition of genes for cell proliferation and growth factor cascades, including cell cycle genes and signal transduction proteins, such as p21 Cip1, retinoblastoma (Rb), cyclins G1/S, -E and -D3, MAP kinase 3, MAD3, and ras related protein RAB2. These data indicate that following exposure to microgravity, there is downregulation of genes involved in regulation of muscle satellite cell replication.

  4. Alterations in Polysomnographic (PSG profile in drug-naïve Parkinson′s disease

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    Sanju P Joy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied the changes in Polysomnographic (PSG profile in drug-naïve patients of Parkinson′s disease (PD who underwent evaluation with sleep overnight PSG. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 30 with newly diagnosed levodopa-naïve patients with PD, fulfilling the UK-PD society brain bank clinical diagnostic criteria (M:F = 25:5; age: 57.2 ± 10.7 years. The disease severity scales and sleep related questionnaires were administered, and then patients were subjected to overnight PSG. Results: The mean duration of illness was 9.7 ± 9.5 months. The mean Hoehn and Yahr stage was 1.8 ± 0.4. The mean Unified Parkinson′s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS motor score improved from 27.7 ± 9.2 to 17.5 ± 8.9 with sustained usage of levodopa. Nocturnal sleep as assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was impaired in 10 (33.3% patients (mean PSQI score: 5.1 ± 3.1. Excessive day time somnolence was recorded in three patients with Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS score ≥ 10 (mean ESS score: 4.0 ± 3.4. PSG analysis revealed that poor sleep efficiency of <85% was present in 86.7% of patients (mean: 68.3 ± 21.3%. The latencies to sleep onset (mean: 49.8 ± 67.0 minutes and stage 2 sleep (36.5 ± 13.1% were prolonged while slow wave sleep was shortened. Respiration during sleep was significantly impaired in which 43.3% had impaired apnoea hyperpnoea index (AHI ≥5, mean AHI: 8.3 ± 12.1. Apnoeic episodes were predominantly obstructive (obstructive sleep apnea, OSA index = 2.2 ± 5.1. These patients had periodic leg movement (PLM disorder (56.7% had PLM index of 5 or more, mean PLMI: 27.53 ± 4 9.05 that resulted in excessive daytime somnolence. Conclusions: To conclude, sleep macro-architecture is altered in frequently and variably in levodopa-naοve patients of PD and the alterations are possibly due to disease process per se.

  5. Varroa destructor changes its cuticular hydrocarbons to mimic new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Conte, Y; Huang, Z Y; Roux, M; Zeng, Z J; Christidès, J-P; Bagnères, A-G

    2015-06-01

    Varroa destructor (Vd) is a honeybee ectoparasite. Its original host is the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, but it has also become a severe, global threat to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Previous studies have shown that Varroa can mimic a host's cuticular hydrocarbons (HC), enabling the parasite to escape the hygienic behaviour of the host honeybees. By transferring mites between the two honeybee species, we further demonstrate that Vd is able to mimic the cuticular HC of a novel host species when artificially transferred to this new host. Mites originally from A. cerana are more efficient than mites from A. mellifera in mimicking HC of both A. cerana and A. mellifera. This remarkable adaptability may explain their relatively recent host-shift from A. cerana to A. mellifera.

  6. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of Orchid Bees Males: Interspecific and Chemotaxonomy Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Aline Borba; do Nascimento, Fábio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have investigated the composition of compounds that cover the cuticle in social insects, but few studies have focused on solitary bees. Cuticular hydrocarbons may provide a tool for chemotaxonomy, and perhaps they can be used as a complement to morphology and genetic characters in phylogenetic studies. Orchid bees (Tribe Euglossini) are a highly diverse group of Neotropical bees with more than 200 species. Here, the cuticular hydrocarbons of 17 species were identified and statistical analysis revealed 108 compounds, which allowed for the taxonomic classification according to the genera. The most significant compounds discriminating the four genera were (Z)-9-pentacosene, (Z,Z)-pentatriacontene-3, (Z)-9-tricosene, and (Z)-9-heptacosene. The analyses demonstrated the potential use of CHCs to identify different species. PMID:26713612

  7. Varroa destructor changes its cuticular hydrocarbons to mimic new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Conte, Y; Huang, Z Y; Roux, M; Zeng, Z J; Christidès, J-P; Bagnères, A-G

    2015-06-01

    Varroa destructor (Vd) is a honeybee ectoparasite. Its original host is the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, but it has also become a severe, global threat to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Previous studies have shown that Varroa can mimic a host's cuticular hydrocarbons (HC), enabling the parasite to escape the hygienic behaviour of the host honeybees. By transferring mites between the two honeybee species, we further demonstrate that Vd is able to mimic the cuticular HC of a novel host species when artificially transferred to this new host. Mites originally from A. cerana are more efficient than mites from A. mellifera in mimicking HC of both A. cerana and A. mellifera. This remarkable adaptability may explain their relatively recent host-shift from A. cerana to A. mellifera. PMID:26041867

  8. Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Youngseop; Kim, Ha Gon; Choi, Ki-Ju; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Park, Seongchong; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2012-01-01

    Cuticular nanostructures found in insects effectively manage light for light polarization, structural color, or optical index matching within an ultrathin natural scale. These nanostructures are mainly dedicated to manage incoming light and recently inspired many imaging and display applications. A bioluminescent organ, such as a firefly lantern, helps to out-couple light from the body in a highly efficient fashion for delivering strong optical signals in sexual communication. However, the cu...

  9. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

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    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications. OBJECTIVES: This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air. METHODS: Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information. RESULTS: Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2. Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change. CONCLUSIONS: Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  10. Erythritol alters microstructure and metabolomic profiles of biofilm composed of Streptococcus gordonii and Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashino, E; Kuboniwa, M; Alghamdi, S A; Yamaguchi, M; Yamamoto, R; Cho, H; Amano, A

    2013-12-01

    The effects of sugar alcohols such as erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol on periodontopathic biofilm are poorly understood, though they have often been reported to be non-cariogenic sweeteners. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of sugar alcohols for inhibiting periodontopathic biofilm formation using a heterotypic biofilm model composed of an oral inhabitant Streptococcus gordonii and a periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. Confocal microscopic observations showed that the most effective reagent to reduce P. gingivalis accumulation onto an S. gordonii substratum was erythritol, as compared with xylitol and sorbitol. In addition, erythritol moderately suppressed S. gordonii monotypic biofilm formation. To examine the inhibitory effects of erythritol, we analyzed the metabolomic profiles of erythritol-treated P. gingivalis and S. gordonii cells. Metabolome analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed that a number of nucleic intermediates and constituents of the extracellular matrix, such as nucleotide sugars, were decreased by erythritol in a dose-dependent manner. Next, comparative analyses of metabolites of erythritol- and sorbitol-treated cells were performed using both organisms to determine the erythritol-specific effects. In P. gingivalis, all detected dipeptides, including Glu-Glu, Ser-Glu, Tyr-Glu, Ala-Ala and Thr-Asp, were significantly decreased by erythritol, whereas they tended to be increased by sorbitol. Meanwhile, sorbitol promoted trehalose 6-phosphate accumulation in S. gordonii cells. These results suggest that erythritol has inhibitory effects on dual species biofilm development via several pathways, including suppression of growth resulting from DNA and RNA depletion, attenuated extracellular matrix production, and alterations of dipeptide acquisition and amino acid metabolism.

  11. Altered Gene Expression Profile in Mouse Bladder Cancers Induced by Hydroxybutyl(butylnitrosamine

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    Ruisheng Yao

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A variety of genetic alterations and gene expression changes are involved in the pathogenesis of bladder tumor. To explore these changes, oligonucleotide array analysis was performed on RNA obtained from carcinogen-induced mouse bladder tumors and normal mouse bladder epithelia using Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA MGU74Av2 GeneChips. Analysis yielded 1164 known genes that were changed in the tumors. Certain of the upregulated genes included EGFR-Ras signaling genes, transcription factors, cell cycle-related genes, and intracellular signaling cascade genes. However, downregulated genes include mitogen-activated protein kinases, cell cycle checkpoint genes, Rab subfamily genes, Rho subfamily genes, and SH2 and SH3 domains-related genes. These genes are involved in a broad range of different pathways including control of cell proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Using the pathway visualization tool GenMAPP, we found that several genes, including TbR-l, STAT1, Smad1, Smad2, Jun, NFκB, and so on, in the TGF-β signaling pathway and p115 RhoGEF, RhoGDl3, MEKK4A/MEKK4B, P13KA, and JNK in the G13 signaling pathway were differentially expressed in the tumors. In summary, we have determined the expression profiles of genes differentially expressed during mouse bladder tumorigenesis. Our results suggest that activation of the EGFR-Ras pathway, uncontrolled cell cycle, aberrant transcription factors, and G13 and TGF-β pathways are involved, and the cross-talk between these pathways seems to play important roles in mouse bladder tumorigenesis.

  12. Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

  13. Cuticular hydrocarbons as potential kin recognition cues in a subsocial spider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Bilde, Trine; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    In animal societies, recognition of group members and relatives is an important trait for the evolution and maintenance of social behavior. In eusocial insects, nest mate recognition is based on cuticular hydrocarbons and allows colony members to reject competitors and parasites. The study...... cuticular hydrocarbons candidates for kin recognition cues. Our behavioral assays indicate that spiderlings can discriminate between cuticular cues from kin and nonkin: In a choice set-up, spiderlings more often chose to reside near cuticular chemical extracts of siblings compared with nonsiblings...

  14. Changes in composition of cuticular biochemicals of the facultatively polygynous ant Petalomyrmex phylax during range expansion in Cameroon with respect to social, spatial and genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecky, Ambroise; Renucci, Marielle; Tirard, Alain; Debout, Gabriel; Roux, Maurice; Kjellberg, Finn; Provost, Erick

    2007-09-01

    In social insects, biochemicals found at the surface of the cuticle are involved in the recognition process and in protection against desiccation and pathogens. However, the relative contribution of evolutionary forces in shaping diversity of these biochemicals remains largely unresolved in ants. We determined the composition of epicuticular biochemicals for workers sampled in 12 populations of the ant Petalomyrmex phylax from Cameroon. Genetic variation at 12 microsatellite markers was used to infer population history and to provide null expectations under the neutrality hypothesis. Genetic data suggest a recent southward range expansion of this ant species. Furthermore, there is a decline southward in the numbers of queens present in mature colonies. Here, we contrast the pattern of biochemical variation against genetic, social and spatial parameters. We thus provide the first estimates of the relative contribution of neutral and selective processes on variation of ant cuticular profile. Populations in migration-drift disequilibrium showed reduction of within-population variation for genetic markers as well as for cuticular profiles. In these populations, the cuticular profile became biased towards a limited number of high molecular weight molecules. Within- and among-population biochemical variation was explained by both genetic and social variation and by the spatial distribution of populations. We therefore propose that during range expansion of P. phylax, the composition of epicuticular compounds has been affected by a combination of neutral processes - genetic drift and spatially limited dispersal - and spatially varying selection, social organization and environmental effects. PMID:17850545

  15. Diaphragm Unloading via Controlled Mechanical Ventilation Alters the Gene Expression Profile

    OpenAIRE

    DeRuisseau, Keith C.; Shanely, R Andrew; Akunuri, Nagabhavani; Hamilton, Marc T.; Van Gammeren, Darin; Zergeroglu, A. Murat; McKenzie, Michael; Powers, Scott K.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation results in diaphragmatic inactivity and promotes oxidative injury, atrophy, and contractile dysfunction in this important inspiratory muscle. However, the impact of controlled mechanical ventilation on global mRNA alterations in the diaphragm remains unknown.

  16. Altered colonic function and microbiota profile in a mouse model of chronic depression

    OpenAIRE

    Park, A J; Collins, J.; BLENNERHASSETT, P. A.; Ghia, J E; Verdu, E. F.; Bercik, P; COLLINS, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression often coexists with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) which is characterized by alterations in gut function. There is emerging evidence that the microbial composition (microbiota) of the gut is altered in IBS, but the basis for this is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the induction of chronic depression results in changes in the colonic function and in its microbial community, and to explore underlying mechanisms. Methods Bilateral olfac...

  17. Accuracy of cuticular resistance parameterizations in ammonia dry deposition models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Frederik; Brümmer, Christian; Richter, Undine; Fléchard, Chris; Wichink Kruit, Roy; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2016-04-01

    Accurate representation of total reactive nitrogen (Nr) exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere is a crucial part of modern air quality models. However, bi-directional exchange of ammonia (NH3), the dominant Nr species in agricultural landscapes, still poses a major source of uncertainty in these models, where especially the treatment of non-stomatal pathways (e.g. exchange with wet leaf surfaces or the ground layer) can be challenging. While complex dynamic leaf surface chemistry models have been shown to successfully reproduce measured ammonia fluxes on the field scale, computational restraints and the lack of necessary input data have so far limited their application in larger scale simulations. A variety of different approaches to modelling dry deposition to leaf surfaces with simplified steady-state parameterizations have therefore arisen in the recent literature. We present a performance assessment of selected cuticular resistance parameterizations by comparing them with ammonia deposition measurements by means of eddy covariance (EC) and the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM) at a number of semi-natural and grassland sites in Europe. First results indicate that using a state-of-the-art uni-directional approach tends to overestimate and using a bi-directional cuticular compensation point approach tends to underestimate cuticular resistance in some cases, consequently leading to systematic errors in the resulting flux estimates. Using the uni-directional model, situations where low ratios of total atmospheric acids to NH3 concentration occur lead to fairly high minimum cuticular resistances, limiting predicted downward fluxes in conditions usually favouring deposition. On the other hand, the bi-directional model used here features a seasonal cycle of external leaf surface emission potentials that can lead to comparably low effective resistance estimates under warm and wet conditions, when in practice an expected increase in the compensation point due to

  18. Immune function responds to selection for cuticular colour in Tenebrio molitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia; Siva-Jothy, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    individuals. Cuticular colour is dependent upon melanin production, which requires the enzyme PO that is present in its inactive form inside haemocytes. Thus, the observed correlated response to selection upon cuticular colour and immune variables probably results from these traits' shared dependence on...... melanin production....

  19. δ-Catenin promotes prostate cancer cell growth and progression by altering cell cycle and survival gene profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yan-Hua

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background δ-Catenin is a unique member of β-catenin/armadillo domain superfamily proteins and its primary expression is restricted to the brain. However, δ-catenin is upregulated in human prostatic adenocarcinomas, although the effects of δ-catenin overexpression in prostate cancer are unclear. We hypothesized that δ-catenin plays a direct role in prostate cancer progression by altering gene profiles of cell cycle regulation and cell survival. Results We employed gene transfection and small interfering RNA to demonstrate that increased δ-catenin expression promoted, whereas its knockdown suppressed prostate cancer cell viability. δ-Catenin promoted prostate cancer cell colony formation in soft agar as well as tumor xenograft growth in nude mice. Deletion of either the amino-terminal or carboxyl-terminal sequences outside the armadillo domains abolished the tumor promoting effects of δ-catenin. Quantitative RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays demonstrated gene alterations involved in cell cycle and survival regulation. δ-Catenin overexpression upregulated cyclin D1 and cdc34, increased phosphorylated histone-H3, and promoted the entry of mitosis. In addition, δ-catenin overexpression resulted in increased expression of cell survival genes Bcl-2 and survivin while reducing the cell cycle inhibitor p21Cip1. Conclusion Taken together, our studies suggest that at least one consequence of an increased expression of δ-catenin in human prostate cancer is the alteration of cell cycle and survival gene profiles, thereby promoting tumor progression.

  20. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Dos Anjos, Fabyana Maria; Shimada, Ana Lúcia; Cruz, Wesley Soares; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Cardozo, Karina Helena Morais; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra Helena

    2016-06-01

    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood biochemical profile. Pancreatic toxicity was measured by inflammatory parameters, cell viability and cycle, free radical generation, and proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans. In vivo PCB126 exposure enhanced the body weight gain, impaired insulin sensitivity, reduced adipose tissue deposit, and elevated serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin levels. Inflammatory parameters in the pancreas and cell morphology, viability and cycle were not altered in islets of Langerhans. Nevertheless, in vivo PCB126 exposure increased free radical generation and modified the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress on islets of Langerhans, which are indicative of early β-cell failure. Data herein obtained show that long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure through intranasal route induced alterations on islets of Langerhans related to early end points of DM2.

  1. Determination of Diffusion Profiles in Altered Wellbore Cement Using X-ray Computed Tomography Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Harris E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walsh, Stuart D. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); DuFrane, Wyatt L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carroll, Susan A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-06-17

    The development of accurate, predictive models for use in determining wellbore integrity requires detailed information about the chemical and mechanical changes occurring in hardened Portland cements. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) provides a method that can nondestructively probe these changes in three dimensions. Here, we describe a method for extracting subvoxel mineralogical and chemical information from synchrotron XRCT images by combining advanced image segmentation with geochemical models of cement alteration. The method relies on determining “effective linear activity coefficients” (ELAC) for the white light source to generate calibration curves that relate the image grayscales to material composition. The resulting data set supports the modeling of cement alteration by CO2-rich brine with discrete increases in calcium concentration at reaction boundaries. The results of these XRCT analyses can be used to further improve coupled geochemical and mechanical models of cement alteration in the wellbore environment.

  2. Determination of diffusion profiles in altered wellbore cement using X-ray computed tomography methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Harris E; Walsh, Stuart D C; DuFrane, Wyatt L; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-06-17

    The development of accurate, predictive models for use in determining wellbore integrity requires detailed information about the chemical and mechanical changes occurring in hardened Portland cements. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) provides a method that can nondestructively probe these changes in three dimensions. Here, we describe a method for extracting subvoxel mineralogical and chemical information from synchrotron XRCT images by combining advanced image segmentation with geochemical models of cement alteration. The method relies on determining "effective linear activity coefficients" (ELAC) for the white light source to generate calibration curves that relate the image grayscales to material composition. The resulting data set supports the modeling of cement alteration by CO2-rich brine with discrete increases in calcium concentration at reaction boundaries. The results of these XRCT analyses can be used to further improve coupled geochemical and mechanical models of cement alteration in the wellbore environment. PMID:24869420

  3. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  4. Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Youngseop; Kim, Ha Gon; Choi, Ki-Ju; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Park, Seongchong; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2012-11-13

    Cuticular nanostructures found in insects effectively manage light for light polarization, structural color, or optical index matching within an ultrathin natural scale. These nanostructures are mainly dedicated to manage incoming light and recently inspired many imaging and display applications. A bioluminescent organ, such as a firefly lantern, helps to out-couple light from the body in a highly efficient fashion for delivering strong optical signals in sexual communication. However, the cuticular nanostructures, except the light-producing reactions, have not been well investigated for physical principles and engineering biomimetics. Here we report a unique observation of high-transmission nanostructures on a firefly lantern and its biological inspiration for highly efficient LED illumination. Both numerical and experimental results clearly reveal high transmission through the nanostructures inspired from the lantern cuticle. The nanostructures on an LED lens surface were fabricated by using a large-area nanotemplating and reconfigurable nanomolding with heat-induced shear thinning. The biologically inspired LED lens, distinct from a smooth surface lens, substantially increases light transmission over visible ranges, comparable to conventional antireflection coating. This biological inspiration can offer new opportunities for increasing the light extraction efficiency of high-power LED packages.

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor, but Not Neutrophils, Alters the Metabolic Profile in Acute Experimental Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina C Oliveira

    Full Text Available Metabolic alterations are associated with arthritis apart from obesity. However, it is still unclear which is the underlying process behind these metabolic changes. Here, we investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF in this process in an acute model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA. Immunized male BALB/c mice received an intra-articular injection of PBS (control or methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA into their knees, and were also pre-treated with different drugs: Etanercept, an anti-TNF drug, DF2156A, a CXCR1/2 receptor antagonist, or a monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5 to deplete neutrophils. Local challenge with mBSA evoked an acute neutrophil influx into the knee joint, and enhanced the joint nociception, along with a transient systemic metabolic alteration (higher levels of glucose and lipids, and altered adipocytokines. Pre-treatment with the conventional biological Etanercept, an inhibitor of TNF action, ameliorated the nociception and the acute joint inflammation dominated by neutrophils, and markedly improved many of the altered systemic metabolites (glucose and lipids, adipocytokines and PTX3. However, the lessening of metabolic changes was not due to diminished accumulation of neutrophils in the joint by Etanercept. Reduction of neutrophil recruitment by pre-treating AIA mice with DF2156A, or even the depletion of these cells by using RB6-8C5 reduced all of the inflammatory parameters and hypernociception developed after AIA challenge, but could not prevent the metabolic changes. Therefore, the induction of joint inflammation provoked acute metabolic alterations which were involved with TNF. We suggest that the role of TNF in arthritis-associated metabolic changes is not due to local neutrophils, which are the major cells present in this model, but rather due to cytokines.

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor, but Not Neutrophils, Alters the Metabolic Profile in Acute Experimental Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marina C.; Tavares, Luciana P.; Vago, Juliana P.; Batista, Nathália V.; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M.; Vieira, Angelica T.; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Sousa, Lirlândia P.; van de Loo, Fons A. J.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Amaral, Flávio A.; Ferreira, Adaliene V. M.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic alterations are associated with arthritis apart from obesity. However, it is still unclear which is the underlying process behind these metabolic changes. Here, we investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in this process in an acute model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Immunized male BALB/c mice received an intra-articular injection of PBS (control) or methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) into their knees, and were also pre-treated with different drugs: Etanercept, an anti-TNF drug, DF2156A, a CXCR1/2 receptor antagonist, or a monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5 to deplete neutrophils. Local challenge with mBSA evoked an acute neutrophil influx into the knee joint, and enhanced the joint nociception, along with a transient systemic metabolic alteration (higher levels of glucose and lipids, and altered adipocytokines). Pre-treatment with the conventional biological Etanercept, an inhibitor of TNF action, ameliorated the nociception and the acute joint inflammation dominated by neutrophils, and markedly improved many of the altered systemic metabolites (glucose and lipids), adipocytokines and PTX3. However, the lessening of metabolic changes was not due to diminished accumulation of neutrophils in the joint by Etanercept. Reduction of neutrophil recruitment by pre-treating AIA mice with DF2156A, or even the depletion of these cells by using RB6-8C5 reduced all of the inflammatory parameters and hypernociception developed after AIA challenge, but could not prevent the metabolic changes. Therefore, the induction of joint inflammation provoked acute metabolic alterations which were involved with TNF. We suggest that the role of TNF in arthritis-associated metabolic changes is not due to local neutrophils, which are the major cells present in this model, but rather due to cytokines. PMID:26742100

  7. Altered microRNAs expression profiling in cumulus cells from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Suying; Zhang, Xuan; Shi, Changgen; Lin, Jimin; Chen, Guowu; Wu, Bin; Wu, Ligang; Shi, Huijuan; Yuan, Yao; Zhou, Weijin; Sun, Zhaogui; Dong, Xi; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, and oocyte developmental competence is altered in patients with PCOS. In recent years microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of gene expression, the aim of the study was to study miRNAs expression patterns of cumulus cells from PCOS patients. Methods The study included 20 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): 10 diag...

  8. Overexpression of CsrA (BB0184) Alters the Morphology and Antigen Profiles of Borrelia burgdorferi▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuan, Eva; Maria D Esteve-Gassent; Maruskova, Mahulena; Seshu, J.

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to highly disparate environmental signals encountered in its hosts. Among the relatively few regulators of adaptive gene expression present in the borrelial genome is an open reading frame (ORF), BB0184, annotated as CsrA (carbon storage regulator A). CsrA, in several bacterial species, has been characterized as a small RNA binding protein that functions as a global regulator affecting mRNA stability or le...

  9. Zinc transporter expression profiles in the rat prostate following alterations in dietary zinc

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yang; Elias, Valerie; Wong, Carmen P.; Scrimgeour, Angus G.; Ho, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Zinc plays important roles in numerous cellular activities and physiological functions. Intracellular zinc levels are strictly maintained by zinc homeostatic mechanisms. Zinc concentrations in the prostate are the highest of all soft tissues and could be important for prostate health. However, the mechanisms by which the prostate maintains high zinc levels are still unclear. In addition, the response of the prostate to alterations in dietary zinc is unknown. The current study explored cellula...

  10. Postpartal subclinical endometritis alters transcriptome profiles in liver and adipose tissue of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Haji; Cardoso, Felipe C; Meier, Susanne; Burke, Christopher; McDougall, Scott; Mitchell, Murray; Walker, Caroline; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Everts, Robin E; Lewin, Harris A; Roche, John R; Loor, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptome alterations in liver and adipose tissue of cows with subclinical endometritis (SCE) at 29 d postpartum were evaluated. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using the Dynamic Impact Approach by means of KEGG and DAVID databases. Milk production, blood metabolites (non-esterified fatty acids, magnesium), and disease biomarkers (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase) did not differ greatly between healthy and SCE cows. In liver tissue of cows with SCE, alterations in gene expression revealed an activation of complement and coagulation cascade, steroid hormone biosynthesis, apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, MAPK signaling, and the formation of fibrinogen complex. Bioinformatics analysis also revealed an inhibition of vitamin B3 and B6 metabolism with SCE. In adipose, the most activated pathways by SCE were nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, long-chain fatty acid transport, oxidative phosphorylation, inflammation, T cell and B cell receptor signaling, and mTOR signaling. Results indicate that SCE in dairy cattle during early lactation induces molecular alterations in liver and adipose tissue indicative of immune activation and cellular stress.

  11. Postpartal subclinical endometritis alters transcriptome profiles in liver and adipose tissue of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Haji; Cardoso, Felipe C; Meier, Susanne; Burke, Christopher; McDougall, Scott; Mitchell, Murray; Walker, Caroline; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Everts, Robin E; Lewin, Harris A; Roche, John R; Loor, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptome alterations in liver and adipose tissue of cows with subclinical endometritis (SCE) at 29 d postpartum were evaluated. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using the Dynamic Impact Approach by means of KEGG and DAVID databases. Milk production, blood metabolites (non-esterified fatty acids, magnesium), and disease biomarkers (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase) did not differ greatly between healthy and SCE cows. In liver tissue of cows with SCE, alterations in gene expression revealed an activation of complement and coagulation cascade, steroid hormone biosynthesis, apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, MAPK signaling, and the formation of fibrinogen complex. Bioinformatics analysis also revealed an inhibition of vitamin B3 and B6 metabolism with SCE. In adipose, the most activated pathways by SCE were nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, long-chain fatty acid transport, oxidative phosphorylation, inflammation, T cell and B cell receptor signaling, and mTOR signaling. Results indicate that SCE in dairy cattle during early lactation induces molecular alterations in liver and adipose tissue indicative of immune activation and cellular stress. PMID:24578603

  12. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raiinder S.Mann; Russell L.Rouseff; Jack Smoot; Nandikeswara Rao; Wendy L.Meyer; Stephen L.Lapointe; Paul S.Robbins

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide.The Asian citrus psyllid,Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera:Psyllidae),is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium,Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,which is presumed to cause HLB in Florida citrus.Laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and female D.citri to their cuticular extracts.In olfactometer assays,more male D.citri were attracted to one,five,or 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units than blank controls.The results were confirmed in field studies in which clear or yellow traps baited with 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units attracted proportionately more males than clear traps baited with male cuticular extract or unbaited traps.Analyses of cuticular constituents of male and female D.citri revealed differences between the sexes in chemical composition of their cuticular extracts.Laboratory bioassays with synthetic chemicals identified from cuticular extracts indicated that dodecanoic acid attracted more males than clean air.Traps baited with dodecanoic acid did not increase total catch of D.cirri as compared with blank traps at the dosages tested; however,the sex ratio of psyllid catch was male biased on traps baited with the highest lure loading dosage tested (10.0 mg).

  13. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rajinder S; Rouseff, Russell L; Smoot, Jack; Rao, Nandikeswara; Meyer, Wendy L; Lapointe, Stephen L; Robbins, Paul S; Cha, Dong; Linn, Charles E; Webster, Francis X; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB in Florida citrus. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and female D. citri to their cuticular extracts. In olfactometer assays, more male D. citri were attracted to one, five, or 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units than blank controls. The results were confirmed in field studies in which clear or yellow traps baited with 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units attracted proportionately more males than clear traps baited with male cuticular extract or unbaited traps. Analyses of cuticular constituents of male and female D. citri revealed differences between the sexes in chemical composition of their cuticular extracts. Laboratory bioassays with synthetic chemicals identified from cuticular extracts indicated that dodecanoic acid attracted more males than clean air. Traps baited with dodecanoic acid did not increase total catch of D. citri as compared with blank traps at the dosages tested; however, the sex ratio of psyllid catch was male biased on traps baited with the highest lure loading dosage tested (10.0 mg). PMID:23955888

  14. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rajinder S; Rouseff, Russell L; Smoot, Jack; Rao, Nandikeswara; Meyer, Wendy L; Lapointe, Stephen L; Robbins, Paul S; Cha, Dong; Linn, Charles E; Webster, Francis X; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB in Florida citrus. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and female D. citri to their cuticular extracts. In olfactometer assays, more male D. citri were attracted to one, five, or 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units than blank controls. The results were confirmed in field studies in which clear or yellow traps baited with 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units attracted proportionately more males than clear traps baited with male cuticular extract or unbaited traps. Analyses of cuticular constituents of male and female D. citri revealed differences between the sexes in chemical composition of their cuticular extracts. Laboratory bioassays with synthetic chemicals identified from cuticular extracts indicated that dodecanoic acid attracted more males than clean air. Traps baited with dodecanoic acid did not increase total catch of D. citri as compared with blank traps at the dosages tested; however, the sex ratio of psyllid catch was male biased on traps baited with the highest lure loading dosage tested (10.0 mg).

  15. Obesity alters the expression profile of clock genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahira, Kazunobu; Fukuda, Noboru; Aoyama, Takahiko; Tsunemi, Akiko; Matsumoto, Siroh; Nagura, Chinami; Matsumoto, Taro; Soma, Masayoshi; Shimba, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the variation in expression profile of clock genes and obesity using peripheral blood mononuclear (PMN) cells. Material and methods The subjects comprised 10 obese patients and 10 healthy volunteers. Blood was collected at different time-points during the day and levels of blood sugar, IRI, adiponectin and leptin were determined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were sampled, and expression levels of brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1), Period (PER)1, PER2, Cryptochrome (CRY)1, CRY2, and REV-ERBα mRNA were quantified. Results During the day, the expression levels of BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2 and PER2 genes in PMN cells of the obese group were all significantly higher compared to those in the non-obese group. In addition, expression of BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2 and PER2 genes in PMN cells increased between 12:00 and 21:00 in the obese group. In PMN cells of both groups, PER1 gene expression showed a bimodal pattern, with high expression at 9:00 and 18:00. Conclusions Differences were observed in the expression profile variation of clock genes between the obese and non-obese groups. This study reveals the differences in clock gene expression profiles between obese and non-obese subjects, with evidence for two distinct chronotypes, and suggests a contribution of these chronotypes to fat accumulation in humans. PMID:22328874

  16. Proteomic profiling of neuromas reveals alterations in protein composition and local protein synthesis in hyper-excitable nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timms John F

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuropathic pain may arise following peripheral nerve injury though the molecular mechanisms associated with this are unclear. We used proteomic profiling to examine changes in protein expression associated with the formation of hyper-excitable neuromas derived from rodent saphenous nerves. A two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE profiling strategy was employed to examine protein expression changes between developing neuromas and normal nerves in whole tissue lysates. We found around 200 proteins which displayed a >1.75-fold change in expression between neuroma and normal nerve and identified 55 of these proteins using mass spectrometry. We also used immunoblotting to examine the expression of low-abundance ion channels Nav1.3, Nav1.8 and calcium channel α2δ-1 subunit in this model, since they have previously been implicated in neuronal hyperexcitability associated with neuropathic pain. Finally, S35methionine in vitro labelling of neuroma and control samples was used to demonstrate local protein synthesis of neuron-specific genes. A number of cytoskeletal proteins, enzymes and proteins associated with oxidative stress were up-regulated in neuromas, whilst overall levels of voltage-gated ion channel proteins were unaffected. We conclude that altered mRNA levels reported in the somata of damaged DRG neurons do not necessarily reflect levels of altered proteins in hyper-excitable damaged nerve endings. An altered repertoire of protein expression, local protein synthesis and topological re-arrangements of ion channels may all play important roles in neuroma hyper-excitability.

  17. Cross-cancer profiling of molecular alterations within the human autophagy interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovitz, Chandra B; Robertson, A Gordon; Goya, Rodrigo; Jones, Steven J; Morin, Ryan D; Marra, Marco A; Gorski, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation or disruption of autophagy promotes tumorigenesis in various preclinical models of cancer, but whether the autophagy pathway is a target for recurrent molecular alteration in human cancer patient samples is unknown. To address this outstanding question, we surveyed 211 human autophagy-associated genes for tumor-related alterations to DNA sequence and RNA expression levels and examined their association with patient survival outcomes in multiple cancer types with sequence data from The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium. We found 3 (RB1CC1/FIP200, ULK4, WDR45/WIPI4) and one (ATG7) core autophagy genes to be under positive selection for somatic mutations in endometrial carcinoma and clear cell renal carcinoma, respectively, while 29 autophagy regulators and pathway interactors, including previously identified KEAP1, NFE2L2, and MTOR, were significantly mutated in 6 of the 11 cancer types examined. Gene expression analyses revealed that GABARAPL1 and MAP1LC3C/LC3C transcripts were less abundant in breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancers than in matched normal tissue controls; ATG4D transcripts were increased in lung squamous cell carcinoma, as were ATG16L2 transcripts in kidney cancer. Unsupervised clustering of autophagy-associated mRNA levels in tumors stratified patient overall survival in 3 of 9 cancer types (acute myeloid leukemia, clear cell renal carcinoma, and head and neck cancer). These analyses provide the first comprehensive resource of recurrently altered autophagy-associated genes in human tumors, and highlight cancer types and subtypes where perturbed autophagy may be relevant to patient overall survival.

  18. Mutations in HNF1A result in marked alterations of plasma glycan profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanabalasingham, Gaya; Huffman, Jennifer E; Kattla, Jayesh J;

    2013-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A) as a key regulator of fucosylation. We hypothesized that loss-of-function HNF1A mutations causal for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) would display altered fucosylation of N-linked glycans on plasma...... to nonfucosylated triantennary glycans, provided optimum discrimination in the pilot study and was examined further among additional subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 188), glucokinase (GCK)-MODY (n = 118), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF4A)-MODY (n = 40), type 1 diabetes (n = 98), type 2 diabetes (n = 167...

  19. Alteration of gene expression profiles during mycoplasma-induced malignant cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoplasmas are the smallest microorganisms capable of self-replication. Our previous studies show that some mycoplasmas are able to induce malignant transformation of host mammalian cells. This malignant transformation is a multistage process with the early infection, reversible and irreversible stages, and similar to human tumor development in nature. The purpose of this study is to explore mechanisms for this malignant transformation. To better understand mechanisms for this unique process, we examined gene expression profiles of C3H cells at different stages of the mycoplasma-induced transformation using cDNA microarray technology. A total of 1185 genes involved in oncogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth, cell-cycle regulation, DNA repair, etc. were examined. Differences in the expression of these genes were compared and analyzed using the computer software AtlasImage. Among 1185 genes screened, 135 had aberrant expression at the early infection stage, 252 at the reversible stage and 184 at the irreversible stage. At the early infection stage, genes with increased expression (92 genes) were twice more than those with decreased expression (42 genes). The global gene expression at the reversible stage appeared to be more volatile than that at any other stages but still resembled the profile at the early infection stage. The expression profile at the irreversible stage shows a unique pattern of a wide range of expression levels and an increased number of expressing genes, especially the cancer-related genes. Oncogenes and tumor suppressors are a group of molecules that showed significant changes in expression during the transformation. The majority of these changes occurred in the reversible and irreversible stages. A prolonged infection by mycoplasmas lead to the expression of more cancer related genes at the irreversible stage. The results indicate that the expression profiles correspond with the phenotypic features of the cells in the mycoplasma induced

  20. Longgu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi) alters the profiles of organic and inorganic components in Keishikaryukotsuboreito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Kazuki; Kawase, Masaya; Harada, Kazuo; Shimada-Takaura, Kayoko; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2016-07-01

    Longgu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi) is a non-botanical crude drug, defined as "the ossified bone of large mammal" in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia sixteenth edition (JP16). It is a non-reproducible drug and is now facing the threat of exhaustion. To solve this problem, we aimed to clarify the role of longgu in Kampo prescriptions, which has not yet been scientifically ascertained. In this study, we focused on decoction of Keishikaryukotsuboreito (KRB). The profile of inorganic and organic components in the extract was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC/FID), respectively. Twenty-five elements were detected by ICP-MS in KRB and longgu-free KRB (KB) decoctions. However, 23 elements were detected in unadultrated longgu (R) decoctions, and their total amount was 30 times lower than those of the KRB and KB decoctions were. No organic compounds were detected in R decoctions by GC/FID, though many were detected in KRB and KB decoctions. KRB decoctions were distinguished from KB decoctions by multivariate analysis. The only difference in the crude drugs was the presence of longgu, and therefore the difference in the profiles was attributed to the effect of longgu. Longgu was submitted to terahertz (THz) wave spectrometry after the decocting process. The THz spectra indicated that longgu adsorbed compounds during the KRB decoction. These results suggested that longgu not only releases its components, but also adsorbs ingredients from other crude drugs during decoction. PMID:26841944

  1. Investigation of rock matrix porosity in alteration profiles. Development of site characterization methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siitari-Kauppi, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hellmuth, K.H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Lukkarinen, S. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Assessment of bedrock performance for nuclear waste disposal can benefit from a more detailed understanding of the rock matrix properties along actual and potential groundwater flow pathways. The spatial variability along flow paths and the correlation of groundwater flow with rock matrix properties (type of minerals, porosity, internal surface areas) is an input parameter for the quantification of retarding properties and the chemical buffering capacity of the bedrock. In this investigation tonalite, mica gneiss and vulcanite samples from Syyry were studied. The samples were taken from a drill core located near water-conducting, open fractures. The objective of the study was to describe the porosity of different altered and weathered rock matrices next to filled fissures and open fractures. 9 refs. Nuclear Waste Disposal Research.

  2. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed towards a higher theaflavins content, which is considered an important quality parameter in tea. The main tea catechins were incubated with tyrosinase and laccase, and product formation was monitored by RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. The kind of catechin, their substitution with a galloyl group, and the type of oxidase used were important factors determining theaflavin concentrations. In particular, incubation of epicatechin with epigallocatechin with tyrosinase gave a high, stable theaflavin content. In a green tea extract, tyrosinase increased the proportion of theaflavins by twofold compared to black tea. Laccase mainly formed insoluble complexes. Our results indicate that the phenolic profile of tea can be modulated by using commercially available exogenous oxidases. PMID:26593607

  3. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed towards a higher theaflavins content, which is considered an important quality parameter in tea. The main tea catechins were incubated with tyrosinase and laccase, and product formation was monitored by RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. The kind of catechin, their substitution with a galloyl group, and the type of oxidase used were important factors determining theaflavin concentrations. In particular, incubation of epicatechin with epigallocatechin with tyrosinase gave a high, stable theaflavin content. In a green tea extract, tyrosinase increased the proportion of theaflavins by twofold compared to black tea. Laccase mainly formed insoluble complexes. Our results indicate that the phenolic profile of tea can be modulated by using commercially available exogenous oxidases.

  4. Recent advances using electron beam analysis to detect cuticular changes induced by air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invisible or ''hidden injury'', terms from the earliest air quality literature, expressed the diagnostician's frustration in identifying abiotic disease symptoms. Direct visualization was not technically possible until the advent of electron beam analysis (EBA) hardware and software. Electron beam analysis, a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and computer-controlled image processing (CCIP) is useful for detecting changes in the cuticle and adjacent cells due to common phytotoxicants. Artifacts, caused by improper specimen preparation, inherent in the high vacuum of SEM and use of hydrated plant samples, fill the literature. Unique methodologies are necessary to interpret the minute changes to plant surfaces caused by a variety of environmental stresses such as sulfur dioxide, ozone, acidic deposition, pesticide residues, NACl, etc. EBA was used to show: the progression of surface alterations that occur to stomata of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) following exposure to SO2 and O3; between SO2-sensitive and SO2-tolerant clones of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). CCIP was especially useful in determining that acidified rain or mist and O3 do not physically erode existing epicuticular wax of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) as previous literature stated. EBA was used to correlate field and laboratory data showing similar injury to epistomatal wax of red spruce. Improved field emission microscopy and EDXA that offer increased resolution with little sample preparation can provide opportunities to observe cuticular modifications not previously available. (orig.)

  5. Predicting partitioning of volatile organic compounds from air into plant cuticular matrix by quantum chemical descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on theoretical linear solvation energy relationship and quantum chemical descriptors computed by AM1 Hamiltonian, a new model is developed to predict the partitioning of some volatile organic compounds between the plant cuticular matrix and air.

  6. Early Life Adversity Alters the Developmental Profiles of Addiction-Related Prefrontal Cortex Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Andersen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Early adverse experience is a well-known risk factor for addictive behaviors later in life. Drug addiction typically manifests during adolescence in parallel with the later-developing prefrontal cortex (PFC. While it has been shown that dopaminergic modulation within the PFC is involved in addiction-like behaviors, little is known about how early adversity modulates its development. Here, we report that maternal separation stress (4 h per day between postnatal days 2–20 alters the development of the prelimbic PFC. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy revealed differences between maternally-separated and control rats in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression during adolescence, and specifically the expression of these receptors on projection neurons. In control animals, D1 and D2 receptors were transiently increased on all glutamatergic projection neurons, as well as specifically on PFC→nucleus accumbens projection neurons (identified with retrograde tracer. Maternal separation exacerbated the adolescent peak in D1 expression and blunted the adolescent peak in D2 expression on projection neurons overall. However, neurons retrogradely traced from the accumbens expressed lower levels of D1 during adolescence after maternal separation, compared to controls. Our findings reveal microcircuitry-specific changes caused by early life adversity that could help explain heightened vulnerability to drug addiction during adolescence.

  7. Alterations of gene expression profiles induced by sulfur dioxide in rat lungs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Ziqiang; QIN Guohua; BAI Juli; ZHANG Jianbiao; ZHANG Xin; YANG Zhenghua

    2007-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a ubiquitous air pollutant presents in low concentrations in urban air and in higher concentrations in working environment.Few data are avail-able on the effects of being exposed to this pollutant on the molecular mechanism,although some biochemical changes in lipid metabolism,intermediary metabolism and oxidative stress have been detected.The present investigation aimed at analyzing the gene expression profiles of the lungs of Wistar rats short-term (20 ppm,6 h/day,for seven days) and long.term (5 ppm,1 h/day,for 30 days) exposed to SO2 by Affymetrix GeneChip (RAE230A) analysis.It was found that 31 genes,containing 18 known genes and 13 novel genes were up-regulated,and 31 genes,containing 20 known genes and 11 novel genes,were down-regulated in rats short-term exposed to SO2 compared with control rats.While there were 176 genes,containing 82 known genes and 94 novel genes were up-regulated,and 85 genes,containing 46 known genes and 39 novel genes,were down-regulated in rats long-term exposed to SO2 compared with control rats.It is suggested that:(1) SO2 exerts its effects by different mechanisms in vivo at high-dose short-term inhalation and at low-dose long-term inhalation;(2) a notable feature of the gene expression profile was the decreased expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation in lungs of rats short-term exposed to SO2,which shows high-dose short-term exposed to SO2 may cause the deterioration of mitochondrial functions;(3)discriminating genes in lungs of rats long-term exposed to SO2 included those involved in fatty acid metabolism,immune,inflammatory,oxidative stress,oncogene,tumor suppresser and extracellular matrix.The mechanism of low-dose long-term exposed to SO2 is more complex.

  8. TNF-α alters the inflammatory secretion profile of human first trimester placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwetz, Monika; Blaschitz, Astrid; El-Heliebi, Amin; Hiden, Ursula; Desoye, Gernot; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Implantation and subsequent placental development depend on a well-orchestrated interaction between fetal and maternal tissues, involving a fine balanced synergistic cross-talk of inflammatory and immune-modulating factors. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has been increasingly recognized as pivotal factor for successful pregnancy, although high maternal TNF-α levels are associated with a number of adverse pregnancy conditions including gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus. This study describes effects of exogenously applied TNF-α, mimicking increased maternal TNF-α levels, on the secretion profile of inflammation associated factors in human first trimester villous placenta. Conditioned culture media from first trimester villous placental explants were analyzed by inflammation antibody arrays and ELISA after 48 h culture in the presence or absence of TNF-α. Inflammation antibody arrays identified interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL4, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as the most abundantly secreted inflammation-associated factors under basal culture conditions. In the presence of TNF-α, secretion of GM-CSF, CCL5, and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-4 and macrophage CSF levels decreased compared with controls. ELISA analysis verified antibody arrays by showing significantly increased synthesis and release of GM-CSF and CCL5 by placental explants in response to TNF-α. Immunohistochemistry localized GM-CSF in the villous trophoblast compartment, whereas CCL5 was detected in maternal platelets adhering to perivillous fibrin deposits on the villous surface. mRNA-based in situ padlock probe approach localized GM-CSF and CCL5 transcripts in the villous trophoblast layer and the villous stroma. Results from this study suggest that the inflammatory secretion profile of human first trimester placenta shifts towards increased levels of GM-CSF, CCL5, and IL10 in response to elevated maternal

  9. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Youn Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh pressure (UHP treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS. Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples.

  10. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee Youn; Singh, Digar; Kim, Sung Han; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB) using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples. PMID:27338333

  11. Scent of a queen—cuticular hydrocarbons specific for female reproductives in lower termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Tobias; Hoffmann, Katharina; Kroiss, Johannes; Strohm, Erhard; Korb, Judith

    2009-02-01

    In social insects, it is assumed that signals of the queen inform nestmates about her reproductive status. Thus, workers forego their own reproduction if the queen signals high fertility. In hemimetabolous termites, little is known about reproductive inhibition, but evidence exists for a royal-pair control. Workers of lower termites exhibit a high developmental flexibility and are potentially able to become reproductives, but the presence of a fertile reproductive restrains them from reaching sexual maturity. The nature of this control, however, remains unknown. Here, we report on qualitative differences in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles between queens and workers of the basal drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus. Queens were characterized by a shift to long-chained and branched hydrocarbons. Most remarkably, similar chemical patterns are regarded as fertility cues of reproductives in social Hymenoptera. This might suggest that both groups of social insects convergently evolved similar chemical signatures. The present study provides deeper insights into how termites might have socially exploited these signatures from sexual communication in their cockroach-like ancestor.

  12. Cuticular hydrocarbons as a tool for the identification of insect species: Puparial cases from Sarcophagidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria; Matsumoto, Nana; Blomquist, Gary James

    2013-01-01

    The external surface of all insects is covered by a species-specific complex mixture of highly stable, very long chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to identify CHCs from four species of Sarcophagidae, Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma, Peckia (Pattonella) intermutans, Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis and Sarcodexia lambens. The identified CHCs were mostly a mixture of n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with linear chain lengths varying from 23 to 33 carbons. Only two alkenes were found in all four species. S. lambens had a composition of CHCs with linear chain lengths varying from C23 to C33, while the other three species linear chain lengths from 24 to 31 carbons. n-Heptacosane, n-nonacosane and 3-methylnonacosane, n-triacontane and n-hentriacontane occurred in all four species. The results show that these hydrocarbon profiles may be used for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and are a useful additional tool for taxonomic classification, especially when only parts of the insect specimen are available. PMID:23932943

  13. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  14. Chronic LSD alters gene expression profiles in the mPFC relevant to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David A; Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, David E; Nichols, Charles D

    2014-08-01

    Chronic administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) every other day to rats results in a variety of abnormal behaviors. These build over the 90 day course of treatment and can persist at full strength for at least several months after cessation of treatment. The behaviors are consistent with those observed in animal models of schizophrenia and include hyperactivity, reduced sucrose-preference, and decreased social interaction. In order to elucidate molecular changes that underlie these aberrant behaviors, we chronically treated rats with LSD and performed RNA-sequencing on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an area highly associated with both the actions of LSD and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. We observed widespread changes in the neurogenetic state of treated animals four weeks after cessation of LSD treatment. QPCR was used to validate a subset of gene expression changes observed with RNA-Seq, and confirmed a significant correlation between the two methods. Functional clustering analysis indicates differentially expressed genes are enriched in pathways involving neurotransmission (Drd2, Gabrb1), synaptic plasticity (Nr2a, Krox20), energy metabolism (Atp5d, Ndufa1) and neuropeptide signaling (Npy, Bdnf), among others. Many processes identified as altered by chronic LSD are also implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and genes affected by LSD are enriched with putative schizophrenia genes. Our results provide a relatively comprehensive analysis of mPFC transcriptional regulation in response to chronic LSD, and indicate that the long-term effects of LSD may bear relevance to psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia.

  15. Alterations in gonado somatic index, seminogram and testosterone profiles in rats treated with hexaconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravi Kumar,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexaconazole, a triazole fungicide is widely used in crop protection. The ability of the triazoles to inhibit cytochromes P450 dependent enzymes that play an important role in steroid hormone synthesis has been reported earlier. Hence, the possible effect of hexaconazole on male accessory sex organs, seminogram and serum testosterone level was studied in male rats. A total of eighty wistar rats aged 10-12 weeks, were randomly assigned to four groups, each with twenty rats. Group I served as control and received corn oil per os @ 1ml/kg body weight. Groups II, III and IV were given hexaconazole suspension in corn oil daily @ 22.5 55.0 and 110.0mg/kg, per os , orally. Ten rats in each group were sacrificed on 30th day, while the remaining ten rats were sacrificed on 60th day. Weights of testis, prostate gland and seminal vesicles were recorded in all the rats and epididymal sperm reserve was analyzed for seminogram. Testosterone levels were also studied in the serum of treated rats. Results indicated that hexaconazole significantly decreased the weights of testis, prostate and seminal glands, indicating a decrease in gonado somatic index. The seminogram was found adversely affected in terms of decreased total epididymal sperm count and motility and increased dead sperm percent and abnormal sperm percent. Serum testosterone levels were found significantly lowered by hexaconazole both after 30 days and 60 days treatments. Decreased gonado somatic index was attributed to decreased circulating testosterone levels. Adverse affects on seminogram might have occurred from lowered testosterone levels as well as alterations in epididymal milieu due to possible presence of hexaconazole and/or its metabolites.

  16. Profiling of Altered Metabolomic States in Nicotiana tabacum Cells Induced by Priming Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhlongo, Msizi I.; Steenkamp, Paul A.; Piater, Lizelle A.; Madala, Ntakadzeni E.; Dubery, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics has developed into a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of plant metabolism. Plant innate immune defenses can be activated and enhanced so that, subsequent to being pre-sensitized, plants are able to launch a stronger and faster defense response upon exposure to pathogenic microorganisms, a phenomenon known as priming. Here, three contrasting chemical activators, namely acibenzolar-S-methyl, azelaic acid and riboflavin, were used to induce a primed state in Nicotiana tabacum cells. Identified biomarkers were then compared to responses induced by three phytohormones—abscisic acid, methyljasmonate, and salicylic acid. Altered metabolomes were studied using a metabolite fingerprinting approach based on liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Multivariate data models indicated that these inducers cause time-dependent metabolic perturbations in the cultured cells and revealed biomarkers of which the levels are affected by these agents. A total of 34 metabolites were annotated from the mass spectral data and online databases. Venn diagrams were used to identify common biomarkers as well as those unique to a specific agent. Results implicate 20 cinnamic acid derivatives conjugated to (i) quinic acid (chlorogenic acids), (ii) tyramine, (iii) polyamines, or (iv) glucose as discriminatory biomarkers of priming in tobacco cells. Functional roles for most of these metabolites in plant defense responses could thus be proposed. Metabolites induced by the activators belong to the early phenylpropanoid pathway, which indicates that different stimuli can activate similar pathways but with different metabolite fingerprints. Possible linkages to phytohormone-dependent pathways at a metabolomic level were indicated in the case of cells treated with salicylic acid and methyljasmonate. The results contribute to a better understanding of the priming phenomenon and advance our knowledge of cinnamic acid derivatives as versatile defense metabolites. PMID

  17. Effect of Conidiobolus coronatus on the Cuticular and Internal Lipid Composition of Tettigonia viridissima Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Cerkowniak, Magdalena; Ostachowska, Aleksandra; Naczk, Aleksandra M; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    Conidiobolus coronatus is an entomopathogenic fungus which has a potential as a biological control agent of insects. The cuticular and internal lipid composition of infected and noninfected Tettigonia viridissima males were analyzed by GC/MS. A total of 49 compounds were identified in the infected and noninfected males, including fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), n-alkanes, alcohols, sterols, and other organic compounds. The most abundant components of the cuticular and internal lipids of the insects were fatty acids. After exposure to C. coronatus, the cuticular lipids of the T. viridissima males contained 17 free fatty acids from C(8) to C(22), while the cuticular lipids of the noninfected insects contained only 15 fatty acids from C(12) to C(24). The cuticular and internal lipids of both the infected and the noninfected males also contained five FAMEs from C(15) to C(19), seven n-alkanes from C(25) to C(34), five alcohols from C(16) to C(25), five sterols, and the following six other organic compounds: azelaic acid, phenylacetic acid, glutaric acid, benzoic acid, sebacic acid, and glycerol. The compounds which were present only in the cuticular lipids of the infected males could be due to fungal infection. PMID:27483450

  18. Malnutrition in Healthy Individuals Results in Increased Mixed Cytokine Profiles, Altered Neutrophil Subsets and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele, Y.; Adem, E.; Getahun, M.; Tajebe, F.; Kiflie, A.; Hailu, A.; Raynes, J.; Mengesha, B.; Ayele, T. A.; Shkedy, Z.; Lemma, M.; Diro, E.; Toulza, F.; Modolell, M.; Munder, M.; Müller, I.; Kropf, P.

