WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative vehicle technologies

  1. Regional on-road vehicle running emissions modeling and evaluation for conventional and alternative vehicle technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Zhai, Haibo; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2009-11-01

    This study presents a methodology for estimating high-resolution, regional on-road vehicle emissions and the associated reductions in air pollutant emissions from vehicles that utilize alternative fuels or propulsion technologies. The fuels considered are gasoline, diesel, ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity. The technologies considered are internal combustion or compression engines, hybrids, fuel cell, and electric. Road link-based emission models are developed using modal fuel use and emission rates applied to facility- and speed-specific driving cycles. For an urban case study, passenger cars were found to be the largest sources of HC, CO, and CO(2) emissions, whereas trucks contributed the largest share of NO(x) emissions. When alternative fuel and propulsion technologies were introduced in the fleet at a modest market penetration level of 27%, their emission reductions were found to be 3-14%. Emissions for all pollutants generally decreased with an increase in the market share of alternative vehicle technologies. Turnover of the light duty fleet to newer Tier 2 vehicles reduced emissions of HC, CO, and NO(x) substantially. However, modest improvements in fuel economy may be offset by VMT growth and reductions in overall average speed.

  2. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  3. Box Energy: rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles; Box-energy. Rental of energy. Storage systems and alternative-fuel. Technologies for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautz, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of study on the rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles. Experience gained in the area of battery-rental is discussed. The aims of the 'Box Energy' project are described, as is its market environment. The 'Box Energy' concept is described and possible customers and partners listed. Logistics aspects are discussed. The organisation of 'Box Energy' is described and the concept's chances and weaknesses are discussed. The launching of a pilot project in Switzerland is discussed. Recommendations on further work to be done are made.

  4. 2014 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This is the sixth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales and technologies specific to heavy trucks. The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards. In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible tables and figures.

  5. 2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

  6. 2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This is the seventh edition of the Vehicle Technologies Market Report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 22 and 23 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 63 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 70 through 81 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 90 through 94) and fuel use (Figures 97 through 100). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 105 through 118), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 130 through 137). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  7. 2013 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Williams, Susan E [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    This is the fifth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 24 through 51 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 56 through 64 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 73 through 75) and fuel use (Figures 78 through 81). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 84 through 95), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 106 through 110). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets.

  8. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  9. 2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    This report details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This third edition since this report was started in 2008 offers several marked improvements relative to its predecessors. Most significantly, where earlier editions of this report focused on supplying information through an examination of market drivers, new vehicle trends, and supplier data, this edition uses a different structure. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. In addition to making this sectional re-alignment, this year s edition of the report also takes a different approach to communicating information. While previous editions relied heavily on text accompanied by auxiliary figures, this third edition relies primarily on charts and graphs to communicate trends. Any accompanying text serves to introduce the trends communication by the graphic and highlight any particularly salient observations. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 11 through 13 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 20 and 21 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 26 through 33 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 38 through 43 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and

  10. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions...

  11. Alternative engines for road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulton, M.L. [Transport Research Lab., Crowthorne (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The book discusses the development of each alternative engine and discloses current manufacturing research and experimental testing, together with the results where available. Prospects for further development of conventional engines are discussed and comparisons are made with reference to fuel economy and exhaust emissions. Cost issues are made generally, with definitive data where it exists. (UK)

  12. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Alternative Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Cihat Onat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable transportation and mobility are key components and central to sustainable development. This research aims to reveal the macro-level social, economic, and environmental impacts of alternative vehicle technologies in the U.S. The studied vehicle technologies are conventional gasoline, hybrid, plug-in hybrid with four different all-electric ranges, and full battery electric vehicles (BEV. In total, 19 macro level sustainability indicators are quantified for a scenario in which electric vehicles are charged through the existing U.S. power grid with no additional infrastructure, and an extreme scenario in which electric vehicles are fully charged with solar charging stations. The analysis covers all life cycle phases from the material extraction, processing, manufacturing, and operation phases to the end-of-life phases of vehicles and batteries. Results of this analysis revealed that the manufacturing phase is the most influential phase in terms of socio-economic impacts compared to other life cycle phases, whereas operation phase is the most dominant phase in the terms of environmental impacts and some of the socio-economic impacts such as human health and economic cost of emissions. Electric vehicles have less air pollution cost and human health impacts compared to conventional gasoline vehicles. The economic cost of emissions and human health impact reduction potential can be up to 45% and 35%, respectively, if electric vehicles are charged through solar charging stations. Electric vehicles have potential to generate income for low and medium skilled workers in the U.S. In addition to quantified sustainability indicators, some sustainability metrics were developed to compare relative sustainability performance alternative passenger vehicles. BEV has the lowest greenhouse gas emissions and ecological land footprint per $ of its contribution to the U.S. GDP, and has the lowest ecological footprint per unit of its energy consumption. The

  13. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any fleet... fueled vehicle credit to— (1) A fleet that is required to acquire alternative fueled vehicles; or (2)...

  14. Revolutionizing Technology Prioritizing Emergency Vehicles in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramya Sundaram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The following study brings to the fore a technology exclusively engineered to eradicate the snags and inadequacies persisting in the existing system of traffic control and thus aims to provide a sophisticated operation and uninterrupted course for the emergency vehicles. The traffic in Indian roads has shown a tremendous rise over the years and the conventional pre-timed traffic signals and frequent traffic congestions, delaying the road commuters, have led to outrage and chaos on several occasions. This traffic management system has proved a nuisance for the effective operation of emergency vehicles, with the public adding to the woes, as each driver races along with the signal, unmindful of the emergency vehicles. A life threatening scenario ensues when emergency vehicles get blocked by the traffic, due to inefficient traffic management system and subsequently these emergency vehicles get delayed. The existing system requires manual interruption to guide other vehicles when an emergency vehicle passes through traffic junctions. It is therefore essential to implement a self-regulating and automated system in the traffic signals to facilitate smooth movement of emergency vehicles without posing a danger to other vehicles. The innovative traffic control system devised by us provides a truly dependable alternative to monitoring traffic flow when emergency vehicles pass by.

  15. Reduction of the heat demand of cabins of electric-powered vehicles by means of an alternative glass technology; Reduzierung des Heizbedarfs von Elektrofahrzeugkabinen durch alternative Scheibentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Manuel; Spinnler, Markus; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik

    2012-11-01

    Cruising range is a key factor in market penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) for the near future. Today, EVs achieve acceptable cruising range only through heavy and expensive batteries. Air-conditioning - and in temperate zones especially heating - of the passenger cabin are significant auxiliary loads that can reduce range substantially. At low ambient temperatures the necessary heating power can exceed the average drive power, thus reducing range by over 50%. This study, carried out in cooperation with AUDI AG under the BMBF research project ''e performance'' addresses measures that can potentially lead to a reduced heating demand. In addition to the rather poor insulation of today's vehicles, ventilation losses have been identified as a source of heating and defrosting load of up to 12kW in wintry conditions. At low ambient temperatures a high rate of air exchange is required to keep the humidity level low enough to avoid window fogging. Due to poor window insulation and high exterior heat transfer for a moving vehicle, temperatures at the inside surface of glass windows lie only slightly above the ambient temperature. Improving window insulation leads not only to reduced heat losses but also to higher allowable air humidity before condensation occurs, since the interior window surface is warmer. The air exchange rate can then be minimized as long as air quality standards remain satisfied. In this study steady-state air and window surface temperatures as well as humidity distributions in the cabin are determined by CFD-simulation of the interior flow-field. Window materials such as polycarbonate and double-pane glass are compared to glass at partly recirculated and fresh-air flow. (orig.)

  16. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  17. Appendix J - GPRA06 vehicle technologies program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The target market for the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program include light vehicles (cars and light trucks) and heavy vehicles (trucks more than 10,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight).

  18. Alternative nuclear technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, E.

    1981-10-01

    The lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization are compared. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. A conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems were used in estimates of the steps required and the times involved in developing each technology. The impact of the inevitable exhaustion of the low- or reasonable-cost uranium reserves in the United States on the desirability of completing the breeder reactor program, with its favorable long-term result on fission fuel supplies, is discussed. The long times projected to bring the most advanced alternative converter reactor technologies the heavy water reactor and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor into commercial deployment when compared to the time projected to bring the breeder reactor into equivalent status suggest that the country's best choice is to develop the breeder. The perceived diversion-proliferation problems with the uranium plutonium fuel cycle have workable solutions that can be developed which will enable the use of those materials at substantially reduced levels of diversion risk.

  19. 2008 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.; Davis, S.

    2009-07-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop 'leap frog' technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  20. 2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop "leap frog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  1. Exchange program. Alternative options for purchase of environmentally friendly vehicles in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader Olsson, Amy [Inregia AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Elam, N. [Atrax Energi AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    The city of Stockholm has decided to exchange 300 of its gasoline-driven vehicles for vehicles which emit fewer hazardous pollutants. A vehicle exchange program is being developed based on analyses which describe the driving patterns of Stockholm's vehicles, alternative fuel technology status, and financing alternatives. This report comprises the first two analyses, that of Stockholm's fleet driving patterns and alternative fuel technology options. The report has four major sections: * a technical analysis of the status of certain fuels and vehicles, including prognoses of availability in Sweden and the future development potential of each. (electric, biogas, ethanol, RME), * a driving study, which identifies those vehicles currently in Stockholm's fleet which could be exchanged for alternatively-fueled vehicles, * an analysis of five purchase package alternatives, and * a location analysis, which describes the accessibility of vehicles in each alternative to alternative fuel refueling facilities in Stockholm. Given current prices and availability of the alternative fuels and vehicles studied, we recommend a high share of electric and biogas vehicles for purchases during 1997. The cost-effectiveness of different vehicle types in their reduction of various hazardous pollutants, may however change dramatically as prices and availability of vehicles changes and the market for alternative fuels develops. Accessibility to alternative fuel refueling facilities is adequate in Stockholm, though not always ideal. To improve the accessibility of biogas vehicles further, we suggest a third biogas refueling facility in the city's northeastern area (Ropsten, Vaertahamnen). If MFO chooses to purchase a significant number of diesel passenger vehicles to be driven on RME; we propose that a facility in the northeastern area would improve accessibility more than another facility in southern Stockholm.

  2. Environmental and Financial Evaluation of Passenger Vehicle Technologies in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Messagie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles with alternative drive trains are regarded as a promising substitute for conventional cars, considering the growing concern about oil depletion and the environmental impact of our transportation system. However, “clean” technologies will only be viable when they are cost-efficient. In this paper, the environmental impacts and the financial costs of different vehicle technologies are calculated for an average Belgian driver. Environmentally friendly vehicles are compared with conventional petrol and diesel vehicles. The assessments are done from a life cycle perspective. The effect on human health, resources and ecosystems is considered when calculating the environmental impact. The total cost of ownership (TCO model includes the purchase price, registration and road taxes, insurance, fuel or electricity cost, maintenance, tires replacement, technical control, battery leasing and battery replacement. In the presented analysis different vehicle technologies and fuels are compared (petrol, diesel, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, battery electric vehicles (BEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs on their level of environmental impact and cost per kilometer. The analysis shows a lower environmental impact for electric vehicles. However, electric vehicles have a higher total cost of ownership compared to conventional vehicles, even though the fuel operating costs are significantly lower. The purchase cost of electric vehicles is highly linked to the size of the battery pack, and not to the size of the electric vehicle. This explains the relative high cost for the electric city cars and the comparable cost for the medium and premium cars.

