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Sample records for alternatives swietenia febrifuga

  1. Effect of Growth Rate on Wood Specific Gravity of Three Alternative Timber Species in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei

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    Priyan Perera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing private sector investments in commercial forestry, it is apparent that plantationforestry in Sri Lanka is moving in the direction of managing fast growing timber species for shorterrotations. However, there’s a perceptionthat accelerated growth rates induced by improved forestmanagement practices can result in inferior wood quality. This study tested this perceptionby studyingthe effect of growth rate on the specific gravity, as a proxy for wood quality, of three alternative timberspecies grown in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei.Specific gravity remained more or less uniform from pith to bark regardless of the fluctuation of ringwidth in K. senegalensis while S. macrophylla exhibited a slight increase in specific gravity from pith tobark. This increasing trend was more prominent in P. fortunei. Results revealed growth rates representedby ring width showed poor correlations with specific gravity in both S. macrophylla, and K.senegalensis. Although P. fortunei showed a statistically significant positive correlation, regressionanalysis indicated a poor relationship between growth rate and specific gravity. Hence it is unlikely thatwood specific gravity of the studied species to be influenced by accelerated growth rates.

  2. Phenotypic aberrations during micropropagation of Soymida febrifuga (Roxb. Adr. Juss

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    Kishore Kumar CHIRUVELLA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Like most of the medicinal plants Soymida febrifuga (Meliaceae possess significance for its valuable secondary metabolites. Multiplication of this endemic plant is limited by difficulty in rooting of stem cuttings, high seedling mortality rates and low seed viability period. Hence efficient protocols for in vitro mass propagation has been established from field grown and aseptic seedlings explants. Strikingly, we observed aberrant structures such as vitrified shoots, faciated shoots, albino shoots as well shoot necrosis during its micropropagation. These phenotypic maladies were observed during organogenesis and rooting. Compared to other abnormalities, shoot necrosis nonetheless was frequent and pronounced leading to plant death. Shoots when subjected to rooting also displayed necrosis which was controlled by transferring to MS medium containing various concentrations and combinations of calcium levels, activated charcoal, glucose, fructose and auxins. Microshoots initiated roots on half strength MS medium with IBA and IAA individually or in combination within two weeks. MS half strength solid medium supplemented with CAN (556 mg l–1, CAP (1.0 mg l–1, IAA (2.0 mg l–1 and IBA (2.0 mg l–1 in combination was found to be more efficient in showing high frequency (95% of root regeneration. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and 70-85% of regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized to natural environment. In vitro derived plantlets were morphologically similar to in vivo plants.

  3. Mahagoni (Swietenia spp.) - naravna in kulturna zgodovina:

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    Torelli, Niko

    2006-01-01

    Described are the systematics of the genus Swietenia and the origin of the name "mahogany". The history of use and characteristic features of mahogany are shown, with an emphasis on figure and dimensional stability. The microscopic structure and the difficulty of positive xylotomic identification are described in more detail. Following the almost complete extinction of Spanish or Cuban mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.), Honduras or Mexican mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) is also endan...

  4. Effect of Growth Rate on Wood Specific Gravity of Three Alternative Timber Species in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei

    OpenAIRE

    Priyan Perera; Hiran Amarasekera; N.D.R. Weerawardena

    2012-01-01

    With increasing private sector investments in commercial forestry, it is apparent that plantationforestry in Sri Lanka is moving in the direction of managing fast growing timber species for shorterrotations. However, there’s a perceptionthat accelerated growth rates induced by improved forestmanagement practices can result in inferior wood quality. This study tested this perceptionby studyingthe effect of growth rate on the specific gravity, as a proxy for wood quality, of three alternative t...

  5. STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA. King

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    K. Arumugasamy; Latha, K.V.; kumar, N.H. Sathish

    2004-01-01

    The aerial parts and seeds of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) are used in exotic medicine systems. In the present study, a preliminary phytochemical and few pharmacological profiles were under taken. The physical constans, extractive and ash values were examined. The presence of secondary metabolites in the aerial parts and seeds showed that Swietenia macrophylla is a good source of active principles. TLC studies were done by treating dry treating dry powder of Swietenia macrophylla wi...

  6. Limonoids from Swietenia macrophylla and S. aubrevilleana.

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    Mootoo, B S; Ali, A; Motilal, R; Pingal, R; Ramlal, A; Khan, A; Reynolds, W F; McLean, S

    1999-11-01

    An investigation of the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla and S. aubrevilleana (Meliaceae) is reported. Three new compounds, augustineolide (1) and 3beta,6-dihydroxydihydrocarapin (2) from S. macrophylla and 6-acetoxyhumilinolide C (3) from S. aubrevilleana were isolated and characterized along with fifteen known compounds. Four of the compounds were subjected to an antifeedant bioassay on the final instar larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda. The antifeedant activity was comparable to that of bicyclononanolides previously tested. PMID:10579863

  7. Limonoids from the leaves of Swietenia macrophylla.

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    Liu, Jie-Qing; Wang, Cui-Fang; Chen, Jian-Chao; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2012-01-01

    One new limonoid of the phragmalin type (1) named Swietenine J with nine known compounds methyl-6-β-hydroxy angolensate (2), 1-O-acetylkhayanolide A(3), Khayanolide E (4), Khayalactone (5), Khayanone (6), 1-O-Acetylkhayanolide B (7), 1-O-Deacetylkhayanolide E (8), Khayanolide A (9), Khayanolide B (10) were isolated from Swietenia macrophylla. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D- NMR spectroscopic analysis. PMID:21985024

  8. STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA. King.

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    Arumugasamy, K; Latha, K V; Kumar, N H Sathish

    2004-10-01

    The aerial parts and seeds of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) are used in exotic medicine systems. In the present study, a preliminary phytochemical and few pharmacological profiles were under taken. The physical constans, extractive and ash values were examined. The presence of secondary metabolites in the aerial parts and seeds showed that Swietenia macrophylla is a good source of active principles. TLC studies were done by treating dry treating dry powder of Swietenia macrophylla with various acids, iodine and ferric chloride solution and UV and Visible light. PMID:22557161

  9. Isolation of hypoglycemic phytoconstituent from Swietenia macrophylla seeds.

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    Maiti, Anup; Dewanjee, Saikat; Sahu, Ranabir

    2009-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to isolate a novel antidiabetic molecule from Swietenia macrophylla seeds. The hydroalcohol extract of Swietenia macrophylla seeds was subjected for bioassay guided isolation employing glucose utilization assay by the isolated rat hemi-diaphragm method in vitro. One tetranortriterpenoid, swietenine, isolated from the chloroform fraction exhibited significant (p<0.01) activity and the effect was comparable to that of human insulin (p<0.01). PMID:19370535

  10. Imbibition of Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae) Seeds: The Role of Stomata

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    PAIVA, ÉLDER ANTÔNIO SOUSA; LEMOS-FILHO, JOSÉ PIRES; OLIVEIRA, DENISE MARIA TROMBERT

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The occurrence of stomata in seed coats is uncommon and there is limited information about their function(s). The aim of this study was to verify the distribution of stomata in seed coats of Swietenia macrophylla and to relate it to the imbibition process and aspects of the structure of the outer integument layers.

  11. Swietenine: a potential oral hypoglycemic from Swietenia macrophylla seed.

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    Dewanjee, Saikat; Maiti, Anup; Das, Anup K; Mandal, Subhash C; Dey, Sankar P

    2009-06-01

    Swietenine, a tetranortriterpenoid, was isolated from the Swietenia macrophylla seeds. The in vivo hypoglycemic activity was evaluated against neonatal-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Oral administration of swietenine at 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight per day to diabetic rats was found to possess significant dose dependant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity in type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:19239921

  12. Acaricidal activity of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla ethanolic extracts against Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies.

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    El Zalabani, Soheir M; El-Askary, Hesham I; Mousa, Ola M; Issa, Marwa Y; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2012-02-01

    The acaricidal (miticidal) activity of 90% ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were tested against Varroa destructor mite. Four concentrations were used over two different time intervals under laboratory and field conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on mortality and LC(50) of all tested extracts against the Varroa mite was concentration and time dependant. The acaricidal action against Varroa mites was relatively the least for the S. macrophylla stem bark extract at 500 ppm concentration after 48 h while it reached 100% and 95% in case of S. mahogani bark and S. macrophylla leaves, respectively. The% infestation with Varroa in colonies treated with the different extracts at various time intervals showed that the rate of infestation decreased to 0.0% after 12 days from the beginning of treatments with 500 ppm of S. mahogani leaves extract compared to 0.79% decrease after treatment with Mitac, a reference drug (60 mg/colony). The rate of infestation in case of treatments with S. mahogani bark, S. macrophylla leaves and S. macrophylla bark was decreased to 0.11%, 2.41% and 1.08%, respectively. The highest reduction was observed with S. mahogani leaves extract followed by S. mahogani bark. All the tested extracts showed less or no effect on honey bees at the different concentrations and at different bioassay times. This study suggested that the use of natural plant extracts or their products as ecofriendly biodegradable agents could be of high value for the control of Varroa mite. PMID:22101075

  13. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

    OpenAIRE

    Habsah Abdul Kadir; Tara Shabab; Chim Kei Chan; Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi; Bey Hing Goh

    2013-01-01

    Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, an...

  14. Hypoglycemic effect of Swietenia macrophylla seeds against type II diabetes

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    Maiti Anup

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effect of Swietenia macrophylla seeds was evaluated in Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide induced type II diabetic rats. Methanol extract of Swietenia macrophylla seeds was administered orally at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight for 12 consecutive days. Fasting blood sugar (FBG was estimated on overnight fasted rats on day 1, 5 and 12 days. Lipid profiles, liver glycogen levels and changes in body weight were also measured. The extract was found more effective at the dose of 300 mg/kg body weight and it lowered FBG levels was statistically significant P < 0.01 (32.78% in diabetic rats at day 12. Extract at the same dose also significantly reduced P < 0.01 the elevated level of serum total cholesterol (18.56% and triglyceride (10.41%, and increased P < 0.01 (46.27% the reduced liver glycogen level. Though statistically non-significant the extract at both the doses was found to improve the body weight of diabetic rats. The observation concludes that the methanol extract of seeds of Swietenia macrophylla has hypoglycemic as well as hypolipidemic effect.

  15. Inhibitory effects of Swietenia macrophylla on myotoxic phospholipases A2

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    Jaime A. Pereañez; Vitelbina Núñez; Benjamín Rojano; Tatiana Lobo-Echeverri

    2013-01-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract of the leaves of Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae, led to several fractions. As a result, sample Sm13-16, 23 had the most promising activity against phospholipases A2 (PLA2), Asp49 and Lys49 types. This fraction inhibited PLA2 activity of the Asp49 PLA2, when aggregated substrate was used. On the other hand, this activity was weakly neutralized when monodispersed substrate was used. In addition, Sm13-16, 23 inhibited, in a dose ...

  16. Effect of Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Clonal Propagation of Swietenia macrophylla through Branch Cutting

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    Md. Salim Azad; Md. Abdul Matin

    2015-01-01

    The study discloses the scopes of clonal propagation Swietenia macrophylla through branch cutting treated with IBA. A total of four hundred cuttings were used with four replications to assess the rooting ability. The study exposed significant (p

  17. Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract

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    Geethaa Sahgal; Surash Ramanathan; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Mohd. Nizam Mordi; Sabariah Ismail; Sharif Mahsufi Mansor

    2010-01-01

    Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high co...

  18. Hypoglycemic effect of Swietenia macrophylla seeds against type II diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Maiti Anup; Dewanjee Saikat; Jana Goutam; Mandal Subhash

    2008-01-01

    The antidiabetic effect of Swietenia macrophylla seeds was evaluated in Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide induced type II diabetic rats. Methanol extract of Swietenia macrophylla seeds was administered orally at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight for 12 consecutive days. Fasting blood sugar (FBG) was estimated on overnight fasted rats on day 1, 5 and 12 days. Lipid profiles, liver glycogen levels and changes in body weight were also measured. The extract was found more effective at the do...

  19. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

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    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  20. Swietenolide diacetate from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla.

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    Goh, Bey Hing; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Abdul Malek, Sri Nurestri; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C(31)H(38)O(10) [systematic name: (αR,4R,4aR,6aS,7R,8S,10R,11S)-methyl α,10-di-acet-oxy-4-(3-furyl)-4a,7,9,9-tetra-methyl-2,13-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodeca-hydro-7,11-methano-2H-cyclo-octa-[f][2]benzo-pyran-8-acetate], was isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla. The mol-ecule contains four six-membered rings connected together in the shape of a bowl; one of the inner rings adopts a twisted chair conformation owing to the carbon-carbon double bond. The furyl substitutent is connected to an outer ring, and it points away from the bowl cavity. PMID:21579475

  1. Swietenolide diacetate from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Bey Hing Goh; Habsah Abdul Kadir; Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek; Seik Weng Ng

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C31H38O10 [systematic name: (αR,4R,4aR,6aS,7R,8S,10R,11S)-methyl α,10-diacetoxy-4-(3-furyl)-4a,7,9,9-tetramethyl-2,13-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodecahydro-7,11-methano-2H-cycloocta[f][2]benzopyran-8-acetate], was isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla. The molecule contains four six-membered rings connected together in the shape of a bowl; one of the inner rings adopts a twisted chair conformation owing to the carbon–carbon d...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.

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    Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

    2014-02-01

    The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties. PMID:24689302

  3. Chemical constituents from Swietenia macrophylla bark and their antioxidant activity.

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    Falah, S; Suzuki, T; Katayama, T

    2008-08-15

    Chemical constituents of the bark of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) was investigated not only to develop further bark utilization but also to understand the biochemical function of the bark in the forest environment. A new phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin, namely, swietemacrophyllanin [(2R*,3S*,7"R*)-catechin-8,7"-7,2"-epoxy-(methyl 4",5"-dihydroxyphenylpropanoate)] (1) was isolated from the bark of S. macrophylla together with two known compounds, catechin (2) and epicatechin (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data and by comparison of the NMR data with those of catiguanins A and B, phenylpropanoid-substituted epicatechins. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the isolated compounds indicated that all of the three compounds have strong activity compared with trolox as a reference. Swietemacrophyllanin (1) had the strongest activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56 microg mL(-1). PMID:19266907

  4. Swietenolide diacetate from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey Hing Goh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C31H38O10 [systematic name: (αR,4R,4aR,6aS,7R,8S,10R,11S-methyl α,10-diacetoxy-4-(3-furyl-4a,7,9,9-tetramethyl-2,13-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodecahydro-7,11-methano-2H-cycloocta[f][2]benzopyran-8-acetate], was isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla. The molecule contains four six-membered rings connected together in the shape of a bowl; one of the inner rings adopts a twisted chair conformation owing to the carbon–carbon double bond. The furyl substitutent is connected to an outer ring, and it points away from the bowl cavity.

  5. Biological activities and phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Goh, Bey Hing; Chan, Chim Kei; Shabab, Tara; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance. PMID:23999722

  6. Fine-scale genetic structure and gene flow within Costa Rican populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, A J; Jourde, B; Breyne, P; Colpaert, N; Navarro, C; Wilson, J; Cavers, S

    2003-03-01

    Fine-scale structure of genetic diversity and gene flow were analysed in three Costa Rican populations of mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla. Population differentiation estimated using AFLPs and SSRs was low (38.3 and 24%) and only slightly higher than previous estimates for Central American populations based on RAPD variation (20%). Significant fine-scale spatial structure was found in all of the surveyed mahogany populations and is probably strongly influenced by the limited seed dispersal range of the species. Furthermore, a survey of progeny arrays from selected mother trees in two of the plots indicated that most pollinations involved proximate trees. These data indicate that very little gene flow, via either pollen or seed, is occurring between blocks of mahogany within a continuous or disturbed forest landscape. Thus, once diversity is removed from a forest population of mahogany, these data suggest that recovery would be difficult via seed or pollen dispersal, and provides an explanation for mahogany's apparent susceptibility to the pressures of logging. Evidence is reviewed from other studies of gene flow and seedling regeneration to discuss alternative extraction strategies that may maintain diversity or allow recovery of genetic resources. PMID:12634811

  7. Acute oral toxicity studies of Swietenia macrophylla seeds in Sprague Dawley rats

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    Madhu Katyayani Balijepalli; Velan Suppaiah; An-me Chin; Ayuba Sunday Buru; Sreenivasa Rao Sagineedu; Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae) seeds (SMS); commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg. Aim: To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS) at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw) in sprague dawley (SD) rats. Materials and Methods: Eight-...

  8. Inhibitory effects of Swietenia macrophylla on myotoxic phospholipases A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Pereañez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract of the leaves of Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae, led to several fractions. As a result, sample Sm13-16, 23 had the most promising activity against phospholipases A2 (PLA2, Asp49 and Lys49 types. This fraction inhibited PLA2 activity of the Asp49 PLA2, when aggregated substrate was used. On the other hand, this activity was weakly neutralized when monodispersed substrate was used. In addition, Sm13-16, 23 inhibited, in a dose dependent manner, the cytotoxicity, myotoxicity and edema induced by PLA2s, as well as the anticoagulant activity of Asp49 PLA2. Overall, this fraction exhibited a better inhibition of the toxic activities induced by the Lys49 PLA2than those caused by the Asp49 PLA2. The spectral data of Sm13-16, 23 suggested the presence of aromatic compounds (UV λ max (nm 655, 266, and 219; IR λ max KBr (cm-1: ~ 3600-3000 (OH, 2923.07 and 1438.90 (C-H, 1656.69 (C = O, 1618.63 and 1607.67 (C-O, 1285.47772.60. We suggest that phenolic compounds could interact and inhibit the toxins by several mechanisms. Further analysis of the compounds present in the active fraction could be a relevant contribution in the treatment of accidents caused by snake envenomation.

  9. PENGOLAHAN BIJI MAHONI (Swietenia Macrophylla King) SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU ALTERNATIF BIODIESEL

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    Astrilia Damayanti; Siti Bariroh

    2013-01-01

    Peningkatan kebutuhan minyak bumi yang terus menerus akan mengakibatkan kelangkaan bahan bakar minyak. Sumber energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Bahan baku potensial untuk memproduksi biodiesel yang tidak bersaing dengan bahan baku pangan contohnya adalah biji mahoni (swietenia macrophylla king). Tahapan yang diperlukan dalam percobaan biodiesel adalah proses pengambilan minyak biji mahoni dengan proses penyangraian, degumming, dan proses transesterifikas...

  10. PENGOLAHAN BIJI MAHONI (Swietenia Macrophylla King SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU ALTERNATIF BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrilia Damayanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan kebutuhan minyak bumi yang terus menerus akan mengakibatkan kelangkaan bahan bakar minyak. Sumber energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Bahan baku potensial untuk memproduksi biodiesel yang tidak bersaing dengan bahan baku pangan contohnya adalah biji mahoni (swietenia macrophylla king. Tahapan yang diperlukan dalam percobaan biodiesel adalah proses pengambilan minyak biji mahoni dengan proses penyangraian, degumming, dan proses transesterifikasi. Alat yang diperlukan dalam pembuatan biodiesel yaitu: labu alas bulat dilengkapi kondensor, gelas ukur, pengaduk magnetik, alat-alat gelas lab, dan lain sebagainya. Proses pengambilan minyak dilakukan dengan penyangraian yang hasilnya di degumming dengan asam fosfat 5% b/b pada suhu 80ºC selama 15 menit. Degumming bertujuan untuk menghilangkan getah, lendir, protein, resin dan gum. Proses kedua yaitu transesterifikasi dengan metanol 1:6 (minyak dan mtanol dengan KOH 0,1 N pada suhu 60ºC selama 1 jam. Setelah diperoleh metil ester, dilakukan proses pencucian atau penetralan metil ester pada suhu pemanasan 104ºC untuk menghilangkan kadar airnya. Dari hasil percobaan diperoleh rendemen minyak sebesar 86,92%, uji densitas 874,08 kg/m³, viskositas 3,07 mm2/s, dan bilangan asam 0,5601 mg KOH/g. Metil ester yang dihasilkan telah sesuai dengan SNI-04-7182-2006. An increased demand of the fossil fuel would lead to scarcity of the fossil fuel in the future. An alternative of environmentally friendly energy sources is biodiesel. It is accounted that the resources for producing biodiesel should not compete with food raw materials, such as mahogany grain, (swietenia macrophylla king. The necessary steps in the experiment of producing biodiesel are process of taking the mahogany seed-oil by using roasting method, degumming, and transesterification process. The required equipments for producing biodiesel were round-bottom flask equipped with condenser

  11. Effect of Chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

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    Balasubramanian, Jayaprasad; Subramanian, Sharavanan; Kaliyan, Veerakumar

    2015-11-01

    Mosquitoes are the vector of more diseases and cause major health problems like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and lymphatic filariasis. This article deals with the mosquito larvicidal activity of Chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Methanolic crude extract of Ch. swietenia bark was obtained by soxhlet apparatus and aqueous crude extract by cold percolation method. The range of concentrations of the crude extracts used was 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm. The mortality and lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) was calculated after a 24-h exposure period. Both the extracts showed trustworthy larvicidal activity. The larvicidal activity of the methanol extract of Ch. swietenia bark was higher than the aqueous extract, and the LC50 and the LC90 values of the methanol extract were found to be 124.70 and 226.26 μg/ml (Ae. aegypti), 130.57 and 234.67 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 137.55 and 246.09 ppm (An. stephensi). The LC50 and the LC90 values of the aqueous extract were found to be 133.10 and 238.93 ppm (Ae. aegypti), 136.45 and 242.47 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 139.43 and 248.64 ppm (An. stephensi). No mortality was observed in the control. Methanolic crude extract Ch. swietenia bark shows higher activity against An. stephensi than the other two tested larvae and aqueous extract. The results of the present study propose a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the larvicidal activity of Ch. swietenia bark extracts. PMID:26246308

  12. Regeneration of pancreatic β-cells on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats under the effect of Swietenia macrophylla seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Moumita Dutta; Utpal Kumar Biswas; Runu Chakraborty; Piyasa Banerjee; Utpal Raychaudhuri

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major killers these days and has a profound effect in the quality of life. Despite considerable progress in the treatment of diabetes, search for newer drugs continues, especially from the natural resources. We have previously reported that the seed of the plant. Swietenia macrophylla is nontoxic. Aim: The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Swietenia macrophylla seeds on histopathological changes of pancreatic, hepatic and ren...

  13. Island invasion by a threatened tree species: evidence for natural enemy release of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) on Dominica, Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norghauer, Julian M; Martin, Adam R; Mycroft, Erin E; James, Arlington; Thomas, Sean C

    2011-01-01

    Despite its appeal to explain plant invasions, the enemy release hypothesis (ERH) remains largely unexplored for tropical forest trees. Even scarcer are ERH studies conducted on the same host species at both the community and biogeographical scale, irrespective of the system or plant life form. In Cabrits National Park, Dominica, we observed patterns consistent with enemy release of two introduced, congeneric mahogany species, Swietenia macrophylla and S. mahagoni, planted almost 50 years ago. Swietenia populations at Cabrits have reproduced, with S. macrophylla juveniles established in and out of plantation areas at densities much higher than observed in its native range. Swietenia macrophylla juveniles also experienced significantly lower leaf-level herbivory (∼3.0%) than nine co-occurring species native to Dominica (8.4-21.8%), and far lower than conspecific herbivory observed in its native range (11%-43%, on average). These complimentary findings at multiple scales support ERH, and confirm that Swietenia has naturalized at Cabrits. However, Swietenia abundance was positively correlated with native plant diversity at the seedling stage, and only marginally negatively correlated with native plant abundance for stems ≥1-cm dbh. Taken together, these descriptive patterns point to relaxed enemy pressure from specialized enemies, specifically the defoliator Steniscadia poliophaea and the shoot-borer Hypsipyla grandella, as a leading explanation for the enhanced recruitment of Swietenia trees documented at Cabrits. PMID:21533206

  14. Island invasion by a threatened tree species: evidence for natural enemy release of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla on Dominica, Lesser Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian M Norghauer

    Full Text Available Despite its appeal to explain plant invasions, the enemy release hypothesis (ERH remains largely unexplored for tropical forest trees. Even scarcer are ERH studies conducted on the same host species at both the community and biogeographical scale, irrespective of the system or plant life form. In Cabrits National Park, Dominica, we observed patterns consistent with enemy release of two introduced, congeneric mahogany species, Swietenia macrophylla and S. mahagoni, planted almost 50 years ago. Swietenia populations at Cabrits have reproduced, with S. macrophylla juveniles established in and out of plantation areas at densities much higher than observed in its native range. Swietenia macrophylla juveniles also experienced significantly lower leaf-level herbivory (∼3.0% than nine co-occurring species native to Dominica (8.4-21.8%, and far lower than conspecific herbivory observed in its native range (11%-43%, on average. These complimentary findings at multiple scales support ERH, and confirm that Swietenia has naturalized at Cabrits. However, Swietenia abundance was positively correlated with native plant diversity at the seedling stage, and only marginally negatively correlated with native plant abundance for stems ≥1-cm dbh. Taken together, these descriptive patterns point to relaxed enemy pressure from specialized enemies, specifically the defoliator Steniscadia poliophaea and the shoot-borer Hypsipyla grandella, as a leading explanation for the enhanced recruitment of Swietenia trees documented at Cabrits.

  15. EFFECT OF PRETREATMENTS ON CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SKY FRUIT (Swietenia macrophylla SEED OIL [Pengaruh Pra-perlakuan Terhadap Sifat Kimia dan Antioksidan Minyak Biji Buah Tunjuk Langit (Swietenia macrophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Mohd Yusof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pretreatments on chemical and antioxidant properties of sky fruit (Swietenia macrohylla seed oil. The seeds were treated with different heat pretreatments (roasting, steaming, and microwaving and subsequently subjected to oil extraction by using a Bligh and Dyer method. It was found that different pretreatments significantly (p<0.05 affected yield and peroxide value of the extracted oils. However, no significant effect of pretreatment was observed on free fatty acid content of the seed oils. The oils exhibited significantly different levels of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity due to different heat pretreatments. The results revealed that the mean percentages of DPPH scavenging activity of untreated (control seed oil (87.69% and steamed seed oil (83.40% were significantly higher than those of roasted seed oil (75.71% as well as the microwaved one (63.98%. In contrast, the pretreatments did not significantly affect total phenolic content (TPC of the seed oils with the TPC mean values ranging from 0.016 to 0.022 mg/g (as gallic acid. Data gained from this study provided valuable information for edible oil industries in searching for alternative source of edible oil with medicinal benefits.

  16. Hypsipyla grandella em Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla): Situação Atual e Perspectivas Hypsipyla grandella in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla): Current Situation and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz; Marcílio José Thomazini Thomazini; Maria Carolina Blassioli Moraes; Edinelson José Maciel Neves; Telma Fátima Coelho Batista; Juliana Degenhardt; Lindáurea Alves de Sousa; Orlando Shigueo Ohashi

    2010-01-01

    A madeira de mogno, Swietenia macrophylla King, é valorizada no mercado internacional por sua beleza e durabilidade para fins nobres, como mobiliários e decoração. Quaisquer tentativas de plantios comerciais dessa espécie de modo a reduzir a pressão exercida pela sua exploração seletiva invariavelmente fracassam devido à incidência da broca do ponteiro do mogno, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller). Embora alguns trabalhos tenham obtido relativo sucesso em apresentar técnicas de controle sob...

  17. Antihyperglycemic effect of the alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla on streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana Kalaivanan; Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Streptozotocin (STZ) selectively destroys the pancreatic insulin secreting cells, leaving less active cells and resulting in a diabetic state. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the ethanolic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla (SME) in normal and STZ-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight [BW]). Rats with glucose lev...

  18. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla king) planted under contrasting environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Medina; Elvira Cuevas; Lugo, Ariel E; Evaristo Terezo; Juan Jiménez-Osornio; Pedro Antonio Macario-Mendoza; Patricia Montañez

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N) of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatán, México) and South America (State of Pará, Brazil). The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large differences in nutrient availability and rainfall regimes. Nutrient concentrations of leaves and soils were determined spectrophotomet...

  19. Phragmalin-type limonoid orthoesters from the twigs of Swietenia macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing-Dong; Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Wu, Yan; Yue, Jian-Min

    2011-01-01

    Eleven new phragmalin-type limonoids, swietenitins N-X (1-11), together with a known one, epoxyfebrinin B (12), were isolated from the twigs of Swietenia macrophylla. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, and that of compound 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The stereochemistry of epoxyfebrinin B (12) was fully assigned in this study. PMID:21467674

  20. MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Swietenia macrophylla KING (MELIACEAE) A PARTIR DE MATERIAL JUVENIL

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane de Souza Schottz; Antonio Nascim Kalil Filho; Anderson Luiz Tracz; Henrique Koehler; Luciana L. F. Ribas; Marguerite Quoirin

    2010-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) is an important species for timber production that is considered the most valuable in the world. For this reason its exploitation is indiscriminate and leads this species to the risk of extinction. Moreover, mahogany is difficult to regenerate naturally and, when used in reforestation programs, plants are severely damaged by the shoot-borer (Hypsipyla grandella Zellar). This work aimed at developing the multiplication stage of micropropagation of...