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly associated with increased infectious disease susceptibility and severity. Whereas malnutrition might enhance the incidence of disease as well as its severity, active infection can in turn exacerbate malnutrition. Therefore, in a malnourished individual suffering from a severe infection, it is not possible to determine the contribution of the pre-existing malnutrition and/or the infection itself to increased disease severity. In the current study we focussed on two groups of malnourished, but otherwise healthy individuals: moderately malnourished (BMI: 18.4–16.5) and severely malnourished (BMI <16.5) and compared several immune parameters with those of individuals with a normal BMI (≥18.5). Our results show a similar haematological profile in all three groups, as well as a similar ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We found significant correlations between low BMI and increased levels of T helper (Th) 1 (Interferon (IFN)-γ, (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), as well as IL-10, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, but not IL-8 or C reactive protein. The activities of arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, were similar in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from all groups and no differences in the expression levels of CD3ζ, a marker of T cell activation, were observed in CD4+ and CD8+T cells. Furthermore, whereas the capacity of neutrophils from the malnourished groups to phagocytose particles was not impaired, their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species was impaired. Finally we evaluated the frequency of a subpopulation of low-density neutrophils and show that they are significantly increased in the malnourished individuals. These differences were more pronounced in the severely malnourished group. In summary, our results show that even in the absence of apparent infections, healthy malnourished individuals display dysfunctional immune responses that might contribute to

  19. Altered microRNA expression profiles in a rat model of spina bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Pan; Li, Lin; Zhang, Da; Liu, Qiu-liang; Chen, Xin-rang; Yang, He-ying; Fan, Ying-zhong; Wang, Jia-xiang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are dynamically regulated during neurodevelopment, yet few reports have examined their role in spina bifida. In this study, we used an established fetal rat model of spina bifida induced by intragastrically administering olive oil-containing all-trans retinoic acid to dams on day 10 of pregnancy. Dams that received intragastric administration of all-trans retinoic acid-free olive oil served as controls. The miRNA expression profile in the amniotic fluid of rats at 20 days of pregnancy was analyzed using an miRNA microarray assay. Compared with that in control fetuses, the expression of miRNA-9, miRNA-124a, and miRNA-138 was significantly decreased (> 2-fold), whereas the expression of miRNA-134 was significantly increased (> 4-fold) in the amniotic fluid of rats with fetuses modeling spina bifida. These results were validated using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the microarray data showed that these differentially expressed miRNAs could distinguish fetuses modeling spina bifida from control fetuses. Our bioinformatics analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with many cytological pathways, including a nervous system development signaling pathway. These findings indicate that further studies are warranted examining the role of miRNAs through their regulation of a variety of cell functional pathways in the pathogenesis of spina bifida. Such studies may provide novel targets for the early diagnosis and treatment of spina bifida. PMID:27127493

  20. Altered Plasma Profile of Antioxidant Proteins as an Early Correlate of Pancreatic β Cell Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Taiyi; Kim-Muller, Ja Young; McGraw, Timothy E; Accili, Domenico

    2016-04-29

    Insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Unlike insulin resistance, β cell dysfunction remains difficult to predict and monitor, because of the inaccessibility of the endocrine pancreas, the integrated relationship with insulin sensitivity, and the paracrine effects of incretins. The goal of our study was to survey the plasma response to a metabolic challenge in order to identify factors predictive of β cell dysfunction. To this end, we combined (i) the power of unbiased iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification) mass spectrometry with (ii) direct sampling of the portal vein following an intravenous glucose/arginine challenge (IVGATT) in (iii) mice with a genetic β cell defect. By so doing, we excluded the effects of peripheral insulin sensitivity as well as those of incretins on β cells, and focused on the first phase of insulin secretion to capture the early pathophysiology of β cell dysfunction. We compared plasma protein profiles with ex vivo islet secretome and transcriptome analyses. We detected changes to 418 plasma proteins in vivo, and detected changes to 262 proteins ex vivo The impairment of insulin secretion was associated with greater overall changes in the plasma response to IVGATT, possibly reflecting metabolic instability. Reduced levels of proteins regulating redox state and neuronal stress markers, as well as increased levels of coagulation factors, antedated the loss of insulin secretion in diabetic mice. These results suggest that a reduced complement of antioxidants in response to a mixed secretagogue challenge is an early correlate of future β cell failure. PMID:26917725

  1. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Caitlyn M; Dilger, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic profiles to rodents and humans when exposed to moderate choline deficiency.

  2. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Caitlyn M; Dilger, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01) compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic profiles to rodents and humans when exposed to moderate choline deficiency. PMID:26196148

  3. Altered glycosylation profile of purified plasma ACT from Alzheimer’s disease

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    Carbone Ilaria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD is one of the most frequent cause of neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly. Inflammation has been implicated in brain degenerative processes and peripheral markers of brain AD related impairment would be useful. Plasma levels of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT, an acute phase protein and a secondary component of amyloid plaques, are often increased in AD patients and high blood ACT levels correlate with progressive cognitive deterioration. During inflammatory responses changes in the micro-heterogeneity of ACT sugar chains have been described. Methods N-Glycanase digestion from Flavobacterium meningosepticum (PNGase F was performed on both native and denatured purified ACT condition and resolved to Western blot with the purpose to revealed the ACT de-glycosylation pattern. Further characterization of the ACT glycan profile was obtained by a glycoarray; each lectin group in the assay specifically recognizes one or two glycans/epitopes. Lectin-bound ACT produced a glyco-fingerprint and mayor differences between AD and controls samples were assessed by a specific algorithms. Results Western blot analysis of purified ACT after PNGase F treatment and analysis of sugar composition of ACT showed significantly difference in “glyco-fingerprints” patterns from controls (CTR and AD; ACT from AD showing significantly reduced levels of sialic acid. A difference in terminal GlcNac residues appeared to be related with progressive cognitive deterioration. Conclusions Low content of terminal GlcNac and sialic acid in peripheral ACT in AD patients suggests that a different pattern of glycosylation might be a marker of brain inflammation. Moreover ACT glycosylation analysis could be used to predict AD clinical progression and used in clinical trials as surrogate marker of clinical efficacy.

  4. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlyn M Getty

    metabolomic profiles to rodents and humans when exposed to moderate choline deficiency.

  5. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  6. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  7. Chemical discrimination and aggressiveness via cuticular hydrocarbons in a supercolony-forming ant, Formica yessensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Kidokoro-Kobayashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Territorial boundaries between conspecific social insect colonies are maintained through nestmate recognition systems. However, in supercolony-forming ants, which have developed an extraordinary social organization style known as unicoloniality, a single supercolony extends across large geographic distance. The underlying mechanism is considered to involve less frequent occurrence of intraspecific aggressive behaviors, while maintaining interspecific competition. Thus, we examined whether the supercolony-forming species, Formica yessensis has a nestmate recognition system similar to that of the multicolonial species, Camponotus japonicus with respect to the cuticular hydrocarbon-sensitive sensillum (CHC sensillum, which responds only to non-nestmate CHCs. We further investigated whether the sensory system reflects on the apparent reduced aggression between non-nestmates typical to unicolonial species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: F. yessensis constructs supercolonies comprising numerous nests and constitutes the largest supercolonies in Japan. We compared the within-colony or between-colonies' (1 similarity in CHC profiles, the nestmate recognition cues, (2 levels of the CHC sensillar response, (3 levels of aggression between workers, as correlated with geographic distances between nests, and (4 their genetic relatedness. Workers from nests within the supercolony revealed a greater similarity of CHC profiles compared to workers from colonies outside it. Total response of the active CHC sensilla stimulated with conspecific alien CHCs did not increase as much as in case of C. japonicus, suggesting that discrimination of conspecific workers at the peripheral system is limited. It was particularly limited among workers within a supercolony, but was fully expressed for allospecific workers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that chemical discrimination between nestmates and non-nestmates in F. yessensis was not clear cut

  8. Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy

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    Bauman William A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days or 29 days later (35 days attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Results Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Conclusions Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on

  9. Cold-Induced Browning Dynamically Alters the Expression Profiles of Inflammatory Adipokines with Tissue Specificity in Mice

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    Xiao Luo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cold exposure or β3-adrenoceptor agonist treatment induces the adipose tissues remodeling, relevant for beige adipogenesis within white adipose tissue (WAT. It remains unclear whether this process influences inflammatory adipokines expression in adipose tissues. We determine the temporal profile of cold or β3-adrenoceptor agonist (CL316,243-induced changes in the expression of inflammatory adipokines in adipose tissues in mice or primary mice adipocytes. Male C57BL/6J mice at eight weeks old were exposed to 4 °C for 1–5 days. Interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT, inguinal subcutaneous WAT (sWAT and epididymal WAT (eWAT were harvested for gene and protein expression analysis. In addition, cultured primary mice brown adipocyte (BA and white adipocyte (WA treated with or without CL316,243 were harvested for gene expression analysis. The inflammatory adipokines expressed significantly higher in WAT than BAT at baseline. They were rapidly changed in iBAT, while down-regulated in sWAT and up-regulated in eWAT during the cold acclimation. Upon CL316,243 treatment, detected inflammatory adipokines except Leptin were transiently increased in both BA and WA. Our in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate that the browning process alters the inflammatory adipokines expression in adipose tissues, which is acutely responded to in iBAT, dynamically decreased in sWAT whilst increased in eWAT for compensation.

  10. Cyclophosphamide alters the gene expression profile in patients treated with high doses prior to stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim El-Serafi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative treatment for several haematological malignancies. However, treatment related morbidity and mortality still is a limiting factor. Cyclophosphamide is widely used in condition regimens either in combination with other chemotherapy or with total body irradiation. METHODS: We present the gene expression profile during cyclophosphamide treatment in 11 patients conditioned with cyclophosphamide for 2 days followed by total body irradiation prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. 299 genes were identified as specific for cyclophosphamide treatment and were arranged into 4 clusters highly down-regulated genes, highly up-regulated genes, early up-regulated but later normalized genes and moderately up-regulated genes. RESULTS: Cyclophosphamide treatment down-regulated expression of several genes mapped to immune/autoimmune activation and graft rejection including CD3, CD28, CTLA4, MHC II, PRF1, GZMB and IL-2R, and up-regulated immune-related receptor genes, e.g. IL1R2, IL18R1, and FLT3. Moreover, a high and significant expression of ANGPTL1 and c-JUN genes was observed independent of cyclophosphamide treatment. CONCLUSION: This is the first investigation to provide significant information about alterations in gene expression following cyclophosphamide treatment that may increase our understanding of the cyclophosphamide mechanism of action and hence, in part, avoid its toxicity. Furthermore, ANGPTL1 remained highly expressed throughout the treatment and, in contrast to several other alkylating agents, cyclophosphamide did not influence c-JUN expression.

  11. Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile Alterations following Twelve-Month Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Men with Prostate Cancer

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    Hasan S. Sağlam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this retrospective study, we aimed to investigate the effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT on blood glucose and blood cholesterol levels over a 12-month period. Materials and Methods. Between January 2010 and June 2012, the data of 44 patients with prostate cancer who were receiving ADT were collected from a hospital database. Patients with additional malignancy or diabetes and those who had been prescribed and were currently taking cholesterol-lowering medication were excluded from the study. Data (including fasting blood glucose levels and a cholesterol profile were collected and analysed statistically. A value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Twelve months after the initiation of ADT, fasting blood glucose (FBG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels changed. FBG, TC, LDL cholesterol, and TG increased significantly (, 0.000, 0.000, and 0.000, resp., while HDL cholesterol decreased (. Conclusion. ADT may increase FBG, TC, LDL cholesterol, and TG but decrease HDL cholesterol by the end of a year of treatment. Therefore, close followup may be needed as a consequence of one-year ADT regarding metabolic alterations.

  12. Dietary intake alters behavioural recovery and gene expression profiles in the brain of juvenile rats that have experienced a concussion

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    Richelle eMychasiuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI research has made minimal progress diagnosing who will suffer from lingering symptomology or generating effective treatment strategies. Research demonstrates that dietary intake affects many biological systems including brain and neurological health. This study determined if exposure to a high fat diet (HFD or caloric restriction (CR altered post-concussion susceptibility or resiliency using a rodent model of pediatric concussion. Rats were maintained on HFD, CR, or standard diet (STD throughout life (including the prenatal period and weaning. At postnatal day 30, male and female rats experienced a concussion or a sham injury which was followed by 17 days of testing. Prefrontal cortex and hippocampus tissue was collected for molecular profiling. Gene expression changes in BDNF, CREB, DNMT1, FGF-2, IGF1, LEP, PGC-1α, SIRT1, Tau, and TERT were analyzed with respect to injury and diet. Analysis of telomere length (TL using peripheral skin cells and brain tissue found that TL in skin significantly correlated with TL in brain tissue and TL was affected by dietary intake and injury status. With respect to mTBI outcomes, diet was correlated with recovery as animals on the HFD often displayed poorer performance than animals on the CR diet. Molecular analysis demonstrated that diet induced epigenetic changes that can be associated with differences in individual predisposition and resiliency to post-concussion syndrome.

  13. Postpartum behavioral profiles in Wistar rats following maternal separation - altered exploration and risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams

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    Loudin Daoura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The rodent maternal separation (MS model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15 and prolonged (360 min; MS360 periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e. just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis.

  14. Sulforaphane ameliorates the insulin responsiveness and the lipid profile but does not alter the antioxidant response in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Carolina Guerini; da Motta, Leonardo Lisbôa; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Rech, Anderson; Bruch, Ricardo; Klamt, Fábio; Souza, Diogo Onofre

    2016-04-20

    Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases and is characterized by hyperglycemia and increased oxidative stress. These two alterations are also responsible for the main diabetic complications: cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes progression is governed by pancreatic β-cell failure, and recent studies showed that sulforaphane (SFN) might be able to prevent this change, preserving insulin production. Consequently, our goal was to test the effects of SFN on metabolic parameters related to diabetic complications and antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, catalase and sulfhydryl groups) in the pancreas, liver and kidney of non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with water or 0.5 mg kg(-1) SFN i.p. for 21 days after diabetes induction. In diabetic animals treated with SFN, the serum levels of total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols were similar to those of non-diabetic animals, and the insulin responsiveness was higher than that of the diabetic animals that did not receive the compound. No effect of SFN on the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity or sulfhydryl groups was observed in the pancreas, liver or kidney of the treated animals. We conclude that SFN ameliorates some features of clinical diabetic complications particularly the lipid profile and insulin responsiveness, but it does not modulate the antioxidant response induced by superoxide dismutase, catalase and sulfhydryl groups in the evaluated organs. PMID:27025193

  15. Long-term increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A expression in ventromedial hypotalamus causes hyperphagia and alters the hypothalamic lipidomic profile.

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    Paula Mera

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH has emerged as a crucial pathway in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT 1A is the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation and it has been proposed as a crucial mediator of fasting and ghrelin orexigenic signalling. However, the relationship between changes in CPT1A activity and the intracellular downstream effectors in the VMH that contribute to appetite modulation is not fully understood. To this end, we examined the effect of long-term expression of a permanently activated CPT1A isoform by using an adeno-associated viral vector injected into the VMH of rats. Peripherally, this procedure provoked hyperghrelinemia and hyperphagia, which led to overweight, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. In the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH, long-term CPT1AM expression in the VMH did not modify acyl-CoA or malonyl-CoA levels. However, it altered the MBH lipidomic profile since ceramides and sphingolipids increased and phospholipids decreased. Furthermore, we detected increased vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid transporter (VGAT and reduced vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2 expressions, both transporters involved in this orexigenic signal. Taken together, these observations indicate that CPT1A contributes to the regulation of feeding by modulating the expression of neurotransmitter transporters and lipid components that influence the orexigenic pathways in VMH.

  16. Alterations in the phosphoproteomic profile of cells expressing a non-functional form of the SHP2 phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corallino, Salvatore; Iwai, Leo K; Payne, Leo S; Huang, Paul H; Sacco, Francesca; Cesareni, Gianni; Castagnoli, Luisa

    2016-09-25

    The phosphatase SHP-2 plays an essential role in growth factor signaling and mutations in its locus is the cause of congenital and acquired pathologies. Mutations of SHP-2 are known to affect the activation of the RAS pathway. Gain-of-function mutations cause the Noonan syndrome, the most common non-chromosomal congenital disorder. In order to obtain a holistic picture of the intricate regulatory mechanisms underlying SHP-2 physiology and pathology, we set out to characterize perturbations of the cell phosphorylation profile caused by an altered localization of SHP-2. To describe the proteins whose activity may be directly or indirectly modulated by SHP-2 activity, we identified tyrosine peptides that are differentially phosphorylated in wild type SHP-2 cells and isogenic cells expressing a non-functional SHP-2 variant that cannot dephosphorylate the physiological substrates due to a defect in cellular localization upon growth factor stimulation. By an iTRAQ based strategy coupled to mass spectrometry, we have identified 63 phosphorylated tyrosine residues in 53 different proteins whose phosphorylation is affected by SHP-2 activity. Some of these confirm already established regulatory mechanisms while many others suggest new possible signaling routes that may contribute to the modulation of the ERK and p38 pathways by SHP-2. Interestingly many new proteins that we found to be regulated by SHP-2 activity are implicated in the formation and regulation of focal adhesions. PMID:26316256

  17. Short-chain fructooligosaccharides do not alter glucose homeostasis but improve the lipid profile in obese rats

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    Fernanda Soares da Silva-Morita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS feeding on body weight, fat accumulation, glucose homeostasis and lipid profile in cafeteria (CAF obese rats. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups: control group (CTL, n = 10, which received a chow diet and water and CAF (n = 20, which received the cafeteria diet, standard chow and soda. After 30 weeks of diet, 10 animals of CAF group received scFOS in the diet (50 g kg-1 of diet over a period of 50 days, forming the CAF FOS group. Were evaluated the body weight, fat pad as well as, quantity of feces, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance (IR and serum lipids levels. Animals submitted to the CAF diet displayed obesity, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and IR. The scFOS feeding   not altered obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and IR. CAF rats also presented hypertriglyceridemia and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. The CAF FOS animals had reduced serum triglycerides (TG and increased HDL-cholesterol. Thus, the use of scFOS in the diet can be considered as a hypolipidemic agent in the obese state.

  18. DEWAX-mediated transcriptional repression of cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mi Chung; Go, Young Sam

    2014-06-06

    The aerial parts of plants are covered with a cuticular wax layer, which is the first barrier between a plant and its environment. Although cuticular wax deposition increases more in the light than in the dark, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cuticular wax biosynthesis. Recently DEWAX (Decrease Wax Biosynthesis) encoding an AP2/ERF transcription factor was found to be preferentially expressed in the epidermis and induced by darkness. Wax analysis of the dewax knockout mutant, wild type, and DEWAX overexpression lines (OX) indicates that DEWAX is a negative regulator of cuticular wax biosynthesis. DEWAX represses the expression of wax biosynthetic genes CER1, LACS2, ACLA2, and ECR via direct interaction with their promoters. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is negatively regulated twice a day by the expression of DEWAX; throughout the night and another for stomata closing. Taken together, it is evident that DEWAX-mediated negative regulation of the wax biosynthetic genes plays role in determining the total wax loads produced in Arabidopsis during daily dark and light cycles. In addition, significantly higher levels of DEWAX transcripts in leaves than stems suggest that DEWAX-mediated transcriptional repression might be involved in the organ-specific regulation of total wax amounts on plant surfaces.

  19. The cuticular plate: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside a hair cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Lana M; McDermott, Brian M

    2015-06-01

    The mechanosensitive hair cells of the inner ear are crucial to hearing and vestibular function. Each hair cell detects the mechanical stimuli associated with sound or head movement with a hair bundle at the apical surface of the cell, consisting of a precise array of actin-based stereocilia. Each stereocilium inserts as a rootlet into a dense filamentous actin mesh known as the cuticular plate. Disruption of the parallel actin bundles forming the stereocilia results in hearing impairments and balance defects. The cuticular plate is thought to be involved in holding the stereocilia in place. However, the precise role of the cuticular plate in hair bundle development, maintenance, and hearing remains unknown. Ultrastructural studies have revealed a complex cytoskeletal architecture, but a lack of knowledge of proteins that inhabit the cuticular plate and a dearth of mutations that perturb relevant proteins have hindered our understanding of the functions of the cuticular plate. Here, we discuss what is known about the structure and development of this unique and poorly-understood actin-rich organelle. PMID:26104653

  20. Cuticular lipids of female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, James S; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Guédot, Christelle; Hagen, Marcia M; Fatland, Charlotte L; Kemp, William P

    2009-06-01

    The cuticular lipids of the cavity-nesting adult female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and combined GC-mass spectrometry. The cuticular lipids of these female bees are mainly consisted of hydrocarbons. For O. lignaria, nearly 64% of the cuticular lipids were C(25)-C(31) mono-alkenes. For M. rotundata, 48% of the cuticular lipids were C(23)-C(33) alkanes with nearly the same quantities of the same chain-length mono-alkenes (45%). For the mono-alkenes of O. lignaria, 14 mono-alkene constituents were identified, with two of these, 9-heptacosene and 7-nonacosene, comprising 67% of the total alkene distribution. For M. rotundata females, the mixtures of mono-alkenes were more complex with 26 constituents identified and quantified. For the M. rotundata mono-alkenes, 57% of the total composition consisted of the three alkenes, 7-pentacosene, 9-pentacosene and 7-heptacosene. For both bee species, small quantities of C(40)-C(48) wax esters were also characterized with the major components possessing a C(18) mono-unsaturated fatty acid (9-octadecenoate) moiety esterified to even-carbon number (C(22-30)) fatty alcohols. The possible role of these cuticular lipids as nest recognition chemicals is discussed in light of nesting behavior of managed crop pollinators. PMID:19298863

  1. Management of familial Mediterranean fever by colchicine does not normalize the altered profile of microbial long chain fatty acids in the human metabolome

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    Zhanna eKtsoyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous works we established that in an autoinflammatory condition, familial Mediterranean fever, the gut microbial diversity is specifically restructured, which also results in the altered profiles of microbial long chain fatty acids (LCFAs present in the systemic metabolome. The mainstream management of the disease is based on oral administration of colchicine to suppress clinical signs and extend remission periods and our aim was to determine whether this therapy normalizes the microbial LCFA profiles in the metabolome as well. Unexpectedly, the treatment does not normalize these profiles. Moreover, it results in the formation of new distinct microbial LCFA clusters, which are well separated from the corresponding values in healthy controls and FMF patients without the therapy. We hypothesize that the therapy alters the proinflammatory network specific for the disease, with the concomitant changes in gut microbiota and the corresponding microbial LCFAs in the metabolome.

  2. Visceral adiposity index (VAI is predictive of an altered adipokine profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco C Amato

    Full Text Available AIMS: Although there is still no clear definition of "adipose tissue dysfunction" or ATD, the identification of a clinical marker of altered fat distribution and function may provide the needed tools for early identification of a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations among various anthropometric indices [BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Hip Circumference (HC, Waist/Hip ratio (WHR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and Visceral adiposity Index (VAI] and several adipocytokines [Visfatin, Resistin, Leptin, Soluble leptin receptors (sOB-R, Adiponectin, Ghrelin, Adipsin, PAI-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-18] in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one DM2 patients (age: 65.25 ± 6.38 years; 42 men and 49 women in stable treatment for the last six months with metformin in monotherapy (1.5-2 g/day were cross-sectionally studied. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were evaluated. Serum adipocytokine levels were assayed with Luminex based kits. RESULTS: At the Pearson's correlation, among all the indices investigated, VAI showed a significant correlation with almost all adipocytokines analyzed [Visfatin, Resistin and hsCRP (all p<0.001; Adiponectin, sOb-R, IL-6, IL-18, HGF (all p<0.010; Ghrelin and VEGF (both p<0.05]. Through a two-step cluster analysis, 55 patients were identified with the most altered adipocytokine profile (patients with ATD. At a ROC analysis, VAI showed the highest C-statistic [0.767 (95% CI 0.66-0.84] of all the indices. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the VAI, among the most common indexes of adiposity assessment, shows the best correlation with the best known adipocytokines and cardiometabolic risk serum markers. Although to date we are still far from clearly identifying an ATD, the VAI would be an easy tool for clearly mirroring a condition of cardiometabolic risk, in the absence of an

  3. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  4. Altered disc pressure profile after an osteoporotic vertebral fracture is a risk factor for adjacent vertebral body fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzermiadianos, Michael N; Renner, Susan M; Phillips, Frank M; Hadjipavlou, Alexander G; Zindrick, Michael R; Havey, Robert M; Voronov, Michael; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of endplate deformity after an osteoporotic vertebral fracture in increasing the risk for adjacent vertebral fractures. Eight human lower thoracic or thoracolumbar specimens, each consisting of five vertebrae were used. To selectively fracture one of the endplates of the middle VB of each specimen a void was created under the target endplate and the specimen was flexed and compressed until failure. The fractured vertebra was subjected to spinal extension under 150 N preload that restored the anterior wall height and vertebral kyphosis, while the fractured endplate remained significantly depressed. The VB was filled with cement to stabilize the fracture, after complete evacuation of its trabecular content to ensure similar cement distribution under both the endplates. Specimens were tested in flexion-extension under 400 N preload while pressure in the discs and strain at the anterior wall of the adjacent vertebrae were recorded. Disc pressure in the intact specimens increased during flexion by 26 +/- 14%. After cementation, disc pressure increased during flexion by 15 +/- 11% in the discs with un-fractured endplates, while decreased by 19 +/- 26.7% in the discs with the fractured endplates. During flexion, the compressive strain at the anterior wall of the vertebra next to the fractured endplate increased by 94 +/- 23% compared to intact status (p 0.05). Subsequent flexion with compression to failure resulted in adjacent fracture close to the fractured endplate in six specimens and in a non-adjacent fracture in one specimen, while one specimen had no adjacent fractures. Depression of the fractured endplate alters the pressure profile of the damaged disc resulting in increased compressive loading of the anterior wall of adjacent vertebra that predisposes it to wedge fracture. This data suggests that correction of endplate deformity may play a role in reducing the risk of adjacent fractures. PMID:18795344

  5. Epigallocatechin Gallate-Mediated Alteration of the MicroRNA Expression Profile in 5α-Dihydrotestosterone-Treated Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Shanghun; Kim, Karam; Lee, Myung Joo; Lee, Jeongju; Choi, Sungjin; Kim, Kyung-Suk; Ko, Jung-Min; Han, Hyunjoo; Kim, Su Young; Youn, Hae Jeong; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induces androgenic alopecia by shortening the hair follicle growth phase, resulting in hair loss. We previously demonstrated how changes in the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile influenced DHT-mediated cell death, cell cycle arrest, cell viability, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and senescence. Protective effects against DHT have not, however, been elucidated at the genome level. Objective We showed that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, protects DHT-induced cell death by regulating the cellular miRNA expression profile. Methods We used a miRNA microarray to identify miRNA expression levels in human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). We investigated whether the miRNA expression influenced the protective effects of EGCG against DHT-induced cell death, growth arrest, intracellular ROS levels, and senescence. Results EGCG protected against the effects of DHT by altering the miRNA expression profile in human DPCs. In addition, EGCG attenuated DHT-mediated cell death and growth arrest and decreased intracellular ROS levels and senescence. A bioinformatics analysis elucidated the relationship between the altered miRNA expression and EGCG-mediated protective effects against DHT. Conclusion Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the negative effects of DHT by altering the miRNA expression profile in human DPCs. PMID:27274631

  6. Divergence of cuticular hydrocarbons in two sympatric grasshopper species and the evolution of fatty acid synthases and elongases across insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Jonas; Berdan, Emma L.; Mayer, Frieder; Ronacher, Bernhard; Geiselhardt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play a major role in the evolution of reproductive isolation between insect species. The CHC profiles of two closely related sympatric grasshopper species, Chorthippus biguttulus and C. mollis, differ mainly in the position of the first methyl group in major methyl-branched CHCs. The position of methyl branches is determined either by a fatty acid synthase (FAS) or by elongases. Both protein families showed an expansion in insects. Interestingly, the FAS family showed several lineage-specific expansions, especially in insect orders with highly diverse methyl-branched CHC profiles. We found five putative FASs and 12 putative elongases in the reference transcriptomes for both species. A dN/dS test showed no evidence for positive selection acting on FASs and elongases in these grasshoppers. However, one candidate FAS showed species-specific transcriptional differences and may contribute to the shift of the methyl-branch position between the species. In addition, transcript levels of four elongases were expressed differentially between the sexes. Our study indicates that complex methyl-branched CHC profiles are linked to an expansion of FASs genes, but that species differences can also mediated at the transcriptional level. PMID:27677406

  7. Overexpression of the IGF-II/M6P receptor in mouse fibroblast cell lines differentially alters expression profiles of genes involved in Alzheimer's disease-related pathology.

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    Yanlin Wang

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common type of senile dementia affecting elderly people. The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP leading to the generation of β-amyloid (Aβ peptide contributes to neurodegeneration and development of AD pathology. The endocytic trafficking pathway, which comprises of the endosomes and lysosomes, acts as an important site for Aβ generation, and endocytic dysfunction has been linked to increased Aβ production and loss of neurons in AD brains. Since insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II receptor plays a critical role in the transport of lysosomal enzymes from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes, it is likely that the receptor may have a role in regulating Aβ metabolism in AD pathology. However, very little is known on how altered levels of the IGF-II receptor can influence the expression/function of various molecules involved in AD pathology. To address this issue, we evaluated the expression profiles of 87 selected genes related to AD pathology in mouse fibroblast MS cells that are deficient in murine IGF-II receptor and corresponding MS9II cells overexpressing ∼ 500 times the human IGF-II receptors. Our results reveal that an elevation in IGF-II receptor levels alters the expression profiles of a number of genes including APP as well as enzymes regulating Aβ production, degradation and clearance mechanisms. Additionally, it influences the expression of various lysosomal enzymes and protein kinases that are involved in Aβ toxicity. IGF-II receptor overexpression also alters expression of several genes involved in intracellular signalling as well as cholesterol metabolism, which play a critical role in AD pathology. The altered gene profiles observed in this study closely match with the corresponding protein levels, with a few exceptions. These results, taken together, suggest that an elevation in IGF-II receptor levels can influence the expression profiles of transcripts as well as proteins

  8. Peripheral, central and behavioral responses to the cuticular pheromone bouquet in Drosophila melanogaster males.

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    Tsuyoshi Inoshita

    Full Text Available Pheromonal communication is crucial with regard to mate choice in many animals including insects. Drosophila melanogaster flies produce a pheromonal bouquet with many cuticular hydrocarbons some of which diverge between the sexes and differently affect male courtship behavior. Cuticular pheromones have a relatively high weight and are thought to be -- mostly but not only -- detected by gustatory contact. However, the response of the peripheral and central gustatory systems to these substances remains poorly explored. We measured the effect induced by pheromonal cuticular mixtures on (i the electrophysiological response of peripheral gustatory receptor neurons, (ii the calcium variation in brain centers receiving these gustatory inputs and (iii the behavioral reaction induced in control males and in mutant desat1 males, which show abnormal pheromone production and perception. While male and female pheromones induced inhibitory-like effects on taste receptor neurons, the contact of male pheromones on male fore-tarsi elicits a long-lasting response of higher intensity in the dedicated gustatory brain center. We found that the behavior of control males was more strongly inhibited by male pheromones than by female pheromones, but this difference disappeared in anosmic males. Mutant desat1 males showed an increased sensitivity of their peripheral gustatory neurons to contact pheromones and a behavioral incapacity to discriminate sex pheromones. Together our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbons induce long-lasting inhibitory effects on the relevant taste pathway which may interact with the olfactory pathway to modulate pheromonal perception.

  9. Polar cuticular lipids differ in male and female sandflies (Phlebotomus papatasi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi is an important blood feeder and the main vector of Leishmania major, which causes zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in parts of the Afro-Eurasian region. Polar cuticular lipids in P. papatasi were analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometry. Blood-fed females, no...

  10. An evaluation of fundus photography and fundus autofluorescence in the diagnosis of cuticular drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Klein, Ronald;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine non-mydriatic fundus photography (FP) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) as alternative non-invasive imaging modalities to fluorescein angiography (FA) in the detection of cuticular drusen (CD). METHODS: Among 2953 adults from the Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES) with gradable FP...

  11. Sexual selection on cuticular hydrocarbons in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

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    Simmons Leigh W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Females in a wide range of taxa have been shown to base their choice of mates on pheromone signals. However, little research has focussed specifically on the form and intensity of selection that mate choice imposes on the pheromone signal. Using multivariate selection analysis, we characterise directly the form and intensity of sexual selection acting on cuticular hydrocarbons, chemical compounds widely used in the selection of mates in insects. Using the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus as a model organism, we use three measures of male attractiveness to estimate fitness; mating success, the duration of courtship required to elicit copulation, and subsequent spermatophore attachment duration. Results We found that all three measures of male attractiveness generated sexual selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons, however there were differences in the form and intensity of selection among these three measures. Mating success was the only measure of attractiveness that imposed both univariate linear and quadratic selection on cuticular hydrocarbons. Although we found that all three attractiveness measures generated nonlinear selection, again only mating success was found to exert statistically significant stabilizing selection. Conclusion This study shows that sexual selection plays an important role in the evolution of male cuticular hydrocarbon signals.

  12. Comprehensive genomic profiling of orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas identifies frequent alterations in MYD88 and chromatin modifiers: new routes to targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cani, Andi K; Soliman, Moaaz; Hovelson, Daniel H; Liu, Chia-Jen; McDaniel, Andrew S; Haller, Michaela J; Bratley, Jarred V; Rahrig, Samantha E; Li, Qiang; Briceño, César A; Tomlins, Scott A; Rao, Rajesh C

    2016-07-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbit and ocular adnexa is the most common primary orbital malignancy. Treatments for low- (extra-nodal marginal zone and follicular lymphomas) and high-grade (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) are associated with local and vision-threatening toxicities. High-grade lymphomas relapse frequently and exhibit poor survival rates. Despite advances in genomic profiling and precision medicine, orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas remain poorly characterized molecularly. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) profiling of 38 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas obtained from a single-center using a panel targeting near-term, clinically relevant genes. Potentially actionable mutations and copy number alterations were prioritized based on gain- and loss-of-function analyses, and catalogued, approved, and investigational therapies. Of 36 informative samples, including marginal zone lymphomas (n=20), follicular lymphomas (n=9), and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (n=7), 53% harbored a prioritized alteration (median=1, range 0-5/sample). MYD88 was the most frequently altered gene in our cohort, with potentially clinically relevant hotspot gain-of-function mutations identified in 71% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 25% of marginal zone lymphomas. Prioritized alterations in epigenetic modulators were common and included gain-of-function EZH2 and loss-of-function ARID1A mutations (14% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 22% of follicular lymphomas contained alterations in each of these two genes). Single prioritized alterations were also identified in the histone methyltransferases KMT2B (follicular lymphoma) and KMT3B (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). Loss-of-function mutations and copy number alterations in the tumor suppressors TP53 (diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphoma), CDKN2A (diffuse large B-cell and marginal zone lymphoma), PTEN (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), ATM (diffuse large B

  13. 'Does my Diet Affect my Perfume?' Identification and Quantification of Cuticular Compounds in Five Drosophila melanogaster Strains Maintained over 300 Generations on Different Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavković-Lučić, Sofija; Todosijević, Marina; Savić, Tatjana; Vajs, Vlatka; Trajković, Jelena; Anđelković, Boban; Lučić, Luka; Krstić, Gordana; Makarov, Slobodan; Tomić, Vladimir; Miličić, Dragana; Vujisić, Ljubodrag

    2016-02-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila melanogaster represent the basis of chemical communication being involved in many important biological functions. The aim of this study was to characterize chemical composition and variation of cuticular profiles in five D. melanogaster strains. These strains were reared for approximately 300 generations on five diets: standard cornmeal medium and substrates prepared with apple, banana, tomato, and carrot. Differences in quantity and/or quality in CHCs were assumed as a result of activation of different metabolic pathways involved in food digestion and adaptations to the particular diet type. In total, independently of sex and strain, 66 chemical compounds were identified. In females of all strains, 60 compounds were identified, while, in males, 47 compounds were extracted. Certain new chemical compounds for D. melanogaster were found. MANOVA confirmed that CHC amounts significantly depend on sex and substrates, as well as on their interactions. Discriminant analysis revealed that flies belonging to 'apple' and 'carrot' strains exhibited the most noticeable differences in CHC repertoires. A non-hydrocarbon pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) also contributed to the variation in the pheromone bouquet among the strains. Variability detected in CHCs and cVA may be used in the explanation of differences in mating behaviour previously determined in analyzed fly strains. PMID:26880435

  14. Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; SATO, JUICHI; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10–90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrati...

  15. Chronic ozone exposure alters the secondary metabolite profile, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory property, and quality of red pepper fruit from Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan Junior, Armando Molina; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moresco, Karla Suzana; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro; de Oliveira Salvi, Aguisson; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; de Carvalho, Pâmela; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Fonseca Moreira, José Cláudio

    2016-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times, reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many regions globally. However, the effect of high O3 concentrations on quality of fruit and vegetables remains unknown. Here, we evaluated whether O3 pollution alters the quality of Capsicum baccatum peppers by changing the secondary compound profiles and biological activity of the fruit. C. baccatum pepper plants were exposed to ozone for 62 days in an open-top chamber at a mean O3 concentration of 171.6µg/m(3). Capsaicin levels decreased by 50% in the pericarp, but remained unchanged in the seeds. In contrast, the total carotenoid content increased by 52.8% in the pericarp. The content of total phenolic compounds increased by 17% in the pericarp. The total antioxidant potential decreased by 87% in seeds of O3-treated plants. The seeds contributed more than the pericarp to the total radical-trapping antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity. O3 treatment impaired the ferric-reducing antioxidant power of the seeds and reduced NO(•)-scavenging activity in the pericarp. However, O3 treatment increased ferrous ion-chelating activity and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the pericarp. Our results confirm that O3 alters the secondary metabolite profile of C. baccatum pepper fruits and, consequently, their biological activity profile. PMID:26970882

  16. Alteration of starch hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory properties, antioxidant activities, and phenolic profile of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L.) by cooking duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen A; Oboh, Ganiyu; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Osunmo, Kolawole

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the effect of cooking duration on starch hydrolyzing enzyme (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) activities, antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl [DPPH*], hydroxyl [OH*] radicals scavenging abilities and reducing power) properties, and phenolic profile of clove buds. Clove buds (raw) were cooked for 10 (SC 10) and 20 min (SC 20) and subsequently, their effects were assessed on enzyme activities, antioxidant properties, and phenolic profile. Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities and radicals scavenging abilities were altered by cooking in the trend; raw SC 20, with IC 50 values ranging from 0.25 to 0.52 mg/mL and 0.10 to 1.50 mg/mL respectively. HPLC phenolic profile of the clove buds revealed significant (P < 0.05) changes in the amount of chlorogenic acid, quercitrin, quercetin, and kaempferol at different cooking duration. Thus, cooking duration may alter the phenolic compositions and nutraceutical potentials of clove bud by activation and/or deactivation of redox-active metabolites. PMID:27004114

  17. Ultra-highly diluted plant extracts of Hydrastis canadensis and Marsdenia condurango induce epigenetic modifications and alter gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santu Kumar Saha; Sourav Roy; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methylation-specific epigenetic process and gene expression profiles of HeLa cel s treated with ultra-high dilutions (HDs) of two plant extracts, Hydrastis canadensis (HC-30) and Marsdenia condurango (Condu-30), diluted 1060 times, were analyzed against placebo 30C (Pl-30) for alterations in gene profiles linked to epigenetic modifications. METHODS: Separate groups of cel s were subjected to treatment of Condu-30, HC-30, and Pl-30 prepared by serial dilutions and succussions. Global microarray data recorded on Affymetrix platform, using 25-mer probes were provided by iLifeDiscoveries, India. Slides were scanned with 3000 7G microarray scanner and raw data sets were extracted from Cel (raw intensity) files. Analyses of global microarray data profile, differential gene expression, fold change and clusters were made using GeneSpring GX12.5 software and standard normalization procedure. Before microarray study, concentration of RNA (ng/μL), RIN value and rRNA ratio for al the samples were analysed by Agilant Bioanalyzer 2100. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR were done for analyzing SMAD-4 expression. Fluorescence-activated cel sorting study was further made to elucidate fate of cel s at divisional stages. Methylation-specific restriction enzyme assay was conducted for ascertaining methylation status of DNA at specific sites. RESULTS: HDs of HC-30 and Condu-30 differential y altered methylation in specific regions of DNA and expression profiles of certain genes linked to carcinogenesis, as compared to Pl-30. Two separate cut sites were found in genomic DNA of untreated and placebo-treated HeLa cel s when digested with McrBC, compared to a single cut observed in Condu-30-treated genomic DNA. SMAD-4 gene expression validated the expression pattern observed in microarray profile. Methylation-specific restriction enzyme assay elucidated differential epigenetic modifications in drug-treated and control cel s

  18. Efficacy of Indigenous Herbal Preparation on Altered Milk pH, Somatic Cell Count and Electrolyte Profile in Subclinical Mastitis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Kolte

    Full Text Available Comparative efficacy of three different locally prepared indigenous herbal paste were evaluated in subclinical 24 mastitic cows with reference to restoring altered milk pH, somatic cell count and milk electrolyte profile. The study revealed that all the treatment were found effective in restoring the altered milk constituents in subclinical mastitis with increased in the milk production. T3 (oots of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, Asparagus reacemosus (Shatavari, Curcuma-amada (Ambe Haldi and fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi in equal quantities was found more effective than T5 ( T3 and T4 in combination in equal quantities and T4 (fresh roots of Glycerrhiza glabra (Jeshathamadh, Nardostachys jatamansi (Jatamansi, leaves of Riccinus communis (Yerand, bark of Ficus racemosa (Umber and rhizome of Curcuma longa (Haldi in equal quantities [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 239-240

  19. Identification of Altered Metabolomic Profiles Following a Panchakarma-based Ayurvedic Intervention in Healthy Subjects: The Self-Directed Biological Transformation Initiative (SBTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christine Tara; Lucas, Joseph; John-Williams, Lisa St; Thompson, J Will; Moseley, M Arthur; Patel, Sheila; Peterson, Scott N; Porter, Valencia; Schadt, Eric E; Mills, Paul J; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Chopra, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    The effects of integrative medicine practices such as meditation and Ayurveda on human physiology are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify altered metabolomic profiles following an Ayurveda-based intervention. In the experimental group, 65 healthy male and female subjects participated in a 6-day Panchakarma-based Ayurvedic intervention which included herbs, vegetarian diet, meditation, yoga, and massage. A set of 12 plasma phosphatidylcholines decreased (adjusted p metabolomic alterations may reflect a Panchakarma-induced modulation of metabotypes. Panchakarma promoted statistically significant changes in plasma levels of phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and others in just 6 days. Forthcoming studies that integrate metabolomics with genomic, microbiome and physiological parameters may facilitate a broader systems-level understanding and mechanistic insights into these integrative practices that are employed to promote health and well-being. PMID:27611967

  20. Altered fatty acid profile in the liver and serum of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats: reduced proportion of cis-vaccenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shizuyo; Kojiguchi, Chiho; Yamazaki, Tohru; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) are utilized as models for study of the pathogenesis of not only stroke and cardiovascular disorders but also atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Basic information on the profiles of fatty acids and lipid classes in the liver is indispensable to use SHRSP as a model of disorder of lipid metabolism; nevertheless, detailed information on the metabolism of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and fatty acids in the liver of SHRSP is lacking. This study aimed to characterize profiles of lipid classes and fatty acids and to explore the mechanism underlying the characteristic alterations in metabolism of TAGs and fatty acids in the liver of SHRSP, in comparison with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The characteristic changes observed in SHRSP were (1) markedly lower hepatic TAG contents; (2) altered expressions of genes encoding three enzymes responsible for the control of TAG level, namely, adipose triglyceride lipase (for TAG degradation; up-regulated), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (for fatty acid β-oxidation; up-regulated) and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (for glycerolipid synthesis; down-regulated); (3) evidently lower contents and proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), in the liver and serum; and (4) down-regulation of palmitoleoyl-CoA chain elongase, which is necessary for the biosynthesis of 18:1n-7, in the liver. From the above observations, we concluded that there are significant differences in profiles of lipid classes and fatty acids between SHRSP and SHR, and that altered characteristics in SHRSP are likely responsible for increases in TAG hydrolysis and β-oxidation, and decreases in TAG synthesis and 18:1n-7 synthesis.

  1. Immunological characterization of recombinantWuchereria bancrofti cuticular collagen (COL-4) as putative vaccine candidate for human lymphatic filariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chakkaravarthy Arunkumar; Pandurangan Pandiaraja; P. R. Prince; Perumal Kaliraj

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate immunoprophylactic potential of recombinantWuchereria bancrofti(W. bancrofti) cuticular collagen(COL-4) inBALB/c mice and filarial clinical samples.Methods:col-4 gene wasPCR amplified fromW. bancroftiL3 cDNA library and cloned in pRSETB vector. RecombinantCOL-4 was over expressed in salt inducible system and was purified by nickel affinity chromatography.Humoral and cellular responses were measured byELISA and peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) of various filarial clinical samples respectively using purified recombinantCOL-4 antigen.Then the protective immune responses ofCOL-4 immunizedBALB/c mice were characterized.Results:Sequence analysis ofCOL-4 with human host proteins reveals lack of homology.The recombinantCOL-4 was found to be at15 kDa fusion protein.The affinity purifiedCOL-4 showed significant reactivity with putatively immune sera and in a similar fashion it demonstrated marked proliferation inPBMC samples.Immunization studies in experimental filarial host(mice) elicited significant titers with protective antibody isotype profile(IgM and IgG).Cellular immune responses were also significant in terms of splenocytes proliferation assay on mice samples.Conclusions:Our immunological findings in experimental host suggestTh2 mediated immune response.Hence, we propose thatW. bancroftiCOL-4 could be an efficacious vaccine candidate against lymphatic filariasis.

  2. Resistant starch alters gut microbiome and metabolomics profiles concurrent with amelioration of chronic kidney disease in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit profound alterations in the gut environment including shifts in microbial composition, increased fecal pH, and increased blood levels of gut microbe-derived metabolites (xeno-metabolites). The fermentable dietary fiber—high amylose maize...

  3. Altered microRNA Expression Profiles and Regulation of INK4A/CDKN2A Tumor Suppressor Genes in Canine Breast Cancer Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutful Kabir, Farruk Mohammad; DeInnocentes, Patricia; Bird, Richard Curtis

    2015-12-01

    microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling of cancer versus normal cells may reveal the characteristic regulatory features that can be correlated to altered gene expression in both human and animal models of cancers. In this study, the comprehensive expression profiles of the 277 highly characterized miRNAs from the canine genome were evaluated in spontaneous canine mammary tumor (CMT) models harboring defects in a group of cell cycle regulatory and potent tumor suppressor genes of INK4/CDKN2 family including p16/INK4A, p14ARF, and p15/INK4B. A large number of differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in three CMT cell lines to potentially target oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and cancer biomarkers. A group of the altered miRNAs were identified by miRNA target prediction tools for regulation of the INK4/CDKN2 family tumor suppressor genes. miRNA-141 was experimentally validated for INK4A 3'-UTR target binding in the CMT cell lines providing an essential mechanism for the post-transcriptional regulation of the INK4A tumor suppressor gene in CMT models. A well-recognized group of miRNAs including miR-21, miR-155, miR-9, miR-34a, miR-143/145, and miR-31 were found to be altered in both CMTs and human breast cancer. These altered miRNAs might serve as potential targets for advancing the development of future therapeutic reagents. These findings further strengthen the validity and use of canine breast cancers as appropriate models for the study of human breast cancers. PMID:26095675

  4. Epigenetic Profiling of H3K4Me3 Reveals Herbal Medicine Jinfukang-Induced Epigenetic Alteration Is Involved in Anti-Lung Cancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Shen, Tingting; Ma, Chao; Wu, Jun; Kong, Hualei; Tian, Jing; Shao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Xiaodong; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Jinfukang (JFK) has been clinically used for treating lung cancer. To examine whether epigenetic modifications are involved in its anticancer activity, we performed a global profiling analysis of H3K4Me3, an epigenomic marker associated with active gene expression, in JFK-treated lung cancer cells. We identified 11,670 genes with significantly altered status of H3K4Me3 modification following JFK treatment (P JFK. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that the anticancer activity of JFK involves modulation of histone modification at many cancer-related gene loci. PMID:27087825

  5. Epigenetic Profiling of H3K4Me3 Reveals Herbal Medicine Jinfukang-Induced Epigenetic Alteration Is Involved in Anti-Lung Cancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Shen, Tingting; Ma, Chao; Wu, Jun; Kong, Hualei; Tian, Jing; Shao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Xiaodong; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Jinfukang (JFK) has been clinically used for treating lung cancer. To examine whether epigenetic modifications are involved in its anticancer activity, we performed a global profiling analysis of H3K4Me3, an epigenomic marker associated with active gene expression, in JFK-treated lung cancer cells. We identified 11,670 genes with significantly altered status of H3K4Me3 modification following JFK treatment (P JFK. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that the anticancer activity of JFK involves modulation of histone modification at many cancer-related gene loci.

  6. Rice OsGL 1-1 Is Involved in Leaf Cuticular Wax and Cuticle Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Xiang Qin; Ming-Hong Gu; Zhu-Kuan Cheng; Ding Tang; Jian Huang; Ming Li; Xin-Ru Wu; Li-Li Lu; Ke-Jian Wang; Heng-Xiu Yu; Jian-Min Chen

    2011-01-01

    Cuticular wax forms a hydrophobic barrier on aerial plant organs; it plays an important role in protectinga plant from damage caused by many forms of environmental stress.In the present study,we characterized a rice leafwax-deficient mutant osgl1-1 derived from a spontaneous mutation,which exhibited a wax-deficient and highly hydrophilic leaf phenotype.We cloned the OsGL1-1 gene by the map-based cloning method and performed a complementation test to confirm the function of the candidate gene.Molecular studies revealed that OsGL1-1 was a member of the OsGL1family,and contained regions that were homologous to some regions in sterol desaturases and short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases.Compared to the wild-type,the osgl1-1 mutant showed decreased cuticular wax deposition,thinner cuticular membrane,decreased chlorophyll leaching,increased rate of water loss,and enhanced sensitivity to drought.OsGL1-1 is expressed ubiquitously in rice.The transient expression of OsGL1-1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein indicated that OsGL1-1 is localized in the cytoplasm,plasma membrane,and nucleus.

  7. AKT1 E17K mutation profiling in breast cancer: prevalence, concurrent oncogenic alterations, and blood-based detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Marion; Anzeneder, Tobias; Schulz, Anke; Beckmann, Georg; Byrne, Annette T.; Jeffers, Michael; Pena, Carol; Politz, Oliver; Köchert, Karl; Vonk, Richardus; Reischl, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The single hotspot mutation AKT1 [G49A:E17K] has been described in several cancers, with the highest incidence observed in breast cancer. However, its precise role in disease etiology remains unknown.Methods: We analyzed more than 600 breast cancer tumor samples and circulating tumor DNA for AKT1 E17K and alterations in other cancer-associated genes using Beads, Emulsions, Amplification, and Magnetics digital polymerase chain reaction technology and targeted exome sequencing.Resul...

  8. AKT1 (E17K) mutation profiling in breast cancer: prevalence, concurrent oncogenic alterations, and blood-based detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Marion; Anzeneder, Tobias; Schulz, Anke; Beckmann, Georg; Byrne, Annette T.; Jeffers, Michael; Pena, Carol; Politz, Oliver; Köchert, Karl; Vonk, Richardus; Reischl, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The single hotspot mutation AKT1 [G49A:E17K] has been described in several cancers, with the highest incidence observed in breast cancer. However, its precise role in disease etiology remains unknown. METHODS: We analyzed more than 600 breast cancer tumor samples and circulating tumor DNA for AKT1 (E17K) and alterations in other cancer-associated genes using Beads, Emulsions, Amplification, and Magnetics digital polymerase chain reaction technology and targeted exome sequencing...