  3. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  4. Towards an Alternative Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Roger; Nunan, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Outlines an alternative form of educational technology based on an analysis of criticism levelled at the subject, both from within and without. Article contends that the future of educational technology rests on an expansion of its concerns, rather than a refinement or modification of its existing content. (Author)

  5. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Exceptions b. Heavy-Duty Engine Types and Gross Vehicle Weight Classes c. Dual-Fuel Standards 2. Useful Life... first type, dedicated alternative fueled vehicles or engines, are only capable of operating on one type of fuel. Dual-fueled vehicles or engines, the second type, can operate on two types of fuel,...

  6. Preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsoever, F.J. van; Hagen, P.; Willems, M

    2013-01-01

    Using a choice model, we estimate the preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments. The analysis shows that local governments are willing to pay between 25% and 50% extra for an alternative fuel vehicle without a serious loss of utility. Further, local emissions are an import

  7. DoD use of Domestically-Produced Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-10

    fuels and vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS alternative fuel infrastructure, electric vehicles, biofuels, ethanol , biodiesel , drop-in, synthetic fuel...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 10 APR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 06 JAN 2014 - 2014 APR 10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DoD use of...based fuels and biodiesel , in DoD vehicles; (2) current and projected actions by the DoD to increase the use of alternative fuels in vehicles; (3) a

  8. Consumer Views on Transportation and Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from countries around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce gasoline and diesel consumption. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues surrounding advanced vehicle technologies and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, increase mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability. Understanding and tracking consumer sentiments can influence the prioritization of development efforts by identifying barriers to and opportunities for broad acceptance of new technologies. Predicting consumer behavior toward developing technologies and products is inherently inexact. A person's stated preference given in an interview about a hypothetical setting may not match the preference that is demonstrated in an actual situation. This difference makes tracking actual consumer actions ultimately more valuable in understanding potential behavior. However, when developing technologies are not yet available and actual behaviors cannot be tracked, stated preferences provide some insight into how consumers may react in new circumstances. In this context this report provides an additional source to validate data and a new resource when no data are available. This report covers study data captured from December 2005 through June 2015 relevant to VTO research efforts at the time of the studies. Broadly the report covers respondent sentiments about vehicle fuel economy, future vehicle technology alternatives, ethanol as a vehicle fuel, plug-in electric vehicles, and willingness to pay for vehicle efficiency. This report represents a renewed effort to publicize study findings and make consumer sentiment data available to

  9. Alternate-Fuel Vehicles and Their Application in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Chip

    1991-01-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming increasingly attractive from environmental, energy independence, and economic perspectives. Addresses the following topics: (1) federal and state legislation; (2) alternative fuels and their attributes; (3) practical experience with alternative-fuel vehicles in pupil transportation; and (4) options for school…

  10. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  11. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  12. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... software. Furthermore, manufacturers often change components and strategies between model years as...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is streamlining the process by which manufacturers of clean alternative... Engineering Judgment C. Vehicle/Engine Groupings and Emission Data Vehicle/Engine Selection D. Mixed-Fuel...

  13. Advances in Tube Hydroforming - An Enabling Technology for Low-Mass Vehicle Manufacturing - Material, Lubrication,Loading, Simulation Issues, and Alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muammer Ko(c)

    2004-01-01

    The tube hydroforming process (THF) has recently found a wide application opportunity in the automotive industry, and is of increasing interest to other industries as well. The increased interest stems from the fact that, through the THF process, manufacturers are able to produce complex, consolidated, lightweight parts with reduced number of post-processing than through alternative metal forming techniques. In order to fully realize the benefits of this technology, various aspects have been under investigation in academia and industry world-wide. In this paper, effect of loading path, incoming material variation, and lubrication on the robustness of the hydroforming process and final part specifications are summarized based on previous experimental and computational work. In addition, the simulation of hydroforming and examples are presented in comparison with experimental findings. Briefly, results emphasized the importance of the loading path design whereas material variation within the experimentally tested range was not found to be significantly effective on the final part specifications. Selection of a lubricant for hydroforming of a frame rail part was presented demonstrating several aspects of lubrication selection methodology. Results of friction experiments show that only thickness, axial feeding, and force measurements are good indications of lubricant performance as these are found to be strongly discriminative.

  14. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  15. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  16. Latest trends in natural gas vehicle technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshiharu [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Higashino, Koji [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Usui, Akira [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Yamaguchi, Eiji [Saibu Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Out of the necessity for finding a solution to the air pollution and alternative fuel in Japan, the gas companies have been promoting the development and introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) with the cooperation of vehicle manufacturers. The target was the development of dedicated CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) vehicles with cleaner emissions, and several types of vehicles have been achieved, from small vans to large transit buses. As at September 1996, 800 NGVs have been introduced in Japan. It is increasing steadily. They are modified from gasoline or diesel vehicles. But the vehicle manufacturers themselves are doing the modifications and much dedicated CNG vehicle technology is being included. For instance, engine combustion systems include conventional stoichiometric air fuel ratio combustion with a three-way catalyst, the lean burn system without catalyst and a combination of both using lean burn for low loads and stoichiometric ratio combustion for high loads. This report summarizes the latest trends in natural gas vehicle technology in Japan based on examples of representative types of vehicles. (au)

  17. Innovative Alternatives to Lifting Overturned Military Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-25

    objects. For instance, Mine -Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles, which can weigh up to 55,000 lbs, have in the past overturned, trapping people...through long, small wires, and gives the user great control over the lift. The motors are powered by high performance 6.0 amp-hour lithium

  18. Vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2008 benefits analysis, methodology and results --- final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

    2008-02-29

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Vehicle Technologies (VT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, and (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 08 the Heavy Vehicles program continued its involvement with various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. These changes are the result of a planning effort that first occurred during FY 04 and was updated in the past year. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY08 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the VT program for internal project management purposes.

  19. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  20. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  1. Achievement of alternative configurations of vehicles on multiple lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Ryosuke; Miki, Hiroshi; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Heavy traffic congestion occurs daily at merging sections on a highway. For relieving this congestion, possibility of alternative configuration of vehicles on multiple-lane road at a merging area is discussed in this paper. This is the configuration where no vehicles move aside on the other lane. It has merit in making a smooth merging at an intersection or a junction due to the so-called "zipper effect." We show, by developing a cellular automaton model for multiple lanes, that this configuration is achieved by simple local interactions between vehicles neighboring each other. The degree of the alternative configuration in terms of the spatial increase in parallel driving length is studied by using both numerical simulations and mean-field theory. We successfully construct a theoretical method for calculating this degree of the alternative configuration by using cluster approximation. It is shown that the theoretical results coincide with those of the simulations very well.

  2. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  3. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  4. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  5. Robotic technologies for outdoor industrial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentz, Anthony

    2001-09-01

    The commercial industries of agriculture, mining, construction, and material handling employ a wide variety of mobile machines, including tractors, combines, Load-Haul-Dump vehicles, trucks, paving machines, fork trucks, and many more. Automation of these vehicles promises to improve productivity, reduce operational costs, and increase safety. Since the vehicles typically operate in difficult environments, under all weather conditions, and in the presence of people and other obstacles, reliable automation faces severe technical challenges. Furthermore, the viable technology solutions are constrained by cost considerations. Fortunately, due to the limited application domain, repetitive nature, and the utility of partial automation for most tasks, robotics technologies can have a profound impact on industrial vehicles. In this paper, we describe a technical approach developed at Carnegie Mellon University for automating mobile machines in several applications, including mass excavation, mining, and agriculture. The approach is introduced via case studies, and the results are presented.

  6. An Internet based stated choices household survey for alternative fuelled vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potoglou, D.; Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Centre for Spatial Analysis

    2006-01-15

    Vehicles fuelled by alternative energy sources have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other negative externalities associated with the transportation sector. However, the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles (AFV) and the effectiveness of incentives, marketing promotions, new vehicle designs, and fuel subsystems should be evaluated before devising policy measures that promote the use of new vehicle technologies. This paper discussed the design and application of a stated choices experiment for the demand for AFVs that is administered uniquely through the Internet. The use of the Internet is a new method of survey data collection which provides many advantages over tradition methods of computer-aided telephone interviews (CATI) and mail interviews. The main advantages of Internet surveys are the savings in cost and time. The authors designed a Choice Internet Based Experiment for Research on Cars (CIBER-CARS). It is a self-administered online questionnaire that was used in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Ontario. This paper described the survey design in detail and reviewed the implementation and data collection procedures. Measures for evaluating the efficiency of the Internet survey were also highlighted and the characteristics of the collected information were summarized with emphasis on the profiles of respondents and households. The characteristics of this survey were also compared with those of a similar study conducted in the State of California. Out of the 902 respondents in Hamilton, 602 stated that they would buy a vehicle in the next 5 years and 496 provided valid observations for each of the 8 stated choice exercises that included 3 fuel-type options (gasoline, hybrid, and alternative fuel) and 8 vehicle type/size-classes. The objective was to determine the impact of vehicle attributes and household characteristics to the actual choice of certain vehicles. It was expected that people with access to information via the

  7. Autonomous Vehicle Transportation Using Wireless Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ragul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the use of a vehicle in several industries and is capable of reducing extra strenuous and/or time consuming activities of humans. The main concentration of this work was onvehicle navigation, tracking, obstacle detection, weight overload, battery power measuring and also be able to locate the respective service station goods. Vehicle navigation employs RFID technology. TheRFID reader is installed in the vehicle and reads the tags which are placed along its route. Whenever a vehicle reaches a service station it sends a message to the workers. Upon receiving a message, the workers can collect the respective service station goods using RFID. If the wrong goods are taken out of the vehicle, the buzzer gets activated. The obstacle detection can be done by ultrasonic sensors. If any obstacle in the route is detected, the message is sent to the control station of the industry using the GSM module. The load cell is used to indicate the weight overload to the workers. Two batteries have been together utilized to measure the required power by this developed vehicle. As soon as Battery1 becomes dry, the battery2 is made the main source of power and a message is sent to the control station through GSM. The control station having a GSM module receives the message and the result will be displayed in hyper terminal window on the PC (personal computer. The vehicle transportation uses PICmicrocontroller, sensors and wireless technology.

  8. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  9. Dimethyl ether as alternative fuel for CI engine and vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen HUANG; Xinqi QIAO; Wugao ZHANG; Junhua WU; Junjun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    As a developing and the most populous country in the world, China faces major challenges in energy supply and environmental protection. It is of great importance to develop clean and alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. On the basis of researches on DME engine and vehicle at Shanghai Jiaotong University in the last twelve years, fuel injection, combustion, performance and exhaust emissions of DME engine and DME vehicle are introduced in this paper. The results indicate that DME engines can achieve high thermal efficiency and ultra low emissions, and will play a significant role in meeting the energy demand while minimizing environmental impact in China.

  10. Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This roadmap explores the potential improvement of existing technologies to enhance the average fuel economy of motorised vehicles; the roadmap’s vision is to achieve a 30% to 50% reduction in fuel use per kilometre from new road vehicles including 2-wheelers, LDV s and HDV s) around the world in 2030, and from the stock of all vehicles on the road by 2050. This achievement would contribute to significant reductions in GHG emissions and oil use, compared to a baseline projection. Different motorised modes are treated separately, with a focus on LDV s, HDV s and powered two-wheelers. A section on in-use fuel economy also addresses technical and nontechnical parameters that could allow fuel economy to drastically improve over the next decades. Technology cost analysis and payback time show that significant progress can be made with low or negative cost for fuel-efficient vehicles over their lifetime use. Even though the latest data analysed by the IEA for fuel economy between 2005 and 2008 showed that a gap exists in achieving the roadmap’s vision, cutting the average fuel economy of road motorised vehicles by 30% to 50% by 2030 is achievable, and the policies and technologies that could help meet this challenge are already deployed in many places around the world.