  1. TWO ORIGINS SEED DETERIORATION Swietenia macrophylla King., UNDER DIFFERENT STORAGE METHODOS

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos R. Soto Hernández; J. Jesús Vargas Hernández; Jesús Jasso Mata; Gómez Tejero Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Three Factors (humidity content, container and storage) trat might affect seed viability of two provenances of Swietenia macrophylla King were evaluated, taking in consideration as main factor the germination percentage and relating it with the humidity content through three storage and the fatty acids at the beginning at the ending and, the measurement of the humidity content was done by the conventional method, the lipids quality was done by chromatography gas technique; the expe...

  2. Potent PPARγ Ligands from Swietenia macrophylla Are Capable of Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wai Kwan Lau; Bey Hing Goh; Habsah Abdul Kadir; Alexander Chong Shu-Chien; Tengku Sifzizul Tengku Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Numerous documented ethnopharmacological properties have been associated with Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae), with its seed extract reported to display anti-hypoglycemic activities in diabetic rats. In the present study, three compounds isolated from the seeds of S. macrophylla were tested on a modified ELISA binding assay and showed to possess PPARγ ligand activity. They were corresponded to PPARγ-mediated cellular response, stimulated adipocyte differentiation but produced lower amount o...

  3. In Vitro Cytoprotective Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Swietenia macrophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Sônia Pamplona; Paulo Sá; Dielly Lopes; Edmar Costa; Elizabeth Yamada; Consuelo e Silva; Mara Arruda; Jesus Souza; Milton da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) is a highly valued timber species, whereas the leaves are considered to be waste product. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in aqueous extracts from mahogany leaves by comparing retention times and mass spectra data with those of authentic standards using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Polyphenols play an important role in plants as defense mechanisms against pests and pathogens and have potent antioxidant properties. In terms of health applications, interest ha...

  4. Balok Laminasi Dengan Kombinasi Dari Batang Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq) Dan Kayu Mahoni (Swietenia Mahagoni)

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Denni Ardian R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of timber as a structural material is not only limited to solid timber but also as laminate called lamination wood (gluelam). This research explored the optimum total of layers, and height of the oil-palm stem to evaluate physis and mechanis properties of lamination wood which is a combination of oil-palm stem (Elaies guineensis jacq) and mahoni (Swietenia mahagoni). The lamination wood had 50 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 5 cm deep. Glue spread are 300 g/m2 with double side ...

  5. Interespecific variation in the composition of volatile oils from the leaves of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marisi Gomes Soares; Maria Fátima das G. F. da Silva; João Batista Fernandes; Lago, João Henrique G.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile oils from leaves of five Brazilian specimens of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) collected in three different Amazon Rainforest Conservation Areas in the States of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oils showed to be composed by terpenoids, majority hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, being germacrene D (20.5-46.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (8.3-11.1%) the main components. Besides these derivatives, only α-cubebene, β-caryophylle...

  6. Mechanical Properties of Mahogany (Swietenia Macrophylla) and Araba (Ceiba Pentandra) Dusts Reinforced Polyester Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Oladele, Isiaka Oluwole; Joseph Ajibade OMOTOYINBO; Mayowa Pius BORISADE

    2013-01-01

    Comparative study of the reinforcement efficiency of hardwood and softwood dusts on the mechanical properties of polyester composites was investigated. Chemical treatment of the wood saw dusts were also carried out in order to further consider the possibility of surface modification of the saw dusts. Mahogany (Swietenia Macrophylla), a species of hard wood and Araba (Ceiba Pentandra), a species of soft wood saw dusts were selected and treated with a mixture of 1.0 M of NaOH and HCl at elevate...

  7. Limonoids from the Seeds of Swietenia macrophylla and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Chai Chen; Hsiang-Ruei Liao; Pei-Yu Chen; Wen-Lung Kuo; Tsung-Hsien Chang; Ping-Jyun Sung; Zhi-Hong Wen; Jih-Jung Chen

    2015-01-01

    A new limonoid, swietemacrophin (1), was isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla, together with five known compounds 2–6. The structure of 1 was determined through extensive 1D/2D-NMR and mass-spectrometric analyses. Swietemacrophin (1), humilinolide F (2), 3,6-O,O-diacetylswietenolide (3), 3-O-tigloylswietenolide (4), and swietemahonin E (5) exhibited inhibition (IC50 values ≤ 45.44 μM) of superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils in response to formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-...

  8. EFFECT OF PRETREATMENTS ON CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SKY FRUIT (Swietenia macrophylla) SEED OIL [Pengaruh Pra-perlakuan Terhadap Sifat Kimia dan Antioksidan Minyak Biji Buah Tunjuk Langit (Swietenia macrophylla)

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati Mohd Yusof; Nor Hayati Ibrahim1)*; Lau Chiew Ping

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pretreatments on chemical and antioxidant properties of sky fruit (Swietenia macrohylla) seed oil. The seeds were treated with different heat pretreatments (roasting, steaming, and microwaving) and subsequently subjected to oil extraction by using a Bligh and Dyer method. It was found that different pretreatments significantly (p

  9. Korelasi Kondisi Daun Terhadap Kadar Pb, dan Klorofil Daun Hibiscus tiliaceus dan Swietenia macrophylla King di Kampus Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Suhadiyah; Roland A. Barkey; Elis Tambaru

    2015-01-01

    Meningkatnya aktivitas yang bersifat komersial diperkotaan berpotensi meningkatkan konsentrasi polutan di udara akibat padatnya lalu lintas kendaraan bermotor dan kegiatan industri. Penelitian analisis kadar klorofil, Konsentrasi Pb, jumlah stomata, jumlah trikomata dan luas daun waru (Hibiscus tiliaceus L.) dan mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla King.) di Kampus Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar telah dilakukan pada bulan juli-agustus 2014. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh tanam...

  10. Antidiabetic effect of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jayaprasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been increasing at an alarming rate around the world, and experts have relied on remedies from the utilization of ancient drugs that are essentially derived from plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg b.w.. The diabetic rats were administered orally with C. swietenia bark (CSB methanolic (CSBMEt and aqueous (CSBAEt (250 mg/kg b.w. extracts and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg b.w. by intragastric intubation for 45 days. The result showed a heavy loss in weight, increase in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, and decline in plasma insulin and total hemoglobin content. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase were found to be increased whereas hexokinase and glycogen contents were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. CSBAEt, CSBMEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats showed moderate reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels; in addition, plasma insulin and hemoglobin levels were elevated. The altered activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and liver glycogen were improved remarkably. CSBMEt results were comparable to the standard drug glibenclamide. The present findings support the usage of the plant extracts for the traditional treatment of diabetes.

  11. Limonoids of the phragmalin type from Swietenia macrophylla and their chemotaxonomic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Milton Nascimento; Arruda, Mara Silvia Pinheiro; Castro, Kelly Christina F; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C

    2008-12-01

    Species of Swietenia elaborate limonoid chemistry along only one route, which leads to the mexicanolide type in most species and the phragmalin type in S. mahogani. A hexane extract from leaves of S. macrophylla afforded six new phragmalins with a 8,9,30-ortho-ester unit, namely, 6-O-acetylswietephragmin E (1), 3beta-O-destigloyl-3beta-O-benzoyl-6-O-acetylswietephragmin E (2), 12alpha-acetoxyswietephragmin C (3), 3beta-O-destigloyl-3beta-O-benzoyl-12alpha-acetoxyswietephragmin C (4), 12alpha-acetoxyswietephragmin D (5), and 3beta-O-destigloyl-3beta-O-benzoyl-12alpha-acetoxyswietephragmin D (6). This appears to be the first record of phragamalins from S. macrophylla, and this study shows the potential of tricyclic [3.3.1(2,10).1(1,4)]-decane limonoids as taxonomically useful chemical markers in the Meliaceae. PMID:19053509

  12. Potent PPARγ Ligands from Swietenia macrophylla Are Capable of Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Kwan Lau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous documented ethnopharmacological properties have been associated with Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae, with its seed extract reported to display anti-hypoglycemic activities in diabetic rats. In the present study, three compounds isolated from the seeds of S. macrophylla were tested on a modified ELISA binding assay and showed to possess PPARγ ligand activity. They were corresponded to PPARγ-mediated cellular response, stimulated adipocyte differentiation but produced lower amount of fat droplets compared to a conventional anti-diabetic agent, rosiglitazone. The up-regulation of adipocytes was followed by increased adipocyte-related gene expressions such as adiponectin, adipsin, and PPARγ. The S. macrophylla compounds also promoted cellular glucose uptake via the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporter.

  13. Limonoids from the Seeds of Swietenia macrophylla and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chai Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new limonoid, swietemacrophin (1, was isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla, together with five known compounds 2–6. The structure of 1 was determined through extensive 1D/2D-NMR and mass-spectrometric analyses. Swietemacrophin (1, humilinolide F (2, 3,6-O,O-diacetylswietenolide (3, 3-O-tigloylswietenolide (4, and swietemahonin E (5 exhibited inhibition (IC50 values ≤ 45.44 μM of superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils in response to formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP. Compounds 1, 4, 5, and swietenine (6 showed potent inhibition with IC50 values ≤ 36.32 μM, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO generation.

  14. D-ring-opened phragmalin-type limonoid orthoesters from the twigs of Swietenia macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing-Dong; Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Zhang, Sheng; Wu, Yan; Yue, Jian-Min

    2009-07-01

    Sixteen new D-ring-opened phragmalin limonoid orthoesters, swietenitins A-M (1-6, 8, 10, 12-16), 2-acetoxyswietenialide D (7), 2,11-diacetoxyswietenialide D (9), and 11-deoxyswietenialide D (11), and four known compounds were isolated from the twigs of Swietenia macrophylla. The structures of 1-16 were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, and 1 and 2 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The (1)H NMR-based conformational analysis on the epimeric compounds 1 and 2 provided a general approach to determine the absolute configuration of the 2,3-epoxy-2-methylbutyryloxy unit at C-3 borne by a large group of the known phragmalin-type limonoid orthoesters. PMID:19552385

  15. Potent PPARγ Ligands from Swietenia macrophylla Are Capable of Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wai Kwan; Goh, Bey Hing; Kadir, Habsah Abdul; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku

    2015-01-01

    Numerous documented ethnopharmacological properties have been associated with Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae), with its seed extract reported to display anti-hypoglycemic activities in diabetic rats. In the present study, three compounds isolated from the seeds of S. macrophylla were tested on a modified ELISA binding assay and showed to possess PPARγ ligand activity. They were corresponded to PPARγ-mediated cellular response, stimulated adipocyte differentiation but produced lower amount of fat droplets compared to a conventional anti-diabetic agent, rosiglitazone. The up-regulation of adipocytes was followed by increased adipocyte-related gene expressions such as adiponectin, adipsin, and PPARγ. The S. macrophylla compounds also promoted cellular glucose uptake via the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporter. PMID:26703529

  16. Interespecific variation in the composition of volatile oils from the leaves of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisi Gomes Soares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile oils from leaves of five Brazilian specimens of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae collected in three different Amazon Rainforest Conservation Areas in the States of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oils showed to be composed by terpenoids, majority hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, being germacrene D (20.5-46.8% and bicyclogermacrene (8.3-11.1% the main components. Besides these derivatives, only α-cubebene, β-caryophyllene, β-gurjunene and γ-cadinene were detected in all of the analyzed samples. This analysis indicated a great diversity of constituents in the oils obtained from specimens collected in these regions, which could be associated to the different susceptibility in the attack of H. grandella in S. macrophylla cultures.

  17. Limonoids from the Seeds of Swietenia macrophylla and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Chai; Liao, Hsiang-Ruei; Chen, Pei-Yu; Kuo, Wen-Lung; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Jih-Jung

    2015-01-01

    A new limonoid, swietemacrophin (1), was isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla, together with five known compounds 2-6. The structure of 1 was determined through extensive 1D/2D-NMR and mass-spectrometric analyses. Swietemacrophin (1), humilinolide F (2), 3,6-O,O-diacetylswietenolide (3), 3-O-tigloylswietenolide (4), and swietemahonin E (5) exhibited inhibition (IC50 values≤45.44 μM) of superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils in response to formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). Compounds 1, 4, 5, and swietenine (6) showed potent inhibition with IC50 values≤36.32 μM, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) generation. PMID:26473818

  18. Acute oral toxicity studies of Swietenia macrophylla seeds in Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Katyayani Balijepalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae seeds (SMS; commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg. Aim: To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw in sprague dawley (SD rats. Materials and Methods: Eight-week old male and female SD rats were administered a single-oral dose of 2g/kg bw. The rats′ general behavior, and toxic signs were observed throughout the 14-day study period. The food and water intake by rats and their body weight were monitored during the study period. At the end of the study period, the relative weights of the organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, stomach; the hematological and biochemical parameters were measured; the architecture and histology of the organs (liver, kidney and lungs were observed. Results: Oral administration of SMS to rats did not affect, either food or water intake; relative organ weight of vital organs; the hematological and biochemical parameters; did not show significant changes in the architecture and histology of vital organs. Overall, there were neither signs of toxicity nor deaths recorded during the study period. Conclusion: The rat dose of 2 g/kg bw is equivalent to the human dose of 325 mg/kg bw, which is well below the usual amount consumed by people, did not show any signs of toxicity in rats.

  19. Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of swietenia macrophylla king (meliaceae) seed extracts in normoglycaemic rats undergoing glucose tolerance tests

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Yam, Mun Fei; Hor, Sook Yee; Lim, Chung Pin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sadikun, Amirin

    2013-01-01

    Background Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) is used to treat diabetes mellitus in Malaysia. This study aims to evaluate the anti-hyperglycaemic potential of petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE) and methanol (ME) extracts of S. macrophylla seeds, in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Following treatment of normoglycaemic rats with S. macrophylla seed extracts, hypoglycaemic and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed, and blood ...

  20. Island Invasion by a Threatened Tree Species: Evidence for Natural Enemy Release of Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) on Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    OpenAIRE

    Norghauer, Julian M.; Martin, Adam R.; Mycroft, Erin E.; James, Arlington; Thomas, Sean C

    2011-01-01

    Despite its appeal to explain plant invasions, the enemy release hypothesis (ERH) remains largely unexplored for tropical forest trees. Even scarcer are ERH studies conducted on the same host species at both the community and biogeographical scale, irrespective of the system or plant life form. In Cabrits National Park, Dominica, we observed patterns consistent with enemy release of two introduced, congeneric mahogany species, Swietenia macrophylla and S. mahagoni, planted almost 50 years ago...

  1. Chloroplast DNA Microsatellites Reveal Contrasting Phylogeographic Structure in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) from Amazonia and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Maristerra R. Lemes; Dick, Christopher W; Navarro, Carlos; Lowe, Andrew J.; Cavers, Stephen; Gribel, Rogerio

    2010-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is one of the most valuable and overharvested timber trees of tropical America. A description of the organization of genetic variation across its broad range would be useful for management of genetic diversity and for understanding its demographic history. Here we report on a phylogeographic analysis of mahogany based on six polymorphic cpDNA simple sequence repeat loci (cpSSRs) genotyped in 16 populations distributed across the Brazilian Amazon and M...

  2. Hypsipyla grandella em Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla: Situação Atual e Perspectivas Hypsipyla grandella in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla: Current Situation and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A madeira de mogno, Swietenia macrophylla King, é valorizada no mercado internacional por sua beleza e durabilidade para fins nobres, como mobiliários e decoração. Quaisquer tentativas de plantios comerciais dessa espécie de modo a reduzir a pressão exercida pela sua exploração seletiva invariavelmente fracassam devido à incidência da broca do ponteiro do mogno, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller. Embora alguns trabalhos tenham obtido relativo sucesso em apresentar técnicas de controle sob aspectos pontuais, ainda não foi estabelecida uma estratégia de manejo integrado que seja prática, econômica e eficiente para H. grandella no Brasil. Este trabalho tem como objetivo rever e atualizar informações sobre o inseto e seu hospedeiro, além de indicar as áreas de pesquisa mais promissoras para o seu controle em plantios de S. macrophylla no País. As estratégias de controle de H. grandella mais recomendadas são o uso da resistência da planta, manejo silvicultural, uso de semioquímicos e controle biológico, nas quais há necessidade de incentivos a pesquisas de longo prazo. Ensaios de resistência natural de procedências de S. macrophylla devem ser incentivados, devido às extensas áreas com reservas naturais no Brasil.

     

    Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.59.45

    The mahogany wood, Swietenia macrophylla King, is valued in the international trade market for
    its beauty and durability for noble uses like furniture and decoration. Any attempt of commercial plantation of
    this specie to diminish the pressure made by its selective exploration fail due to the incidence of the mahogany
    shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller. Although some works have had relative success in presenting control
    techniques over the punctual aspects, a strategy of economic, an economic strategy for efficient and integrated
    management practice was not established yet for H. grandella in Brazil. This study objective is to update

  3. Regeneration of pancreatic β-cells on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats under the effect of Swietenia macrophylla seeds

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    Moumita Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major killers these days and has a profound effect in the quality of life. Despite considerable progress in the treatment of diabetes, search for newer drugs continues, especially from the natural resources. We have previously reported that the seed of the plant. Swietenia macrophylla is nontoxic. Aim: The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Swietenia macrophylla seeds on histopathological changes of pancreatic, hepatic and renal tissues, besides to observe its effect on the blood glucose level and lipid parameters in experimental diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The Albino rat (Wister Strain weighing 200-250 gm were divided into five groups of seven rats each and streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes except in the control group. The control group (I and diabetic control group (II received redistilled water. Group III and V diabetic rats were administered with aqueous extract of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (2 gm/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Peptide was mixed with extract as adjuvant in the latter group (1:1, 2 gm/kg body weight/day for 30 days. Group IV diabetic rats were fed with aqueous extract of standard drug Metformin (10 mg/kg body weight. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel, Office 2003 and SPSS 16 software. Values were expressed by mean ± SD. P value <0.05, <0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results: The oral administration of extract alone and extract plus soya peptide to diabetic rats was found to possess significant hypoglycaemic as well as hypolipidemic activity. Histopathological changes include hypercellularity of islets tissue with increased hyperchromic nucleus in the same group. Increased density of islets in pancreatic tissue with higher percent of β cells and islets size in this group, in comparison to diabetic untreated group indicate regeneration of beta cells under the effect of Swietenia

  4. MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Swietenia macrophylla KING (MELIACEAE A PARTIR DE MATERIAL JUVENIL

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    Eliane de Souza Schottz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King is an important species for timber production that is considered the most valuable in the world. For this reason its exploitation is indiscriminate and leads this species to the risk of extinction. Moreover, mahogany is difficult to regenerate naturally and, when used in reforestation programs, plants are severely damaged by the shoot-borer (Hypsipyla grandella Zellar. This work aimed at developing the multiplication stage of micropropagation of Swietenia macrophylla King using juvenile material. After desinfestation, seeds were germinated in MS solid culture medium. Shoot formation from seeds occurred during five months, giving 5.54 nodal segments per seed. These explants were excised, each containing one axillary bud, and transferred on multiplication media. Four experiments with cytokinins were conducted, using media supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (2.5 to 50.0 μM, 2-isopentenyladenine (2-iP (0; 1.1  to 8.8 μM, combinations  of  BAP (0; 2.5 to 50.0 μM and 2-iP (2.2 μM. For the first treatments the basal culture medium was MS medium and in the last one MS and QL media were used in separate experiments. When BAP was tested alone, the maximum point of multiplication rate average was obtained on medium containing 23.61 µM, while 2-iP did not induce bud multiplication. On QL culture medium  supplemented  with  the  combinations  of  BAP  (0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0 e 20.0 μM   and  2-iP (2.2 μM, there was no multiplication. The maximum point of multiplication rate average  was  5.7 µM, obtained when the MS culture medium was supplemented with 18.51 µM BAP and 2.2  µM  2-iP.

  5. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of phytopreparations and limonoids from Swietenia humilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle-Magallanes, Berenice; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Mata, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    An aqueous extract from the seeds of Swietenia humilis (31.6-100mg/kg bw) lowered (phumulin B (2), methyl-2-hydroxy-3-β-isobutyroxy-1-oxomeliac-8(30)-enate (3), methyl-2-hydroxy-3-β-tigloyloxy-1-oxomeliac-8(30)-enate (4), humilinolide G (5), humilinolide C (6), methyl-2-hydroxy-3-β-isobutyoyl-8α,30α-epoxy-1-oxo-meliacate (7), and humilinolide H (8), were isolated from a CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract of the seeds. Compounds 5 and 8 are analogs of compounds 6 and 7. The structure of 5 was unequivocally established by X-ray analysis. When tested in normal and NA-STZ-hyperglycemic mice, compounds 1, 2, and 4 (3.16-31.6 mg/kg bw) decreased glycemia during an oral glucose tolerance test. The present investigation sustains the contemporary popular uses of S. humilis seeds for treating metabolic disorders, including diabetes and dyslipidemia and demonstrates the potential of the mexicanolides as antihyperglycemic agents. PMID:25534951

  6. Pharmacological effects of methanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq (meliaceae seeds

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    Ghosh Sruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of medicinal plants are common ingredients of many folk and herbal medicines, and seed extracts have been reported to possess pharmacological activity including anti-inflammatory activity. In the present investigation, the methanolic extract of the dried ground seeds of Swietenia mahagoni (SMSE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acute, sub-chronic, and chronic models of inflammation in rodents. The antipyretic and analgesic activities were evaluated in mice models. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the extract up to a dose of 1.2 g/kg intraperitoneally was nontoxic. SMSE at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. was found to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities and the effect was comparable with that produced by the standard drug, ibuprofen. The results of the experiment on arachidonic acid-induced paw edema in rat revealed that the extract produces anti-inflammatory activity through dual inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. SMSE also enhanced peritoneal cell exudates along with macrophage significantly. The triterpenoids present in SMSE may be responsible for these activities. SMSE possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities.

  7. Effect of Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Clonal Propagation of Swietenia macrophylla through Branch Cutting

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    Md. Salim Azad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discloses the scopes of clonal propagation Swietenia macrophylla through branch cutting treated with IBA. A total of four hundred cuttings were used with four replications to assess the rooting ability. The study exposed significant (p<0.5 difference of rooted cuttings among the treatments. The highest (62.51% rooting percent was observed in cutting with 0.4% IBA treatment. In addition, root number and its length per cutting were increased with increasing IBA concentration (p<0.5. The experiment showed significant (p<0.5 difference of sprouting among the treatments. The highest (67.27% percent of sprouting was observed in cuttings with 0.4% solution, which showed a similar fashion of percent of rooting. The study also showed significant (p<0.5 difference of shoot number per cutting, the length of the longest shoot, and number of leaves per cutting among the treatments. The overall survival of rooted cuttings after transfer to polybag significantly (p<0.5 differed among the cuttings treated with different IBA solution. The highest survival percentage (69.67% was observed in the cuttings rooted with 0.4% IBA treatment and the lowest (55.6% survival was found in cuttings treated with control. The use of 0.4% IBA treatment is suggested for rooting of juvenile leafy branch cutting of S. macrophylla.

  8. Nursery practices increase seedling performance on nutrient-poor soils in Swietenia humilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basave Villalobos E

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia humilis is a valued tree species for its high-quality wood, among other commercial interests. Attempts to plant the species in southwest Mexico have often failed due to poor quality seedlings combined with low soil fertility and dry environments. Nursery top-pruning and fertilization are practices previously reported to improve seedling quality, and facilitate rapid establishment under poor site conditions. In the present study, the effects of three top-pruning intensities (0%, 25%, and 50%, and two fertilizer regimes (traditional and exponential on several S. humilis seedling morphological and physiological indices were tested in the nursery, and a quality test trial on nutrient-poor soils was conducted. Significant interactions between the above two treatments were not detected. Top pruning at 25% and 50% intensity did not improve S. humilis seedling quality. However, exponential nutrient supply exhibited favorable effects on seedling growth. Results of the quality test trial revealed exponential fertilization promoted satisfactory seedling performance when low nutrient availability was a limiting factor.

  9. Effect of overnight temperature on leaf photosynthesis in seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGCheng-Jun; CarlosHenriqueB.deA.Prado; ZUYuan-Gang; GUOJia-Qiu; CarlosCesarRonquim; LeonnardoLopesFerreira

    2003-01-01

    After exposure of one-year old seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla to an overnight temperature (13 ℃, 19 ℃, 25 ℃,31 ℃ or 35 ℃), the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was researched through measuring photosynthetic light-response curves at360μmol·mol-1 CO2, and photosynthetic CO2-response curves at light-saturated intensity (1500 μmol·mol-1·m-2·s-1). The optimal temperature for photosynthesis measured at 360μmol·mol-1 CO2 was from 25 ℃ to 31 ℃, but which was from 31℃ to 35 ℃ at saturating CO2 concentration. At temperature of below 25 ℃, the decline in Pn was mainly due to the drop in carboxylation effi-cfency (Ce), while as temperature was over 31 ℃, the reduction in Pn resulted from both decrease in Ce and increase in leaf respiration. The CO2-induced stimulation of photosynthesis was strongly inhibited at temperatures below 13 ℃. The results showed that, the leaf photosynthesis of tropical evergreen plants should not be accelerated at low temperature in winter season with elevated CO2 concentration in the future.

  10. Effect of substrates for in vitro germination of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to verify the effect of substrates and different light conditions and temperature on in vitro germination of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seeds for the production of explants for the initialprocess of micropropagation. In the first experiment the seeds were inoculatedintwosubstrates: 7gL-1 agar and vermiculite,maintained at temperature of 25±1°C with photoperiod of 16 hours and 52 mmol m-2 s-1irradiance. MS medium supplementedwith sucrose (10; 20; and 30g L-1) was used. For the second experiment the seeds were submitted to light conditions (presence and absence)and temperature (25 and 30 °C) and inoculated in MS medium supplementedwith 30g L-1 sucrose +vermiculite. The vermiculite was more efficient than agar as substrate for the in vitro seed germination of mahogany. The MS medium, supplemented with 30g L-1 sucrose + vermiculite, was more efficient for the in vitro seed germination of mahogany. The temperatures of 25 and 30 °C independent of the presence or absence of light had no influence in the number and time for the in vitro germination of these seeds. (author)

  11. Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedlings for phytoextraction applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kui-Chu; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei; Lee, Hung-Lin; Hseu, Zeng-Yei

    2011-10-01

    Mahogany, a high biomass fast-growing tropical tree, has recently garnered considerable interest for potential use in heavy metal phytoremediation. This study performed hydroponic experiments with Cd concentration gradients at concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, and 30 mg L(-1) to identify Cd accumulation and tolerance of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedlings as well as their potential for phytoextraction. Experimental results indicate that Cd inhibited mahogany seedling growth at the highest Cd exposure concentration (30 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, this woody species demonstrated great potential for phytoextraction at Cd concentrations of 7.5 and 15 mg L(-1). The roots, twigs, and leaves had extremely large bioaccumulation factors at 10.3-65.1, indicating that the plant extracted large amounts of Cd from hydroponic solutions. Mahogany seedlings accumulated up to 154 mg kg(-1) Cd in twigs at a Cd concentration of 15 mg L(-1). Although Cd concentrations in leaves were <100 mg kg(-1), these concentrations markedly exceed the normal ranges for other plants. Due to the high biomass production and Cd uptake capacity of mahogany shoots, this plant is a potential candidate for remediating Cd-contaminated sites in tropical regions. PMID:21741155

  12. Antioxidative and hypolipidemic efficacy of alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Kalaivanan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the antioxidative potential and antihyperlipidemic activity of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg body weight, BW). Rats with glucose levels >200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into five groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered daily with seed extract (SME) at a dosage of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and another group orally administered 600 μg/kg BW glibenclamide daily. Repeated daily oral administration of S. macrophylla significantly reduced blood glucose levels after 45 days of treatment. The lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides of SME treated rats decreased in the plasma, liver and kidney. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were significantly increased in SME treated rats. Antioxidants such as reduced glutathione level in the plasma, liver and kidney and vitamins C and E levels in the plasma increased in SME treated rats. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids and lipoproteins levels increased. Altered lipid profile of treated rats lead to normality with treatment of S. macrophylla. Thus, our results indicate that the administration of 100 mg/kg BW SME restores near normal blood glucose, redox status and lipid profile in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:22865358

  13. Genetic diversity in mesoamerican populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), assessed using RAPDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, A C; Navarro, C; Lowe, A J; Newton, A C; Hernández, M; Wilson, J; Cornelius, J P

    1999-12-01

    Swietenia macrophylla King, a timber species native to tropical America, is threatened by selective logging and deforestation. To quantify genetic diversity within the species and monitor the impact of selective logging, populations were sampled across Mesoamerica, from Mexico to Panama, and analysed for RAPD DNA variation. Ten decamer primers generated 102 polymorphic RAPD bands and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to Nei, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine intra- and interpopulation variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA). Populations from Mexico clustered closely together in the dendrogram and were distinct from the rest of the populations. Those from Belize also clustered closely together. Populations from Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras, however, did not cluster closely by country but were more widely scattered throughout the dendrogram. This result was also reflected by an autocorrelation analysis of genetic and geographical distance. Genetic diversity estimates indicated that 80% of detected variation was maintained within populations and regression analysis demonstrated that logging significantly decreased population diversity (P = 0.034). This study represents one of the most wide-ranging surveys of molecular variation within a tropical tree species to date. It offers practical information for the future conservation of mahogany and highlights some factors that may have influenced the partitioning of genetic diversity in this species across Mesoamerica. PMID:10651917

  14. Limonoids from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla with inhibitory activity against dengue virus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Chien, Yi-Ting; Lee, Jin-Ching; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Wang, Hui-Chun; Lo, I-Wen; Wu, Yi-Hung; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-11-26

    Fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract of the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla yielded six new limonoids, swielimonoids A-F (1-6), along with 20 known compounds. Compounds 1 and 2, mexicanolide-type limonoids, were assigned with an α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone moiety (ring D) and a C═C bond between C-8 and C-30. Compounds 3-6 could be categorized as highly oxygenated phragmalin-type limonoids. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated through the interpretation of spectroscopic data. The antidengue virus 2 activities of the isolated components from S. macrophylla were investigated, and of 12 compounds subjected to bioassay, compounds 2 and 7-10 were found to show inhibitory activity in the range 3.5 to 12.5 μM. Among these, the new limonoid 2 exhibited significant antiviral activity (EC50 = 7.2 ± 1.33 μM) with a selectivity index (CC50/EC50) value of >27.7. PMID:25330401

  15. In Vitro Cytoprotective Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Swietenia macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Sônia; Sá, Paulo; Lopes, Dielly; Costa, Edmar; Yamada, Elizabeth; e Silva, Consuelo; Arruda, Mara; Souza, Jesus; da Silva, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) is a highly valued timber species, whereas the leaves are considered to be waste product. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in aqueous extracts from mahogany leaves by comparing retention times and mass spectra data with those of authentic standards using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Polyphenols play an important role in plants as defense mechanisms against pests and pathogens and have potent antioxidant properties. In terms of health applications, interest has increased considerably in naturally occurring antioxidant sources, since they can retard the progress of many important neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The antioxidant capacities of two aqueous extracts, M1 (decoction) and M2 (infusion), were measured using TEAC and Folin-Ciocalteau methods. Additionally, M1 was used in order to investigate its potential cytoprotective effects on an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, by using primary cerebellar cultures exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg). Under experimental sub-chronic conditions (72 h), concomitant exposure of the same cultures to MeHg and M1 extract resulted in a statistically significant increase in cell viability in all three concentrations tested (10, 50 and 100 μg/mL), strongly suggesting that due to its high content of antioxidant compounds, the M1 extract provides significant cytoprotection against the MeHg-induced in vitro neurotoxicity. PMID:26501245

  16. Antihyperglycemic effect of the alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla on streptozotocin-diabetic rats

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    Kalpana Kalaivanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptozotocin (STZ selectively destroys the pancreatic insulin secreting cells, leaving less active cells and resulting in a diabetic state. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the ethanolic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla (SME in normal and STZ-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight [BW]. Rats with glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into 5 groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered, daily with seed extract at a dosage of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and the other group was orally administered 600 ΅g/kg BW glibenclamide daily. Results: Graded doses of seed extract and glibenclamide showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and improvement in serum insulin levels. The extract also improved body weight and promoted liver glycogen content. After treatment, hemoglobin (Hb level increased and glycosylated Hb level significantly decreased in diabetic rats. The activities of the carbohydrate metabolic enzymes showed significant changes in the rats. Of the 3 doses, 100 mg dose showed maximum activity. Histological investigations of pancreas also supported the biochemical findings. Conclusions: Thus, our findings indicate the folklore use of the seed for diabetes and the mechanism seems to be insulin secretion.