  9. Antroquinonol inhibits NSCLC proliferation by altering PI3K/mTOR proteins and miRNA expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antroquinonol a derivative of Antrodia camphorata has been reported to have antitumor effects against various cancer cells. However, the effect of antroquinonol on cell signalling and survival pathways in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been fully demarcated. Here we report that antroquinonol treatment significantly reduced the proliferation of three NSCLC cells. Treatment of A549 cells with antroquinonol increased cell shrinkage, apoptotic vacuoles, pore formation, TUNEL positive cells and increased Sub-G1 cell population with respect to time and dose dependent manner. Antroquinonol treatment not only increased the Sub-G1 accumulation but also reduced the protein levels of cdc2 without altering the expression of cyclin B1, cdc25C, pcdc2, and pcdc25C. Antroquinonol induced apoptosis was associated with disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of Caspase 3 and PARP cleavage in A549 cells. Moreover, antroquinonol treatment down regulated the expression of Bcl2 proteins, which was correlated with the decreased PI3K and mTOR protein levels without altering pro apoptotic and anti apoptotic proteins. Results from the microarray analysis demonstrated that antroquinonol altered the expression level of miRNAs compared with untreated control in A549 cells. The data collectively suggested the antiproliferative effect of antroquinonol on NSCLC A549 cells, which provides useful information for understanding the anticancer mechanism influenced by antroquinonol and is the first report to suggest that antroquinonol may be a promising chemotherapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  10. Gene expression profile and genomic alterations in colonic tumours induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini Augusto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azoxymethane (AOM or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats shares many phenotypical similarities with human sporadic colon cancer and is a reliable model for identifying chemopreventive agents. Genetic mutations relevant to human colon cancer have been described in this model, but comprehensive gene expression and genomic analysis have not been reported so far. Therefore, we applied genome-wide technologies to study variations in gene expression and genomic alterations in DMH-induced colon cancer in F344 rats. Methods For gene expression analysis, 9 tumours (TUM and their paired normal mucosa (NM were hybridized on 4 × 44K Whole rat arrays (Agilent and selected genes were validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Functional analysis on microarray data was performed by GenMAPP/MappFinder analysis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH was performed on 10 paired TUM-NM samples hybridized on Rat genome arrays 2 × 105K (Agilent and the results were analyzed by CGH Analytics (Agilent. Results Microarray gene expression analysis showed that Defcr4, Igfbp5, Mmp7, Nos2, S100A8 and S100A9 were among the most up-regulated genes in tumours (Fold Change (FC compared with NM: 183, 48, 39, 38, 36 and 32, respectively, while Slc26a3, Mptx, Retlna and Muc2 were strongly down-regulated (FC: -500; -376, -167, -79, respectively. Functional analysis showed that pathways controlling cell cycle, protein synthesis, matrix metalloproteinases, TNFα/NFkB, and inflammatory responses were up-regulated in tumours, while Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain, and fatty acid beta oxidation were down-regulated. a-CGH analysis showed that four TUM out of ten had one or two chromosomal aberrations. Importantly, one sample showed a deletion on chromosome 18 including Apc. Conclusion The results showed complex gene expression alterations in adenocarcinomas encompassing many altered pathways. While a-CGH analysis showed a

  11. Ameliorating effect of black tea extract on cadmium chloride-induced alteration of serum lipid profile and liver histopathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Venkappa S; Somannavarib, Manjunath S; Yendigeri, Saeed; Das, Kusal K; Goudar, Shivaprasad S

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is one among the most environmental pollutants that affects many organs like kidney, liver and testis. The present study was aimed to assess the simultaneous effects of black tea extracts (BTE) on cadmium chloride induced alterations in lipid profile and liver histology. Adult rats were divided into four groups (n=6/group), group I (normal saline), group II (CdCl2, 1.0 mg/kg, b.wt; i.p), group III (black tea extract, 2.5 gm tea leaf/dl of water that is 2.5% of aqueous BTE) and group IV (cadmium chloride + BTE). Cadmium chloride intoxicated rats showed significant increase in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and there is a significant decrease in the serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In the liver, cadmium chloride showed changes in normal architecture, swollen hepatocytes, kupffer cells hyperplasia, dilation and congestion of central vein. Oral administration of black tea extracts with cadmium chloride significantly improves lipid profile and liver architecture as compared to the cadmium chloride group. The results indicate that BTE is beneficial in preventing cadmium-induced lipid alterations and hepatocellular damage.

  12. Cyclophosphamide Alters the Gene Expression Profile in Patients Treated with High Doses Prior to Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim El-Serafi; Manuchehr Abedi-Valugerdi; Zuzana Potácová; Parvaneh Afsharian; Jonas Mattsson; Ali Moshfegh; Moustapha Hassan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative treatment for several haematological malignancies. However, treatment related morbidity and mortality still is a limiting factor. Cyclophosphamide is widely used in condition regimens either in combination with other chemotherapy or with total body irradiation. METHODS: We present the gene expression profile during cyclophosphamide treatment in 11 patients conditioned with cyclophosphamide for 2 days followed by total body irra...

  13. Role of C-peptide in Altered Lipid Profile among Apparently Healthy Adults of Vijayapura City, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrahas M.Kulkarni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-peptide is produced in equimolar concentration during insulin production as inactive molecule by beta islet cells of Langerhans. C-peptide is most useful biomarker of endogenous insulin production. Aim and Objectives: To predict metabolic syndrome in advance by estimation of C-peptide and lipid profile in healthy adults. Material and Methods: Serum C-peptide, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile of 128 healthy individuals were estimated. Adults in the age group of 18 to 60 years of both sexes were included in study. Results: C-peptide levels were increased in 27%, Serum cholesterol in 30%, LDL Cholesterol in 55% and triglyceride levels in 21% of healthy individuals. Significant correlation was observed between C peptide, age, serum cholesterol, LDL and cholesterol LDL ratio in male subjects only. In our study group most of the subjects (both males and females fell in overweight group. Conclusion: Cpeptide level and lipid profile may be considered as useful biomarkers to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in advance, possibly due to insulin resistance.

  14. Gene expression profiling of lymphoblasts from autistic and nonaffected sib pairs: altered pathways in neuronal development and steroid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie W Hu

    Full Text Available Despite the identification of numerous autism susceptibility genes, the pathobiology of autism remains unknown. The present "case-control" study takes a global approach to understanding the molecular basis of autism spectrum disorders based upon large-scale gene expression profiling. DNA microarray analyses were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines from over 20 sib pairs in which one sibling had a diagnosis of autism and the other was not affected in order to identify biochemical and signaling pathways which are differentially regulated in cells from autistic and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics and gene ontological analyses of the data implicate genes which are involved in nervous system development, inflammation, and cytoskeletal organization, in addition to genes which may be relevant to gastrointestinal or other physiological symptoms often associated with autism. Moreover, the data further suggests that these processes may be modulated by cholesterol/steroid metabolism, especially at the level of androgenic hormones. Elevation of male hormones, in turn, has been suggested as a possible factor influencing susceptibility to autism, which affects approximately 4 times as many males as females. Preliminary metabolic profiling of steroid hormones in lymphoblastoid cell lines from several pairs of siblings reveals higher levels of testosterone in the autistic sibling, which is consistent with the increased expression of two genes involved in the steroidogenesis pathway. Global gene expression profiling of cultured cells from ASD probands thus serves as a window to underlying metabolic and signaling deficits that may be relevant to the pathobiology of autism.

  15. Laminin-332 alters connexin profile, dye coupling and intercellular Ca2+ waves in ciliated tracheal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakson, Brant E; Olsen, Colin E; Boitano, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Background Tracheal epithelial cells are anchored to a dynamic basement membrane that contains a variety of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens and laminins. During development, wound repair and disease of the airway epithelium, significant changes in extracellular matrix proteins may directly affect cell migration, differentiation and events mediated by intercellular communication. We hypothesized that alterations in cell matrix, specifically type I collagen and laminin α3β3γ2 (LM-332) proteins within the matrix, directly affect intercellular communication in ciliated rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (RTEC). Methods Functional coupling of RTEC was monitored by microinjection of the negatively charged fluorescent dyes, Lucifer Yellow and Alexa 350, into ciliated RTEC grown on either a LM-332/collagen or collagen matrix. Coupling of physiologically significant molecules was evaluated by the mechanism and extent of propagated intercellular Ca2+ waves. Expression of connexin (Cx) mRNA and proteins were assayed by reverse transcriptase – polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Results When compared to RTEC grown on collagen alone, RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen displayed a significant increase in dye transfer. Although mechanical stimulation of RTEC grown on either LM-332/collagen or collagen alone resulted in intercellular Ca2+ waves, the mechanism of transfer was dependent on matrix: RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen propagated Ca2+waves via extracellular purinergic signaling whereas RTEC grown on collagen used gap junctions. Comparison of RTEC grown on collagen or LM-332/collagen matrices revealed a reorganization of Cx26, Cx43 and Cx46 proteins. Conclusion Alterations in airway basement membrane proteins such as LM-332 can induce connexin reorganizations and result in altered cellular communication mechanisms that could contribute to airway tissue function. PMID:16884540

  16. Alterations of renal phenotype and gene expression profiles due to protein overload in NOD-related mouse strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Anupam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite multiple causes, Chronic Kidney Disease is commonly associated with proteinuria. A previous study on Non Obese Diabetic mice (NOD, which spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes, described histological and gene expression changes incurred by diabetes in the kidney. Because proteinuria is coincident to diabetes, the effects of proteinuria are difficult to distinguish from those of other factors such as hyperglycemia. Proteinuria can nevertheless be induced in mice by peritoneal injection of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA. To gain more information on the specific effects of proteinuria, this study addresses renal changes in diabetes resistant NOD-related mouse strains (NON and NOD.B10 that were made to develop proteinuria by BSA overload. Methods Proteinuria was induced by protein overload on NON and NOD.B10 mouse strains and histology and microarray technology were used to follow the kidney response. The effects of proteinuria were assessed and subsequently compared to changes that were observed in a prior study on NOD diabetic nephropathy. Results Overload treatment significantly modified the renal phenotype and out of 5760 clones screened, 21 and 7 kidney transcripts were respectively altered in the NON and NOD.B10. Upregulated transcripts encoded signal transduction genes, as well as markers for inflammation (Calmodulin kinase beta. Down-regulated transcripts included FKBP52 which was also down-regulated in diabetic NOD kidney. Comparison of transcripts altered by proteinuria to those altered by diabetes identified mannosidase 2 alpha 1 as being more specifically induced by proteinuria. Conclusion By simulating a component of diabetes, and looking at the global response on mice resistant to the disease, by virtue of a small genetic difference, we were able to identify key factors in disease progression. This suggests the power of this approach in unraveling multifactorial disease processes.

  17. Resistant starch alters gut microbiome and metabolomic profiles concurrent with amelioration of chronic kidney disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Piccolo, Brian D; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liu, Shuman; Lau, Wei L; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nazertehrani, Sohrab; Moore, Mary E; Marco, Maria L; Martin, Roy J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-05-01

    Patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit profound alterations in the gut environment including shifts in microbial composition, increased fecal pH, and increased blood levels of gut microbe-derived metabolites (xenometabolites). The fermentable dietary fiber high amylose maize-resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) has been shown to alter the gut milieu and in CKD rat models leads to markedly improved kidney function. The aim of the present study was to identify specific cecal bacteria and cecal, blood, and urinary metabolites that associate with changes in kidney function to identify potential mechanisms involved with CKD amelioration in response to dietary resistant starch. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with adenine-induced CKD were fed a semipurified low-fiber diet or a high-fiber diet [59% (wt/wt) HAMRS2] for 3 wk (n = 9 rats/group). The cecal microbiome was characterized, and cecal contents, serum, and urine metabolites were analyzed. HAMRS2-fed rats displayed decreased cecal pH, decreased microbial diversity, and an increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio. Several uremic retention solutes were altered in the cecal contents, serum, and urine, many of which had strong correlations with specific gut bacteria abundances, i.e., serum and urine indoxyl sulfate were reduced by 36% and 66%, respectively, in HAMRS2-fed rats and urine p-cresol was reduced by 47% in HAMRS2-fed rats. Outcomes from this study were coincident with improvements in kidney function indexes and amelioration of CKD outcomes previously reported for these rats, suggesting an important role for microbial-derived factors and gut microbe metabolism in regulating host kidney function. PMID:26841824

  18. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    OpenAIRE

    Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; dos Anjos, Fabyana Maria; Shimada, Ana Lúcia; Cruz, Wesley Soares; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Cardozo, Karina Helena Morais; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra Helena

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood bi...

  19. Association of urinary metal profiles with altered glucose levels and diabetes risk: a population-based study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng

    Full Text Available Elevated heavy metals and fasting plasma glucose (FPG levels were both associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, studies on the associations of heavy metals and essential elements with altered FPG and diabetes risk were limited or conflicting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential associations of heavy metals and essential trace elements with FPG and diabetes risk among general Chinese population.We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of urinary concentrations of 23 metals with FPG, impaired fasting glucose (IFG and diabetes among 2242 community-based Chinese adults in Wuhan. We used the false discovery rate (FDR method to correct for multiple hypothesis tests.After adjusting for potential confounders, urinary aluminum, titanium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, barium, tungsten and lead were associated with altered FPG, IFG or diabetes risk (all P< 0.05; arsenic was only dose-dependently related to diabetes (P< 0.05. After additional adjustment for multiple testing, titanium, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, tungsten and lead were still significantly associated with one or more outcomes (all FDR-adjusted P< 0.05.Our results suggest that multiple metals in urine are associated with FPG, IFG or diabetes risk. Because the cross-sectional design precludes inferences about causality, further prospective studies are warranted to validate our findings.

  20. Platelets alter gene expression profile in human brain endothelial cells in an in vitro model of cerebral malaria.

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    Mathieu Barbier

    Full Text Available Platelet adhesion to the brain microvasculature has been associated with cerebral malaria (CM in humans, suggesting that platelets play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In vitro co-cultures have shown that platelets can act as a bridge between Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBC and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBEC and potentiate HBEC apoptosis. Using cDNA microarray technology, we analyzed transcriptional changes of HBEC in response to platelets in the presence or the absence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF and pRBC, which have been reported to alter gene expression in endothelial cells. Using a rigorous statistical approach with multiple test corrections, we showed a significant effect of platelets on gene expression in HBEC. We also detected a strong effect of TNF, whereas there was no transcriptional change induced specifically by pRBC. Nevertheless, a global ANOVA and a two-way ANOVA suggested that pRBC acted in interaction with platelets and TNF to alter gene expression in HBEC. The expression of selected genes was validated by RT-qPCR. The analysis of gene functional annotation indicated that platelets induce the expression of genes involved in inflammation and apoptosis, such as genes involved in chemokine-, TREM1-, cytokine-, IL10-, TGFβ-, death-receptor-, and apoptosis-signaling. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that platelets play a pathogenic role in CM.

  1. Altered Methylation Profile of Lymphocytes Is Concordant with Perturbation of Lipids Metabolism and Inflammatory Response in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette J. Jacobsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with immunological perturbations that contribute to insulin resistance. Epigenetic mechanisms can control immune functions and have been linked to metabolic complications, although their contribution to insulin resistance still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the link between metabolic dysfunction and immune alterations with the epigenetic signature in leukocytes in a porcine model of obesity. Global DNA methylation of circulating leukocytes, adipose tissue leukocyte trafficking, and macrophage polarisation were established by flow cytometry. Adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic function were further characterised by quantification of metabolites and expression levels of genes associated with obesity and inflammation. Here we show that obese pigs showed bigger visceral fat pads, higher levels of circulating LDL cholesterol, and impaired glucose tolerance. These changes coincided with impaired metabolism, sustained macrophages infiltration, and increased inflammation in the adipose tissue. Those immune alterations were linked to global DNA hypermethylation in both B-cells and T-cells. Our results provide novel insight into the possible contribution of immune cell epigenetics into the immunological disturbances observed in obesity. The dramatic changes in the transcriptomic and epigenetic signature of circulating lymphocytes reinforce the concept that epigenetic processes participate in the increased immune cell activation and impaired metabolic functions in obesity.

  2. Sepsis in preterm infants causes alterations in mucosal gene expression and microbiota profiles compared to non-septic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernada, María; Bäuerl, Christine; Serna, Eva; Collado, Maria Carmen; Martínez, Gaspar Pérez; Vento, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening condition in preterm infants. Neonatal microbiota plays a pivotal role in the immune system maturation. Changes in gut microbiota have been associated to inflammatory disorders; however, a link with sepsis in the neonatal period has not yet been established. We aimed to analyze gut microbiota and mucosal gene expression using non-invasively obtained samples to provide with an integrative perspective of host-microbe interactions in neonatal sepsis. For this purpose, a prospective observational case-control study was conducted in septic preterm dizygotic twins and their non-septic twin controls. Fecal samples were used for both microbiota analysis and host genome-wide expression using exfoliated intestinal cells. Gene expression of exfoliated intestinal cells in septic preterm showed an induction of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways in the gut and pro-oxidant profile that caused dysbiosis in the gut microbiota with predominance of Enterobacteria and reduction of Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium spp.in fecal samples, leading to a global reduction of beneficial anaerobic bacteria. Sepsis in preterm infants induced low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in the gut mucosa, and also changes in the gut microbiota. This study highlights the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in neonatal sepsis on gut microbial profiles. PMID:27180802

  3. Sepsis in preterm infants causes alterations in mucosal gene expression and microbiota profiles compared to non-septic twins.

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    Cernada, María; Bäuerl, Christine; Serna, Eva; Collado, Maria Carmen; Martínez, Gaspar Pérez; Vento, Máximo

    2016-05-16

    Sepsis is a life-threatening condition in preterm infants. Neonatal microbiota plays a pivotal role in the immune system maturation. Changes in gut microbiota have been associated to inflammatory disorders; however, a link with sepsis in the neonatal period has not yet been established. We aimed to analyze gut microbiota and mucosal gene expression using non-invasively obtained samples to provide with an integrative perspective of host-microbe interactions in neonatal sepsis. For this purpose, a prospective observational case-control study was conducted in septic preterm dizygotic twins and their non-septic twin controls. Fecal samples were used for both microbiota analysis and host genome-wide expression using exfoliated intestinal cells. Gene expression of exfoliated intestinal cells in septic preterm showed an induction of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways in the gut and pro-oxidant profile that caused dysbiosis in the gut microbiota with predominance of Enterobacteria and reduction of Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium spp.in fecal samples, leading to a global reduction of beneficial anaerobic bacteria. Sepsis in preterm infants induced low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in the gut mucosa, and also changes in the gut microbiota. This study highlights the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in neonatal sepsis on gut microbial profiles.

  4. Altered Immune Profiles of Natural Killer Cells in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong-Fang; Shao, Jian-Ying; Yin, Wen-Wei; Xia, Yang; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xing; Hu, Huai-Dong; Hu, Peng; Ren, Hong; Zhang, Da-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Background Natural killer (NK) cells are the main effective component of the innate immune system that responds to chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Although numerous studies have reported the immune profiles of NK cells in CHB patients, they are limited by inconsistent results. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to characterize reliably the immune profiles of NK cells after CHB infection, specifically frequency, phenotype, and function. Methods A literature search of the computer databases MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trails was performed and 19 studies were selected. The standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of each continuous variable was estimated with a fixed effects model when I2 NUCs) showed no statistical difference in NK frequency. The activating receptors were upregulated, whereas inhibitory receptors were comparable in the peripheral NK cells of CHB individuals and healthy controls. NK cells of CHB patients displayed higher cytotoxic potency as evidenced by CD107a protein levels and conserved potency to produce interferon-gamma (IFNγ), compared with their healthy counterparts. Conclusion Our results revealed that CHB patients had a lower frequency of NK cells compared with healthy individuals not treatable with antiviral NUC therapy. With an activating phenotype, NK cells in CHB patients showed better cytotoxic potency and conserved IFNγ production. PMID:27513564

  5. The anti‑dengue virus properties of statins may be associated with alterations in the cellular antiviral profile expression.

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    Bryan-Marrugo, Owen Lloyd; Arellanos-Soto, Daniel; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo; Ramos-Jimenez, Javier; Vidaltamayo, Roman; Rivas-Estilla, Ana María

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) susceptibility to cholesterol depleting treatments has been previously reported. There are numerous questions regarding how DENV seizes cellular machinery and cholesterol to improve viral production and the effect of cholesterol sequestering agents on the cellular antiviral response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the negative regulation of DENV replication induced by agents that diminish intracellular cholesterol levels. Cholesterol synthesis was pharmacologically (fluvastatin, atorvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin treatment) and genetically (HMGCR‑RNAi) inhibited, in uninfected and DENV2‑infected hepatoma Huh‑7 cells. The cholesterol levels, DENV titer and cellular antiviral expression profile were evaluated. A reduction in the DENV titer, measured as plaque forming units, was observed in DENV‑infected cells following 48 h treatment with 10 µM fluvastatin, 10 µM atorvastatin, 20 µM lovastatin and 20 µM simvastatin, which achieved 70, 70, 65 and 55% DENV2 inhibition, respectively, compared with the untreated cells. In addition, the cytopathic effect was reduced in the statin‑treated DENV‑infected cells. Statins simultaneously reduced cholesterol levels at 48 h, with the exception of DENV2 infected cells. Genetic inhibition of cholesterol synthesis was performed using RNA interference for 3‑hydroxy‑3‑methylglutaryl‑CoA reductase (HMGCR‑siRNA), which indicated a slight reduction in DENV2 titer at 48 h post‑infection, however, with no significant reduction in cholesterol levels. In addition, DENV2 infection was observed to augment the intracellular cholesterol levels in all experimental conditions. Comparison between the cellular antiviral response triggered by DENV2 infection, statin treatment and HMGCR‑siRNA in infected, uninfected, treated and untreated Huh7 cells, showed different expression profiles for the antiviral genes evaluated. All

  6. Single episode of mild murine malaria induces neuroinflammation, alters microglial profile, impairs adult neurogenesis, and causes deficits in social and anxiety-like behavior.

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    Guha, Suman K; Tillu, Rucha; Sood, Ankit; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Nanavaty, Ishira N; Sengupta, Arjun; Sharma, Shobhona; Vaidya, Vidita A; Pathak, Sulabha

    2014-11-01

    Cerebral malaria is associated with cerebrovascular damage and neurological sequelae. However, the neurological consequences of uncomplicated malaria, the most prevalent form of the disease, remain uninvestigated. Here, using a mild malaria model, we show that a single Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection in adult mice induces neuroinflammation, neurogenic, and behavioral changes in the absence of a blood-brain barrier breach. Using cytokine arrays we show that the infection induces differential serum and brain cytokine profiles, both at peak parasitemia and 15days post-parasite clearance. At the peak of infection, along with the serum, the brain also exhibited a definitive pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, and gene expression analysis revealed that pro-inflammatory cytokines were also produced locally in the hippocampus, an adult neurogenic niche. Hippocampal microglia numbers were enhanced, and we noted a shift to an activated profile at this time point, accompanied by a striking redistribution of the microglia to the subgranular zone adjacent to hippocampal neuronal progenitors. In the hippocampus, a distinct decline in progenitor turnover and survival was observed at peak parasitemia, accompanied by a shift from neuronal to glial fate specification. Studies in transgenic Nestin-GFP reporter mice demonstrated a decline in the Nestin-GFP(+)/GFAP(+) quiescent neural stem cell pool at peak parasitemia. Although these cellular changes reverted to normal 15days post-parasite clearance, specific brain cytokines continued to exhibit dysregulation. Behavioral analysis revealed selective deficits in social and anxiety-like behaviors, with no change observed in locomotor, cognitive, and depression-like behaviors, with a return to baseline at recovery. Collectively, these findings indicate that even a single episode of mild malaria results in alterations of the brain cytokine profile, causes specific behavioral dysfunction, is accompanied by hippocampal microglial

  7. Identification of an inflammatory bowel disease patient with a deep vein thrombosis and an altered clot lysis profile.

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    Bollen, Lize; Wuyts, Joke; Vermeire, Séverine; Gils, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by flares and remission, are prone to develop thrombosis. The mechanism behind this prothrombotic state is not completely understood but is definitely multifactorial and linked with excessive inflammation observed in these patients. So far, no biomarker exists to select among IBD patients those with and increased risk for thrombosis. Corticosteroid therapy, given as rescue IBD treatment, is known to increase the thrombotic risk, whereas for antitumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha therapy such as infliximab, given to induce and maintain remission in IBD, the results are inconclusive. Here, we describe a 31-year-old IBD patient who developed a deep vein thrombosis. We determined the clot lysis profiles before and after developing thrombosis. We showed that a global functional clot lysis assay can be used as a tool to identify IBD patients who may benefit from thromboprophylactic therapy. PMID:26378816

  8. High Fat Diet Administration during Specific Periods of Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fatty Acid Profiles in the Near-Term Rat

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    Marlon E. Cerf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest high fat diets (HFDs. We therefore determined the maternal fatty acid (FA profiles in metabolic organs after HFD administration during specific periods of gestation. Rats were fed a HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, or third (HF3 week, or for all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Total maternal plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations were monitored throughout pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, maternal plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and placenta FA profiles were determined. In HF3 mothers, plasma myristic and stearic acid concentrations were elevated, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was reduced in both HF3 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, hepatic stearic and oleic acid proportions were elevated; conversely, DHA and linoleic acid (LA proportions were reduced. In adipose tissue, myristic acid was elevated, whereas DHA and LA proportions were reduced in all mothers. Further, adipose tissue stearic acid proportions were elevated in HF2, HF3, and HFG mothers; with oleic acid increased in HF1 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, placental neutral myristic acid proportions were elevated, whereas DHA was reduced. Further, placental phospholipid DHA proportions were reduced in HF3 and HFG mothers. Maintenance on a diet, high in saturated fat, but low in DHA and LA proportions, during late or throughout gestation, perpetuated reduced DHA across metabolic organs that adapt during pregnancy. Therefore a diet, with normal DHA proportions during gestation, may be important for balancing maternal FA status.

  9. Alterations of gene profiles in Leydig-cell-regenerating adult rat testis after ethane dimethane sulfonate-treatment

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    Yu-Fei Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Only occupying about 1%-5% of total testicular cells, the adult Leydig cell (ALC is a unique endocrine cell that produces androgens. Rat Leydig cells regenerate after these cells in the testis are eliminated with ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS. In this study, we have characterized Leydig cell regeneration and messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA profiles of EDS treated rat testes. Serum testosterone, testicular gene profiling and some steroidogenesis-related proteins were analyzed at 7, 21, 35 and 90 days after EDS treatment. Testicular testosterone levels declined to undetectable levels until 7 days after treatment and then started to recover. Seven days after treatment, 81 mRNAs were down-regulated greater than or equal to two-fold, with 48 becoming undetectable. These genes increased their expression 21 days and completely returned to normal levels 90 days after treatment. The undetectable genes include steroidogenic pathway proteins: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, Scarb1, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp2a1. Seven days after treatment, there were 89 mRNAs up-regulated two-fold or more including Pkib. These up-regulated mRNAs returned to normal 90 days after treatment. Cyp2a1 did not start to recover until 35 days after treatment, indicating that this gene is only expressed in ALCs not in the precursor cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and semi-quantitative immunohistochemical staining using tissue array confirmed the changes of several randomly picked genes and their proteins.

  10. Alteration of the Metabolome Profile in Endothelial Cells by Overexpression of miR-143/145.

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    Wang, Wenshuo; Yang, Ye; Wang, Yiqing; Pang, Liewen; Huang, Jiechun; Tao, Hongyue; Sun, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen

    2016-03-01

    Communication between endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) via miR-143/145 clusters is vital to vascular stability. Previous research demonstrates that miR-143/145 released from ECs can regulate SMC proliferation and migration. In addition, a recent study has found that SMCs also have the capability of manipulating EC function via miR-143/145. In the present study, we artificially increased the expression of miR-143/145 in ECs, to mimic a similar change caused by miR-143/145 released by SMCs, and applied untargeted metabolomics analysis, aimed at investigating the consequential effect of miR-143/145 overexpression. Our results showed that miR-143/145 overexpression alters the levels of metabolites involved in energy production, DNA methylation, and oxidative stress. These changed metabolites indicate that metabolic pathways, such as the SAM cycle and TCA cycle, exhibit significant differences from the norm with miR-143/145 overexpression. PMID:26597530

  11. Lysophosphatidic acid alters the expression profiles of angiogenic factors, cytokines, and chemokines in mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

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    Chia-Hung Chou

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is a multi-function glycerophospholipid. LPA affects the proliferation of hepatocytes and stellate cells in vitro, and in a partial hepatectomy induced liver regeneration model, the circulating LPA levels and LPA receptor (LPAR expression levels in liver tissue are significantly changed. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (Lsecs play an important role during liver regeneration. However, the effects of LPA on Lsecs are not well known. Thus, we investigated the effects of LPA on the expression profiles of angiogenic factors, cytokines, and chemokines in Lsecs.Mouse Lsecs were isolated using CD31-coated magnetic beads. The mRNA expression levels of LPAR's and other target genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The protein levels of angiogenesis factors, cytokines, and chemokines were determined using protein arrays and enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Critical LPAR related signal transduction was verified by using an appropriate chemical inhibitor.LPAR1 and LPAR3 mRNA's were expressed in mouse LPA-treated Lsecs. Treating Lsecs with a physiological level of LPA significantly enhanced the protein levels of angiogenesis related proteins (cyr61 and TIMP-1, cytokines (C5/C5a, M-CSF, and SDF-1, and chemokines (MCP-5, gp130, CCL28, and CXCL16. The LPAR1 and LPAR3 antagonist ki16425 significantly inhibited the LPA-enhanced expression of cyr61, TIMP-1, SDF-1, MCP-5, gp130, CCL28, and CXCL16, but not that of C5/C5a or M-CSF. LPA-induced C5/C5a and M-CSF expression may have been through an indirect regulation mechanism.LPA regulated the expression profiles of angiogenic factors, cytokines, and chemokines in Lsecs that was mediated via LPAR1 and LPAR3 signaling. Most of the factors that were enhanced by LPA have been found to play critical roles during liver regeneration. Thus, these results may prove useful for manipulating LPA effects on liver regeneration.

  12. Lysophosphatidic Acid Alters the Expression Profiles of Angiogenic Factors, Cytokines, and Chemokines in Mouse Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells

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    Chou, Chia-Hung; Lai, Shou-Lun; Ho, Cheng-Maw; Lin, Wen-Hsi; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lee, Po-Huang; Peng, Fu-Chuo; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Wu, Szu-Yuan; Lai, Hong-Shiee

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a multi-function glycerophospholipid. LPA affects the proliferation of hepatocytes and stellate cells in vitro, and in a partial hepatectomy induced liver regeneration model, the circulating LPA levels and LPA receptor (LPAR) expression levels in liver tissue are significantly changed. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (Lsecs) play an important role during liver regeneration. However, the effects of LPA on Lsecs are not well known. Thus, we investigated the effects of LPA on the expression profiles of angiogenic factors, cytokines, and chemokines in Lsecs. Methods Mouse Lsecs were isolated using CD31-coated magnetic beads. The mRNA expression levels of LPAR’s and other target genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The protein levels of angiogenesis factors, cytokines, and chemokines were determined using protein arrays and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Critical LPAR related signal transduction was verified by using an appropriate chemical inhibitor. Results LPAR1 and LPAR3 mRNA’s were expressed in mouse LPA-treated Lsecs. Treating Lsecs with a physiological level of LPA significantly enhanced the protein levels of angiogenesis related proteins (cyr61 and TIMP-1), cytokines (C5/C5a, M-CSF, and SDF-1), and chemokines (MCP-5, gp130, CCL28, and CXCL16). The LPAR1 and LPAR3 antagonist ki16425 significantly inhibited the LPA-enhanced expression of cyr61, TIMP-1, SDF-1, MCP-5, gp130, CCL28, and CXCL16, but not that of C5/C5a or M-CSF. LPA-induced C5/C5a and M-CSF expression may have been through an indirect regulation mechanism. Conclusion LPA regulated the expression profiles of angiogenic factors, cytokines, and chemokines in Lsecs that was mediated via LPAR1 and LPAR3 signaling. Most of the factors that were enhanced by LPA have been found to play critical roles during liver regeneration. Thus, these results may prove useful for manipulating LPA effects on liver regeneration. PMID:25822713

  13. Non-targeted chromatographic analyses of cuticular wax flavonoids from Physalis alkekengi L.

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    Kranjc, Eva; Albreht, Alen; Vovk, Irena; Makuc, Damjan; Plavec, Janez

    2016-03-11

    Since Chinese lantern (Physalis alkekengi L.) represents a rich source of various bioactive secondary metabolites, there is an urge for its detailed characterization. Non-polar flavonoid aglycones represent one of the few bioactive species found in plant's cuticular waxes. The separation of flavonoids is already extensively covered in the literature, but methods dedicated to separation and identification of methylated flavonoids are rather scarce. In the present study a non-targeted approach for the separation, isolation and identification of methylated flavonoids present in P. alkekengi L. var. franchetii cuticular waxes was established. A rapid and simple separation on HPTLC silica gel was developed for preliminary screening of flavonoids. Fast HPLC-UV-MS(n) and HPLC-UV methods using a C6-Phenyl and a C18 stationary phase were also developed, respectively. In both cases, the right combination of temperature and tetrahydrofuran, as a mobile phase modifier, were shown to be crucial for a baseline separation of all studied compounds. By employing a semi-preparative analog of the C18 column, a simultaneous isolation of pure unknown analytes was achieved. Using these developed methods in combination with NMR, four 3-O-methylated flavonols were detected and identified in P. alkekengi L. var. franchetii cuticular waxes: myricetin 3,7,3'-trimethyl ether, quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether, myricetin 3,7,3',5'-tetramethyl ether and quercetin 3,7,3'-trimethyl ether. Moreover, the simple and fast isocratic HPLC-UV-MS(n) method (under 8min) should prove useful in quality control of P. alkekengi L. var. franchetii by enabling chromatographic fingerprinting of external methylated flavonols. Finally, a rationale for the mechanism of separation of these metabolites by HPLC is also given, which establishes a foundation for future development of chromatographic methods for methylated flavonols and related compounds. PMID:26875116

  14. Identification of cuticular lipids eliciting interspecific courtship in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica

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    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby

    2008-05-01

    The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.

  15. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  16. Altered MicroRNA Expression Profile in Exosomes during Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Zhang, Shui-Jun; Zhao, Chen; Qiu, Bin-Song; Gu, Hai-Feng; Hong, Jian-Fei; Cao, Li; Chen, Yu; Xia, Bing; Bi, Qin; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The physiological role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in osteoblast differentiation remains elusive. Exosomal miRNAs isolated from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) culture were profiled using miRNA arrays containing probes for 894 human matured miRNAs. Seventy-nine miRNAs (∼8.84%) could be detected in exosomes isolated from BMSC culture supernatants when normalized to endogenous control genes RNU44. Among them, nine exosomal miRNAs were up regulated and 4 miRNAs were under regulated significantly (Relative fold>2, p<0.05) when compared with the values at 0 day with maximum changes at 1 to 7 days. Five miRNAs (miR-199b, miR-218, miR-148a, miR-135b, and miR-221) were further validated and differentially expressed in the individual exosomal samples from hBMSCs cultured at different time points. Bioinformatic analysis by DIANA-mirPath demonstrated that RNA degradation, mRNA surveillance pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, RNA transport were the most prominent pathways enriched in quantiles with differential exosomal miRNA patterns related to osteogenic differentiation. These data demonstrated exosomal miRNA is a regulator of osteoblast differentiation. PMID:25503309

  17. Altered microRNA expression profile in exosomes during osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Ji-Feng Xu

    Full Text Available The physiological role of microRNAs (miRNAs in osteoblast differentiation remains elusive. Exosomal miRNAs isolated from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs culture were profiled using miRNA arrays containing probes for 894 human matured miRNAs. Seventy-nine miRNAs (∼8.84% could be detected in exosomes isolated from BMSC culture supernatants when normalized to endogenous control genes RNU44. Among them, nine exosomal miRNAs were up regulated and 4 miRNAs were under regulated significantly (Relative fold>2, p<0.05 when compared with the values at 0 day with maximum changes at 1 to 7 days. Five miRNAs (miR-199b, miR-218, miR-148a, miR-135b, and miR-221 were further validated and differentially expressed in the individual exosomal samples from hBMSCs cultured at different time points. Bioinformatic analysis by DIANA-mirPath demonstrated that RNA degradation, mRNA surveillance pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, RNA transport were the most prominent pathways enriched in quantiles with differential exosomal miRNA patterns related to osteogenic differentiation. These data demonstrated exosomal miRNA is a regulator of osteoblast differentiation.

  18. Exploring Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiles Altered in Kashin-Beck Disease Using Infinium Human Methylation 450 Bead Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao Wei; Shi, Bo Hui; Lyu, Ai Li; Zhang, Feng; Zhou, Tian Tian; Guo, Xiong

    2016-07-01

    To understand how differentially methylated genes (DMGs) might affect the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Genome-wide methylation profiling of whole blood from 12 matched KBD and controls pairs was performed using a high-resolution Infinium 450 K methylation array. In total, 97 CpG sites were differentially methylated in KBD compared to the normal controls; of these sites, 36 sites were significantly hypermethylated (covering 22 genes) and 61 sites were significantly hypomethylated (covering 34 genes). Of these genes, 14 significant pathways were identified, the most significant P value pathway was type I diabetes mellitus pathway and pathways associated with autoimmune diseases and inflammatory diseases were included in this study. Subsequently, 4 CpG sites in HLA-DRB1 were validated using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) in articular cartilage, and the results showed significant differences in the methylation status between KBD and controls, consistent with the results of the high-resolution array. These results suggested that differences in genome-wide DNA methylation exist between KBD and the controls, and the biological pathways support the autoimmune disease and inflammatory disease hypothesis of KBD.

  19. Exploring Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiles Altered in Kashin-Beck Disease Using Infinium Human Methylation 450 Bead Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao Wei; Shi, Bo Hui; Lyu, Ai Li; Zhang, Feng; Zhou, Tian Tian; Guo, Xiong

    2016-07-01

    To understand how differentially methylated genes (DMGs) might affect the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Genome-wide methylation profiling of whole blood from 12 matched KBD and controls pairs was performed using a high-resolution Infinium 450 K methylation array. In total, 97 CpG sites were differentially methylated in KBD compared to the normal controls; of these sites, 36 sites were significantly hypermethylated (covering 22 genes) and 61 sites were significantly hypomethylated (covering 34 genes). Of these genes, 14 significant pathways were identified, the most significant P value pathway was type I diabetes mellitus pathway and pathways associated with autoimmune diseases and inflammatory diseases were included in this study. Subsequently, 4 CpG sites in HLA-DRB1 were validated using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) in articular cartilage, and the results showed significant differences in the methylation status between KBD and controls, consistent with the results of the high-resolution array. These results suggested that differences in genome-wide DNA methylation exist between KBD and the controls, and the biological pathways support the autoimmune disease and inflammatory disease hypothesis of KBD. PMID:27554126

  20. Plasma PGE-2 levels and altered cytokine profiles in adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

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    Hirschowitz Edward A

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction PGE-2 is constitutively produced by many non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC and its immunosuppressive effects have been linked to altered immune responses in lung cancer. We asked whether elevated levels of plasma PGE-2 correlated with monocyte IL10 production in the NSCLC environment. Looking for correlation in NSCLC patient blood we assayed plasma from NSCLC patients for PGE2 and IL10; we further evaluated production of IL10 by adherent mononuclear cells from a subset of these patients looking for an altered cytokine profile. Results Our initial in vitro experiments show that monocyte IL10 induction correlates with tumor cell PGE-2 production, confirming similar reports in the literature. Data show plasma PGE-2 levels in 38 NSCLC patients are elevated compared to normal controls. Plasma IL10 levels were not significantly elevated; however, adherent monocytes derived from NSCLC patient blood did produce significantly more IL10 in 24 hr primary culture than those from normal controls (p Conclusions Elevated plasma PGE-2 and monocyte IL10 production are associated with NSCLC. The biological significance to elevated PGE-2 levels in NSCLC are unclear. Further investigation of each as a nonspecific marker for NSCLC tumor is warranted.

  1. Metabolic profiling reveals altered nitrogen nutrient regimes have diverse effects on the metabolism of hydroponically-grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-01-01

    The role of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in the production of amino acids is one of the most important biochemical processes in plants. For this reason, a detailed broad-range characterization of the metabolic response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves to the alteration of nitrate level was performed. Tomato plants were grown hydroponically in liquid culture under three different nitrate regimes: saturated (8 mM NO3-), replete (4 mM NO3-) and deficient (0.4 mM NO3-). All treatments were performed under varied light intensity, with leaf samples being collected after 7, 14, and 21 d. In addition, the short-term response (after 1, 24, 48, and 94 h) to varying nutrient status was evaluated at the higher light intensity. GC-MS analysis of the levels of amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, sugars, sugar alcohols, and representative compounds of secondary metabolism revealed substantial changes under the various growth regimes applied. The data presented here suggest that nitrate nutrition has wide-ranging effects on plant leaf metabolism with nitrate deficiency resulting in decreases in many amino and organic acids and increases in the level of several carbohydrates and phosphoesters, as well as a handful of secondary metabolites. These results are compared with previously reported transcript profiles of altered nitrogen regimes and discussed within the context of current models of carbon nitrogen interaction. PMID:15596475

  2. Epigenetic Profiling of H3K4Me3 Reveals Herbal Medicine Jinfukang-Induced Epigenetic Alteration Is Involved in Anti-Lung Cancer Activity

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    Jun Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine Jinfukang (JFK has been clinically used for treating lung cancer. To examine whether epigenetic modifications are involved in its anticancer activity, we performed a global profiling analysis of H3K4Me3, an epigenomic marker associated with active gene expression, in JFK-treated lung cancer cells. We identified 11,670 genes with significantly altered status of H3K4Me3 modification following JFK treatment (P<0.05. Gene Ontology analysis indicates that these genes are involved in tumor-related pathways, including pathway in cancer, basal cell carcinoma, apoptosis, induction of programmed cell death, regulation of transcription (DNA-templated, intracellular signal transduction, and regulation of peptidase activity. In particular, we found that the levels of H3K4Me3 at the promoters of SUSD2, CCND2, BCL2A1, and TMEM158 are significantly altered in A549, NCI-H1975, NCI-H1650, and NCI-H2228 cells, when treated with JFK. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that the anticancer activity of JFK involves modulation of histone modification at many cancer-related gene loci.

  3. Aerobic training prevents oxidative profile and improves nitric oxide and vascular reactivity in rats with cardiometabolic alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Renata F; Gaique, Thaiane G; Bento-Bernardes, Thais; Motta, Nádia A V; Brito, Fernanda C F; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Castro-Pinheiro, Camila; Oliveira, Karen J; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death worldwide; therefore it is important to understand the natural history of the pathophysiologic process and develop strategies to halt its progression. Thus this study investigated the protective effect of aerobic training on pathophysiological mechanisms involved in subclinical cardiometabolic alterations in a model with constant exposure to a prejudicial agent. Male Wistar rats were divided into a control group (C), which received drinking water, fructose group (F), which was fed 10% fructose in drinking water for 10 wk, and control training (CT) and fructose training groups (FT), in which moderate aerobic training was added in the last 8 wk of the study. Insulin, triacylglycerol, and isoprostane were higher and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was lower in the F group. There was no difference in thoracic aorta histology, but a decreased vascularization was seen in the F group, avoided by training in left ventricle. Regarding vascular function, the F group exhibited increased vasoconstrictory reactivity to phenylephrine. The F group presented impaired vasodilation to acetylcholine. Regarding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the F group presented a lower expression, and phosphorylated eNOS was higher in the trained groups than in their respective control groups. This same pattern was observed for nitric oxide bioavailability, antioxidant protein expression in aorta, left ventricle, and muscle (catalase, SOD, and glutathione peroxidase), serum SOD activity, and muscle mass. These results suggest that exercise training enhanced the antioxidant pathway and, as a consequence, the eNOS pathway, preventing an impairment in vascular vasodilatory capacity. PMID:27255525

  4. Congruence between molecular phylogeny and cuticular design in Echiniscoidea (Tardigrada, Heterotardigrada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guil, Noemi; Jorgensen, Aslak; Giribet, Gonzalo;

    2013-01-01

    ornamentation as a phylogenetic character within Echiniscus. To do this, DNA was extracted from single individuals for multiple Echiniscus species, and 18S and 28S rRNA gene fragments were sequenced. Each specimen was photographed, and published in an open database prior to DNA extraction, to make morphological...... genus Diploechiniscus inferred as its sister group, and Testechiniscus as the sister group of this assemblage. Three groups that closely correspond to specific types of cuticular design in Echiniscus have been found with a parsimony network constructed with 18S rRNA data.(c) 2013 The Linnean Society...

  5. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Garda José

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large sensitivity, high reproducibility and essentially unlimited dynamic range of real-time PCR to measure gene expression in complex samples provides the opportunity for powerful multivariate and multiway studies of biological phenomena. In multiway studies samples are characterized by their expression profiles to monitor changes over time, effect of treatment, drug dosage etc. Here we perform a multiway study of the temporal response of four yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different glucose uptake rates upon altered metabolic conditions. Results We measured the expression of 18 genes as function of time after addition of glucose to four strains of yeast grown in ethanol. The data are analyzed by matrix-augmented PCA, which is a generalization of PCA for 3-way data, and the results are confirmed by hierarchical clustering and clustering by Kohonen self-organizing map. Our approach identifies gene groups that respond similarly to the change of nutrient, and genes that behave differently in mutant strains. Of particular interest is our finding that ADH4 and ADH6 show a behavior typical of glucose-induced genes, while ADH3 and ADH5 are repressed after glucose addition. Conclusion Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. The technique also identifies genes that show perturbed expression in specific strains.

  6. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhlberg, Anders; Elbing, Karin; Andrade-Garda, José Manuel; Sjögreen, Björn; Forootan, Amin; Kubista, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Background The large sensitivity, high reproducibility and essentially unlimited dynamic range of real-time PCR to measure gene expression in complex samples provides the opportunity for powerful multivariate and multiway studies of biological phenomena. In multiway studies samples are characterized by their expression profiles to monitor changes over time, effect of treatment, drug dosage etc. Here we perform a multiway study of the temporal response of four yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different glucose uptake rates upon altered metabolic conditions. Results We measured the expression of 18 genes as function of time after addition of glucose to four strains of yeast grown in ethanol. The data are analyzed by matrix-augmented PCA, which is a generalization of PCA for 3-way data, and the results are confirmed by hierarchical clustering and clustering by Kohonen self-organizing map. Our approach identifies gene groups that respond similarly to the change of nutrient, and genes that behave differently in mutant strains. Of particular interest is our finding that ADH4 and ADH6 show a behavior typical of glucose-induced genes, while ADH3 and ADH5 are repressed after glucose addition. Conclusion Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. The technique also identifies genes that show perturbed expression in specific strains. PMID:18412983

  7. Exposure of C57BL/6J mice to long photoperiod during early life stages increases body weight and alters plasma metabolomic profiles in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiwa, Tatsuhiro; Takai, Yusuke; Tashiro, Ayako; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2016-09-01

    Perinatal photoperiod is an important regulator of physiological phenotype in adulthood. In this study, we demonstrated that postnatal (0-4 weeks old) exposure of C57BL/6J mice to long photoperiod induced persistent increase in body weight until adulthood, compared with the mice maintained under short photoperiod. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, a gene involved in fatty acid metabolism, was decreased in 10-week-old mice exposed to long photoperiod during 0-4 or 4-8 weeks of age. Plasma metabolomic profiles of adult mice exposed to a long photoperiod during the postnatal period (0-4 LD) were compared to those in the mice exposed to short photoperiod during the same period. Cluster analysis revealed that both carbon metabolic pathway and nucleic acid pathway were altered by the postnatal photoperiod. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis were significantly upregulated in 0-4 LD, suggesting that the mice in 0-4 LD use the glycolytic pathway for energy expenditure rather than the fatty acid oxidation pathway. In addition, the mice in 0-4 LD exhibited high levels of purine metabolites, which have a role in neuroprotection. In conclusion, postnatal exposure of C57BL/6J mice to long photoperiod induces increase in body weight and various changes in plasma metabolic profiles during adulthood. PMID:27650252

  8. Transcriptomic profiling revealed the signatures of intestinal barrier alteration and pathogen entry in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) following Vibrio anguillarum challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chengbin; Fu, Qiang; Su, Baofeng; Zhou, Shun; Liu, Fengqiao; Song, Lin; Zhang, Min; Ren, Yichao; Dong, Xiaoyu; Tan, Fenghua; Li, Chao

    2016-12-01

    The mucosal immune system serves as the frontline barriers of host defense against pathogen infection, especially for the fishes, which are living in the pathogen rich aquatic environment. The intestine constitutes the largest surface body area in constantly contact with the external pathogens, and plays a vital role in the immune defense against inflammation and pathogen infection. Previous studies have revealed that fish intestine might serves as the portal of entry for Vibrio anguillarum. To characterize the immune actors and their associated immune activities in turbot intestine barrier during bacterial infection, here we examined the gene expression profiles of turbot intestine at three time points following experimental infection with V. anguillarum utilizing RNA-seq technology. A total of 122 million reads were assembled into 183,101 contigs with an average length of 1151 bp and the N50 size of 2302 bp. Analysis of differential gene expression between control and infected samples at 1 h, 4 h, and 12 h revealed 2079 significantly expressed genes. Enrichment and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed the centrality of the pathogen attachment and recognition, antioxidant/apoptosis, mucus barrier modification and immune activation/inflammation in the pathogen entry and host immune responses. The present study reported the novel gene expression patterns in turbot mucosal immunity, which were overlooked in previous studies. Our results can help to understand the mechanisms of turbot host defense, and may also provide foundation to identify the biomarkers for future selection of disease-resistant broodstock and evaluation of disease prevention and treatment options. PMID:27431928

  9. Lou/C obesity-resistant rat exhibits hyperactivity, hypermetabolism, alterations in white adipose tissue cellularity, and lipid tissue profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulage, Christophe; Zarrouki, Bader; Soares, Anisio Francesco; Lagarde, Michel; Geloen, Alain

    2008-02-01

    Lou/C obesity-resistant rat constitutes an original model to understand the phenomena of overweight and obesity. The aim of the present study was to identify metabolic causes for the outstanding leanness of Lou/C rat. To this end, the metabolic profiles (food intake, energy expenditure, and physical activity) and the cellular characteristics of white adipose tissue (lipogenesis, lipolysis, cellularity, and lipid composition) in 30-wk-old Lou/C rats were compared with age-matched Wistar rats. Lou/C rats exhibited a lower body weight (-45%), reduced adiposity (-80%), increased locomotor activity (+95%), and higher energy expenditure (+11%) than Wistar rats. Epididymal adipose tissue of Lou/C rat was twice lower than that of Wistar rat due to both a reduction in both adipocyte size (-25%) and number (three times). Basal lipolysis and sensitivity to noradrenaline were similar; however, the responsiveness to noradrenaline was lower in adipocytes from Lou/C compared with that from Wistar rats. Lipidomic analysis of plasma, adipose tissue, and liver revealed profound differences in lipid composition between the two strains. Of note, the desaturation indexes (ratio C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0) were lower in Lou/C, indicating a blunted activity of delta-9-desaturase such as stearoyl-coenzyme A-desaturase-1. Increased physical activity, increased energy expenditure, and white adipose tissue cellularity are in good agreement with previous observations suggesting that a higher sympathetic tone in Lou/C could contribute to its lifelong leanness. PMID:18006635

  10. Altered Expression Profile of Renal α1D-Adrenergic Receptor in Diabetes and Its Modulation by PPAR Agonists

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    Xueying Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha1D-adrenergic receptor (α1D-AR plays important roles in regulating physiological and pathological responses mediated by catecholamines, particularly in the cardiovascular and urinary systems. The present study was designed to investigate the expression profile of α1D-AR in the diabetic kidneys and its modulation by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. 12-week-old Zucker lean (ZL and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZD rats were treated with fenofibrate or rosiglitazone for 8–10 weeks. Gene microarray, real-time PCR, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy were performed to assess mRNA and protein expression of α1D-AR in rat kidney tissue. Using microarray, we found that α1D-AR gene was dramatically upregulated in 22-week-old ZD rats compared to ZL controls. Quantitative PCR analysis verified a 16-fold increase in α1D-AR mRNA in renal cortex from ZD animals compared to normal controls. Chronic treatment with fenofibrate or rosiglitazone reduced renal cortical α1D-AR gene. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed that α1D-AR protein was induced in the glomeruli and tubules of diabetic rats. Moreover, dual immunostaining for α1D-AR and kidney injury molecule-1 indicated that α1D-AR was expressed in dedifferentiated proximal tubules of diabetic Zucker rats. Taken together, our results show that α1D-AR expression is upregulated in the diabetic kidneys. PPAR activation suppressed renal expression of α1D-AR in diabetic nephropathy.

  11. GSVD comparison of patient-matched normal and tumor aCGH profiles reveals global copy-number alterations predicting glioblastoma multiforme survival.