  11. Low Floor Americans with Disabilities Compliant Alternate Fuel Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bartel

    2004-11-26

    This project developed a low emission, cost effective, fuel efficient, medium-duty community/transit shuttle bus that meets American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and meets National Energy Policy Act requirements (uses alternative fuel). The Low Profile chassis, which is the basis of this vehicle is configured to be fuel neutral to accommodate various alternative fuels. Demonstration of the vehicle in Yellowstone Park in summer (wheeled operation) and winter (track operation) demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility for this vehicle to provide year around operation throughout the Parks system as well as normal transit operation. The unique configuration of the chassis which provides ADA access with a simple ramp and a flat floor throughout the passenger compartment, provides maximum access for all passengers as well as maximum flexibility to configure the vehicle for each application. Because this product is derived from an existing medium duty truck chassis, the completed bus is 40-50% less expensive than existing low floor transit buses, with the reliability and durability of OEM a medium duty truck.

  12. Multiple criteria decision making of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in southeast region of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Goran S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper multiple criteria decision making approach of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in southeast region of Serbia was presented. Eight alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies were ranked according to thirteen criteria, including financial, socio-technical, and environmental. Assessment of alternatives was performed by using the weighted aggregated sum product assessment method and results were verified using multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis method. Considered criteria were obtained from previous researches and by assessment of professional experts from manufacturing industries, public utility companies, and academics institutions. The analysis showed that both biodiesel fuels - derived from used cooking oil or from vegetable oils are the best alternative fuels for Serbian waste collection vehicles in this point of time. Compressed natural gas-powered vehicles were also ranked high in this analysis, but due to the lack of financial capability for their purchase (especially in southeast region of Serbia, their gradual introduction into the waste collection fleet was proposed.

  13. A Range-Based Vehicle Life Cycle Assessment Incorporating Variability in the Environmental Assessment of Different Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Messagie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How to compare the environmental performance of different vehicle technologies? Vehicles with lower tailpipe emissions are perceived as cleaner. However, does it make sense to look only to tailpipe emissions? Limiting the comparison only to these emissions denies the fact that there are emissions involved during the production of a fuel and this approach gives too much advantage to zero-tailpipe vehicles like battery electric vehicles (BEV and fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV. Would it be enough to combine fuel production and tailpipe emissions? Especially when comparing the environmental performance of alternative vehicle technologies, the emissions during production of the specific components and their appropriate end-of-life treatment processes should also be taken into account. Therefore, the complete life cycle of the vehicle should be included in order to avoid problem shifting from one life stage to another. In this article, a full life cycle assessment (LCA of petrol, diesel, fuel cell electric (FCEV, compressed natural gas (CNG, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, hybrid electric, battery electric (BEV, bio-diesel and bio-ethanol vehicles has been performed. The aim of the manuscript is to investigate the impact of the different vehicle technologies on the environment and to develop a range-based modeling system that enables a more robust interpretation of the LCA results for a group of vehicles. Results are shown for climate change, respiratory effects, acidification and mineral extraction damage of the different vehicle technologies. A broad range of results is obtained due to the variability within the car market. It is concluded that it is essential to take into account the influence of all the vehicle parameters on the LCA results.

  14. Evaluation of oxygen-enrichment system for alternative fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Ng, H.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents results on the reduction in exhaust emissions achieved by using oxygen-enriched intake air on a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) that used Indolene and M85 as test fuels. The standard federal test procedure (FTP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) off-cycle (REP05) test were followed. The report also provides a review of literature on the oxygen membrane device and design considerations. It presents information on the sources and contributions of cold-phase emissions to the overall exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and on the various emission standards and present-day control technologies under consideration. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FTP and off-cycle emissions are discussed on the basis of test results. Conclusions are drawn from the results and discussion, and different approaches for the practical application of this technology in LDVs are recommended.

  15. Armored Combat Vehicles Science and Technology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    analysis0 SS 94 GHz TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER MODULE Provide low cost transciever modules for pulsed, FMCW or FSK radars at 35-100 Gfz. STAC!LTZATTOU...prepared by TACOM. 3 !. ... Ill11111iilIl 0 1 lPI IPIt’IlA BEST AVAILABLE.COPY The Armored Combat Vehicle Science and Technology Base Development program...classes of Army Systems including Radar , E-O, AD. Communications, Missiles and EW. NETWORK MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION - BATTLEFIELD INFORMATION

  16. Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  19. Does habitual behavior affect the choice of alternative fuel vehicles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeri, Eva; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    significant latent habitual effect on choices of type of car engine. This effect is important only for some of the car alternatives considered in the study. In particular, habitual car users prefer to buy a new car with liquefied petroleum gas and compressed natural gas types of engine technology instead...... of liquefied petroleum gas car....

  20. GENDER PREFERENCES FOR ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TRANSPORT WITH FOCUS ON ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation has become an important part of our day to day life. Due to changing lifestyle, frequent travels whether related to work or leisure has become a common phenomenon. Such lifestyle also demands comfortable transport medium and reasonable availability of fuels. As need of vehicle for transportation is rising, it has put pressure of fuel supply, fuel prices and environment as well. The rising prices of fuel, increasing pressure on resources and threatening environment pollution is driving the need for alternative and clean sources of energy. Increasing competition among nations to own the resources is becoming a serious threat for many developing countries. This paper empirically examines the gender preference for alternative energy sources and related technologies for vehicles. In total, 1168 questionnaires were received from respondents (male-711, female-442, not disclosed-15 from eleven cities in India viz. Bengaluru, Chennai, Cochin, Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Pune, Imphal, Rohtak, Sagar and Tiruvanathpuram in India and one city from Bhutan-Thimpu. Respondents who did not disclose their gender were excluded from the study. The study was conducted from October 2013 to June 2014. The objective of the study was to understand the social dimensions and gender preferences of the respondents regarding their preference for electric vehicle as an alternative energy transport for personal and public use. The primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS®. Findings indicate that in general fueled vehicles are still preferred over electric vehicles. However there is a strong interest in electric vehicles. It was observed that more than 66% of the respondents in the age group of 18-30 can become prospective customers in the near future, if the electric vehicles meet their expectations. In this age group, 59% of the respondents were male

  1. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Williams, Susan E [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  2. FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program FY 2006. Benefits analysis : methodology and results - final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

    2006-01-31

    This report describes the approach to estimating benefits and the analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identification of technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in the activities planned for FY 06. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. These benefits estimates, along with market penetrations and other results, are then modeled as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY06 Budget Request.

  3. Freedom car and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2007 benefits analysis, methodology and results -- final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIngh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

    2008-02-29

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in subsequent activities. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY07 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the FCVT program for internal project management purposes.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts (back to 2009) are archived and still available at: http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/current-and-past-years-facts-week. Each Fact of the Week website page includes a link to an Excel file. That file contains the data from the Supporting Information section of the page so that researchers can easily use data from the Fact of the Week in their work. Beginning in August of 2015, a subscription list is available on the DOE website so that those interested can sign up for an email to be sent each Monday which includes the text and graphic from the current week s Fact. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2015. The Facts were created, written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  5. Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen; Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; McQueen, S.; Brinch, J.

    2008-07-01

    DOE sponsored the Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen workshop to understand how lessons from past experiences can inform future efforts to commercialize hydrogen vehicles. This report contains the proceedings from the workshop.

  6. 10 CFR 490.203 - Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.203 Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. (a) General Provisions... fleets, a State may follow a Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan that has been approved by...

  7. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution; La pila de combustible en los vehiculos automoviles: un reto tecnologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Martinez, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO{sub 2} as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?.

  8. Mobile satellite communications - Vehicle antenna technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D.; Naderi, F. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses options for vehicle antennas to be used in mobile satellite communications systems. Two types of antennas are identified. A non-steerable, azimuthally omnidirectional antenna with a modest gain of 3 to 5 dBi is suggested when a low cost is desired. Alternatively, mechanically or electronically steerable antennas with a higher gain of 10 to 12 dBi are suggested to alleviate power and spectrum scarcity associated with mobile satellite communications. For steerable antennas, both open-loop and closed-loop pointing schemes are discussed. Monopulse and sequential lobing are proposed for the mechanically steered and electronically steered antennas, respectively. This paper suggests a hybrid open-loop/closed-loop pointing technique as the best performer in the mobile satellite environment.

  9. 2012 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    The 2012 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting was held May 14-18, 2012 in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Hydrogen Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 309 individual activities were reviewed for Vehicle Technologies, by a total of 189 reviewers. A total of 1,473 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews.

  10. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  11. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Department of Energy. 2007. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. “Freedom CAR and vehicle technology program; Plug-In hybrid- electric vehicle R&D Plan...ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES by Eddie E. McCown September 2014 Thesis...HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Eddie E. McCown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Transportation accounts for two-thirds of U.S. petroleum use, and on-road vehicles are responsible for nearly 85% of this amount. U.S. dependence on petroleum affects the national economy and potential for future growth—making it a high-value opportunity for change. The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) develops and overcomes barriers to the widespread use of advanced highway transportation technologies that reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, while meeting or exceeding vehicle performance expectations.

  13. Treatment Technology and Alternative Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    At this point in our settlement of the planet Earth, with over seven billion human inhabitants, there are very few unallocated sources of fresh water. We are turning slowly toward "alternatives" such as municipal and industrial wastewater, saline groundwater, the sea, irrigation return flow, and produced water that comes up with oil and gas deposits from deep beneath the surface of the earth. Slowly turning, not because of a lack in technological ability, but because it takes a large capital investment to acquire and treat these sources to a level at which they can be used. The regulatory system is not geared up for alternative sources and treatment processes. Permitting can be circular, contradictory, time consuming, and very expensive. The purpose for the water, or the value of the product obtained using the water, must be such that the capital and ongoing expense seem reasonable. There are so many technological solutions for recovering water quality that choosing the most reliable, economical, and environmentally sound technology involves unraveling the "best" weave of treatment processes from a tangled knot of alternatives. Aside from permitting issues, which are beyond the topic for this presentation, the "best" weave of processes will be composed of four strands specifically fitted to the local situation: energy, pretreatment, driving force for separation processes, and waste management. A range of treatment technologies will be examined in this presentation with a focus on how the quality of the feed water, available power sources, materials, and waste management opportunities aid in choosing the best weave of treatment technologies, and how innovative use of a wide variety of driving forces are increasing the efficiency of treatment processes.

  14. ESTIMATION OF THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRACTION BLDC MOTOR ON THE BASIS OF VEHICLE ALTERNATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A method of estimation of basic parameters of the BLDC motor based on the vehicle powerful alternator to convert an ordinary vehicle into a hybrid one is offered. The results of estimation of basic characteristics of the electric motor on the basis of the automobile alternator G290 are presented.

  15. "Bait vehicle" technologies and motor vehicle theft along the southwest border.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, over 33% of all the vehicles reported stolen in the United States occurred in the four southwestern border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, which all have very high vehicle theft rates in comparison to the national average. This report describes the utilization of 'bait vehicles' and associated technologies in the context of motor vehicle theft along the southwest border of the U.S. More than 100 bait vehicles are estimated to be in use by individual agencies and auto theft task forces in the southwestern border states. The communications, tracking, mapping, and remote control technologies associated with bait vehicles provide law enforcement with an effective tool to obtain arrests in vehicle theft 'hot spots'. Recorded audio and video from inside the vehicle expedite judicial proceedings as offenders rarely contest the evidence presented. At the same time, law enforcement is very interested in upgrading bait vehicle technology through the use of live streaming video for enhanced officer safety and improved situational awareness. Bait vehicle effectiveness could be enhanced by dynamic analysis of motor theft trends through exploitation of geospatial, timeline, and other analytical tools to better inform very near-term operational decisions, including the selection of particular vehicle types. This 'information-led' capability would especially benefit from more precise and timely information on the location of vehicles stolen in the United States and found in Mexico. Introducing Automated License Plate Reading (ALPR) technology to collect information associated with stolen motor vehicles driven into Mexico could enhance bait vehicle effectiveness.