  17. [In vitro propagation of mahogany tree (Swietenia macrophylla King) from axillary buds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacoronte, Melángel; Vielma, María; Mora, Argenis; Valecillos, Carle

    2004-01-01

    The mahogany tree (Swietenia macrophylla King) is a forest tree with a great commercial value mainly due to its wood quality. Unfortunately, this species is being threatened by the effect of intensive timber exploitation, its low capacity to regenerate, and the attack of the Meliaceae shoot borer (Hypsipylla grandella Zeller) (Lepidoptera Pyralidae). To increase population, large-scale propagation of mahogany by in vitro culture was developed. To obtain plantlets, nodal segments were cultured in a half-strength MS medium supplemented with different combinations of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyladenine (BA), specified by the Central Compositional Rotable Statistical Design Method, within a range of 0-3 mg/L for both hormones. Favourable incubation conditions were: 16 h light, and 40-45 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) at 25 degrees C. The derived response surface showed an optimal axillary bud elongation on a medium containing 1.94 mg BA/L and 0.38 mg NAA/L. No significant differences were found neither applying Orellana Method nor modified Orellana method. Mahogany plantlets obtained were successfully acclimated. PMID:15916160

  18. In Vitro Cytoprotective Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Swietenia macrophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Pamplona

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany is a highly valued timber species, whereas the leaves are considered to be waste product. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in aqueous extracts from mahogany leaves by comparing retention times and mass spectra data with those of authentic standards using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Polyphenols play an important role in plants as defense mechanisms against pests and pathogens and have potent antioxidant properties. In terms of health applications, interest has increased considerably in naturally occurring antioxidant sources, since they can retard the progress of many important neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The antioxidant capacities of two aqueous extracts, M1 (decoction and M2 (infusion, were measured using TEAC and Folin-Ciocalteau methods. Additionally, M1 was used in order to investigate its potential cytoprotective effects on an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, by using primary cerebellar cultures exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg. Under experimental sub-chronic conditions (72 h, concomitant exposure of the same cultures to MeHg and M1 extract resulted in a statistically significant increase in cell viability in all three concentrations tested (10, 50 and 100 μg/mL, strongly suggesting that due to its high content of antioxidant compounds, the M1 extract provides significant cytoprotection against the MeHg-induced in vitro neurotoxicity.

  19. Genetic structure of Mesoamerican populations of Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) inferred from microsatellite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Rachel Roth; Dick, Christopher W; Lemes, Maristerra R; Navarro, Carlos; Caccone, Adalgisa; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2003-11-01

    While microsatellites have been used to examine genetic structure in local populations of Neotropical trees, genetic studies based on such high-resolution markers have not been carried out for Mesoamerica as a whole. Here we assess the genetic structure of the Mesoamerican mahogany Swietenia macrophylla King (big-leaf mahogany), a Neotropical tree species recently listed as endangered in CITES which is commercially extinct through much of its native range. We used seven variable microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity and population structure in eight naturally established mahogany populations from six Mesoamerican countries. Measures of genetic differentiation (FST and RST) indicated significant differences between most populations. Unrooted dendrograms based on genetic distances between populations provide evidence of strong phylogeographic structure in Mesoamerican mahogany. The two populations on the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Panama were genetically distant from all the others, and from one another. The remaining populations formed two clusters, one comprised of the northern populations of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala and the other containing the southern Atlantic populations of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Significant correlation was found between geographical distance and all pairwise measures of genetic divergence, suggesting the importance of regional biogeography and isolation by distance in Mesoamerican mahogany. The results of this study demonstrate greater phylogeographic structure than has been found across Amazon basin S. macrophylla. Our findings suggest a relatively complex Mesoamerican biogeographic history and lead to the prediction that other Central American trees will show similar patterns of regional differentiation. PMID:14629370

  20. Electrophysiological responses of female and male Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) to Swietenia macrophylla essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Fernandes, João B; Corrêa, Arlene G; da Silva, M Fátima G F; Vieira, Paulo C; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ohashi, Orlando S

    2003-09-01

    The mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella, is one of the most economically important Neotropical forest pest insects because it attacks valuable timber of the Meliaceae. Despite detailed information on the life cycle of H. grandella, factors influencing attack by the shoot borer are not well known. Electroantennogram studies of borer antennae indicate that both female and male moths elicited significant antennal responses to essential oil of the terminal shoots, mature and senescent leaves, in three concentrations. Gamma-himachalene, germacrene D, germacrene A, cadina-1,4-diene, hexadecanoic acid, and ethyl hexadecanoate appeared in all essential oils from Swietenia macrophylla. Germacrene-D and gamma-himachalene were also present in the active essential oil of Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. These findings suggest that these compounds play a role in attracting H. grandella to oviposit on the leaves of these plants. The GC-EAD of essential oil from S. macrophylla mature leaves to female H. grandella antennae led to the identification of beta-caryophyllene as the main constituent responsible for the antennae response. PMID:14584681

  1. Verifying the geographic origin of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) with DNA-fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, B; Ward, S E; Lemes, M R; Navarro, C; Cavers, S; Sebbenn, A M

    2013-01-01

    Illegal logging is one of the main causes of ongoing worldwide deforestation and needs to be eradicated. The trade in illegal timber and wood products creates market disadvantages for products from sustainable forestry. Although various measures have been established to counter illegal logging and the subsequent trade, there is a lack of practical mechanisms for identifying the origin of timber and wood products. In this study, six nuclear microsatellites were used to generate DNA fingerprints for a genetic reference database characterising the populations of origin of a large set of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) samples. For the database, leaves and/or cambium from 1971 mahogany trees sampled in 31 stands from Mexico to Bolivia were genotyped. A total of 145 different alleles were found, showing strong genetic differentiation (δ(Gregorious)=0.52, F(ST)=0.18, G(ST(Hedrick))=0.65) and clear correlation between genetic and spatial distances among stands (r=0.82, P<0.05). We used the genetic reference database and Bayesian assignment testing to determine the geographic origins of two sets of mahogany wood samples, based on their multilocus genotypes. In both cases the wood samples were assigned to the correct country of origin. We discuss the overall applicability of this methodology to tropical timber trading. PMID:22770645

  2. Anti-hepatitis C virus activity of 3-hydroxy caruilignan C from Swietenia macrophylla stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S-F; Lin, C-K; Chuang, Y-S; Chang, F-R; Tseng, C-K; Wu, Y-C; Lee, J-C

    2012-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection ultimately leads to chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As the standard treatment is not completely efficacious, a safer and more effective agent against HCV infection needs to be developed. In this report, we demonstrated that 3-hydroxy caruilignan C (3-HCL-C) isolated from Swietenia macrophylla stems exhibited high anti-HCV activity at both protein and RNA levels at nontoxic concentrations, with an EC(50) value of 10.5 ± 1.2 μm. Combinations of 3-HCL-C and interferon-α (IFN-α), an HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor (2'-C-methylcytidine; NM-107) or an HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor (Telaprevir; VX-950) increased the suppression of HCV RNA replication. The results suggested that 3-HCL-C may be a potential anti-viral agent. We then demonstrated that 3-HCL-C interfered with HCV replication by inducing IFN-stimulated response element transcription and IFN-dependent anti-viral gene expression. PMID:22497816

  3. Mechanical Properties of Mahogany (Swietenia Macrophylla and Araba (Ceiba Pentandra Dusts Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of the reinforcement efficiency of hardwood and softwood dusts on the mechanical properties of polyester composites was investigated. Chemical treatment of the wood saw dusts were also carried out in order to further consider the possibility of surface modification of the saw dusts. Mahogany (Swietenia Macrophylla, a species of hard wood and Araba (Ceiba Pentandra, a species of soft wood saw dusts were selected and treated with a mixture of 1.0 M of NaOH and HCl at elevated temperature of 70°C for 3 hours followed by washing with distilled water and sieving before sun drying. The dried wood saw dusts was further oven dried at 60°C for 1 hour and pulverized with laboratory ball mill before being sieved with a mesh of grain size of 150 µm. The composites were produced by mixing the particulate fibres and the polyester matrix in predetermined proportions. Mechanical tests were carried out on the cured samples in order to determine properties such as: tensile, hardness and flexural. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM was used to observe the miscibility or otherwise between the fibre and matrix at the fractured surfaces. From the analysis, treated hardwood saw dust samples gave possess better tensile properties while soft wood saw dusts in the treated and untreated reinforced composites produced the best results in flexural. The hardness result revealed a marginal improvement in the untreated hardwood dust sample.

  4. Adubação fosfatada para a produção de mudas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King) Phosphated fertilization to produce mohogany seedlings (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Alexandra Santos; Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci; Francisco Adílson dos Santos Hara; Wellington Gomes da Silva

    2008-01-01

    O mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King), pelo elevado valor comercial da sua madeira, é uma das espécies mais exploradas na Amazônia, sendo ameaçada de extinção por não haver renovação dos estoques através de reflorestamento com a espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação fosfatada sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de mogno. O estudo foi conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação e o solo utilizado para compor o substrato foi Latossolo Amarelo de textura muito argilosa. Os tratamen...

  5. Desinfestação e germinação in vitro de sementes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King) In vitro sterilization and germination of mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Margarido Fonseca Couto; Wagner Campos Otoni; Antônio Lelis Pinheiro; Ésio de Pádua Fonseca

    2004-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivos desenvolver técnicas de regeneração in vitro a partir de segmentos de epicótilo, epicótilo invertido e explantes foliares provenientes de plântulas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla) germinadas em meio de cultura; e determinar a melhor concentração e tempo de exposição das sementes ao agente desinfestante, bem como a melhor posição de semeadura para germinação. As sementes foram desinfestadas, após a retirada do tegumento, em soluções com hipoclorito de s...

  6. CALOGÊNESE E RIZOGÊNESE EM EXPLANTES DE MOGNO (Swietenia macrophylla King) CULTIVADOS IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    Marguerite Quoirin; Silvana Cruz da Rocha

    2004-01-01

    A exploração de árvores tropicais realizada de forma indiscriminada, buscando espécies de alto valor econômico, tem levado várias espécies, como o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King), ao perigo de extinção. O desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de regeneração de gemas, direta ou indireta, poderia auxiliar na obtenção de um grande número de mudas e constituir uma perspectiva à propagação sexuada. Essa última é limitada pelo fato das sementes perderem rapidamente a capacidade germinativa. No pres...

  7. Seed reserves partition and light compensation point of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seedlings growth under low photosynthetic active radiation

    OpenAIRE

    José Pires de Lemos Filho; Ricardo Jenner Duarte

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the dry mass partition of the seed reserves during the initial growth of Swietenia macrophylla seedlings, in the dark, and at low levels of photosynthetically active radiation: 0.125; 3.12 and 52 µ mol.m-2.s-1. After 50 days, the dry mass of the seed reserves did not differ with treatments, but the total dry mass and leaf area were higher in the seedlings under higher light treatment. No difference in root/shoot ratio was observed between treatments, but th...

  8. ISOLASI, IDENTIFIKASI, DAN ELUSIDASI STRUKTUR SENYAWA ALKALOID DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL-ASAM NITRAT DARI BIJI MAHONI BEBAS MINYAK (Swietenia macrophylla, King)

    OpenAIRE

    S Mursiti; S Matsjeh; Jumina -; Mustofa -

    2014-01-01

    Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang isolasi, identifikasi, dan elusidasi struktur  senyawa alkaloid dalam ekstrak metanol-asam nitrat dari biji mahoni bebas minyak (Swietenia macrophylla King). Biji mahoni diambil minyaknya dengan cara ekstraksi soxhlet menggunakan pelarut petroleum eter selama 8 jam. Isolasi senyawa alkaloid menggunakan metanol dan larutan asam nitrat 10%. Sebanyak satu gram amp...

  9. Inventarizace a hodnocení růstu druhu Swietenia macrophylla King v objektu La Reserva, Nikaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Lengálová, Klára

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with evaluation current occurrence of Swietenia macrophylla (caoba) in forestry farm La Reserva, Nicaragua which I visited within the framework of NIKAZAM. Basic dendrometric parameters, health status and ecological demands of monitored tree species were ascertained there. Furthermore, there is evaluated the damage of Hypsipyla grandella on permanent research plots. Consequently, the results will be shown in tables and graphs.

  10. Doses crescentes de corretivo na formação de mudas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King Growing doses of liming on mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King seedling formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rogério Matos da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A produção de mudas é uma das fases mais importantes do cultivo de espécies arbóreas, sendo essa fase fundamental para o desenvolvimento adequado dessas espécies. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento e a absorção de nutrientes em mudas de mogno sob o efeito de doses crescentes de corretivo. O experimento foi conduzido no período de setembro de 2002 a agosto de 2003. Os tratamentos foram doses crescentes de uma mistura de carbonato de cálcio e carbonato de magnésio p.a., na proporção de 4:1, em doses equivalentes a 0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 e 5,0 t/ha. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, num total de 35 parcelas, cada formada por 3 plantas. O substrato foi adubado com doses equivalentes a 200-500-300 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente e 15 kg.ha-1 de micronutrientes FTE-Br12. As características de crescimento avaliadas foram: altura, diâmetro do colo, matéria seca da parte aérea, raiz e total, relação parte aérea/raiz. Determinaram-se os teores de nutrientes da parte aérea, raiz e total, e em função desta última, estimaram-se os conteúdos. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. A calagem afetou todas as características de crescimento, exceto a altura. O requerimento nutricional obedeceu à ordem decrescente de K>N>Ca>Mg>P>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu. A dose de 0,5 t/ha mostrou-se mais vantajosa economicamente e pode ser recomendada quando se utiliza subsolo ácido e de baixa fertilidade natural como substrato.Seedling production is one of the more important phases on the cultivation of trees, with this phase being essential for their appropriate development. The study had the objective of evaluating the growth and the absorption of nutrients in mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King seedling under the effect of corrective growing doses. The experiment was carried out from September 2002 to August 2003. The treatments were, 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 2

  11. Temperature and saline stress on seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Siddiqur; Akter, S; Al-Amin, M

    2013-12-01

    Physical responses of plants to change in climatic factors like temperature, precipitation and abiotic factors like salinity intrusion may lead positive or negative effects. Some factor may promulgate growth while other may stunts their vigour. Present study seeks growth of a plantation species at its early stage of life towards elevated temperature and saline water stresses. Growth records of Swietenia macrophylla seedlings were enumerated by measuring height, collar diameter and leaf number development of the replicates growing at an environment-controlled plant growth chamber. One experimented with merely elevated temperature while other tries to find results of combined effect of elevated temperature (30, 32 and 34 degrees C) and saline (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 g L(-1) NaCl) to said species seedlings. Seedling replicates showed diverse response to elevated temperature and saline irrigation at height, collar diameter and leaf number development. Results depict that elevated temperature alone might be positive for S. macrophylla seedlings, rather most favourable for its growth in height, however, collar diameter and leaf number may remain unaffected. Saline treatment along with higher temperature stresses may lead seedlings toward stunted or very low growth. As saline intensity increases, species growth tends to decrease proportionally. Elevated temperature aided with higher salinity may direct further under development of S. macrophylla seedlings which is distressing to plantation establishment of this species in sites which are vulnerable to salinity intrusion due to climate change. However, S. macrophylla may be a promising plantation species in drier part of the globe in near future. PMID:24506045

  12. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla king planted under contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Medina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatán, México and South America (State of Pará, Brazil. The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large differences in nutrient availability and rainfall regimes. Nutrient concentrations of leaves and soils were determined spectrophotometrically, and isotope ratios were measured using mass spectrometric techniques.In Pará soils were sandier, and acidic, receiving above 2000 mm of rain, whereas in Quintana Roo soils were predominantly clayey, with neutral to alkaline pH due to the underlying calcareous substrate, with about 1300 mm of rain. Leaf area/weight ratio was similar for both sites, but leaves from Quintana Roo were significantly smaller. Average N and K concentrations of adult leaves were similar, whereas Ca concentration was only slightly lower in Pará in spite of large differences in Ca availability. Leaves from this site had slightly higher P and lower Al concentrations. Differences in water use efficiency as measured by the natural abundance of 13C were negligible, the main effect of lower rainfall in Quintana Roo seemed to be a reduction in leaf area. The N isotope signature (δ15N was more positive in Pará than in Quintana Roo, suggesting higher denitrification rates in the former. Results reveal a calciotrophic behavior and a remarkable capacity of mahogany to compensate for large differences in soil texture and nutrient availability.

  13. Assays for the in vitro establishment of Swietenia macrophylla and Cedrela odorata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez Flores

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Título en español: Ensayos para el establecimiento in vitro de Swietenia macrophylla y Cedrela odorata Abstract: Recalcitrance and contamination in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King and Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L. stem tissues are the main causes of its ineffective in vitro propagation. The objectives of this research were: a to evaluate sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and plant preservative mixture (PPM® as surface disinfectants and/or added to the culture medium for the in vitro establishment of nodal explants taken from 10-year-old Mahogany and Spanish cedar plants, and b to evaluate the in vitro response of such explants treated with N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 17.7 μM, silver nitrate (AgNO3 (0, 3 mg l-1, activated charcoal (0, 1 g l-1 and vented caps. All the experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design. The NaOCl at 15%, for 20 min, as a surface sterilization or PPM® at 2 ml l-1  into the culture medium, were the best treatments to reduce contamination for both species. For Mahogany explants, BAP at 17.7 μM resulted in higher percentages of bud breaks than Spanish cedar (64% and 25%, respectively. Leaves on elongated shoots dropped off by 20 days after

  14. MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Swietenia macrophylla KING (MELIACEAE A PARTIR DE MATERIAL JUVENIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Souza Schottz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (mogno é uma espécie arbórea nativa da Amazônia cuja madeira é considerada uma das mais nobres do mundo. Por esse motivo, vem sofrendo grande pressão de exploração, colocando-a entre as espécies em risco de extinção. Além disso, possui dificuldade de regeneração natural e de estabelecimento em reflorestamentos, sendo atacado por larvas de Hypsipyla grandella Zellar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver a etapa de multiplicação in vitro de mogno. Após a desinfestação, as sementes foram colocadas para germinar em meio de cultura MS completo. Após 6 semanas de germinação, os caules foram cortados em segmentos nodais, cada um contendo uma gema axilar. Foram realizados quatro experimentos com meios de cultura acrescidos de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP (2,5; 5; 10; 20 e 50 μM, 2-isopenteniladenina (2-iP (0; 1,1; 2,2; 4,4 e 8,8 μM e combinações de BAP (0; 2,5; 5; 10; 20 e 50 μM e 2-iP (2,2 μM. Nos dois primeiros tratamentos (BAP e 2-iP isoladamente, o meio de cultura MS foi utilizado como meio básico e, nos últimos tratamentos, utilizaram-se os meios MS e QL. Quando BAP foi testado isoladamente, o ponto máximo da taxa média de multiplicação foi de 23,61 µM, enquanto que não houve multiplicação na presença de 2-iP. O meio de cultura QL, suplementado com as combinações de BAP (0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 20 μM e 2-iP (2,2 μM, não induziu a multiplicação dos brotos. O ponto máximo da taxa média de multiplicação foi de 18,51 µM, obtido com o uso do meio de cultura MS acrescido de BAP e 2,2 µM de 2-iP.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF SUCROSE ESTER SURFACTANTS AND DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS ON THE PREPARATION OF A NOVEL SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA OIL NANO-EMULSION

    OpenAIRE

    Eid Ahmad Mustafa Masoud; Baie Saringat Haji; Arafat Osama Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Nano-emulsions are emulsions with uniform and extremely small droplet sizes, typically in the range of 20–200 nm. Nano-emulsion concept has attracted considerable attention in recent years for its application in personal care and cosmetic products also due to their ability to improve the penetration and permeation of active ingredients through the skin. A composition of sucrose ester as surfactant, glycerol and Swietenia macrophylla oil were used to produce nano-emulsion by simple mixing and ...

  16. Long-term trends in cellulose delta13 C and water-use efficiency of tropical Cedrela and Swietenia from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietz, Peter; Wanek, Wolfgang; Dünisch, Oliver

    2005-06-01

    Elevated CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2)]) affect plant water relations and photosynthesis, and the increase in atmospheric [CO(2)] over the past 100-200 years has been related to changes in stomatal density and the carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) in tree rings and leaves from herbarium specimens. Because many tropical trees do not produce annual growth rings and their wood is therefore difficult to date, no trends in delta(13)C of tropical trees have been reported. Wood from Cedrela odorata L. (tropical cedar) and Swietenia macrophylla King (bigleaf mahogany), which do produce annual rings, was collected from a primary rain forest in Aripuanã, Brazil (10 degrees 09' S, 59 degrees 26' W). We measured wood cellulose delta(13)C in 10-year growth increments from 37 Cedrela trees (between 11 and 151 years old in 2001) and 16 Swietenia trees (48-126 years old). A comparison of delta(13)C in cellulose of trees from different decades and of trees of different cambial ages showed that the amount of delta(13)C was largely related to the decade the wood was produced in, and not, or only to a minor extent, to tree age. Cellulose delta(13)C decreased from -26.0 to -27.3 per thousand in Cedrela and from -25.7 to -27.1 per thousand in Swietenia, with the largest changes occurring during the past 50 years. Based on these data and the trends in atmospheric [CO(2)] and delta(13)CO(2), we calculated that the internal [CO(2)] increased from about 220 to 260 ppm and that intrinsic water-use efficiency increased by 34% in Cedrela and by 52% in Swietenia. This may have implications for the water cycle and may explain the trend toward increased tree growth and turnover observed in some tropical forests. PMID:15805094

  17. Adubação fosfatada para a produção de mudas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King Phosphated fertilization to produce mohogany seedlings (Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alexandra Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King, pelo elevado valor comercial da sua madeira, é uma das espécies mais exploradas na Amazônia, sendo ameaçada de extinção por não haver renovação dos estoques através de reflorestamento com a espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação fosfatada sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de mogno. O estudo foi conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação e o solo utilizado para compor o substrato foi Latossolo Amarelo de textura muito argilosa. Os tratamentos constituiram-se de doses crescentes de fósforo de 0, 25, 30, 75, 100, 150 e 200 kg.ha-1 de P. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 4 repetições, num total de 28 parcelas. Cada parcela foi formada por 2 mudas, cultivadas em sacos com capacidade de 4 dm³. Verificaram-se respostas positivas às doses de fósforo para todas as características de crescimento, bem como na absorção da maioria dos macronutrientes. Para as características de crescimento a dose de 200 kg.ha-1 de fósforo, foi a que proporcionou máximo crescimento para as mudas de mogno, no intervalo de 90 dias.ABSTRACT Due to the high value of mohogany woods (Swietenia macrophylla King, this specie is one of the most explored in the Amazon region. That explains the reason why mahogany is almost extinct.The present work evaluates the effect of phosphated fertilization on the mahogany seedlings under the increased doses of phosphorus. The experiment happened in a greenhouse and the soil used to compose the substratum was a yellow oxisoil with a very argillaceous texture. The treatments were made by doses of P: 0, 25, 30, 75, 100, 150 and 200 kg.ha-1 of P. The experimental design consisted of four randomized blocks, for a total of 28 parcels. Each parcel was formed by 2 seedlings, cultived in bags with 4 dm³ of soil. It was noticed positive answers by seedlings cultivated species for all the biometric characters analyzed and, in the same way, for the

  18. Investigation of lipid profile and occular oxidative stress of Chloroxylon swietenia on Streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats

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    Aravind Patchimatla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder, characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Aim: This investigation was designed to study the antidiabetic effect of Ethanolic extract of Chloroxylon swietenia (EECS in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-induced type-II diabetes in rats. Materials and Methods: The extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was given to the overnight-fasted Wistar albino rats for 14 days and the antidiabetic, lipid profile and ocular oxidative stress in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats were evaluated. The parameters studied were blood glucose, lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL], serum enzymes such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione (GSH, complete blood picture (RBC, haemoglobin, WBC, insulin and liver glycogen levels. The result of test drug was compared with diabetic control. Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg was selected as standard hypoglycaemic drug. Statistical Analysis: Results were expressed as Mean ± SD. Dunnet′s and one-way ANOVA test was used to compare the mean values of test groups and diabetic control. Results: Administration of EECS prior to glucose overload resulted significant attenuation in blood sugar level at 60 and 120 min in comparison to glucose control group. The antidiabetic activity of EECS showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in blood glucose level at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg dose levels at 14 th day. EECS with (250 and 500 mg/kg also decreased in serum SGOT, SGPT, TG, TC, VLDL-C, LDL-C, WBC and TBARS, in diabetic-induced rats. In addition EECS at (250 and 500 mg/kg increased liver glycogen, insulin, complete blood picture RBC, haemoglobin

  19. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium from synthetic and electroplating effluent on chemically modified Swietenia mahagoni shell in a packed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangabhashiyam, S; Nandagopal, M S Giri; Nakkeeran, E; Selvaraju, N

    2016-07-01

    Packed bed column studies were carried out to evaluate the performance of chemically modified adsorbents for the sequestration of hexavalent chromium from synthetic and electroplating industrial effluent. The effects of parameters such as bed height (3-9 cm), inlet flow rate (5-15 mL/min), and influent Cr(VI) concentration (50-200 mg/L) on the percentage removal of Cr(VI) and the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents in a packed bed column were investigated. The breakthrough time increased with increasing bed height and decreased with the increase of inlet flow rate and influent Cr(VI) concentration. The adsorption column models such as Thomas, Adams-Bohart, Yoon-Nelson, and bed depth service time (BDST) were successfully correlated with the experimental data. The Yoon-Nelson and BDST model showed good agreement with the experimental data for all the studied parameter conditions. Results of the present study indicated that the chemically modified Swietenia mahagoni shell can be used as an adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater in a packed bed column. PMID:27312254

  20. Swietenia mahagony extract shows agonistic activity to PPARγ and gives ameliorative effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan-dan LI; Xu SHEN; Hua-liang JIANG; Jun-hua CHEN; Qing CHEN; Guo-wei LI; Jing CHEN; Jian-min YUE; Min-li CHEN; Xiao-ping WANG; Jian-hua SHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To search the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists from Swietenia mahagony extract (SmE) and observe the possible ameliorative effects of SmE on diabetic db/db mice. Methods: The PPARγ agonistic activity of SmE was screened by yeast-two hybrid system. The blood glucose levels of diabetic db/db mice were measured using a blood glucose level monitor and the data were statistically analyzed by NDST8.8W software. Results: By using the clinical drug rosiglitazone as a positive control, it was found that the PPARγ agonistic activity of SmE at a concentration of 50 μg/L was approximately half that of 35.7 μg/L (0.1 μmol/L) of rosiglitazone. At the dose of 1000 mg/kg, SmE remark ably decreased the blood glucose concentration of db/db mice from (15.26±2.98) to (7.58±2.20) mmol/L, and reduced the blood glucose levels by 55.49% compared with the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: SmE shows agonistic activity to PPARγ and can ameliorate the blood glucose levels of diabetic db/db mice. SmE may be thus used as a potential agent for diabetes therapy.