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    Cheng H Lee

    Full Text Available Despite recent large-scale profiling efforts, the best prognostic predictor of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains the patient's age at diagnosis. We describe a global pattern of tumor-exclusive co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs that is correlated, possibly coordinated with GBM patients' survival and response to chemotherapy. The pattern is revealed by GSVD comparison of patient-matched but probe-independent GBM and normal aCGH datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find that, first, the GSVD, formulated as a framework for comparatively modeling two composite datasets, removes from the pattern copy-number variations (CNVs that occur in the normal human genome (e.g., female-specific X chromosome amplification and experimental variations (e.g., in tissue batch, genomic center, hybridization date and scanner, without a-priori knowledge of these variations. Second, the pattern includes most known GBM-associated changes in chromosome numbers and focal CNAs, as well as several previously unreported CNAs in >3% of the patients. These include the biochemically putative drug target, cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinase-encoding TLK2, the cyclin E1-encoding CCNE1, and the Rb-binding histone demethylase-encoding KDM5A. Third, the pattern provides a better prognostic predictor than the chromosome numbers or any one focal CNA that it identifies, suggesting that the GBM survival phenotype is an outcome of its global genotype. The pattern is independent of age, and combined with age, makes a better predictor than age alone. GSVD comparison of matched profiles of a larger set of TCGA patients, inclusive of the initial set, confirms the global pattern. GSVD classification of the GBM profiles of an independent set of patients validates the prognostic contribution of the pattern.

  12. Simultaneously hermaphroditic shrimp use lipophilic cuticular hydrocarbons as contact sex pheromones.

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    Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available Successful mating is essentially a consequence of making the right choices at the correct time. Animals use specific strategies to gain information about a potential mate, which is then applied to decision-making processes. Amongst the many informative signals, odor cues such as sex pheromones play important ecological roles in coordinating mating behavior, enabling mate and kin recognition, qualifying mate choice, and preventing gene exchange among individuals from different populations and species. Despite overwhelming behavioral evidence, the chemical identity of most cues used in aquatic organisms remains unknown and their impact and omnipresence have not been fully recognized. In many crustaceans, including lobsters and shrimps, reproduction happens through a cascade of events ranging from initial attraction to formation of a mating pair eventually leading to mating. We examined the hypothesis that contact pheromones on the female body surface of the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata boggessi are of lipophilic nature, and resemble insect cuticular hydrocarbon contact cues. Via chemical analyses and behavioural assays, we show that newly molted euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp contain a bouquet of odor compounds. Of these, (Z-9-octadecenamide is the key odor with hexadecanamide and methyl linoleate enhancing the bioactivity of the pheromone blend. Our results show that in aquatic systems lipophilic, cuticular hydrocarbon contact sex pheromones exist; this raises questions on how hydrocarbon contact signals evolved and how widespread these are in the marine environment.

  13. Cuticular Defects in Oryza sativa ATP-binding Cassette Transporter G31 Mutant Plants Cause Dwarfism, Elevated Defense Responses and Pathogen Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garroum, Imène; Bidzinski, Przemyslaw; Daraspe, Jean; Mucciolo, Antonio; Humbel, Bruno M; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Nawrath, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    The cuticle covers the surface of the polysaccharide cell wall of leaf epidermal cells and forms an essential diffusion barrier between plant and environment. Homologs of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter AtABCG32/HvABCG31 clade are necessary for the formation of a functional cuticle in both monocots and dicots. Here we characterize the osabcg31 knockout mutant and hairpin RNA interference (RNAi)-down-regulated OsABCG31 plant lines having reduced plant growth and a permeable cuticle. The reduced content of cutin in leaves and structural alterations in the cuticle and at the cuticle-cell wall interface in plants compromised in OsABCG31 expression explain the cuticle permeability. Effects of modifications of the cuticle on plant-microbe interactions were evaluated. The cuticular alterations in OsABCG31-compromised plants did not cause deficiencies in germination of the spores or the formation of appressoria of Magnaporthe oryzae on the leaf surface, but a strong reduction of infection structures inside the plant. Genes involved in pathogen resistance were constitutively up-regulated in OsABCG31-compromised plants, thus being a possible cause of the resistance to M. oryzae and the dwarf growth phenotype. The findings show that in rice an abnormal cuticle formation may affect the signaling of plant growth and defense. PMID:27121976

  14. Exposure to cypermethrin and mancozeb alters the expression profile of THBS1, SPP1, FEZ1 and GPNMB in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarapu, Rajesh; Prakhya, Balakrishna Murthy

    2016-07-01

    The complex immune system displays a coordinated transcriptional response to xenobiotic exposure by altering expression of designated transcription factors that, in turn, trigger immune responses. Despite the identification of several transcription factors that contribute to regulatory response, very little is known about the specific role of factors that are triggered due to exposure to obnoxious pesticides. Here, for the first time, alterations in human peripheral blood lymphocyte expression of transcriptional factors - thrombospondin-1 (THBS-1), secretory phospho-protein-1 (SPP-1), glycoprotein non-metastatic-β (GPNMB) and fasciculation and elongation factor ζ-1 (FEZ-1), due to in vitro exposure to the crop protection chemicals cypermethrin and mancozeb are reported. Results revealed significant changes in expression profiles due to mancozeb exposure, supporting its immune dysfunction potential; in contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant changes. Based on these effects on gene expression across the doses tested, it was likely key components of immune mechanisms such as proliferation, cell adhesion, apoptosis and cell activation in human PBMC were affected. Although these data are from in vitro experiments, the results point out the potential role for changes in these factors in the etiology of defective T-cell immune function seen in humans occupationally exposed to crop protection chemicals like mancozeb. These studies suggest the involvement of transcription factors in regulation of pesticide-induced immune dysfunction; these studies also represent a novel approach for identifying potential immune-related dysfunctions due to exposure to pesticides. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of these in vitro findings. PMID:26796295

  15. Integrated copy number and expression analysis identifies profiles of whole-arm chromosomal alterations and subgroups with favorable outcome in ovarian clear cell carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriko Uehara

    Full Text Available Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC is generally associated with chemoresistance and poor clinical outcome, even with early diagnosis; whereas high-grade serous carcinomas (SCs and endometrioid carcinomas (ECs are commonly chemosensitive at advanced stages. Although an integrated genomic analysis of SC has been performed, conclusive views on copy number and expression profiles for CCC are still limited. In this study, we performed single nucleotide polymorphism analysis with 57 epithelial ovarian cancers (31 CCCs, 14 SCs, and 12 ECs and microarray expression analysis with 55 cancers (25 CCCs, 16 SCs, and 14 ECs. We then evaluated PIK3CA mutations and ARID1A expression in CCCs. SNP array analysis classified 13% of CCCs into a cluster with high frequency and focal range of copy number alterations (CNAs, significantly lower than for SCs (93%, P < 0.01 and ECs (50%, P = 0.017. The ratio of whole-arm to all CNAs was higher in CCCs (46.9% than SCs (21.7%; P < 0.0001. SCs with loss of heterozygosity (LOH of BRCA1 (85% also had LOH of NF1 and TP53, and LOH of BRCA2 (62% coexisted with LOH of RB1 and TP53. Microarray analysis classified CCCs into three clusters. One cluster (CCC-2, n = 10 showed more favorable prognosis than the CCC-1 and CCC-3 clusters (P = 0.041. Coexistent alterations of PIK3CA and ARID1A were more common in CCC-1 and CCC-3 (7/11, 64% than in CCC-2 (0/10, 0%; P < 0.01. Being in cluster CCC-2 was an independent favorable prognostic factor in CCC. In conclusion, CCC was characterized by a high ratio of whole-arm CNAs; whereas CNAs in SC were mainly focal, but preferentially caused LOH of well-known tumor suppressor genes. As such, expression profiles might be useful for sub-classification of CCC, and might provide useful information on prognosis.

  16. Analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles highlights alterations in ionizing radiation response of human lymphocytes under modeled microgravity.

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    Cristina Girardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation (IR can be extremely harmful for human cells since an improper DNA-damage response (DDR to IR can contribute to carcinogenesis initiation. Perturbations in DDR pathway can originate from alteration in the functionality of the microRNA-mediated gene regulation, being microRNAs (miRNAs small noncoding RNA that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In this study we gained insight into the role of miRNAs in the regulation of DDR to IR under microgravity, a condition of weightlessness experienced by astronauts during space missions, which could have a synergistic action on cells, increasing the risk of radiation exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed miRNA expression profile of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL incubated for 4 and 24 h in normal gravity (1 g and in modeled microgravity (MMG during the repair time after irradiation with 0.2 and 2Gy of γ-rays. Our results show that MMG alters miRNA expression signature of irradiated PBL by decreasing the number of radio-responsive miRNAs. Moreover, let-7i*, miR-7, miR-7-1*, miR-27a, miR-144, miR-200a, miR-598, miR-650 are deregulated by the combined action of radiation and MMG. Integrated analyses of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles, carried out on PBL of the same donors, identified significant miRNA-mRNA anti-correlations of DDR pathway. Gene Ontology analysis reports that the biological category of "Response to DNA damage" is enriched when PBL are incubated in 1 g but not in MMG. Moreover, some anti-correlated genes of p53-pathway show a different expression level between 1 g and MMG. Functional validation assays using luciferase reporter constructs confirmed miRNA-mRNA interactions derived from target prediction analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: On the whole, by integrating the transcriptome and microRNome, we provide evidence that modeled microgravity can affects the DNA-damage response to IR in human PBL.

  17. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails. PMID:24215063

  18. Alteration of the exopolysaccharide production and the transcriptional profile of free-living Frankia strain CcI3 under nitrogen-fixing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-In; Donati, Andrew J; Hahn, Dittmar; Tisa, Louis S; Chang, Woo-Suk

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of different nitrogen (N) sources on exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and composition by Frankia strain CcI3, a N2-fixing actinomycete that forms root nodules with Casuarina species. Frankia cells grown in the absence of NH4Cl (i.e., under N2-fixing conditions) produced 1.7-fold more EPS, with lower galactose (45.1 vs. 54.7 mol%) and higher mannose (17.3 vs. 9.7 mol%) contents than those grown in the presence of NH4Cl as a combined N-source. In the absence of the combined N-source, terminally linked and branched residue contents were nearly twice as high with 32.8 vs. 15.1 mol% and 15.1 vs. 8.7 mol%, respectively, than in its presence, while the content of linearly linked residues was lower with 52.1 mol% compared to 76.2 mol%. To find out clues for the altered EPS production at the transcriptional level, we performed whole-gene expression profiling using quantitative reverse transcription PCR and microarray technology. The transcription profiles of Frankia strain CcI3 grown in the absence of NH4Cl revealed up to 2 orders of magnitude higher transcription of nitrogen fixation-related genes compared to those of CcI3 cells grown in the presence of NH4Cl. Unexpectedly, microarray data did not provide evidence for transcriptional regulation as a mechanism for differences in EPS production. These findings indicate effects of nitrogen fixation on the production and composition of EPS in Frankia strain CcI3 and suggest posttranscriptional regulation of enhanced EPS production in the absence of the combined N-source. PMID:24097014

  19. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails.

  20. Gene expression profiling identifies microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF and Dickkopf-1 (DKK1 as regulators of microenvironment-driven alterations in melanoma phenotype.

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    Mariusz L Hartman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diversity of functional phenotypes observed within a tumor does not exclusively result from intratumoral genetic heterogeneity but also from the response of cancer cells to the microenvironment. We have previously demonstrated that the morphological and functional phenotypes of melanoma can be dynamically altered upon external stimuli. FINDINGS: In the present study, transcriptome profiles were generated to explore the molecules governing phenotypes of melanospheres grown in the bFGF(+EGF(+ serum-free cultures and monolayers maintained in the serum-containing medium. Higher expression levels of MITF-dependent genes that are responsible for differentiation, e.g., TYR and MLANA, and stemness-related genes, e.g., ALDH1A1, were detected in melanospheres. These results were supported by the observation that the melanospheres contained more pigmented cells and cells exerting the self-renewal capacity than the monolayers. In addition, the expression of the anti-apoptotic, MITF-dependent genes e.g., BCL2A1 was also higher in the melanospheres. The enhanced activity of MITF in melanospheres, as illustrated by the increased expression of 74 MITF-dependent genes, identified MITF as a central transcriptional regulator in melanospheres. Importantly, several genes including MITF-dependent ones were expressed in melanospheres and original tumors at similar levels. The reduced MITF level in monolayers might be partially explained by suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and DKK1, a secreted inhibitor of this pathway, was highly up-regulated in monolayers in comparison to melanospheres and original tumors. Furthermore, the silencing of DKK1 in monolayers increased the percentage of cells with self-renewing capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that melanospheres can be used to unravel the molecular pathways that sustain intratumoral phenotypic heterogeneity. Melanospheres directly derived from tumor specimens more accurately mirrored

  1. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure alters the small noncoding RNA profile in sperm and modifies anxiety and depressive phenotypes in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, A K; Fennell, K A; Perreau, V M; Fox, A; O'Bryan, M K; Kim, J H; Bredy, T W; Pang, T Y; Hannan, A J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that physiological and behavioral traits may be transgenerationally inherited through the paternal lineage, possibly via non-genomic signals derived from the sperm. To investigate how paternal stress might influence offspring behavioral phenotypes, a model of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation was used. Male breeders were administered water supplemented with corticosterone (CORT) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated female mice. Female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers displayed altered fear extinction at 2 weeks of age. Only male F1 offspring exhibited altered patterns of ultrasonic vocalization at postnatal day 3 and, as adults, showed decreased time in open on the elevated-plus maze and time in light on the light-dark apparatus, suggesting a hyperanxiety-like behavioral phenotype due to paternal CORT treatment. Interestingly, expression of the paternally imprinted gene Igf2 was increased in the hippocampus of F1 male offspring but downregulated in female offspring. Male and female F2 offspring displayed increased time spent in the open arm of the elevated-plus maze, suggesting lower levels of anxiety compared with control animals. Only male F2 offspring showed increased immobility time on the forced-swim test and increased latency to feed on the novelty-supressed feeding test, suggesting a depression-like phenotype in these animals. Collectively, these data provide evidence that paternal CORT treatment alters anxiety and depression-related behaviors across multiple generations. Analysis of the small RNA profile in sperm from CORT-treated males revealed marked effects on the expression of small noncoding RNAs. Sperm from CORT-treated males contained elevated levels of three microRNAs, miR-98, miR-144 and miR-190b, which are predicted to interact with multiple growth factors, including Igf2 and Bdnf. Sustained elevation of glucocorticoids is therefore involved in the transmission of paternal

  2. EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON CUTICULAR PROTEINS OF SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) VIS-A-VIS THE MODES OF APPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooboon, T; Pluempanupat, W; Koul, Opender; Bullangpoti, V

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachtin is a known botanical insecticide with multiple modes of action. Whether these effects have any relation with the modes of application, specifically during ecdysis process, has been the objective of the present study and accordingly the impairment, if any, among cuticular proteins of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) was determined. Azadirachtin was applied topically, via injection or oral administration. Azadirachtin administered via injection and topical applications severely impaired the ecdysis by 86.67 and 80.0%, respectively. However, this impairment via oral administration was significantly lower (73.33%). Using SDS-PAGE, the cuticular proteins were determined for treated insects under all the three modes of application. In all cases 6 protein bands (MW 9-34 kDa) were identified using markers as standard. In all treatments 3 induced proteins (MW. ~16, 20 and 23 kDa) and 1 reduced protein (~19 kDa) were observed. In case of the topical treatment a different induced protein of ~18 kDa was identified. The change in cuticular proteins, their possible role in ecdysis impairment vis-a-vis the mode of application of azadirachtin is being correlated. This will help in understanding the mode-of-action at cuticular level and also will allow developing a suitable application strategy under field conditions in insect pest management. PMID:27145582

  3. Effects of relative humidity, temperature, and population density on production of cuticular hydrocarbons in housefly Musca domestica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, N; Den Otter, CJ

    2002-01-01

    The production of cuticular hydrocarbons by both males and females of Musca domestica L. under very wet conditions (90% relative humidity) compared to the production at 50 and 20% relative humidity is delayed up to at least 3 days after emergence from the pupae. Eight days after emergence, however,

  4. Role of Plant Fatty acid Elongase (3 keto acyl-CoA Synthase gene in Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppala Lokesh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant surfaces are ensheathed by cuticular wax, amorphous intra-cuticular embedded in cutin polymer and crystalloid epi-cuticular that imparts a whitish appearance, confers drought resistance by reducing stomatal transpiration and also protects from U.V Radiation, phytophagous insects etc. Very long chain fatty acids acts as precursors for cuticular wax bio-synthesis. Wax bio-synthesis begins with fatty acid synthesis in the plastid (de novo synthesis of C16 and C18 and elongation of fatty acids in endoplasmic reticulum (C20 – C34 by four distinct enzymes 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase, 3-hydroxacyl-CoA dehydratase, trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase (KCS, KCR, HCD, ECR. The KCS, a fatty acid elongase, determines the chain length and substrate specificity of the condensation reaction, a rate limiting step and the subsequent elongated products alkanes, aldehydes, primary alcohols, secondary alcohols, ketones and wax esters. 21 KCS genes were annotated in Arabidopsis thaliana Genome of which some KCSs were identified involved in cuticle formation (CER6 (CUT1, KCS1, KCS2, (DAISY, KCS20 and FDH.The current review will focus on the bio-chemical, genetic and molecular approaches on KCSs genes, predominantly KCS1 in plants particularly useful in identifying and characterizing gene products involved in wax bio-synthesis, secretion and function for developing transgenic crops that combat various stresses. INTRODUCTION

  5. The candidate tumor suppressor CST6 alters the gene expression profile of human breast carcinoma cells: Down-regulation of the potent mitogenic, motogenic, and angiogenic factor autotaxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently coined CST6 as a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene for breast cancer. CST6 indeed is expressed in the normal human breast epithelium, but little or not at all in breast carcinomas and breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, ectopic expression of CST6 in human breast cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and orthotopic tumor growth. To obtain insights into the molecular mechanism by which CST6 exhibits its pleiotropic effects on tumor cells, we compared global gene expression profiles in mock- and CST6-transfected human MDA-MB-435S cells. Out of 12,625 transcript species, 61 showed altered expression. These included genes for extracellular matrix components, cytokines, kinases, and phosphatases, as well as several key transcription factors. TaqMan PCR assays were used to confirm the microarray data for 7 out of 11 genes. One down-regulated gene product, secreted autotaxin/lyso-phospholipase D, was of particular interest because its down-regulation by CST6 could explain most of CST6's effect on the breast cancer cells. This study thus provides First evidence that CST6 plays a role in the modulation of genes, particularly, genes that are highly relevant to breast cancer progression

  6. Postpartum Behavioral Profiles in Wistar Rats Following Maternal Separation – Altered Exploration and Risk-Assessment Behavior in MS15 Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoura, Loudin; Hjalmarsson, My; Oreland, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15) and prolonged (360 min; MS360) periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24–25, i.e., just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis. PMID:20617189

  7. Purification and characterization of coacervate-forming cuticular proteins from Papilio xuthus pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Yumi; Nakagawa, Taro; Taoka, Azuma; Fukumori, Yoshihiro

    2013-07-01

    The Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) pupa expresses novel soluble proteins that undergo reversible temperature-dependent coacervate-formation. We purified two coacervate-forming proteins, PX-1 and PX-4, from the wings of pharate adults. PX-1 and PX-4 form coacervates upon warming. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that these proteins assemble ordered bead-like ultrastructures. We cloned and sequenced PX-1 and PX-4 cDNAs. The PX-1 and PX-4 amino acid sequences contain many hydrophobic residues and show homologies to insect cuticular proteins. Moreover, when recombinant PX-1 and PX-4 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, both recombinant proteins exhibited temperature-dependent coacervation. Furthermore, analyses of truncated mutants of PX-1 suggest that both the Val/Pro-rich region and Gly/lle-rich regions of PX-1 are involved in such coacervation.

  8. Do Cuticular Hydrocarbons Provide Sufficient Information for Optimal Sex Allocation in the Ant Formica exsecta?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Vitikainen, Emma; D'Ettorre, Patrizia;

    2011-01-01

    Split sex ratio theory predicts that when kin structure varies among colonies of social insects, in order to maximize the inclusive fitness, colonies with relatively high sister-sister relatedness should specialize in producing reproductive females, whereas in those with relatively low sister......-sister relatedness workers should bias their sex ratio towards males. However, in order to achieve this, workers need to be able to reliably assess the type of colony in which they live. The information on colony kin structure may be encoded in cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), assuming that genetic variability...... translates accurately into chemical variability. However, in genetically heterogeneous colonies, too accurate information may encourage the pursuit of individual interests through nepotistic behavior and reduce colony efficiency or cause social disruption. In this study, we estimated how well variability...

  9. Variations of the composition of the leaf cuticular wax among Chinese populations of Plantago major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; He, Yuji; Guo, Na; Gao, Jianhua; Ni, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Plantago major L. grows in a very wide range of regions in China and exhibits great variations among populations. The analysis of the cuticular-wax composition provides a potential approach to classify populations of P. major confronting different environmental conditions. Twelve populations of P. major and five populations of P. depressa Willd., distributed over regions with average annual temperatures ranging from -2.0 to 18.4°, were sampled, the variation of the composition of their cuticular waxes was analyzed, and their values of average chain length (ACL) and carbon preference index (CPI) were calculated. Great intra- and interspecies variations were observed for the total wax contents. The average annual temperature of the habitats was significantly correlated with the relative contents of the dominant n-alkanes with an odd number of C-atoms, but not with the wax contents. With an increasing average annual temperature, the relative contents of n-alkanes C29 and C31 decreased, whereas those of C33 and C35 as well as the values of ACLtotal and ACL27-33 increased. Cluster analysis based on the pattern of the n-alkane distribution allowed to clearly separate the populations of P. major according to the average annual temperature of their habitats, but not to separate the populations of the two species. Hence, the pattern of the n-alkane distribution might be a good taxonomic marker for P. major at the intraspecies level, but not at the interspecies level. Nevertheless, a small difference between the populations of the two species was observed concerning the values of ACLtotal and CPItotal , implying the potential use of these indices for the classification of the populations of the two species at the interspecies level.

  10. Variations of the composition of the leaf cuticular wax among Chinese populations of Plantago major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; He, Yuji; Guo, Na; Gao, Jianhua; Ni, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Plantago major L. grows in a very wide range of regions in China and exhibits great variations among populations. The analysis of the cuticular-wax composition provides a potential approach to classify populations of P. major confronting different environmental conditions. Twelve populations of P. major and five populations of P. depressa Willd., distributed over regions with average annual temperatures ranging from -2.0 to 18.4°, were sampled, the variation of the composition of their cuticular waxes was analyzed, and their values of average chain length (ACL) and carbon preference index (CPI) were calculated. Great intra- and interspecies variations were observed for the total wax contents. The average annual temperature of the habitats was significantly correlated with the relative contents of the dominant n-alkanes with an odd number of C-atoms, but not with the wax contents. With an increasing average annual temperature, the relative contents of n-alkanes C29 and C31 decreased, whereas those of C33 and C35 as well as the values of ACLtotal and ACL27-33 increased. Cluster analysis based on the pattern of the n-alkane distribution allowed to clearly separate the populations of P. major according to the average annual temperature of their habitats, but not to separate the populations of the two species. Hence, the pattern of the n-alkane distribution might be a good taxonomic marker for P. major at the intraspecies level, but not at the interspecies level. Nevertheless, a small difference between the populations of the two species was observed concerning the values of ACLtotal and CPItotal , implying the potential use of these indices for the classification of the populations of the two species at the interspecies level. PMID:25879506

  11. Gene expression changes in the tyrosine metabolic pathway regulate caste-specific cuticular pigmentation of termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuoka, Yudai; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-07-01

    In social insects, all castes have characteristic phenotypes suitable for their own tasks and to engage in social behavior. The acquisition of caste-specific phenotypes was a key event in the course of social insect evolution. However, understanding of the genetic basis and the developmental mechanisms that produce these phenotypes is still very limited. In particular, termites normally possess more than two castes with specific phenotypes (i.e. workers, soldiers, and reproductives), but proximate developmental mechanisms are far from being fully understood. In this study, we focused on the pigmentation of the cuticle as a model trait for caste-specific phenotypes, during the molts of each caste; workers, soldiers, presoldiers (intermediate stage of soldiers), and alates (primary reproductives) in Zootermopsis nevadensis. Expression patterns of cuticular tanning genes (members of the tyrosine metabolic pathway) were different among each molt, and high expression levels of several "key genes" were observed during each caste differentiation. For the differentiation of castes with well-tanned cuticles (i.e. soldiers and alates), all focal genes except DDC in the former were highly expressed. On the other hand, high expression levels of yellow and aaNAT were observed during worker and presoldier molts, respectively, but most other genes in the pathway were expressed at low levels. RNA interference (RNAi) of these key genes affected caste-specific cuticular pigmentation, leading to soldiers with yellowish-white heads and pigmented mandibular tips, presoldiers with partly pigmented head cuticles, and alates with the yellow head capsules. These results suggest that the pigmentation of caste-specific cuticles is achieved by the regulation of gene expression in the tyrosine metabolic pathway. PMID:27125584

  12. Formation of rigid, non-flight forewings (elytra of a beetle requires two major cuticular proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Arakane

    Full Text Available Insect cuticle is composed primarily of chitin and structural proteins. To study the function of structural cuticular proteins, we focused on the proteins present in elytra (modified forewings that become highly sclerotized and pigmented covers for the hindwings of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We identified two highly abundant proteins, TcCPR27 (10 kDa and TcCPR18 (20 kDa, which are also present in pronotum and ventral abdominal cuticles. Both are members of the Rebers and Riddiford family of cuticular proteins and contain RR2 motifs. Transcripts for both genes dramatically increase in abundance at the pharate adult stage and then decline quickly thereafter. Injection of specific double-stranded RNAs for each gene into penultimate or last instar larvae had no effect on larval-larval, larval-pupal, or pupal-adult molting. The elytra of the resulting adults, however, were shorter, wrinkled, warped, fenestrated, and less rigid than those from control insects. TcCPR27-deficient insects could not fold their hindwings properly and died prematurely approximately one week after eclosion, probably because of dehydration. TcCPR18-deficient insects exhibited a similar but less dramatic phenotype. Immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of TcCPR27 in the elytral cuticle. These results demonstrate that TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are major structural proteins in the rigid elytral, dorsal thoracic, and ventral abdominal cuticles of the red flour beetle, and that both proteins are required for morphogenesis of the beetle's elytra.

  13. Gene families of cuticular proteins analogous to peritrophins (CPAPs in Tribolium castaneum have diverse functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinu Jasrapuria

    Full Text Available The functional characterization of an entire class of 17 genes from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which encode two families of Cuticular Proteins Analogous to Peritrophins (CPAPs has been carried out. CPAP genes in T. castaneum are expressed exclusively in cuticle-forming tissues and have been classified into two families, CPAP1 and CPAP3, based on whether the proteins contain either one (CPAP1, or three copies (CPAP3 of the chitin-binding domain, ChtBD2, with its six characteristically spaced cysteine residues. Individual members of the TcCPAP1 and TcCPAP3 gene families have distinct developmental patterns of expression. Many of these proteins serve essential and non-redundant functions in maintaining the structural integrity of the cuticle in different parts of the insect anatomy. Three genes of the TcCPAP1 family and five genes of the TcCPAP3 family are essential for insect development, molting, cuticle integrity, proper locomotion or fecundity. RNA interference (RNAi targeting TcCPAP1-C, TcCPAP1-H, TcCPAP1-J or TcCPAP3-C transcripts resulted in death at the pharate adult stage of development. RNAi for TcCPAP3-A1, TcCPAP3-B, TcCPAP3-D1 or TcCPAP3-D2 genes resulted in different developmental defects, including adult/embryonic mortality, abnormal elytra or hindwings, or an abnormal 'stiff-jointed' gait. These results provide experimental support for specialization in the functions of CPAP proteins in T. castaneum and a biological rationale for the conservation of CPAP orthologs in other orders of insects. This is the first comprehensive functional analysis of an entire class of cuticular proteins with one or more ChtBD2 domains in any insect species.

  14. Influences of insecticides on toxicity and cuticular penetration of abamectin in Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANGWANG; JIA-ANCHENG; ZHONG-MINLIU; SHENG-GANWU; XUE-PINGZHAO; CHANG-XINGWU

    2005-01-01

    Synergistic actions for mixtures of abamectin with other insecticides in some insect pests were evaluated, and the possible synergistic mechanism was studied by the comparison in toxicity and cuticular penetration of abamectin between with and without other insecticides or synergists in Helicoverpa armigera larvae. The results of bioassay showed that horticultural mineral oil (HMO), hexaflumuron, chlorpyrifos, and some other insecticides were synergistic to abamectin with 152.0-420.0 of co-toxicity coefficient(CTC) in some agricultural insect pests. In topical application tests, HMO or piperonyl butoxide (PBO) increased the toxicity of abamectin in larvae of H. armigera, but the mortality was not affected by s,s,s-tributylphorotrithioate (DEF) and triphenylphosphate (TPP). The synergistic action of HMO was obviously higher than PBO, and when treated simultaneously with abamectin, HMO gave a more significant synergism than if treated 2 hours ahead. The highest synergistic effect (SE) was found in the mixture of ‘abamectin+HMO (1:206)'. The mortality did not increase or the toxicity drop, when a synergist or HMO was added into the mixture of ‘abamectin+HMO' or ‘abamectin+synergist', respectively. Results from the isotope tracing experiments showed that HMO significantly enhanced the penetration of 3H-abamectin through the cuticle of H.armigera larvae, which resulted in the synergism of the mixture. The cuticular penetration of 3H-abamectin was not accumulatively affected by chlorpyrifos, nor by hexaflumuron,though there was an inhibition within 30 seconds or 1 hour after treated by these two chemicals respectively. Results suggested that the synergism of abamectin mixed with hexaflumuron or chlorpyrifos might be related to inhibition of metabolic enzymes or target sites in the larvae.

  15. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus preferentially alters the translational profile of striatopallidal neurons in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman eKamali Sarvestani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS is an effective surgical treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD, the precise neuronal mechanisms of which both at molecular and network levels remain a topic of debate. Here we employ two transgenic mouse lines, combining translating ribosomal affinity purification (TRAP with bacterial artificial chromosome expression (Bac, to selectively identify changes in translational gene expression in either Drd1a-expressing striatonigral or Drd2-expressing striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs of the striatum following STN-DBS. 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice received either 5 days stimulation via a DBS electrode implanted in the ipsilateral STN or 5 days sham treatment (no stimulation. Striatal polyribosomal RNA was selectively purified from either Drd2 or Drd1a MSNs using the TRAP method and gene expression profiling performed. We identified 8 significantly altered genes in Drd2 MSNs (Vps33b, Ppp1r3c, Mapk4, Sorcs2, Neto1, Abca1, Penk1 and Gapdh and 2 overlapping genes in Drd1a MSNs (Penk1 and Ppp1r3c implicated in the molecular mechanisms of STN-DBS. A detailed functional analysis, using a further 728 probes implicated in STN-DBS, suggested an increased ability to receive excitation (mediated by increased dendritic spines, increased calcium influx and enhanced excitatory post synaptic potentials accompanied by processes that would hamper the initiation of action potentials, transport of neurotransmitters from soma to axon terminals and vesicular release in Drd2-expressing MSNs. Finally, changes in expression of several genes involved in apoptosis as well as cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism were also identified. This increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms induced by STN-DBS may reveal novel targets for future non-surgical therapies for PD.

  16. Analysis of cuticular wax constituents and genes that contribute to the formation of 'glossy Newhall', a spontaneous bud mutant from the wild-type 'Newhall' navel orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dechun; Yang, Li; Zheng, Qiong; Wang, Yuechen; Wang, Minli; Zhuang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Liu, Chuanfu; Liu, Shanbei; Liu, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Navel orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) fruit surfaces contain substantial quantities of cuticular waxes, which have important eco-physiological roles, such as water retention and pathogen defense. The wax constituents of ripe navel orange have been studied in various reports, while the wax changes occurring during fruit development and the molecular mechanism underlying their biosynthesis/export have not been investigated. Recently, we reported a spontaneous bud mutant from the wild-type (WT) 'Newhall' Navel orange. This mutant displayed unusual glossy fruit peels and was named 'glossy Newhall' (MT). In this study, we compared the developmental profiles of the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes on the WT and MT fruit surfaces. The formation of epicuticular wax crystals on the navel orange surface was shown to be dependent on the accumulation of high amounts of aliphatic wax components with trace amounts of terpenoids. In sharp contrast, the underlying intracuticular wax layers have relatively low concentrations of aliphatic wax components but high concentrations of cyclic wax compounds, especially terpenoids at the late fruit developmental stages. Our work also showed that many genes that are involved in wax biosynthesis and export pathways were down-regulated in MT fruit peels, leading to a decrease in aliphatic wax component amounts and the loss of epicuticular wax crystals, ultimately causing the glossy phenotype of MT fruits.

  17. The glossyhead1 allele of acc1 reveals a principal role for multidomain acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes by Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Shiyou

    2011-09-23

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C 20:0 or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Analysis of cuticular wax constituents and genes that contribute to the formation of 'glossy Newhall', a spontaneous bud mutant from the wild-type 'Newhall' navel orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dechun; Yang, Li; Zheng, Qiong; Wang, Yuechen; Wang, Minli; Zhuang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Liu, Chuanfu; Liu, Shanbei; Liu, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Navel orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) fruit surfaces contain substantial quantities of cuticular waxes, which have important eco-physiological roles, such as water retention and pathogen defense. The wax constituents of ripe navel orange have been studied in various reports, while the wax changes occurring during fruit development and the molecular mechanism underlying their biosynthesis/export have not been investigated. Recently, we reported a spontaneous bud mutant from the wild-type (WT) 'Newhall' Navel orange. This mutant displayed unusual glossy fruit peels and was named 'glossy Newhall' (MT). In this study, we compared the developmental profiles of the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes on the WT and MT fruit surfaces. The formation of epicuticular wax crystals on the navel orange surface was shown to be dependent on the accumulation of high amounts of aliphatic wax components with trace amounts of terpenoids. In sharp contrast, the underlying intracuticular wax layers have relatively low concentrations of aliphatic wax components but high concentrations of cyclic wax compounds, especially terpenoids at the late fruit developmental stages. Our work also showed that many genes that are involved in wax biosynthesis and export pathways were down-regulated in MT fruit peels, leading to a decrease in aliphatic wax component amounts and the loss of epicuticular wax crystals, ultimately causing the glossy phenotype of MT fruits. PMID:26177912

  19. Stage-specific surface chemicals of Plodia interpunctella: 2-acyl-1,3-cyclohexanediones from larval mandibular glands serve as cuticular lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ralph W; Baker, James E

    2004-06-01

    Cuticular lipid compositions of all life stages of the stored product moth Plodia interpunctella have been determined. Eggs and adults of P. interpunctella have cuticular lipids consisting solely of hydrocarbons. The composition of eggs and adult females is qualitatively nearly identical with ca. 86 hydrocarbons (11 n-alkanes, 39 monomethyl alkanes, 19 dimethyl alkanes, 11 trimethyl alkanes and 6 monoenes) except females lack the 2-methyl alkanes found in eggs. Adult males have a hydrocarbon composition qualitatively nearly identical to females with the exception that they lack the monoenes. Larval and pupal cuticular lipids are dominated by a mixture of ca. 20 previously described 2-acyl-1,3-cyclohexanediones, with only minute amounts of n-alkanes on the larvae and pupae. The 2-acyl-1,3-cyclohexanediones are continuously secreted onto their silk webbing and food particles by the paired mandibular glands found in all larvae. Extracts from dissected mandibular glands have a qualitatively identical composition to larval cuticular extracts. The pupal stage (which does not have mandibular glands) is enclosed in a silk cocoon also coated with 2-acyl-1,3-cyclohexanediones laid down while the wandering stage larvae spin the cocoon. The 2-acyl-1,3-cyclohexanediones have physical properties which closely mimic those of cuticular hydrocarbons, including melting point and boiling point range and hydrophobicity. This is the first report of an insect with a life stage that does not use conventional cuticular lipids for conservation of water.

  20. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Eric

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5 was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax

  1. Selection for cuticular melanism reveals immune function and life-history trade-offs in Spodoptera littoralis

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, S. C.; Myatt, J. P.; Benskin, C. M. H.; Wilson, K.

    2008-01-01

    Several insect species show an increase in cuticular melanism in response to high densities. In some species, there is evidence that this melanism is correlated with an up-regulation of certain immune system components, particularly phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and with the down-regulation of lysozyme activity, suggesting a trade-off between the two traits. As melanism has a genetic component, we selected both melanic and nonmelanic lines of the phase-polyphenic lepidopteran, Spodoptera litto...

  2. ACF7 Is a Hair-Bundle Antecedent, Positioned to Integrate Cuticular Plate Actin and Somatic Tubulin

    OpenAIRE

    Antonellis, Patrick J.; Pollock, Lana M.; Chou, Shih-Wei; Hassan, Ahmed; Geng, Ruishuang; Chen, Xi; Fuchs, Elaine; Alagramam, Kumar N.; Auer, Manfred; McDermott, Brian M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The precise morphology of the mechanosensitive hair bundle requires seamless integration of actin and microtubule networks. Here, we identify Acf7a (actin crosslinking family protein 7a) as a protein positioned to bridge these distinct cytoskeletal networks in hair cells. By imaging Acf7a–Citrine fusion protein in zebrafish and immunolabeling of vestibular and cochlear mouse hair cells, we show that Acf7a and ACF7 circumscribe, underlie, and are interwoven into the cuticular plate (CP), and t...

  3. Dissection of the complex phenotype in cuticular mutants of Arabidopsis reveals a role of SERRATE as a mediator.

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    Derry Voisin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in LACERATA (LCR, FIDDLEHEAD (FDH, and BODYGUARD (BDG cause a complex developmental syndrome that is consistent with an important role for these Arabidopsis genes in cuticle biogenesis. The genesis of their pleiotropic phenotypes is, however, poorly understood. We provide evidence that neither distorted depositions of cutin, nor deficiencies in the chemical composition of cuticular lipids, account for these features, instead suggesting that the mutants alleviate the functional disorder of the cuticle by reinforcing their defenses. To better understand how plants adapt to these mutations, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. We found that apparent compensatory transcriptional responses in these mutants involve the induction of wax, cutin, cell wall, and defense genes. To gain greater insight into the mechanism by which cuticular mutations trigger this response in the plants, we performed an overlap meta-analysis, which is termed MASTA (MicroArray overlap Search Tool and Analysis, of differentially expressed genes. This suggested that different cell integrity pathways are recruited in cesA cellulose synthase and cuticular mutants. Using MASTA for an in silico suppressor/enhancer screen, we identified SERRATE (SE, which encodes a protein of RNA-processing multi-protein complexes, as a likely enhancer. In confirmation of this notion, the se lcr and se bdg double mutants eradicate severe leaf deformations as well as the organ fusions that are typical of lcr and bdg and other cuticular mutants. Also, lcr does not confer resistance to Botrytis cinerea in a se mutant background. We propose that there is a role for SERRATE-mediated RNA signaling in the cuticle integrity pathway.

  4. Formation of the hindgut cuticular lining during embryonic development of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda

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    Polona Mrak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The hindgut and foregut in terrestrial isopod crustaceans are ectodermal parts of the digestive system and are lined by cuticle, an apical extracellular matrix secreted by epithelial cells. Morphogenesis of the digestive system was reported in previous studies, but differentiation of the gut cuticle was not followed in detail. This study is focused on ultrastructural analyses of hindgut apical matrices and cuticle in selected intramarsupial developmental stages of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in comparison to adult animals to obtain data on the hindgut cuticular lining differentiation. Our results show that in late embryos of stages 16 and 18 the apical matrix in the hindgut consists of loose material overlaid by a thin intensely ruffled electron dense lamina facing the lumen. The ultrastructural resemblance to the embryonic epidermal matrices described in several arthropods suggests a common principle in chitinous matrix differentiation. The hindgut matrix in the prehatching embryo of stage 19 shows characteristics of the hindgut cuticle, specifically alignment to the apical epithelial surface and a prominent electron dense layer of epicuticle. In the preceding embryonic stage – stage 18 – an electron dense lamina, closely apposed to the apical cell membrane, is evident and is considered as the first epicuticle formation. In marsupial mancae the advanced features of the hindgut cuticle and epithelium are evident: a more prominent epicuticular layer, formation of cuticular spines and an extensive apical labyrinth. In comparison to the hindgut cuticle of adults, the hindgut cuticle of marsupial manca and in particular the electron dense epicuticular layer are much thinner and the difference between cuticle architecture in the anterior chamber and in the papillate region is not yet distinguishable. Differences from the hindgut cuticle in adults imply not fully developed structure and function of the hindgut cuticle in marsupial

  5. Single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto pine needle cuticular fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yungui [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Chen Baoliang, E-mail: blchen@zju.edu.c [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2010-07-15

    To better understand interaction mechanisms of pine needles with persistent organic pollutants, single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto isolated cuticular fractions of pine needle were investigated. The structures of cuticular fractions were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state {sup 13}C NMR. Polymeric lipids (cutin and cutan) exhibited notably higher sorption capabilities than the soluble lipids (waxes), while cellulose showed little affinity with sorbates. With the coexistence of the amorphous cellulose, the sorption of cutan (aromatic core) was completely inhibited, so the cutin components (nonpolar aliphatic moieties) dominated the sorption of bulk needle cuticle. By the consumption of the amorphous cellulose under acid hydrolysis, sorption capacities of the de-sugared fractions were dramatically enhanced, which controlled by the exposed aromatic cores and the aliphatic moieties. Furthermore, the de-sugared fractions demonstrated nonlinear and competitive sorption due to the specific interaction between aromatic cores and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. - Cellulose components play a regulating role in the relative contribution of aromatic cores and aliphatic moieties to sorption of pine needle cuticular fractions.

  6. Changing the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio in sow diets alters serum, colostrum, and milk fatty acid profiles, but has minimal impact on reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, L; Leterme, P; Beaulieu, A D

    2014-12-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that reducing the omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratio in sow diets will improve performance, characterized by increased litter size, decreased preweaning mortality, and improved growth performance. Second, we determined if the FA profile in sow and piglet blood, colostrum, and milk are altered when sows are fed diets with varied n-6:n-3 ratios and if the dietary FA ratio impacts circulating concentrations of IgG, IgA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid. Sows (n=150) were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (each divided into gestation and lactation diets) on d 80 of gestation. Period 1 (P1) is defined as d 80 of gestation to weaning and Period 2 (P2) refers to the subsequent breeding to weaning. Diets were wheat and barley based (5% crude fat) and treatments consisted of a control (tallow), 3 diets with plant oil-based n-6:n-3 ratios (9:1P, 5:1P, and 1:1P), and a 5:1 fish oil diet (5:1F). Litter size was unaffected by treatment during P1 and P2 (P>0.10). In P1, birth weight was unaffected by diet (P>0.10); however, weaning weight (P=0.019) and ADG from birth to weaning (P=0.011) were greatest for piglets born to 9:1P and 5:1P sows. During P2, 5:1F sows consumed 10% less feed during lactation (P=0.036), tended to have reduced piglet birth weights (P=0.052), and piglet weaning weight was reduced by 0.8 kg (P=0.040) relative to the other diets. Colostrum and piglet serum IgA and IgG concentrations were unaffected by diet (P>0.10). Serum n-3 FA were greatest in sows (Psows and EPA and DHA were greatest in 5:1F sows (P0.10). Relative to piglets of sows consuming the control diet, EPA was 2.5-fold greater in the 1:1P group and 4-fold greater in 5:1F group (Psows (Psows (PFeeding diets with plant-based n-6:n-3 ratios of 5:1 or 1:1 did not impact performance relative to a control group but improved the conversion of ALA into EPA and increased the transfer of n-3 to piglets through milk. When a fish-based 5

  7. Fish oil supplementation alters the plasma lipidomic profile and increases long-chain PUFAs of phospholipids and triglycerides in healthy subjects.

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    Inger Ottestad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While beneficial health effects of fish and fish oil consumption are well documented, the incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipid classes is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on the plasma lipidomic profile in healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, healthy subjects received capsules containing either 8 g/d of fish oil (FO (1.6 g/d EPA+DHA (n = 16 or 8 g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO (n = 17 for seven weeks. During the first three weeks of intervention, the subjects completed a fully controlled diet period. BMI and total serum triglycerides, total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were unchanged during the intervention period. Lipidomic analyses were performed using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS, where 568 lipids were detected and 260 identified. Both t-tests and Multi-Block Partial Least Square Regression (MBPLSR analysis were performed for analysing differences between the intervention groups. The intervention groups were well separated by the lipidomic data after three weeks of intervention. Several lipid classes such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and triglycerides contributed strongly to this separation. Twenty-three lipids were significantly decreased (FDR<0.05 in the FO group after three weeks compared with the HOSO group, whereas fifty-one were increased including selected phospholipids and triglycerides of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. After seven weeks of intervention the two intervention groups showed similar grouping. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In healthy subjects, fish oil supplementation alters lipid metabolism and increases the

  8. Population studies of Glossina pallidipes in Ethiopia: emphasis on cuticular hydrocarbons and wing morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, M N; Cecchi, G; Seyoum, E

    2014-10-01

    Tsetse flies, like many insects, use pheromones for inter- and intra-specific communication. Several of their pheromones are cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) that are perceived by contact at close range. We hypothesized that for a successful implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), along with proper identification of target area and target species, the target tsetse populations and the sterile flies must chemically communicate with each other. To study the population structuring of Glossina pallidipes in Ethiopia, CHCs were extracted and analyzed from three tsetse belts. As a comparative approach, wing morphometric analysis was performed. The analysis of the relative abundance of CHCs revealed that populations of G. pallidipes from the Rift Valley tsetse belt showed a distinct clustering compared to populations from the other two belts. The spatial pattern of CHC differences was complemented by the wing morphometric analysis. Our data suggest that CHCs of known biological and ecological role, when combined with wing morphometric data, will provide an alternative means for the study of population structuring of Glossina populations. This could aid the planning of area wide control strategies using SIT, which is dependent on sexual competence. PMID:24751419

  9. Genetic analysis of cuticular hydrocarbons and their effect on courtship in Drosophila virilis and D. lummei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, J O; Jallon, J-M

    2007-09-01

    Genetical factors controlling the cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) of Drosophila virilis and D. lummei, and the effect of CHC on female attractivity were studied. A strong sexual dimorphism was found in D. virilis where (Z)-10-heneicosene and (Z)-11-pentacosene were major CHC for males and females, respectively. In D. lummei, (Z)-9-pentacosene was the major CHC for both sexes. These CHC are under a complex genetical control: the level of male (Z)-10-heneicosene was mainly sex-linked; chromosome 2 exerted a marked hypermorphic effect on it as well as on female (Z)-11-pentacosene; other autosomes had additional smaller effects on the CHC. Further, these two species showed differences in the double bond position pattern: Monoenes, with double bonds in (Z)-11 or (Z)-13, were more abundant in D. virilis (monoenes-vi), while monoenes, with double bonds in (Z)-7 or (Z)-9, were more abundant in D. lummei (monoenes-lu). In agreement with previous studies of perfumed dummies, experiments with live females showed that a higher proportion of (Z)-11-pentacosene or of monoenes-vi induced D. virilis males to court sooner. On the other hand, monoenes-lu showed antagonistic effects. PMID:17557202

  10. Volatile Drosophila cuticular pheromones are affected by social but not sexual experience.

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    Jean-Pierre Farine

    Full Text Available Recognition of conspecifics and mates is based on a variety of sensory cues that are specific to the species, sex and social status of each individual. The courtship and mating activity of Drosophila melanogaster flies is thought to depend on the olfactory perception of a male-specific volatile pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA, and the gustatory perception of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs, some of which are sexually dimorphic. Using two complementary sampling methods (headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction [SPME] and solvent extraction coupled with GC-MS analysis, we measured the dispersion of pheromonal CHs in the air and on the substrate around the fly. We also followed the variations in CHs that were induced by social and sexual interactions. We found that all CHs present on the fly body were deposited as a thin layer on the substrate, whereas only a few of these molecules were also detected in the air. Moreover, social experience during early adult development and in mature flies strongly affected male volatile CHs but not cVA, whereas sexual interaction only had a moderate influence on dispersed CHs. Our study suggests that, in addition to their role as contact cues, CHs can influence fly behavior at a distance and that volatile, deposited and body pheromonal CHs participate in a three-step recognition of the chemical identity and social status of insects.

  11. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. PMID:27037514

  12. Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax. PMID:27264640

  13. Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf cuticular characteristics and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percy, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on adaxial leaf cuticles were investigated for a group of plant species selected from commercially-important crops and trees which exhibited markedly different cuticular characteristics. Expanding leaves of controlled-environment grown plants were exposed from emergence to full expansion to pH 5.6, 4.6, 4.2, 3.8, 3.4, 3.0 or 2.6 simulated rain (SAR) applied at 2 mm/h on alternate days. The number of events, the amount, droplet size and velocity were representative of UK ambient rainfall characteristics. The non-acidic pH 5.6 simulated rain consisted of 14 inorganic ions in weight/volume concentrations equivalent to those measured at a site in Eastern Canada. The degree of foliar injury and size of lesions was greater on crop species with waxy leaves than those with non-waxy leaves. Injury was least on needles of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.). The relative sensitivity of the species examined to foliar injury decreased in the order: field rap (Brassica napus L.) > Eucalyptus globulus L.) > pea (Pisum sativum L.) > dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) > field bean (Vicia faba L.) > Sitka spruce.

  14. Secondary Metabolites of the Cuticular Abdominal Glands of Variegated Grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus L.

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    O. U. Igwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical compounds were extracted with petroleum ether from the cuticular abdominal glands of grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus L. and eleven compounds were characterised using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS technique in combination with Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR. The compounds analysed were 2,7-dimethyloctane (3.21%, decane (5.33%, undecane (3.81%, tridecanoic acid methyl ester (4.76%, hexadecanoic acid (9.37%, 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (23.18%, pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-methyl ester (4.43%, (Z-13-docosenoic acid (10.71%, dodecyl pentafluoropropionate (9.52%, 2-dodecyl-1,3-propanediol (6.38%, and 1,12-tridecadiene (19.30%. FT-IR analysis of the extract showed peaks at 1270.17 (C–O and C–F, 1641.48 (C=C, 2937.68 (C–H, and 3430.51 (O–H cm−1 indicating the presence of ether, alkene, alkane, alcohol, carboxylic acid, and fluoric compounds. These compounds consisted of 32.37% ester, 31.65% hydrocarbons, 20.08% fatty acid, 9.52% halogenated ester, and 6.38% alcohol. The highest component was 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester followed by 1,12-tridecadiene. Since behavioural bioassays were not carried out, the consideration of these compounds to be pheromone semiochemicals remains a hypothesis.

  15. Maternal immune activation by LPS selectively alters specific gene expression profiles of interneuron migration and oxidative stress in the fetus without triggering a fetal immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Oskvig, Devon B.; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Johnson, Kory R.; Phillips, Terry M.; Herkenham, Miles

    2012-01-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and autism. Infections during pregnancy activate the mother’s immune system and alter the fetal environment, with consequential effects on CNS function and behavior in the offspring, but the cellular and molecular links between infection-induced altered fetal development and risk for neuropsychiatric disorders are unknown. We investigated the immunological, molecular, and behavioral effects of MIA in the of...

  16. Self-Assembled, Iridescent, Crustacean-Mimetic Nanocomposites with Tailored Periodicity and Layered Cuticular Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baochun; Walther, Andreas

    2015-11-24

    Natural high-performance materials inspire the pursuit of ordered hard/soft nanocomposite structures at high fractions of reinforcements and with balanced molecular interactions. Herein, we develop a facile, waterborne self-assembly pathway to mimic the multiscale cuticle structure of the crustacean armor by combining hard reinforcing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with soft poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). We show iridescent CNC nanocomposites with cholesteric liquid-crystal structure, in which different helical pitches and photonic band gaps can be realized by varying the CNC/PVA ratio. We further show that multilayered crustacean-mimetic materials with tailored periodicity and layered cuticular structure can be obtained by sequential preparation pathways. The transition from a cholesteric to a disordered structure occurs for a critical polymer concentration. Correspondingly, we find a transition from stiff and strong mechanical behavior to materials with increasing ductility. Crack propagation studies using scanning electron microscopy visualize the different crack growth and toughening mechanisms inside cholesteric nanocomposites as a function of the interstitial polymer content for the first time. Different extents of crack deflection, layered delamination, ligament bridging, and constrained microcracking can be observed. Drawing of highly plasticized films sheds light on the mechanistic details of the transition from a cholesteric/chiral nematic to a nematic structure. The study demonstrates how self-assembly of biobased CNCs in combination with suitable polymers can be used to replicate a hierarchical biological structure and how future design of these ordered multifunctional nanocomposites can be optimized by understanding mechanistic details of deformation and fracture. PMID:26372330

  17. Wax and cutin mutants of Arabidopsis: Quantitative characterization of the cuticular transport barrier in relation to chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Christina; Schroll, Bettina; Zeisler, Viktoria; Waßmann, Friedrich; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Using (14)C-labeled epoxiconazole as a tracer, cuticular permeability of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was quantitatively measured in order to compare different wax and cutin mutants (wax2, cut1, cer5, att1, bdg, shn3 and shn1) to the corresponding wild types (Col-0 and Ws). Mutants were characterized by decreases or increases in wax and/or cutin amounts. Permeances [ms(-1)] of Arabidopsis cuticles either increased in the mutants compared to wild type or were not affected. Thus, genetic changes in wax and cutin biosynthesis in some of the investigated Arabidopsis mutants obviously impaired the coordinated cutin and wax deposition at the outer leaf epidermal cell wall. As a consequence, barrier properties of cuticles were significantly decreased. However, increasing cutin and wax amounts by genetic modifications, did not automatically lead to improved cuticular barrier properties. As an alternative approach to the radioactive transport assay, changes in chlorophyll fluorescence were monitored after foliar application of metribuzine, an herbicide inhibiting electron transport in chloroplasts. Since both, half-times of photosynthesis inhibition as well as times of complete inhibition, in fact correlated with (14)C-epoxiconazole permeances, different rates of decline of photosynthetic yield between mutants and wild type must be a function of foliar uptake of the herbicide across the cuticle. Thus, monitoring changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, instead of conducting radioactive transport assays, represents an easy-to-handle and fast alternative evaluating cuticular barrier properties of different genotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.