  16. A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.

    2001-02-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. .

  17. Status and outlook for biofuels, other alternative fuels and new vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.-O.; Aakko-Saksa, P.; Sipilae, K.

    2008-03-15

    The report presents an outlook for alternative motor fuels and new vehicles. The time period covered extends up to 2030. The International Energy Agency and the U.S. Energy Information Administration predict that the world energy demand will increase by over 50% from now to 2030, if policies remain unchanged. Most of the growth in demand for energy in general, as well as for transport fuels, will take place in non-OECD countries. Gasoline and diesel are projected to remain the dominant automotive fuels until 2030. Vehicle technology and high quality fuels will eventually solve the problem of harmful exhaust emissions. However, the problem with CO{sub 2} still remains, and much attention will be given to increase efficiency. Hybrid technology is one option to reduce fuel consumption. Diesel engines are fuel efficient, but have high emissions compared with advanced gasoline engines. New combustion systems combining the best qualities of gasoline and diesel engines promise low emissions as well as high efficiency. The scenarios for alternative fuels vary a lot. By 2030, alternative fuels could represent a 10- 30% share of transport fuels, depending on policies. Ambitious goals for biofuels in transport have been set. As advanced biofuels are still in their infancy, it seems probable that traditional biofuels will also be used in 2030. Ethanol is the fastest growing biofuel. Currently the sustainability of biofuels is discussed extensively. Synthetic fuels promise excellent end-use properties, reduced emissions, and if produced from biomass, also reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. The report presents an analysis of technology options to meet the requirements for energy security, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, reduced local emissions as well as sustainability in general in the long run. In the short term, energy savings will be the main measure for CO{sub 2} reductions in transport, fuel switches will have a secondary role. (orig.)

  18. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012......In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...

  19. Airbreathing Hypersonic Technology Vision Vehicles and Development Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClinton, C. R.; Hunt, J. L.; Ricketts, R. H.; Reukauf, P.; Peddie, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    Significant advancements in hypersonic airbreathing vehicle technology have been made in the country's research centers and industry over the past 40 years. Some of that technology is being validated with the X-43 flight tests. This paper presents an overview of hypersonic airbreathing technology status within the US, and a hypersonic technology development plan. This plan builds on the nation's large investment in hypersonics. This affordable, incremental plan focuses technology development on hypersonic systems, which could be operating by the 2020's.

  20. Hybrid vehicles - an alternative for the Swedish market; Hybridfordon - ett alternativ foer den svenska bilparken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, Karl-Erik; Bucksch, S.

    2000-06-01

    The object of this report is to assemble information on and describe the situation for the development of hybrid vehicles and various alternatives within this field of development. In the report the description is concentrated mainly on the combination of combustion engine and electric battery, which is the most common combination in present day hybrid vehicles. In order to take a glimpse into the future even the combination of fuel cells and electric battery is described. The light duty electric hybrid vehicles which have been developed up to now are mainly parallel hybrids. If the development of hybrid systems takes place it will most certainly concern light duty vehicles which will come to be parallel hybrids equipped with an Otto or a diesel engine, depending on what the manufacturers wish to back. In the report the use of series hybrid vehicles is estimated to be limited to heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. Hybrids will not be likely to be relevant for heavy-duty vehicles, with the exception of those lorries which operate in city centres, i.e. lorries which are used to distribute goods to shops, garbage vehicles and certain types of working vehicle for service purposes. Continued development of the hybrid system for buses seems uncertain for various reasons. If there is a technical breakthrough in the manufacture of batteries and simultaneously the manufacturers increase their efforts to develop hybrid vehicles, the situation can be changed so that there is a speedier introduction of hybrid vehicles for heavy-duty vehicles.

  1. Alternative Hydrocarbon Propulsion for Nano / Micro Launch Vehicle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical innovation proposed here is the application of an alternative hydrocarbon fuel – densified propylene, in combination with liquid oxygen (LOX)...

  2. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 arc being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. Our goal is to significantly improve upon the characteristics of proposed zirconia cells for oxygen production. To achieve that goal we are looking at electrolytic systems that operate at significantly lower temperatures, preferably below 31C to allow the incorporation of liquid CO2 in the electrolyte. Our preliminary results indicate that such a system will have much higher current densities and have simpler cathode construction than a porous gas feed electrode system. Such a system could be achieved based on nonaqueous electrolytes or ionic liquids. We are focusing our research on the anode reaction that will produce oxygen from a product generated at the cathode using CO2 as the feed. Operation at low temperatures also will open up the full range of polymer and metal materials, allowing a more robust system design to withstand the rigors of flight, landing, and long term unattended operation on the surface of Mars.

  3. Alternative Sensor System and MLP Neural Network for Vehicle Pedal Activity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Wefky

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that the activity of the vehicle pedals (i.e., throttle, brake, clutch reflects the driver’s behavior, which is at least partially related to the fuel consumption and vehicle pollutant emissions. This paper presents a solution to estimate the driver activity regardless of the type, model, and year of fabrication of the vehicle. The solution is based on an alternative sensor system (regime engine, vehicle speed, frontal inclination and linear acceleration that reflects the activity of the pedals in an indirect way, to estimate that activity by means of a multilayer perceptron neural network with a single hidden layer.

  4. Determinants of alternative fuel vehicle choice in the continental United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, M.

    1997-12-18

    This paper describes the ongoing investigation into the determinants of alternative fuel vehicle choice. A stated preference vehicle choice survey was conducted for the 47 of the continental U.S. states, excluding California. The national survey is based on and is an extension of previous studies on alternative fuel vehicle choice for the State of California conducted by the University of California's Institute of Transportation Studies (UC ITS). Researchers at UC ITS have used the stated-preference national survey to produce a series of estimates for new vehicle choice models. Three of these models are presented in this paper. The first two of the models were estimated using only the data from the national survey. The third model presented in this paper pools information from the national and California surveys to estimate a true national model for new vehicle choice.

  5. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (which will not allow someone with a positive BAC to drive) on their vehicles. While on the vehicle, interlocks have been shown to reduce recidivism by two-thirds. Use of these devices has been growing at the rate of 10 to 15 percent a year, and there currently are more than 300,000 units in use. This expansion in the application of interlocks has benefited from the integration of other emerging technologies into interlock systems. Such technologies include data systems that record both driver actions and vehicle responses, miniature cameras and face recognition to identify the user, Wi-Fi systems to provide rapid reporting on offender performance and any attempt to circumvent the device, GPS tracking of the vehicle, and more rapid means for monitoring the integrity of the interlock system. This article describes how these health technologies are being applied in interlock programs and the outlook for new technologies and new court sanctioning programs that may influence the growth in the use of interlocks in the future.

  6. Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, John H.; Polubiatko, Peter; Tucchio, Michael A.

    2002-02-06

    This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles.

  7. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschneidner, Karl A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Jiles, David; Zimm, Carl B.

    2001-08-28

    The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU.

  8. Cryogenic fluid management technology requirements for the Space Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John M.; Brown, Norman S.

    1989-01-01

    An in-house study was performed to design a cryogenic Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) for the late 1990s that can evolve with the demanding mission requirements of the manned exploration initiatives. An assessment of cryogenic fluid management technology issues associated with the STV was performed to identify technology gaps and propose advanced development activities.

  9. Information Technologies as Vehicles of Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Paul

    Technology contributes to the growth of human knowledge in five distinct, though overlapping, ways: (1) all technologies are material embodiments and thus more or less durable records of ideas that have survived some test with external reality; (2) telescopes, microscopes, and similar technologies extend external experience and knowledge to areas…

  10. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM... of a fleet or covered person in an annual report under this part, DOE shall treat each credit as the acquisition of an alternative fueled vehicle that the fleet or covered person is required to acquire...

  11. 10 CFR 490.201 - Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 490.201 Section 490.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.201 Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate... annually for State government fleets, including agencies thereof but excluding municipal fleets,...

  12. Hybrid Vehicle Technologies and their potential for reducing oil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, John

    2006-04-01

    Vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric powertrains are starting to gain market share. Current hybrid vehicles add an electric motor, battery pack, and power electronics to the conventional powertrain. A variety of engine/motor configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages. In general, efficiency is improved due to engine shut-off at idle, capture of energy during deceleration that is normally lost as heat in the brakes, downsizing of the conventional engine, and, in some cases, propulsion on the electric motor alone. Ongoing increases in hybrid market share are dependent on cost reduction, especially the battery pack, efficiency synergies with other vehicle technologies, use of the high electric power to provide features desired by customers, and future fuel price and availability. Potential barriers include historically low fuel prices, high discounting of the fuel savings by new vehicle purchasers, competing technologies, and tradeoffs with other factors desired by customers, such as performance, utility, safety, and luxury features.

  13. Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2011-11-01

    Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

  14. Assessment of Vehicle Sizing, Energy Consumption and Cost Through Large Scale Simulation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moawad, Ayman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, Namdoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shidore, Neeraj [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, Aymeric [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) has been developing more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum. The long-term aim is to develop "leapfrog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment. This report reviews the results of the DOE VTO. It gives an assessment of the fuel and light-duty vehicle technologies that are most likely to be established, developed, and eventually commercialized during the next 30 years (up to 2045). Because of the rapid evolution of component technologies, this study is performed every two years to continuously update the results based on the latest state-of-the-art technologies.

  15. High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    An Analysis of Alternatives and a Technology Requirements Study were conducted for two mission areas utilizing various types of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). A hurricane science mission and a communications relay mission provided air vehicle requirements which were used to derive sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative propulsion systems. A HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred concept given near-term technology constraints. The cost effectiveness analysis showed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can be a sub-optimum system solution. In addition, the HTA solar regenerative configuration was utilized to perform both a mission requirements study and a technology development study. Given near-term technology constraints, the solar regenerative powered vehicle was limited to operations during the long days and short nights at higher latitudes during the summer months. Technology improvements are required in energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency, along with airframe drag and mass reductions to enable the solar regenerative vehicle to meet the full mission requirements.

  16. An Alternative for Industrial Arts: Communication Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, George R., Jr.; Ritz, John M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a rationale for including the study of communication technology as a part of the general education process in industrial arts. Analyzes communication technology and suggests methods of implementing the technology in industrial arts. (CSS)

  17. Adoption of alternative transport technologies in the construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Thijs; Voordijk, Hans; Sijde, van der Peter

    2006-01-01

    This research examines how the construction industry adopts alternative transport technologies. This paper presents the general characteristics of the adopter and what his perceptions are towards innovative transport technologies. The study focused on four rates of innovation, related tot alternativ

  18. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duleep, G.

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies? other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles and from recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  19. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duleep, G. [ICF Incorporated, LLC., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies, other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles, and recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  20. A Range-Based Vehicle Life Cycle Assessment Incorporating Variability in the Environmental Assessment of Different Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    How to compare the environmental performance of different vehicle technologies? Vehicles with lower tailpipe emissions are perceived as cleaner. However, does it make sense to look only to tailpipe emissions? Limiting the comparison only to these emissions denies the fact that there are emissions involved during the production of a fuel and this approach gives too much advantage to zero-tailpipe vehicles like battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). Would it be ...