  1. Restoration of genetic diversity in the dry forest tree Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae) after pasture abandonment in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, M; Gutierrez, M V; Holbrook, N M; J Rocha, O

    2003-12-01

    We studied the levels of genetic diversity of Swietenia macrophylla (big leaf mahogany) in five successional plots in the Santa Rosa National Park, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. We selected sites with different lengths of time since the last major disturbance (typically fire): 6, 9, 15 and 20 years. In addition, we also included a patch of mature forest that had experienced selective logging and other human activity in the past 100 years. Genetic diversity was assessed using five polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci. We found a total of 21 alleles in the five loci examined, in which the number of alleles present varied among the five sites studied. Allelic diversity varied between sites ranging from 20 to 14 alleles, and our data revealed that earlier successional sites have more alleles than older sites. There was significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies between sites; however, genetic differentiation between populations was low (FST = 0.063) indicating that most of the variation was found within sites and extensive gene flow between sites. In addition, our analysis also showed that genetic diversity of adult trees does not solely determine the diversity of seedlings and saplings found around them, also supporting the existence of extensive gene flow. The impact of these findings for the design of conservation strategies for tropical dry forests trees is discussed. PMID:14629338

  2. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements of the three-dimensional flow field of a descending autorotating mahogany seed (Swietenia macrophylla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, E; Treviño, C; Vargas, R O; Martínez-Suástegui, L

    2013-06-01

    An experimental investigation of near field aerodynamics of wind dispersed rotary seeds has been performed using stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The detailed three-dimensional flow structure of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) of autorotating mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla) in a low-speed vertical wind tunnel is revealed for the first time. The results confirm that the presence of strong spanwise flow and strain produced by centrifugal forces through a spiral vortex are responsible for the attachment and stability of the LEV, with its core forming a cone pattern with a gradual increase in vortex size. The LEV appears at 25% of the wingspan, increases in size and strength outboard along the wing, and reaches its maximum stability and spanwise velocity at 75% of the wingspan. At a region between 90 and 100% of the wingspan, the strength and stability of the vortex core decreases and the LEV re-orientation/inflection with the tip vortex takes place. In this study, the instantaneous flow structure and the instantaneous velocity and vorticity fields measured in planes parallel to the free stream direction are presented as contour plots using an inertial and a non-inertial frame of reference. Results for the mean aerodynamic thrust coefficients as a function of the Reynolds number are presented to supplement the DPIV data. PMID:23430990

  3. Multiplexed systems of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae), a threatened neotropical timber species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, M R; Brondani, R P V; Grattapaglia, D

    2002-01-01

    Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King [Meliaceae]) is the most valuable hardwood species in the neotropics. Its conservation status has been the subject of increasing concern due to overexploitation and habitat destruction. In this work we report the development and characterization of 10 highly variable microsatellite loci for S. macrophylla. Twenty-nine percent of the 126 sequenced mahogany clones yielded useful microsatellite loci. Three high-throughput genotyping systems were developed based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplexing of these mahogany loci. We identified a total of 158 alleles in 121 adult individuals of S. macrophylla, with an average of 15.8 alleles (range 11-25) per locus. All loci showed Mendelian inheritance in open-pollinated half-sib families. The mean expected heterozygosity was 0.84 and the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.73. The combined probability of identity-the probability that two individuals selected at random from a population would have identical genotypes--was 7.0 x 10(-15), and combined probability of paternity exclusion was 0.999998 overall loci. These microsatellite loci permit precise estimates of parameters such as gene flow, mating system, and paternity, thus providing important insights into the population genetics and conservation of S. macrophylla. PMID:12407218

  4. Calogênese e rizogênese em explantes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King) cultivados in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Cruz da Rocha; Marguerite Quoirin

    2010-01-01

    A exploração de árvores tropicais realizada de forma indiscriminada, buscando espécies de alto valor econômico, tem levado várias espécies, como o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King), ao perigo de extinção. O desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de regeneração de gemas, direta ou indireta, poderia auxiliar na obtenção de um grande número de mudas e constituir uma perspectiva à propagação sexuada. Essa última é limitada pelo fato das sementes perderem rapidamente a capacidade germinativa. No pres...

  5. Desinfestação e germinação in vitro de sementes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King In vitro sterilization and germination of mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Margarido Fonseca Couto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos desenvolver técnicas de regeneração in vitro a partir de segmentos de epicótilo, epicótilo invertido e explantes foliares provenientes de plântulas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla germinadas em meio de cultura; e determinar a melhor concentração e tempo de exposição das sementes ao agente desinfestante, bem como a melhor posição de semeadura para germinação. As sementes foram desinfestadas, após a retirada do tegumento, em soluções com hipoclorito de sódio nas concentrações de 0; 2,5; e 5,0% (v/v, mantidas embebidas por 10, 20, 30 e 40 minutos e colocadas no meio em duas posições, sendo a posição 1 com a concavidade da parte achatada voltada para cima e na posição 2, com a concavidade da parte achatada voltada para baixo. Após a semeadura, foram mantidas em sala de crescimento com temperatura de ±26 ± 2 º C e escuro contínuo. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 x 2 (níveis de hipoclorito x tempos de embebição x posição de semeadura, totalizando 24 tratamentos com três repetições. As avaliações de germinação e contaminação por microrganismos ocorreram aos 12, 18, 24 e 30 dias. O melhor tratamento foi a desinfestação das sementes embebidas em 2,5 e 5% de hipoclorito de sódio por 30 e 20 minutos, respectivamente, as quais foram colocadas na posição 2, pois apresentaram a maior germinação (48% e baixa contaminação (15 e 10%, respectivamente. Quanto à posição, houve diferença significativa aos 24 e 30 dias após a semeadura, com as maiores médias nas sementes colocadas na posição 2.The objective of this work was to develop techniques of in vitro regeneration for mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, using epicotyl segments, inverted epicotyls and leaf explants from mahogany plantlets germinated in culture medium. Also, the best concentration and time and sterilizing agent for seed sterilization were determined

  6. An experimental test of density- and distant-dependent recruitment of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norghauer, Julian M; Malcolm, Jay R; Zimmerman, Barbara L; Felfili, Jeanine M

    2006-06-01

    According to the Janzen-Connell model, high mortality of seeds and seedlings in proximity to conspecific adults can help maintain species diversity in tropical forests. Using a natural population of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King), we tested the model's mechanism by examining seed predation and juvenile recruitment in the forest understory and in treefall gaps in the vicinity of both isolated and clumped adults. We used tethered seeds placed in three types of exclosure plots: (1) complete access to seeds, (2) semi-access (access by small-sized seed predators) and (3) no access (all mammals excluded). Exclosure treatments were applied within the understory (both near and far from adults) and in gaps at eight fruiting adults in the late dry season (2001) and scored ten months later. Significantly more seeds were removed in canopy gaps near clumped adults than at isolated adults; otherwise, none of the treatment factors significantly influenced seed predation. In contrast, understory juvenile recruitment was significantly enhanced by distance from adults and was twice as high at isolated than clumped adults, providing novel support for the Janzen-Connell mechanism. No-access exclosures protected significantly more seeds than semi- and full-access exclosures, implicating small mammals in seed losses. Across the eight trees, juvenile recruitment in the no-access exclosures decreased significantly with conspecific adult densities, implicating non-mammalian density-responsive factor(s) in mortality following germination; likely a known specialist invertebrate herbivore. When all treatments were combined, conspecific adult basal area and total DBH explained 72 and 90% of variation in overall juvenile recruitment, respectively. Collectively, these results indicate that Janzen-Connell effects can operate in S. macrophylla, especially during the seed-to-seedling transition, and will likely reduce recruitment in areas of high conspecific densities. They also

  7. Seed reserves partition and light compensation point of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King seedlings growth under low photosynthetic active radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pires de Lemos Filho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the dry mass partition of the seed reserves during the initial growth of Swietenia macrophylla seedlings, in the dark, and at low levels of photosynthetically active radiation: 0.125; 3.12 and 52 µ mol.m-2.s-1. After 50 days, the dry mass of the seed reserves did not differ with treatments, but the total dry mass and leaf area were higher in the seedlings under higher light treatment. No difference in root/shoot ratio was observed between treatments, but the leaf area ratio was lower at higher light. Only the seedlings grown at 52 µ mol.m-2.s-1 showed a positive dry mass increase in relation to the mobilized seed reserves. With the values of the net increase of the seedling mass, a linear equation was adjusted in relation to the light levels, permitting to determine 3.76 µ mol.m-2.s-1 as the seedling light compensation point. These results explain the shade tolerance of the S. macrophylla seedlings.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a partição da massa seca das reservas das sementes durante o crescimento de plântulas de Sietenia macrophylla , no escuro e sob baixos níveis de radiação fotossintéticamente ativa: 0,125; 3,12 e 52µ mol.m-2.s-1. Após 50 dias a massa seca das reservas das sementes não diferiram com os diferentes tratamentos de luz. Não foi observado diferenças na razão raíz/parte aérea, mas a razão área foliar foi menor no maior nível de luz. Somente as plântulas crescidas a 52 µ mol.m-2.s-1 mostraram um incremento positivo na massa seca em relação às reservas mobilizadas da semente. Uma equação linear foi ajustada entre o incremento líquido de massa seca das plântulas e níveis de luz, permitindo determinar 3,76 µ mol.m-2.s-1 como ponto de compensação de luz das plântulas. Esses resultados explicam a tolerância à sombra das plântulas de S. macrophylla

  8. Optimización del proceso de enraizamiento y aclimatización de vitroplantas de Swietenia macrophylla King (Orden: Meliacea)

    OpenAIRE

    José Bernal Azofeifa; Alejandra Rojas; Ana Hine

    2009-01-01

    Swietenia macrophylla es una especie de importancia económica en América Latina debido a la calidad de su madera, por lo cual las poblaciones se han disminuido en términos de cantidad y calidad genética. Por lo anterior, la técnica de cultivo de tejidos se utilizó para optimizar el proceso de enraizamiento y aclimatización de vitroplantas, empleando diferentes reguladores de crecimiento y medios de cultivo. El mayor porcentaje de enraizamiento (53,33%) se obtuvo en un medio de cultivo MS (196...

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SUCROSE ESTER SURFACTANTS AND DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS ON THE PREPARATION OF A NOVEL SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA OIL NANO-EMULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid Ahmad Mustafa Masoud

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano-emulsions are emulsions with uniform and extremely small droplet sizes, typically in the range of 20–200 nm. Nano-emulsion concept has attracted considerable attention in recent years for its application in personal care and cosmetic products also due to their ability to improve the penetration and permeation of active ingredients through the skin. A composition of sucrose ester as surfactant, glycerol and Swietenia macrophylla oil were used to produce nano-emulsion by simple mixing and applying heat to dissolve the sucrose ester in the glycerol then adding the oil to the mixture. Three different types of sucrose ester (laureate, oleate and palmitate were used to investigate their influence on the production of nano-size emulsion. Sucrose laureate produced nano-emulsion with good droplet size, polydispersity index and negative zeta potential compared to oleate and palmitate. The oil droplet size produced using sucrose laureate was below 200 nm with polydispersity index 0.2 and negative zeta potential lower than -40 mV. Stability study was conducted for the nano-emulsion at different temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C for six months. Nano-emulsion formulation was very stable at 4 °C compared to 25 °C and 40 °C while at 25 °C showed moderate stability but it was unstable at 40 °C. The nano-emulsion containing the novel Swietenia macrophylla oil was successfully prepared using sucrose laureate and the ideal storage condition for nano-emulsion was 4 °C.

  10. The effects of sooty mold on photosynthesis and mesophyll structure of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King., Meliaceae) Efeitos da fumagina sobre a fotossíntese e a estrutura do mesofilo de mogno

    OpenAIRE

    José Pires de Lemos Filho; Élder Antônio Sousa Paiva

    2006-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of the sooty mold on anatomy and photochemical activity of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) leaves. The photochemical features of shade-developed leaves with or without sooty mold were compared to those of sun leaves using chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Leaf anatomy was also evaluated using conventional techniques. The degree of blockage of the photosynthetic active photon flux density (PPFD) by sooty mold and its effect on photoc...

  11. Calogênese e rizogênese em explantes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King cultivados in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cruz da Rocha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A exploração de árvores tropicais realizada de forma indiscriminada, buscando espécies de alto valor econômico, tem levado várias espécies, como o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King, ao perigo de extinção. O desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de regeneração de gemas, direta ou indireta, poderia auxiliar na obtenção de um grande número de mudas e constituir uma perspectiva à propagação sexuada. Essa última é limitada pelo fato das sementes perderem rapidamente a capacidade germinativa. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dois tipos de explantes: fragmentos foliares e de raízes de plantas cultivadas in vitro. Após desinfestação, os explantes foram colocados em meio de cultura de Murashige e Skoog (1962 contendo três quartos da concentração de sais, vitaminas do mesmo meio, 30g.L-1 de sacarose, auxina (ácido naftaleno-acético, ANA, 0,11 µM e 0,54 µM, citocinina (cinetina, CIN, 1,2 µM, 2,3 µM, 4,7 µM e 9,3 µM; 6-benziladenina, BA, 2,2 µM, 4,4 µM e 8,8 µM ou 2-isopenteniladenina, 2-iP, 2,5 µM e 7g.L-1 de ágar. As variáveis testadas foram a concentração e o tipo de regulador de crescimento e a origem dos explantes. A cada 30 dias, os explantes foram avaliados pela contagem do número de explantes formando calos ou raízes e a consistência dos calos. Foram obtidos calos a com base nos dois tipos de explantes. Nos explantes foliares, 90% deles formaram calos em meios de cultura contendo BA 4,4 µM com ANA 0,54 µM e BA 8,9 µM com ANA 0,11 ou 0,54 µM. Nos explantes de raízes, a maior percentagem de explantes com calos foi de 55%, no meio de cultura com BA 2,2 µM e ANA 0,54 µM. Raízes adventícias foram obtidas partindo de calos e do limbo dos explantes foliares, em meios de cultura com CIN e ANA. Não foi observada a formação de gemas adventícias.

  12. CALOGÊNESE E RIZOGÊNESE EM EXPLANTES DE MOGNO (Swietenia macrophylla King CULTIVADOS IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A exploração de árvores tropicais realizada de forma indiscriminada, buscando espécies de alto valor econômico, tem levado várias espécies, como o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King, ao perigo de extinção. O desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de regeneração de gemas, direta ou indireta, poderia auxiliar na obtenção de um grande número de mudas e constituir uma perspectiva à propagação sexuada. Essa última é limitada pelo fato das sementes perderem rapidamente a capacidade germinativa. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dois tipos de explantes: fragmentos foliares e de raízes de plantas cultivadas in vitro. Após desinfestação, os explantes foram colocados em meio de cultura de Murashige e Skoog (1962 contendo três quartos da concentração de sais, vitaminas do mesmo meio, 30g.L-1 de sacarose, auxina (ácido naftaleno-acético, ANA, 0,11 M e 0,54 M, citocinina (cinetina, CIN, 1,2 M, 2,3 M, 4,7 M e 9,3 M; 6-benziladenina, BA, 2,2 M, 4,4 M e 8,8 M ou 2-isopenteniladenina, 2-iP, 2,5 M e 7g.L-1 de ágar. As variáveis testadas foram a concentração e o tipo de regulador de crescimento e a origem dos explantes. A cada 30 dias, os explantes foram avaliados pela contagem do número de explantes formando calos ou raízes e a consistência dos calos. Foram obtidos calos a com base nos dois tipos de explantes. Nos explantes foliares, 90% deles formaram calos em meios de cultura contendo BA 4,4 M com ANA 0,54 M e BA 8,9 M com ANA 0,11 ou 0,54 M. Nos explantes de raízes, a maior percentagem de explantes com calos foi de 55%, no meio de cultura com BA 2,2 M e ANA 0,54 M. Raízes adventícias foram obtidas partindo de calos e do limbo dos explantes foliares, em meios de cultura com CIN e ANA. Não foi observada a formação de gemas adventícias.

  13. Fluctuation of Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla, Analogous to the Seasonal Changes of Those in the Shoot of the Adult Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Qin Han; Xing-Fu Yan; Hua Zhang; Zheng-Hai Hu; Bing-Zhong Hao; Wei-Min Tian

    2007-01-01

    In order to identify appropriate plant materials for studying the gene expression and biological function of vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) in woody plants, the VSPs in the seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla King were investigated by using light microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)and Western-blotting. The seed of S. macrophylla was rich in storage proteins that accumulated in the vacuoles of cotyledon parenchyma cells in appearance of compact spherical grains. The growth and development of S.macrophylla seedlings were characterized by an obvious growth rhythm. The storage proteins in seeds disappeared during seedling growth while VSPs appeared in the stem 2 weeks after seedling leaves matured. Thereafter,the VSPs in the seedling stem almost exhausted during new shoot growth, and when the leaves of new shoot just matured, both the stem beneath the new shoot of seedlings and the stem of new shoot started to accumulate VSPs. Nitrogen application dramatically increased the level of VSPs, but had little influence on the dynamics of VSP consumption and accumulation in seedling stem. Together with these data, the fluctuation of VSPs in seedlings was very similar to that in the branches of the adult trees. In addition, seedlings are easy to be treated due to their small size. Our results suggested that S. macrophylla seedlings were suitable for investigating the biological roles of VSPs and the mechanism of nitrogen storage in trees.

  14. Optimización del proceso de enraizamiento y aclimatización de vitroplantas de Swietenia macrophylla King (Orden: Meliacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bernal Azofeifa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla es una especie de importancia económica en América Latina debido a la calidad de su madera, por lo cual las poblaciones se han disminuido en términos de cantidad y calidad genética. Por lo anterior, la técnica de cultivo de tejidos se utilizó para optimizar el proceso de enraizamiento y aclimatización de vitroplantas, empleando diferentes reguladores de crecimiento y medios de cultivo. El mayor porcentaje de enraizamiento (53,33% se obtuvo en un medio de cultivo MS (1962 complementado con 5,7μM de AIA, seguido de un 26,67% cultivado en un MS 1/2 (1962 complementado con 2,5 μM de AIB y 0,25 μM de ANA. En la etapa de aclimatización, el mejor resultado de sobrevivencia (70% se obtuvo con el sustrato biodegradable Jiffys®.

  15. Comparative water relations of mature mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) trees with and without lianas in a subhumid, seasonally dry forest in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Martin G.; Pérez-Salicrup, Diego

    2000-11-01

    Many evergreen mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) trees in the seasonally dry Bajo Paragua forest in northeast Bolivia carry substantial liana loads. Evergreen lianas may impede the growth of their host trees in various ways, including competition for water. Hypotheses tested were that water relations status differs (a) between lianas and their host trees, and (b) between trees infested with lianas that were cut 3.5 months previously (treated trees) and control trees with intact lianas. Diurnal measurements of stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf water potential (Psi) were made on canopy leaves of treated and control trees and lianas at the start and end of the dry season. Lianas had higher (less negative) Psi values (mean and predawn) and higher diurnal g(s) (expressed as mean or sum of diurnal values) than mahogany trees, indicating that lianas had a higher demand for, and ability to obtain, water than their host trees. Control and treated trees had a similar water relations status, suggesting that removal of lianas had no effect on the water relations of the trees, even at the end of the dry season. We conclude that either both life forms have conservative water relations that were unaffected by water availability in our study, or that the trees and lianas have access to sufficient and different sources of water because of differences in their rooting depths. Our data are consistent with studies of temperate species, indicating that lianas do not interfere with water availability to their host trees. PMID:12651492

  16. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  17. ISOLASI, IDENTIFIKASI, DAN ELUSIDASI STRUKTUR SENYAWA ALKALOID DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL-ASAM NITRAT DARI BIJI MAHONI BEBAS MINYAK (Swietenia macrophylla, King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mursiti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang isolasi, identifikasi, dan elusidasi struktur  senyawa alkaloid dalam ekstrak metanol-asam nitrat dari biji mahoni bebas minyak (Swietenia macrophylla King. Biji mahoni diambil minyaknya dengan cara ekstraksi soxhlet menggunakan pelarut petroleum eter selama 8 jam. Isolasi senyawa alkaloid menggunakan metanol dan larutan asam nitrat 10%. Sebanyak satu gram ampas biji mahoni bebas minyak dicampur dengan 1 mL larutan asam nitrat 10%, kemudian ditambah 5 mL metanol dalam erlenmeyer bertutup disertai pengocokan selama 5 menit pada suhu 60oC menggunakan penangas air, setelah itu disaring, ditambah 1 mL larutan amonia 10%, kemudian disaring, dan dipekatkan. Ekstrak kemudian dianalisis dengan KLT, kemudian dipisahkan dengan kromatografi kolom. Sebagai penyerap pada kolom digunakan silika gel 40, panjang kolom 27 cm, diameter 2,8 cm, eluen yang digunakan  adalah kloroform:metanol (95:5, dan jumlah tetesan 15-20  per menit. Setiap fraksi yang diperoleh dari kromatografi kolom dianalisis dengan KLT menggunakan lampu UV. Uji alkaloid menggunakan pereaksi Dragendorff 130 dan 132. Fraksi yang positif merupakan fraksi yang mengandung alkaloid. Kemudian fraksi ini dianalisis lebih lanjut untuk identifikasi struktur dengan GC, spektrometer IR, UV, dan 1HNMR. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa dalam ekstrak diperkirakan terdapat senyawa alkaloid yakni 3,4,5-trietil-6-metoksi-2-metil-1,2-dihidro-piridin.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ It has been conducted a research on the isolation, identification and structural elucidation of alkaloid compounds in methanol-nitric acid extract of the oil-free mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla, King. The oil was taken from mahogany seed by Soxhlet extraction and using petroleum ether solvent for 8 hours, while the

  18. Evaluation of plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetes-an experimental study based on Swietenia macrophylla seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moumita Dutta; Utpal Kumar Biswas; Runu Chakraborty; Piyasa Banerjee; Utpal Raychaudhuri; Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis activity in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetes rats compared to the healthy controls and also to observe the effect of the aqueous extract of Swietenia macrophylla (S. macrophylla) seeds on the experimental groups. Methods: Seeds of S. macrophylla were separated, washed, shed-dried and finally extract was prepared. Thirty two wistar rats were selected for the experimental study. Streptozotocin was used for the induction of diabetes. H2S concentration in plasma was measured. H2S synthesizing activity in plasma was measured. Statistical analysis have done using Microsoft excel, Office 2003. Values were expressed by mean±SD. P<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results:rats. The glucose levels are significantly lowered in the rats treated with metformin (5.48±0.03) mmol/L as well as with aqueous extract of S. macrophylla seeds (3.72±0.04) mmol/L. The HbA1c percentages in different groups of study subjects also indicate similar trends. Our study shows both the plasma H2S levels (22.07±0.73) mmol/L and plasma H2S synthesis activity (0.411±0.005 mmol/100 g) are significantly reduced in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Conclusions:Although considering a small sample size, it can conclude that the fasting blood Fasting blood glucose level (7.74±0.02) mmol/L was significantly increased in diabetic glucose levels are inversely related to plasma H2S levels as well as H2S synthesis activity in plasma and the extract of S. macrophylla is associated with increased plasma H2S levels with effective lowering of blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  19. Population genetic structure of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) across the Brazilian Amazon, based on variation at microsatellite loci: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogério; Proctor, John; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2003-11-01

    Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, Meliaceae) is the most valuable and intensively exploited Neotropical tree. No information is available regarding the genetic structure of mahogany in South America, yet the region harbours most of the unlogged populations of this prized hardwood. Here we report on the genetic diversity within and the differentiation among seven natural populations separated by up to 2100 km along the southern arc of the Brazilian Amazon basin. We analysed the variation at eight microsatellite loci for 194 adult individuals. All loci were highly variable, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 13 to 27 (mean = 18.4). High levels of genetic diversity were found for all populations at the eight loci (mean HE = 0.781, range 0.754-0.812). We found moderate but statistically significant genetic differentiation among populations considering both estimators of FST and RST, theta = 0.097 and rho = 0.147, respectively. Estimates of theta and rho were significantly greater than zero for all pairwise population comparisons. Pairwise rho-values were positively and significantly correlated with geographical distance under the isolation-by-distance model. Furthermore, four of the populations exhibited a significant inbreeding coefficient. The finding of local differentiation among Amazonian mahogany populations underscores the need for in situ conservation of multiple populations of S. macrophylla across its distribution in the Brazilian Amazon. In addition, the occurrence of microgeographical genetic differentiation at a local scale indicates the importance of maintaining populations in their diverse habitats, especially in areas with mosaics of topography and soil. PMID:14629369

  20. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  1. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  2. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  3. Alternative 23

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Alternative 23 is a curated exhibition of works by Steve Aylett, David Blandy & Daniel Locke, Let Me Feel Your Finger First, Laura Oldfield Ford, Plastique Fantastique and Henrik Schrat, including the first screening of Let Me Feel Your Finger First’s Postcolonial Capers. In 1985 DC Comics in the US had taken the commercial decision to unify the complex and contradictory character story arcs from its various strips such as Superman, Batman and Green Lantern. The resultant crossover series...

  4. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to sharp rise in oil proces after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, world attention has been focussed on the energy problem. At present the energy problem is limited to the cost and reliability of supply, even though there are enough supplies to go round. However, in the future the problem will be of availability, because in spite of the full exploitation of currently available conventional energy sources, the supply will fall short of demand which will always be increasing. Hence, there is need to develop alternate energy sources, including fast breeder reactors, fusion reactors and MHD. Economic and technical aspects of these energy are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  5. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  6. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  7. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  8. The effects of sooty mold on photosynthesis and mesophyll structure of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King., Meliaceae Efeitos da fumagina sobre a fotossíntese e a estrutura do mesofilo de mogno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pires de Lemos Filho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of the sooty mold on anatomy and photochemical activity of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla leaves. The photochemical features of shade-developed leaves with or without sooty mold were compared to those of sun leaves using chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Leaf anatomy was also evaluated using conventional techniques. The degree of blockage of the photosynthetic active photon flux density (PPFD by sooty mold and its effect on photochemistry were evaluated. Sun leaves showed thick mesophyll with palisade parenchyma disposed in a uniseriate layer, whereas shade leaves showed narrow mesophyll, independently of sooty mold presence. The effective quantum yield (deltaF/Fm' and the apparent electron transport rate (ETR of sun leaves were higher than those of shade leaves. The values of ETR suggested that photochemistry saturation occurred at lower PPFD in shade-grown plants. Lower values of the deltaF/Fm' and, consequently, lower values of ETR were observed in leaves with sooty mold. A reduction of 40% of the incident light was seen due to physical blockage by sooty mold which is presumably responsible for an additional decrease of ETR values. Our data indicated that sooty mold did not directly damage the leaf, but reduce leaf photochemistry capacity, by decreasing light availability.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da fumagina na anatomia e a atividade fotoquímica em folhas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King., Meliaceae. Folhas com e sem fumagina desenvolvidas na sombra foram comparadas com as de folhas de sol, para verificar as diferenças em parâmetros fotoquímicos utilizando-se medidas de fluorescência. As amostras de folhas destinadas a estudos anatômicos foram processadas segundo técnicas convencionais. A intensidade de bloqueio da radiação densidade de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos (DFFA pela fumagina e seu efeito sobre a atividade fotoquímica foram

  9. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  10. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  11. Response surface methodology (RSM) modeling of microwave-assisted extraction of natural dye from Swietenia mahagony: A comparation between Box-Behnken and central composite design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Heri Septya; Sudrajat, Robby Ginanjar Margo; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Gala, Selfina; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand of non-toxic and environmentally friendly dyes, colorants that come from natural source have risen as an alternative of sintetic poisonous dyes. In this research natural dye from S. mahagony was extracted using microwave-assisted extraction method under different operating condition such as extraction time (10-30min), plant material to solvent ratio (0.03-0.05g/mL) and microwave power level (100-380 watt). Box-Behnken method and central composite design (CCD) method is widely used for modeling response surface methodology (RSM), both methods show good prediction performance. In this study response surface methodology was performed to optimize the process, both methods were performed by the help Statgraphics Centurion 16 to evaluate the effects of different operating parameters. Finally, both methods were statistically compared by root mean square error (RMSE) and absolute average deviation (AAD) based on validation data set. Further, result suggests that CCD has better performance as compared to Box-Behnken method. The maximum yield obtained for Box-Behnken is 3.7647% (380 watt, 0.0339g/mL, 28.8899min) and 3.7506% (379.986 watt, 0.0378g/mL, 30min) for central composite design method.