  18. FCHSD1 and FCHSD2 are expressed in hair cell stereocilia and cuticular plate and regulate actin polymerization in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiren Cao

    Full Text Available Mammalian FCHSD1 and FCHSD2 are homologous proteins containing an amino-terminal F-BAR domain and two SH3 domains near their carboxyl-termini. We report here that FCHSD1 and FCHSD2 are expressed in mouse cochlear sensory hair cells. FCHSD1 mainly localizes to the cuticular plate, whereas FCHSD2 mainly localizes along the stereocilia in a punctuate pattern. Nervous Wreck (Nwk, the Drosophila ortholog of FCHSD1 and FCHSD2, has been shown to bind Wsp and play an important role in F-actin assembly. We show that, like its Drosophila counterpart, FCHSD2 interacts with WASP and N-WASP, the mammalian orthologs of Drosophila Wsp, and stimulates F-actin assembly in vitro. In contrast, FCHSD1 doesn't bind WASP or N-WASP, and can't stimulate F-actin assembly when tested in vitro. We found, however, that FCHSD1 binds via its F-BAR domain to the SH3 domain of Sorting Nexin 9 (SNX9, a well characterized BAR protein that has been shown to promote WASP-Arp2/3-dependent F-actin polymerization. FCHSD1 greatly enhances SNX9's WASP-Arp2/3-dependent F-actin polymerization activity. In hair cells, SNX9 was detected in the cuticular plate, where it colocalizes with FCHSD1. Our results suggest that FCHSD1 and FCHSD2 could modulate F-actin assembly or maintenance in hair cell stereocilia and cuticular plate.

  19. Data on alteration of hormone and growth factor receptor profiles over progressive passages of breast cancer cell lines representing different clinical subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Madhumathy G; Desai, Krisha; Prabhu, Jyothi S; Hari, P S; Remacle, Jose; Sridhar, T S

    2016-09-01

    Human breast cancers are a highly heterogeneous group of tumours consisting of several molecular subtypes with a variable profile of hormone, growth factor receptors and cytokeratins [1]. Here, the data shows immunofluorescence profiling of four different cell lines belonging to distinct clinical subtypes of breast cancer. Post revival, the cell lines were passaged in culture and immunophenotyping was done for ER, HER-2, AR and EGFR. Data for the markers from early passage (5th) through passages as late as 25 for the different cell lines is presented. PMID:27508248

  20. pH-dependent permeation of amino acids through isolated ivy cuticles is affected by cuticular water sorption and hydration shell size of the solute

    OpenAIRE

    Arand, Katja; Stock, David; Burghardt, Markus; Riederer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The permeabilities of amino acids for isolated cuticular membranes of ivy (Hedera helix L.) were measured at different pH. Cuticular permeances were lowest for the zwitterionic form at pH 6, followed by the cationic form at pH 1. Highest permeances were obtained for the anionic form at pH 11. Permeances were not correlated with octanol/water partition coefficients and decreased at a given pH with increasing molar volume of the solute. This finding suggests that permeation takes place in the p...

  1. High fat and/or high salt intake during pregnancy alters maternal meta‐inflammation and offspring growth and metabolic profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Clare M.; Vickers, Mark H; Harrison, Claudia J; Stephanie A. Segovia; Gray, Clint

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A high intake of fat or salt during pregnancy perturbs placental function, alters fetal development, and predisposes offspring to metabolic disease in adult life. Despite its relevance to modern dietary habits, the developmental programming effects of excessive maternal fat and salt, fed in combination, have not been examined. We investigated the effects of moderately high maternal fat and/or salt intake on maternal metainflammation and its consequences on fetal and weanling growth a...

  2. RNA-seq Analysis of δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-treated T Cells Reveals Altered Gene Expression Profiles That Regulate Immune Response and Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoming; Bam, Marpe; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2016-07-22

    Marijuana has drawn significant public attention and concern both for its medicinal and recreational use. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the main bioactive component in marijuana, has also been shown to possess potent anti-inflammatory properties by virtue of its ability to activate cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB-2) expressed on immune cells. In this study, we used RNA-seq to quantify the transcriptomes and transcript variants that are differentially regulated by THC in super antigen-activated lymph node cells and CD4(+) T cells. We found that the expressions of many transcripts were altered by THC in both total lymph node cells and CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, the abundance of many miRNA precursors and long non-coding RNAs was dramatically altered in THC-treated mice. For example, the expression of miR-17/92 cluster and miR-374b/421 cluster was down-regulated by THC. On the other hand miR-146a, which has been shown to induce apoptosis, was up-regulated by THC. Long non-coding RNAs that are expressed from the opposite strand of CD27 and Appbp2 were induced by THC. In addition, THC treatment also caused alternative promoter usage and splicing. The functions of those altered transcripts were mainly related to immune response and cell proliferation. PMID:27268054

  3. Development of the cuticular wax during growth of Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Hamet et Perr. de la Bathie) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maarseveen, Clare; Han, Hong; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to monitor cuticular wax accumulation during leaf development of Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Leaves expanded linearly until they were 40-60 d old. Wax coverages of leaves on the third node increased steadily during initial leaf development, from 6.5 microg x cm(-2) on day 22 to 15.3 microg x cm(-2) on day 53, and then levelled off. Triterpenoids dominated the wax mixture throughout leaf development, but decreased from 74 to 40-45% in mature leaves, while very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives increased from 19 to 39-44%. The major VLCFA derivatives were alkanes, accompanied by fatty acids, primary alcohols, aldehydes and alkyl esters. In all compound classes, either C(34) or C(33) homologs predominated during leaf development. Eight different triterpenoids were identified, with glutinol constituting 70% of the fraction, and friedelin (20%) and germanicol (10%) as further major components of the young leaf wax. The glutinol percentage decreased, while the relative amounts of epifriedelanol and glutanol increased during development. Various leaf pairs upwards from the third node showed similar growth patterns and developmental time courses of cuticular wax amounts and composition. Based on these surface chemical analyses, the relative activities of biosynthetic pathways leading to various wax components can be assessed. PMID:19021882

  4. Over-Expression of SlSHN1 Gene Improves Drought Tolerance by Increasing Cuticular Wax Accumulation in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed M. Al-Abdallat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing cuticular wax accumulation in plants has been associated with improving drought tolerance in plants. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding the SlSHN1 transcription factor, the closest ortholog to WIN/SHN1 gene in Arabidopsis, was isolated from tomato plant. Expression analysis of SlSHN1 indicated that it is induced in response to drought conditions. The over-expression of SlSHN1 in tomato under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter produced plants that showed mild growth retardation phenotype with shiny and dark green leaves. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the over-expression of SlSHN1 in tomato resulted in higher cuticular wax deposition on leaf epidermial tissue when compared to non-transformed plants. Expression analysis in transgenic lines over-expressing SlSHN1 indicated that several wax-related synthesis genes were induced. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing SlSHN1 showed higher drought tolerance when compared with wild type plants; this was reflected in delayed wilting of transgenic lines, improved water status and reduced water loss rate when compared with wild type plants. In conclusion, the SlSHN1 gene can modulate wax accumulation and could be utilized to enhance drought tolerance in tomato plant.

  5. Agonistic interactions, cuticular and hemolymphatic lipid variations during the foraging period in spider females Brachypelma albopilosa (Theraphosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabalon, Marie

    2011-06-01

    Agonistic behaviour and lipid state were examined in tarantula Brachypelma albopilosa females during the foraging period. Modulation of the agonistic behaviour of females was not connected to their body size. Results show that the agonistic pattern of females differed significantly from the predation pattern at the behavioural and lipid levels. Aggressive-foraging females had low predation behaviour. Quantitative lipid changes were observed in relation to agonistic behaviour and predation. The total lipid index was studied by colorimetric methods, and lipid compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in cuticle and hemolymph of females. The lipid components were free fatty acids, methyl esters, cholesterol, and long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons. Methyl esters were much more abundant in cuticular lipids; unsaturated free fatty acids (linoleic and oleic acids) and methyl esters (methyl linoleate and methyl stearate) predominated in the hemolymph. Spider aggression was positively correlated with lipid concentration (cholesterol, fatty acids, methyl esters and hydrocarbons) in the hemolymph and the levels of cuticular fatty acids. Lipid levels are hypothesized to have evolved as a regulatory factor of predation and agonistic behaviours in tarantula females. PMID:21338607

  6. A healthy Nordic diet alters the plasma lipidomic profile in adults with features of metabolic syndrome in a multicenter randomized dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankinen, Maria; Schwab, Ursula S; Kolehmainen, Marjukka;

    2016-01-01

    Background: A healthy Nordic diet is associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effect on lipidomic profile is not known. Objective: The aim was to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet affects the fasting plasma lipidomic profile in subjects with metabolic syndrome....... Methods: Men and women (n = 200) with features of metabolic syndrome [mean age: 55 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 31.6] were randomly assigned to either a healthy Nordic (n = 104) or a control (n = 96) diet for 18 or 24 wk at 6 centers. Of the participants, 156 completed the study with plasma lipidomic...... measurements. The healthy Nordic diet consisted of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, berries, vegetable oils and margarines, fish, low-fat milk products, and low-fat meat. An average Nordic diet served as the control diet and included low-fiber cereal products, dairy fat-based spreads, regular-fatmilk products...

  7. Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kusal K. Das; Dhundasi, Salim A; Swastika N. Das; Amrita Das Gupta

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garl...

  8. Genome-wide expression profiling of in vivo-derived bloodstream parasite stages and dynamic analysis of mRNA alterations during synchronous differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazal Peter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosomes undergo extensive developmental changes during their complex life cycle. Crucial among these is the transition between slender and stumpy bloodstream forms and, thereafter, the differentiation from stumpy to tsetse-midgut procyclic forms. These developmental events are highly regulated, temporally reproducible and accompanied by expression changes mediated almost exclusively at the post-transcriptional level. Results In this study we have examined, by whole-genome microarray analysis, the mRNA abundance of genes in slender and stumpy forms of T.brucei AnTat1.1 cells, and also during their synchronous differentiation to procyclic forms. In total, five biological replicates representing the differentiation of matched parasite populations derived from five individual mouse infections were assayed, with RNAs being derived at key biological time points during the time course of their synchronous differentiation to procyclic forms. Importantly, the biological context of these mRNA profiles was established by assaying the coincident cellular events in each population (surface antigen exchange, morphological restructuring, cell cycle re-entry, thereby linking the observed gene expression changes to the well-established framework of trypanosome differentiation. Conclusion Using stringent statistical analysis and validation of the derived profiles against experimentally-predicted gene expression and phenotypic changes, we have established the profile of regulated gene expression during these important life-cycle transitions. The highly synchronous nature of differentiation between stumpy and procyclic forms also means that these studies of mRNA profiles are directly relevant to the changes in mRNA abundance within individual cells during this well-characterised developmental transition.

  9. Aminoglycoside 6′-N-Acetyltransferase Variants of the Ib Type with Altered Substrate Profile in Clinical Isolates of Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii

    OpenAIRE

    Casin, Isabelle; Bordon, Florence; Bertin, Philippe; Coutrot, Anne; Podglajen, Isabelle; Brasseur, Robert; Collatz, Ekkehard

    1998-01-01

    Three clinical isolates, Enterobacter cloacae EC1562 and EC1563 and Citrobacter freundii CFr564, displayed an aminoglycoside resistance profile evocative of low-level 6′-N acetyltransferase type II [AAC(6′)-II] production, which conferred reduced susceptibility to gentamicin but not to amikacin or isepamicin. Aminoglycoside acetyltransferase assays suggested the synthesis in the three strains of an AAC(6′) which acetylated amikacin practically as well as it acetylated gentamicin in vitro. Bot...

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Profiles of Cytokine, Chemokine, and Growth Factors Produced by Human Decidual Cells Are Altered by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Supernatant

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Yang, Siwen; Kim, Sung O.; Reid, Gregor; Challis, John R. G.; Bocking, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 supernatant (GR-1SN) on secretion profiles of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors from primary cultures of human decidual cells. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased the output of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1B, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, interferon gamma [IFN-γ], and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]); anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RN, IL-4...

  11. Gestational Diabetes Alters Offspring DNA Methylation Profiles in Human and Rat: Identification of Key Pathways Involved in Endocrine System Disorders, Insulin Signaling, Diabetes Signaling, and ILK Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Sophie; Guillemin, Claire; Ergaz, Zivanit; Dimov, Sergiy; Suderman, Matthew; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ornoy, Asher; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-06-01

    Gestational diabetes is associated with risk for metabolic disease later in life. Using a cross-species approach in rat and humans, we examined the hypothesis that gestational diabetes during pregnancy triggers changes in the methylome of the offspring that might be mediating these risks. We show in a gestation diabetes rat model, the Cohen diabetic rat, that gestational diabetes triggers wide alterations in DNA methylation in the placenta in both candidate diabetes genes and genome-wide promoters, thus providing evidence for a causal relationship between diabetes during pregnancy and DNA methylation alterations. There is a significant overlap between differentially methylated genes in the placenta and the liver of the rat offspring. Several genes differentially methylated in rat placenta exposed to maternal diabetes are also differentially methylated in the human placenta of offspring exposed to gestational diabetes in utero. DNA methylation changes inversely correlate with changes in expression. The changes in DNA methylation affect known functional gene pathways involved in endocrine function, metabolism, and insulin responses. These data provide support to the hypothesis that early-life exposures and their effects on metabolic disease are mediated by DNA methylation changes. This has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  12. GeneChip expression profiling reveals the alterations of energy metabolism related genes in osteocytes under large gradient high magnetic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    Full Text Available The diamagnetic levitation as a novel ground-based model for simulating a reduced gravity environment has recently been applied in life science research. In this study a specially designed superconducting magnet with a large gradient high magnetic field (LG-HMF, which can provide three apparent gravity levels (μ-g, 1-g, and 2-g, was used to simulate a space-like gravity environment. Osteocyte, as the most important mechanosensor in bone, takes a pivotal position in mediating the mechano-induced bone remodeling. In this study, the effects of LG-HMF on gene expression profiling of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 were investigated by Affymetrix DNA microarray. LG-HMF affected osteocyte gene expression profiling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs and data mining were further analyzed by using bioinfomatic tools, such as DAVID, iReport. 12 energy metabolism related genes (PFKL, AK4, ALDOC, COX7A1, STC1, ADM, CA9, CA12, P4HA1, APLN, GPR35 and GPR84 were further confirmed by real-time PCR. An integrated gene interaction network of 12 DEGs was constructed. Bio-data mining showed that genes involved in glucose metabolic process and apoptosis changed notablly. Our results demostrated that LG-HMF affected the expression of energy metabolism related genes in osteocyte. The identification of sensitive genes to special environments may provide some potential targets for preventing and treating bone loss or osteoporosis.

  13. GeneChip expression profiling reveals the alterations of energy metabolism related genes in osteocytes under large gradient high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Zhi-Hao; Yin, Chun; Ma, Jian-Hua; Li, Di-Jie; Zhao, Fan; Sun, Yu-Long; Hu, Li-Fang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The diamagnetic levitation as a novel ground-based model for simulating a reduced gravity environment has recently been applied in life science research. In this study a specially designed superconducting magnet with a large gradient high magnetic field (LG-HMF), which can provide three apparent gravity levels (μ-g, 1-g, and 2-g), was used to simulate a space-like gravity environment. Osteocyte, as the most important mechanosensor in bone, takes a pivotal position in mediating the mechano-induced bone remodeling. In this study, the effects of LG-HMF on gene expression profiling of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 were investigated by Affymetrix DNA microarray. LG-HMF affected osteocyte gene expression profiling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and data mining were further analyzed by using bioinfomatic tools, such as DAVID, iReport. 12 energy metabolism related genes (PFKL, AK4, ALDOC, COX7A1, STC1, ADM, CA9, CA12, P4HA1, APLN, GPR35 and GPR84) were further confirmed by real-time PCR. An integrated gene interaction network of 12 DEGs was constructed. Bio-data mining showed that genes involved in glucose metabolic process and apoptosis changed notablly. Our results demostrated that LG-HMF affected the expression of energy metabolism related genes in osteocyte. The identification of sensitive genes to special environments may provide some potential targets for preventing and treating bone loss or osteoporosis. PMID:25635858

  14. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Half yearly report, February 16 to August 15, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines studies on the rate of moisture-loss in irradiated weevils and correlation loss of water with mortality. Further changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of weevils as a result of gamma radiation were determined. 2 figs., 10 tabs

  15. A proposed role for the cuticular fatty amides of Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae) in preventing adhesion of entomopathogenic fungi with dry-conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Jeffrey C; Howard, Ralph W

    2004-08-01

    Maximum challenge exposure of Liposcelis bostrychophila to Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Aspergillus parasiticus or Metarhizium anisopliae resulted in no more than 16% mortality. We investigated several of L. bostrychophila's cuticular lipids for possible contributions to its tolerance for entomopathogenic fungi. Saturated C14 and C16 fatty acids did not reduce the germination rates of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae conidia. Saturated C6 to C12 fatty acids that have not been identified in L. bostrychophila cuticular extracts significantly reduced germination, but the reduction was mitigated by the presence of stearamide. Cis-6-hexadecenal did not affect germination rates. Mycelial growth of either fungal species did not occur in the presence of caprylic acid, was reduced by the presence of lauric acid, and was not significantly affected by palmitic acid. Liposcelis bostrychophila is the only insect for which fatty acid amides have been identified as cuticular components. Stearamide, its major fatty amide, did not reduce germination of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae conidia or growth of their mycelia. Adhesion of conidia to stearamide preparations did not differ significantly from adhesion to the cuticle of L. bostrychophila. Pretreatment of a beetle known to be fungus-susceptible, larval Oryzaephilus surinamensis, with stearamide significantly decreased adhesion of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae conidia to their cuticles. This evidence indicates that cuticular fatty amides may contribute to L. bostrychophila's tolerance for entomopathogenic fungi by decreasing hydrophobicity and static charge, thereby reducing conidial adhesion.

  16. Lipid profiles alter from pro-atherogenic into less atherogenic and proinflammatory in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients responding to anti TNF-α treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Yeh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Dyslipidemia with higher inflammatory states, disease activity, and longer disease duration in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA patients seemed to increase the risks of atherosclerosis. Tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α receptor blocking agent etanercept has been proven to be effective in JIA. However, data about the correlation of anti-inflammatory treatment on lipid profiles and atherogenic index in JIA patients remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes on lipid profiles and atherogenic index in JIA patients after etanercept treatment. METHODS: Twenty-three patients diagnosed with JIA (polyarticular type n = 7; oligoarticular type, n = 2; systemic type, n = 10, Enthesitis-related arthritis = 4 received treatment with etanercept during the period 2004-012 in a medical center. We measured their serum lipid profiles at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 12 months later, and determined whether there were differences in complete blood counts, inflammatory mediators, lipid levels and atherogenic indices between patients who had inactive disease (responders and those who were poor responders (non-responders to etanercept treatment. RESULTS: Analysis of dynamic change in total JIA patients before and after TNF inhibitor therapy showed modest increases in hemoglobin levels (P = 0.02 and decreases in WBC counts, Platelet and CRP levels progressively (p = 0.002, p = 0.006 and p = 0.006, respectively.Twelve of the 23 patients achieved inactive disease status (responders after 12-months of treatment. In responders, compared to non-responders, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C increased significantly (P = 0.007,P = 0.044,P<0.001, whereas triglyceride and atherogenic index (TC/HDL-C ratio significantly decreased (P = 0.04, P = 0.01, respectively after etanercept treatment. CONCLUSION: Disease severity

  17. Association between altered lipid profile, body mass index, low plasma adiponectin and varied blood pressure in trinidadian type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivananda B Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity and hypertension have become the causes for the development type 2 diabetes. There is a limited study done on the contribution of body mass index (BMI to blood pressure (BP in the Caribbean population. Aim of our study was to determine the associations between lipid profile, BMI, adiponectin, and BP in Trinidadian type 2 diabetic patients with regards to age and ethnicity. Materials and Methods: This was a cohort study comprised of 266 subjects (85 males and 181 females attending primary and tertiary healthcare settings in central Trinidad. Of which, 126 diabetic subjects were matched with 140 non-diabetic subjects. Along with clinical history and anthropometry, adiponectin and lipid profile were measured in fasting blood samples. Results: The diabetic group had higher triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, and BP values which were statistically significant (P < 0.05 when compared to non-diabetic subjects. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and adiponectin were lower in diabetic subjects. HDL-c showed significant changes for ethnicity (P = 0.013 and gender (P = 0.043. The mean adiponectin concentrations were found to be significantly different among the ethnic groups (P = 0.001. Systolic pressure varied significantly with age (P = 0.018. As age increased, BP also increased. Ethnic groups had a significant difference in diastolic pressure (P = 0.027. East Indians had the highest mean diastolic pressure (80.74 ± 10.29 when compared to all other ethnic groups. Conclusion: HDL-cholesterol, low levels of adiponectin, and varied BP are associated in Trinidadian type 2 diabetic subjects with regards to age, gender, and ethnicity.

  18. Comparative transcript profiling of a male sterile cybrid pummelo and its fertile type revealed altered gene expression related to flower development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-Bei Zheng

    Full Text Available Male sterile and seedless characters are highly desired for citrus cultivar improvement. In our breeding program, a male sterile cybrid pummelo, which could be considered as a variant of male fertile pummelo, was produced by protoplast fusion. Herein, ecotopic stamen primordia initiation and development were detected in this male sterile cybrid pummelo. Histological studies revealed that the cybrid showed reduced petal development in size and width, and retarded stamen primordia development. Additionally, disorganized cell proliferation was also detected in stamen-like structures (fused to petals and/or carpel. To gain new insight into the underlying mechanism, we compared, by RNA-Seq analysis, the nuclear gene expression profiles of floral buds of the cybrid with that of fertile pummelo. Gene expression profiles which identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the two lines were captured at both petal primordia and stamen primordia distinguishable stages. For example, nuclear genes involved in nucleic acid binding and response to hormone synthesis and metabolism, genes required for floral bud identification and expressed in particular floral whorls. Furthermore, in accordance with flower morphology of the cybrid, expression of PISTILLATA (PI was reduced in stamen-like structures, even though it was restricted to correct floral whorls. Down-regulated expression of APETALA3 (AP3 coincided with that of PI. These finding indicated that, due to their whorl specific effects in flower development, citrus class-B MADS-box genes likely constituted 'perfect targets' for CMS retrograde signaling, and that dysfunctional mitochondria seemed to cause male sterile phenotype in the cybrid pummelo.

  19. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Alterations in Mouse Plasma and Liver in Response to Fava Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Du, Guankui; Zhong, Guobing; Yan, Dongjing; Zeng, Huazong; Cai, Wangwei

    2016-01-01

    Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic anemia resulting from the intake of fava beans by susceptible individuals with low erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in plasma and liver after the intake of fava beans in G6PD normal and deficient states. In this study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the plasma and liver metabolic alterations underlying the effects of fava beans in C3H- and G6PD-deficient (G6PDx) mice, and to find potential biomarkers and metabolic changes associated with favism. Our results showed that fava beans induced oxidative stress in both C3H and G6PDx mice. Significantly, metabolomic differences were observed in plasma and liver between the control and fava bean treated groups of both C3H and G6PDx mice. The levels of 7 and 21 metabolites in plasma showed significant differences between C3H-control (C3H-C)- and C3H fava beans-treated (C3H-FB) mice, and G6PDx-control (G6PDx-C)- and G6PDx fava beans-treated (G6PDx-FB) mice, respectively. Similarly, the levels of 7 and 25 metabolites in the liver showed significant differences between C3H and C3H-FB, and G6PDx and G6PDx-FB, respectively. The levels of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine were significantly increased in the plasma of both C3H-FB and G6PDx-FB mice. In the liver, more metabolic alterations were observed in G6PDx-FB mice than in C3H-FB mice, and were involved in a sugar, fatty acids, amino acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, the urea cycle, and the nucleotide metabolic pathway. These findings suggest that oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine may be potential biomarkers of the response to fava beans in C3H and G6PDx mice and therefore that oleic acid and linoleic acid may be involved in oxidative stress induced by fava beans. This study demonstrates that G6PD activity in mice can affect their metabolic pathways in response to fava beans.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on glutamine and alters migratory profile of infected host bone marrow derived immune cells through SNAT2 and CXCR4 pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ping Lee

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, disseminates through its host inside infected immune cells. We hypothesize that parasite nutrient requirements lead to manipulation of migratory properties of the immune cell. We demonstrate that 1 T. gondii relies on glutamine for optimal infection, replication and viability, and 2 T. gondii-infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs display both "hypermotility" and "enhanced migration" to an elevated glutamine gradient in vitro. We show that glutamine uptake by the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2 is required for this enhanced migration. SNAT2 transport of glutamine is also a significant factor in the induction of migration by the small cytokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 in uninfected DCs. Blocking both SNAT2 and C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4; the unique receptor for SDF-1 blocks hypermotility and the enhanced migration in T. gondii-infected DCs. Changes in host cell protein expression following T. gondii infection may explain the altered migratory phenotype; we observed an increase of CD80 and unchanged protein level of CXCR4 in both T. gondii-infected and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated DCs. However, unlike activated DCs, SNAT2 expression in the cytosol of infected cells was also unchanged. Thus, our results suggest an important role of glutamine transport via SNAT2 in immune cell migration and a possible interaction between SNAT2 and CXCR4, by which T. gondii manipulates host cell motility.

  1. Radiosensitivity profiles from a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines exhibiting genetic alterations in p53 and disparate DNA-dependent protein kinase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, Gregory T.; Yannone, Steven M.; Langland, Rachel A.; Nakao, Aki; Guan, Yinghui; Long, Sydney B.T.; Vonguyen, Lien; Chen, David J.; Gray, Joe W; Chen, Fanqing

    2009-09-07

    The variability of radiation responses in ovarian tumors and tumor-derived cell lines is poorly understood. Since both DNA repair capacity and p53 status can significantly alter radiation sensitivity, we evaluated these factors along with radiation sensitivity in a panel of sporadic human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. We observed a gradation of radiation sensitivity among these sixteen lines, with a five-fold difference in the LD50 between the most radiosensitive and the most radioresistant cells. The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is essential for the repair of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks in human somatic cells. Therefore, we measured gene copy number, expression levels, protein abundance, genomic copy and kinase activity for DNA-PK in all of our cell lines. While there were detectable differences in DNA-PK between the cell lines, there was no clear correlation with any of these differences and radiation sensitivity. In contrast, p53 function as determined by two independent methods, correlated well with radiation sensitivity, indicating p53 mutant ovarian cancer cells are typically radioresistant relative to p53 wild-type lines. These data suggest that the activity of regulatory molecules such as p53 may be better indicators of radiation sensitivity than DNA repair enzymes such as DNAPK in ovarian cancer.

  2. Oral ingestion of aloe vera phytosterols alters hepatic gene expression profiles and ameliorates obesity-associated metabolic disorders in zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-03-21

    We investigated the effects of the oral administration of lophenol (Lo) and cycloartanol (Cy), two kinds of antidiabetic phytosterol isolated from Aloe vera , on glucose and lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. We demonstrated that the administrations of Lo and Cy suppressed random and fasting glucose levels and reduced visceral fat weights significantly. It was also observed that treatments with Lo and Cy decreased serum and hepatic lipid concentrations (triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, and total cholesterol). Additionally, Lo and Cy treatments resulted in a tendency for reduction in serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) level and an elevation in serum adiponectin level. Furthermore, the expression levels of hepatic genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes (G6 Pase, PEPCK), lipogenic enzymes (ACC, FAS), and SREBP-1 were decreased significantly by the administrations of aloe sterols. In contrast, Lo and Cy administration increased mRNA levels of glycolysis enzyme (GK) in the liver. It was also observed that the hepatic β-oxidation enzymes (ACO, CPT1) and PPARα expressions tended to increase in the livers of the Lo- and Cy-treated rats compared with those in ZDF-control rats. We therefore conclude that orally ingested aloe sterols altered the expressions of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, and ameliorated obesity-associated metabolic disorders in ZDF rats. These findings suggest that aloe sterols could be beneficial in preventing and improving metabolic disorders with obesity and diabetes in rats. PMID:22352711

  3. Displayed correlation between gene expression profiles and submicroscopic alterations in response to cetuximab, gefitinib and EGF in human colon cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EGFR is frequently overexpressed in colon cancer. We characterized HT-29 and Caco-2, human colon cancer cell lines, untreated and treated with cetuximab or gefitinib alone and in combination with EGF. Cell growth was determined using a variation on the MTT assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate EGFR expression and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evidenced the ultrastructural morphology. Gene expression profiling was performed using hybridization of the microarray Ocimum Pan Human 40 K array A. Caco-2 and HT-29 were respectively 66.25 and 59.24 % in G0/G1. They maintained this level of cell cycle distribution after treatment, suggesting a predominantly differentiated state. Treatment of Caco-2 with EGF or the two EGFR inhibitors produced a significant reduction in their viability. SEM clearly showed morphological cellular transformations in the direction of cellular death in both cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors. HT-29 and Caco-2 displayed an important reduction of the microvilli (which also lose their erect position in Caco-2), possibly invalidating microvilli absorption function. HT-29 treated with cetuximab lost their boundary contacts and showed filipodi; when treated with gefitinib, they showed some vesicles: generally membrane reshaping is evident. Both cell lines showed a similar behavior in terms of on/off switched genes upon treatment with cetuximab. The gefitinib global gene expression pattern was different for the 2 cell lines; gefitinib treatment induced more changes, but directly correlated with EGF treatment. In cetuximab or gefitinib plus EGF treatments there was possible summation of the morphological effects: cells seemed more weakly affected by the transformation towards apoptosis. The genes appeared to be less stimulated than for single drug cases. This is the first study to have systematically investigated the effect of cetuximab or gefitinib, alone and in combination

  4. Displayed correlation between gene expression profiles and submicroscopic alterations in response to cetuximab, gefitinib and EGF in human colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzetti Furio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EGFR is frequently overexpressed in colon cancer. We characterized HT-29 and Caco-2, human colon cancer cell lines, untreated and treated with cetuximab or gefitinib alone and in combination with EGF. Methods Cell growth was determined using a variation on the MTT assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate EGFR expression and scanning electron microscopy (SEM evidenced the ultrastructural morphology. Gene expression profiling was performed using hybridization of the microarray Ocimum Pan Human 40 K array A. Results Caco-2 and HT-29 were respectively 66.25 and 59.24 % in G0/G1. They maintained this level of cell cycle distribution after treatment, suggesting a predominantly differentiated state. Treatment of Caco-2 with EGF or the two EGFR inhibitors produced a significant reduction in their viability. SEM clearly showed morphological cellular transformations in the direction of cellular death in both cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors. HT-29 and Caco-2 displayed an important reduction of the microvilli (which also lose their erect position in Caco-2, possibly invalidating microvilli absorption function. HT-29 treated with cetuximab lost their boundary contacts and showed filipodi; when treated with gefitinib, they showed some vesicles: generally membrane reshaping is evident. Both cell lines showed a similar behavior in terms of on/off switched genes upon treatment with cetuximab. The gefitinib global gene expression pattern was different for the 2 cell lines; gefitinib treatment induced more changes, but directly correlated with EGF treatment. In cetuximab or gefitinib plus EGF treatments there was possible summation of the morphological effects: cells seemed more weakly affected by the transformation towards apoptosis. The genes appeared to be less stimulated than for single drug cases. Conclusion This is the first study to have systematically investigated

  5. Annotation and analysis of a large cuticular protein family with the R&R Consensus in Anopheles gambiae

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    He Ningjia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most abundant family of insect cuticular proteins, the CPR family, is recognized by the R&R Consensus, a domain of about 64 amino acids that binds to chitin and is present throughout arthropods. Several species have now been shown to have more than 100 CPR genes, inviting speculation as to the functional importance of this large number and diversity. Results We have identified 156 genes in Anopheles gambiae that code for putative cuticular proteins in this CPR family, over 1% of the total number of predicted genes in this species. Annotation was verified using several criteria including identification of TATA boxes, INRs, and DPEs plus support from proteomic and gene expression analyses. Two previously recognized CPR classes, RR-1 and RR-2, form separate, well-supported clades with the exception of a small set of genes with long branches whose relationships are poorly resolved. Several of these outliers have clear orthologs in other species. Although both clades are under purifying selection, the RR-1 variant of the R&R Consensus is evolving at twice the rate of the RR-2 variant and is structurally more labile. In contrast, the regions flanking the R&R Consensus have diversified in amino-acid composition to a much greater extent in RR-2 genes compared with RR-1 genes. Many genes are found in compact tandem arrays that may include similar or dissimilar genes but always include just one of the two classes. Tandem arrays of RR-2 genes frequently contain subsets of genes coding for highly similar proteins (sequence clusters. Properties of the proteins indicated that each cluster may serve a distinct function in the cuticle. Conclusion The complete annotation of this large gene family provides insight on the mechanisms of gene family evolution and clues about the need for so many CPR genes. These data also should assist annotation of other Anopheles genes.

  6. Combined treatment of sodium orthovanadate and Momordica charantia fruit extract prevents alterations in lipid profile and lipogenic enzymes in alloxan diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Moorthy, K; Baquer, Najma Z

    2005-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn., commonly called bitter gourd, is a medicinal plant used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes mellitus. Sodium orthovanadate (SOV) is also well-known insulin mimetic and an antidiabetic compound. Our laboratory has been using reduced doses of SOV along with administration of herbal extracts to alloxan diabetic rats and has established this combination as a good antihyperglycemic agent. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of treatment of Momordica fruit extract (MFE) and sodium orthovanadate, separately and in combination, on serum and tissue lipid profile and on the activities of lipogenic enzymes in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The results show that there was a significant (p effective prevention was however observed in a combined treatment of Momordica with a reduced dose of SOV (0.2%). The results suggest that Momordica fruit extract and SOV exhibit hypolipidemic as well as hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and their effect is pronounced when administered in combination. PMID:15724444

  7. Disruption of OsSULTR3;3 reduces phytate and phosphorus concentrations and alters the metabolite profile in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haijun; Frank, Thomas; Tan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Chenguang; Jabnoune, Mehdi; Arpat, A Bulak; Cui, Hairui; Huang, Jianzhong; He, Zuhua; Poirier, Yves; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Shu, Qingyao

    2016-08-01

    Two low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have been developed previously with the aim to improve the nutritional value of rice (Oryza sativa) grains. In the present study, the impacts of lpa mutations on grain composition and underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated. Comparative compositional analyses and metabolite profiling demonstrated that concentrations of both phytic acid (PA) and total phosphorus (P) were significantly reduced in lpa brown rice, accompanied by changes in other metabolites and increased concentrations of nutritionally relevant compounds. The lpa mutations modified the expression of a number of genes involved in PA metabolism, as well as in sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Map-based cloning and complementation identified the underlying lpa gene to be OsSULTR3;3. The promoter of OsSULTR3;3 is highly active in the vascular bundles of leaves, stems and seeds, and its protein is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. No activity of OsSULTR3;3 was revealed for the transport of phosphate, sulfate, inositol or inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate by heterologous expression in either yeast or Xenopus oocytes. The findings reveal that OsSULTR3;3 plays an important role in grain metabolism, pointing to a new route to generate value-added grains in rice and other cereal crops. PMID:27110682

  8. The cytokine-mediated crosstalk between primary human acute myeloid cells and mesenchymal stem cells alters the local cytokine network and the global gene expression profile of the mesenchymal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between acute myeloid leukemia (AML blasts and neighboring stromal cells are important for disease development and chemosensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the cytokine-mediated crosstalk between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and AML cells are largely unknown. Leukemic cells derived from 18 unselected AML patients were cultured with bone marrow MSCs derived from healthy donors; the populations then being separated by a semipermeable membrane. Coculture had only minor effects on MSC proliferation. The unique cytokine network in cocultures was determined by high constitutive MSC release of certain cytokines (especially IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor and constitutive release of a wide range of soluble mediators by primary AML cells. However, the AML cell release varied considerably between patients, and these differences between patients were also reflected in the coculture levels even though supra-additive effects were seen for many mediators. These effects on the local cytokine network were dependent on a functional crosstalk between the two cell subsets. The crosstalk altered the global gene expression profile of the MSCs, especially expression of genes encoding proteins involved in downstream signaling from Toll like receptors, NFκB signaling and CCL/CXCL chemokine release. Thus, primary AML cells alter the functional phenotype of normal MSCs.

  9. Alterations in glucocorticoid negative feedback following maternal Pb, prenatal stress and the combination: A potential biological unifying mechanism for their corresponding disease profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined exposures to maternal lead (Pb) and prenatal stress (PS) can act synergistically to enhance behavioral and neurochemical toxicity in offspring. Maternal Pb itself causes permanent dysfunction of the body's major stress system, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. The current study sought to determine the potential involvement of altered negative glucocorticoid feedback as a mechanistic basis of the effects in rats of maternal Pb (0, 50 or 150 ppm in drinking water beginning 2 mo prior to breeding), prenatal stress (PS; restraint on gestational days 16-17) and combined maternal Pb + PS in 8 mo old male and female offspring. Corticosterone changes were measured over 24 h following an i.p. injection stress containing vehicle or 100 or 300 μg/kg (females) or 100 or 150 μg/kg (males) dexamethasone (DEX). Both Pb and PS prolonged the time course of corticosterone reduction following vehicle injection stress. Pb effects were non-monotonic, with a greater impact at 50 vs. 150 ppm, particularly in males, where further enhancement occurred with PS. In accord with these findings, the efficacy of DEX in suppressing corticosterone was reduced by Pb and Pb + PS in both genders, with Pb efficacy enhanced by PS in females, over the first 6 h post-administration. A marked prolongation of DEX effects was found in males. Thus, Pb, PS and Pb + PS, sometimes additively, produced hypercortisolism in both genders, followed by hypocortisolism in males, consistent with HPA axis dysfunction. These findings may provide a plausible unifying biological mechanism for the reported links between Pb exposure and stress-associated diseases and disorders mediated via the HPA axis, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anxiety, schizophrenia and depression. They also suggest broadening of Pb screening programs to pregnant women in high stress environments

  10. Long-Term Boron-Excess-Induced Alterations of Gene Profiles in Roots of Two Citrus Species Differing in Boron-Tolerance Revealed by cDNA-AFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Ye, Xin; Huang, Jing-Hao; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is observed in some citrus orchards in China. However, limited data are available on the molecular mechanisms of citrus B-toxicity and B-tolerance. Using cDNA-AFLP, we identified 20 up- and 52 down-regulated genes, and 44 up- and 66 down-regulated genes from excess B-treated Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis roots, respectively, thereby demonstrating that gene expression profiles were more affected in the latter. In addition, phosphorus and total soluble protein concentrations were lowered only in excess B-treated C. grandis roots. Apparently, C. sinensis had higher B-tolerance than C. grandis. Our results suggested that the following several aspects were responsible for the difference in the B-tolerance between the two citrus species including: (a) B-excess induced Root Hair Defective 3 expression in C. sinensis roots, and repressed villin4 expression in C. grandis roots; accordingly, root growth was less inhibited by B-excess in the former; (b) antioxidant systems were impaired in excess B-treated C. grandis roots, hence accelerating root senescence; (c) genes related to Ca2+ signals were inhibited (induced) by B-excess in C. grandis (C. sinensis) roots. B-excess-responsive genes related to energy (i.e., alternative oxidase and cytochrome P450), lipid (i.e., Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 9 and citrus dioxygenase), and nucleic acid (i.e., HDA19, histone 4, and ribonucleotide reductase RNR1 like protein) metabolisms also possibly accounted for the difference in the B-tolerance between the two citrus species. These data increased our understanding of the mechanisms on citrus B-toxicity and B-tolerance at transcriptional level. PMID:27446128

  11. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Profiles of Cytokine, Chemokine, and Growth Factors Produced by Human Decidual Cells Are Altered by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yang, Siwen; Kim, Sung O; Reid, Gregor; Challis, John R G; Bocking, Alan D

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 supernatant (GR-1SN) on secretion profiles of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors from primary cultures of human decidual cells. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased the output of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1B, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, interferon gamma [IFN-γ], and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]); anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RN, IL-4, IL-9, and IL-10); chemokines (IL-8, eotaxin, IFN-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein-1α [MIP-1α], macrophage inflammatory protein-1β [MIP-1β], and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]); and growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [CSF] 3, CSF-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGFA]). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1SN alone significantly increased CSF-3, MIP-1α MIP-1β, and RANTES but decreased IL-15 and IP-10 output. The GR-1SN also significantly or partially reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2 IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17, and IP-10; partially reduced LPS-induced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1RN, IL-4 and IL-10, and LPS-induced VEGFA output but did not affect CSF-3, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-9. Our results demonstrate that GR-1SN attenuates the inflammatory responses to LPS by human decidual cells, suggesting its potential role in ameliorating intrauterine infection. PMID:24429676

  12. Altered expression profile of glycolytic enzymes during testicular ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with the p53/TIGAR pathway: effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Waleed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (tIRI) is considered the mechanism underlying the pathology of testicular torsion and detorsion. Left untreated, tIRI can induce testis dysfunction, damage to spermatogenesis and possible infertility. In this study, we aimed to assess the activities and expression of glycolytic enzymes (GEs) in the testis and their possible modulation during tIRI. The effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP), a glycolytic intermediate, on tIRI was also investigated. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham, unilateral tIRI, and tIRI + FDP (2 mg/kg). tIRI was induced by occlusion of the testicular artery for 1 h followed by 4 h of reperfusion. FDP was injected peritoneally 30 min prior to reperfusion. Histological and biochemical analyses were used to assess damage to spermatogenesis, activities of major GEs, and energy and oxidative stress markers. The relative mRNA expression of GEs was evaluated by real-time PCR. ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of p53 and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR). Results. Histological analysis revealed tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage as represented by a significant decrease in the Johnsen biopsy score. In addition, tIRI reduced the activities of hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase-1, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase C. However, mRNA expression downregulation was detected only for hexokinase 1, phosphoglycerate kinase 2, and lactate dehydrogenase C. ATP and NADPH depletion was also induced by tIRI and was accompanied by an increased Malondialdehyde concentration, reduced glutathione level, and reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities. The immunoexpression of p53 and TIGAR was markedly increased after tIRI. The above tIRI-induced alterations were attenuated by FDP treatment. Discussion. Our findings indicate that tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage is associated with

  13. Altered expression profile of glycolytic enzymes during testicular ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with the p53/TIGAR pathway: effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maghrebi, May; Renno, Waleed M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (tIRI) is considered the mechanism underlying the pathology of testicular torsion and detorsion. Left untreated, tIRI can induce testis dysfunction, damage to spermatogenesis and possible infertility. In this study, we aimed to assess the activities and expression of glycolytic enzymes (GEs) in the testis and their possible modulation during tIRI. The effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP), a glycolytic intermediate, on tIRI was also investigated. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham, unilateral tIRI, and tIRI + FDP (2 mg/kg). tIRI was induced by occlusion of the testicular artery for 1 h followed by 4 h of reperfusion. FDP was injected peritoneally 30 min prior to reperfusion. Histological and biochemical analyses were used to assess damage to spermatogenesis, activities of major GEs, and energy and oxidative stress markers. The relative mRNA expression of GEs was evaluated by real-time PCR. ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of p53 and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR). Results. Histological analysis revealed tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage as represented by a significant decrease in the Johnsen biopsy score. In addition, tIRI reduced the activities of hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase-1, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase C. However, mRNA expression downregulation was detected only for hexokinase 1, phosphoglycerate kinase 2, and lactate dehydrogenase C. ATP and NADPH depletion was also induced by tIRI and was accompanied by an increased Malondialdehyde concentration, reduced glutathione level, and reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities. The immunoexpression of p53 and TIGAR was markedly increased after tIRI. The above tIRI-induced alterations were attenuated by FDP treatment. Discussion. Our findings indicate that tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage is associated with

  14. Determination of cuticular and internal fatty acids of Chorthippus brunneus males and females using HPLC-LLSD and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Cerkowniak, Magdalena; Ostachowska, Aleksandra; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    Insects are of growing significance in veterinary medicine and human healthcare; therefore, an understanding of their biology is very important. The cuticular and internal fatty acid compositions of Chorthippus brunneus males and females have been studied for the first time. The lipids of males and females were separated into classes of compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography with a laser light scattering detector. The free fatty acid (FFA) fractions obtained by HPLC were silylated and then analyzed by GC-MS. The cuticular lipids of males contained 15 saturated, four unsaturated with even-numbered and two unsaturated with odd-numbered carbon chains, FFAs ranging from C8 to C25. The major free fatty acids in males were C16 (20.8%), C18:2 (8.5%), C18:1 (32.9%) and C18 (24.4%). The cuticular lipids of females contained 17 saturated, four monounsaturated and two diunsaturated free fatty acids ranging from C8 to C30. The major cuticular fatty acids in females were C16 (25.1%), C18:2 (6.2%), C18:1 (23.7%) and C18:0 (33.2%). The internal FFAs of males consisted of 20 compounds ranging from C8 to C26. Four of these compounds were detected as major compounds: C16 (14.1%), C18:2 (21.6%), C18:1 (38.0%) and C18 (22.5%). Among 18 internal free fatty acids of females, C16 (22.3%), C18:2 (10.9%), C18:1 (40.2%) and C18 (20.5%) were the most abundant compounds. The following cuticular fatty acids present in the lipids of females were absent in the lipids of males: C26, C27 and C30. On the other hand, only C24 was absent from the cuticular lipids of females. Only C10 and C24 internal fatty acids present in the lipids of males were absent in the lipids of females. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26799146

  15. Induction of an altered metabolite profile in streptomyces avermitilis in coculture with pseudomonas fluorescens; Induktion von veraenderten Metabolitenprofilen in Streptomyceten durch Umweltfaktoren. Kokultivierung von Streptomyces avermitilis und Pseudomonas fluorescens und von Streptomyces coelicolor unter Schwermetallionenstress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrend, Anne

    2010-10-04

    The cultivation with non kind microorganisms induces the production of antibacterial secondary metabolites in microbes. In S. avermitilis such reaction could be monitored by analyzing the frequently observed guttation droplets, which might serve as reservoir for secondary metabolites in streptomycetes and fungi. Analyses showed that S. avermitilis formed guttation droplets mainly contained sucrose. S. avermitilis produced the sucrose from the nutrients of the medium. As reaction coculture with P. fluorescens the reduction of available sucrose amount was detected. This suggests that the sucrose could serve as energy storage, which is mobilized under the competitive pressure in the mixed culture. As well as non kind microorganisms have certain metal ions a stimulating effect on the secondary metabolism of streptomycetes. Therefore, the effects of cobalt ion stress Streptomyces coelicolor were characterized systematically. Relatively high concentration of cobalt ion in the medium induced the differentiation of a red and a blue colored phenotype of S. coelicolor. GC-MS analysis indicates that the two pigmented phenotypes produce a volatile profile different from the wild type. The volatile emission of S. coelicolor was characterized by the reduction of terpene release under cobalt ion stress. Specifically the red phenotype produced 2-tridecanone and undecylpyrrole, whereas the blue phenotype intensified its isozizaene emission. The formation of undecylprodigiosin as well as butylcycloheptylprodigiosin in the red colonies, and {gamma}-actinorhodin, in the blue colonies was detected. These polyketides considerably contributed to pigmentation of the colored colonies. The gene expression of the colored phenotypes under cobalt ion stress was differentially regulated compared to the wild type. It can be concluded, that the development of an altered metabolite profile in S. coelicolor under cobalt ion stress is based on characteristic patterns in gene expression.

  16. Supervillin Is a Component of the Hair Cell’s Cuticular Plate and the Head Plates of Organ of Corti Supporting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Lana M.; Gupta, Nilay; Chen, Xi; Luna, Elizabeth J.; McDermott, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    The organ of Corti has evolved a panoply of cells with extraordinary morphological specializations to harness, direct, and transduce mechanical energy into electrical signals. Among the cells with prominent apical specializations are hair cells and nearby supporting cells. At the apical surface of each hair cell is a mechanosensitive hair bundle of filamentous actin (F-actin)-based stereocilia, which insert rootlets into the F-actin meshwork of the underlying cuticular plate, a rigid organelle considered to hold the stereocilia in place. Little is known about the protein composition and development of the cuticular plate or the apicolateral specializations of organ of Corti supporting cells. We show that supervillin, an F-actin cross-linking protein, localizes to cuticular plates in hair cells of the mouse cochlea and vestibule and zebrafish sensory epithelia. Moreover, supervillin localizes near the apicolateral margins within the head plates of Deiters’ cells and outer pillar cells, and proximal to the apicolateral margins of inner phalangeal cells, adjacent to the junctions with neighboring hair cells. Overall, supervillin localization suggests this protein may shape the surface structure of the organ of Corti. PMID:27415442

  17. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy as a potential tool in assessing the role of diet in cuticular chemical composition of Ectatomma brunneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, R C; Firmino, E L B; Pereira, M C; Andrade, L H C; Cardoso, C A L; Súarez, Y R; Antonialli-Junior, W F; Lima, S M

    2014-01-01

    The cuticular chemical composition plays a significant role in the recognition of nest mates in social insects, thus functioning as a chemical signature of the colony. The structure of cuticular chemicals is subject to interference from genetic and exogenous factors, including diet. In this study, various colonies of the Ectatomma brunneum ant were removed from their natural environment and housed in a laboratory to monitor the response of the cuticular chemical composition to dietary changes. Analyses were performed using gas chromatography and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy, which has not been previously used for this type of analysis. The results indicate that this method is useful for analyzing biological and natural systems. We observed changes in the chemical signature with food traces in the first 30 days under feed control. Therefore, genetic information may not be the only criterion that can be used to describe the chemical signature of a species; environmental variations also influence recognition signals. Furthermore, these results reinforce the reliability of the Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy method. PMID:25501215

  18. Alteration of cytokine profile following hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sumin; Aguilar, Alex; Subramani, Kumar; Poulose, Ninu; Ayub, Ahmar; Raju, Raghavan

    2016-05-01

    Hemorrhage is one of the leading causes of death in patients with trauma. We recently demonstrated that resveratrol can improve cardiac function and prolong life following severe hemorrhagic injury (HI) in a rat model. The present work is focused on determining changes in NF-κB dependent gene expression in the heart and the systemic cytokine milieu following HI and the effect of resveratrol treatment. The results indicate an increase in phosphorylated NF-κB in the heart with a concomitant increase in the expression of NF-κB dependent genes following HI. There was also a significant increase of systemic cytokine levels, both pro and anti-inflammatory, following HI and resolution when treated with resveratrol. This study demonstrates the potential role NF-κB has in the physiological response to HI and the effectiveness of resveratrol in reducing immune activation. PMID:26851979

  19. Leaf cuticular wax amount and crystal morphology regulate post-harvest water loss in mulberry (Morus species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamrutha, H M; Mogili, T; Jhansi Lakshmi, K; Rama, N; Kosma, Dylan; Udaya Kumar, M; Jenks, Matthew A; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2010-08-01

    Mulberry leaves are the sole source of food for silkworms (Bombyx mori), and moisture content of the detached leaves fed to silkworms determines silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Since leaf dehydration in commercial sericulture is a serious problem, development of new methods that minimize post-harvest water loss are greatly needed. In the present study, variability in moisture retention capacity (MRC, measured as leaf relative water content after one to 5 h of air-drying) was examined by screening 290 diverse mulberry accessions and the relationship between MRC and leaf surface (cuticular) wax amount was determined. Leaf MRC varied significantly among accessions, and was found to correlate strongly with leaf wax amount. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicated that leaves having crystalline surface waxes of increased facet size and density were associated with high MRC accessions. Leaf MRC at 5 h after harvest was not related to other parameters such as specific leaf weight, and stomatal frequency and index. This study suggests that mulberry accessions having elevated leaf surface wax amount and crystal size and density exhibit reduced leaf post-harvest water loss, and could provide the foundation for selective breeding of improved cultivars. PMID:20580887

  20. Variations on a theme: diversification of cuticular hydrocarbons in a clade of cactophilic Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Larry L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We characterized variation and chemical composition of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs in the seven species of the Drosophila buzzatii cluster with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Despite the critical role of CHCs in providing resistance to desiccation and involvement in communication, such as courtship behavior, mating, and aggregation, few studies have investigated how CHC profiles evolve within and between species in a phylogenetic context. We analyzed quantitative differences in CHC profiles in populations of the D. buzzatii species cluster in order to assess the concordance of CHC differentiation with species divergence. Results Thirty-six CHC components were scored in single fly extracts with carbon chain lengths ranging from C29 to C39, including methyl-branched alkanes, n-alkenes, and alkadienes. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that CHC amounts were significantly different among all species and canonical discriminant function (CDF analysis resolved all species into distinct, non-overlapping groups. Significant intraspecific variation was found in different populations of D. serido suggesting that this taxon is comprised of at least two species. We summarized CHC variation using CDF analysis and mapped the first five CHC canonical variates (CVs onto an independently derived period (per gene + chromosome inversion + mtDNA COI gene for each sex. We found that the COI sequences were not phylogenetically informative due to introgression between some species, so only per + inversion data were used. Positive phylogenetic signal was observed mainly for CV1 when parsimony methods and the test for serial independence (TFSI were used. These results changed when no outgroup species were included in the analysis and phylogenetic signal was then observed for female CV3 and/or CV4 and male CV4 and CV5. Finally, removal of divergent populations of D. serido significantly increased the amount of phylogenetic signal as

  1. Gene Expression Profiling of Human Vaginal Cells In Vitro Discriminates Compounds with Pro-Inflammatory and Mucosa-Altering Properties: Novel Biomarkers for Preclinical Testing of HIV Microbicide Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Zalenskaya

    Full Text Available Inflammation and immune activation of the cervicovaginal mucosa are considered factors that increase susceptibility to HIV infection. Therefore, it is essential to screen candidate anti-HIV microbicides for potential mucosal immunomodulatory/inflammatory effects prior to further clinical development. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro method for preclinical evaluation of the inflammatory potential of new candidate microbicides using a microarray gene expression profiling strategy.To this end, we compared transcriptomes of human vaginal cells (Vk2/E6E7 treated with well-characterized pro-inflammatory (PIC and non-inflammatory (NIC compounds. PICs included compounds with different mechanisms of action. Gene expression was analyzed using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2 arrays. Data processing was performed using GeneSpring 11.5 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA.Microarraray comparative analysis allowed us to generate a panel of 20 genes that were consistently deregulated by PICs compared to NICs, thus distinguishing between these two groups. Functional analysis mapped 14 of these genes to immune and inflammatory responses. This was confirmed by the fact that PICs induced NFkB pathway activation in Vk2 cells. By testing microbicide candidates previously characterized in clinical trials we demonstrated that the selected PIC-associated genes properly identified compounds with mucosa-altering effects. The discriminatory power of these genes was further demonstrated after culturing vaginal cells with vaginal bacteria. Prevotella bivia, prevalent bacteria in the disturbed microbiota of bacterial vaginosis, induced strong upregulation of seven selected PIC-associated genes, while a commensal Lactobacillus gasseri associated to vaginal health did not cause any changes.In vitro evaluation of the immunoinflammatory potential of microbicides using the PIC-associated genes defined in this study could help in the initial screening of candidates prior

  2. SUPERKILLER Complex Components Are Required for the RNA Exosome-Mediated Control of Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Inflorescence Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lifang; Kunst, Ljerka

    2016-06-01

    ECERIFERUM7 (CER7)/AtRRP45B core subunit of the exosome, the main cellular 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease, is a positive regulator of cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence stems. CER7-dependent exosome activity determines stem wax load by controlling transcript levels of the wax-related gene CER3 Characterization of the second-site suppressors of the cer7 mutant revealed that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are direct effectors of CER3 expression. To explore the relationship between the exosome and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in regulating CER3 transcript levels, we investigated two additional suppressor mutants, wax restorer1 (war1) and war7. We show that WAR1 and WAR7 encode Arabidopsis SUPERKILLER3 (AtSKI3) and AtSKI2, respectively, components of the SKI complex that associates with the exosome during cytoplasmic 3'-to-5' RNA degradation, and that CER7-dependent regulation of wax biosynthesis also requires participation of AtSKI8. Our study further reveals that it is the impairment of the exosome-mediated 3'-5' decay of CER3 transcript in the cer7 mutant that triggers extensive production of siRNAs and efficient PTGS of CER3. This identifies PTGS as a general mechanism for eliminating highly abundant endogenous transcripts that is activated when 3'-to-5' mRNA turnover by the exosome is disrupted. Diminished efficiency of PTGS in ski mutants compared with cer7, as evidenced by lower accumulation of CER3-related siRNAs, suggests that reduced amounts of CER3 transcript are available for siRNA synthesis, possibly because CER3 mRNA that does not interact with SKI is degraded by 5'-to-3' XRN4 exoribonuclease.