  1. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Prospective Benefits Assessment Report for Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Taylor, C. H. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Moore, J. S. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Ward, J. [United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-02-23

    Under a diverse set of programs, the Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies offices of DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy invest in research, development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies. This report estimates the benefits of successfully developing and deploying these technologies (a “Program Success” case) relative to a base case (the “No Program” case). The Program Success case represents the future with completely successful deployment of Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) technologies. The No Program case represents a future in which there is no contribution after FY 2016 by the VTO or FCTO to these technologies. The benefits of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies were estimated on the basis of differences in fuel use, primary energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, including energy and emissions from fuel production, between the base case and the Program Success case. Improvements in fuel economy of various vehicle types, growth in the stock of fuel cell vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles, and decreased GHG intensity of hydrogen production and delivery in the Program Success case over the No Program case were projected to result in savings in petroleum use and GHG emissions. Benefits were disaggregated by individual program technology areas, which included the FCTO program and the VTO subprograms of batteries and electric drives; advanced combustion engines; fuels and lubricants; materials (for reduction in vehicle mass, or “lightweighting”); and, for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, reduction in rolling and aerodynamic resistance. Projections for the Program Success case indicate that by 2035, the average fuel economy of on-road, light-duty vehicle stock could be 47% to 76

  2. Metal oxide electrocatalysts for alternative energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquette, Adele Lawren

    This dissertation focuses on the development of metal oxide electrocatalysts with varying applications for alternative energy technologies. Interest in utilizing clean, renewable and sustainable sources of energy for powering the planet in the future has received much attention. This will address the growing concern of the need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The facile synthesis of metal oxides from earth abundant metals was explored in this work. The electrocatalysts can be incorporated into photoelectrochemical devices, fuel cells, and other energy storage devices. The first section addresses the utilization of semiconductors that can harness solar energy for water splitting to generate hydrogen. An oxysulfide was studied in order to combine the advantageous properties of the stability of metal oxides and the visible light absorbance of metal chalcogenides. Bi 2O2S was synthesized under facile hydrothermal conditions. The band gap of Bi2O2S was smaller than that of its oxide counterpart, Bi2O3. Light absorption by Bi 2O2S was extended to the visible region (>600 nm) in comparison to Bi2O3. The formation of a composite with In 2O3 was formed in order to create a UV irradiation protective coating of the Bi2O2S. The Bi2O2S/In 2O3 composite coupled with a dye CrTPP(Cl) and cocatalysts Pt and Co3O4 was utilized for water splitting under light irradiation to generate hydrogen and oxygen. The second section focuses on improving the stability and light absorption of semiconductors by changing the shapes and morphologies. One of the limitations of semiconductor materials is that recombination of electron-hole pairs occur within the bulk of the materials instead of migration to the surface. Three-dimensional shapes, such as nanorods, can prevent this recombination in comparison to spherical particles. Hierarchical structures, such as dendrites, cubes, and multipods, were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, in order to reduce recombination and improve

  3. Space Vehicle Chemical Interactions and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-26

    ABSTRACT This report details basic physics /chemistry associated with electrospray propulsion technology, plasma processes in Hall effect thrusters...funded research group performing basic science measurements focused on the chemistry and fundamental physics of processes occurring in low- Earth orbit...miniature sensors, and new algorithms and models to identify hostile objects in space . Understanding the chemical and physical processes associated with

  4. Emerging vehicle technologies & the search for urban mobility solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra N. Bajpai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of the ongoing innovations to make vehicles driverless, carbon free and accessible on ‘as needed’ basis, is evolving fast. A review of available information suggests that these technologies have substantial potential to generate positive externalities by improving road safety, lowering of fuel consumption and emissions in vehicles, and providing mobility options for vulnerable population including young, old and persons with disability. However, given the limited commercialization it is difficult to discern the nature of impact these technologies will have in reducing the two negative travel externalities, road congestion and low density expansion of cities. Gradual mainstreaming of these technologies will offer opportunities for further research in understanding the behavioral responses of their end users, and the risks that these technologies may pose to manufacturers, consumers, and stakeholders.

  5. A Hydraulic Motor-Alternator System for Ocean-Submersible Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aintablian, Harry O.; Valdez, Thomas I.; Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    An ocean-submersible vehicle has been developed at JPL that moves back and forth between sea level and a depth of a few hundred meters. A liquid volumetric change at a pressure of 70 bars is created by means of thermal phase change. During vehicle ascent, the phase-change material (PCM) is melted by the circulation of warm water and thus pressure is increased. During vehicle descent, the PCM is cooled resulting in reduced pressure. This pressure change is used to generate electric power by means of a hydraulic pump that drives a permanent magnet (PM) alternator. The output energy of the alternator is stored in a rechargeable battery that powers an on-board computer, instrumentation and other peripherals.The focus of this paper is the performance evaluation of a specific hydraulic motor-alternator system. Experimental and theoretical efficiency data of the hydraulic motor and the alternator are presented. The results are used to evaluate the optimization of the hydraulic motor-alternator system. The integrated submersible vehicle was successfully operated in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. A brief overview of the actual test results is presented.

  6. 2009 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting to review the FY2008 accomplishments and FY2009 plans for the Vehicle Technologies Program, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academic to give inputs to DOE on the Program with a structured and formal methodology.

  7. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  8. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Voas, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (wh...

  9. 78 FR 23832 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... that run on liquid and non-liquid fuels, such as ethanol and other alcohols, including E85 ethanol... vehicle's estimated driving range (i.e., the travel distance on a single charge or tank of fuel), general... liquid fuels, or fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials. See 76 FR 39478 (July...

  10. 76 FR 31513 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... AFVs that run on liquid and non-liquid fuels, such as ethanol and other alcohols including E85 ethanol... vehicle's estimated cruising range (i.e., the travel distance on a single charge or tank of fuel), general... by liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, or fuels (other than...

  11. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  12. Surface technologies 2006 - Alternative energies and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Lars [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Department of Materials Engineering

    2007-12-15

    Surfaces are the immediate contact between anything in our world. Literally, every industry utilizes coatings and surface modifications in order to create surfaces tailored to specific needs, protect underlying substrates, or modify their behavior. Surface and coating technologies are essential to a large variety of different industrial sectors, including transportation, manufacturing, food and biomedical engineering, energy, resources, and materials science and technology. The present paper explains the limitations for alternative energy technologies, with a focus on fuel cell technology development and the alternative energy sector, based on the outcomes of presentations and facilitated discussion groups during a Canadian national workshop series. Options for technological improvements of alternative energy systems are presented in combination with national and international policy choices, which could positively influence research and development in the alternative energy sector. (author)

  13. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  14. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG&G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  15. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  16. Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Boucher

    2009-09-30

    High-level objective of this project is to develop nanoparticle based additive technology to improve friction and wear characteristics of engine oil with a long-term focus to enhance durability and efficiency of engines. The project encompasses a detailed investigation of various chemicals that favors stable boundary film formation and therefore reduce friction and wear of engine components. These active chemicals designed as nanomaterials will be surface-stabilized to gain maximum dispersion stability in a lubricant media. This effort shall be focused with the following objectives in mind: develop active nanoparticle composite, optimize process design, detailed tribological testing and surface characterization, physical and chemical characterization of nanomaterials, and limited component level testing to document friction and wear improvements. Additional motivation is to minimize sulfur/phosphorous contents and lower ash forming components in additives and therefore improve aftertreatment functioning and emission. This effort shall be focused, over a two year funding period: Phase-I will be primarily a feasibility study, which includes selection of components for active nanoparticles, design and formulation, and synthesis of the active nanoparticles, optimize process design, physical and chemical characterization of nanomaterials, tribological testing and document friction and wear improvements. As a continuous effort of the Phase-I, Phase-II will focus on the optimization of the identified nanoparticle-based additives specifically for DOE strategic goal - minimizing S and P contents in additives and lowering ash-forming components. Additional efforts will also be invested in extended component level tribo-testing, manufacturing process scale-up, cost evaluation, and commercial viability assessment. In boundary lubrication, mating surfaces in direct physical contact are in surface asperities dimensional scale. These conditions may benefit from the nanometric

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-28

    Up to four lithium ion and lithium thionyl chloride batteries , each weighing between 1 and 40 lb (0.5 and 18.5 kg) Propulsion Approximately 3 lb...Record HCl Hydrogen Chloride HTV Hypersonic Technology Vehicle ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile INRMP Integrated Natural Resources Management...dual flight termination receivers, radar transponder, batteries , and harnesses. Onboard transmitter (radio frequency) power output varies from 10 to

  18. Environmental Assessment for Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Up to four lithium ion and lithium thionyl chloride batteries , each weighing between 1 and 40 lb (0.5 and 18.5 kg) Propulsion Approximately 3 lb...Record HCl Hydrogen Chloride HTV Hypersonic Technology Vehicle ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile INRMP Integrated Natural Resources Management...dual flight termination receivers, radar transponder, batteries , and harnesses. Onboard transmitter (radio frequency) power output varies from 10 to

  19. Emission Patterns under Alternative Congestion and Motor Vehicle Pollution Mitigation Policies in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongfeng; Li Fen; Li Xiangling

    2007-01-01

    As a megacity with thriving economy, Shanghai is experiencing rapid motorisation and confronted with traffic congestion problems despite its low car ownership. It is of value to look into the policies on emission control of motor vehicle and congestion reduction in such a city to explore how to reconcile mobility enhancement with the environment. Results of a dynamic simulation displayed time paths of emissions from motor vehicles in Shanghai over the period from 2000 to 2020. The simulation results showed that early policies on emission control of motor vehicle could bring about far-reaching effects on emission reduction, and take advantage of available low-polluting technologies and technical innovation over time. Travel demand management would play an important role in curbing congestion and reducing motor vehicle pollution by calming down car ownership rise and deterring inefficient trips as well as reducing fuel waste caused by congestion.

  20. Flight testing vehicles for verification and validation of hypersonics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, Peter W.

    1995-03-01

    Hypersonics technology has obtained renewed interest since various concepts for future completely reusable Space Transportation Systems (STS) using airbreathing propulsion for the parts of atmospheric flight have been proposed in different countries (e.g. US, CIS, Japan, France, Germany, and UK). To cover major developments in those countries, AGARD FDP has formed the Working Group 18 on 'Hypersonic Experimental and Computational Capabilities - Improvement and Validation'. Of major importance for the proof of feasibility for all these concepts is the definition of an overall convincing philosophy for a 'hypersonics technology development and verification concept' using ground simulation facilities (both experimental and numerical) and flight testing vehicles. Flying at hypersonic Mach numbers using airbreathing propulsion requires highly sophisticated design tools to provide reliable prediction of thrust minus aerodynamic drag to accelerate the vehicle during ascent. Using these design tools, existing uncertainties have to be minimized by a carefully performed code validation process. To a large degree the database required for this validation cannot be obtained on ground. In addition thermal loads due to hypersonic flow have to be predicted accurately by aerothermodynamic flow codes to provide the inputs needed to decide on materials and structures. Heat management for hypersonic flight vehicles is one of the key-issues for any kind of successful flight demonstration. This paper identifies and discusses the role of flight testing during the verification and validation process of advanced hypersonic technology needed for flight in the atmosphere with hypersonic Mach numbers using airbreathing propulsion systems both for weapons and space transportation systems.

  1. Image-Based Vehicle Identification Technology for Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A

    2002-10-08

    The threat of terrorist attacks against US civilian populations is a very real, near-term problem that must be addressed, especially in response to possible use of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Several programs are now being funded by the US Government to put into place means by which the effects of a terrorist attack could be averted or limited through the use of sensors and monitoring technology. Specialized systems that detect certain threat materials, while effective within certain performance limits, cannot generally be used efficiently to track a mobile threat such as a vehicle over a large urban area. The key elements of an effective system are an image feature-based vehicle identification technique and a networked sensor system. We have briefly examined current uses of image and feature recognition techniques to the urban tracking problem and set forth the outlines of a proposal for application of LLNL technologies to this critical problem. The primary contributions of the proposed work lie in filling important needs not addressed by the current program: (1) The ability to create vehicle ''fingerprints,'' or feature information from images to allow automatic identification of vehicles. Currently, the analysis task is done entirely by humans. The goal is to aid the analyst by reducing the amount of data he/she must analyze and reduce errors caused by inattention or lack of training. This capability has broad application to problems associated with extraction of useful features from large data sets. (2) Improvements in the effectiveness of LLNL's WATS (Wide Area Tracking System) by providing it accurate threat vehicle location and velocity. Model predictability is likely to be enhanced by use of more information related to different data sets. We believe that the LLNL can accomplish the proposed tasks and enhance the effectiveness of the system now under development.