  12. (αR,4R,4aR,6aS,7R,8S,10R,11S)-Methyl α-acetoxy-4-(3-furanyl)-10-hydroxy-4a,7,9,9-tetramethyl-2,13-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodecahydro-7,11-methano-2H-cycloocta[f][2]benzopyran-8-acetate (6-O-acetylswietenolide) from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Bey Hing Goh; Habsah Abdul Kadir; Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek; Seik Weng Ng

    2010-01-01

    The molecule of O-acetylswietenolide, C29H36O9, isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla, features four six-membered rings connected together in the shape of a bowl; one of the inner rings adopts a twisted chair conformation owing to the C=C double bond. The furyl substitutent is connected to an outer ring, and it points away from the bowl cavity. The hydroxy group is connected to a carbonyl O atom of an adjacent molecule by an O—H...O hydrogen bond, generating a chain runni...

  13. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  14. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  15. Polyphase alternating codes

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Markku

    2007-01-01

    This work introduces a method for constructing polyphase alternating codes in which the length of a code transmission cycle can be $p^m$ or $p-1$, where $p$ is a prime number and $m$ is a positive integer. The relevant properties leading to the construction alternating codes and the algorithm for generating alternating codes is described. Examples of all practical and some not that practical polyphase code lengths are given.

  16. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  17. On an Alternative Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Vankov, A.

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  18. Complex Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Woo; Graveley, Brenton R.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of controlling gene expression and increasing protein diversity. Most genes express a limited number of mRNA isoforms, but there are several examples of genes that use alternative splicing to generate hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of isoforms. Collectively such genes are considered to undergo complex alternative splicing. The best example is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene, which can generate 38,016 is...

  19. Alternators. Experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the technical aspects of various accidents having occured on nuclear alternators operating in the French 900 MW nuclear plant unit, and the respective solutions and possibilities for application to alternators of the 1000 and 1500 MW power plants. Analysis of the accidents on CP 1 program alternators: accidents caused by vibratory fatigue (cracking of the hydraulic connection pipes of the stator winding, cracking of the hydraulic-electric connection between the stator coiling and the output terminals, cracking of the hydrogen cooler finned tubes), pollution by copper oxide of the stator winding cooling water circuit. Accidents on CP 2 alternators: accident on the shaft sealing joint, striking inside the terminal box

  20. Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KB). Alternate Language URL Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin Page Content On this page: What alternative devices ... the skin. [ Top ] What alternative devices for taking insulin are available? Insulin pens provide a convenient, easy- ...

  1. Brandmodstandsbidrag for alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  2. Anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  3. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  4. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  5. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  6. An alternative currency

    OpenAIRE

    Frendo, Mario; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Malta- a tiny island, a minute social reality, a precursory canovaccio of European unification- has a unique asset it ought to be prouder of: culture. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/an-alternative-currency/

  7. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  8. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a day. Soybeans contain plant-based substances called isoflavones. These substances have an effect on the body ... soy for vasomotor symptoms: the Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study. Menopause . 2008;15(1):51-58. ...

  9. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  10. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; A. Williams

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  11. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  12. Ultimacy and alternative possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, John Martin

    2009-01-01

    I explore a key feature of Robert Kane’s libertarianism (about which I have been puzzled for some time). Kane claims that we should separate issues of alternative possibilities from issues of ultimacy, but he further argues that they are connected in a certain way. I call into question this connection, and I continue to argue for a strict separation of considerations pertaining to alternative possibilities and “actual-sequence” considerations.

  13. Des divisions aux alternances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Clemens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available - From the divisions to the alternations - Society, action and common good give sense to democracy. Society is in fact a set of unmitigated divisions (horizontal and vertical, material and symbolic. Democratic action, since the discourse’s conflicts, doesn’t change the human beings, but things between they, in the alternation of power’s institutions for our only good in common: the body. With this aim, the Basic Income Earth Network is necessary.

  14. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  15. (αR,4R,4aR,6aS,7R,8S,10R,11S-Methyl α-acetoxy-4-(3-furanyl-10-hydroxy-4a,7,9,9-tetramethyl-2,13-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodecahydro-7,11-methano-2H-cycloocta[f][2]benzopyran-8-acetate (6-O-acetylswietenolide from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey Hing Goh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of O-acetylswietenolide, C29H36O9, isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla, features four six-membered rings connected together in the shape of a bowl; one of the inner rings adopts a twisted chair conformation owing to the C=C double bond. The furyl substitutent is connected to an outer ring, and it points away from the bowl cavity. The hydroxy group is connected to a carbonyl O atom of an adjacent molecule by an O—H...O hydrogen bond, generating a chain running along the b axis.

  16. (αR,4R,4aR,6aS,7R,8S,10R,11S)-Methyl α-acet-oxy-4-(3-furan-yl)-10-hy-droxy-4a,7,9,9-tetra-methyl-2,13-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodeca-hydro-7,11-methano-2H-cyclo-octa-[f][2]benzopyran-8-acetate (6-O-acetyl-swietenolide) from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Bey Hing; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Abdul Malek, Sri Nurestri; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The mol-ecule of O-acetyl-swietenolide, C(29)H(36)O(9), isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla, features four six-membered rings connected together in the shape of a bowl; one of the inner rings adopts a twisted chair conformation owing to the C=C double bond. The furyl substitutent is connected to an outer ring, and it points away from the bowl cavity. The hy-droxy group is connected to a carbonyl O atom of an adjacent mol-ecule by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond, generating a chain running along the b axis. PMID:21588997

  17. (αR,4R,4aR,6aS,7R,8S,10R,11S)-Methyl α-acet­oxy-4-(3-furan­yl)-10-hy­droxy-4a,7,9,9-tetra­methyl-2,13-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodeca­hydro-7,11-methano-2H-cyclo­octa­[f][2]benzopyran-8-acetate (6-O-acetyl­swietenolide) from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Bey Hing; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Abdul Malek, Sri Nurestri; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The mol­ecule of O-acetyl­swietenolide, C29H36O9, isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla, features four six-membered rings connected together in the shape of a bowl; one of the inner rings adopts a twisted chair conformation owing to the C=C double bond. The furyl substitutent is connected to an outer ring, and it points away from the bowl cavity. The hy­droxy group is connected to a carbonyl O atom of an adjacent mol­ecule by an O—H⋯O hydrogen bond, generating a chain running along...

  18. Is native timber tree intercropping an economically feasible alternative for smallholder farmers in the Philippines?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Fernando Santos; van Noordwijk, Meine

    2011-01-01

    Integration of trees on upland farms in the Philippines has been slower than expected and desirable from an environmental perspective. Our economic and risk analysis points to current policies as part of the problem. The study compares three domesticated indigenous timber trees (Shorea contorta V., Pterocarpus indicus J., and Vitex parviflora W.) intercropped with maize against a benchmark of the widely used exotic mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla K.). We used a biophysical simulation model (W...

  19. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  20. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  1. Alternatives for pseudofinite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Houcine, Abderezak Ould

    2012-01-01

    The famous Tits' alternative states that a linear group either contains a nonabelian free group or is soluble-by-(locally finite). We study in this paper similar alternatives in pseudofinite groups. We show for instance that an $\\aleph_{0}$-saturated pseudofinite group either contains a subsemigroup of rank $2$ or is nilpotent-by-(uniformly locally finite). We call a class of finite groups $G$ weakly of bounded rank if the radical $rad(G)$ has a bounded Pr\\"ufer rank and the index of the sockel of $G/rad(G)$ is bounded. We show that an $\\aleph_{0}$-saturated pseudo-(finite weakly of bounded rank) group either contains a nonabelian free group or is nilpotent-by-abelian-by-(uniformly locally finite). We also obtain some relations between this kind of alternatives and amenability.

  2. Bouncing alternatives to inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Lilley, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although the inflationary paradigm is the most widely accepted explanation for the current cosmological observations, it does not necessarily correspond to what actually happened in the early stages of our Universe. To decide on this issue, two paths can be followed: first, all the possible predictions it makes must be derived thoroughly and compared with available data, and second, all imaginable alternatives must be ruled out. Leaving the first task to all other contributors of this volume, we concentrate here on the second option, focusing on the bouncing alternatives and their consequences.

  3. Renewable and alternative energy

    CERN Document Server

    Curley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    With growing populations across the world consuming Earth's limited oil and natural gas reserves, the environmental and economic toll of energy dependence becomes an increasingly global concern. The development of renewable forms of energy-solar, wind, water, and geothermal, to name a few-offers alternatives to fossil fuels. Consumers are embracing these new modes of energy delivery and use. This extensive volume examines the possibility of a cleaner and more energy efficient future by detailing the historic and emerging technologies behind some the most promising alternative resources.

  4. Domestic energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These alternatives include biomass, clean coal, geothermal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, solar and photovoltaic, and wind. With the current, volatile situation in the Middle East, this nation's political leaders appear to be left scratching their heads in their attempts to come up with new, sound, energy policies to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Therefore, the FORTNIGHTLY's editorial staff thought that this might be an opportune time to briefly examine some home-grown and environmentally responsible fuel alternatives to black gold. While some of these electricity-producing technologies are still on the horizon, others are available now

  5. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  6. Alternatives to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  7. Tracking alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third and last article dealing with global energy topics analyzed at the 13th World Energy Congress. The varied particality or applicability of the following alternative energy sources is briefly discussed at a popular level: fusion, solar, ocean thermal energy conversion, waves, winds, tidal, and geothermal

  8. Alternatives to Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Blood Transfusion and Donation + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » TOPICS Document ... Possible risks of blood transfusions Alternatives to blood transfusions Donating blood Blood donation by cancer survivors To learn more References Previous ...

  9. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...

  10. TWTF design alternates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations

  11. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is based on the principle that “like cures like.” In other words, the same substance ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. ...

  12. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  13. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party.Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute.Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair.Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States.Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  15. Alternatives to ECMO.

    OpenAIRE

    Donn, S M

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed technological advancements which are unparalleled in neonatology. ECMO has been demonstrated to be a powerful rescue treatment, but has perhaps been overutilised and is not universally available. Alternative treatments have been shown to be both safe and efficacious in the management of infants with respiratory failure. Direct head to head clinical trials will probably be necessary to establish appropriate criteria and indications for use, given the wide diversit...

  16. Alternative approaches in IVF

    OpenAIRE

    Fauser, Bart; Bouchard, P.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.; Collins, John; Devroey, P.; Evers, Johannes; Van Steirteghem, A

    2002-01-01

    textabstractVarious new developments in clinical and basic science which may impact on IVF in the near or distant future will be discussed in this review. These key areas include the regulation of early follicle development and the extended in-vitro culture of oocytes and embryos. Moreover, alternative compounds and ovarian stimulation protocols will be discussed, along with highlights in the development of the cryopreservation of excess oocytes or embryos. Finally, the health economics of IV...

  17. Alternative Dispute Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2004-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without) the help of a third party.Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some ...

  18. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  19. Alternatives to Higgs scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss alternatives to the Higgs Scalar doublet Φ of the minimal standard model. In particular we review technicolor (TC) and extended technicolor (ETC), and show that the threat of flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC's) is avoided by walking TC and/or strongly coupled ETC. The phenomenology of minimal TC and the techni-family is discussed. Finally we consider the possibility that the Higgs doublet Φ is a composite bound state of quarks from the third (or fourth) family

  20. Fixed field alternating gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator was invented in the 1950s. Although many studies were carried out up to the late 1960s, there has been relatively little progress until recently, when it received widespread attention as a type of accelerator suitable for very fast acceleration and for generating high-power beams. In this paper, we describe the principles and design procedure of a FFAG accelerator.

  1. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  2. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  3. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  4. Is garlic alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:16484549

  5. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  6. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 106 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  7. Alternate fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes the status of alternate fusion concepts and plans for their future. The concepts selected for review are those employing electromagnetic confinement for which there have been reasonable predictions of net energy gain from pure fusion and which have shown significant recent development or are the subjects of ongoing international activity. They include advanced tokamaks, stellarators, the spherical torus, reversed-field pinch and dense z-field pinch devices, field reversed configuration, and spheromaks. In addition, an overall view of the status of each concept with respect to achieving ignition and to reactor designs is presented

  8. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  9. Polyphase alternating codes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Markkanen; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We ...

  10. Polyphase alternating codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Markkanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

  11. Alternate transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  12. Alternatives to fundholding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, H; Cohen, A; Bovell, V

    1998-01-01

    The new Labour government in the United Kingdom is proposing to adapt the reforms begun by the last Thatcher government. In particular, it is proposing to abolish the most controversial element--general practitioner (GP) fundholding. It is looking for alternatives. The study reported here followed and evaluated several such schemes. While fundholders use their purchasing power directly to force change by threatening "exit" to another provider, other GPs have evolved ways of influencing decisions--enhancing their "voice." The authors develop a theory to predict the conditions favoring the relative success of exit and voice strategies in health purchasing, and describe alternative GP-based purchasing schemes and the reasons they evolved in six sample districts. In four of these districts and eight practices in each, fundholding and non-fundholding GPs were then asked to describe their intentions and the outcomes of the purchasing process in which they had participated. Four specialties were taken as examples. The authors compare the relative success of fundholders and non-fundholders in achieving their objectives. PMID:9493753

  13. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  14. Pea Island Alternatives Development Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Alternatives Development Report is to outline,in broad scope, the options, tools and alternatives available to the US Fish and Wildlife Service...

  15. Alternative splicing and muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Pistoni, Mariaelena; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is a major contributor to proteomic diversity and to the control of gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells. For this reasons, alternative splicing is tightly regulated in different tissues and developmental stages and its disruption can lead to a wide range of human disorders. The aim of this review is to focus on the relevance of alternative splicing for muscle function and muscle disease. We begin by giving a brief overview of alternative splicing, musc...

  16. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  17. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Caban; Agata Gniecka; Lukáš Holeša

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  18. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E. (Stathis) [Texas Christian Univ., Forth Worth, TX (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years). The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources - wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric - and some of the less common sources, such as tidal and wave energy. The emphasis of these chapters is on the global potential of each source; the engineering/technical systems that are currently used in harnessing the potential of each one of these energy sources; the technological developments that will contribute to wider utilization of the sources; and the environmental effects associated with their current and their wider use. The last three chapters are: energy storage, which is the main limitation of the wider use of solar and wind power and will become an important issue if renewable energy sources are to be used widely; energy conservation, which appears to be everyone's favorite issue, but by itself is not a solution to our energy challenge; and energy economics, a necessary consideration in market-driven economies. The fourteen chapters in the book have been chosen so that one may fit a semester University course around this book. At the end of every chapter, there are 12-20 problems

  19. Alternative tsunami models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, A; Lyatskaya, I [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)], E-mail: arjun.tan@aamu.edu

    2009-01-15

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional, easily understandable models, suitable for the same level of readership, are proposed: one, a two-dimensional model in flat space, and two, the same on a spherical surface. The models are used to study the tsunami produced by the central Kuril earthquake of November 2006. It is shown that the two alternative models, especially the latter one, give better representations of the wave amplitude, especially at far-flung locations. The latter model further demonstrates the enhancing effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth for far-reaching tsunami propagation.

  20. LIU: exploring alternative ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Mikulec, B; Papaphilippou, Y; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Tomas, R

    2014-01-01

    The baseline upgrade scenarios for the injector complex cover the connection of Linac4 to the PSB, the increase of the PSB-PS transfer energy from 1 . 4 GeV to 2 GeV and the major SPS RF upgrade during LS2. The achievable beam characteristics will nonetheless remain below the expectation of the HL-LHC project. Therefore, alternative or additional options like, e.g., special bunch distributions, the use of injection optics optimized for high space charge or extra RF systems will be discussed. The expected beam parameters, possible implementation and impact on beam availability for these more exotic options will be analysed and compared to the LIU baseline plan. Moreover, the potential interest of further batch compression schemes will be evaluated.

  1. Altern als Widerstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.

  2. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd3+: Glass and CO2, have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  3. An Alternative to Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Some of the most beautiful and complex theories in physics are formulated in the language of tensors. While powerful, these methods are sometimes daunting to the uninitiated. I will introduce the use of Clifford Algebra as a practical alternative to the use of tensors. Many physical quantities can be represented in an indexless form. The boundary between the classical and the quantum worlds becomes a little more transparent. I will review some key concepts, and then talk about some of the things that I am doing with this interesting and powerful tool. Of note to some will be the development of rigid body dynamics for a game engine. Others may be interested in expressing the connection on a spin bundle. My intent is to prove to the audience that there exists an accessible mathematical tool that can be employed to probe the most difficult of topics in physics.

  4. Alternatives to neoliberalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen;

    This paper will discuss the consequences of neoliberal governance in Danish day care centres, the social educators’ response, and the possible development of alternatives based on collective participation of social educators and union representatives. We will show how important and unnoticed...... professional competencies come under pressure, and how collective interest representation is challenged. We will discuss how concepts of “gestural knowledge”, “coherence” and “rhythm” open for a new understanding of professional competence. And we will conclude that the social educators and their unions have...... the possibility to contribute to the development of a new welfare paradigm. The paper is based on material from two research projects (Ahrenkiel et al. 2009, 2011) involving social educators and union representatives in day care institutions. We have observed everyday work activities in day care...

  5. BIODIESEL – ALTERNATIVE FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Kiš

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A limited quantity of oil, the purchase of which also involves major expenses has become an important factor for intensive search and use of alternative fuels. Biodiesel is used in diesel engines, and is manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled edible oils. The production and use of biodiesel are very important not only because of its economic and strategic connotations but also because of its environmental advantages. Favourable conditions in Croatia give good opportunities for a self-sufficient oil rape production, possibility for its intensification and employment of a number of people in both the agricultural production and biodiesel production plants. This paper presents a survey of the biodiesel fuel production, the characteristics and impacts it has on the biodiesel engine features as well as its impact on the environment.

  6. Continuous Spontaneous Alternation and Turn Alternation in Artemia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Çarkoğlu, Can; Yılmaz, Meltem; Balcı, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Free-running spontaneous alternation refers to the animal’s tendency to prefer the least recently visited locations in successive spatial choices, which is attributed to the animals’ choice between stimuli based on prior experience.  Turn alternation, which is observed in directional choices preceded by a forced turn in one direction, also reflects the animals’ tendency to alternate between directional choices but this tendency has been assumed to rely on other cues (e.g., proprioceptive cues...

  7. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  8. Suncor's alternative energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PowerPoint presentation focused on Suncor's investment in alternative renewable energy. By 2005, the company will have invested $100 million in wind power, solar energy, run-of-river hydro and biomass. In 2001, $20 million was launched for the Sunbridge wind farm project in Gull Lake, Saskatchewan. The company is investing into renewables because it is an opportunity to create regional jobs, there are technological advances in renewables and an opportunity for domestic manufacturing and project management. They also offer improved air quality by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The barriers that must be overcome include the low demand and low supply for renewables. It was noted that Canada is rich in wind, biomass and solar resources, but renewable energy accounts for only 1.2 per cent of electric power generation. In 2001, Canada generated 198 MW wind power. The U.S. capacity is 4,200 MW and the world capacity is more than 20,000 MW. International competition is well ahead in renewable support. The federal government is offering an investment tax incentive and federal funding program for renewable energy. In addition, provinces are taking some action to support renewable energy, as are individual companies such as Suncor, BC Hydro, and Hydro-Quebec. 3 figs

  9. Alternative Genres of IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Crowston, Kevin;

    2012-01-01

    perspectives, research methods, semantic framing, literary styles, and media of expression. Overall, the application of alternative genres is considered to be a generative act that provides an opportunity to take a fresh look and to gain deeper understanding of the subject matter. Nonetheless, paradoxically......The potential value of alternative genres in IS research is the core question that drives this panel discussion. The term “Alternative Genres” refers to unconventional forms of thinking, doing, and communicating scholarship and practice. It relates to innovation with respect to epistemological...... the prevailing genres have much inertia, in spite of the inherent boundary spanning nature of alternative genres. Building on their own recent empirical research, the panelists will debate the potential value of alternative genres as unconventional modality of IS scholarship and how alternative genres...

  10. Krypton control alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reprocessing plant for 350 metric tons per year LWR spent fuel cooled for at least 7 years is planned in the FRG. A routine Kr-85 retention for radiation protection reasons is not demanded by the German reactor safety and radiation management technology for larger plants in the future. The licensing authorities also do not require a routine Kr-85 retention at the plant site. Technical and safety characteristics of various Kr-85 removal processes are described and compared, including the precleaning steps in an integrated dissolver off-gas system. The interactions with subsequent conditioning and storage of Kr and with process modifications in the plant headend are also taken into account. A commercial use of the inactive Xe and part of the Kr-85 may have an influence on a cost-benefit analysis and the selection of a removal process. Two alternative processes are being developed on an engineering scale. A cryogenic distillation process using an O2-free off-gas is under investigation on a pilot plant scale since 1976. A selective absorption process using freon-12 at low temperatures and at atmospheric pressure has been investigated at the laboratory scale since 1980. Test operation on an engineering scale started late in 1983. Essential results and operating experiences with both facilities are summarized. Technical as well as safety aspects are in favor of the selective absorption process. A final decision on what process will be used in the future shall be made as soon as comparable technical experiences from both processes are available

  11. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  12. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  13. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  14. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  15. Alternatives of menopausal hormone therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlešić Ranko M.; Popović Jasmina; Stefanović Milan; Vukomanović Predrag; Lukić Bojan; Lilić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. It has been generally accepted that the benefits of menopausal hormone therapy outweigh the risks, but there are still some concerns about the administration of menopausal hormone therapy, which has introduced alternative treatments. Pharmacological Alternatives. Central alpha-2 agonist clonidine is only marginally more effective than placebo, and significantly less effective than estrogen. Antiepileptic drug gabapentin reduces hot flashes; ho...

  16. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  17. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted for...... the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability in...

  18. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  19. SAGE--SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE does not recommend any ozone depleting chemicals. SAGE was developed by the Surface Cleaning Program at Research Triang...

  20. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  1. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

  2. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  3. Alternating Quotients of Fuchsian Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Brent

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that any finitely generated non-elementary Fuchsian group has among its homomorphic images all but finitely many of the alternating groups. This settles in the affirmative a conjecture of Graham Higman.

  4. Alternative theories of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Staněk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focusing on alternative theories of the firm and their distinctions to the traditional neoclassical theory of profit maximization. It goes back to perception of the firm in the society and to development of theoretical concepts of the firm, as well as to different points of view of profit or satisfaction principle. You will learn more about the reason which triggered the beginnings of alternative theories of the firm like separation of ownership and control, which was one of th...

  5. Alternative investments: return driving actors

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, K; G. Marcato

    2011-01-01

    In an asset allocation process, correlations are particularly important if one includes 'alternative investments' such as real estate, commodities and hedge funds, which have been proclaimed to provide diversifying benefits within the overall portfolio context. However, by looking at correlations between asset classes alone some diversification benefits may be over or under-stated. More recently, finance literature has focused on alternative asset classes to study their behaviour and to ident...

  6. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  7. Autocratic strategies for alternating games

    OpenAIRE

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Repeated games have a long tradition in behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce constraints on the payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of autocratic (or zero-determinant) strategies to alternating games, which are often more biologically relevant than synchronous games. More specifically, in a strictly-alternating game with two playe...

  8. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, CK; Black, DL; S. Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that r...

  9. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  10. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents in-depth articles on the main issues affecting the use and usefulness of nuclear energy for peaceful domestic purposes. Topics considered include energy futures (a world study), energy demand-energy supplies, an energy-deficient society, energy shortages, the economics of light water reactors (LWRs), fast breeder reactor economics, international cooperation in the nuclear field, nuclear recycling (costs, savings, safeguards), alternative fuels, alternative fuel cycles, alternative reactors, the nuclear weapons proliferation issue, paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards, the homemade bomb issue, LWR risk assessment, accident analysis and risk assessment, the waste disposal risk, radon problems, health effects of low-level radiation, routine releases of radioactivity, plutonium toxicity, and the Price-Anderson Act

  11. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  12. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  13. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkiewicz, M. [Brooklyn College of CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  14. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ''Alternative Teams,'' chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S ampersand S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT's analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option

  15. ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO ESCALANTE H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el procesamiento agroindustrial de fique genera aproximadamente 20 800 kg de residuos/ha sembrada que corresponden a. jugo y bagazo. Estos residuos son descartados al ambiente generando problemas de contaminación. El bagazo de fique tiene un valor calorífico de 3 297.91 kcal/kg, altas concentraciones de celulosa, hemicelulosa y una relación C/N favorable para tratar este residuo mediante conversión anaerobia. Sin embargo, la presencia de lignina en el bagazo hace que se requiera un consorcio microbiano específico para llevar a cabo la degradación. En este trabajo se estudio la producción de biogás a partir del bagazo de fique, empleando como inóculo una mezcla de líquido ruminal y lodo estiércol de cerdo. Se alcanzó una producción de metano de 0.35 m3CH4/kg Sólidos Volátiles (SV adicionados durante quince días de digestión, equivalente a 1.38 kWh/kg SV adicionado, indicando que el bagazo de fique es un residuo atractivo para ser usado como fuente de energía renovable.

  16. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  17. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  18. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  19. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  20. Biodiesel properties and alternative feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defined as the long-chain fatty acid monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats, or other lipids, biodiesel is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel h...

  1. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  2. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  3. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...

  4. A two-matrix alternative

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, 15 December (2013), s. 836-841. ISSN 1537-9582 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : two-matrix alternative * solution * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2013 http://www. math .technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol26_pp836-841.pdf

  5. Corporal Punishment: Facts and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Pana

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that corporal punishment in the schools be abolished and presents alternatives to physical punishment. Proposes educators and other concerned individuals work together to form student problem committees, adjust classroom environment and improve the curriculum, and exercise their legal rights. (JAC)

  6. An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).

  7. An Alternative: The Biopsychosocial Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosey, Anne Cronin

    1974-01-01

    This paper suggests a biopsychosocial model as an alternative to the use of medical or health models for occupational therapists. The model moves away from the illness-health continuum to an emphasis upon information, abilities, and values necessary for productive community living. (Author/JA)

  8. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  9. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.)

  10. Alternatives of menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlešić Ranko M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been generally accepted that the benefits of menopausal hormone therapy outweigh the risks, but there are still some concerns about the administration of menopausal hormone therapy, which has introduced alternative treatments. Pharmacological Alternatives. Central alpha-2 agonist clonidine is only marginally more effective than placebo, and significantly less effective than estrogen. Antiepileptic drug gabapentin reduces hot flashes; however, it is less effective than estrogen. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (paroxetine and fluoxetine and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine reduce vasomotor symptoms and improve depression, anxiety and sleep. Results of studies about dehydroepiandrosterone effects on menopausal symptoms are inconsistent and additional investigations are needed. Non-Pharmacological Alternatives. Stellatum ganglion blockade is a successful treatment for reducing vasomotor symptoms in patients with contraindications for menopausal hormone therapy. Efficacy of acupuncture, homeopathy and reflexology should be proved by adequate studies. Phytoestrogens could reduce vasomotor symptoms but to a lesser extent than conventional menopausal hormone therapy. However, they have not been proved yet to provide cardiovascular protection and prevention of osteoporosis, nor they could be recommended instead of traditional menopausal hormone therapy. There is a concern about their undesirable effects. Adequate diet, unchanging body weight within ideal values and adequate physical activities have beneficial long-term effects, first of all on preservation of bone density. Alternatives for Atrophic Changes of Vaginal Epithelium. Menopausal symptoms resulting from vaginal atrophy could be resolved by use of hydrophilic preparations, lubricants and topical lidocaine cream or 4% lidocaine water solution for dyspareunia. Conclusion. If there are contrain­dications to menopausal hormone therapy or

  11. IN VITRO ROOTING OF MAHOGANY (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião da Cunha Lopes; Osmar Alves Lameira; Gerson Renan de Luces Fortes; Raírys Cravo Nogueira; José Eduardo Brasil Pereira Pinto

    2001-01-01

    This research objectived to compare different concentrations of IBA and NAA for induction of the rooting of apical segments and shoots of mahogany in vitro. The used explants were obtained from experiments of multiplication in vitro with at least 2cm of length, with cut bases in a traverse way. The substrate used was the MS (Murashige & Skoog, 1962), it was added vitamin of WPM (Mccown & Lloyd, 1981), supplemented with 3% of sucrose, agar 0,7% and PVP (Polyvinilpirrolidone) 0,1%. IBA were tes...