  3. Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict over the sexually dimorphic cuticular hydrocarbons of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stéphanie Bedhomme; Adam K. Chippindale; N. G. Prasad; Matthieu Delcourt; Jessica K. Abbott; Martin A. Mallet; Howard D. Rundle

    2011-12-01

    Sexually dimorphic traits are likely to have evolved through sexually antagonistic selection. However, recent empirical data suggest that intralocus sexual conflict often persists, even when traits have diverged between males and females. This implies that evolved dimorphism is often incomplete in resolving intralocus conflict, providing a mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variance in fitness-related traits. We used experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to directly test for ongoing conflict over a suite of sexually dimorphic cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) that are likely targets of sex-specific selection. Using a set of experimental populations in which the transmission of genetic material had been restricted to males for 82 generations, we show that CHCs did not evolve, providing experimental evidence for the absence of current intralocus sexual conflict over these traits. The absence of ongoing conflict could indicate that CHCs have never been the target of sexually antagonistic selection, although this would require the existing dimorphism to have evolved via completely sex-linked mutations or as a result of former, but now absent, pleiotropic effects of the underlying loci on another trait under sexually antagonistic selection. An alternative interpretation, and which we believe to be more likely, is that the extensive CHC sexual dimorphism is the result of past intralocus sexual conflict that has been fully resolved, implying that these traits have evolved genetic independence between the sexes and that genetic variation in them is therefore maintained by alternative mechanisms. This latter interpretation is consistent with the known roles of CHCs in sexual communication in this species and with previous studies suggesting the genetic independence of CHCs between males and females. Nevertheless, direct estimates of sexually antagonistic selection will be important to fully resolve these alternatives.

  4. Effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Moreno, Evelyn; Brito-Echeverría, Jocelyn; López, Miguel; Ríos, Juan; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Polanco, Rubén

    2016-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea attacks a broad range of host causing significant economic losses in the worldwide fruit export industry. Hitherto, many studies have focused on the penetration mechanisms used by this phytopathogen, but little is known about the early stages of infection, especially those such as adhesion and germination. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression of B. cinerea. To accomplish this, growth was analyzed using as substrate n-alkanes extracted from waxes of fresh fruit (table grapes, blueberries and apricots). Subsequently, the main compounds of table grape waxes, oleanolic acid (OA) and n-fatty alcohols, were mixed to generate a matrix on which conidia of B. cinerea were added to assess their effect on germination and expression of bctub, bchtr and bchex genes. B. cinerea B05.10, isolated from grapes, increased its growth on a matrix composed by table grapes n-alkanes in comparison to a matrix made with n-alkanes from apricot or blueberries. Moreover, at 2.5 h, B05.10 germination increased 17 and 33 % in presence of n-alkanes from table grape, in comparison to conditions without alkanes or with blueberries alkanes, respectively. Finally, expression of bchtr and bchex showed a significant increase during the first hour after contact with n-fatty alcohols and OA. In conclusion, B. cinerea displays selectivity towards certain compounds found in host waxes, mainly n-fatty alcohols, which could be a good candidate to control this phytopathogen in early stages of infection. PMID:27038944

  5. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  6. Tensor GSVD of patient- and platform-matched tumor and normal DNA copy-number profiles uncovers chromosome arm-wide patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent alterations encoding for cell transformation and predicting ovarian cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E; Aiello, Katherine A; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq, PABPC5

  7. Tensor GSVD of patient- and platform-matched tumor and normal DNA copy-number profiles uncovers chromosome arm-wide patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent alterations encoding for cell transformation and predicting ovarian cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD, which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs. We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival

  8. Tensor GSVD of Patient- and Platform-Matched Tumor and Normal DNA Copy-Number Profiles Uncovers Chromosome Arm-Wide Patterns of Tumor-Exclusive Platform-Consistent Alterations Encoding for Cell Transformation and Predicting Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E.; Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient’s prognosis, is independent of the tumor’s stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell’s immortality, and a patient’s shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq

  9. Solvent Effects on the Ultrastructure and Chemical Composition of Cuticular Wax and Its Potential Bioactive Role Against Alternaria alternata in Pingguoli Pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Song-jiang; LI Yong-cai; BI Yang; YIN Yan; GE Yong-hong; WANG Yi

    2014-01-01

    Effects of different polarity solvents on the ultrastructure and chemical composition of cuticular wax in Pingguoli pear as well as their bioactive role against Alternaria alternate were studied and the results showed that the highest wax content was extracted with chloroform, and its wax content was up to 322.2 µg cm-2. Long-chain fatty acids predominated in menthol extracts and n-alkanes were predominant in wax extracted with ether, chloroform and n-hexane. Pingguoli pear fruit surface was covered by a smooth and amorphous wax layer with small, scattered crystal. The morphology of recrystallized wax in vitro after removal with different solvents was not similar to that of the intact fruit surface. Removal of cuticular wax with various solvents signiifcantly enhanced A. alternata infection, except for wax removed by methanol. The solvent extracts of methanol and chloroform stimulated the spore germination and mycelium growth of A. alternata, but the ether and n-hexane extracts showed antifungal activity.

  10. Psychological profile of laryngectomized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Popescu; Oana Păun; Răzvan V. Scăunașu; Cristian Bălălău; Șerban V. Berteșteanu

    2016-01-01

    Larynx cancer is one of the most susceptible form of cancer susceptible to induce alteration of the patient’s psychological profile due to the social role that the larynx has in communication. Oral communication is severely impaired even after voice rehabilitation of the laryngectomized patients, so that the social rehabilitation is somewhat not only a medical but also a social problem. The psychological profile of these patients is altered in a way that dealing with the disease is sometimes ...

  11. Enhanced expression of EsWAX1 improves drought tolerance with increased accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Guo, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Drought can activate several stress responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid (AsA), which have been correlated with improvement of drought tolerance. In this study, a novel MYB gene, designed as EsWAX1, was isolated and characterized from Eutrema salsugineum. EsWAX1 contained a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of 1068 bp, which encoding 355 amino acids. Transcript levels of EsWAX1 were quickly inducible by drought stress and ABA treatment, indicating that EsWAX1 may act as a positive regulator in response to drought stress. Ectopic expression of EsWAX1 increased accumulation of cuticular wax via modulating the expression of several wax-related genes, such as CER1, KCS2 and KCR1. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed higher densities of wax crystalline structures on the adaxial surfaces of leaves in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In addition, the expression of several AsA biosynthetic genes (VTC1, GLDH and MIOX4) was significantly up-regulated in EsWAX1-overexpressing lines and these transgenic plants have approximately 23-27% more total AsA content than WT plants. However, the high-level expression of EsWAX1 severely disrupted plant normal growth and development. To reduce negative effects of EsWAX1 over-expression on plant growth, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EsWAX1 driven by the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Our data indicated the RD29A::EsWAX1 transgenic plants had greater tolerance to drought stress than wild-type plants. Taken together, the EsWAX1 gene is a potential regulator that may be utilized to improve plant drought tolerance by genetic manipulation.

  12. The Inhibitor of wax 1 locus (Iw1) prevents formation of β- and OH-β-diketones in wheat cuticular waxes and maps to a sub-cM interval on chromosome arm 2BS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamski, Nikolai; Bush, Maxwell; Simmonds, James;

    2013-01-01

    Glaucousness is described as the scattering effect of visible light from wax deposited on the cuticle of plant aerial organs. In wheat, two dominant genes lead to non-glaucous phenotypes: Inhibitor of wax 1 (Iw1) and Iw2. The molecular mechanisms and the exact extent (beyond visual assessment......) by which these genes affect the composition and quantity of cuticular wax is unclear. To describe the Iw1 locus we used a genetic approach with detailed biochemical characterization of wax compounds. Using synteny and a large number of F2 gametes, Iw1 was fine-mapped to a sub-cM genetic interval on wheat...... chromosome arm 2BS, which includes a single collinear gene from the corresponding Brachypodium and rice physical maps. The major components of flag leaf and peduncle cuticular waxes included primary alcohols, β-diketones and n-alkanes. Small amounts of C19-C27 alkyl and methylalkylresorcinols that have...

  13. Early Transcriptomic Adaptation to Na2CO3 Stress Altered the Expression of a Quarter of the Total Genes in the Maize Genome and Exhibited Shared and Distinctive Profiles with NaCl and High pH Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMin Zhang; XiangGuo Liu; XinNing Qu; Ying Yu; SiPing Han; Yao Dou; YaoYao Xu; HaiChun Jing; DongYun Hao

    2013-01-01

    Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) presents a huge challenge to plants by the combined damaging effects of Naþ, high pH, and CO32-. Little is known about the cellular responses to Na2CO3 stress. In this study, the transcriptome of maize (Zea mays L. cv. B73) roots exposed to Na2CO3 stress for 5 h was compared with those of NaCl and NaOH stresses. The expression of 8,319 genes, representing over a quarter of the total number of genes in the maize genome, was altered by Na2CO3 stress, and the downregulated genes (5,232) outnumbered the upregulated genes (3,087). The effects of Na2CO3 differed from those of NaCl and NaOH, primarily by downregulating different categories of genes. Pathways commonly altered by Na2CO3, NaCl, and NaOH were enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, as well as the metabolism of secondary metabolites. Genes for brassinosteroid biosynthesis were specifically upregulated by Na2CO3, while genes involved in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and by N-glycosylation, fatty acid biosynthesis, and the circadian rhythm were downregulated. This work provides the first holistic picture of early transcriptomic adaptation to Na2CO3 stress, and highlights potential molecular pathways that could be manipulated to improve tolerance in maize.

  14. Perfil lipídico e composição corporal na deficiência do hormônio de crescimento em adultos Lipid profile and alteration of body composition in growth hormone deficient adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila M. Lobo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A síndrome da deficiência de hormônio de crescimento (DGH no adulto e o conseqüente aumento no risco cardiovascular têm sido bastante estudados nos últimos anos. De grande relevância clínica são as alterações na composição corporal com aumento do tecido adiposo visceral e perfil lipídico adverso. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se o perfil lipídico e o tecido adiposo visceral de 31 adultos com DGH comparado com um grupo controle de indivíduos saudáveis pareados por idade, sexo e índice de massa corporal (IMC. A avaliação da gordura visceral foi feita por tomografia computadorizada de abdome e por medidas antropométricas, através do IMC (Kg/m² e da medida da cintura (cm. A avaliação do perfil lipídico foi obtida através de dosagens laboratoriais de colesterol (CT, triglicerídeos (TG, HDL, LDL, apolipoproteínas A e B e lipoproteína (a. RESULTADOS: Foi observado aumento do tecido adiposo visceral nos pacientes DGH (156,66 ± 72,72 vs. 113,51 ± 32,97 cm²; p-valor = 0,049, além de aumento nos níveis de TG (158,80 ± 80,29 vs. 97,17 ± 12,37 mg/dl; p-valor = 0,007 e diminuição nos níveis de HDL (45,41 ± 13,30 vs. 55,34 ± 14,31 mg/dl; p-valor = 0,002. Não houve diferença entre os demais parâmetros do perfil lipídico e nas medidas antropométricas. CONCLUSÃO: Adultos deficientes de GH apresentam aumento da adiposidade visceral e aumento das concentrações de TG com diminuição das concentrações de HDL.BACKGROUND: The growth hormone deficiency (GHD syndrome in adults and the increased associated cardiovascular risk have been extensively studied in recent years. Abnormal body composition with excess of visceral adiposity and adverse lipid profile are important features of this syndrome. Abnormal lipid profile has been described with increased levels of total cholesterol (C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C and apolipoproteins abnormalities. METHODS: Lipid profile

  15. Alterations in microRNA expression profile in HCV-infected hepatoma cells: Involvement of miR-491 in regulation of HCV replication via the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → HCV infection upregulated miR-192, -194, -215, downregulated miR-320, -491. → Transfection of miR-192, -215, and -491 enhanced HCV replication. → Transfection of miR-491 inhibited Akt phosphorylation. → Akt inhibition could be responsible for augmentation of HCV replication by miR-491. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in hepatoma cells. Using miRNA array analysis, miR-192/miR-215, miR-194, miR-320, and miR-491 were identified as miRNAs whose expression levels were altered by HCV infection. Among them, miR-192/miR-215 and miR-491 were capable of enhancing replication of the HCV replicon as well as HCV itself. HCV IRES activity or cell proliferation was not increased by forced expression of miR-192/miR-215 or miR-491. Investigation of signaling pathways revealed that miR-491 specifically suppressed the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase/Akt pathway. Under inhibition of PI3 kinase by LY294002, the suppressive effect of miR-491 on HCV replication was abolished, indicating that suppression of HCV replication by miR-491 was dependent on the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. miRNAs altered by HCV infection would then affect HCV replication, which implies a complicated mechanism for regulating HCV replication. HCV-induced miRNA may be involved in changes in cellular properties including hepatocarcinogenesis.

  16. Alterations in microRNA expression profile in HCV-infected hepatoma cells: Involvement of miR-491 in regulation of HCV replication via the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Hisashi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Hosui, Atsushi; Nawa, Takatoshi; Kodama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hikita, Hayato; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kanto, Tatsuya [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Hayashi, Norio [Kansai Rosai Hospital, 3-1-69, Inabaso, Amagasaki 660-8511 (Japan); Takehara, Tetsuo, E-mail: takehara@gh.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} HCV infection upregulated miR-192, -194, -215, downregulated miR-320, -491. {yields} Transfection of miR-192, -215, and -491 enhanced HCV replication. {yields} Transfection of miR-491 inhibited Akt phosphorylation. {yields} Akt inhibition could be responsible for augmentation of HCV replication by miR-491. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in hepatoma cells. Using miRNA array analysis, miR-192/miR-215, miR-194, miR-320, and miR-491 were identified as miRNAs whose expression levels were altered by HCV infection. Among them, miR-192/miR-215 and miR-491 were capable of enhancing replication of the HCV replicon as well as HCV itself. HCV IRES activity or cell proliferation was not increased by forced expression of miR-192/miR-215 or miR-491. Investigation of signaling pathways revealed that miR-491 specifically suppressed the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase/Akt pathway. Under inhibition of PI3 kinase by LY294002, the suppressive effect of miR-491 on HCV replication was abolished, indicating that suppression of HCV replication by miR-491 was dependent on the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. miRNAs altered by HCV infection would then affect HCV replication, which implies a complicated mechanism for regulating HCV replication. HCV-induced miRNA may be involved in changes in cellular properties including hepatocarcinogenesis.

  17. Very-long-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acids, 3-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters and 2-alkanols from cuticular waxes of Aloe arborescens leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racovita, Radu C; Peng, Chen; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Abe, Ikuro; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-05-01

    The present work aimed at a comprehensive chemical characterization of the cuticular wax mixtures covering leaves of the monocot species Aloe arborescens. The wax mixtures were found to contain typical aliphatic compound classes in characteristic chain length distributions, including alkanes (predominantly C31), primary alcohols (predominantly C28), aldehydes (predominantly C32), fatty acid methyl esters (predominantly C28) and fatty acids (bimodal distribution around C32 and C28). Alkyl esters ranging from C42 to C52 were identified, and found to mainly contain C28 alcohol linked to C16-C20 acids. Three other homologous series were identified as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (predominantly C28), their methyl esters (predominantly C28), and 2-alkanols (predominantly C31). Based on structural similarities and homolog distributions, the biosynthetic pathways leading to these novel wax constituents can be hypothesized. Further detailed analyses showed that the A. arborescens leaf was covered with 15 μg/cm(2) wax on its adaxial side and 36 μg/cm(2) on the abaxial side, with 3:2 and 1:1 ratios between epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers on each side, respectively. Terpenoids were found mainly in the intracuticular waxes, whereas very-long-chain alkanes and fatty acids accumulated to relatively high concentrations in the epicuticular wax, hence near the true surface of the leaf. PMID:25200334

  18. Varying importance of cuticular hydrocarbons and iridoids in the species-specific mate recognition pheromones of three closely related Leptopilina species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar eWeiss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding a suitable mate for reproduction is one of the most important tasks for almost all animals. In insects this task is often facilitated by pheromone-mediated communication. While insect pheromones in general show enormous chemical diversity, closely related species often use structurally similar compounds in their pheromones. Despite this similarity, pheromones of congeneric species living in sympatry need to be species specific.We investigated the pheromone-mediated mate recognition by males of three closely related species of Leptopilina, a genus of parasitoid wasps that utilize the larvae of Drosophila as hosts. The study species, L. heterotoma, L. boulardi, and L. victoriae, occur sympatrically and have a similar ecology and life history. We have found that mate recognition is species specific in all three species. This species specificity is achieved by a differing importance of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs and iridoids in the female mate recognition pheromones. In L. heterotoma the iridoids are of major importance while CHCs play a negligible role. In L. boulardi, however, the CHCs are as important as the iridoids, while in L. victoriae, the CHCs alone elicit a full behavioral response of males.Our results provide novel insights into pheromone evolution in insects by showing that selection on two completely different classes of chemical compounds may generate conditions where compounds from both classes contribute to a varying degree to the chemical communication of closely related species and that this variation also generates the species specificity of the signals.

  19. Modulatory Effect of Taurine on 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)Anthracene-Induced Alterations in Detoxification Enzyme System, Membrane Bound Enzymes, Glycoprotein Profile and Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen in Rat Breast Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitha, Manickam Kalappan; Baskaran, Kuppusamy; Periyasamy, Kuppusamy; Selvaraj, Sundaramoorthy; Ilakkia, Aruldoss; Saravanan, Dhiravidamani; Venkateswari, Ramachandran; Revathi Mani, Balasundaram; Anandakumar, Pandi; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2016-08-01

    The modulatory effect of taurine on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats was studied. DMBA (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered to induce breast cancer in rats. Protein carbonyl levels, activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase), phase I drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH cytochrome c reductase), phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase), glycoprotein levels, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied. DMBA-induced breast tumor bearing rats showed abnormal alterations in the levels of protein carbonyls, activities of membrane bound enzymes, drug metabolizing enzymes, glycoprotein levels, and PCNA protein expression levels. Taurine treatment (100 mg/kg body weight) appreciably counteracted all the above changes induced by DMBA. Histological examination of breast tissue further supported our biochemical findings. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated the chemotherapeutic effect of taurine in DMBA-induced breast cancer. PMID:27091720

  20. Modulatory Effect of Taurine on 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)Anthracene-Induced Alterations in Detoxification Enzyme System, Membrane Bound Enzymes, Glycoprotein Profile and Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen in Rat Breast Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitha, Manickam Kalappan; Baskaran, Kuppusamy; Periyasamy, Kuppusamy; Selvaraj, Sundaramoorthy; Ilakkia, Aruldoss; Saravanan, Dhiravidamani; Venkateswari, Ramachandran; Revathi Mani, Balasundaram; Anandakumar, Pandi; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2016-08-01

    The modulatory effect of taurine on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats was studied. DMBA (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered to induce breast cancer in rats. Protein carbonyl levels, activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase), phase I drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH cytochrome c reductase), phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase), glycoprotein levels, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied. DMBA-induced breast tumor bearing rats showed abnormal alterations in the levels of protein carbonyls, activities of membrane bound enzymes, drug metabolizing enzymes, glycoprotein levels, and PCNA protein expression levels. Taurine treatment (100 mg/kg body weight) appreciably counteracted all the above changes induced by DMBA. Histological examination of breast tissue further supported our biochemical findings. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated the chemotherapeutic effect of taurine in DMBA-induced breast cancer.

  1. Two major cuticular proteins are required for assembly of horizontal laminae and vertical pore canals in rigid cuticle of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kanost, Michael R; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-10-01

    The insect exoskeleton is composed of cuticle primarily formed from structural cuticular proteins (CPs) and the polysaccharide chitin. Two CPs, TcCPR27 and TcCPR18, are major proteins present in the elytron (highly sclerotized and pigmented modified forewing) as well as the pronotum (dorsal sclerite of the prothorax) and ventral abdominal cuticle of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both CPs belong to the CPR family, which includes proteins that have an amino acid sequence motif known as the Rebers & Riddiford (R&R) consensus sequence. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 resulted in insects with shorter, wrinkled, warped and less rigid elytra than those from control insects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of CPs in cuticle assembly, we analyzed for the precise localization of TcCPR27 and the ultrastructural architecture of cuticle in TcCPR27- and TcCPR18-deficient elytra. Transmission electron microscopic analysis combined with immunodetection using gold-labeled secondary antibody revealed that TcCPR27 is present in dorsal elytral procuticle both in the horizontal laminae and in vertical pore canals. dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of TcCPR27 resulted in abnormal electron-lucent laminae and pore canals in elytra except for the boundary between these two structures in which electron-dense molecule(s) apparently accumulated. Insects subjected to RNAi for TcCPR18 also had disorganized laminae and pore canals in the procuticle of elytra. Similar ultrastructural defects were also observed in other body wall regions with rigid cuticle such as the thorax and legs of adult T. castaneum. TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are required for proper formation of the horizontal chitinous laminae and vertical pore canals that are critical for formation and stabilization of rigid adult cuticle.

  2. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  3. Alterations of lipid metabolism in Wilson disease

    OpenAIRE

    Stremmel Wolfgang; Eckert Nicola; Pfeiffenberger Jan; Gotthardt Daniel; Gohdes Annina; Seessle Jessica; Reuner Ulrike; Weiss Karl

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Wilson disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of human copper metabolism, characterised by accumulation of copper predominantly in the liver and brain, leading to severe hepatic and neurological disease. Interesting findings in animal models of WD (Atp7b-/- and LEC rats) showed altered lipid metabolism with a decrease in the amount of triglycerides and cholesterol in the serum. However, serum lipid profile has not been investigated in large human WD patient cohorts to dat...

  4. Feminization and alteration of Drosophila taste neurons induce reciprocal effects on male avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaille, Fabien; Everaerts, Claude; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2009-09-01

    Taste perception allows most animals to find edible food, potential mates, and avoid ingesting toxic molecules. Intriguingly, a small group of Drosophila taste neurones (expressing Gr66a-Gal4) involved in the perception of bitter substances is also used to detect 7-tricosene (7-T), a male cuticular pheromone. Male flies tend to be inhibited by 7-T whereas females are stimulated by this pheromone. To better understand their role on male courtship, Gr66a-Gal4 neurons were genetically feminized or altered with various transgenes, and the response of transgenic males was measured toward live targets carrying various amounts of 7-T, or of bitter molecules (caffeine, quinine and berberine). Surprisingly, tester males with feminized taste neurons showed an increased dose-dependent avoidance toward targets with high level of any of these substances, compared to other tester males. Conversely, males with altered neurons showed no, or very little avoidance. Moreover, the surgical ablation of the sensory appendages carrying these taste neurons differently affected the behavioral response of the various tester males. The fact that this manipulation did not affect the courtship toward control females nor the locomotor activity of tester males suggests that Gr66a-Gal4 neurons are involved in the sex-specific perception of molecules inducing male avoidance behavior.

  5. Distinguishing ichthyoses by protein profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Rice

    Full Text Available To explore the usefulness of protein profiling for characterization of ichthyoses, we here determined the profile of human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples were analyzed after collection on tape circles from six anatomic sites (forearm, palm, lower leg, forehead, abdomen, upper back, demonstrating site-specific differences in profiles. Additional samples were collected from the forearms of subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris (filaggrin (FLG deficiency, recessive X-linked ichthyosis (steroid sulfatase (STS deficiency and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis type lamellar ichthyosis (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1 deficiency. The ichthyosis protein expression patterns were readily distinguishable from each other and from phenotypically normal epidermis. In general, the degree of departure from normal was lower from ichthyosis vulgaris than from lamellar ichthyosis, parallel to the severity of the phenotype. Analysis of samples from families with ichthyosis vulgaris and concomitant modifying gene mutations (STS deficiency, GJB2 deficiency permitted correlation of alterations in protein profile with more complex genetic constellations.

  6. Distinguishing ichthyoses by protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Robert H; Bradshaw, Katie M; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Rocke, David M; Eigenheer, Richard A; Phinney, Brett S; Schmuth, Matthias; Gruber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of protein profiling for characterization of ichthyoses, we here determined the profile of human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples were analyzed after collection on tape circles from six anatomic sites (forearm, palm, lower leg, forehead, abdomen, upper back), demonstrating site-specific differences in profiles. Additional samples were collected from the forearms of subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris (filaggrin (FLG) deficiency), recessive X-linked ichthyosis (steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency) and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis type lamellar ichthyosis (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) deficiency). The ichthyosis protein expression patterns were readily distinguishable from each other and from phenotypically normal epidermis. In general, the degree of departure from normal was lower from ichthyosis vulgaris than from lamellar ichthyosis, parallel to the severity of the phenotype. Analysis of samples from families with ichthyosis vulgaris and concomitant modifying gene mutations (STS deficiency, GJB2 deficiency) permitted correlation of alterations in protein profile with more complex genetic constellations.

  7. Profile summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    All drugs appearing in the Adis Profile Summary table have been selected based on information contained in R&D Insight trade mark, a proprietary product of Adis International. The information in the profiles is gathered from the world's medical and scientific literature, at international conferences and symposia, and directly from the developing companies themselves. The emphasis of Drugs in R&D is on the clinical potential of new drugs, and selection of agents for inclusion is based on products in late-phase clinical development that have recently had a significant change in status.

  8. Profile video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglewede, Paul E.; Zampieron, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    For unattended persistent surveillance there is a need for a system which provides the following information: target classification, target quantity estimate, cargo presence and characterization, direction of travel, and action. Over highly bandwidth restricted links, such as Iridium, SATCOM or HF, the data rates of common techniques are too high, even after aggressive compression, to deliver the required intelligence in a timely, low power manner. We propose the following solution to this data rate problem: Profile Video. Profile video is a new technique which provides all of the required information in a very low data-rate package.

  9. [Prevalence of obesity and altered lipid profile in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sandoval, Claudia Elena; Díaz Burke, Yolanda; Mendizabal-Ruiz, Adriana Patricia; Medina Díaz, Eunice; Morales, José Alejandro

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: La obesidad constituye un grave problema de salud pública por su asociación con los riesgos a desarrollar enfermedades crónicas. La dislipidemia aterogénica que acompaña con frecuencia a la obesidad también está asociada al síndrome metabólico y a las enfermedades cardiovasculares. La transición entre la adolescencia y el adulto es un periodo con modificaciones importantes en el estilo de vida que contribuyen al desarrollo de la obesidad, sin embargo es poca la atención brindada a esta etapa. La tendencia a adoptar comportamientos poco saludables durante esta transición puede incrementarse en los universitarios que llevan un estilo de vida caracterizado por la falta de tiempo para llevar una dieta saludable, haciéndolos susceptibles a desarrollar obesidad. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la obesidad y de las anormalidades en los niveles de lípidos y su relación en un grupo de universitarios. Métodos: Estudio transversal que evalúa Índice de Masa Corporal, diámetro de cintura y perfil de lípidos en universitarios con un rango de edad de 18 a 24 años. Resultados: De los 620 jóvenes estudiados, aproximadamente un tercio tienen sobrepeso u obesidad. El 86% presentó al menos una alteración en los parámetros evaluados. Los resultados del perfil lipídico muestran alta prevalencia de alteraciones leves, particularmente en los niveles de colesterol ligado a lipoproteínas de baja densidad. Conclusiones: Los jóvenes Universitarios presentan alta prevalencia de lípidos plasmáticos por encima de la norma y exceso de peso. Es necesario establecer medidas preventivas dirigidas a promover en los universitarios buenos hábitos alimenticios y mayor actividad física.

  10. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have an altered circulatory aggrecan profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Andreas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic auto-immune disease with extensive articular cartilage destruction. Aggrecan depletion, mediated by aggrecanases is one of the first signs of early cartilage erosion. We investigated, whether measurement of aggrecan and fragments thereof in serum, could be used as biomarkers for joint-disease in RA patients and furthermore characterized the fragments found in the circulation. Methods The study consisted of 38 patients, 12 males (62.2 ± 16.0 years and 26 females (59.8 ± 20.7 years diagnosed with RA: 41.5 ± 27.5 mm/h erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, 38.4 ± 34.7 mg/ml C-reactive protein (CRP and 4.8 ± 1.7 disease activity score (DAS and 108 healthy age-matched controls. Aggrecan levels were measured using two immunoassays, i.e. the 374ARGSVI-G2 sandwich ELISA measuring aggrecanase-mediated aggrecan degradation and the G1/G2 sandwich assay, detecting aggrecan molecules containing G1 and/or G2 (total aggrecan We further characterized serum samples by western blots, by using monoclonal antibodies F-78, binding to G1 and G2, or by BC-3, detecting the aggrecanase-generated N-terminal 374ARGSVI neo-epitope. Results Total aggrecan levels in RA patients were significantly decreased from 824.8 ± 31 ng/ml in healthy controls to 570.5 ± 30 ng/ml (31% decrease, P Conclusion This is the first study, which characterizes different aggrecan fragments in human serum. The data strongly suggests that total aggrecan levels, i.e. aggrecan molecules containing G1 and/or G2 are lower in RA patients, and that RA patients have at least one specific subpopulation of aggrecan fragments, namely aggrecanse generated 374ARGSVI fragments. Further clinical studies are needed to investigate the potential of G1/G2 as a structure-related biochemical marker in destructive joint-diseases.

  11. Profile of altered brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, James R; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Wang, Xin-sheng; Patton, Stephanie M.; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by an urgency to move the legs during periods of rest. Data from a variety of sources provide a compelling argument that the amount of iron in the brain is lower in individuals with restless legs syndrome compared with neurologically normal individuals. Moreover, a significant percentage of patients with restless legs syndrome are responsive to intravenous iron therapy. The mechanism underlying the decreased iron concentrations i...

  12. Obesity Alters the Microbial Community Profile in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Jin Hu

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health concern worldwide. According to the latest Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD report (2014, the incidence of child obesity in Korea has exceeded the OECD average. To better understand and control this condition, the present study examined the composition of the gut microbial community in normal and obese adolescents. Fecal samples were collected from 67 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2, or ≥ 99th BMI percentile and 67 normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or < 85th BMI percentile Korean adolescents aged 13-16 years and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of bacterial composition according to taxonomic rank (genus, family, and phylum revealed marked differences in the Bacteroides and Prevotella populations in normal and obese samples (p < 0.005 at the genus and family levels; however, there was no difference in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B ratio between normal and obese adolescents samples at the phylum level (F/B normal = 0.50 ± 0.53; F/B obese = 0.56 ± 0.86; p = 0.384. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the compositions of several bacterial taxa and child obesity. Among these, Bacteroides and Prevotella showed the most significant association with BMI (p < 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively. We also found that the composition of Bacteroides was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-crp (p = 0.0049, 0.0023, and 0.0038, respectively levels, whereas that of Prevotella was positively associated with TG and hs-crp levels (p = 0.0394 and 0.0150, respectively. We then applied the association rule mining algorithm to generate "rules" to identify the association between the populations of multiple bacterial taxa and obesity; these rules were able to discriminate obese from normal states. Therefore, the present study describes a systemic approach to identify the association between bacterial populations in the gut and childhood obesity.

  13. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  14. MPI Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D K; Jones, T R

    2005-02-11

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.

  15. Evolução geoquímica e mineralógica em perfis de alteração sobre rochas serpentinizadas no sudoeste de Minas Gerais Geochemical and mineralogical evolution in alteration profiles on serpentinized rocks in southwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vidal-Torrado

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a evolução geoquímica e mineralógica em três perfis distintos de alteração de rochas serpentinizadas que ocorrem nas imediações dos municípios de Alpinópolis e Fortaleza de Minas, no sudoeste do Estado de Minas Gerais, sob regimes de umidade e de temperatura údico e térmico, respectivamente. Nas condições atuais, o grau de evolução química e mineralógica é moderado em relação ao desenvolvido sobre outros tipos de rochas básicas e ultrabásicas da mesma área, caracterizando-se por uma importante perda de Na e Mg e, em menor proporção, de Ca e Si. O Al (localmente também o Fe é o elemento menos móvel dos sistemas. O K é escasso no material de origem e nas zonas de alteração, e ocorre enriquecimento desse elemento nos horizontes superficiais por aporte externo. Os minerais primários mais facilmente intemperizáveis, como o talco, a tremolita e a clorita trioctaédrica, são abundantes ainda na fração argila desses solos tropicais com composição mineralógica pouco comum, mas são todos termodinamicamente instáveis. Do ponto de vista geoquímico, o processo de alteração atual pode ser definido como uma bissialitização, que pode coincidir com ferruginização, com formação de minerais trioctaédricos secundários por transformação direta de estrutura e também por neoformação, todos coexistindo com os minerais primários residuais. No entanto, as fases de maior evolução, em volumes com drenagem mais eficiente, tendem à monossialitização, com formação de caulinitas de diferentes graus de cristalinidade. A assembléia mineralógica existente evidencia a metaestabilidade e o caráter incipiente do sistema pedogenético.The geochemical and mineralogical evolution was studied in three different alteration profiles of ultramafic (serpentine rocks near Alpinópolis and Fortaleza de Minas, in southwestern Minas Gerais State (Brazil. Soil moisture and temperature regimes are udic and thermic

  16. Altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Dean, B; Bilkey, D K; Zhang, H

    2016-01-01

    Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group. Western blot showed reduced endothelial NOS protein expression and increased arginase II protein level in the disease group. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assays confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and glutamate/GABA ratio in the schizophrenia cases. Regression analysis indicated positive correlations between arginase activity and the age of disease onset and between l-ornithine level and the duration of illness. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that l-arginine and its main metabolites l-citrulline, l-ornithine and agmatine formed distinct groups, which were altered in the schizophrenia group. The present study provides further evidence of altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia, which enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may lead to the future development of novel preventions and/or therapeutics for the disease. PMID:27529679

  17. Stability of cocaine impurity profiles during 12 months of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Stride; Villesen, Palle; Lindholst, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During the lifetime of a cocaine batch from production end to consumption, several alterations may occur, leading to possible changes in the original impurity profile. Such profile changes may eventually result in erroneous forensic evaluations. In the present study, the stability of both...

  18. 采前套袋对苹果梨表皮蜡质结构和化学组分的影响%Effects of Preharvest Bagging Treatment on the Micro-Structure and Chemical Composition of Cuticular Wax in Pingguoli Pear Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永才; 尹燕; 陈松江; 毕阳; 葛永红

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The objective of this study is to further explore the effect of preharvest bagging on micro-structure and chemical composition of cuticular wax in Pingguoli pear fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Pingguoli). I Method] Pear fruits were bagged with two-layer paper at 60 days after petal fall, ultrastructure and chemical composition of cuticular wax in Pingguoli pear were measured by scanning electron microscope and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. [Result] No significant differences in cuticular wax content per surface area between bagging and non-bagging fruits were observed. Ultrastructure of cuticular wax in bagged fruit was rougher, uneven, more cracks and no wax crystals formation compared with that in control fruits. Different numbers and kinds of chemical compounds in cuticular wax of bagged and non-bagged fruits were detected. The relative content of alkanes in cuticular wax of bagged pear was higher than the control, on the contrary, the content of alkanoic acids was lower, and the relative content of alkanes, alhydes and triterpenoids had no difference between bagged and the control fruits. Chain-length distribution of saturated n-alkanoic acids made a difference, alkanoic acids with chain lengths of C26 and C28 were present in higher amounts in cuticular wax of bagged and non-bagged fruits, but C30 alkanoic acids were not detected in the wax of bagged fruits. [Conclusion] These results suggested that preharvest bagging significantly influenced micro-structure, and kinds and their chain-length distribution of chemical composition of cuticular wax in Pingguoli pear, but the mechanism of action needs to be further studied.%[目的]探讨采前套袋处理对苹果梨(Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.cv.Pingguoli)果皮蜡质结构和化学组分的影响.[方法]在花后60d对苹果梨果实进行双层套袋处理,通过扫描电镜观察和气相色谱-质谱联用(GC/MS)分析,了解套袋微域环境对果皮蜡

  19. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem. PMID:21808092

  20. COMPENDEX Profiling Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standera, Oldrich

    This manual provides instructions for completing the COMPENDEX (Computerized Engineering Index) Profile Submission Form used to prepare Current Information Selection (CIS) profiles. An annotated bibliography lists nine items useful in searching for proper profile words. (AB)

  1. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  2. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  3. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Cuticular Protein Gene from Apis Mellifera%西方蜜蜂一个新表皮蛋白基因的克隆和结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳昊; 葛清秀; 孙亮先; 梁勤

    2011-01-01

    In this study,we mapped the transcription start site (TSS) of a novel cuticular protein gene from Apis mellifera with a group of 5' LongSAGE tag sequences, and cloned its full-length eDNA sequence. The genomic DNA sequence of this novel gene is 1 253 bp,containing four exons and three introns. Its full-length eDNA is 598 bp, encoding a 169 AA polypeptide sequence abundant of Val and Pro residues(23. 67%, 20. 12%). Multialignment analysis reveals that the similarity of deduced amino acid sequence with four reported insect cutieular proteins is 47. 54%, and shares a common motif at C-terminal of the cuticular protein , indicating they are likely to be a member of a euticular protein family. Our 5' LongSAGE data show this gene is highly expressed in drone head of this study. This results of this study provided a novel cutieular protein gene of honeybee.%利用西方蜜蜂雄蜂头部5’LongSAGE文库中的一组标签序列,在蜜蜂基因组序列第9号连锁群上定位一个新的西方蜜蜂表皮蛋白基因转录起始位点,并克隆了该基因的eDNA序列,继而利用此cDNA序列分析了该基因的内含子和外显子结构.分析结果显示:该基因的DNA序列长1253bp,含有4个外显子和3个内含子,其cDNA长598bp,编码一个169AA的富含Val和Pro残基(23.67%,20.12%)多肽序列.BLAST分析发现,该蛋白与已知的4个昆虫表皮蛋白序列的相似性为47.54%,且其C末端有一个共有基序,说明这5个蛋白可能属于同一个表皮蛋白家族.该研究结果提供了一个新的蜜蜂表皮蛋白基因,且该基因在雄蜂头部表达水平较高.

  4. 大叶女贞无气孔角质膜的水分渗透性研究%The water permeability of upper astomatous cuticular membranes isolated from Ligustrum lucidum Ait.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝利; 石辉; 武云飞; 刘雄飞; 王玉涛

    2015-01-01

    植物叶表角质层是植物防止水分流失和污染物进入叶内最主要的障碍层. 为了了解城市环境下绿化植物的叶角质层水分渗透性能,以西安市常见绿化植物大叶女贞( Ligustrum lucidum Ait. )为对象,采用草酸/草酸铵方法剥离了叶片的无气孔角质层,利用微蒸腾室法初步研究了水分渗透性能,并计算了其热力学活化能. 大叶女贞叶角质层在25℃和35℃下的水分渗透性分别为8. 03 × 10 -8和6. 66 × 10 -7 m/s,其热力学活化能为160. 5 kJ/mol. 渗透性随温度升高的原因可能是由于温度对角质膜表层蜡质晶体结构和连续性的影响.%The plant cuticle is a key barrier to prevent water loss and contaminants contacting and harming plant. In order to under-stand the leaf cuticle water permeability of green plants under the urban environment with complex air pollution, the water permeability of Ligustrum ( Ligustrum lucidum Ait. ) leaves that is the common green paper plant in Xi'an was researched. The astomatous cuticular membranes was isolated by 1:1 oxalic acid / ammonium oxalate solution, the water permeability was measured by micro-transpiration chamber, and the thermodynamic activation energy was calculated. The astomatous cuticular membrane water permeabilities of Ligus-trum are 8. 03 × 10 -8 and 6. 66 × 10 -7 m/s, respectively, for 25 ℃ and 35 ℃ condition, and the thermodynamic activation energy of water penetrate is 160. 5 kJ/mol. The reason for water permeability with temperature increasing may be due to temperature effects on the crystal structure of waxy cuticle surface and its continuity.

  5. HOPWA Performance Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the...

  6. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Einen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004. The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group

  7. Alteration of the glycan profile of serum glycoproteins during the seroconversion process in hepatitis B virus-infected patients treated with antiviral therapy and its clinical significance%抗HBV治疗后血清学转换中血清糖蛋白聚糖谱的变化及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古幼兰; 汤宇文; 周晓东; 刘银坤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use a lectin microarray to study the alteration of glycan affinity profiles of serum glycoproteins during the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) following treatment with antiviral therapy,and to explore its biological significance.Methods CHB patients were divided into the following four groups:untreated HBeAg-positive,HBeAg seroconversion after anti-HBV therapy,HBsAg loss after anti-HBV therapy,and healthy individuals (controls).Serum samples were collected from each participant,depleted of high abundance proteins and analyzed by a lectin microarray containing 50 lectins.The lectin-affinity glycan profiles of serum proteins were partially verified by lectin blotting.Between-group differences were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance,and pairwise comparisons were carried out with the Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) method.Results The results from the lectin microarray and lectin blotting assay showed significantly reduced affinity for 16 lectins in the untreated HBeAg-positive group compared to the control group (P<0.05);in addition,the specific glycan profiles of the untreated HBeAg-positive group included decreased terminal and core fructose,GalNAc α-Thr/Ser (T,Tn-antigen),GalNac α,terminal β1-4,and β-D galactose,bisecting and/or GlcNAc,mannose and Sia.However,the HBeAg seroconversion after anti-HBV therapy group showed enhanced binding of PSA,MPL and the above-mentioned 16 lectins (P < 0.05),suggesting that the reduced serum glycoprotein glycan structures returned to normal or slightly higher than healthy levels after the therapy-induced seroconversion.Comparison of the group with HBsAg loss after anti-HBV therapy to the group with HBeAg seroconversion after anti-HBV therapy showed the binding ability of ten lectins (AAL,ACL,HAL,HPL,RCA-I,LEL,STL,PHA-E,NML and PCL) were weakened to near control levels and six lectins (VAL,LCA,GNL,PSA,MPL and JAC) were

  8. Psychological profile of laryngectomized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Popescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Larynx cancer is one of the most susceptible form of cancer susceptible to induce alteration of the patient’s psychological profile due to the social role that the larynx has in communication. Oral communication is severely impaired even after voice rehabilitation of the laryngectomized patients, so that the social rehabilitation is somewhat not only a medical but also a social problem. The psychological profile of these patients is altered in a way that dealing with the disease is sometimes neglected and the interaction with the outside world in terms of oral communication is totally abandoned. The starting point for depression in these cases is the acknowledgement of the disease and is, in some cases, the entire medical environment. Facial scarring, the inability to verbally interact with other human, as well as the presence of the tracheostoma, are all deciding factors in the presence of a low self-esteem for these particular patients. Psychological counseling is a mandatory approach for laryngectomized patients, in order to improve their ability to cope with cancer and providing better recovery chances.

  9. Gene expression profile change and growth inhibition in Drosophila larvae treated with azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Duo; Jin, Xiaoyong; Wang, Hao; Yuan, Mei; Xu, Hanhong

    2014-09-20

    Azadirachtin is a botanical insecticide that affects various biological processes. The effects of azadirachtin on the digital gene expression profile and growth inhibition in Drosophila larvae have not been investigated. In this study, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to detect the differentially expressed genes of Drosophila larvae regulated by azadirachtin. A total of 15,322 genes were detected, and 28 genes were found to be significantly regulated by azadirachtin. Biological process and pathway analysis showed that azadirachtin affected starch and sucrose metabolism, defense response, signal transduction, instar larval or pupal development, and chemosensory behavior processes. The genes regulated by azadirachtin were mainly enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism. This study provided a general digital gene expression profile of dysregulated genes in response to azadirachtin and showed that azadirachtin provoked potent growth inhibitory effects in Drosophila larvae by regulating the genes of cuticular protein, amylase, and odorant-binding protein. Finally, we propose a potential mechanism underlying the dysregulation of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway by azadirachtin. PMID:24956222

  10. Does the volatile hydrocarbon profile differ between the sexes: a case study on five aphidophagous ladybirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Rojalin; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Mohanty, Chandra Sekhar

    2014-11-01

    Insect hydrocarbons (HCs) primarily serve as a waterproofing cuticular layer and function extensively in chemical communication by facilitating species, sex, and colony recognition. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction is employed for investigating the sex-specific volatile HC profile of five ladybirds collected from Lucknow, India namely, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Coccinella transversalis (Fabr.), Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabr.), Propylea dissecta (Mulsant), and Anegleis cardoni (Weise) for the first time. Major compounds reported in C. septempunctata, C. transversalis, and A. cardoni are methyl-branched saturated HCs, whereas in M. sexmaculatus, and P. dissecta, they are unsaturated HCs. Other than A. cardoni, both the sexes of the other four ladybirds had similar compounds at highest peak but with statistically significant differences. However, in A. cardoni, which is a beetle with a narrow niche, the major compound in both male and female was different. The difference in volatile HC profile of the sexes of the five ladybirds indicates that gender-specific differences primarily exist due to quantitative differences in chemicals with only very few chemicals being unique to a gender. This variation in semiochemicals might have a role in behavioral or ecological aspects of the studied ladybirds. PMID:25060353

  11. Reinforced aerodynamic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic ...... profile and a method for the construction thereof. The profile is intended for, but not limited to, useas a wind turbine blade, an aerofoil device or as a wing profile used in the aeronautical industry....

  12. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  13. Vascular transcriptional alterations produced by juvenile obesity in Ossabaw swine

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Lee, Sewon; Zhang, Hanrui; Cui, Jian; Zuidema, Mozow Y.; Zhang, Cuihua; Hill, Michael A; Perfield, James W.; Jamal A. Ibdah; Booth, Frank W.; Davis, J Wade; Laughlin, M. Harold; Rector, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    We adopted a transcriptome-wide microarray analysis approach to determine the extent to which vascular gene expression is altered as a result of juvenile obesity and identify obesity-responsive mRNAs. We examined transcriptional profiles in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), perivascular fat adjacent to the LAD, and descending thoracic aorta between obese (n = 5) and lean (n = 6) juvenile Ossabaw pigs (age = 22 wk). Obesity was experimentally induced by feeding the animals a ...

  14. Pulmonary alterations in Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aims to demonstrate pulmonary alterations (PA) in patients with Behcet's disease by using CT. Materials and methods: CTs of 50 patients with Behcet's disease and 20 others in a control group have been evaluated retrospectively for PA (septal, reticular, nodular, atelectatic opacities). Results: Eight out of 50 patients (16%) with Behcet's disease showed PA. Three out of 20 (15%) in the control group showed PA. No differences were observed between Behcet's disease patients and the control group regarding pulmonary alterations (p = 0.917). No differences were observed in the disease duration, ages and sex in either group in those with and without PA. Conclusion: Pulmonary alterations can be seen in patients with Behcet's disease, but these alterations are not significant.

  15. Very-long-chain 1,2- and 1,3-bifunctional compounds from the cuticular wax of Cosmos bipinnatus petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Peng, Chen; Jetter, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Four uncommon classes of very-long-chain compounds were identified and quantified in the petal wax of Cosmos bipinnatus (Asteraceae). The first two were homologous series of alkane 1,2-diols and 1,3-diols, both ranging from C20 to C26. The upper and lower petal surfaces contained 0.11 and 0.09 μg/cm(2) of 1,2-diols, respectively. 1,3-Diols were present at quantities one order of magnitude less than the 1,2-diols. Both series had similar chain length distributions, with 6-20%, 59-73% and 20-31% of the C20, C22 and C24 diols, respectively. The other two compound classes were primary and secondary monoacetates of C20-C24 1,2-diols. The monoacetates had chain length profiles similar to the free 1,2-diols, and amounted to 0.04 and 0.09 μg/cm(2) on the adaxial and abaxial sides, respectively. Methods were developed to minimize acyl migration during monoacetate isomer analyses. The ratios of diol 1-acetates to diol 2-acetates averaged close to 3:5, and thus opposite to the chemical equilibrium ratio of 7:3.

  16. Electrocardiographic profile of adenosine pharmacological stress testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hao; TIAN, YUEQIN; ZHENG, LIHUI; Pan, Qingrong; XIE, BOQIA

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine stress testing in conjunction with radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has become a common approach for the detection of coronary artery diseases in patients who are unable to perform adequate levels of exercise. However, specific electrocardiographic alterations during the test have been rarely described. Using a Chinese population, the aim of the present study was to provide a detailed electrocardiographic profile of adenosine stress testing. The study population included 1,...

  17. Microwave Radiometer Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) provides vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water content as a function of height or pressure at...

  18. DNA profiles from fingermarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Linacre, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    Criminal investigations would be considerably improved if DNA profiles could be routinely generated from single fingermarks. Here we report a direct DNA profiling method that was able to generate interpretable profiles from 71% of 170 fingermarks. The data are based on fingermarks from all 5 digits of 34 individuals. DNA was obtained from the fingermarks using a swab moistened with Triton-X, and the fibers were added directly to one of two commercial DNA profiling kits. All profiles were obtained without increasing the number of amplification cycles; therefore, our method is ideally suited for adoption by the forensic science community. We indicate the use of the technique in a criminal case in which a DNA profile was generated from a fingermark on tape that was wrapped around a drug seizure. Our direct DNA profiling approach is rapid and able to generate profiles from touched items when current forensic practices have little chance of success. PMID:25391915

  19. Novel molecular events associated with altered steroidogenesis induced by exposure to atrazine in the intact and castrate male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology is increasingly focused on molecular events comprising adverse outcome pathways. Atrazine activates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, but relationships to gonadal alterations are unknown. We characterized hormone profiles and adrenal (intact and castrate) and te...