  2. 车用替代能源综合评价与发展策略%Comprehensive Evaluation of Vehicle Alternative Energy and Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昊

    2013-01-01

    本文从技术性与政策性角度分析了各种车用替代能源的技术优缺点以及政策支持力度.研究表明:首先,发展车用替代能源应该以新能源汽车及传统汽车的替代燃料两个方面为重点.其中,新能源汽车以燃气汽车、混合动力汽车与甲醇汽车为主要发展方向,使用替代能源为天然气或液化石油气、电与甲醇;传统汽车替代燃料以甲醇汽油、生物柴油与二甲醚为主要发展方向.其次,由于发展的多元性,车用替代能源发展策略应该同时注重区域性、技术性以及政策性.%This paper analyzes technology advantages or disadvantages and the policy support of various alternative energy for vehicles in terms of technicality and policy. The results show that: firstly, the development focus of alternative energy should be concentrated on the new energy vehicles and alternative fuels for traditional vehicles. Among them, the main developing directions for the new energy vehicles are gas, hybrid and methanol vehicles. The alternative energy is natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, electricity and methanol. And the main developing directions for the traditional alternative fuels are methanol-gasoline, biodiesel and dimethyl ether. Secondly, because of the diversity of development, the developing strategies for alternative energy of vehicles should take the regional, technical and policy natures into considerations.

  3. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kouzes, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peerani, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Aspinall, M. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Baird, K. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bakel, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Borella, M. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Bourne, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bourva, L. [Canberra Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Cave, F. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Chandra, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Zurich (Sweden); Chernikova, D. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dermody, G. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Dougan, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Ely, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fanchini, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Gavron, Victor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ishiyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Lee, T. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Martin, Ch. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); McKinny, K. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, OH (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Orton, Ch. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Pappalardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Peranteau, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Plenteda, R. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pozzi, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schear, M. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Seya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Siciliano, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, L. [Proportional Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tagziria, H. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Vaccaro, S. [DG Energy (Luxembourg); Takamine, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Weber, A. -L. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yamaguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Zhu, H. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3He-alternative

  4. Coupling Electric Vehicles and Power Grid through Charging-In-Motion and Connected Vehicle Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A traffic-assignment-based framework is proposed to model the coupling of transportation network and power grid for analyzing impacts of energy demand from electric vehicles on the operation of power distribution. Although the reverse can be investigated with the proposed framework as well, electricity flowing from a power grid to electric vehicles is the focus of this paper. Major variables in transportation network (including link flows) and power grid (including electricity transmitted) are introduced for the coupling. Roles of charging-in-motion technology and connected vehicle technology have been identified in the framework of supernetwork. A linkage (i.e. individual energy demand) between the two networks is defined to construct the supernetwork. To determine equilibrium of the supernetwork can also answer how many drivers are going to use the charging-in-motion services, in which locations, and at what time frame. An optimal operation plan of power distribution will be decided along the determination simultaneously by which we have a picture about what level of power demand from the grid is expected in locations during an analyzed period. Caveat of the framework and possible applications have also been discussed.

  5. Aspects of alternative energies for vehicle drives. Aspekte alternativer Energietraeger fuer Fahrzeugantriebe; Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains the manuscripts of the papers given at the VDI conference held in Wolfsburg, 24th to 26th November 1992. Conference subjects were: - environmental protection relative to road traffic; use of electrical drive and hybrid drive vehicles; use of fuels from regenerative raw materials; alternative fuels like methanol, ethanol, liquid gas, natural gas, hydrogen. Each of the 19 papers was abstracted for entry into the data base. (HW)

  6. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  7. Spatial multibody modeling and vehicle dynamics analysis of advanced vehicle technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letherwood, Michael D.; Gunter, David D.; Gorsich, David J.; Udvare, Thomas B.

    2004-08-01

    The US Army vision, announced in October of 1999, encompasses people, readiness, and transformation. The goal of the Army vision is to transition the entire Army into a force that is strategically responsive and dominant at every point of the spectrum of operations. The transformation component will be accomplished in three ways: the Objective Force, the Legacy (current) Force, and the Interim Force. The objective force is not platform driven, but rather the focus is on achieving capabilities that will operate as a "system of systems." As part of the Objective Force, the US Army plans to begin production of the Future Combat System (FCS) in FY08 and field the first unit by FY10 as currently defined in the FCS solicitation(1). As part of the FCS program, the Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) encompasses all US Army tactical wheeled vehicles and its initial efforts will focus only on the heavy class. The National Automotive Center (NAC) is using modeling and simulation to demonstrate the feasibility and operational potential of advanced commercial and military technologies with application to new and existing tactical vehicles and to describe potential future vehicle capabilities. This document will present the results of computer-based, vehicle dynamics performance assessments of FTTS concepts with such features as hybrid power sources, active suspensions, skid steering, and in-hub electric drive motors. Fully three-dimensional FTTS models are being created using commercially available modeling and simulation methodologies such as ADAMS and DADS and limited vehicle dynamics validation studies are will be performed.

  8. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  9. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Program (VTP) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/. These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current Fact is available Monday through Friday on the VTP homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2011. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  10. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  11. Bantam: A Systematic Approach to Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Carolyn; Lyles, Garry

    1999-01-01

    The Bantam technology project is focused on providing a low cost launch capability for very small (100 kilogram) NASA and University science payloads. The cost goal has been set at one million dollars per launch. The Bantam project, however, represents much more than a small payload launch capability. Bantam represents a unique, systematic approach to reusable launch vehicle technology development. This technology maturation approach will enable future highly reusable launch concepts in any payload class. These launch vehicle concepts of the future could deliver payloads for hundreds of dollars per pound, enabling dramatic growth in civil and commercial space enterprise. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has demonstrated a better, faster, and cheaper approach to science discovery in recent years. This approach is exemplified by the successful Mars Exploration Program lead by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the NASA Space Science Enterprise. The Bantam project represents an approach to space transportation technology maturation that is very similar to the Mars Exploration Program. The NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) and Future X Pathfinder Program will combine to systematically mature reusable space transportation technology from low technology readiness to system level flight demonstration. New reusable space transportation capability will be demonstrated at a small (Bantam) scale approximately every two years. Each flight demonstration will build on the knowledge derived from the previous flight tests. The Bantam scale flight demonstrations will begin with the flights of the X-34. The X-34 will demonstrate reusable launch vehicle technologies including; flight regimes up to Mach 8 and 250,000 feet, autonomous flight operations, all weather operations, twenty-five flights in one year with a surge capability of two flights in less than twenty-four hours and safe abort. The Bantam project will build on this initial

  12. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in water are up to 100 ug/1. According to MCL, present technologies are unadjusted for safely arsenic removal for concentrations below of 10 ug/1. This fact has inspired many companies to solve this problem adequately, by using an alternative technologies and new process able materials. In this paper the observation of conventional and the alternative technologies will be given, bearing in mind complex chemistry and electrochemistry of arsenic, formation of colloidal arsenic, which causes the biggest problems in water purification technologies. In this paper many results will be presented, which are obtained using the alternative technologies, as well as the newest results of original author's investigations. Using new nanomaterials, on Pilot plant "VALETA H2O-92", concentration of arsenic was removed far below MLC value.

  13. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program. DOE may issue, under the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program, 10 CFR part 611, subpart C, awards for eligible projects. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  14. 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 295 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 179 reviewers. A total of 1,354 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  15. 2015 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: 258 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by 170 reviewers. A total of 1,095 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  16. 2013 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held May 13-17, 2013, in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 287 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 187 reviewers. A total of 1,382 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  17. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  18. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  19. Hydrogen storage alternatives - a technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Joakim; Hjortsberg, Ove [Volvo Teknisk Utveckling AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This study reviews state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage alternatives for vehicles. We will also discuss the prospects and estimated cost for industrial production. The study is based on published literature and interviews with active researchers. Among the alternatives commercially available today, we suggest using a moderate-pressure chamber for seasonal stationary energy storage; metal hydride vessels for small stationary units; a roof of high-pressure cylinders for buses, trucks and ferries; cryogenic high-pressure vessels or methanol reformers for cars and tractors; and cryogenic moderate-pressure vessels for aeroplanes. Initial fuel dispensing systems should be designed to offer hydrogen in pressurised form for good fuel economy, but also as cryogenic liquid for occasional needs of extended driving range and as methanol for reformer-equipped vehicles. It is probable that hydrogen can be stored efficiently in adsorbents for use in recyclable hydrogen fuel containers or rechargeable hydrogen vessels operating at ambient temperature and possibly ambient pressure by year 2004, and at reasonable or even low cost by 2010. The most promising alternatives involve various forms of activated graphite nanostructures. Recommendations for further research and standardisation activities are given.

  20. Zero-emission vehicle technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T.

    1995-08-01

    This is the final report in the Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Technology Assessment, performed for NYSERDA by Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. Booz-Allen wrote the final report, and performed the following tasks as part of the assessment: assembled a database of key ZEV organizations, their products or services, and plans; described the current state of ZEV technologies; identified barriers to widespread ZEV deployment and projected future ZEV technical capabilities; and estimated the cost of ZEVs from 1998 to 2004. Data for the ZEV Technology Assessment were obtained from several sources, including the following: existing ZEV industry publications and Booz-Allen files; major automotive original equipment manufacturers; independent electric vehicle manufacturers; battery developers and manufacturers; infrastructure and component developers and manufacturers; the U.S. Department of Energy, the California Air Resources Board, and other concerned government agencies; trade associations such as the Electric Power Research Institute and the Electric Transportation Coalition; and public and private consortia. These sources were contacted by phone, mail, or in person. Some site visits of manufacturers also were conducted. Where possible, raw data were analyzed by Booz-Allen staff and/or verified by independent sources. Performance data from standardized test cycles were used as much as possible.

  1. Smart charging of electric vehicles with photovoltaic power and vehicle-to-grid technology in a microgrid; a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, Mart; van Sark, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    We present a model developed to study the increase of self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power by smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. Whereas previous studies mostly use large EV fleets in their models, our focus is on a smaller scale. We apply the mode

  2. Chemical characterization of emissions from advanced technology light-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lisa

    Results of detailed emissions measurements of seven 2000 model year advanced technology vehicles are reported. Six of the seven vehicles were imported from Europe and Japan and are not yet available for sale in Canada. Three of the vehicles were with direct injection diesel (DDI) technology, three with gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology and one vehicle was a gasoline-electric hybrid. It is expected that vehicles with these technologies will be forming a larger fraction of the Canadian light-duty vehicle fleet in the coming years in response to requirements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector in support of Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol; and as a result of improving fuel quality (most notably reducing the sulphur content of both diesel and gasoline). It is therefore important to understand the potential impacts on air quality of such changes in the composition of the vehicle fleet. The emissions from these vehicles were characterized over four test cycles representing different driving conditions. Samples of the exhaust were collected for determining methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds for the purposes of comparing ozone-forming potential of the emissions. Although these vehicles were not certified to Canadian emissions standards as tested, all vehicles met the then current Tier 1 emission standards, except for one diesel vehicle which did not meet the particulate matter (PM) standard. The DDI vehicles had the highest NO X emissions, the highest specific reactivity and the highest ozone-forming potential of the vehicles tested. When compared to conventional gasoline vehicles, the ozone-forming potential was equivalent. The GDI vehicles had lower NO X emissions, lower specific reactivity and lower ozone-forming potential than the conventional gasoline vehicles. Both the diesel and GDI vehicles had higher PM emissions than the conventional gasoline vehicles. The gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle

  3. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  4. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Lease Car Drivers in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2012-04-15