  12. IN VITRO ROOTING OF MAHOGANY (Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião da Cunha Lopes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This research objectived to compare different concentrations of IBA and NAA for induction of the rooting of apical segments and shoots of mahogany in vitro. The used explants were obtained from experiments of multiplication in vitro with at least 2cm of length, with cut bases in a traverse way. The substrate used was the MS (Murashige & Skoog, 1962, it was added vitamin of WPM (Mccown & Lloyd, 1981, supplemented with 3% of sucrose, agar 0,7% and PVP (Polyvinilpirrolidone 0,1%. IBA were tested the (0,1; 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0 mgL-1 and NAA the (0,1; 2,0 and 5,0 mgL-1. The explants remained for five days in the culture medium, in contact with these auxins, after they were transferred to new substrate without growth regulators and with the salts of the MS substrate reduced in half. The NAA in the concentration of 2,0 and 5,0 mgL-1 was more efficient for induction of rooting, with percentage above 70%, both apical segment and in shoots.

  13. EASI—enrichment of alternatively spliced isoforms

    OpenAIRE

    Julian P Venables; Burn, John

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing produces more than one protein from the majority of genes and the rarer forms can have dominant functions. Instability of alternative transcripts can also hinder the study of regulation of gene expression by alternative splicing. To investigate the true extent of alternative splicing we have developed a simple method of enriching alternatively spliced isoforms (EASI) from PCRs using beads charged with Thermus aquaticus single-stranded DNA-binding protein (T.Aq ssb). This ...

  14. Alternative Structures and Bihamiltonian Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F

    2002-01-01

    In the study of bi-Hamiltonian systems (both classical and quantum) one starts with a given dynamics and looks for all alternative Hamiltonian descriptions it admits.In this paper we start with two compatible Hermitian structures (the quantum analog of two compatible classical Poisson brackets) and look for all the dynamical systems which turn out to be bi-Hamiltonian with respect to them.

  15. An alternative analysis of variance

    OpenAIRE

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2008-01-01

    The one-way analysis of variance is a staple of elementary statistics courses. The hypothesis test of homogeneity of the means encourages the use of the selected-model based estimators which are usually assessed without any regard for the uncertainty about the outcome of the test. We expose the weaknesses of such estimators when the uncertainty is taken into account, as it should be, and propose synthetic estimators as an alternative.

  16. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an...

  17. Alternate-fuel reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a 3He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding

  18. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    CERN Document Server

    Edelstein, J D; Núñez, C; Schaposnik, F A

    1995-01-01

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical, in the sense that it mantains the form of the interactions between particles, thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space.

  19. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres ...

  20. Alternative Medicine on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Muret, Marc

    2000-01-01

    If you go to a bookstore to look for information on a particular health problem you will have a choice between the "medicine" corner with scientific manuals for professionals and the "health" corner with all kinds of books about acupuncture, ayurveda, natural healing, homeopathy, nutrition, massage, and so on! How is it on the Net? Even a short tour will bring you a lot of "medical" information, but when you look for alternative approaches in the "health" corner you will be rather disappointe...

  1. Towards an Alternative Gravitational Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, J.A.; Beltrán, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    In 1680 Cassini proposed oval curves as alternative trajectories for the visible planets around the sun. The Cassini ovals were of course overshadow by the Kepler's first law (1609), namely the planets move around the sun describing conic orbits. Here we describe the possibility that the Cassini's idea works at larger or smaller scales. Indeed, we consider the Spiric curves (which are a generalization of the Cassini oval) and present the first steps towards a Spiric gravitational theory. We s...

  2. Casimir force: an alternative treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir force between two parallel uncharged closely spaced metallic plates is evaluated in ways alternatives to those usually considered in the literature. In a first approximation we take in account the suppressed quantum numbers of a cubic box, representing a cavity which was cut in a metallic block. We combine these ideas with those of the MIT bag model of hadrons, but adapted to non-relativistic particles. In a second approximation we consider the particles occupying the energy level...

  3. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical in the sense that it maintains the form of the interactions between particles thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space. (author). 12 refs

  4. Alternative Assessment of Glycemic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Greven, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease associated with development of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimal glycemic control, usually measured by HbA1c is the cornerstone for prevention of complications. In this thesis glycemic variability (which resembles actual glucose levels, glucose peaks and nadirs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (a more long-term reflection of hyperglycemia and tissue glycation) are investigated as alternative assessment of glycemic control....

  5. Intronic Alus influence alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Lev-Maor

    Full Text Available Examination of the human transcriptome reveals higher levels of RNA editing than in any other organism tested to date. This is indicative of extensive double-stranded RNA (dsRNA formation within the human transcriptome. Most of the editing sites are located in the primate-specific retrotransposed element called Alu. A large fraction of Alus are found in intronic sequences, implying extensive Alu-Alu dsRNA formation in mRNA precursors. Yet, the effect of these intronic Alus on splicing of the flanking exons is largely unknown. Here, we show that more Alus flank alternatively spliced exons than constitutively spliced ones; this is especially notable for those exons that have changed their mode of splicing from constitutive to alternative during human evolution. This implies that Alu insertions may change the mode of splicing of the flanking exons. Indeed, we demonstrate experimentally that two Alu elements that were inserted into an intron in opposite orientation undergo base-pairing, as evident by RNA editing, and affect the splicing patterns of a downstream exon, shifting it from constitutive to alternative. Our results indicate the importance of intronic Alus in influencing the splicing of flanking exons, further emphasizing the role of Alus in shaping of the human transcriptome.

  6. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  7. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives

  8. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension. PMID:10907162

  9. Alternative energy and environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee will address environmental concerns within the context of the new energy policy and market rules for the newly restructured electric power industry. The new rules that come with power restructuring will in some ways facilitate environmental protection but they can also complicate it. With open access markets, it will be possible to coordinate evolving energy frameworks with current environmental objectives. Restructuring provides an opportunity to create incentives and guidelines to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner, as suggested in the New Brunswick Energy Policy, White Paper which outlines green pricing, the development of a provincial Climate Change Action Plan, and promotion of alternative energy. The Market Design Committee examined the environmental concerns listed within the White Paper that pertain to the generation and transmission of electricity. These include the integration of energy and environmental policy. Other issues addressed in this report were trans-boundary and global air emissions, the development of a provincial climate change action plan, and a federal-provincial climate change framework agreement. New Brunswick will encourage the development of pilot studies that demonstrate the benefits of renewable and alternative technologies and that help promote the market to manufacture, sell and maintain renewable and alternative technologies in small-scale on-site power generation. This report also discussed the 4 key air pollutants for which specific treatment has been defined, including sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury and carbon dioxide. Recommendations for reducing these emissions include the use of renewable energy sources, the use of lower carbon fuels, increased efficiency of power transmission/generation/distribution systems, reducing power demand by the industrial sector, and promoting energy efficient building codes. 34 refs., 1 tab

  10. Alternative routes of insulin delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjith K. Krishnankutty; Aju Mathew; Saikiran K. Sedimbi; Shrikumar Suryanarayan; Carani B. Sanjeevi

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  11. MR pelvimetry - a practical alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvimetry remains a useful technique as part of the assessment of the term breech pregnancy where vaginal delivery is planned. MR pelvimetry is accurate, well tolerated and shows soft-tissue structures as well as bone. It avoids the potentially carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation and is thought to be completely safe for mother and fetus. A technique of MR pelvimetry is described which uses gradient-echo sequences. This quick, practical method makes minimal in roads into valuable scanning time, and may therefore be considered a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional pelvimetry. (orig.)

  12. Alternatives to quintessence model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the issue of toy model building for the dark energy component of the universe. Specifically, we consider two generic toy models recently proposed as alternatives to quintessence models, respectively known as Cardassian expansion and the Chaplygin gas. We show that the former is entirely equivalent to a class of quintessence models. We determine the observational constraints on the latter, coming from recent supernovae results and from the shape of the matter power spectrum. As expected, these restrict the model to a behavior that closely matches that of a standard cosmological constant Λ

  13. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  14. Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, P. F.

    Aquifer remediation is one of our most difficult environmental challenges; technological limitations and problems arising from the physical and chemical complexities of contaminated subsurface environments thwart our best efforts. A 19-member committee of leaders in environmental engineering, hydrogeology, epidemiology, environmental economics, and environmental policy has written an ambitious book that broadly addresses the groundwater remediation problem. Topics include site characterization, capabilities and limitations of pump-and-treat and alternative technologies, alternative goals for ground water cleanup, and policy implications.One of the book's strengths is its information base, which includes various public and private groups, data from 80 pump-and-treat sites, and an extensive literature review. The text is clearly written and well organized. Specific conclusions are stated at the end of each major chapter, and sound policy recommendations are offered at the end of the final chapter. An appendix summarizes pump-andtreat systems reviewed during the study. Several case studies, diagrams, and photographs effectively illustrate concepts and ideas conveyed in the text.

  15. Alternative forms for genomic clines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2013-07-01

    Understanding factors regulating hybrid fitness and gene exchange is a major research challenge for evolutionary biology. Genomic cline analysis has been used to evaluate alternative patterns of introgression, but only two models have been used widely and the approach has generally lacked a hypothesis testing framework for distinguishing effects of selection and drift. I propose two alternative cline models, implement multivariate outlier detection to identify markers associated with hybrid fitness, and simulate hybrid zone dynamics to evaluate the signatures of different modes of selection. Analysis of simulated data shows that previous approaches are prone to false positives (multinomial regression) or relatively insensitive to outlier loci affected by selection (Barton's concordance). The new, theory-based logit-logistic cline model is generally best at detecting loci affecting hybrid fitness. Although some generalizations can be made about different modes of selection, there is no one-to-one correspondence between pattern and process. These new methods will enhance our ability to extract important information about the genetics of reproductive isolation and hybrid fitness. However, much remains to be done to relate statistical patterns to particular evolutionary processes. The methods described here are implemented in a freely available package "HIest" for the R statistical software (CRAN; http://cran.r-project.org/). PMID:23919142

  16. Alternate approaches to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the US nuclear power industry to expand, a greatly increased portion of the public must come to share the industry's confidence in reactor safety. Major obstacles to establishing this confidence are frequent incidents with potential safety implications and a lack of incontrovertible proof that the risk of a major accident is very low. The most important step toward overcoming these obstacles would be for each utility to operate, maintain, and evaluate its reactors according to far higher standards. With improvements in reliability and safety margins, existing plants would be a stimulus for building new ones rather than an impediment. If changes to the operation of existing plants and improvements to the design of future ones were inadequate, the only hope for a revival of the nuclear industry would be an alternative reactor so obviously safe that risk would no longer be an issue. Three possible concepts are the modular high-temperature gas reactor, the process inherent ultimate safety reactor, and the liquid-metal fast reactor. All three have inherent safety features that should make a meltdown essentially impossible. They cannot know just how great the advantage of these alternate reactors would be, but the benefits of developing one or more of the concepts appear great

  17. Analysis of supermarket dehumidification alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.W. Urban, R.E.; Beckman, W.A.; Dorgan, C.E.; Lindell, C.J. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Solar Energy Lab.)

    1992-11-01

    Alternative methods to provide space conditioning in supermarkets were studied. Four basic air-conditioning systems were selected for evaluation in a store in Miami, Florida: (1) conventional vapor compression systems, (2) vapor compression air-conditioning systems designed for supermarket loads, (3) hybrid desiccant air-conditioning systems, and (4) cool storage systems. Computer models were created and annual simulations of performance were made. The impacts on energy use and cost of circulation flow rate, store humidity set point, heat pipe heat exchangers, and climate on energy use and cost were determined. Dual path electric systems and desiccant systems were found to consume the least electrical energy. Savings of the desiccant system are partially offset by natural gas needed to reactivate the desiccant. Single path systems with reduced circulation air flow consumed significantly less electricity than the conventional system. Lower humidity shifts the air-conditioning load from the refrigerated cases to the HVAC system and reduces the electrical use for all but the conventional system. Heat pipe heat exchangers provide little benefit. Flat and time-of-use electric rate schedules were used to estimate operating savings and to determine the cost effectiveness of the alternative approaches.

  18. Alternate fusion concepts as reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent successes of the tokamak concept of controlled fusion have not quenched interest in possible alternatives. This report summarizes a recent study sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, which tried to quantify which hoped-for advantages persist when a serious attempt is made to design reactor plants around eight specific alternative concepts (Electron Beam-Heated Solenoid, Elmo Bumpy Torus, Fast Liner, Laser-Heated Solenoid, Linear Theta-Pinch, LINUS, Reversed-Field-Pinch, and Shock-Heated Annulus) addressing key technological issues and economic issues for each concept. The study aimed to isolate the cost drivers for the reactor plant and to compare their capital cost per kilowatt of electricity as well as address the impact of technological difficulty. Results of the study indicated that reactor block costs for the eight plants studied represent a substantially larger fraction of total plant costs than the corresponding fraction for light water reactors; bottom line costs of $ /kWe range over a factor of about two with cost drivers being the physical size of the power producing plasma and the relative magnitudes of the circulating power fraction and the nature of the power circulation. Other cost considerations are also enumerated and the author concludes by noting that one value of the engineering study and cost estimate has been to quantify the relation between physics uncertainty and cost uncertainty

  19. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  1. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  2. Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159511.html Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report More than $30 ... chunk of their health care dollars on alternative medicine, such as acupuncture, yoga, chiropractic care and natural ...

  3. Towards a critical theory of alternative media.

    OpenAIRE

    SANDOVAL, M.; C. Fuchs

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we warn against being too optimistic about the actual democratic effects of notions like "civil media", ”community media” "alternative media", "grassroots media", "participatory media", or "participatory culture". We argue that in contemporary society, which is characterized by structural inequalities, an understanding of alternative media as participatory media is insufficient. As an alternative concept, we suggest the notion of alternative media as critical media. This...

  4. Evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhixi; Wang, Jianmin; Yu, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Gu, Xun

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing and gene duplication are two major sources of proteomic function diversity. Here, we study the evolutionary trend of alternative splicing after gene duplication by analyzing the alternative splicing differences between duplicate genes. We observed that duplicate genes have fewer alternative splice (AS) forms than single-copy genes, and that a negative correlation exists between the mean number of AS forms and the gene family size. Interestingly, we found that the loss of ...

  5. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  6. Alternative Mathematics without Actual Infinity

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujishita, Toru

    2012-01-01

    An alternative mathematics based on qualitative plurality of finiteness is developed to make non-standard mathematics independent of infinite set theory. The vague concept "accessibility" is used coherently within finite set theory whose separation axiom is restricted to definite objective conditions. The weak equivalence relations are defined as binary relations with sorites phenomena. Continua are collection with weak equivalence relations called indistinguishability. The points of continua are the proper classes of mutually indistinguishable elements and have identities with sorites paradox. Four continua formed by huge binary words are examined as a new type of continua. Ascoli-Arzela type theorem is given as an example indicating the feasibility of treating function spaces. The real numbers are defined to be points on linear continuum and have indefiniteness. Exponentiation is introduced by the Euler style and basic properties are established. Basic calculus is developed and the differentiability is capt...

  7. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  8. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard;

    2009-01-01

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow...... reactor and a swirl burner test rig, with special emphasis on the formation of fly ash and ash deposit. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed to support the interpretation of the experiments. To generalize the results of the combustion tests, the fuels are classified according to fuel ash...... analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence on...

  9. Nuclear power and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power to contribute significantly to the alleviation of demands for increased electricity by the year 2000, a further obstacle must be overcome, namely the present nuclear phobia of the American public. This phobia can be addressed only through public education leading to a balanced perspective of the benefits and hazards of nuclear power compared with those of alternate sources of energy and to the risks associated with an insufficient supply of energy in a few years. Also to be considered in a public education effort should be the precarious and capricious nature of this country's continued reliance on energy sources imported from politically unstable countries, as well as the risk this importation poses for the nation's economic, social and military security

  10. ADAPTABLE ALTERNATE REALITY GAMES PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Adrian Cotfas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an alternate reality games platform that facilitates the creation of ARG projects with different themes and sizes. The platform is well integrated with the most important social media networks, thus facilitating both the involvement of the public and the creation of a more engaging interaction for the participants. A cloud-based architecture was used in order to allow the platform to easily accommodate projects of various sizes and to provide a good level of scalability. The platform is fully localizable in any language and multiple languages can be used at once to create projects that target users from different countries. An initial project that uses gamification to create an immersive learning environment has been created around the developed platform. The project combines professional and public feedback in order to provide an enhanced learning experience.

  11. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners

  12. The rural energy alternatives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cooperative survey by the New York State Energy Office (SEO) and Office of Rural Affairs (ORA) identified hundreds of residences without utility electric power due to excessive line extension costs. SEO selected several of these residences for feasibility studies which compared site specific options for electricity generation, including existing fossil fuel generator(s), generator/battery sets, photovoltaic (PV) hybrid and micro-hydroelectric systems as well as utility provided electric service. Comprehensive reports included examination of a range of energy conservation measures. Alternatives to present fossil fuel systems were assessed for domestic hot water, refrigeration, and water pumping. Results included electric load data, solar and hydroelectric potential, life cycle cost estimates for electricity, and estimated system sizing information based on energy cost considerations. In addition to providing useful information to individual homeowners, these studies served as the basis for cooperative efforts to install and monitor stand-alone prototype PV hybrid systems

  13. Alternative calcination development status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable

  14. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  15. COMMUNICATION: Alternative splicing and genomic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Alternative splicing allows an organism to make different proteins in different cells at different times, all from the same gene. In a cell that uses alternative splicing, the total length of all the exons is much shorter than in a cell that encodes the same set of proteins without alternative splicing. This economical use of exons makes genes more stable during reproduction and development because a genome with a shorter exon length is more resistant to harmful mutations. Genomic stability may be the reason why higher vertebrates splice alternatively. For a broad class of alternatively spliced genes, a formula is given for the increase in their stability.

  16. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  17. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  18. ALTERNATE PRICING STRATEGIES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research findings on pricing strategies both in general and in construction are reviewed and explored. First%2C pricing strategy in general%2C mostly in the manufacturing industry%2C is reviewed. It includes the concepts of pricing strategy%2C predatory pricing%2C price wars%2C and price policy development. Second%2C pricing strategy in construction is explored. It includes various pricing models for bid price determination%2C such as the Friedman-Gates models%2C expected utility models%2C risk-pricing model%2C and the crew-day%2C multiple regression%2C and fuzzy-set pricing models. In conclusion%2C pricing strategies in construction are still predominantly based on a cost-based approach. More recent models try to close the gap between the models and the real life conditions of a bidder%5C%27s decision-making process. It appears that there are more problems in cost-based pricing as opposed to market-based pricing. Consequently%2C it is highly recommended that%2C alternative pricing approach such as that are closer to the proposed market-based pricing model need to be explored and developed for use in the construction industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pricing+strategy%2C+cost-based+pricing%2C+market-based+pricing.

  19. Subjective preferences and alternative costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barnett II

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is an exploration of the economics of subjectivism and opportunity or alternative costs. Most contemporary economists pay lip service to these concepts, but when push comes to shove, all too often they jettison them. We shall illustrate this lapse from basic economics with a challenge that has been perplexing several modern economists: why do people always walk on staircases, but only sometimes on escalators. Landsburg (2002 misunderstood the reason people only sometimes walk on escalators, whereas they always walk on stairs. Garrison (2009 tackled the same problem, with somewhat different results. Both of them, however, are guilty of a failure to use what is perhaps the most fundamental concept in the economist’s toolkit – opportunity cost, known to an immense number of non-economists by the aphorism ‘There’s no such thing as a free lunch.’ This oversight resulted in his (their failure to explain why people only sometimes walk on escalators, in contradistinction to the fact that they always walk on staircases.

  20. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  1. Casimir force: an alternative treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, P R

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir force between two parallel uncharged closely spaced metallic plates is evaluated in ways alternatives to those usually considered in the literature. In a first approximation we take in account the suppressed quantum numbers of a cubic box, representing a cavity which was cut in a metallic block. We combine these ideas with those of the MIT bag model of hadrons, but adapted to non-relativistic particles. In a second approximation we consider the particles occupying the energy levels of the Bohr atom, so that the Casimir force depends explicitly on the fine structure constant alpha. In both treatments, the mean energies which have explicit dependence on the particle mass and on the maximum occupied quantum number (related to the Fermi level of the system) at the beginning of the calculations, have these dependences mutually canceled at the end of them. Finally by comparing the averaged energies computed in both approximations, we are able to make an estimate of the value of the fine structure consta...

  2. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  3. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  4. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  5. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cherney, PhD

    2012-02-22

    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time dashboard and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  6. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an equation of state parameter, w = -1.03+-0.05 for z 1.35, HDIE was phantom, w = -1.82+-0.08, providing a clear prediction that will enable the model to be verified or falsified. HDIE is shown to fit Planck dark energy wo-wa plots at least as well as Lambda, and to be consistent with other results that suggest dark energy was phantom at earlier times. A new w parameterisation is proposed here, as the usual CPL parameterisation is found to be biased and unsuitable for distinguishing between the HDIE/baryon and LCDM models.

  7. A multiagent model for alternative plan generation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of multiagent technology for urban planning purposes has already received much attention with regard to predicting and evaluating the effects of different policy scenarios and plan alternatives. The generation of these plan alternatives, however, remains underexplored in this context. In this paper the authors describe a multiagent model for generating alternative land-use plans, in which the agents are land-use experts that initiate the development of plan proposals and commu...

  8. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism,...

  9. Alternating Turing machines for inductive languages

    OpenAIRE

    Leivant, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    We show that alternating Turing machines, with a novel and natural definition of acceptance, accept precisely the inductive (Pi-1-1) languages. Total alternating machines, that either accept or reject each input, accept precisely the hyper-elementary (Delta-1-1) languages. Moreover, bounding the permissible number of alternations yields a characterization of the levels of the arithmetical hierarchy. Notably, these results use simple finite computing devices, with finitary and discrete operati...

  10. An alternative model of spherical oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative model of Higgs spherical oscillator is considered. The quasiradial wave functions and energy spectra of the alternative model of spherical oscillator on the D-dimensional sphere and D-dimensional two-sheeted hyperboloid are found. It is shown that the energy spectrum of the alternative model of spherical oscillator on a two-sheeted hyperboloid takes both discrete and continuous values. The obtained results can be applied in higher dimensions for constructing quantum Hall effect theory

  11. Meeting Report: Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lein, Pamela; Locke, Paul; Goldberg, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternatives to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. To address this need, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Toxicology Program are collaborating in a program called TestSmart DNT, the goals of which are to: (a) develop alternative methodologies for identifying and prioritizing che...

  12. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; R Godbout

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternati...

  13. Young doctors' views on alternative medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, D T

    1983-01-01

    A survey was undertaken to explore attitudes to alternative medicine among 100 general practitioner trainees. A positive attitude emerged from the 86 respondents, with 18 doctors using at least one alternative method themselves and 70 wanting to train in one or more. A total of 31 trainees had referred patients for such treatments; 12 of these doctors made referrals to non-medically qualified practitioners. The most commonly used alternative treatments were hypnosis, manipulation, homoeopathy...

  14. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalov, Vyacheslav Vasilievich; Pozharnitskaya, Olga Vyacheslavovna; Rostovshchikova, А.; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative a...

  15. ASD: a bioinformatics resource on alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Stamm, Stefan; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Le Texier, Vincent; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Kumanduri, Vasudev; Tang, Yesheng; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L.; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

    2005-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism of mammalian gene expression. The alternative splicing database (ASD) consortium is systematically collecting and annotating data on alternative splicing. We present the continuation and upgrade of the ASD [T. A. Thanaraj, S. Stamm, F. Clark, J. J. Riethoven, V. Le Texier, J. Muilu (2004) Nucleic Acids Res. 32, D64–D69] that consists of computationally and manually generated data. Its largest parts are AltSplice, a value-added database...

  16. ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

  17. Planetary Protection Alternate Protocol Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy; Barengoltz, Jack; Tisdale, David

    The talk presents a standardized approach for new method certification or alterative testing protocol (ATP) certification against the existing U.S. Planetary Protection Standards. In consideration of new method certification there are two phases of activities that are relevant to the certification process. The first is sample acquisition which typically incorporates swab or wipes sampling on relevant hardware, associated facilities and ground support equipment. The sampling methods introduce considerations of field sampling efficiency as it relates to spore distribution on the spacecraft, spacecraft material influences on the ability of the swab or wipe to remove spores from the hardware, the types of swabs and wipes used (polyester, cotton, macrofoam), and human sampling influences. The second portion of a new protocol certification looks specifically at the lab work-up or analysis of the samples provided to the laboratory. Variables in this process include selection of appropriate biomarkers, extraction efficiencies (removal of spores or constituents of interest from the sampling device), and a method's ability to accurately determine the number of spores present in the sample with a statistically valid level of confidence as described by parameters such as precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity and sensitivity. Considerations for alternative testing protocols such as those which utilize bioburden reduction techniques include selection of appropriate biomarkers for testing, test materials and a defined statistical approach that provides sufficient scientific data to support the modification of an existing NASA specification or the generation of a new NASA specification. Synergies between the U.S. and European Space Agency approaches will also be discussed.

  18. Alternative energy sources. Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text has been assembled from the proceedings of the Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) that was held in Kuwait in February 1980. The focus of this symposium was to review and assess those technologies that presently complement and will most likely substitute in the future for oil and gas extracted by conventional techniques. This text includes the state-of-the-art of these technologies as seen by experts in their respective disciplines. In the coverage of the technologies presented, an attempt has been made to include present developed technologies and those under development. As a consequence, the level of detail in each presentation is appropriate to the developmental stage of the technology under consideration, as assessed by the author. In general, the papers covering proven or nearly proven technologies mostly consist of detailed and or comparative assessments of the diverse engineering schemes without unduly dwelling on basics, while papers addressing technologies under development review the theoretical basis of these technologies in some details. In all instances where meaningful economics are available, numbers are included. This text also includes review papers of electric storage technology and transportation and energy, topics that, along with conservation, affect most strategic energy planning for the foreseeable future. The text also includes economics methodology and economical development papers that will hopefully allow researchers in the energy field access to the more common tools and approaches of the economic and financial analysts and the international development economists. Separate abstracts of individual presentations have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  19. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  20. Alternative to particle dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Justin

    2015-01-01

    We propose an alternative to particle dark matter that borrows ingredients of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) while adding new key components. The first new feature is a dark matter fluid, in the form of a scalar field with small equation of state and sound speed. This component is critical in reproducing the success of cold dark matter for the expansion history and the growth of linear perturbations, but does not cluster significantly on nonlinear scales. Instead, the missing mass problem on nonlinear scales is addressed by a modification of the gravitational force law. The force law approximates MOND at large and intermediate accelerations, and therefore reproduces the empirical success of MOND at fitting galactic rotation curves. At ultralow accelerations, the force law reverts to an inverse-square law, albeit with a larger Newton's constant. This latter regime is important in galaxy clusters and is consistent with their observed isothermal profiles, provided the characteristic acceleration scale of MOND is mildly varying with scale or mass, such that it is 12 times higher in clusters than in galaxies. We present an explicit relativistic theory in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field is governed by a Dirac-Born-Infeld action and behaves as a dark matter fluid on large scales. The second scalar field also has single-derivative interactions and mediates a fifth force that modifies gravity on nonlinear scales. Both scalars are coupled to matter via an effective metric that depends locally on the fields. The form of this effective metric implies the equality of the two scalar gravitational potentials, which ensures that lensing and dynamical mass estimates agree. Further work is needed in order to make both the acceleration scale of MOND and the fraction at which gravity reverts to an inverse-square law explicitly dynamical quantities, varying with scale or mass.

  1. Mixed oxide conversion facility alternative conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allied-General Nuclear Services recently performed studies to evaluate alternative proliferation-resistant flowsheets of the uranium-based LWR fuel cycle. The alternatives evaluated consist of coprocessing schemes with either a gamma or a heat spike added. A literature search and evaluation were performed to select a process technology for mixed oxide coconversion. The COPRECAL process was chosen as the most suitable conversion process technology. Three alternative mixed oxide conversion facility design concepts were prepared based on the COPRECAL technology. These alternative concepts are compared to a pure plutonium conversion facility. Facility designs, relative proliferation resistance, and cost estimates are discussed

  2. Alternative large Nc baryons and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In gauge theories in the limit of a large number Nc of colors baryons are usually described as heavy solitonic objects with mass of order Nc. We discuss an alternative large Nc description both directly in the field theory as well as using holography. In this alternative large Nc limit at least some of the baryons behave like mesons, that is they stay light even at large Nc and their interactions vanish in that limit. For Nc=3 these alternative large Nc baryons are equivalent to the standard baryons. In the holographic description it is manifest that the Regge slopes of mesons and alternative baryons are degenerate.

  3. Alternative large Nc baryons and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos-Badajoz, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    In gauge theories in the limit of a large number Nc of colors, baryons are usually described as heavy solitonic objects with mass of order Nc. We discuss an alternative large Nc description both directly in the field theory as well as using holography. In this alternative large Nc limit at least some of the baryons behave like mesons, that is they stay light even at large Nc and their interactions vanish in that limit. For Nc=3 these alternative large Nc baryons are equivalent to the standard baryons. In the holographic description it is manifest that the Regge slopes of mesons and alternative baryons are degenerate.