  20. Exposure to flaxseed during lactation does not alter prostate area or epithelium height but changes lipid profile in rats Exposición a la linaza durante la lactación no cambia el área o altura epitelial de la próstata pero cambia el perfil lipídico en ratones

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ferreira Medeiros de França Cardozo; M. Alves Chagas; L. Leal Soares; A. Andrade Troina; G. Teles Bonaventura

    2010-01-01

    Flaxseed intake has increased owing to beneficial effects to health and prevention of diseases. Provided that it's an important source of lignan, a phytoestrogen, the present study aimed at evaluating the possible effect of the intake of this seed during lactation upon prostate, sexual hormones and lipidic profile of the offspring in adult life. Material and methods: 16 female Wistar rats were used. After delivery, they were divided into two different groups to receive one of the following di...

  1. Epigenetic and immune function profiles associated with posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Monica; Aiello, Allison E.; Wildman, Derek E.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Pawelec, Graham; de los Santos, Regina; Goldmann, Emily; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The biologic underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have not been fully elucidated. Previous work suggests that alterations in the immune system are characteristic of the disorder. Identifying the biologic mechanisms by which such alterations occur could provide fundamental insights into the etiology and treatment of PTSD. Here we identify specific epigenetic profiles underlying immune system changes associated with PTSD. Using blood samples (n = 100) obtained from an ongoing, ...

  2. Prominent hippocampal CA3 gene expression profile in neurocognitive aging

    OpenAIRE

    Haberman, Rebecca P.; Colantuoni, Carlo; Stocker, Amy M.; Schmidt, Alexandra C.; Pedersen, Jan T.; Gallagher, Michela

    2009-01-01

    Research in aging laboratory animals has characterized physiological and cellular alterations in medial temporal lobe structures, particularly the hippocampus, that are central to age-related memory deficits. The current study compares molecular alterations across hippocampal subregions in a rat model that closely mirrors individual differences in neurocognitive features of aging humans, including both impaired memory and preserved function. Using mRNA profiling of the CA1, CA3 and dentate gy...

  3. Art as Alterity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  4. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  5. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  6. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness. PMID:24061599

  7. Oral alterations among chemical dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vanessa COLODEL

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been daily observed a significant increase ofchemical dependent individuals, as well as the lack of depth on thisissue in the dentistry area. Nevertheless many times the dentalclinicians are the first professionals to diagnose possible alterations,which appear due to the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs. Objectives: To make a literature review of oral alterations and to identify them on a specific group of persons, which are addicted to different types of drugs. Material and methods: The clinical history of the selected individuals was added to the answers of a questionnaire,comprising the data of the present research. Results: Besides other minor soft tissue alterations, a high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases were found in the studied population. Conclusion: It was concluded that the role of the dental clinician is very important to the health rehabilitation of drug addicts, individuals with physical and mental disorders that need specific oral care, which sometimes is neglected.

  8. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  9. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e...

  10. Community Profiles Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH)

    2014-01-01

    The Community Profiles Tool can be used to develop local health and wellbeing profiles from over 200 health-related indicators compiled from a range of data sources. Users can create tables, maps and charts of health-related indicators, and integrate this with key public health documents from the Health Well website such as relevant interventions, policies, and evidence related to each indicator.

  11. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M.H. Brust

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as thi

  12. Alteration of biological samples in speciation analysis of metalloproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Wenda, Nadine; Richter, Andrea; Kyriakopoulos, Antonios

    2007-10-01

    For investigations of metalloproteins by speciation analysis, the integrity of the protein-metal complexes before and during separation is crucial. Knowledge about potential alterations of the samples is thus essential to avoid misinterpretations of the analytical results. Chromatographic element profiles of different cytosolic samples from animal tissues were measured repeatedly to estimate the sample stability. The dependence of the signals on the dwell time of the sample in an autosampling device at 4 degrees C for a period of 10 h was observed. Alterations in the element content of different metal-containing fractions were quantified by means of recovery values. Some metalloprotein fractions (e.g. approximately 27-kDa arsenic, approximately 27-kDa iron and different zinc fractions) were stable or only minor alterations were observed and for their investigation an autosampling device is therefore suitable. However, most of the other metalloprotein fractions, especially nickel-containing proteins, showed major alterations: these samples should therefore be analysed immediately after preparation or directly after thawing.

  13. Ant cuticular response to phthalate pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir, Alain; Axel, Touchard; Devers, Séverine; Christidès, Jean-Philippe; Boulay, Raphaël; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are common atmospheric contaminantsused in the plastic industry. Ants have been shown to constitutegood bioindicators of phthalate pollution. Hence,phthalates remain trapped on ant cuticles which are mostlycoated with long-chain hydrocarbons. In this study, we artificiallycontaminated Lasius niger ants with four phthalates:dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and benzyl butyl phthalate(BBP). The first three have previously been fo...

  14. Altering prolactin concentrations in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C

    2016-07-01

    Prolactin has a multiplicity of actions, but it is of particular importance in gestating and lactating animals. In sows, it is involved in the control of mammary development and also holds essential roles in the lactogenic and galactopoietic processes. Furthermore, low circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with the agalactia syndrome. The crucial role of prolactin makes it important to understand the various factors that can alter its secretion. Regulation of prolactin secretion is largely under the negative control of dopamine, and dopamine agonists consistently decrease prolactin concentrations in sows. On the other hand, injections of dopamine antagonists can enhance circulating prolactin concentrations. Besides pharmacologic agents, many other factors can also alter prolactin concentrations in sows. The use of Chinese-derived breeds, for instance, leads to increased prolactin concentrations in lactating sows compared with standard European white breeds. Numerous husbandry and feeding practices also have a potential impact on prolactin concentrations in sows. Factors, such as provision of nest-building material prepartum, housing at farrowing, high ambient temperature, stress, transient weaning, exogenous thyrotropin-releasing factor, exogenous growth hormone-releasing factor, nursing frequency, prolonged photoperiod, fasting, increased protein and/or energy intake, altered energy sources, feeding high-fiber diets, sorghum ergot or plant extracts, were all studied with respect to their prolactinemic properties. Although some of these practices do indeed affect circulating prolactin concentrations, none leads to changes as drastic as those brought about by dopamine agonists or antagonists. It appears that the numerous factors regulating prolactin concentrations in sows are still not fully elucidated, and that studies to develop novel applicable ways of increasing prolactin concentrations in sows are warranted.

  15. Profiling the Mobile Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile customers are increasingly being tracked and profiled by behavioural advertisers to enhance delivery of personalized advertising. This type of profiling relies on automated processes that mine databases containing personally-identifying or anonymous consumer data, and it raises a host...... and legislative reform. 1 It discusses how well privacy and personal data concerns related to consumer profiling are addressed by two leading industry self-regulatory codes from the UK and the U.S. that aim to establish fair information practices for behavioural advertising by their member companies. It also...

  16. Altered Mental Status and Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Scott T; Ondrejka, Jason E

    2016-08-01

    Older patients who present to the emergency department frequently have acute or chronic alterations of their mental status, including their level of consciousness and cognition. Recognizing both acute and chronic changes in cognition are important for emergency physicians. Delirium is an acute change in attention, awareness, and cognition. Numerous life-threatening conditions can cause delirium; therefore, prompt recognition and treatment are critical. The authors discuss an organized approach that can lead to a prompt diagnosis within the time constraints of the emergency department. PMID:27475019

  17. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  18. TWO STAGE FRAMEWORK FOR ALTERED FINGERPRINT MATCHING

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. Anoop; M.G. Mini

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprint alteration is the process of masking one’s identity from personal identification systems especially in boarder control security systems. Failure of matching the altered fingerprint of the criminals against the watch list of fingerprints can help them to break the security system. This fact leads to the need of a method for altered fingerprint matching. This paper presents a two stage method for altered fingerprint matching. In first stage, approximated global ridge orientation fie...

  19. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  20. Qualitative Value Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen; Bjerre, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative value profiling (QVP) is a relatively unknown method of strategic analysis for companies in international business-to-business settings. The purpose of QVP is to reduce the information complexity that is faced by international companies in dealing with business partners. The QVP method...... allows the development of 1) profiles of the target country in which operations are to take place, 2) profiles of the buying center (i.e. the group of decision makers) in the partner company, and 3) profiles of the product/service offering. It also allows the development of a semantic scaling method...... for deeper analysis of all involved factors. This paper presents the method and compares and contrasts it with other similar methods like the PESTELE method known from corporate strategy, the STEEPAL method known from scenario analysis, and the Politics-Institutions-Economy (PIE) framework known from...

  1. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  2. Profiles in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    These articles put a face to some of the thousands of individuals who contribute to NCI’s cancer research efforts. The profiles highlight the work of scientists and clinicians and describe the circumstances and motivation behind their work.

  3. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that...

  4. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  5. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  6. Confinement and the safety factor profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Torrance, CA (United States); Scott, S.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The conjecture that the safety factor profile, q(r), controls the improvement in tokamak plasmas from poor confinement in the Low (L-) mode regime to improved confinement in the supershot regime has been tested in two experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). First, helium was puffed into the beam-heated phase of a supershot discharge which induced a degradation from supershot to L-mode confinement in about 100 msec, far less than the current relaxation time. The q and shear profiles measured by a motional Stark effect polarimeter showed little change during the confinement degradation. Second, rapid current ramps in supershot plasmas altered the q profile, but were observed not to change significantly the energy confinement. Thus, enhanced confinement in supershot plasmas is not due to a particular q profile which has enhanced stability or transport properties. The discharges making a continuous transition between supershot and L-mode confinement were also used to test the critical-electron-temperature-gradient transport model. It was found that this model could not reproduce the large changes in electron and ion temperature caused by the change in confinement.

  7. Histone profiles in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Simone S; Neff, Tobias; Bernt, Kathrin M

    2015-10-01

    While DNA abnormalities have long been recognized as the cause of cancer, the contribution of chromatin is a relatively recent discovery. Excitement in the field of cancer epigenetics is driven by 3 key elements: 1. Chromatin may play an active and often critical role in controlling gene expression, DNA stability and cell identity. 2. Chromatin modifiers are frequent targets of DNA aberrations, in some cancers reaching near 100%. Particularly in cancers with low rates of DNA mutations, the key "driver" of malignancy is often a chromatin modifier. 3. Cancer-associated aberrant chromatin is amenable to pharmacologic modulation. This has sparked the rapidly expanding development of small molecules targeting chromatin modifiers or reader domains, several of which have shown promise in clinical trials. In parallel, technical advances have greatly enhanced our ability to perform comprehensive chromatin/histone profiling. Despite the discovery that distinct histone profiles are associated with prognostic subgroups, and in some instances may point towards an underlying aberration that can be targeted, histone profiling has not entered clinical diagnostics. Even eligibility for clinical trials targeting chromatin hinges on traditional histologic or DNA-based molecular criteria rather than chromatin profiles. This review will give an overview of the philosophical debate around the role of histones in controlling or modulating gene expression and discuss the most common techniques for histone profiling. In addition, we will provide prominent examples of aberrantly expressed or mutated chromatin modifiers that result in either globally or locally aberrant histone profiles, and that may be promising therapeutic targets.

  8. Accelerated Profile HMM Searches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean R Eddy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs and probabilistic inference methods have made important contributions to the theory of sequence database homology search. However, practical use of profile HMM methods has been hindered by the computational expense of existing software implementations. Here I describe an acceleration heuristic for profile HMMs, the "multiple segment Viterbi" (MSV algorithm. The MSV algorithm computes an optimal sum of multiple ungapped local alignment segments using a striped vector-parallel approach previously described for fast Smith/Waterman alignment. MSV scores follow the same statistical distribution as gapped optimal local alignment scores, allowing rapid evaluation of significance of an MSV score and thus facilitating its use as a heuristic filter. I also describe a 20-fold acceleration of the standard profile HMM Forward/Backward algorithms using a method I call "sparse rescaling". These methods are assembled in a pipeline in which high-scoring MSV hits are passed on for reanalysis with the full HMM Forward/Backward algorithm. This accelerated pipeline is implemented in the freely available HMMER3 software package. Performance benchmarks show that the use of the heuristic MSV filter sacrifices negligible sensitivity compared to unaccelerated profile HMM searches. HMMER3 is substantially more sensitive and 100- to 1000-fold faster than HMMER2. HMMER3 is now about as fast as BLAST for protein searches.

  9. Human ration does not alter weight and body composition, but improves the lipid profile of overweight woman Ración humana no modifica el peso ni la composición corporal pero mejora el perfil lipídico de mujeres con sobrepeso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Marques Rocha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Brazil, a mixture of cereals known as "Human Ration" (HR has been consumed as a substitute for meals due to effects in satiation and weight loss. Methods: This paper evaluated the effect of HR consumption for 45 days as a breakfast replacement, on body composition, biochemical profile and eating behavior in women (n = 20 between 18-45 years old and with BMI between 27-35 kg/m². Results: The intake of HR did not promote significant changes in the body composition as well as in the mean serum values of glucose, HDL, VLDL, TC/HDL, AST and ALT. However, a significant change was noticed in the levels of TC, LDL and triglycerides (p 0.05. Regarding the consumption of total fibers, there was a significant increase (p Introducción: En Brasil, una mezcla de cereales conocidos como "Ração Humana" (HR se ha consumido como sustituto de las comidas debido a los efectos en la saciedad y en la pérdida de peso. Métodos: Se evaluó el efecto del consumo de HR durante 45 días, sustituyendo el desayuno, en la composición corporal, perfil bioquímico y en la conducta alimentaria en mujeres (n = 20 entre 18-45 años de edad y con IMC entre 27-35 kg/m². Resultados: La ingesta de HR no promovió cambios significativos en la composición corporal, así como en los valores medios de glucosa, colesterol HDL, VLDL, CT/HDL, AST y ALT en el suero. Sin embargo, se observaron cambios significativos en las concentraciones de CT, LDL y los triglicéridos (p 0,05. Respecto al consumo de fibras total, se observó un aumento significativo sólo para el desayuno (p < 0,05 en el periodo de consumo de HR en comparación con la ingesta habitual. El consumo de la HR no intervino en las sensaciones de saciedad, en el hambre y en la ingesta prospectiva entre los sujetos, presentando solamente alteraciones significativas durante todo el estudio. Conclusión: Los resultados son clínicamente relevantes, ya que pueden contribuir a la reducción de factores de riesgo

  10. Huh7.5.1细胞感染HCV观察干扰素治疗后miRNA表达谱变化%Alteration of mi-RNA expression profile after interferon treatment in HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁兖; 邢小康; 宋广忠; 陈智

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To screen the mi-RNA expression profile after interferon treatment in cells infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Methods: Huh-7. 5. 1 cells was infected with HCV by ire vitro transcription and cultured with interferon. The mi-RNA microarray was used to measure the mi-RNA expression in the control group, HCV transcription group and interference group. Intra-group differences were analyzed by the 2 ( -△△CT) method. Results: With mi-RNA expressed in normal Huh-7.5.1 cells as a benchmark, expressions of 13 kinds of mi-RN As were up-regulated after HCV infection and then down -regulated following interferon treatment; 7 were down-regulated after HCV infection and then up -regulated following interferon treatment. Conclusion: mi-RNA10a,mi-RNA21 ,mi-RNA149,mi-RNA152 and mi-RNA210 may be related to hepatitis C virus replication and transcription.%目的:探寻可能对丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)有作用的mi-RNA.方法:用体外转录得到的HCV感染正常的Huh-7.5.1细胞,然后加入干扰素作用,采用mi-RNA表达谱芯片技术,分别测定Huh-7.5.1细胞正常组和HCV感染组及干扰素作用组的mi-RNA的表达,采用2(- △△CT)法分析组间microRNA的表达情况.结果:以正常Huh-7.5.1细胞中表达的mi-RNA为基准,经过筛选发现13种mi-RNA在HCV感染后表达上调,而在干扰素治疗后则出现下调;另外还有7种mi-RNA则在HCV感染后出现表达下调,而在干扰素治疗后则发生上调.结论:mi-RNA10a、mi-RNA21、mi-RNA149和mi-RNA152及mi-RNA210可能与HCV的复制转录有关.

  11. Flap Conformations in HIV-1 Protease are Altered by Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanucci, Gail; Blackburn, Mandy; Veloro, Angelo; Galiano, Luis; Fangu, Ding; Simmerling, Carlos

    2009-03-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is an enzyme that is a major drug target in the treatment of AIDS. Although the structure and function of HIV-1 PR have been studied for over 20 years, questions remain regarding the conformations and dynamics of the β-hairpin turns (flaps) that cover the active site cavity. Distance measurements with pulsed EPR spectroscopy of spin labeled constructs of HIV-1 PR have been used to characterize the flap conformations in the apo and inhibitor bound states. From the most probably distances and the breadth of the distance distribution profiles from analysis of the EPR data, insights regarding the flap conformations and flexibility are gained. The EPR results clearly show how drug pressure selected mutations alter the average conformation of the flaps and the degree of opening of the flaps. Molecular dynamics simulations successfully regenerate the experimentally determined distance distribution profiles, and more importantly, provide structural models for full interpretation of the EPR results. By combining experiment and theory to understand the role that altered flap flexibility/conformations play in the mechanism of drug resistance, key insights are gained toward the rational development of new inhibitors of this important enzyme.

  12. Fenton reaction induced cancer in wild type rats recapitulates genomic alterations observed in human cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Akatsuka

    Full Text Available Iron overload has been associated with carcinogenesis in humans. Intraperitoneal administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate initiates a Fenton reaction in renal proximal tubules of rodents that ultimately leads to a high incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC after repeated treatments. We performed high-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridization to identify characteristics in the genomic profiles of this oxidative stress-induced rat RCCs. The results revealed extensive large-scale genomic alterations with a preference for deletions. Deletions and amplifications were numerous and sometimes fragmented, demonstrating that a Fenton reaction is a cause of such genomic alterations in vivo. Frequency plotting indicated that two of the most commonly altered loci corresponded to a Cdkn2a/2b deletion and a Met amplification. Tumor sizes were proportionally associated with Met expression and/or amplification, and clustering analysis confirmed our results. Furthermore, we developed a procedure to compare whole genomic patterns of the copy number alterations among different species based on chromosomal syntenic relationship. Patterns of the rat RCCs showed the strongest similarity to the human RCCs among five types of human cancers, followed by human malignant mesothelioma, an iron overload-associated cancer. Therefore, an iron-dependent Fenton chemical reaction causes large-scale genomic alterations during carcinogenesis, which may result in distinct genomic profiles. Based on the characteristics of extensive genome alterations in human cancer, our results suggest that this chemical reaction may play a major role during human carcinogenesis.

  13. Genetic alterations in pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer of the exocrine pancreas represents the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the Western population with an average survival after diagnosis of 3 to 6 months and a five-year survival rate under 5%. Our understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis has improved in the last few years due to the development of novel molecular biological techniques. Pancreatic cancer is a multi-stage process resulting from the accumulation of genetic changes in the somatic DNA of normal cells. In this article we describe major genetic alterations of pancreatic cancer, mutations in the proto-oncogene K-RAS and the tumor suppressors INK4A, TP53 and DPC4/SMAD4. The accumulation of these genetic changes leads to a profound disturbance in cell cycle regulation and continuous growth. The knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms will offer new therapeutic and diagnostic options and hopefully improve the outcome of this aggressive disease.

  14. Genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif; Lena Karapanagiotou; Kostas Syrigos

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating for patients and their relatives as the incidence rate is approximately the same as mortality rate. Only a small percentage, which ranges from 0.4% to 4% of patients who have been given this diagnosis, will be alive at five years. At the time of diagnosis, 80% of pancreatic cancer patients have unresectable or metastatic disease.Moreover, the therapeutic alternatives offered by chemotherapy or radiotherapy are few, if not zero. For all these reasons, there is an imperative need of analyzing and understanding the primitive lesions that lead to invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Molecular pathology of these lesions is the key of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of this cancer and will probably help us in earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic results. This review focuses on medical research on pancreatic cancer models and the underlying genetic alterations.

  15. Environmental profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute for Ecological Chemistry of the GSF in Munich, West Germany, developed a test system to evaluate the potential environmental hazard of chemicals. This so-called Environmental Profile Analysis is a test system for the screening of chemicals for their environmental behavior. The test system consists of the following five tests: (1) bio-accumulation in algae; (2) bio-accumulation in fish; (3) retention, dispersion, and excretion in rats (warm-blooded animals); (4) degradation, transformation and accumulation in activated sludge (microbial process); (5) photomineralization (abiotic process). The test system involves the use of radio-labeled test materials. This allows the use of scintillation counting as the universal analytical method and avoids the significant analytical limitations other methods are faced with. Also, the very sensitive method of scintillation counting allows the detection of traces of test materials and/or transformation products. Difficulties and risks of the use of radioactive materials can be eliminated by following strictly the procedures of the guidelines. A series of more than one hundred compounds belonging to widely different classes of compounds and displaying widely different application patterns and physicochemical properties has been tested so far. The test data for all the parameters of the five tests can be graphically presented creating a profile of parameters. The profile of the unknown materials is compared with the profile of compounds which are known to impose a burden on the environment. Potentially hazardous material is identified by similarities of the profiles and additional investigation should be performed. Through this comparison of profiles, the ecotoxicological profile analysis allows a quick recognition of potentially hazardous chemicals

  16. Gene expression following induction of regeneration in Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Expression profile of regenerating wing discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Enrique

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regeneration is the ability of an organism to rebuild a body part that has been damaged or amputated, and can be studied at the molecular level using model organisms. Drosophila imaginal discs, which are the larval primordia of adult cuticular structures, are capable of undergoing regenerative growth after transplantation and in vivo culture into the adult abdomen. Results Using expression profile analyses, we studied the regenerative behaviour of wing discs at 0, 24 and 72 hours after fragmentation and implantation into adult females. Based on expression level, we generated a catalogue of genes with putative role in wing disc regeneration, identifying four classes: 1 genes with differential expression within the first 24 hours; 2 genes with differential expression between 24 and 72 hours; 3 genes that changed significantly in expression levels between the two time periods; 4 genes with a sustained increase or decrease in their expression levels throughout regeneration. Among these genes, we identified members of the JNK and Notch signalling pathways and chromatin regulators. Through computational analysis, we recognized putative binding sites for transcription factors downstream of these pathways that are conserved in multiple Drosophilids, indicating a potential relationship between members of the different gene classes. Experimental data from genetic mutants provide evidence of a requirement of selected genes in wing disc regeneration. Conclusions We have been able to distinguish various classes of genes involved in early and late steps of the regeneration process. Our data suggests the integration of signalling pathways in the promoters of regulated genes.

  17. Alterações no perfil de frações nitrogenadas em calos de cana-de-açúcar induzidas por deficit hídrico Alterations on the profile of nitrogenous fractions in sugarcane calluses induced by water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Karla Felix Lima de Brito

    2008-06-01

    replicates. Calluses were submitted to PEG concentrations corresponding to osmotic potentials of 0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa, during 120 hours. The variation of relative water content and humidity showed no significant differences between the cultivars. However, it was observed a trend of increase in electrolyte leakage, in the resistant cultivar related to diminishig of the osmotic potential in resistant cultivar. In the sensible cultivar, it was observed a trend of increase in proline, while the resistant one showed decrease, though proline levels were not affected by the water deficit. The amino acid concentrations were bigger in the sensible cultivar. There was a decrease of ammonia in both cultivars. Protein levels were not affected by the PEG. The protein profile evaluated by SDS-PAGE showed no PEG-induced increase in the intensity of bands corresponding to peptides between 14 and 66 kDa. The physiological and biochemical parameters were not related to differential degree of resistance observed in cultivars under field conditions.

  18. Prenatal hyperandrogenism induces alterations that affect liver lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzese, Giselle Adriana; Heber, Maria Florencia; Ferreira, Silvana Rocio; Velez, Leandro Martin; Reynoso, Roxana; Pignataro, Omar Pedro; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal hyperandrogenism is hypothesized as one of the main factors contributing to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS patients have high risk of developing fatty liver and steatosis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of prenatal hyperandrogenism in liver lipid metabolism and fatty liver development. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone. At pubertal age, the prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) female offspring displayed both ovulatory (PHov) and anovulatory (PHanov) phenotypes that mimic human PCOS features. We evaluated hepatic transferases, liver lipid content, the balance between lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathway, oxidant/antioxidant balance and proinflammatory status. We also evaluated the general metabolic status through growth rate curve, basal glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR index and serum lipid profile. Although neither PH group showed signs of liver lipid content, the lipogenesis and fatty oxidation pathways were altered. The PH groups also showed impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, a decrease in the proinflammatory pathway (measured by prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels), decreased glucose tolerance, imbalance of circulating lipids and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. We conclude that prenatal hyperandrogenism generates both PHov and PHanov phenotypes with signs of liver alterations, imbalance in lipid metabolism and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The anovulatory phenotype showed more alterations in liver lipogenesis and a more impaired balance of insulin and glucose metabolism, being more susceptible to the development of steatosis. PMID:27179108

  19. Tendon Extracellular Matrix Alterations in Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Francesca; Traina, Francesco; Bondi, Alice; Merlini, Luciano; Santi, Spartaco; Maraldi, Nadir Mario; Faldini, Cesare; Sabatelli, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Collagen VI (COLVI) is a non-fibrillar collagen expressed in skeletal muscle and most connective tissues. Mutations in COLVI genes cause two major clinical forms, Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). In addition to congenital muscle weakness, patients affected by COLVI myopathies show axial and proximal joint contractures and distal joint hypermobility, which suggest the involvement of the tendon function. We examined a peroneal tendon biopsy and tenocyte culture of a 15-year-old patient affected by UCMD with compound heterozygous COL6A2 mutations. In patient's tendon biopsy, we found striking morphological alterations of tendon fibrils, consisting in irregular profiles and reduced mean diameter. The organization of the pericellular matrix of tenocytes, the primary site of collagen fibril assembly, was severely affected, as determined by immunoelectron microscopy, which showed an abnormal accumulation of COLVI and altered distribution of collagen I (COLI) and fibronectin (FBN). In patient's tenocyte culture, COLVI web formation and cell surface association were severely impaired; large aggregates of COLVI, which matched with COLI labeling, were frequently detected in the extracellular matrix. In addition, metalloproteinase MMP-2, an extracellular matrix-regulating enzyme, was increased in the conditioned medium of patient's tenocytes, as determined by gelatin zymography and western blot. Altogether, these data indicate that COLVI deficiency may influence the organization of UCMD tendon matrix, resulting in dysfunctional fibrillogenesis. The alterations of tendon matrix may contribute to the complex pathogenesis of COLVI related myopathies. PMID:27375477

  20. Tendon Extracellular Matrix Alterations in Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Francesca; Traina, Francesco; Bondi, Alice; Merlini, Luciano; Santi, Spartaco; Maraldi, Nadir Mario; Faldini, Cesare; Sabatelli, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Collagen VI (COLVI) is a non-fibrillar collagen expressed in skeletal muscle and most connective tissues. Mutations in COLVI genes cause two major clinical forms, Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). In addition to congenital muscle weakness, patients affected by COLVI myopathies show axial and proximal joint contractures and distal joint hypermobility, which suggest the involvement of the tendon function. We examined a peroneal tendon biopsy and tenocyte culture of a 15-year-old patient affected by UCMD with compound heterozygous COL6A2 mutations. In patient’s tendon biopsy, we found striking morphological alterations of tendon fibrils, consisting in irregular profiles and reduced mean diameter. The organization of the pericellular matrix of tenocytes, the primary site of collagen fibril assembly, was severely affected, as determined by immunoelectron microscopy, which showed an abnormal accumulation of COLVI and altered distribution of collagen I (COLI) and fibronectin (FBN). In patient’s tenocyte culture, COLVI web formation and cell surface association were severely impaired; large aggregates of COLVI, which matched with COLI labeling, were frequently detected in the extracellular matrix. In addition, metalloproteinase MMP-2, an extracellular matrix-regulating enzyme, was increased in the conditioned medium of patient’s tenocytes, as determined by gelatin zymography and western blot. Altogether, these data indicate that COLVI deficiency may influence the organization of UCMD tendon matrix, resulting in dysfunctional fibrillogenesis. The alterations of tendon matrix may contribute to the complex pathogenesis of COLVI related myopathies. PMID:27375477

  1. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  2. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  3. Detonation Wave Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  4. Profile Based Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar shaikh,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper present Profile Based information retrieval system(PBIR. This system provide the user to register with it and based on the users registered areas of interest the system searches the related and efficient information form the world wide web using the technique of web text mining and arranges the unstructured data into structured format and present it to the user. This system also stores the previously searched data and based on users areas of interest and rating awarded to the interest by the user his profile will be updated at particular scheduled time.

  5. Venture profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R F

    1985-01-01

    Imposed restrictions on inpatient revenue have encouraged hospitals to seek alternative sources of revenue through diversification. The venture profile analysis is a low-cost, orderly process to help hospitals plan for service diversification. Potential business ventures are assigned a weighted score based on nine evaluation criteria. Potential business ventures with high relative scores should be those opportunities with the greater prospects of success and those deserving of serious consideration by the hospital. The format of the profile facilitates active involvement of board members in the decision making process and prudent management of risk in market-based strategic planning. PMID:10300483

  6. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  7. Protamine alterations in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, Meritxell; Oliva, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Protamines are the major nuclear proteins in sperm cells, having a crucial role in the correct packaging of the paternal DNA. The fact that protamine haploinsufficiency in mice resulted in abnormal chromatin packaging and male infertility suggested that the protamines could also be important candidates in explaining some of the idiopathic male infertility cases in humans. The first clinical studies focused on analyzing protamines at the protein level. Various studies have found the presence of an altered amount of protamines in some infertile patients, in contrast to the normal situation in fertile individuals where the two protamines, protamine 1 and protamine 2, are both present in approximately equal quantities. Subsequently, the protamine genes were the subject of various mutational genetic screening studies in search of variants that could be associated with deregulation in the protamine expression observed. The results of these protamine mutational studies showed that the presence of high penetrant mutations is a very rare cause of male infertility. However, some variants and some haplotypes described may behave as risk factors for male infertility. More recently, the presence of RNA in the mature sperm cell has also been investigated. The present chapter will introduce the basic aspects of protamine evolution and function and review the various articles published to date on the relationship between the protamines studied at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels and male infertility. PMID:23955674

  8. Culinary Arts Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This chart is intended for use in documenting the fact that a student participating in a culinary arts program has achieved the performance standards specified in the Missouri Competency Profile for culinary arts. The chart includes space for recording basic student and instructor information and the student's on-the-job training and work…

  9. Low profile thermite igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Danny L.; Mohler, Jonathan H.

    1991-03-05

    A thermite igniter/heat source comprising a housing, high-density thermite, and low-density thermite. The housing has a relatively low profile and can focus energy by means of a torch-like ejection of hot reaction products and is externally ignitable.

  10. Origins of metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur B; Robinson, Noah E

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative metabolic profiling originated as a 10-year project carried out between 1968 and 1978 in California. It was hypothesized and then demonstrated that quantitative analysis of a large number of metabolites - selected by analytical convenience and evaluated by computerized pattern recognition - could serve as a useful method for the quantitative measurement of human health. Using chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods to measure between 50 and 200 metabolites in more than 15,000 human specimens, statistically significant and diagnostically useful profiles for several human diseases and for other systematic variables including age, diet, fasting, sex, and other variables were demonstrated. It was also shown that genetically distinct metabolic profiles for each individual are present in both newborn infants and adults. In the course of this work, the many practical and conceptual problems involved in sampling, analysis, evaluation of results, and medical use of quantitative metabolic profiling were considered and, for the most part, solved. This article is an account of that research project. PMID:21207281

  11. COMPENDEX Profile Adjustment Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standera, Oldrich

    If an information system is to survive, the users must be satisfied that it meets their needs promptly and consistently. It is essential to react quickly to any undesired result such as an extemely high or low output, too low a relevance or recall, or both. The search editor should feel responsbile not only for the profile setup but also for its…

  12. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  13. Hyperglycaemia Alters Thymic Epithelial Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Alexandrovna Abramova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is considered to be a consequence of unchecked auto-immune processes. Alterations in immune system responses are thought to be the cause of the disease, but the possibility that altered metabolite levels (glucose can establish the disease by specifically acting on and altering thymus stroma functions has not been investigated. Therefore, the direct effect of hyperglycaemia (HG on central tolerance mechanisms as a causative agent needs to be investigated.

  14. Rural Electric Network Alteration Spurs Cable Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Most aluminum cable enterprises in Yunnan and Zhejiang focus their production capacity on overhead cables needed in rural electric network alteration. During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, China launched the rural electric network alteration & upgrade project. As of the middle of 2011, the budget of the central government for the rural electric network alteration & upgrade project planned by the National Development and Reform Commission has reached up to RMB 64.96 billion.

  15. [Safety profile of dolutegravir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Domingo, Pere

    2015-03-01

    Integrase inhibitors are the latest drug family to be added to the therapeutic arsenal against human immunodeficiency virus infection. Drugs in this family that do not require pharmacological boosting are characterized by a very good safety profile. The latest integrase inhibitor to be approved for use is dolutegravir. In clinical trials, dolutegravir has shown an excellent tolerability profile, both in antiretroviral-naïve and previously treated patients. Discontinuation rates due to adverse effects were 2% and 3%, respectively. The most frequent adverse effects were nausea, headache, diarrhea and sleep disturbance. A severe hypersensitivity reaction has been reported in only one patient. In patients coinfected with hepatropic viruses, the safety profile is similar to that in patients without coinfection. The lipid profile of dolutegravir is similar to that of raltegravir and superior to those of Atripla® and darunavir/ritonavir. Dolutegravir induces an early, predictable and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine of around 10% of baseline values in treatment-naïve patients and of 14% in treatment-experienced patients. This increase is due to inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion through the OCT2 receptor and does not lead to a real decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate with algorithms that include serum creatinine. The effect of the combination of dolutegravir plus Kivexa(®) on biomarkers of bone remodeling is lower than that of Atripla(®). Dolutegravir has an excellent tolerability profile with no current evidence of long-term adverse effects. Its use is accompanied by an early and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine due to OCT2 receptor inhibition. In combination with abacavir/lamivudine, dolutegravir has a lower impact than enofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz on bone remodelling markers. PMID:25858606

  16. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nFetal biophysical profile scoring is a sonographic-based method of fetal assessment first described by Manning and Platt in 1980. "nThe biophysical profile score was developed as a method to integrate real-time observations of the fetus and his/her intrauterine environment in order to more comprehensively assess the fetal condition. These findings must be evaluated in the context of maternal/fetal history (i.e., chronic hypertension, post-dates, intrauterine growth restriction, etc, fetal structural integrity (presence or absence of congenital anomalies, and the functionality of fetal support structures (placental and umbilical cord. For example, acute asphyxia due to placental abruption may result in an absence of the acute variables of the biophysical profile score (fetal breathing movements, fetal movement, fetal tone, and fetal heart rate reactivity with a normal amniotic fluid volume. With post maturity the asphyxial event may be intermittent and chronic resulting in a decrease in amniotic fluid volume, but with the acute variables remaining normal. "nWhile the 5 components of the biophysical profile score have remained unchanged since 1980 (Manning, 1980, the definitions of a normal and abnormal parameter have evolved with increasing experience. "nIn 1984 the definition of oligohydramnios was increased from < 1cm pocket of fluid to < 2.0 x 1.0 cm pocket. Oligohydramnios is now defined as a pocket of amniotic fluid < 2.0 x 2.0 cm (Manning, 1995a "nIf the four ultrasound variables are normal, the accuracy of the biophysical profile score was not found to be significantly improved by adding the non-stress test. As a result, in 1987 the profile score was modified to incorporate the non-stress test only when one of the ultrasound variables was abnormal (Manning 1987. Table 1 outlines the current definitions for quantifying a variable as present or absent. "nEach of the 5 components of the biophysical profile score does not have equal

  17. A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2013-01-01

    Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....

  18. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter;

    statistical learning, causing comparatively sharper key profiles in musicians, we hypothesised that musical learning can be modelled as a process of entropy reduction through experience. Specifically, implicit learning of statistical regularities allows reduction in the relative entropy (i.e. symmetrised...... Kullback-Leibler or Jensen-Shannon Divergence) between listeners’ prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions of a musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians were revisited. In Experiments 1-2 participants...... and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure to novel music. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions, statistical learning over varying timescales enables listeners to generate melodic expectations with reduced entropy...

  19. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter;

    Melodic expectations have long been quantified using expectedness ratings. Motivated by statistical learning and sharper key profiles in musicians, we model musical learning as a process of reducing the relative entropy between listeners' prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions...... of a given musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians are revisited. Exp. 1-2 used jazz, classical and hymn melodies. Exp. 3-5 collected ratings before and after exposure to 5, 15 or 400 novel melodies generated from...... a finite-state grammar using the Bohlen-Pierce scale. We find group differences in entropy corresponding to degree and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions by default, statistical...

  20. Temperature profiles of impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-05-01

    Similarity solutions determine the profiles of density and temperature from impacts, which determine the scaling of the temperature and optical depth on material parameters, time, screening, and impactor size. This note uses scaling results derived earlier for the growth, size, and temperature produced by impacts to discuss the radial temperature profiles they produce. While the plasmas cool in milliseconds, they offer unique information about the thermodynamic state and material properties of the target material. The brightness temperature can be estimated from known two-dimensional similarity solutions. Regions close to unit optical thickness contribute effectively to the radiation, hence, they determine the plasma brightness temperature. The estimates of temperature as a function of time can be combined with the estimates of the exit hole size to estimate the total observable signal, which should be readily observable from distances of hundreds of kilometers.

  1. Cinnarizine: Comprehensive Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haress, Nadia G

    2015-01-01

    Cinnarizine is a piperazine derivative with antihistaminic, antiserotonergic, antidopaminergic, and calcium channel-blocking activities. A comprehensive profile was performed on cinnarizine including its description and the different methods of analysis. The 1H NMR and 13C one- and two-dimensional NMR methods were used. In addition, infrared and mass spectral analyses were performed which all confirmed the structure of cinnarizine. PMID:26051684

  2. In search of the entrepreneurial profile(s) in Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Dimaria, Charles-Henri; Ries, Jean

    2006-01-01

    This article tries to characterize the profiles of entrepreneurs in Luxembourg. First, theoretical benchmark definitions of entrepreneur and entrepreneurship are surveyed and descriptive statistics are computed to define an average profile of the entrepreneur using a new and original dataset for Luxembourg. Then, using the Factors of Business Success survey (FoBS), clustering techniques are used to determine potential entrepreneurial profiles in Luxembourg.

  3. Wide HI profile galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah; Zitrin, Adi

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the nature of objects in a complete sample of 28 galaxies selected from the first sky area fully covered by ALFALFA, being well-detected and having HI profiles wider than 550 km/s. The selection does not use brightness, morphology, or any other property derived from optical or other spectral bands. We investigate the degree of isolation, the morphology, and other properties gathered or derived from open data bases and show that some objects have wide HI profiles probably because they are disturbed or are interacting, or might be confused in the ALFALFA beam. We identify a sub-sample of 14 galaxies lacking immediate interacting neighbours and showing regular, symmetric, two-horned HI profiles that we propose as candidate high-mass disk systems (CHMDs). We measure the net-Halpha emission from the CHMDs and combine this with public multispectral data to model the global star formation (SF) properties of each galaxy. The Halpha observations show SFRs not higher than a few solar masses per year. Sim...

  4. A profile of profiles: A meta-analysis of the nomological net of commitment profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabins, Adam H; Xu, Xiaohong; Bergman, Mindy E; Berry, Christopher M; Willson, Victor L

    2016-06-01

    Although the majority of empirical commitment research has adopted a variable-centered approach, the person-centered or profiles approach is gaining traction. One challenge in the commitment profiles literature is that names are attached to profiles based on the within-study comparison among profiles and their relative levels and shapes. Thus, it is possible that different studies name the same profiles differently or different profiles similarly because of the context of the other profiles in the study. A meta-analytic approach, combined with multilevel latent profile analysis (LPA) that accounts for both within- and between-sample variability, is used in this study to examine the antecedents and outcomes of commitment profiles. This helps solve the naming problem by examining multiple data sets (K = 40) with a large sample (N = 16,052), obtained by contacting commitment researchers who voluntarily supplied primary data to bring further consensus about the phenomenology of profiles. LPA results revealed 5 profiles (Low, Moderate, AC-dominant, AC/NC-dominant, and High). Meta-analytic results revealed that high levels of bases of commitment were associated with value-based profiles whereas low levels were associated with weak commitment profiles. Additionally, value-based profiles were associated with older, married, and less educated participants than the weak commitment profiles. Regarding outcomes of commitment, profiles were found to significantly relate to focal behaviors (e.g., performance, tenure, and turnover) and discretionary behaviors (e.g., organizational citizenship behaviors). Value-based profiles were found to have higher levels of both focal and discretionary behaviors for all analyses. Implications for the commitment and profile literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26949821

  5. Water–rock interaction on the development of granite gneissic weathered profiles in Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Vyshnavi; R Islam

    2015-07-01

    The development and sustainability of weathered profiles are very difficult in the Himalaya due to its complex lithology, tectonic history and fast erosion. Despite this, two weathered profiles namely WPa (weathered profile a) and WPb (weathered profile b) which have sustained erosion are developed on porphyry granite gneiss and granite gneissic lithology in Alaknanda valley of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya. Systematic sampling of these two weathered profiles was done from bottom to top and they were chemically analysed to understand the elemental mobility in each profile. Major, trace and rare earth element studies show dissimilar behaviour with the advancement of weathering. In WPa profile, the CIA value of LAR (LAR) is 50 which reveals that the rock has not suffered any alteration but in WPb profile, the CIA value of LAR is 64 which indicates significant amount of chemical alteration. A–CN–K projection also exhibits similar behaviour. Further, the relative mobility of all the major and trace elements show variable elemental distribution in both the profiles. Enrichment of Mg, Fe, Ti, Al, Co, Ni, Zr, LREE and depletion of Na, K, P, Ca, Si, LILE and HFSE are observed in WPa profile; while the depletion of Na, K, Ca, P, Si, HREE and enhancement of Fe, Mn, Ti, Sc, Co, Zr, LREE are noticed in WPb profile. The rare earth elements also show a dissimilar mobilization pattern in both the profiles due to their strong dependency on lithology, and corresponding climate and tectonic interaction. Contrasting elemental mobility in both the profiles depict the major role in disparity of lithological characters and subsequent development of fractures produced by the major thrust system (Ramgarh thrust) which made an easy passage for rain water, thus causing the development of a chemically altered profile in the Lesser Himalayan region. Further, the present study infers the climate and tectonic milieu which is responsible for the development of such weathered profiles in

  6. 14 CFR 26.45 - Holders of type certificates-Alterations and repairs to alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holders of type certificates-Alterations... AIRPLANES Aging Airplane Safety-Damage Tolerance Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.45 Holders of type... alteration data developed by the holder of a type certificate, the holder must— (1) Review...

  7. Effects of immunostimulation on social behavior, chemical communication and genome-wide gene expression in honey bee workers (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates. We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel of different immune stimulants (saline, Sephadex beads and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. Results While only bacteria-injected bees elicited altered behavioral responses from healthy nestmates compared to controls, all treatments resulted in significant changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Immunostimulation caused significant changes in expression of hundreds of genes, the majority of which have not been identified as members of the canonical immune response pathways. Furthermore, several new candidate genes that may play a role in cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis were identified. Effects of immune challenge expression of several genes involved in immune response, cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and the Notch signaling pathway were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we identified common genes regulated by pathogen challenge in honey bees and other insects. Conclusions These results demonstrate that

  8. Oxacillin alters the toxin expression profile of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkin, Justine K; Laabei, Maisem; Edwards, Andrew M; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Otto, Michael; Lennon, Katrina L; O'Gara, James P; Waterfield, Nicholas R; Massey, Ruth C

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a growing cause for concern. These strains are more virulent than health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) due to higher levels of toxin expression. In a previous study, we showed that the high-level expression of PBP2a, the alternative penicillin binding protein encoded by the mecA gene on type II staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements, reduced toxicity by interfering with the Agr quorum sensing system. This was not seen in strains carrying the CA-MRSA-associated type IV SCCmec element. These strains express significantly lower levels of PBP2a than the other MRSA type, which may explain their relatively high toxicity. We hypothesized that as oxacillin is known to increase mecA expression levels, it may be possible to attenuate the toxicity of CA-MRSA by using this antibiotic. Subinhibitory oxacillin concentrations induced PBP2a expression, repressed Agr activity, and, as a consequence, decreased phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) secretion by CA-MRSA strains. However, consistent with other studies, oxacillin also increased the expression levels of alpha-toxin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). The net effect of these changes on the ability to lyse diverse cell types was tested, and we found that where the PSMs and alpha-toxin are important, oxacillin reduced overall lytic activity, but where PVL is important, it increased lytic activity, demonstrating the pleiotropic effect of oxacillin on toxin expression by CA-MRSA.

  9. Alteration of metabolomic profiles by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human gingivitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Contreras, Rene; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Umemura, Naoki; Kaneko, Miku; Hatakeyama, Yoko; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio J; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalia; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Although nanoparticles (NPs) has afforded considerable benefits in various fields of sciences, several reports have shown their harmful effects, suggesting the necessity of adequate risk assessment. To clarify the mechanism of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs)-enhanced gingival inflammation, we conducted the full-scale metabolomic analyses of human gingival fibroblast cells treated with IL-1β alone or in combination with TiO2 NPs. Observation with transmission electron microscope demonstrated the incorporation of TiO2 NPs into vacuoles of the cells. TiO2 NPs significantly enhanced the IL-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 production and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression. IL-1β reduced the intracellular concentrations of overall primary metabolites especially those of amino acid, urea cycle, polyamine, S-adenosylmethione and glutathione synthetic pathways. The addition of TiO2 NPs further augmented these IL-1β-induced metabolic changes, recommending careful use of dental materials containing TiO2 NPs towards patients with gingivitis or periodontitis. The impact of the present study is to identify the molecular targets of TiO2 NPs for the future establishment of new metabolic markers and therapeutic strategy of gingival inflammation.

  10. Lipid profile alterations and fasting blood glucose levels in primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maram Sushma

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: Hypothyroid patients demonstrate significant increase in serum lipids as compared to healthy individuals. More females are diagnosed with hypothyroidism and dyslipidemia is associated with primary hypothyroidism. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1694-1698

  11. The collagen turnover profile is altered in patients with inguinal and incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Mortensen, Joachim H; Sorensen, Lars T;

    2015-01-01

    in the interstitial matrix (types I, III, and V collagens) and in the basement membrane (type IV collagen). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with 3 different types of hernias were included: Primary unilateral inguinal hernia (n = 17), multiple hernias defined as ≥3 hernias (n = 21), and incisional hernia (n = 25......). Patients without hernias scheduled to undergo elective operation for gallstones (n = 18) served as controls. Whole venous blood was collected preoperatively. Biomarkers for synthesis of interstitial matrix (PINP, Pro-C3, P5CP) and basement membrane (P4NP) as well as corresponding degradation (C1M, C3M, C5M...

  12. Microarray profiling of lymphocytes in internal diseases with an altered immune response : Potential and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladkevich, A; Nelemans, SA; Kauffman, HF; Korf, J

    2005-01-01

    Recently it has become possible to investigate expression of all human genes with microarray technique. The authors provide arguments to consider peripheral white blood cells and in particular lymphocytes as a model for the investigation of pathophysiology of asthma, RA, and SLE diseases in which in

  13. Cultivation conditions and selenium fertilization alter the phenolic profile, glucosinolate, and sulforaphane content of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Banuelos, Gary; Finley, John W

    2005-01-01

    Broccoli is a food often consumed for its potential health-promoting properties. The health benefits of broccoli are partly associated with secondary plant compounds that have bioactivity; glucosinolates and phenolic acids are two of the most abundant and important in broccoli. In an effort to determine how variety, stress, and production conditions affect the production of these bioactive components broccoli was grown in the greenhouse with and without selenium (Se) fertilization, and in the field under conventional or organic farming procedures and with or without water stress. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify 12 primary phenolic compounds. Variety had a major effect: There was a preponderance of flavonoids in the Majestic variety, but hydroxycinnamic esters were relatively more abundant in the Legacy variety. Organic farming and water stress decreased the overall production of phenolics. Se fertilization increased glucosinolates in general, and sulforaphane in particular, up to a point; above that Se fertilization decreased glucosinolate production. Organic farming and water stress also decreased glucosinolate production. These data show environmental and genetic variation in phenolics and glucosinolates in broccoli, and warn that not all broccoli may contain all health-promoting bioactive components. They further show that selection for one bioactive component (Se) may decrease the content of other bioactive components such as phenolics and glucosinolates. PMID:16117613

  14. Altered Blood Biomarker Profiles in Athletes with a History of Repetitive Head Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The long-term health effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport are unknown. Growing evidence suggests both inflammation and neurodegeneration are pivotal to secondary injury processes and the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we characterized circulating brain injury and inflammatory mediators in healthy male and female athletes according to concussion history and collision sport participation. Eighty-seven university level athletes (male, n = 60; female, n = 27) were recruited before the start of the competitive season. Athletes were healthy at the time of the study (no medications, illness, concussion or musculoskeletal injuries). Dependent variables included 29 inflammatory and 10 neurological injury analytes assessed in the peripheral blood by immunoassay. Biomarkers were statistically evaluated using partial least squares multivariate analysis to identify possible relationships to self-reported previous concussion history, number of previous concussions and collision sport participation in male and female athletes. Multiple concussions were associated with increases in peripheral MCP-1 in females, and MCP-4 in males. Collision sport participation was associated with increases in tau levels in males. These results are consistent with previous experimental and clinical findings that suggest ongoing inflammatory and cerebral injury processes after repetitive mild head trauma. However, further validation is needed to correlate systemic biomarkers to repetitive brain impacts, as opposed to the extracranial effects common to an athletic population such as exercise and muscle damage. PMID:27458972

  15. Selenium-enriched durum wheat improves the nutritional profile of pasta without altering its organoleptic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Pasquale; Platani, Cristiano; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Colecchia, Salvatore Antonio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Petrozza, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted over three growing seasons (2006-07, 2008-09 and 2009-10) to evaluate Se-enriched pasta through foliar fertilization at various rates and timing of application on 4 durum wheat varieties. Our findings confirm the effectiveness of foliar Se fertilization to increase Se concentrations in durum wheat grain, even at high Se rates (120gSeha(-1)). Se fortification was significant across different genotypes, with greater Se accumulation in landraces ('Timilia') and obsolete varieties ('Cappelli'), with respect to modern varieties. The Se content in the grain was increased by up to 35-fold that of the untreated control. The Se concentration decreased during milling (11%), while processing and cooking of pasta did not show significant decreases. This biofortification stategy had no effects on grain quality parameters, except for reduced gluten index in the high-gluten variety PR22D89, as well as for the sensorial properties of the spaghetti.

  16. Protective Effect of Dodonaea viscosa (L) Against Lead Acetate Induced Altered Glycoprotein Profiles in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sivanesan, D.; Selvi, A. V. Veera Thamarai; Bhakyaraj, R.; Arunachalam, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the inhibitory effect of crude leaves of Dodonaea viscosa (L) on lead acetate induced synthesis of glycoproteins and sialic acid in liver and plasma. Enhanced synthesis of glycoproteins (protein - bound hexose and protein - bound hexosamine) and sialic acid levels were found in liver and plasma of the lead acetate poisoned rats. Administration of crude leaves of D.viscosa (100 mg/100 g body weight P.O.) effectively suppressed the synthesis of glycop...

  17. Altered volatile profile associated with precopulatory mate guarding attracts spider mite males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Keiko; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Poelman, Erik H; De Jong, Peter W; Dicke, Marcel

    2015-02-01

    Proximate factors affecting animal behavior include stimuli generated by conspecifics. In spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae), males guard pre-reproductive quiescent females, because only the first mating results in fertilization. In a dual-choice experiment, more adult males of T. urticae were attracted to females guarded by a male than to solitary females. Because spider mites are known to perceive volatiles, we hypothesized that guarded and solitary females differ in the volatile blends emitted. To test this hypothesis, headspace volatiles of guarded females, solitary females, and solitary males were collected, respectively. GC/MS analysis detected octanal, methyl salicylate, ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate, and methyl cis-dihydrojasmonate in all of the groups. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) of the blends clearly discriminated guarded females from solitary females, supporting our hypothesis. Individual compounds did not show significant difference in emission rates for guarded females vs. solitary females, suggesting that differences lay in the total blend composition. OPLS-DA did not discriminate between the blends emitted by guarded females and solitary males. In conclusion, the differences in the volatile blends are likely to mediate male discrimination between guarded and solitary females.