    In this paper we aim to get insight into preferences of Dutch lease car drivers for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and their characteristics. Since AFVs are either not yet available on the market or have only very limited market shares, we have to rely on stated preference research. We perform a state-of-the-art conjoint analysis, based on data obtained through an online choice experiment among Dutch lease car drivers. Results show that under current tax regulations the average lease car driver is indifferent between the conventional technology, flexifuel and the hybrid car, while negative preferences exist for the plug-in hybrid, the electric and the fuel cell car. When current tax regulations would be abolished, strong negative preferences would result for all AFCs, and especially for the electric and fuel cell car. Increases in driving range, reductions in refuelling time, and reductions in additional detour time for reaching an appropriate fuel station, increase AFV preferences substantially. On average the gap between conventional technologies and AFVs remains large, however. We also find that there is considerable heterogeneity in preferences of lease car drivers, and that various market segments and potential early adopters can be identified. In this respect the most interesting finding is that preferences for electric and fuel cell cars decrease substantially, and willingness to pay for driving range increases substantially, when annual mileage increases. Annual mileage also has a substantial impact on sensitivity to monthly costs. We therefore use simulations to assess market shares of electric and fuel cell cars for different annual mileage categories. We find that people with a relatively low annual mileage are more likely to adopt than people with a relatively high annual mileage, regardless of driving range and monthly costs. For the fuel cell car we find similar results, although when driving range is high and cost differences are large, lease car

  5. Analysis and innovation of key technologies for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高富东; 韩艳艳; 王海东; 徐男

    2015-01-01

    As the mission needs of the autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) have become increasingly varied and complex,the AUVs are developing in the direction of systematism, multifunction, and clustering technology, which promotes the progress of key technologies and proposes a series of technical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to make systemic analysis and in-depth study for the progress of AUV’s key technologies and innovative applications. The multi-functional mission needs and its key technologies involved in complex sea conditions are pointed out through analyzing the domestic and foreign technical programs, functional characteristics and future development plans. Furthermore, the overall design of a multi-moving state AUV is proposed. Then, technical innovations of the key technologies, such as thrust vector, propeller design, kinematics and dynamics, navigation control, and ambient flow field characteristics, are made, combining with the structural characteristics and motion characteristics of the new multi-moving state AUV. The results verify the good performance of the multi-moving state AUV and provide a theoretical guidance and technical support for the design of new AUV in real complex sea conditions.

  6. 78 FR 31535 - Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... slate of applicants developed for the Assistive Technology (AT) Alternative Financing Program (AFP) in... AT AFP. The notice indicated that the absolute and competitive preference priorities in the notice.... L. 113-006). In FY 2012, we received 15 applications for AT AFP grants and made three grant...

  7. Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).

  8. Alternative fuel vehicles for the Federal fleet: Results of the 5-year planning process. Executive Order 12759, Section 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report describes five-year plans for acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) by the Federal agencies. These plans will be used to encourage Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to expand the variety of AFVs produced, reduce the incremental cost of AFVs, and to encourage fuel suppliers to expand the alternative fuel infrastructure and alternative fuel availability. This effort supplements and extends the demonstration and testing of AFVs established by the Department of Energy under the alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988.

  9. Energy management in vehicles with alternative drives; Energiemanagement in Fahrzeugen mit alternativen Antrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, S.; Schimanski, M.

    2007-11-21

    Within the next few years, the automotive industry will be confronted with many challenges, as for example stricter emission standards and increasing oil prices. To meet the challenges, alternative drive concepts are currently being developed and placed in the market. To ensure a secure and efficient operation of the electric components, the introduction of an integrated energy management is required. It comprises all planning, controlling and predictive measures. The first part of this dissertation presents a new system concept, which can make an online prognosis of expected driving situations, such as speed and altitude profiles by means of internal vehicle information during an operating cycle. Based on this the control strategy can calculate the future power requirement of the vehicle and initiate control commands to enable a more efficient driving. The basis of this system concept is the recognition of routes with characteristic steering angle information and the creation of a history database for the routes driven with the respective vehicle speeds and altitudes. On the basis of an extensive analysis of the vehicle's electrical system in the second part of the dissertation, different effects on the development process for dimensioning the electrical system power supply are discussed. From this follows the necessity to develop a tool chain based on simulations. The tool chain consists of commercial simulation tools and the software Avanti (Advanced Analysis Tool and Simulation Interface) which is developed within the scope of the dissertation. Avanti enables an automated and optimal procedure when dimensioning the vehicle's electrical system in consideration of different control algorithms. A substantial part of this tool chain is the integration of a verified VHDL-AMS model library for the electrical system components. (orig.)

  10. Demonstration of alternative traffic information collection and management technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Helmut E.; Smith, Cy; Black, George; Petrolino, Joe

    2004-03-01

    Many of the components associated with the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to support a traffic management center (TMC) such as remote control cameras, traffic speed detectors, and variable message signs, have been available for many years. Their deployment, however, has been expensive and applied primarily to freeways and interstates, and have been deployed principally in the major metropolitan areas in the US; not smaller cities. The Knoxville (Tennessee) Transportation Planning Organization is sponsoring a project that will test the integration of several technologies to estimate near-real time traffic information data and information that could eventually be used by travelers to make better and more informed decisions related to their travel needs. The uniqueness of this demonstration is that it will seek to predict traffic conditions based on cellular phone signals already being collected by cellular communications companies. Information about the average speed on various portions of local arterials and incident identification (incident location) will be collected and compared to similar data generated by "probe vehicles". Successful validation of the speed information generated from cell phone data will allow traffic data to be generated much more economically and utilize technologies that are minimally infrastructure invasive. Furthermore, when validated, traffic information could be provided to the traveling public allowing then to make better decisions about trips. More efficient trip planning and execution can reduce congestion and associated vehicle emissions. This paper will discuss the technologies, the demonstration project, the project details, and future directions.

  11. Workshop on power conditioning for alternative energy technologies. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    As various alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaics, wind, fuel cells, and batteries are emerging as potential sources of energy for the future, the need arises for development of suitable power-conditioning systems to interface these sources to their respective loads. Since most of these sources produce dc electricity and most electrical loads require ac, an important component of the required power-conditioning units is a dc-to-ac inverter. The discussions deal with the development of power conditioners for each alternative energy technology. Discussion topics include assessments of current technology, identification of operational requirements with a comparison of requirements for each source technology, the identification of future technology trends, the determination of mass production and marketing requirements, and recommendations for program direction. Specifically, one working group dealt with source technology: photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries, and wind followed by sessions discussing system size and application: large grid-connected systems, small grid-connected systems, and stand alone and dc applications. A combined group session provided an opportunity to discuss problems common to power conditioning development.

  12. Economic and environmental benefits of technology fusion of solar photovoltaics with alternative technologies

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Technology fusion refers to the blending of several previously separate fields of existing technology, creating novel markets and growth opportunities. In technology fusion, one plus one equals three. This is indeed the case when fusing solar PV with alternative technologies: besides greenhouse gas emission reductions, additional advantages such as the savings of scarce land area, grid independency, diminishment of the effect of power variability of intermittent clean energy sources, and incr...

  13. CARB OBD-II Systems and their impact on alternative fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltusis, P. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Powertrain and Materials Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    An emission control system OBD-II and its impact on vehicle systems and components was discussed. OBD-II is a real time, on-board monitoring system that is part of the power-train control module. It consists of software, sensors and a malfunction indicator light; it monitors all emission related components and systems as the vehicle is being driven. The objectives of OBD-II were to (1) reduce high in-use emissions caused by emission-related malfunctions, (2) reduce time between occurrence of a malfunction and its detection repair, and (3) assist in the diagnosis and repair of emission-related problems. Generally, malfunctions are detected within two driving cycles. The OBD-II monitoring requirements for alternative fuel vehicles such as methanol, flex fuel, ethanol, natural gas, the implementation time table and exceptions thereto, and the unique OBD-II requirements for diesel engines for 1996 (deferrable to 1997 with Executive Officer approval), were also summarized. 15 figs.

  14. A STUDY ON LIMITATION OF GOVERNMENT INITIATIVE MODEL FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV PROMOTION IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghun Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese responsibility for reducing Greenhouse Gas or carbon dioxide emission increases continuously. Chinese government suggested two targets; Alternative Fuel Vehicle output volume 500 thousand and AFV market share 5% by the end of 2011. However any of two targets did not come true. Therefore this study accessed the question, ‘why Chinese government initiative model for AFV promotion has been so poor?’ This study reviewed the transition process for AFV policies in China and made a structural analysis for three key policies since 2009. As a result the number of articles for related industries or factor endowments was relatively more than firm strategy or demand conditions. Also this study accessed the AFV strategy of Six SOEs from the perspective of social responsibility. Six SOEs have more concentrated on electric vehicle rather than hybrid vehicle with following the government leadership. However major EV or HEV models of them mostly were made by Joint Ventures being under control of foreign makers and the JVs have actually controlled over AFV business. So the limitation of Chinese government initiative model resulted from supplier-centric approach with targeting for public transportation and institution consumer, and it caused a failure to create the demand conditions of general customers.

  15. Detuning Minimization of Induction Motor Drive System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different types of AC machines and various control techniques for their suitability for the drive system of Alternative Energy Vehicles (AEV. An Indirect Field Oriented (IFO drive system for the AEV application is chosen and its major problem of detuning is addressed by designing an offline and an online rotor resistance adaptation technique. The offline scheme sets the slip gain at various operating conditions based on the fact that if the rotor resistance is set correctly and field orientation is achieved, then there should be a linear relationship between the torque current and the output torque. The online technique is designed using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS for the rotor resistance adaptation. For an ideal field oriented machine, the rotor flux along the q-axis should be zero. This condition acts as a reference model for the proposed MRAS scheme. The current model flux observer in the synchronous frame of reference is selected as an adjustable model and its rotor resistance is tuned so that the flux along the q-axis becomes zero. The effectiveness of the offline tuning scheme is evident through performance validation of the drive system, which is implemented in a real Ford vehicle. The experimental results obtained while driving the test vehicle are included in the paper while the proposed online scheme is validated on a 3.75 kW prototype induction motor.

  16. Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackin, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    The Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT) was established to advance the state of the art in knowledge and education on critical technologies that support a renewable energy future. Our research and education efforts have focused on alternative energy systems, energy storage systems, and research on battery and hybrid energy storage systems.This report details the Center's progress in the following specific areas: Development of a battery laboratory; Development of a demonstration system for compressed air energy storage; Development of electric propulsion test systems; Battery storage systems; Thermal management of battery packs; and Construction of a micro-grid to support real-world performance monitoring of a renewable energy system.

  17. Alternative high-resolution lithographic technologies for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitner, Uwe D.; Weichelt, Tina; Bourgin, Yannick; Kinder, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Modern optical applications have special demands on the lithographic fabrication technologies. This relates to the lateral shape of the structures as well as to their three dimensional surface profile. On the other hand optical nano-structures are often periodic which allows for the use of dedicated lithographic exposure principles. The paper briefly reviews actual developments in the field of optical nano-structure generation. Special emphasis will be given to two technologies: electron-beam lithography based on a flexible cell-projection method and the actual developments in diffractive mask aligner lithography. Both offer a cost effective fabrication alternative for high resolution structures or three-dimensional optical surface profiles.

  18. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in wat...

  19. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies - Task 1 Report Technology Evaluation of Hydrogen Light Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Rousseau, Aymeric

    2007-12-01

    This task analyzes the candidate hydrogen-fueled vehicles for near-term use in the Southeastern U.S. The purpose of this work is to assess their potential in terms of efficiency and performance. This report compares conventional, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with gasoline and hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) as well as fuel cell and fuel cell hybrids from a technology as well as fuel economy point of view. All the vehicles have been simulated using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). First, some background information is provided on recent American automotive market trends and consequences. Moreover, available options are presented for introducing cleaner and more economical vehicles in the market in the future. In this study, analysis of various candidate hydrogen-fueled vehicles is performed using PSAT and, thus, a brief description of PSAT features and capabilities are provided. Detailed information on the simulation analysis performed is also offered, including methodology assumptions, fuel economic results, and conclusions from the findings.