  4. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  5. An alternative storage method for entomopathogenic nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLCÜ, Barış; HAZIR, Selçuk

    2012-01-01

    Tetra Pak containers were evaluated as an alternative to tissue culture flasks for nematode storage. Our data showed that Tetra Pak containers were an excellent alternative to tissue culture flasks for storage of H. bacteriophora and will more than likely be useful for other entomopathogenic nematode species.

  6. Alternative Learning Environments in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eugene D.

    This paper outlines a program utilized in the Countryside School which offers alternative learning environments in the elementary school. The program includes (1) semi-departmentalization; (2) team teaching; and (3) an open-alternatives program. Each of these areas is outlined and fully discussed in terms of student and parent needs. (YRJ)

  7. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  8. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Łabaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  9. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    OpenAIRE

    J. Łabaj; M. Jodkowski; Szeja, W.; Helhmann, J.; Kozioł, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizen, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

  11. Alternatives to prison sentences: Experiences and development

    OpenAIRE

    Junger-Tas, J.

    1994-01-01

    This study presents an overview of experiences with alternative sanctions in other countries with a view to the future development of the Dutch sanctioning system. The principal objective of the study was to examine the use of alternatives to prison with respect to their effectiveness and efficiency.

  12. Alternatives to prison sentences : Experiences and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger-Tas, J.

    1994-01-01

    This study presents an overview of experiences with alternative sanctions in other countries with a view to the future development of the Dutch sanctioning system. The principal objective of the study was to examine the use of alternatives to prison with respect to their effectiveness and efficiency

  13. Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided

  14. Context-driven expectations about focus alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina S; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Runner, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    What is conveyed by a sentence frequently depends not only on the descriptive content carried by its words, but also on implicit alternatives determined by the context of use. Four visual world eye-tracking experiments examined how alternatives are generated based on aspects of the discourse context and used in interpreting sentences containing the focus operators only and also. Experiment 1 builds on previous reading time studies showing that the interpretations of only sentences are constrained by alternatives explicitly mentioned in the preceding discourse, providing fine-grained time course information about the expectations triggered by only. Experiments 2 and 3 show that, in the absence of explicitly mentioned alternatives, lexical and situation-based categories evoked by the context are possible sources of alternatives. While Experiments 1-3 all demonstrate the discourse dependence of alternatives, only explicit mention triggered expectations about alternatives that were specific to sentences with only. By comparing only with also, Experiment 4 begins to disentangle expectations linked to the meanings of specific operators from those generalizable to the class of focus-sensitive operators. Together, these findings show that the interpretation of sentences with focus operators draws on both dedicated mechanisms for introducing alternatives into the discourse context and general mechanisms associated with discourse processing. PMID:25797456

  15. Ship detection with Envisat's alternating polarization mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Chesworth, J.; Greidanus, H.

    2005-01-01

    A ship detection algorithm is developed that uses Envisat ASAR imagery in alternating polarisation mode. From airborne data it is shown that of the two co-polarisations, HH is preferred over VV because of a larger ship-to-clutter ratio. Combining the HH and HV images of alternating polarisation mode

  16. Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, James Anthony; Palmer, Brent J; Perry, Keith Joseph

    2003-12-01

    A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided.

  17. Demystifying Alternative Education: Considering What Really Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of alternative programs requires an understanding of both research and practice. Essential components of alternative educational programs must include opportunities to build and foster resilience in our youth. Program elements must be reflective of the quality and standards mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001."…

  18. Luftforureninger ved anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af rapport om luftforureninger ved anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Arbejdsmiljøinstituttet og Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om luftforureninger ved anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Arbejdsmiljøinstituttet og Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  19. Bygningsakustiske egenskaber for bygningsdele med alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2004-01-01

    Resume af rapport om bygningsakutiske egenskaber for alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af DELTA under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om bygningsakutiske egenskaber for alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af DELTA under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  20. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  1. Alternative Dispute Resolution – Justice without Trial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Roşu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is proposed to analyze the alternative means of dispute resolution, as an alternativeof justice, or as a justice alternative, after studying both European critical literature and national one. Thephrase „alternative dispute resolution” means any alternative way of dispute resolution method whereby two ormore people try using a third party to reach a solution to the problem that precludes them, whether it ismediation, conciliation, assisted negotiation. In this research, we proposed to use the observation as a commonmethod. We concluded that the main reason of the alternative means for dispute resolution results from thepossibility to avoid the judicial system that makes it available for the litigants. It was also shown that users ofalternative means for dispute resolution not seek to resolve the dispute outside a court as an amicablesettlement, negotiated, consensual of their dispute.

  2. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  3. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  4. Modified Waste Emplacement Mode Design Alternative Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  5. Modified waste emplacement mode design alternative report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  6. Advancing practice relating to SEA alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing and assessing alternatives is a key and central stage to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). However, research has repeatedly reported this stage as one of the most poorly undertaken aspects of the SEA process. Current practice limitations include belated consideration of reasonable alternatives, narrow scope of alternatives that often include unrealistic or retrofitted options, limited stakeholder and public involvement in their identification, assessment and selection, lack of systematic approaches to their assessment and comparison, and inadequate reporting of the ‘storyline’ on how they were identified, what the potential impacts are and why the preferred alternative was selected. These issues have resulted in objections and judicial reviews. On the positive side, a number of good practice case studies enable extraction of key lessons and formulation of a set of general recommendations to advance practice in SEA alternatives. In this paper, practical guidance on the identification and development of alternatives, their assessment and comparison, selection of the preferred option, and documentation of the process and the reasons for selection is provided and discussed to frame good practice approaches. - Highlights: • Alternatives are one of the most poorly completed aspects of Strategic Environmental Assessment. • Current practice limitations need to be addressed to enhance SEA effectiveness. • A set of recommendations are extracted from good practice case studies. • These recommendations can be applied across jurisdictions and sectors and tailored as necessary

  7. The Architecture of Chemical Alternatives Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Kenneth; Tickner, Joel; Edwards, Sally; Rossi, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Chemical alternatives assessment is a method rapidly developing for use by businesses, governments, and nongovernment organizations seeking to substitute chemicals of concern in production processes and products. Chemical alternatives assessment is defined as a process for identifying, comparing, and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern (including those in materials, processes, or technologies) on the basis of their hazards, performance, and economic viability. The process is intended to provide guidance for assuring that chemicals of concern are replaced with safer alternatives that are not likely to be later regretted. Conceptually, the assessment methods are developed from a set of three foundational pillars and five common principles. Based on a number of emerging alternatives assessment initiatives, in this commentary, we outline a chemical alternatives assessment blueprint structured around three broad steps: Scope, Assessment, and Selection and Implementation. Specific tasks and tools are identified for each of these three steps. While it is recognized that on-going practice will further refine and develop the method and tools, it is important that the structure of the assessment process remain flexible, adaptive, and focused on the substitution of chemicals of concern with safer alternatives. PMID:26630442

  8. Advancing practice relating to SEA alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Ainhoa, E-mail: agonzal@tcd.ie [School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Thérivel, Riki, E-mail: levett-therivel@phonecoop.coop [Levett-Therivel Sustainability Consultants (United Kingdom); Fry, John, E-mail: john.fry@ucd.ie [School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Foley, Walter, E-mail: walterfoley@gmail.com [School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    Developing and assessing alternatives is a key and central stage to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). However, research has repeatedly reported this stage as one of the most poorly undertaken aspects of the SEA process. Current practice limitations include belated consideration of reasonable alternatives, narrow scope of alternatives that often include unrealistic or retrofitted options, limited stakeholder and public involvement in their identification, assessment and selection, lack of systematic approaches to their assessment and comparison, and inadequate reporting of the ‘storyline’ on how they were identified, what the potential impacts are and why the preferred alternative was selected. These issues have resulted in objections and judicial reviews. On the positive side, a number of good practice case studies enable extraction of key lessons and formulation of a set of general recommendations to advance practice in SEA alternatives. In this paper, practical guidance on the identification and development of alternatives, their assessment and comparison, selection of the preferred option, and documentation of the process and the reasons for selection is provided and discussed to frame good practice approaches. - Highlights: • Alternatives are one of the most poorly completed aspects of Strategic Environmental Assessment. • Current practice limitations need to be addressed to enhance SEA effectiveness. • A set of recommendations are extracted from good practice case studies. • These recommendations can be applied across jurisdictions and sectors and tailored as necessary.

  9. Alternative energy companies : a financier's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian energy technology sector can be divided into 2 categories: (1) alternative energy generators which include small hydro, wind, biomass, solar energy and fuel cells, and (2) energy technology services. This presentation focused on publicly traded entities and how financing alternatives are limited to project finance, and venture capital. This situation may change as the long term winners emerge and various segments are recognized as not requiring special regulatory and price incentives. Case studies were presented of financing renewable energy projects and the commitment of the Royal Bank of Canada's (RBC) Financial Group to provide financing for alternative energy projects that impact the transportation sector. 15 figs

  10. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  11. Implementation barriers of alternative transport fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troelstra, W.P. [Innas, Breda (Netherlands); Smith, A. [AEA Technology, London (United Kingdom); Bol, M. [Sypher Mueller International, Morristown, New Jersey (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    The study on the title subject aims to present an overview of the practical barriers associated with the introduction of alternative fuels for transport applications in IEA countries. The aim is to provide an information source to which potential users can refer when deciding whether to introduce an alternative fuel. The report will highlight potential problems so that users can either select the alternative fuel best suited to their needs, or implement possible solutions to the problems. The study covers natural gas (both compressed (CNG) and liquefied (LNG)), LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), ethanol (mainly bio-ethanol), methanol, bio-diesel, hydrogen, DME(dimethyl ether), and electricity. 48 refs.

  12. Characterization of alternative FBR development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-term decisions regarding the nature and place of the FBR development program must be made. This study is part of a larger program designed to provide the Department of Energy (DOE) with imformation that can be used to make strategic programmatic decisions. The focus of this report is the description of alternative approaches for developing the FBR and the quantification of the duration and cost of each alternative. The time frames of the alternative approaches are investigated in companion reports (White 1981 and Fraley 1981). The results of these analyses will be described in a summary report

  13. Implementation barriers of alternative transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the title subject aims to present an overview of the practical barriers associated with the introduction of alternative fuels for transport applications in IEA countries. The aim is to provide an information source to which potential users can refer when deciding whether to introduce an alternative fuel. The report will highlight potential problems so that users can either select the alternative fuel best suited to their needs, or implement possible solutions to the problems. The study covers natural gas (both compressed (CNG) and liquefied (LNG)), LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), ethanol (mainly bio-ethanol), methanol, bio-diesel, hydrogen, DME(dimethyl ether), and electricity. 48 refs

  14. Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

  15. ASDB: database of alternatively spliced genes

    OpenAIRE

    Dralyuk, I; Brudno, M.; Gelfand, M S; Zorn, M.; Dubchak, I.

    2000-01-01

    Version 2.1 of ASDB (Alternative Splicing Data Base) contains 1922 protein and 2486 DNA sequences. The protein entries from SWISS-PROT are joined into clusters corresponding to alternatively spliced variants of one gene. The DNA division consists of complete genes with alternative splicing mentioned or annotated in GenBank. The search engine allows one to search over SWISS-PROT and GenBank fields and then follow the links to all variants. The database can be assessed at the URL http://cbcg.ne...

  16. Alternative Work Schedules Increase Employee Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, John R.; Cohen, Stanley L.

    1983-01-01

    Facets of alternative work schedules (AWS) are discussed: importance of employee control, possible negative consequences, AWS handbook, time monitoring systems, and treatment of exceptions. AWS' effect on productivity and motivation is examined. (SK)

  17. Alternative affinity tools: more attractive than antibodies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, V.J.B.; Levisson, M.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Smidt, H.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies are the most successful affinity tools used today, in both fundamental and applied research (diagnostics, purification and therapeutics). Nonetheless, antibodies do have their limitations, including high production costs and low stability. Alternative affinity tools based on nucleic acids

  18. INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

  19. An Alternative Framework for Defining Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Linda M.; Graham, John W.; Flaherty, Brian P.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an alternative framework for evaluating mediated relationships. The distinguishing feature of mediation is that mediation involves a chain reaction. The definition presented emphasizes the intra-individual, time-ordered nature of mediation. (SLD)

  20. On the Representation Theory of Alternating Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Bessenrodt

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the classification of the irreducible linear and projective representations of the symmetric and alternating groups, and we present some new results on constituents in Kronecker products of complex linear and spin characters.

  1. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  2. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  3. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  4. Gap seal dissipation in linear alternators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Eran; Grossman, Gershon

    2015-04-01

    Earlier models of the coupling between a thermoacoustic system and an electrodynamic motor/alternator considered mechanical damping but ignored the viscous friction and blow-by losses produced by the motor/alternator's piston oscillating within a tight-fitting gap. The model presented here extends previous models to demonstrate that the inclusion of these effects leads to a better estimate of the electroacoustic conversion efficiency and can be used to determine the optimal load resistance for such an alternator's electrical power output. Model predictions were shown to be in excellent agreement with the performance measurements made using two different thermoacoustic engines and using a sealed volume (dummy load) connected to multiple, horizontally opposed motor/alternators, using an empirical determination of the piston-cylinder gap. PMID:25920827

  5. ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION FOR SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) developed by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc., was evaluated for a 2-year period. CE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous...

  6. Complementary/Alternative versus Prescription Medications

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2016-01-01

    Investigators from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, determined the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in an outpatient pediatric neurology clinic, and assessed family attitudes toward the efficacy of CAM versus prescription medications.

  7. Percutaneous duodenostomy - alternative route for enteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous translumbar duodenostomy for enteral feeding was performed in one patient with nutritional difficulties. No complication was encountered. The procedure can be an alternative to percutaneous gastrostomy and jejunostomy for enteral feeding in special situations. (orig.)

  8. GLOBALIZATION VS GLOCALIZATION OF ALTERNATIVE SYMBOLIC UNIVERSE

    OpenAIRE

    ДОМБРОВСЬКИЙ, О.Г.; Інститут світової економіки і міжнародних відносин НАН України

    2012-01-01

     This paper considers local and global dimensions of globalization. Features and disadvantages of glocalization concept are analyzed. The problem of chaosmos is reviewed as an alternative way of contemporary economic systems behavior.

  9. GLOBALIZATION VS GLOCALIZATION OF ALTERNATIVE SYMBOLIC UNIVERSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Г. ДОМБРОВСЬКИЙ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This paper considers local and global dimensions of globalization. Features and disadvantages of glocalization concept are analyzed. The problem of chaosmos is reviewed as an alternative way of contemporary economic systems behavior.

  10. Beating the traffic with commuting alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This pamphlet describes how, by encouraging commuting options, local governments can help reduce air pollution, fuel consumption, and traffic congestion. Minimizing these problems makes the community more appealing to businesses, residents, and visitors and boosts the local economy. Approaches to alternative transportation are as varied as the communities devising and using them. But the critical factor is initiative from local governments, often one of communities largest employers. They can use and promote commuting alternatives among their employees. Local governments can also promote alternative transportation among other employers and the general public. They can provide information on commuting options, improve the infrastructure, and use local authority to require and reward those changes necessary to make alternative transportation a widely accepted part of community life. Best of all, local governments can lead by example and establish a template for other employers to follow.

  11. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    There are different interpretations of the term 'alternative fuels', depending on the part of the world in which the definition is used. In this report, alternative fuels mainly stand for fuels that can replace gasoline and diesel oil and at the same time contribute to lowered emissions with impact on health, environment and climate. The use of alternative vehicle fuels has increased during the last 30 years. However, the increase has developed slowly and today the use is very limited, compared to the use of conventional fuels. Although, the use in some special applications, often in rather small geographical areas, can be somewhat larger. The main interest for alternative fuels has for a long time been driven by supply security issues and the possibility to reduce emissions with a negative impact on health and environment. However, the development of reformulated gasoline and low sulphur diesel oil has contributed to substantially decreased emissions from these fuels without using any alternative fuel. This has reduced the environmental impact driving force for the introduction of alternative fuels. In line with the increased interest for climate effects and the connections between these effects and the emission of greenhouse gases, and then primarily carbon dioxide, the interest for biomass based alternative fuels has increased during the 1990s. Even though one of the driving forces for alternative fuels is small today, alternative fuels are more commonly accepted than ever before. The European Commission has for example in May 2003 agreed on a directive for the promotion of the use of bio fuels. In the directive there are goals for the coming 7 years that will increase the use of alternative fuels in Europe rather dramatically, from below 1 percent now up to almost 6 percent of the total vehicle fuel consumption in 2010. The increased use of alternative fuels in Europe and the rest of the world will create a need for a common interpretation of what we

  12. Alternative institutional arrangements for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates how alternative organizations of nuclear power generation would effect the regulatory environment for nuclear power production, how it would effect financial constraints on new construction, and what governmental barriers to such reorganization exist

  13. Membership Policy Alternatives for Marketing Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Sporleder, Thomas L.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing cooperatives operating pools that consistently obtain member returns in excess of cash market prices must accommodate new members. In some cooperatives, the membership policy is based only on the capital plan. This article presents alternative membership policies for the acquisition and transfer of rights to original members. Specific policy alternatives for each component are defined and examined. The analysis suggests that strategic planning in some cooperatives should involve exp...

  14. Changing Configuration of Alternative Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuyan, Radhika; Mytelka, Lynn K.

    2008-01-01

    Recent and rampant regulatory changes for sustainable development are seeking to transform current energy systems towards cleaner and greener forms of energy sources. In this scenario, alternative energy technologies are considered the building blocks towards this transformed energy system. This chapter will show how the alternative energy market since the 1970s changed, in response to external oil price shocks and to other selective pressures and institutions. It will observe that the config...

  15. Financial Intermediation, Markets, and Alternative Financial Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Franklin; CARLETTI, Elena; QIAN, Jun 'QJ'; Valenzuela, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive review of firms’ financing channels (internal and external, domestic and international) around the globe, with the focus on alternative finance—financing from all the nonmarket, non-bank external sources. We argue that while traditional financing channels, including financial markets and banks, provide significant sources of funds for firms in developed countries, alternative financing channels provide an equally important source of funds in both developed and devel...

  16. A journey through alternative ways of living

    OpenAIRE

    Baroncelli Torretta, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis examines how an evolution towards sustainable ways of urban living can be achieved through small steps. In this way, a literature review on the fields of design, sustainability and alternative ways of living provides a frame for approaching design for sustainability as well as an historical overview on alternative social movements and its motivations. Consequently, a field research proves Helsinki area as a powerful agent on practices informing sustainable futures. This are...

  17. Tau exon 10 alternative splicing and tauopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Fei; Gong Cheng-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Abnormalities of microtubule-associated protein tau play a central role in neurofibrillary degeneration in several neurodegenerative disorders that collectively called tauopathies. Six isoforms of tau are expressed in adult human brain, which result from alternative splicing of pre-mRNA generated from a single tau gene. Alternative splicing of tau exon 10 results in tau isoforms containing either three or four microtubule-binding repeats (3R-tau and 4R-tau, respectively). Approximate...

  18. Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political worldto feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry

  19. Natural sweet substances - alternative of sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvílová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Natural sweet substances – alternative of sugar Summary Sugar (sucrose) is undoubtedly the most commonly used sweetening agent of natural origin, but certainly not the only one. Large amount of sweet substances with different structure has been isolated from the plants. These non-carbohydrate sweetening agents have several advantages over sucrose. They are low-energy substances, which have much higher sweetening effect than sucrose, and therefore become a suitable alternative sugar. U...

  20. Alternative motor fuels today and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B

    2004-07-01

    Today, petroleum products account for 97% of the energy consumed in road transport. The purpose of replacing these products with alternative energies is to reduce oil dependence as well as greenhouse gas emissions. The high price of oil has promoted the use of 'conventional' alternative motor fuels (biofuels, LPG, NGV) and also renewed interest in syn-fuels (GTL, CTL, BTL) that have already given rise to industrial and pilot projects. (author)

  1. Alternative motor fuels today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, petroleum products account for 97% of the energy consumed in road transport. The purpose of replacing these products with alternative energies is to reduce oil dependence as well as greenhouse gas emissions. The high price of oil has promoted the use of 'conventional' alternative motor fuels (biofuels, LPG, NGV) and also renewed interest in syn-fuels (GTL, CTL, BTL) that have already given rise to industrial and pilot projects. (author)

  2. Mechano-Regulation of Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Huan; Tang, Liling

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing contributes to the complexity of proteome by producing multiple mRNAs from a single gene. Affymetrix exon arrays and experiments in vivo or in vitro demonstrated that alternative splicing was regulated by mechanical stress. Expression of mechano-growth factor (MGF) which is the splicing isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) splicing variants such as VEGF121, VEGF165, VEGF206, VEGF189, VEGF165 and VEGF145 are regulated...

  3. Conserved RNA secondary structures promote alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, PJ; Hertel, KJ

    2008-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is carried out by the spliceosome, which identifies exons and removes intervening introns. Alternative splicing in higher eukaryotes results in the generation of multiple protein isoforms from gene transcripts. The extensive alternative splicing observed implies a flexibility of the spliceosome to identify exons within a given pre-mRNA. To reach this flexibility, splice-site selection in higher eukaryotes has evolved to depend on multiple parameters such as splice-site stren...

  4. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  5. Comparative Studies of Alternative Anaerobic Digestion Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Washington D.C. Water and Sewage Authority is planning to construct a new anaerobic digestion facility at its Blue Plains WWTP by 2008. The research conducted in this study is to aid the designers of this facility by evaluating alternative digestion technologies. Alternative anaerobic digestion technologies include thermophilic, acid/gas phased, and temperature phased digestion. In order to evaluate the relative merits of each, a year long study evaluated the performance of bench scale dig...

  6. Detraditionalisation, gender and alternative and complementary medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sointu, Eeva

    2011-03-01

    This article is premised on the importance of locating the appeal and meaning of alternative and complementary medicines in the context of gendered identities. I argue that the discourse of wellbeing--captured in many alternative and complementary health practices--is congruent with culturally prevalent ideals of self-fulfilling, authentic, unique and self-responsible subjectivity. The discourse of wellbeing places the self at the centre, thus providing a contrast with traditional ideas of other-directed and caring femininity. As such, involvement in alternative and complementary medicines is entwined with a negotiation of shifting femininities in detraditionalising societies. Simultaneously, many alternative and complementary health practices readily tap into and reproduce traditional representations of caring femininity. It is through an emphasis on emotional honesty and intimacy that the discourse of wellbeing also captures a challenge to traditional ideas of masculinity. Expectations and experiences relating to gender add a further level of complexity to the meaningfulness and therapeutic value of alternative and complementary medicines and underlie the gender difference in the utilisation of holistic health practices. I draw on data from a qualitative study with 44, primarily white, middle-class users and practitioners of varied alternative and complementary medicines in the UK. PMID:21251021

  7. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  8. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  9. Alternative Therapy of Animals – Homeopathy and Other Alternative Methods of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løken Torleiv

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapy of animals is described, in the meaning of alternatives to veterinary therapy traditionally accepted by veterinary faculties and schools and included in their curricula. Alternative therapy composes of different disciplines, of which homeopathy is emphasised in this presentation. Information is given on the use and interest of such therapy among veterinarians and animal owners. Homeopathy as other alternative therapies, may offer great advances, if they induce any effect. Some of the disciplines are based on a scientifically accepted documentation. Others, and homeopathy in particular, are missing such a documentation of effect. The justification of including alternative therapy in treating animals is discussed. Research in alternative therapy of animals is greatly needed, in particular to evaluate therapeutic methods which are in extensive use without any documented effect. An ongoing research project in Norway on the effect of homeopathic treatment of mastitis in cows is shortly presented.

  10. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A M; DeWitt, B A; Lukes, A L

    2000-07-01

    Potential and documented interactions between alternative therapy agents and warfarin are discussed. An estimated one third of adults in the United States use alternative therapies, including herbs. A major safety concern is potential interactions of alternative medicine products with prescription medications. This issue is especially important with respect to drugs with narrow therapeutic indexes, such as warfarin. Herbal products that may potentially increase the risk of bleeding or potentiate the effects of warfarin therapy include angelica root, arnica flower, anise, asafoetida, bogbean, borage seed oil, bromelain, capsicum, celery, chamomile, clove, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger ginkgo, horse chestnut, licorice root, lovage root, meadowsweet, onion, parsley, passionflower herb, poplar, quassia, red clover, rue, sweet clover, turmeric, and willow bark. Products that have been associated with documented reports of potential interactions with warfarin include coenzyme Q10, danshen, devil's claw, dong quai, ginseng, green tea, papain, and vitamin E. Interpretation of the available information on herb-warfarin interactions is difficult because nearly all of it is based on in vitro data, animal studies, or individual case reports. More study is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions. There is evidence that a wide range of alternative therapy products have the potential to interact with warfarin. Pharmacists and other health care professionals should question all patients about use of alternative therapies and report documented interactions to FDA's MedWatch program. PMID:10902065

  11. Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

  12. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Donate Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS A THYROID NODULE? The term ... type of evaluation. WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  13. Alter(n – ein vielschichtiger Begriff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maly-Lukas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Diese Veröffentlichung, die aus einer Vortragsreihe an der katholischen Fachhochschule Freiburg entstanden ist, führt die Leserinnen und Leser in die verschiedenen Sichtweisen des Alter(ns in der modernen Gesellschaft ein. Es handelt sich um eine gelungene Zusammenstellung von Beiträgen aus unterschiedlichen Disziplinen, die sich alle aus ihrer Sicht dem Thema Alter(n widmen. Die einzelnen Artikel sind zwischen 8 und 38 Seiten lang und recht schnell und einfach zu lesen. Je nach Hintergrund und Interessen werden die einzelnen Leserinnen und Leser dabei sicher unterschiedliche Beiträge favorisieren. Schade ist nur, dass durch die ungleichen Längen der Beiträge bestimmte thematische Schwerpunkte – ob gewollt oder nicht – gesetzt werden. Dies sollte die Leserinnen und Leser, die offen für unterschiedlichste Sichtweisen des Alter(ns sind, jedoch nicht davon abhalten, dieses Buch zu lesen.

  14. Alternative Expression for the Electromagnetic Lagrangian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Pablo L.

    2016-06-01

    We reintroduce an alternative expression for the Lagrangian density that governs the interaction of a charged particle with external electromagnetic fields, proposed by Livens about one century ago. This Lagrangian is written in terms of the local superposition of the particle fields with the applied electromagnetic fields, not in terms of the particle charge and of the electromagnetic potentials as is usual. Here, we show that the total Lagrangian for a set of charged particles assumes a simple elegant form with the alternative formulation, giving an aesthetic support for it. We also show that the alternative Lagrangian is equivalent to the traditional one in their domain of validity and that it provides an interesting description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  15. Quasi-classical alternatives in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Gineityte, V

    2014-01-01

    The article contains an overview of authors achievements in development of alternative quantum-chemical approaches oriented towards revival of the classical tradition of qualitative chemical thinking instead of obtaining numerical results. The above-mentioned tradition is concluded to be based mainly on principles (rules) of additivity, transferability and locality of molecular properties. Accordingly, model Hamiltonian matrices are used in the approaches under development (called quasi-classical alternatives), wherein algebraic parameters play the role of matrix elements and these are assumed to be transferable for similar atoms and/or atomic orbitals in addition. Further, passing to delocalized descriptions of electronic structures (as usual) is expected to be the main origin of difficulties seeking to formulate quasi-classical alternatives. In the framework of the canonical method of molecular orbitals (MOs), delocalization is shown to be partially avoidable by invoking a recently-suggested approach to sec...

  16. Evaluation of financial assurance alternatives of licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium and Thorium Mining Regulations of the Atomic Energy Control Act require that applicants/licensees indicate to the AECB what financial assurance plans they have made to fund the decommissioning plan they propose to put in place. We have determined through our own business knowledge from other projects, as well as information provided by contacts in the banking, accounting, legal, investment and insurance communities, what financial assurance plans might be available. We have tabulated these alternatives, included explanations of how each might be implemented, and recorded advantages and disadvantages of each alternative to both the AECB and the applicant/licensee. In addition we have ranked the alternatives in order of most suitable to least suitable, from the AECB's perspective. Although these financial assurance mechanisms have been tabulated with a view to decommissioning of a uranium mine, they could be used in other licence or business arrangements that require financial assurance. (author). 3 tabs., 1 fig

  17. A Framework to Uncover Multiple Alternative Clusterings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Bailey, James

    Clustering is often referred to as unsupervised learning which aims at uncovering hidden structures from data. Unfortunately, though widely being used as one of the principal tools to understand the data, most conventional clustering techniques are limited in achieving this goal since they only...... attempt to find a single clustering solution from the data. For many real-world applications, especially those being described in high dimensional data, it is common to see that the data can be grouped into different yet meaningful ways. This gives rise to the recently emerging research area of mining...... alternative clusterings. In this paper, we propose a framework named MACL that is capable of discovering multiple alternative clusterings from a given dataset.MACL seeks alternative clusterings in sequence and a novel solution is found by conditioning on all previously known clusterings. The framework takes a...