  18. Melatonin alters the glycolytic profile of Sertoli cells: implications for male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cátia S; Martins, Ana D; Rato, Luís; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F; Alves, Marco G

    2014-11-01

    Melatonin co-operates with insulin in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Within the testis, glucose metabolism in the somatic Sertoli cells (SCs) is pivotal for spermatogenesis. Since the effects of melatonin on male reproductive physiology remain largely unknown, we hypothesized that melatonin may affect spermatogenesis by modulating SC metabolism, interacting with insulin. To test our hypothesis, rat SCs were maintained in culture for 24 h in the presence of insulin, melatonin or both and metabolite production/consumption was determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR). Protein levels of glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporter 4 were determined by western blot. LDH activity was also assessed. SCs treated with melatonin showed an increase in glucose consumption via modulation of GLUT1 levels, but decreased LDH protein expression and activity, which resulted in lower lactate production. Moreover, SCs exposed to melatonin produced and accumulated less acetate than insulin-exposed cells. The combined treatment (insulin plus melatonin) increased acetate production by SCs, but intracellular acetate content remained lower than in insulin exposed cells. Finally, the intracellular redox state, as reflected by intracellular lactate/alanine ratio, was maintained at control levels in SCs by melatonin exposure (i.e. melatonin, alone or with insulin, increased the lactate/alanine ratio versus cells treated with insulin). Furthermore, SCs exposed to insulin plus melatonin produced more lactate and maintained the protein levels of some glycolysis-related enzymes and transporters at control levels. These findings illustrate that melatonin regulates SCs metabolism, and thus may affect spermatogenesis. Since lactate produced by SCs provides nutritional support and has an anti-apoptotic effect in developing germ cells, melatonin supplementation may be an effective therapy for diabetic male individuals facing subfertility/infertility. PMID:25205674

  19. Malnutrition in Healthy Individuals Results in Increased Mixed Cytokine Profiles, Altered Neutrophil Subsets and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele, Y; Adem, E; Getahun, M; Tajebe, F; Kiflie, A; Hailu, A; Raynes, J; Mengesha, B; Ayele, T A; Shkedy, Z; Lemma, M; Diro, E; Toulza, F; Modolell, M; Munder, M; Müller, I; Kropf, P

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly associated with increased infectious disease susceptibility and severity. Whereas malnutrition might enhance the incidence of disease as well as its severity, active infection can in turn exacerbate malnutrition. Therefore, in a malnourished individual suffering from a severe infection, it is not possible to determine the contribution of the pre-existing malnutrition and/or the infection itself to increased disease severity. In the current study we focussed on two groups of malnourished, but otherwise healthy individuals: moderately malnourished (BMI: 18.4-16.5) and severely malnourished (BMI groups, as well as a similar ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We found significant correlations between low BMI and increased levels of T helper (Th) 1 (Interferon (IFN)-γ, (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), as well as IL-10, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, but not IL-8 or C reactive protein. The activities of arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, were similar in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from all groups and no differences in the expression levels of CD3ζ, a marker of T cell activation, were observed in CD4+ and CD8+T cells. Furthermore, whereas the capacity of neutrophils from the malnourished groups to phagocytose particles was not impaired, their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species was impaired. Finally we evaluated the frequency of a subpopulation of low-density neutrophils and show that they are significantly increased in the malnourished individuals. These differences were more pronounced in the severely malnourished group. In summary, our results show that even in the absence of apparent infections, healthy malnourished individuals display dysfunctional immune responses that might contribute to increased susceptibility and severity to infectious diseases. PMID:27548305

  20. Passive immune globulin therapy in the SIV/macaque model : Early intervention can alter disease profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haigwood, NL; Watson, A; Sutton, WF; McClure, J; Lewis, A; Ranchalis, J; Travis, B; Voss, G; Letvin, NL; Hu, SL; Hirsch, VM; Johnson, PR

    1996-01-01

    One of the major questions in AIDS is the role that the host immune system and the virus play in the dynamics of infection and the development of AIDS in an infected individual. In order to test the role of antibody in controlling viral infection, high-dose SIV-immune globulin was passively transfer

  1. Proteome profiling reveals regional protein alteration in cerebrum of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) exposed to methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yueting; Yamamoto, Megumi; Figeys, Daniel; Ning, Zhibin; Chan, Hing Man

    2016-03-10

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to selectively damage the calcarine and precentral cortices along deep sulci and fissures in adult cases, but the detailed mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to identify and analyze the differential proteome expression in two regions of the cerebrum (the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe including the calcarine sulcus) of the common marmoset exposed to MeHg using a shot-gun proteomic approach. A total of 1045 and 1062 proteins were identified in the frontal lobe (FL) and occipital lobe (OL), of which, 62 and 89 proteins were found significantly changed with MeHg exposure. Functional enrichment/depletion analysis showed that the lipid metabolic process and proteolysis were affected in both two lobes. Functional changes in FL were characterized in cell cycle and cell division, sulfur compound metabolic process, microtubule-based process and glycerolipid metabolic process. In comparison, proteins were enriched in the functions of transport, carbohydrate metabolic process, chemical caused homeostasis and regulation of body fluid levels in OL. Pathway analysis predicted that vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption was disturbed in MeHg-treated FL. Our results showed that MeHg induced regional specific protein changes in FL and OL but with similar endpoint effects such as energy diminish and disruption of water transport. APOE and GPX1 were shown to be possible key proteins targeted by MeHg leading to multiple functional changes in OL. This is the first report of the whole proteome changes of primate cerebrum for MeHg neurotoxicity, and the results will contribute to the understanding of molecular basis of MeHg intoxication in humans.

  2. Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Suk Chul [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Mi [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yu Mi [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwanghee [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cha Soon; Yang, Kwang Hee; Jin, Young-Woo [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Soon [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan 612-030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Sun, E-mail: hskimdvm@khnp.co.kr [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-09

    While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7 mGy/h) and low (3.95 mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4{sup +} T, CD8{sup +} T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1{alpha}, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-{gamma}. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose {gamma}-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

  3. Altered Blood Biomarker Profiles in Athletes with a History of Repetitive Head Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P Di Battista

    Full Text Available The long-term health effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport are unknown. Growing evidence suggests both inflammation and neurodegeneration are pivotal to secondary injury processes and the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we characterized circulating brain injury and inflammatory mediators in healthy male and female athletes according to concussion history and collision sport participation. Eighty-seven university level athletes (male, n = 60; female, n = 27 were recruited before the start of the competitive season. Athletes were healthy at the time of the study (no medications, illness, concussion or musculoskeletal injuries. Dependent variables included 29 inflammatory and 10 neurological injury analytes assessed in the peripheral blood by immunoassay. Biomarkers were statistically evaluated using partial least squares multivariate analysis to identify possible relationships to self-reported previous concussion history, number of previous concussions and collision sport participation in male and female athletes. Multiple concussions were associated with increases in peripheral MCP-1 in females, and MCP-4 in males. Collision sport participation was associated with increases in tau levels in males. These results are consistent with previous experimental and clinical findings that suggest ongoing inflammatory and cerebral injury processes after repetitive mild head trauma. However, further validation is needed to correlate systemic biomarkers to repetitive brain impacts, as opposed to the extracranial effects common to an athletic population such as exercise and muscle damage.

  4. Exercise alters liver mitochondria phospholipidomic profile and mitochondrial activity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Inês O; Maciel, Elisabete; Passos, Emanuel; Torrella, Joan R.; Rizo, David; Viscor, Ginés; Rocha-Rodrigues, Silvia; Santos-Alves, Estela; Domingues, Maria R.; Oliveira, Paulo J; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane lipid composition is a critical factor in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Exercise is the most prescribed therapeutic strategy against NASH and a potential modulator of lipid membrane. Thus, we aimed to analyze whether physical exercise exerted preventive (voluntary physical activity – VPA) and therapeutic (endurance training – ET) effect on NASH-induced mitochondrial membrane changes. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 36) were divided into standard-diet sedentary (SS, n =...

  5. Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7 mGy/h) and low (3.95 mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1α, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-γ. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose γ-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

  6. Oak protein profile alterations upon root colonization by an ectomycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiana, Mónica; Martins, Joana; Figueiredo, Andreia;

    2016-01-01

    An increased knowledge on the real impacts of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in forest species is needed to optimize forest sustainable productivity and thus to improve forest services and their capacity to act as carbon sinks. In this study, we investigated the response of an oak species to ectomycor...

  7. PCBs are associated with altered gene transcript profiles in arctic Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marie; Loseto, Lisa L; Helbing, Caren C; Veldhoen, Nik; Dangerfield, Neil J; Ross, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    High trophic level arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POP) originating primarily from southern latitudes. We collected samples from 43 male beluga harvested by Inuvialuit hunters (2008-2010) in the Beaufort Sea to evaluate the effects of POPs on the levels of 13 health-related gene transcripts using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Consistent with their role in detoxification, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) (r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.045 for 2008 and 2009) and cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1a1) (r(2) = 0.20, p whales during these two years. While this provides insight into the legacy of PCBs in a remote environment, the possible impacts of a changing ice climate on the health of beluga underscores the need for long-term studies. PMID:24490950

  8. Fertility profile of post Fourniers gangrene patients:Does neoscrotal environment alter fertility?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zulqarnain Masoodi; Imran Ahmad; Fahad Khurram

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain changes in fertility in post Fournier’s gangrene patients on account of changed scrotal environment. Methods: Sixty post Fournier’s patients were as cases and 50 non Fournier’s individuals aptlyserved as controls. All subjects were followed up for 1 year. Aspects of fertility were investigated by means of a seminogram at 6 months and analysis for volume, viscosity, sperm concentration, motility and morphology according to WHO guidelines was done. Ability of the couples to conceive children in 1 year was also noted. The control group was investigated similarly and values were compared for significance. Results:The seminogram results were found out to be highly significant as there was marked difference in values (chi-square value 6.28, P-value< 0.012) whereas there was no significant association between attaining pregnancy at 1 year in two groups. Conclusions:A readily palpable difference in the seminogram values observed in Fournier’s patients is the most significant finding of this study. Also highlighted was that despite such seminogram changes the overall ability of the couple to achieve pregnancy remains unaltered.

  9. Chia induces clinically discrete weight loss and improves lipid profile only in altered previous values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Toscano, Luciana; Tavares Toscano, Lydiane; Leite Tavares, Renata; da Oliveira Silva, Cássia Surama; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2014-12-14

    Introducción: Debido al alto contenido de fibra dietética, la chía (Salvia hispánica L.) han sido propuesta para la pérdida de peso y mejora del perfil lipídico y glucémico. Pero los datos en humanos son escasos o inexistentes, en función de la variable analizada. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con harina de chía en la composición corporal, perfil lipídico y glucémico de individuos con sobrepeso y obesidad. Métodos: hombres y mujeres fueron asignados aleatoriamente en grupos que consumieron 35 g / día de chía (CHIA; n = 19; 48.8 ± 1.8 años) o placebo (PLA; n = 7; 51.4 ± 3.1 años) durante 12 semanas. La composición corporal y el consumo de alimentos fueron evaluados la cada cuatro semanas de intervención. Perfil lipídico y los niveles de glucosa se midieron al principio y al final del estudio. Resultados: La chía promovió reducción significativa en el peso corporal (-1.1kg; p.

  10. Proteome profiling reveals regional protein alteration in cerebrum of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) exposed to methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yueting; Yamamoto, Megumi; Figeys, Daniel; Ning, Zhibin; Chan, Hing Man

    2016-03-10

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to selectively damage the calcarine and precentral cortices along deep sulci and fissures in adult cases, but the detailed mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to identify and analyze the differential proteome expression in two regions of the cerebrum (the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe including the calcarine sulcus) of the common marmoset exposed to MeHg using a shot-gun proteomic approach. A total of 1045 and 1062 proteins were identified in the frontal lobe (FL) and occipital lobe (OL), of which, 62 and 89 proteins were found significantly changed with MeHg exposure. Functional enrichment/depletion analysis showed that the lipid metabolic process and proteolysis were affected in both two lobes. Functional changes in FL were characterized in cell cycle and cell division, sulfur compound metabolic process, microtubule-based process and glycerolipid metabolic process. In comparison, proteins were enriched in the functions of transport, carbohydrate metabolic process, chemical caused homeostasis and regulation of body fluid levels in OL. Pathway analysis predicted that vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption was disturbed in MeHg-treated FL. Our results showed that MeHg induced regional specific protein changes in FL and OL but with similar endpoint effects such as energy diminish and disruption of water transport. APOE and GPX1 were shown to be possible key proteins targeted by MeHg leading to multiple functional changes in OL. This is the first report of the whole proteome changes of primate cerebrum for MeHg neurotoxicity, and the results will contribute to the understanding of molecular basis of MeHg intoxication in humans. PMID:27012723

  11. Altered peripheral vasodilator profile of nitroglycerin during long-term infusion of N-acetylcysteine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Wroblewski, H;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the short- and long-term effects of intravenous nitroglycerin plus placebo and nitroglycerin plus N-acetylcysteine on peripheral arteries, veins and microcirculation in humans. BACKGROUND: The thiol donor N-acetylcysteine may potentiate the hemodyn......) or placebo for 23 h in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study. Venous volume, the diameter of the radial and temporal arteries, calf blood flow and subcutaneous blood flow were measured at baseline and repeated after 1 and 23 h of infusion. RESULTS: Prolonged coadministration of N...

  12. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed toward

  13. Hanford Site Ecological Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilyard, Gordon R.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tzemos, Spyridon

    2002-02-17

    This report reviews the ecological quality profile methodology and results for the Hanford Site. It covers critical ecological assets and terrestrial resources, those in Columbia River corridor and those threatened and engdangered, as well as hazards and risks to terrestrial resources. The features of a base habitat value profile are explained, as are hazard and ecological quality profiles.

  14. BIOCHEMICAL NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF LIVER CIRRHOSIS PATIENTS WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zanatta PORT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver cirrhosis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present nutritional alterations and metabolic disorders that negatively impact the prognosis. Objective The objective is to identify alterations in the metabolism of macro and micronutrients among liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma and their relation to the Child-Turcote-Pugh score and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Methods Analytical transversal study, with 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 48 liver cirrhosis patients. Laboratorial exams were carried out. The existence of an association between the biochemical parameters and the disease severity as well as the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was assessed. Results The metabolic-nutritional profile of liver cirrhosis patients caused by the hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma showed alterations, specifically the lipid (total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, protein (albumin, creatinine and uric acid, iron (transferrin, iron and ferritin saturation, hematocrit and hemoglobin, zinc and B12 vitamin profiles. There is a relation between nutritional biochemical markers and the Child-Turcote-Pugh, as well as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Conclusions Considering the existence of alterations in the metabolism of nutrients in liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma, and also that conventional nutritional assessment methods present limitations for this population, the biochemical laboratorial exams are valid to complement the diagnosis of the nutritional state in a quick and practical manner.

  15. Effects of altered gravity on the cell cycle, actin cytoskeleton and proteome in Physarum polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Gao, Yong; Li, Shuijie; Sun, Yeqing

    Some researchers suggest that the changes of cell cycle under the effect of microgravity may be associated with many serious adverse physiological changes. In the search for underlying mechanisms and possible new countermeasures, we used the slime mold Physarum polycephalum in which all the nuclei traverse the cell cycle in natural synchrony to study the effects of altered gravity on the cell cycle, actin cytoskeleton and proteome. In parallel, the cell cycle was analyzed in Physarum incubated (1) in altered gravity for 20 h, (2) in altered gravity for 40 h, (3) in altered gravity for 80 h, and (4) in ground controls. The cell cycle, the actin cytoskeleton, and proteome in the altered gravity and ground controls were examined. The results indicated that the duration of the G2 phase was lengthened 20 min in high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) for 20 h, and prolonged 2 h in altered gravity either for 40 h or for 80 h, whereas the duration of other phases in the cell cycle was unchanged with respect to the control. The microfilaments in G2 phase had a reduced number of fibers and a unique abnormal morphology in altered gravity for 40 h, whereas the microfilaments in other phases of cell cycle were unchanged when compared to controls. Employing classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), we examined the effect of the altered gravity on P. polycephalum proteins. The increase in the duration of G2 phase in altered gravity for 40 h was accompanied by changes in the 2-DE protein profiles, over controls. Out of a total of 200 protein spots investigated in G2 phase, which were reproducible in repeated experiments, 72 protein spots were visually identified as specially expressed, and 11 proteins were up-regulated by 2-fold and 28 proteins were down-regulated by 2-fold over controls. Out of a total of three low-expressed proteins in G2 phase in altered gravity for 40 h, two proteins were unknown proteins, and one protein was spherulin 3b by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS

  16. DNA methylation alterations in grade II- and anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare WHO grade II tumor accounting for less than 1% of all astrocytomas. Malignant transformation into PXA with anaplastic features, is unusual and correlates with poorer outcome of the patients. Using a DNA methylation custom array, we have quantified the DNA methylation level on the promoter sequence of 807 cancer-related genes of WHO grade II (n = 11) and III PXA (n = 2) and compared to normal brain tissue (n = 10) and glioblastoma (n = 87) samples. DNA methylation levels were further confirmed on independent samples by pyrosequencing of the promoter sequences. Increasing DNA promoter hypermethylation events were observed in anaplastic PXA as compared with grade II samples. We further validated differential hypermethylation of CD81, HCK, HOXA5, ASCL2 and TES on anaplastic PXA and grade II tumors. Moreover, these epigenetic alterations overlap those described in glioblastoma patients, suggesting common mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Even taking into consideration the small size of our patient populations, our data strongly suggest that epigenome-wide profiling of PXA is a valuable tool to identify methylated genes, which may play a role in the malignant progression of PXA. These methylation alterations may provide useful biomarkers for decision-making in those patients with low-grade PXA displaying a high risk of malignant transformation

  17. Event-related potential alterations in fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Sophia eKnoth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is the most common form of X-linked intellectual disability, associated with a wide range of cognitive and behavioural impairments. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome. FMR1 is expected to prevent the expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, which results in altered structural and functional development of the synapse, including a loss of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to unveil the contribution of electrophysiological signal studies for the understanding of the information processing impairments in FXS patients. We discuss relevant event-related potential (ERP studies conducted with full mutation FXS patients and clinical populations sharing symptoms with FXS in a developmental perspective. Specific deviances found in FXS ERP profiles are described. Alterations are reported in N1, P2, Mismatch Negativity (MMN, N2 and P3 components in FXS compared to healthy controls. Particularly, deviances in N1 and P2 amplitude seem to be specific to FXS. The presented results suggest a cascade of impaired information processes that are in line with symptoms and anatomical findings in FXS.

  18. Risk-profile modification of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commodity futures and swaps markets are thought to be the invention of speculators, the bane of the oil business, or possibly something confined to finance departments of major corporations. In actuality, they should be considered more as an insurance vehicle and can be used at the project level to modify the risk profile of a property. In this context, an increased familiarity with them can be useful for an engineer. Either futures of swaps can be used to guarantee or modify product prices. While this does not necessarily maximize cash flow or present worth, it can protect a project or company for several years from downside price risk, thereby reducing the risk of the venture. This can be particularly important if lower product prices would cause unacceptable cash flows or net incomes. This paper reports that reducing risk by limiting downside price exposure could alter budgeting decisions, allow continued or expanded operations of a particular property, or increase debt capacity

  19. Altered DNA methylation in leukocytes with trisomy 21.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Kerkel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary abnormality in Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21, is well known; but how this chromosomal gain produces the complex DS phenotype, including immune system defects, is not well understood. We profiled DNA methylation in total peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL and T-lymphocytes from adults with DS and normal controls and found gene-specific abnormalities of CpG methylation in DS, with many of the differentially methylated genes having known or predicted roles in lymphocyte development and function. Validation of the microarray data by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-sensitive Pyrosequencing (MS-Pyroseq confirmed strong differences in methylation (p<0.0001 for each of 8 genes tested: TMEM131, TCF7, CD3Z/CD247, SH3BP2, EIF4E, PLD6, SUMO3, and CPT1B, in DS versus control PBL. In addition, we validated differential methylation of NOD2/CARD15 by bisulfite sequencing in DS versus control T-cells. The differentially methylated genes were found on various autosomes, with no enrichment on chromosome 21. Differences in methylation were generally stable in a given individual, remained significant after adjusting for age, and were not due to altered cell counts. Some but not all of the differentially methylated genes showed different mean mRNA expression in DS versus control PBL; and the altered expression of 5 of these genes, TMEM131, TCF7, CD3Z, NOD2, and NPDC1, was recapitulated by exposing normal lymphocytes to the demethylating drug 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5aza-dC plus mitogens. We conclude that altered gene-specific DNA methylation is a recurrent and functionally relevant downstream response to trisomy 21 in human cells.

  20. Alteration of gene expression by alcohol exposure at early neurulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClintick Jeanette N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that alcohol exposure at early neurulation induces growth retardation, neural tube abnormalities, and alteration of DNA methylation. To explore the global gene expression changes which may underline these developmental defects, microarray analyses were performed in a whole embryo mouse culture model that allows control over alcohol and embryonic variables. Result Alcohol caused teratogenesis in brain, heart, forelimb, and optic vesicle; a subset of the embryos also showed cranial neural tube defects. In microarray analysis (accession number GSM9545, adopting hypothesis-driven Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA informatics and intersection analysis of two independent experiments, we found that there was a collective reduction in expression of neural specification genes (neurogenin, Sox5, Bhlhe22, neural growth factor genes [Igf1, Efemp1, Klf10 (Tieg, and Edil3], and alteration of genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis, histone variants, eye and heart development. There was also a reduction of retinol binding protein 1 (Rbp1, and de novo expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1 (Aldh1B1. Remarkably, four key hematopoiesis genes (glycophorin A, adducin 2, beta-2 microglobulin, and ceruloplasmin were absent after alcohol treatment, and histone variant genes were reduced. The down-regulation of the neurospecification and the neurotrophic genes were further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, the gene expression profile demonstrated distinct subgroups which corresponded with two distinct alcohol-related neural tube phenotypes: an open (ALC-NTO and a closed neural tube (ALC-NTC. Further, the epidermal growth factor signaling pathway and histone variants were specifically altered in ALC-NTO, and a greater number of neurotrophic/growth factor genes were down-regulated in the ALC-NTO than in the ALC-NTC embryos. Conclusion This study revealed a set of genes vulnerable to alcohol exposure and

  1. Vascular transcriptional alterations produced by juvenile obesity in Ossabaw swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Lee, Sewon; Zhang, Hanrui; Cui, Jian; Zuidema, Mozow Y; Zhang, Cuihua; Hill, Michael A; Perfield, James W; Ibdah, Jamal A; Booth, Frank W; Davis, J Wade; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott

    2013-06-01

    We adopted a transcriptome-wide microarray analysis approach to determine the extent to which vascular gene expression is altered as a result of juvenile obesity and identify obesity-responsive mRNAs. We examined transcriptional profiles in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), perivascular fat adjacent to the LAD, and descending thoracic aorta between obese (n = 5) and lean (n = 6) juvenile Ossabaw pigs (age = 22 wk). Obesity was experimentally induced by feeding the animals a high-fat/high-fructose corn syrup/high-cholesterol diet for 16 wk. We found that expression of 189 vascular cell genes in the LAD and expression of 165 genes in the thoracic aorta were altered with juvenile obesity (false discovery rate ≤ 10%) with an overlap of only 28 genes between both arteries. Notably, a number of genes found to be markedly upregulated in the LAD of obese pigs are implicated in atherosclerosis, including ACP5, LYZ, CXCL14, APOE, PLA2G7, LGALS3, SPP1, ITGB2, CYBB, and P2RY12. Furthermore, pathway analysis revealed the induction of proinflammatory and pro-oxidant pathways with obesity primarily in the LAD. Gene expression in the LAD perivascular fat was minimally altered with juvenile obesity. Together, we provide new evidence that obesity produces artery-specific changes in pretranslational regulation with a clear upregulation of proatherogenic genes in the LAD. Our data may offer potential viable drug targets and mechanistic insights regarding the molecular precursors involved in the origins of overnutrition and obesity-associated vascular disease. In particular, our results suggest that the oxidized LDL/LOX-1/NF-κB signaling axis may be involved in the early initiation of a juvenile obesity-induced proatherogenic coronary artery phenotype. PMID:23592636

  2. Resistance to chemotherapy is associated with altered glucose metabolism in acute myeloid leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    SONG, KUI; Li, Min; Xu, Xiaojun; Xuan, Li; HUANG, GUINIAN; Liu, Qifa

    2016-01-01

    Altered glucose metabolism has been described as a cause of chemoresistance in multiple tumor types. The present study aimed to identify the expression profile of glucose metabolism in drug-resistant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and provide potential strategies for the treatment of drug-resistant AML. Bone marrow and serum samples were obtained from patients with AML that were newly diagnosed or had relapsed. The messenger RNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, glucose tra...

  3. Isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with altered susceptibility to carbapenems not carbapenemase mediated

    OpenAIRE

    Franca Cian; Maria Luisa Deiana; Clara Fabris; Anna Belgrano; Bruno Biasioli; Marco Maria D’Andrea; Tommaso Giani; Gian Maria Rossolini

    2009-01-01

    The spread of enterobacteria producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) is sharply increasing in Italy, while the detection of isolates resistant to carbapenems is still sporadic. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to all cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones have been isolated in Trieste since 2008. Because of the altered profile of resistance to carbapenems, these strains were reported as ESBL-negative and possible carbapenemases producer by the expert system, ...

  4. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, April D. [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Novak, Petr [Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice 37001 (Czech Republic); Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lu, Zhenqiang [The Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cherrington, Nathan J., E-mail: cherrington@pharmacy.arizona.edu [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  5. CUTICULAR STRUCTURE OF TWO ANGIOSPERM FOSSILS IN NEOGENE FROM TENGCHONG, YUNNAN PROVINCE AND ITS PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE%云南腾冲新近纪两种被子植物化石的角质层构造及其古环境意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙柏年; 丛培允; 阎德飞; 解三平

    2003-01-01

    This paper emphatically describes the cuticular characteristics of two fossil angiosperm species Betula mioluminifera Hu et Chaney and Carpinus subcordata Nathorst collected from Neogene in Tengchong, Yunnan. The cuticular characteristics of their Nearest Living Relative species (NLR species), Betula luminifera Winkler and Carpinus cordata B1.var. mollis Cheng et Chen, are analysed. In this experiment, we have got the lower epidermis of C.subcordata, whose characteristics are described as follows: Only the middle and lower parts of leave preserved; length about 7.5 cm, width 5 cm. Midrib strong; angle between ventricumbent and midrib 40°-50°; nearer to the base, bigger the angle; venulose, more than 12 pairs. Upper epidermis a little thicker and net-veined, stomata not found; epidermic cells arrayed rotundly, polygonal, length and width 20-30 μm; length of the net about 350 μm, width about 200 μm; width of nervecourses 50 μm with 3-4 rows of parallel cells; cells in nervecourses oblong, length about 2-3 times of width. Lower epidermis thin with stomata; trichome found; arrangement of epidermic cells as the same of upper epidermis. Distribution of stomata ruleless; type of stomatal apparatus Anomocytic; stomata slightly sunken; guard cells kidney-shaped and slightly lower than surrounding cells; inner surface of guard cells thick; guard cell surrounded by several epidermic cells. The cuticle, with its stomatal pores, represents the interface between plants and atmosphere, and its features such as cuticle thickness, stomatal density (SD), stomatal index (SI) and stomatal ratio (SR) are well used as a palaeoenvironmental indicator. Therefore, we can analyse changes in palaeoenvironment by studying the stomatal parameter of fossil plants which are sensitive to the change in atmospheric CO2 concentration. In this experiment, we have got the stomatal parameter of C.subcordata which indicates that atmospheric CO2 concentration in Neogene was higher than that of

  6. In vitro maturation alters gene expression in bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adona, Paulo R; Leal, Cláudia L V; Biase, Fernando H; De Bem, Tiago H; Mesquita, Lígia G; Meirelles, Flávio V; Ferraz, André L; Furlan, Luiz R; Monzani, Paulo S; Guemra, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression profiling of in vivo- and in vitro-matured bovine oocytes can identify transcripts related to the developmental potential of oocytes. Nonetheless, the effects of in vitro culturing oocytes are yet to be fully understood. We tested the effects of in vitro maturation on the transcript profile of oocytes collected from Bos taurus indicus cows. We quantified the expression of 1488 genes in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes. Of these, 51 genes were up-regulated, whereas 56 were down-regulated (≥2-fold) in in vivo-matured oocytes in comparison with in vitro-matured oocytes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nine genes confirmed the microarray results of differential expression between in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes (EZR, EPN1, PSEN2, FST, IGFBP3, RBBP4, STAT3, FDPS and IRS1). We interrogated the results for enrichment of Gene Ontology categories and overlap with protein-protein interactions. The results revealed that the genes altered by in vitro maturation are mostly related to the regulation of oocyte metabolism. Additionally, analysis of protein-protein interactions uncovered two regulatory networks affected by the in vitro culture system. We propose that the differentially expressed genes are candidates for biomarkers of oocyte competence. In vitro oocyte maturation can affect the abundance of specific transcripts and are likely to deplete the developmental competence.

  7. Hematological profile as a crude oil exposure-related marker in wild rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana L. Muccillo-Baisch; Patrick F. Silva; Krissia A. De Almeida; Flavio M.R. Da Silva Júnior

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of petroleum components is well described in the literature, especially with regard to mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In some groups of animals, such as birds, oil exposure seems to alter blood parameters, while this relationship is poorly understood in rodents. The study aimed to investigate alterations in hematological profile in the wild rodent Calomys laucha exposed to crude oil contaminated soils. In this study, males specimens of Calomys laucha were exposed for 14 days...

  8. Analysis of superfamily specific profile-profile recognition accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqi Mansoor AS

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annotation of sequences that share little similarity to sequences of known function remains a major obstacle in genome annotation. Some of the best methods of detecting remote relationships between protein sequences are based on matching sequence profiles. We analyse the superfamily specific performance of sequence profile-profile matching. Our benchmark consists of a set of 16 protein superfamilies that are highly diverse at the sequence level. We relate the performance to the number of sequences in the profiles, the profile diversity and the extent of structural conservation in the superfamily. Results The performance varies greatly between superfamilies with the truncated receiver operating characteristic, ROC10, varying from 0.95 down to 0.01. These large differences persist even when the profiles are trimmed to approximately the same level of diversity. Conclusions Although the number of sequences in the profile (profile width and degree of sequence variation within positions in the profile (profile diversity contribute to accurate detection there are other superfamily specific factors.

  9. Altering Flashlamp Output for Realistic Solar Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. L.; Seaman, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial glass optical filter corrects spectrum of xenon flashtubes used to test photovoltaic solar cells. Filter withstands thousands of flashes without perceptible alteration of passband characteristics. With filter, calibration errors reduced to less than 1 percent.

  10. Deflagration Wave Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-03

    Shock initiation in a plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) is due to hot spots. Current reactive burn models are based, at least heuristically, on the ignition and growth concept. The ignition phase occurs when a small localized region of high temperature (or hot spot) burns on a fast time scale. This is followed by a growth phase in which a reactive front spreads out from the hot spot. Propagating reactive fronts are deflagration waves. A key question is the deflagration speed in a PBX compressed and heated by a shock wave that generated the hot spot. Here, the ODEs for a steady deflagration wave profile in a compressible fluid are derived, along with the needed thermodynamic quantities of realistic equations of state corresponding to the reactants and products of a PBX. The properties of the wave profile equations are analyzed and an algorithm is derived for computing the deflagration speed. As an illustrative example, the algorithm is applied to compute the deflagration speed in shock compressed PBX 9501 as a function of shock pressure. The calculated deflagration speed, even at the CJ pressure, is low compared to the detonation speed. The implication of this are briefly discussed.

  11. Fluorescence-based codetection with protein markers reveals distinct cellular compartments for altered MicroRNA expression in solid tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempere, Lorenzo F; Preis, Meir; Yezefski, Todd;

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput profiling experiments have linked altered expression of microRNAs (miRNA) to different types of cancer. Tumor tissues are a heterogeneous mixture of not only cancer cells, but also supportive and reactive tumor microenvironment elements. To clarify the clinical significance of alt...

  12. Dietary fat-dependent transcriptional architecture and copy number alterations associated with modifiers of mammary cancer metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan A; Merrill, Michele La; Hunter, Kent W;

    2010-01-01

    fat. To elucidate diet-dependent genetic modifiers of mammary cancer and metastasis risk, global gene expression profiles and copy number alterations from mammary cancers were measured and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) identified. Functional candidate genes that colocalized with previously...

  13. Diabetes and mitochondrial bioenergetics: Alterations with age

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fernanda M.; Palmeira, Carlos M.; Seiça, Raquel; Moreno, António J.; Santos, Maria S.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out to evaluate the alterations in mitochondrial functions of diabetic rats. However, some of the results reported are controversial, since experimental conditions, such as aging, and/or strain of animals used were different. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic changes in liver mitochondria, both in the presence of severe hyperglycaemia (STZ-treated rats) and mild hyperglycaemia (Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats). Moreover, metabolic alterations we...

  14. Canine Mammary Carcinomas: A Comparative Analysis of Altered Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruk M. Lutful Kabir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer represents the second most frequent neoplasm in humans and sexually intact female dogs after lung and skin cancers, respectively. Many similar features in human and dog cancers including, spontaneous development, clinical presentation, tumor heterogeneity, disease progression and response to conventional therapies have supported development of this comparative model as an alternative to mice. The highly conserved similarities between canine and human genomes are also key to this comparative analysis, especially when compared to the murine genome. Studies with canine mammary tumor (CMT models have shown a strong genetic correlation with their human counterparts, particularly in terms of altered expression profiles of cell cycle regulatory genes, tumor suppressor and oncogenes and also a large group of non-coding RNAs or microRNAs (miRNAs. Because CMTs are considered predictive intermediate models for human breast cancer, similarities in genetic alterations and cancer predisposition between humans and dogs have raised further interest. Many cancer-associated genetic defects critical to mammary tumor development and oncogenic determinants of metastasis have been reported and appear to be similar in both species. Comparative analysis of deregulated gene sets or cancer signaling pathways has shown that a significant proportion of orthologous genes are comparably up- or down-regulated in both human and dog breast tumors. Particularly, a group of cell cycle regulators called cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs acting as potent tumor suppressors are frequently defective in CMTs. Interestingly, comparative analysis of coding sequences has also shown that these genes are highly conserved in mammals in terms of their evolutionary divergence from a common ancestor. Moreover, co-deletion and/or homozygous loss of the INK4A/ARF/INK4B (CDKN2A/B locus, encoding three members of the CKI tumor suppressor gene families (p16/INK4A, p14ARF and p15

  15. Genetic alterations and personalized medicine in melanoma: progress and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griewank, Klaus G; Scolyer, Richard A; Thompson, John F; Flaherty, Keith T; Schadendorf, Dirk; Murali, Rajmohan

    2014-02-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies are providing new insights into the genetic alterations involved in melanomagenesis. It appears likely that most genetic events important in the pathogenesis of melanoma will be discovered over the next few years. Genetic analysis is also increasingly being used to direct patient care. In parallel with the discovery of new genes and the elucidation of molecular pathways important in the development of melanoma, therapies targeting these pathways are becoming available. In other words, the age of personalized medicine has arrived, characterized by molecular profiling of melanoma to identify the relevant genetic alterations and the abnormal signaling mechanisms involved, followed by selection of optimal, individualized therapies. In this review, we summarize the key genetic alterations in melanoma and the development of targeted agents against melanomas bearing specific mutations. These developments in melanoma serve as a model for the implementation of personalized medicine for patients with all cancers.

  16. Genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes in chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-07-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ∼8 Mb segment at 3p21.1-p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (∼23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (∼40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Alterations in Lipid and Inositol Metabolisms in Two Dopaminergic Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C Schulte

    Full Text Available Serum metabolite profiling can be used to identify pathways involved in the pathogenesis of and potential biomarkers for a given disease. Both restless legs syndrome (RLS and Parkinson`s disease (PD represent movement disorders for which currently no blood-based biomarkers are available and whose pathogenesis has not been uncovered conclusively. We performed unbiased serum metabolite profiling in search of signature metabolic changes for both diseases.456 metabolites were quantified in serum samples of 1272 general population controls belonging to the KORA cohort, 82 PD cases and 95 RLS cases by liquid-phase chromatography and gas chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Genetically determined metabotypes were calculated using genome-wide genotyping data for the 1272 general population controls.After stringent quality control, we identified decreased levels of long-chain (polyunsaturated fatty acids of individuals with PD compared to both RLS (PD vs. RLS: p = 0.0001 to 5.80x10-9 and general population controls (PD vs. KORA: p = 6.09x10-5 to 3.45x10-32. In RLS, inositol metabolites were increased specifically (RLS vs. KORA: p = 1.35x10-6 to 3.96x10-7. The impact of dopaminergic drugs was reflected in changes in the phenylalanine/tyrosine/dopamine metabolism observed in both individuals with RLS and PD.A first discovery approach using serum metabolite profiling in two dopamine-related movement disorders compared to a large general population sample identified significant alterations in the polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in PD and implicated the inositol metabolism in RLS. These results provide a starting point for further studies investigating new perspectives on factors involved in the pathogenesis of the two diseases as well as possible points of therapeutic intervention.

  18. Genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes in chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-07-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ∼8 Mb segment at 3p21.1-p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (∼23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (∼40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072194

  19. Genomic Aberrations Frequently Alter Chromatin Regulatory Genes in Chordoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F.; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C. David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ~8 Mb segment at 3p21.1–p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (~23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (~40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. PMID:27072194

  20. Alteration features in natural zirconolite from carbonatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nature, zirconolite occurs as an accessory mineral in many different rock types, but the majority of reported occurrences are from carbonatites (magmatic carbonates) of geological age varying from a few million years to 2 billion years old. Within these 19 carbonatite occurrences, of which 15 have been studied in some detail, zirconolite displays varying degrees of alteration in six samples. This alteration ranges from incipient minor effects to major corrosion, recrystallization and complete replacement by secondary phases. The degree of alteration broadly correlates with either the age, or actinide content of the zirconolite (or both), and thus the extent and degree of metamictization. Changes in zirconolite composition with alteration include an increase in hydration (H2O), Si, Ba and Pb (possibly radiogenic in origin), and a decrease primarily in Ca and Fe. Th can be remobilized, and of the rare earth elements (REE), there is evidence that the heavy-REE are mobilized more readily than the light-REE. Using backscattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses, this study documents and illustrates the range of alteration features observed in zirconolite from several carbonatites, in terms of both compositional and textural changes, and provides some physico-chemical information on the fluids responsible for the alteration. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  1. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  2. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  3. Altered dopamine ontogeny in the developmentally vitamin D deficient rat and its relevance to schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Kesby

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous group of disorders with unknown aetiology. Although abnormalities in multiple neurotransmitter systems have been linked to schizophrenia, alterations in dopamine neurotransmission remain central to the treatment of this disorder. Given that schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder we have hypothesised that abnormal dopamine signalling in the adult patient may result from altered dopamine signalling during foetal brain development. Environmental and genetic risk factors can be modelled in rodents to allow for the investigation of early neurodevelopmental pathogenesis that may lead to clues into the aetiology of schizophrenia. To address this we created an animal model of one such risk factor, developmental vitamin D (DVD deficiency. DVD-deficient adult rats display an altered behavioural profile in response to dopamine releasing and blocking agents that are reminiscent of that seen in schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, developmental studies revealed that DVD deficiency also altered cell proliferation, apoptosis and neurotransmission across the embryonic brain. In particular, DVD deficiency reduces the expression of crucial dopaminergic specification factors and alters dopamine metabolism in the developing brain. We speculate such alterations in foetal brain development may change the trajectory of dopamine neuron ontogeny to induce the behavioural abnormalities observed in adult offspring. The widespread evidence that both dopaminergic and structural changes are present in people who develop schizophrenia prior to onset also suggest that early alterations in development are central to the disease. Taken together, early alterations in dopamine ontogeny may represent a core feature in the pathology of schizophrenia. Such a mechanism could bring together evidence from multiple risk factors and genetic vulnerabilities to form a convergent pathway in disease pathophysiology.

  4. Effect of quercetin against lindane induced alterations in the serum and hepatic tissue lipids in wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viswanadha Vijaya Padma; Gurusamy Lalitha; Nicholson Puthanveedu Shirony; Rathinasamy Baskaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of quercetin (flavonoid) against lindane induced alterations in lipid profile of wistar rats. Methods: Rats were administered orally with lindane (100 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the end of treatment period lipid profile was estimated in serum and tissue. Results: Elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and tissue triglycerides, cholesterol with concomitant decrease in serum HDL and tissue phospholipids were decreased in lindane treated rats were found to be significantly decreased in the quercetin and lindane co-treated rats. Conclusions: Our study suggests that quercetin has hypolipidemic effect and offers protection against lindane induced toxicity in liver by restoring the altered levels of lipids. The quercetin cotreatment along with lindane for 30 days reversed these biochemical alterations in lipids induced by lindane.

  5. Losartan: Comprehensive Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Majed, Abdul-Rahman A; Assiri, Ebrahim; Khalil, Nasr Y; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A

    2015-01-01

    Losartan (Cozaar™) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist with antihypertensive activity. It is used in the management of hypertension and heart failure. Nomenclature, formulae, elemental analysis, and appearance of the drug are included in this review. The uses, applications, and the variety of synthetic pathways of this drug are outlined. Physical characteristics including: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods of analysis, UV spectrum, IR spectrum, mass spectrum with fragmentation patterns, and NMR (1H and 13C) spectra of losartan together with the corresponding figures and/or tables are all produced. This profile also includes the monograph of British Pharmacopoeia, together with several reported analytical methods including: spectrophotometric, electrochemical, chromatographic, and capillary electrophoretic methods. The stability, the pharmacokinetic behavior and the pharmacology of the drug are also provided.

  6. Profiling Expelled Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warnie Richardson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, demographic trends exist respecting students expelled for violent behavior. The data collected from 104 confidential student files were used to profile each of the following: A. The violent student, B. The nature of school violence, and C. How schools are dealing with violent students. The student expelled for violent behavior is typically male, between the ages of 15 and 18, has a history of previous suspension and has average to below-average academic skills. The incidents of violence occur in common areas of the school, are rarely directed toward staff and teachers, involve a weapon, and are classified as aggravated assaults. Schools are directly involving the police, expelling students for extended periods of time

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid space alterations in melancholic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Melancholic depression is a biologically homogeneous clinical entity in which structural brain alterations have been described. Interestingly, reports of structural alterations in melancholia include volume increases in Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF spaces. However, there are no previous reports of CSF volume alterations using automated whole-brain voxel-wise approaches, as tissue classification algorithms have been traditionally regarded as less reliable for CSF segmentation. Here we aimed to assess CSF volumetric alterations in melancholic depression and their clinical correlates by means of a novel segmentation algorithm ('new segment', as implemented in the software Statistical Parametric Mapping-SPM8, incorporating specific features that may improve CSF segmentation. A three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI was obtained from seventy patients with melancholic depression and forty healthy control subjects. Although imaging data were pre-processed with the 'new segment' algorithm, in order to obtain a comparison with previous segmentation approaches, tissue segmentation was also performed with the 'unified segmentation' approach. Melancholic patients showed a CSF volume increase in the region of the left Sylvian fissure, and a CSF volume decrease in the subarachnoid spaces surrounding medial and lateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, CSF increases in the left Sylvian fissure were negatively correlated with the reduction percentage of depressive symptoms at discharge. None of these results were replicated with the 'unified segmentation' approach. By contrast, between-group differences in the left Sylvian fissure were replicated with a non-automated quantification of the CSF content of this region. Left Sylvian fissure alterations reported here are in agreement with previous findings from non-automated CSF assessments, and also with other reports of gray and white matter insular alterations in depressive samples using automated approaches

  8. Swarm Terrain Profiler Robotics System

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Kumar; Dr. Praveen Kant Pandey; Dr. Sandeep Sharma

    2016-01-01

    An autonomous terrain profiling multi-robotic system is developed which uses ultrasonic technology to determine terrain profile including environmental pollution level detection. The system is deployed for both airy and aquatic medium. In addition to only terrain profiling under airy medium, the system exploits temperature and turbidity analysis for aquatic environment too. The multi-robot system is further extended to swarm intelligence system and correspondingly simulated results have been ...

  9. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  10. USGIN ISO metadata profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The USGIN project has drafted and is using a specification for use of ISO 19115/19/39 metadata, recommendations for simple metadata content, and a proposal for a URI scheme to identify resources using resolvable http URI's(see http://lab.usgin.org/usgin-profiles). The principal target use case is a catalog in which resources can be registered and described by data providers for discovery by users. We are currently using the ESRI Geoportal (Open Source), with configuration files for the USGIN profile. The metadata offered by the catalog must provide sufficient content to guide search engines to locate requested resources, to describe the resource content, provenance, and quality so users can determine if the resource will serve for intended usage, and finally to enable human users and sofware clients to obtain or access the resource. In order to achieve an operational federated catalog system, provisions in the ISO specification must be restricted and usage clarified to reduce the heterogeneity of 'standard' metadata and service implementations such that a single client can search against different catalogs, and the metadata returned by catalogs can be parsed reliably to locate required information. Usage of the complex ISO 19139 XML schema allows for a great deal of structured metadata content, but the heterogenity in approaches to content encoding has hampered development of sophisticated client software that can take advantage of the rich metadata; the lack of such clients in turn reduces motivation for metadata producers to produce content-rich metadata. If the only significant use of the detailed, structured metadata is to format into text for people to read, then the detailed information could be put in free text elements and be just as useful. In order for complex metadata encoding and content to be useful, there must be clear and unambiguous conventions on the encoding that are utilized by the community that wishes to take advantage of advanced metadata

  11. Altered global brain signal in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevieve J.; Murray, John D.; Repovs, Grega; Cole, Michael W.; Savic, Aleksandar; Glasser, Matthew F.; Pittenger, Christopher; Krystal, John H.; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Glahn, David C.; Anticevic, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia display a complex neurobiology, which has long been associated with distributed brain dysfunction. However, no investigation has tested whether schizophrenia shows alterations in global brain signal (GS), a signal derived from functional MRI and often discarded as a meaningless baseline in many studies. To evaluate GS alterations associated with schizophrenia, we studied two large chronic patient samples (n = 90, n = 71), comparing them to healthy subjects (n = 220) and patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n = 73). We identified and replicated increased cortical power and variance in schizophrenia, an effect predictive of symptoms yet obscured by GS removal. Voxel-wise signal variance was also increased in schizophrenia, independent of GS effects. Both findings were absent in bipolar patients, confirming diagnostic specificity. Biologically informed computational modeling of shared and nonshared signal propagation through the brain suggests that these findings may be explained by altered net strength of overall brain connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:24799682

  12. Gene Transcription Profile of the Detached Retina (An AOS Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacks, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Separation of the neurosensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) yields many morphologic and functional consequences, including death of the photoreceptor cells, Müller cell hypertrophy, and inner retinal rewiring. Many of these changes are due to the separation-induced activation of specific genes. In this work, we define the gene transcription profile within the retina as a function of time after detachment. We also define the early activation of kinases that might be responsible for the detachment-induced changes in gene transcription. Methods: Separation of the retina from the RPE was induced in Brown-Norway rats by the injection of 1% hyaluronic acid into the subretinal space. Retinas were harvested at 1, 7, and 28 days after separation. Gene transcription profiles for each time point were determined using the Affymetrix Rat 230A gene microarray chip. Transcription levels in detached retinas were compared to those of nondetached retinas with the BRB-ArrayTools Version 3.6.0 using a random variance analysis of variance (ANOVA) model. Confirmation of the significant transcriptional changes for a subset of the genes was performed using microfluidic quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. Kinase activation was explored using Western blot analysis to look for early phosphorylation of any of the 3 main families of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK): the p38 family, the Janus kinase family, and the p42/p44 family. Results: Retinas separated from the RPE showed extensive alterations in their gene transcription profile. Many of these changes were initiated as early as 1 day after separation, with significant increases by 7 days. ANOVA analysis defined 144 genes that had significantly altered transcription levels as a function of time after separation when setting a false discovery rate at ≤0.1. Confirmatory RT-PCR was performed on 51 of these 144 genes. Differential transcription detected on the microarray

  13. Crystalline, Ordered and Disordered Lipid Membranes: Convergence of Stress Profiles Due to Ergosterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanegas, Juan M.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Faller, Roland

    2011-03-23

    We present a simulation study focusing on modulations of the stress, or lateral pressure, profiles of lipid bilayer phases by addition of a sterol, ergosterol, at multiple temperatures. A major redistribution of lateral and normal pressures across the gel phase bilayer required 10 mol% sterol in comparison to a gradual redistribution beginning at 20 mol% for the liquid phase. Stress profiles across all temperatures converged at 30 mol% ergosterol. Redistribution and merging of stress profiles, associated with structural alterations, are coincident with experimentally observed modulations in mechanical properties, and therefore are suggested as the mechanism of action for this biologically necessary role of sterols.

  14. Global gene expression profile progression in Gaucher disease mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wujuan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaucher disease is caused by defective glucocerebrosidase activity and the consequent accumulation of glucosylceramide. The pathogenic pathways resulting from lipid laden macrophages (Gaucher cells in visceral organs and their abnormal functions are obscure. Results To elucidate this pathogenic pathway, developmental global gene expression analyses were conducted in distinct Gba1 point-mutated mice (V394L/V394L and D409 V/null. About 0.9 to 3% of genes had altered expression patterns (≥ ± 1.8 fold change, representing several categories, but particularly macrophage activation and immune response genes. Time course analyses (12 to 28 wk of INFγ-regulated pro-inflammatory (13 and IL-4-regulated anti-inflammatory (11 cytokine/mediator networks showed tissue differential profiles in the lung and liver of the Gba1 mutant mice, implying that the lipid-storage macrophages were not functionally inert. The time course alterations of the INFγ and IL-4 pathways were similar, but varied in degree in these tissues and with the Gba1 mutation. Conclusions Biochemical and pathological analyses demonstrated direct relationships between the degree of tissue glucosylceramides and the gene expression profile alterations. These analyses implicate IFNγ-regulated pro-inflammatory and IL-4-regulated anti-inflammatory networks in differential disease progression with implications for understanding the Gaucher disease course and pathophysiology.

  15. Afforestation alters the composition of functional genes in soil and biogeochemical processes in South American grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthrong, Sean T [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Pineiro, Gervasio [Duke University; Jackson, Robert B [Duke University

    2009-01-01

    Soil microbes are highly diverse and control most soil biogeochemical reactions. We examined how microbial functional genes and biogeochemical pools responded to the altered chemical inputs accompanying land use change. We examined paired native grasslands and adjacent Eucalyptus plantations (previously grassland) in Uruguay, a region that lacked forests before European settlement. Along with measurements of soil carbon, nitrogen, and bacterial diversity, we analyzed functional genes using the GeoChip 2.0 microarray, which simultaneously quantified several thousand genes involved in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling. Plantations and grassland differed significantly in functional gene profiles, bacterial diversity, and biogeochemical pool sizes. Most grassland profiles were similar, but plantation profiles generally differed from those of grasslands due to differences in functional gene abundance across diverse taxa. Eucalypts decreased ammonification and N fixation functional genes by 11% and 7.9% (P < 0.01), which correlated with decreased microbial biomass N and more NH{sub 4}{sup +} in plantation soils. Chitinase abundance decreased 7.8% in plantations compared to levels in grassland (P = 0.017), and C polymer-degrading genes decreased by 1.5% overall (P < 0.05), which likely contributed to 54% (P < 0.05) more C in undecomposed extractable soil pools and 27% less microbial C (P < 0.01) in plantation soils. In general, afforestation altered the abundance of many microbial functional genes, corresponding with changes in soil biogeochemistry, in part through altered abundance of overall functional gene types rather than simply through changes in specific taxa. Such changes in microbial functional genes correspond with altered C and N storage and have implications for long-term productivity in these soils.

  16. Portrét-Alter ego

    OpenAIRE

    BUČKOVÁ, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor work is focused in the topic of alter ego in art, mainly in portrait and self- portrait. This work is diveded in two parts-theory and practical part. In the first part I´m interested in ?alter ego?- where it comes form, history (shamanism), these days ( body modification). In the sekond part I´m interested in person (as a whole unit), psychology and psychoanalysis. In the end of the theory I remember (notice) an author, who works with simile topics. In the practical part I descri...

  17. Gait Retraining: Altering the Fingerprint of Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Irene S; Futrell, Erin

    2016-02-01

    In terms of running, there is evidence that links mechanics with injury. This evidence provides the justification for altering these mechanics. Increased hip adduction and vertical impact loading have been most commonly associated with injury. More work is needed in order to understand the optimal way to retrain gait patterns in runners. The human body has a considerable ability to adapt. To provide individuals with the ability to alter faulty movement patterns in ways that can reduce injury risk is a powerful tool. PMID:26616188

  18. Profiles of sibling bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Jessica A; Kowalski, Robin M

    2013-05-01

    Considerable research has been done on childhood bullying, including its antecedents and consequences. Yet, with all of the attention on bullying, particularly school bullying, sibling bullying has been vastly overlooked. Sibling bullying is a type of violence prevalent in the lives of most children, but little is known about the phenomenon. The p