  18. Alternative fusion concepts: engineering and utility considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative systems are described to be an integral part of the total fusion effort, making use of many developments of the mainline efforts but also contributing on a broad scale to improved understanding of fusion plasmas, technology and engineering. We hypothesize that the rationale for supporting alternative concepts will shift from physics related justifications to the perceived benefits for commercial use. Three principal factors are used to describe the commercialization potential of energy systems: technological risk, perceived benefit, and capital requirements. R and D can reduce the risk of a technology option, but perceived benefit and capital availability are largely governed by non-R and D elements. Hence, power station decision criteria as determined by electric-utility executives are presented, and a balance among the three commercialization factors described. An outline of past and on-going alternative concept reactor study endeavors is given and a suggestion for rapidly developing the physics base of the concepts is described

  19. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-01-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  20. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-02-03

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  1. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2000-09-30

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-03-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  4. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2000-06-30

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  5. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  6. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  8. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  9. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  10. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  11. Alternative types of roundabouts an informational guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tollazzi, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a history of roundabouts, an introduction to their design, calculations of their capacity and traffic-safety features. It describes the key features of standard roundabouts and their limitations. Alternative types of roundabouts are a fairly recent development and have only been implemented in a few countries to date. The book illustrates a broad variety of these recent alternative types of roundabouts, as well as proposed types still in the development phase, explaining for each the specific needs it meets, its advantages and drawbacks. In closing, the book offers an outlook on the role of roundabouts in future street traffic.

  12. Alternative expression for the electromagnetic Lagrangian

    CERN Document Server

    Saldanha, Pablo L

    2015-01-01

    We propose an alternative expression for the Lagrangian density that governs the interaction of a charged particle with external electromagnetic fields. The proposed Lagrangian is written in terms of the local superposition of the particle fields with the applied electromagnetic fields, not in terms of the particle charge and of the electromagnetic potentials as is usual. The total Lagrangian for a set of charged particles assumes a simple elegant form with the alternative formulation, giving an aesthetic support for it. The proposed Lagrangian is equivalent to the traditional one in their domain of validity and provides an interesting description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  13. Comparison of Alternative Processes for Support Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martínez-Álvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many tasks that revolve around combinatorial analysis problems, same tasks found in Decision Support Systems (DSS as most of these are responsible for assessing a number of possibilities to deliver the best options. Within the analysis of possible solutions is performed by the DSS there are alternative procedures inside the engine for making decisions that involve them. As part of these alternative procedures today has highlighted the use of metaheuristics, thus in this paper we propose a comparison of some of them trying to broaden the spectrum we have for the applications nowadays.

  14. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  15. Ethanol as an alternative source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan, at present facades huge shortage of energy that has disabled several industries and has worsened the living standards of a common man. Its economy mainly depends upon agriculture but relies heavily on imported petroleum to meet the necessities. The importance of national resources as an alternative energy resource is thus greatly felt. The sugar cane industry of Pakistan holds a potential to provide such an alternative fuel as bio ethanol that can be produced entirely from molasses. This paper looks deeper into scope of ethanol as one replacement that can reduce the financial and environmental cost of petroleum based fuels. (author)

  16. Walking while talking: Investigation of alternate forms✩

    OpenAIRE

    Brandler, Tamar C; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Wang, Cuiling; Holtzer, Roee; Verghese, Joe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop alternate forms of the walking while talking (WWT) dual task, and to determine whether beginning the WWT in mid-alphabet vs. at the beginning of the alphabet, affects task outcomes. Alternate test forms help reduce practice effects leading to more precise estimates of change over time. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 145 community-residing older adults (mean age, 79.2 ± 6.8 y) without dementia or depression. Subjects performed four WWT trials with ...

  17. Public concerns and alternative nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic task undertaken in this study was to assess the relative public acceptability of three general types of nuclear power systems as alternatives to the existing Light Water Reactor (LWR) system. Concerns registered toward nuclear power constituted the basic data for this assessment. The primary measure adopted for determining the significance of concerns was the degree of difficulty posed by the concern to the nuclear power decisional structure in the establishment and maintenance of norms to control risks or to advance intended energy objectives. Alleviations or exacerbations of concern resulting from particular attributes of alternative systems were measured from an LWR baseline

  18. Sulphur release from alternative fuel firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The cement industry has long been dependent on the use of fossil fuels, although a recent trend in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels has arisen. 1, 2 However, when unconverted or partly converted alternative fuels are admitted directly in the rotary kiln inlet, the volatiles released...... from the fuels may react with sulphates present in the hot meal to form SO 2 . Here Maria del Mar Cortada Mut and associates describe pilot and industrial scale experiments focusing on the factors that affect SO 2 release in the cement kiln inlet....

  19. Alternative Local Development models from the periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Lopez Oropeza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As neoliberal capitalism continues to fail on reducing inequities, and continues to fail on fulfilling its promise of a kind of “development” that would allow impoverished men and women to improve their situation and be able to experience a “freedom” which would empower them with new and better opportunities to vanish their many types of “poverties”, new and alternative models raise, presenting a different and inclusive type of development which intends to respond to their particular situations of exclusion and build on an alternative model.

  20. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA; VICTOR BARSHTEYN

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate) for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium) were sel...

  1. Modeling dative alternations of individual children

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Bresnan, J.

    2015-01-01

    We address the question whether children can acquire mature use of higher-level grammatical choices from the linguistic input, given only general prior knowledge and learning biases. We do so on the basis of a case study with the dative alternation in English, building on a study by de Marneffe et al. (2012) who model the production of the dative alternation by seven young children, using data from the Child Language Data Exchange System corpus. Using mixed-effects logistic modelling on the a...

  2. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles C. Investments 1. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure 2. Alternative... plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are commercialized (see Part IV.B.2 below). Except in those... EPAct 1992, as amended, as ``an electric, hybrid electric, or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with...

  4. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative

  5. 76 FR 21673 - Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ...-substantiation of an AEDM or ARM as a result of a change in standard or test procedure. 76 FR 12492 (March 7...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy....

  6. The Political Construction of Alternative Dispute Resolution and Alternatives to Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Dennis J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This discussion of evaluations of mediation programs at seven sites and of shock incarceration and home arrest focuses on the similarities in the interpretations of alternative dispute-resolution programs to interpretations of alternatives to incarceration programs. The political construction of the two approaches, which are both designed to…

  7. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative

  8. Development of an alternative plutonium canister assay system (APCA) using He-3 alternative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to deal with the global shortage of He-3 gas, He-3 alternative neutron detectors using ZnS/10B2O3 ceramic scintillators for nuclear security and the safeguards, and a demonstrator of Alternative Plutonium Canister Assay System (APCA) for the safeguards NDA in which the alternative detectors are employed, have been developed with the support of Japanese government (the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). The results of the optical guide property of scintillation lights in the alternative detector tubes derived from the simulations using a ray-tracing code are presented in comparison with the test results of the developed alternative detectors. Furthermore, the fundamental performance of APCA estimated from the neutron Monte-Carlo code MVP and the comparison with the performance of the current PCAS are also described, respectively, together with the future plan of the APCA demonstration test. (author)

  9. Commutative Moufang loops and alternative algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Grishkov, Alexander N.; Shestakov, Ivan P.

    2008-01-01

    We compute the orders of free commutative Moufand loops of exponent 3 with $n\\leq 7$ free generators and find embeddings of such loops into a loop of invertible elements of the free commutative alternative algebra with identity $x^3=0$.

  10. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing

  11. Making a Non-animal Alternative Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawistowski, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Described is the author's decision to help a student find alternatives to performing several terminal experiments on animals in a college physiology class. Replacement exercises used for studying the properties of muscle types are described. Details about the difficulties and successes of the entire experience are reported. (KR)

  12. Alternative measurement techniques for infrared sensor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Franken, E.M.; Winkel, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with measurement and characterization of IR sensor performance. Alternative methods have been investigated in order to determine the performance more reproducibly and accurately. Furthermore, the new methodologies reduce the subjectivity of the performance parameters such as the sta

  13. Alternative dimensional models of personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of the many limitations of the categorical model of personality disorder classification has led to the development of quite a number of alternative proposals for a dimensional classification. The purpose of this article is to suggest that future research work toward the integration...... personality disorder are provided....

  14. Electromechanical systems generating constant frequency alternating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.А. Мазур

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  In the article we consider the usage of electromechanical drivers of constant speed rotation, which is based on many stepped electrodynamic reduction unit, in onboard main systems of electric supply of alternative current with constant frequency.

  15. Alternative polyadenylation: New insights from global analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Recent global studies revealed that mRNA alternative polyadenylation (APA) is widespread in eukaryotic transcriptomes and is an important mechanism for gene regulation. APA deregulation has been found in a variety of diseases. This article reviews recent progress in the field and provides a global perspective on the prevalence, mechanisms, and functional impact of APA.

  16. Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    1981-01-01

    Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

  17. Alternatives to Pearson's and Spearman's Correlation Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several alternatives to Pearson's correlation coefficient and many examples. In the samples where the rank in a discrete variable counts more than the variable values, the mixtures that we propose of Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients give better results.

  18. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts were prepared using three different supports ZrO2, TiO2 and Mordenite zeolite. The majority of the catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a commercial support, with vanadium, copper or iron precursor, one catalyst was prepared by...

  19. Taiwanese Students' Alternative Conceptions of Animal Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored and documented Taiwanese students' alternative conceptions of animal classification. We examined the understanding of the "animal", "vertebrate" and "invertebrate", "fish", "amphibian", "reptile", "bird", and "mammal" concepts among elementary, junior high school and senior high school, and university students in a sample…

  20. Dense Alternating Sign Matrices and Extensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.; Stroev, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 444, 1 March (2014), s. 219-226. ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : alternating sign matrix * dense matrix * totally unimodular matrix * combined matrix * generalized complementary basic matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  1. Governor's Schools: An Alternative for Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Daniel L.; Stephenson, Scott; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss Governor's Schools as an alternative for gifted students. When the word school is used, people typically think about traditional schooling. But Governor's Schools are different in the type of schooling provided and the type of students served--they educate predominantly gifted children, teach a wide array of…

  2. Calcine Conversion Facility alternative concepts engineering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the engineering study reported is to develop conceptual designs for two alternative facilities for the conversion of high level waste calcine to high level glass. The objectives and design bases of the two concepts (CCF/RSSF and CCF/FRP) are described. No recommendation of one concept in preference to the other is given. (LK)

  3. Literacy, Numeracy and Alternative Dispute Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, J. Joy; Wilson, Janice M.

    2005-01-01

    The formal court system in Australia has long been criticised for its adversarial nature. As a result, there has been an increase in the use of alternative dispute resolution processes such as mediation. These are promoted as a means of increasing access to justice by disadvantaged groups and as an inexpensive way of solving legal or quasi-legal…

  4. Alternative Dispute Resolution to the Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassberg, Maria

    1989-01-01

    Examines the use of mediation and arbitration to settle civil disputes which have been traditionally settled through the courts. Discusses the advantages of alternative forms of dispute resolution. Describes the operations of dispute resolution centers and provides information about the individuals who serve as dispute mediators. (KO)

  5. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables

  6. Listening Clearly: Alternative Treatments for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlasson, Terry D.

    2012-01-01

    For many years now, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and anti-depressant medications have been the primary treatments for adolescent depression. However, there are many youth today with mild to moderate depressive symptoms for whom these treatments are not necessary. This article briefly summarizes several alternative therapeutic approaches for…

  7. Alternative policies for solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Percoco Marco

    2004-01-01

    Because of the recent dramatic increase in waste production, solid waste management and control have become one of the central issues in environmental policy. In this paper we review alternative fiscal instruments to control the production of residuals by using the benchmark given by the social optimum. Finnally, we apply the model to theoretically evaluate the TARI.

  8. 25 CFR 11.1012 - Dispositional alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1012 Dispositional alternatives. (a) If a minor has been adjudged a juvenile offender, the children's court may make the following disposition: (1) Place the minor on probation subject to conditions set by the children's court; (2) Place the minor...

  9. Alternative Instructional Strategies in an IS Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kevin R.; LeRouge, Cynthia; Trimmer, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Systems Analysis and Design is a core component of an education in information systems. To appeal to a wider range of constituents and facilitate the learning process, the content of a traditional Systems Analysis and Design course has been supplemented with an alternative modeling approach. This paper presents an instructional design that…

  10. SKOLE: The Journal of Alternative Education, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Mary, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The four issues of the journal SKOLE published in 1998 contain articles, personal narratives, and interviews about educational philosophy, small alternative schools, freedom and democratic practices in education, and the overuse of Ritalin in schools. Feature articles discuss holistic education, how classroom technology promotes passivity and…

  11. Alternatives to Drug Treatment for Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Houtter, Kathryn

    1980-01-01

    Results from recent studies on the effectiveness of Ritalin for "hyperactivity" show that this treatment is dubious at best. This article presents an alternative treatment approach, placing emphasis on devising an appropriate learning situation that meets the needs of the so-called hyperactive child. (Author)

  12. Alternative Design of Postgraduate English Writing Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative design of postgraduate English writing course to meet the requirement of the current postgraduate English teaching reform.The author believes that efficiently-organized writing activities based on practical needs could refresh teaching frame- work and consequently assist postgraduates in English writing.

  13. Alternant Leadership: Increasing School System Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Robert; Wagner, James

    1986-01-01

    A model of "alternant leadership"--leading and succeeding one another by turn--is presented that proposes a democratic, collegial, multivoter, team approach to electing educational leaders. The rationale is based on contingency theories of administration and studies on leadership succession. Related articles are EA 519 583 and 584. (MLF)

  14. Alternative Funding Sources for Migrant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Eugene

    Despite 1983 Elementary and Secondary Education ACT (ESEA) Title I federal funding of over $255 million for more than 3,000 projects for some 600,000 migrant children and youth, there is still need for alternate funding sources to overcome spiraling inflation and increasing program costs and numbers of eligible children. Other federal, state,…

  15. Alternative transportation fuels and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the air quality impact of the following alternative fuels: reformulated gasoline, methanol, ethanol, diesel, compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gases, hydrogen, and electric power. Emissions of NOx, CO, and toxic compounds, as well as global climatic change impacts are described

  16. Survival of Colletotrichum acutatum on alternative hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Parikka, Päivi; Lemmetty, Anne

    2009-01-01

    To detect possibilities for weeds to transfer the pathogen from infected plants to a second crop, the susceptibility of some alternate hosts was studied. Altogether 18 annual and perennial weed species common on strawberry fields were inoculated in greenhouse with spore suspension of C. acutatum.

  17. Alternatives to proposed replacement production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To insure adequate supplies of plutonium and tritium for defense purposes, an independent evaluation was made by Los Alamos National Laboratory of the numerous alternatives to the proposed replacement production reactors (RPR). This effort concentrated on the defense fuel cycle operation and its technical implications in identifying the principal alternatives for the 1990s. The primary options were identified as (1) existing commercial reactors, (2) existing and planned government-owned facilities (not now used for defense materials production), and (3) other RPRs (not yet proposed) such as CANDU or CANDU-type heavy-water reactors (HWR) for both plutonium and tritium production. The evaluation considered features and differences of various options that could influence choice of RPR alternatives. Barring a change in the US approach to civilian and defense fuel cycles and precluding existing commercial reactors at government-owned sites, the most significant alternatives were identified as a CANDU-type HWR at Savannah River Plant (SRP) site or the Three Mile Island commercial reactor with reprocessing capability at Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant and at SRP

  18. Cornerstone Third Party Alternative Cost Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The attached cost analyses sheets have been developed for use in planning during the Third Party Alternative study currently underway for the Sandia CREATE project. This cost analysis builds upon the previously submitted base estimate dated June 14, 2013 and includes comparison information collected during a Market Validation exercise conducted in August/September 2013.

  19. Understanding alternatives to forest use in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    SANREM CRSP

    2006-01-01

    Over-reliance on forest resources for household income negatively impacts forest ecosystems and the long-term economic stability of low-income households in Malawi. In order to develop economic and environmentally sustainable alternatives, policy makers need to understand what motivates forest resource use.

  20. Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis; Christenson, Todd; Aronson, Eugene A.

    2010-09-14

    Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.

  1. Research reactors and alternative devices for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes papers on research reactors and alternatives to the research reactors - radioisotopic neutron sources, cyclotrons, D-T neutron generators and small accelerators, used for radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, material science, applied and basic research using neutron beams. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 papers

  2. Exploring Alternative Fuels in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, John F.; Stewardson, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative energy sources have become increasingly important as the production of domestic oil has declined and dependence on foreign oil has increased. Historically, there have been four time periods during which the United States was in fact crippled by oil shortages. These time periods include: (1) the early 1900s; (2) World War II; (3) the…

  3. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  4. Stability of alternating current gliding arcs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank;

    2014-01-01

    on Ohm’s law indicates that the critical length of alternating current (AC) gliding arc discharge columns can be larger than that of a corresponding direct current (DC) gliding arc. This finding is supported by previously published images of AC and DC gliding arcs. Furthermore, the analysis shows...

  5. An alternative strategy for Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe will unlikely meet its Kyoto target of reducing greenhouse gas emission by 8 percent below 1990 levels. The economic impact of reductions might be dramatic, especially given Europe's slow economic growth. An alternative strategy should then be considered, in order to gain a global participation to the process and find a long-term solution

  6. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi-Hansen, Christina; Dali, Christine I.; Lyngbye, Troels Johan Brünnich;

    2014-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset recurrent distinctive hemiplegic episodes commonly accompanied by other paroxysmal features and developmental impairment. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 were recently identified as a genetic...

  7. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

  8. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments. PMID:26106269

  9. Assessment Benchmarks for an Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Jon; Davis, Trina; Smith, Ben; Beason, Lynn; Graham, Diane; Strader, Arlen

    2008-01-01

    The Accelerate Online/OPTIONS alternative certification program provides those possessing a degree an option leading to certification that can be completed in 18 months. The program consists of an online curriculum, an early field experience, and a year-long paid internship. To determine program effectiveness across five years, five benchmark…

  10. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This report analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP-8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0, 50, and 100 percent. The data show that SPK fuel (an FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  11. Verbal directionality and argument alternation in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    (wards) an explicit or implicit goal. The object of a directional verb may play another role in the event described by the sentence than the object of the corresponding simple (and non-directional) verb. This gives rise to so-called argument alternation, in that, for instance, an object and an instrumental...

  12. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-07-01

    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  13. Interpolation-based Decoding of Alternant Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kwankyu

    2007-01-01

    We formulate the classical decoding algorithm of alternant codes afresh based on interpolation as in Sudan's list decoding of Reed-Solomon codes, and thus get rid of the key equation and the linear recurring sequences in the theory. The result is a streamlined exposition of the decoding algorithm using a bit of the theory of Groebner bases of modules.

  14. Prediction of windage power loss in alternators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancik, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Simplified equations and constants, based on laminar and turbulent flow theory between parallel plates, estimate windage loss in rotating electrical machinery. Comparison of calculated results and experimental data for smooth cylindrical rotor and slotted alternator yields 7 percent maximum variation between calculated and experimental data.

  15. Blood cell morphology : controversies and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Wim van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we describe controversial morphologic features in both microscopic and automated differentiation of blood cells. In addition, we have investigated alternative methods to overcome these shortcomings. Furthermore we describe the variance of microscopic counting of band cells and variant

  16. Modeling dative alternations of individual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Bresnan, J.

    2015-01-01

    We address the question whether children can acquire mature use of higher-level grammatical choices from the linguistic input, given only general prior knowledge and learning biases. We do so on the basis of a case study with the dative alternation in English, building on a study by de Marneffe et a

  17. Beyond GDP: Classifying Alternative Measures for Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleys, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Both the potential pitfalls of macro-economic policies focused on stimulating economic growth and the problems involved in using GDP as a measure of well-being or economic welfare have long been recognized by economists and researchers from other social sciences. Therefore, it is no surprise that alternative measures for policy-making have been…

  18. Givenness, complexity and the Danish dative alternation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kizach, Johannes; Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction between givenness and complexity on the choice of syntactic structure, via two experiments using speeded acceptability judgments. Experiment 1 showed that for the Danish dative alternation, given–new orders are only easier to process for double-objec...

  19. Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis; Christenson, Todd; Aronson, Eugene A.

    2009-06-16

    Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, S; Knorr, C; Geiger, H; Flachenecker, P

    2008-09-01

    We analyzed characteristics, motivation, and effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in a large sample of people with multiple sclerosis. A 53-item survey was mailed to the members of the German Multiple Sclerosis Society, chapter of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Surveys of 1573 patients (48.5 +/- 11.7 years, 74% women, duration of illness 18.1 +/- 10.5 years) were analyzed. In comparison with conventional medicine, more patients displayed a positive attitude toward complementary and alternative medicine (44% vs 38%, P job, and higher education (P < 0.05). Compared with conventional therapies, complementary and alternative medicine rarely showed unwanted side effects (9% vs 59%, P < 0.00001). A total of 52% stated that the initial consultation with their physician lasted less than 15 min. To conclude, main reasons for the use of complementary and alternative medicine include the high rate of side effects and low levels of satisfaction with conventional treatments and brief patients/physicians contacts. PMID:18632773

  1. Business System Planning Project, Alternatives Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CHG Chief Information Officer (CIO) requested a study of alternatives to the current business system computing environment. This Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project Alternatives Analysis document presents an analysis of the current Project Controls, Work Management, and Business Management systems environment and alternative solutions that support the business functions. The project team has collected requirements and priorities from stakeholders in each business area and documented them in the BSP System Requirements Specification (SRS), RPP-6297. The alternatives analysis process identifies and measures possible solutions in each of the business process areas against the requirements as documented in the SRS. The team gathered input from both internal and external sources to identify and grade the possible solutions. This document captures the results of that activity and recommends a suite of software products. This study was to select the best product based on how well the product met the requirements, not to determine the platform or hardware environment that would be used. Additional analysis documentation can be found in BSP project files

  2. Alternative Educational Futures for a Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of recent trends in educational policy with particular reference to their assumptions about the knowledge society. It examines the implications of the analysis for the issue of elitism and the promotion of greater educational equality. The article concludes by offering an alternative approach to educational…

  3. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  4. Supplementary vote; analysis, applications, and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der Henk

    2008-01-01

    The Supplementary Vote (SV) was invented as a compromise between the two-round runoff system and the alternative vote. This paper shows that in many ways it is not. Under SV voters rank order a limited number of candidates. If one candidate is supported by over 50% of the voters he/she is declared t

  5. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  6. NRC perspective on alternative disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper is discussed an NRC staff strategy for the development of technical criteria and procedures for the licensing of various alternatives for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Steps taken by the staff to identify viable alternative disposal methods and to comply with the requirements of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (LLRWPAA) of 1985 are also discussed. The strategy proposed by the NRC staff is to focus efforts in FY 87 on alternative concepts that incorporate concrete materials with soil or rock cover (e.g., below ground vaults and earth-mounded concrete bunkers), which several State and State Compacts have identified as preferred disposal options. While the NRC staff believes that other options, such as above ground vaults and mined cavities, are workable and licensable, the staff also believes, for reasons addressed in the paper, that it is in the best interest of the industry and the public to encourage standardization and to focus limited resources on a manageable number of alternative options. Therefore, guidance on above ground vaults, which are susceptible to long-term materials degradation due to climatological effects, and mined cavities, which represent a significant departure from the current experience base for low-level radioactive waste disposal, will receive minimal attention. 6 references

  7. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  8. Emerging trends in alternative aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Cody

    The days of petroleum-based aviation fuels are numbered. New regulations to be set in place in the coming years will force current fuels to be phased out in favor of cleaner fuels with less toxic emissions. The alternative fuel industry has already taken its foothold in other modes of transportation, and aviation will soon follow suit. Many companies have cropped up over the last decade, and a few have been around longer, that work hard to develop the alternative aviation fuels of the future. It is important, however, for the aviation community to know what to expect and when to expect it concerning alternative fuels. This study investigates where various companies in the alternative aviation fuel industry currently stand in their development and production processes, and how their products will affect aircraft owners and operators. By interviewing representatives from these companies and analyzing their responses to identify trends, an educated prediction can be made about where the industry is headed and when the aviation community can expect these fuel to be available. The findings of this study indicate that many companies are still in their developmental stages, with a few notable outliers, and that most of these companies expect to see production of their product by 2017. Also, the fuel manufacturers are dealing with all the legal hurdles regarding alternative fuels, so little to no effort will be required on the part of the consumer. These findings, along with their analysis, will enable the aviation community to make educated decisions concerning fuel and their aircraft, as well and do their part to help these beneficial fuels get to market.

  9. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  10. Alternative algebras admitting derivations with invertible values and invertible derivations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove an analogue of the Bergen-Herstein-Lanski theorem for alternative algebras: describe all alternative algebras that admit derivations with invertible values. We also prove an analogue of Moens' theorem for alternative algebras (a finite-dimensional alternative algebra over a field of characteristic zero is nilpotent if and only if it admits an invertible Leibniz derivation)

  11. Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong

    2012-01-01

    Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…

  12. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  13. 40 CFR 35.2032 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Innovative and alternative technologies... Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Funding for innovative and alternative technologies. Projects or... innovative or alternative technology shall receive increased grants under § 35.2152. (1) Only funds from...

  14. 48 CFR 852.233-71 - Alternate protest procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate protest... § 852.233-71 Alternate protest procedure. As prescribed in 833.106, insert the following provision: Alternate Protest Procedure (JAN 1998) As an alternative to filing a protest with the contracting...

  15. Electromagnetic propulsion alternatives. [in mass drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, H.; Fine, K.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.

    1979-01-01

    Mass drivers can serve to propel massive objects by expelling any available material as reaction mass, however, mass driver engines have several limitations such as relatively large payload size and dynamic stability problems. A number of alternative acceleration mechanisms exist which offer advantages for certain applications, such as higher acceleration at a sacrifice in efficiency, smaller possible size and decreased complexity at a sacrifice in service life, etc. The alternative concepts include several variants of the railgun, a family of superconducting slingshot oscillators, a momentum transformer, an impulse induction motor, and a family of hybrid synchronous accelerators. A potential application of considerable interest is the earth-based launching of space cargo or nuclear waste by using off-peak generating capacity to accelerate one ton cargo cylinders at intervals of several minutes.

  16. [Using alternative therapies in treating sleep disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-02-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common health problem among adults, and enhancing sleep quality is an issue of significant importance to healthcare providers. As sleep quality worsens into insomnia, individuals may seek assistance from medication. However, sedative hypnotic drugs pose potentially adverse effects. Also, most medical treatments (e.g., positive pressure assistant ventilators) represent invasive interventions that must be prescribed by physicians. Non-pharmacological alternative therapies are commonly recommended and adopted by community nurses. Alternative therapies for sleep disturbance included exercise, cognitive behavior therapy, multiple strategies, music, and acupressure. In general, moderately intensive walking exercise is the intervention most recommended by professionals to help patients deal with sleep disturbance. Therefore, it is suggested that future researchers devise sleep quality promotion strategies that are suitable for home practice in order to apply the findings and spirit of research already done in this area. PMID:21328208

  17. Alternative $Z'$ Bosons in $E_6$

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We classify the quantum numbers of the extra $U(1)'$ symmetries contained in $E_6$. In particular, we categorize the cases with rational charges and present the full list of models which arise from the chains of the maximal subgroups of $E_6$. As an application, the classification allows us to determine all embeddings of the Standard Model fermions in all possible decompositions of the fundamental representation of $E_6$ under its maximal subgroups. From this we find alternative chains of subgroups for Grand Unified Theories. We show how many of the known models including some new ones appear in alternative breaking patterns. We also use low energy constraints coming from parity-violating asymmetry measurements and atomic parity non-conservation to set limits on the $E_6$ motivated parameter space for a $Z'$ boson mass of~1.2~TeV. We include projected limits for the present and upcoming QWEAK, MOLLER and SOLID experiments.

  18. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  19. Propofol alternatives in gastrointestinal endoscopy anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gouda Goudra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although propofol has been the backbone for sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy, both anesthesiologists and endoscopists are faced with situations where an alternative is needed. Recent national shortages forced many physicians to explore these options. A midazolam and fentanyl combination is the mainstay in this area. However, there are other options. The aim of this review is to explore these options. The future would be, invariably, to move away from propofol. The reason is not in any way related to the drawbacks of propofol as a sedative. The mandate that requires an anesthesia provider to administer propofol has been a setback in many countries. New sedative drugs like Remimazolam might fill this void in the future. In the meantime, it is important to keep an open eye to the existing alternatives.

  20. A New Challenge for Alternative Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editorial Department of China Power Enterprise Management

    2009-01-01

    @@ The year 2008 sees a turning point in China's strategy of promoting energy saving and emissions reduction,as well as development of renewable energy.Oil price breaking US$140 and large area in China suffering from ice and snow disaster,a result of global warming,have both stressed the importance of developing alternative energy.Today,alterative energy accounts for a very small portion in China's power industry.Therefore,it is imminently required to speed up energy restructuring,to vigorously develop power generation with alternative energy such as nuclear energy,hydroenergy,wind energy,solar energy,biomass energy,geothermic energy,thus to realize sustainable development.