  20. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  1. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Power Distribution System Considering Vehicle to Grid Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aljanad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comprehensive review of the potential technical impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power distribution and transmission systems. This review also presents various power quality impacts on the power system in several aspects. This review conveys a detailed analysis of electric vehicle charging strategies on electrical distribution networks. The two charging aspects (coordinated/uncoordinated and intelligent scheduling of charging are discussed in terms of their impacts on power systems. Vehicle to grid technology are investigated, elaborated and evaluated based on technical, suitability and configuration aspects.

  2. Alternative treatment technology information center computer database system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (ATTIC) computer database system was developed pursuant to the 1986 Superfund law amendments. It provides up-to-date information on innovative treatment technologies to clean up hazardous waste sites. ATTIC v2.0 provides access to several independent databases as well as a mechanism for retrieving full-text documents of key literature. It can be accessed with a personal computer and modem 24 hours a day, and there are no user fees. ATTIC provides {open_quotes}one-stop shopping{close_quotes} for information on alternative treatment options by accessing several databases: (1) treatment technology database; this contains abstracts from the literature on all types of treatment technologies, including biological, chemical, physical, and thermal methods. The best literature as viewed by experts is highlighted. (2) treatability study database; this provides performance information on technologies to remove contaminants from wastewaters and soils. It is derived from treatability studies. This database is available through ATTIC or separately as a disk that can be mailed to you. (3) underground storage tank database; this presents information on underground storage tank corrective actions, surface spills, emergency response, and remedial actions. (4) oil/chemical spill database; this provides abstracts on treatment and disposal of spilled oil and chemicals. In addition to these separate databases, ATTIC allows immediate access to other disk-based systems such as the Vendor Information System for Innovative Treatment Technologies (VISITT) and the Bioremediation in the Field Search System (BFSS). The user may download these programs to their own PC via a high-speed modem. Also via modem, users are able to download entire documents through the ATTIC system. Currently, about fifty publications are available, including Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program documents.

  3. Technology and future prospects for lightweight plastic vehicle structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Cuenca, R.M.; Bonsignore, P.V.

    1997-08-01

    The state of the technology and the materials and processing issues of using plastics in vehicle body applications (structural and semistructural) were assessed. Plastics are significantly lighter in weight, more easily fabricated into complex shapes, and more corrosion resistance than sheet steel, high-strength steel, or aluminum. However, at their current stage of development, plastics are deficient in one or more necessary properties: heat resistance and dimensional stability, stiffness and tensile strength, toughness, and impact resistance. To upgrade their physical properties for automotive chassis/body applications, plastics need to be compounds with suitable reinforcing fibers. As a short-term approach, the material of choice is a composite structure made with low-cost glass-fiber reinforcement, such as that made in the resin-transfer-molding (RTM) process and used in the body of the Dodge Viper. However, RTM technology based on thermosets requires a processing cycle time that is too long for large production runs. Adaptation of RTM to the formation of thermoplastic composite bodies could have a significant advantage over thermoset technology. Cyclic oligomers, which are precursors to thermoplastic matrix polymers, show promise for this application. Farther on the horizon are advanced composites compounds with the much more expensive (but stronger and stiffer) carbon-fiber reinforcement. However, significant price reductions of precursor materials and advances in processing and fabrication would be needed. Other materials holding promise are liquid crystal polymers (LCP) and LCP blends with other polymers (molecular composites). However, the cost of monomers and the subsequent polymerization technology also remains a considerable drawback to the widespread and increasing acceptance of LCPs.

  4. The Allure of Technology: How France and California Promoted Electric Vehicles to Reduce Urban Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calef, David; Goble, Robert

    2005-01-01

    All advanced industrialized societies face the problem of air pollution produced by motor vehicles. In spite of striking improvements in internal combustion engine technology, air pollution in most urban areas is still measured at levels determined to be harmful to human health. Throughout the 1990s and beyond, California and France both chose to improve air quality by means of technological innovation, adopting legislation that promoted clean vehicles, prominently among them, electric vehicl...

  5. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations.

  6. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations.

  7. Life-Cycle Analyses of Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Natural Gas-Based Alternative Vehicle Fuels in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunmin Ou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsinghua life-cycle analysis model (TLCAM has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for natural gas- (NG- based alternative vehicle fuels in China. The results show that (1 compress NG- and liquid NG-powered vehicles have similar well-to-wheels (WTW fossil energy uses to conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, but differences emerge with the distance of NG transportation. Additionally, thanks to NG having a lower carbon content than petroleum, CNG- and LNG-powered vehicles emit 10–20% and 5–10% less GHGs than gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, respectively; (2 gas-to-liquid- (GTL- powered vehicles involve approximately 50% more WTW fossil energy uses than conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, primarily because of the low efficiency of GTL production. Nevertheless, since NG has a lower carbon content than petroleum, GTL-powered vehicles emit approximately 30% more GHGs than conventional-fuel vehicles; (3 The carbon emission intensity of the LNG energy chain is highly sensitive to the efficiency of NG liquefaction and the form of energy used in that process.

  8. Natural gas engines; An eco-friendly alternative for buses, communal and distribution vehicles. Erdgasmotoren; Eine umweltfreundliche Alternative fuer Busse, Kommunal- und Verteilerfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signer, M. (Iveco Motorenforschung AG, Arbon (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas engines for buses, communal and distribution vehicles are an eco-friendly alternative. The exhaust emission values are distinctly lower than the Euro 2-Limit Values for 1995/1996 and lower than the discussed Euro 3 limits. As a result of the change to spark ignition and the reduced engine efficiency obtained, the natural gas engines consume 20 and more per cent energy. The CO[sub 2] emission are, however, comparable with those of a diesel engine. The vehicle fuel tanks are voluminous and heavy. Compromises must be made for the installation in vehicles which results in a reduction of the payload. Cost-favourable and lighter tanks would increase the attractivity of such vehicles. The natural gas vehicle is, at least today, dependent on a central refueling system (compressor station) at the vehicle operator or in his nearer neighbourhood. For the general and flexible operation of any type of utility vehicle, the diesel engine is and remains the optimum solution in view of ecology and economy. (orig.)

  9. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  10. Alternative energy technologies: their application in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Carmona, L.S.

    1980-08-01

    This paper was presented at the Fourth Annual Conference of INTA, in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1980. It deals with the possibilities of using alternative energy technologies in planned urban areas in the developing countries. The case of Mexico is used to analyze use, energy balance, inventories of energy resources, and forecasts of energy supply by the year 2000. Described is the relationship between urban structures and energy requirements, providing data and commentary with respect to Mexican national urban plans, and with its programs in the energy area. Data in charts, maps, and statistics are included.

  11. Using Natural Gas for Vehicles: Comparing Three Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas could be used as a transportation fuel, especially with the recent expansion of U.S. resource and production. This could mean burning natural gas in an internal combustion engine like most of the vehicles on the road today. Or, with the advanced vehicles now becoming available, other pathways are possible to use natural gas for personal vehicles. This fact sheet summarizes a comparison of efficiency and environmental metrics for three possible options.

  12. Using Natural Gas for Vehicles: Comparing Three Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas could be used as a transportation fuel, especially with the recent expansion of U.S. resource and production. This could mean burning natural gas in an internal combustion engine like most of the vehicles on the road today. Or, with the advanced vehicles now becoming available, other pathways are possible to use natural gas for personal vehicles. This brochure summarizes a comparison of efficiency and environmental metrics for three possible options.

  13. Low-Resolution Vehicle Image Recognition Technology by Frame-Composition of Moving Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzawa, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Ohkawa, Takenao; Ito, Toshio

    Developing on-board automotive driver assistance systems aiming to alert drivers about driving environments, and possible collision with other vehicles has attracted a lot of attention lately. Especially, many researchers have suggested the forward vehicle recognition technology by a camera on vehicle. In the forward vehicle recognition, however, it is difficult to detect the features of vehicle from a distant vehicle image by conventional methods because the image is too low-resolution (LR). This paper presents vehicle image recognition technology for detecting of the features of a distant vehicle by frame-composition of moving images. To detect the vehicle features of a distant LR vehicle image, we use the moving images obtained from the camera on the vehicle, and utilize super-resolution (SR) image reconstruction. SR image reconstruction is to use signal processing techniques to obtain a high-resolution (or sequence) image from observed multiple LR images. Use of this technique on real road image, we show the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  14. Loan-Based Crowdfunding as an Alternative Vehicle for Channelling Savings: The Collaborative Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Soriano Llobera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Loan-based crowdfunding, which is already well established in the US and Britain and is a new phenomenon in the Spanish market, is an investment vehicle for retail investors and institutional funds and also an interesting financial product for the small and medium enterprise segment (henceforth, SME. The recent regulation of crowdfunding in Spain (called “inclusive finance platforms” in the corresponding legislation increases transparency and legal certainty for both investors and companies requiring credit; it establishes a legal framework, specifies the entities authorised to act as platforms, and clarifies the rules applying to the various stakeholders. This standard should promote the consolidation of this new mechanism of financial disintermediation based on the new technologies. It is likely to increase the number of financial suppliers in Spain and in Europe as a whole where, unlike the US market with its financial diversification, the capital market is characterised by its dependency on the traditional banking system. The inefficiency that this creates in the financial market has an adverse impact on the financial structures of the SME segment and, as a result, on its productivity, employment, and returns. In this situation, loan-based crowdfunding may be part of the solution.Through the collection of empirical data from a crowdfunding reference platform in Spain, this article analyses the profitability-risk trade off of crowdfunding and compares loan-based-crowdfunding with other traditional investment vehicles such as investment funds, equities and pension funds. In addition, the factors that explain the cost of capital for loans, in particular loan maturity and company credit rating, are identified through a regression model. The conclusion of the study is that saving through crowdfunding allows optimisation of a portfolio comprising both institutional and retail investors. Crowdfunding can contribute to solving the problem of the

  15. Electric vehicles: energy consumption and the comparision with other new vehicle technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Schillemans, R.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the end of the 19th century the electric vehicle (EV) controlled the market for road transport. But with remarkable improvements in the performance of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), EVs had vanished from the scene by the 1930's. Since then, they have attracted interest from time to

  16. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  17. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lebeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles. Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  18. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile. PMID:26236769

  19. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, S.; Due-Hansen, J.; Putluru, S.S.R.; Kunov-Kruse, A.; Fehrmann, R.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-04-15

    The aim of the project is to identify, make and test possible alkali resistant deNO{sub x} catalysts for use in biomass, waste or fossil fuelled power plants, where the flue gas typically has a high level of potassium compounds, which rapidly de-activate the traditional V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst. Furthermore, new technologies are investigated based on a protective coating of the catalyst elements and selective reversible absorption of NO{sub x} with ionic liquids. Several promising alternative deNO{sub x} catalyst types have been made during the project: 1) V, Fe, CU based nano-TiO{sub 2} and nano-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} catalysts; 2) V/ZrO{sub 2}-SO{sub 2}- and V/ZrO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} catalysts; V, Fe, Cu based Zeolite catalysts; 4) V, Fe, Cu based Heteropoly acid catalysts. Several of these are promising alternatives to the state-of the art industrial reference catalyst. All catalysts prepared in the present project exhibit higher to much higher alkali resistance compared to the commercial reference. Furthermore, two catalysts, i.e. 20 wt% V{sub 2}O-3-TiO{sub 2} nano-catalyst and the 4 wt% CuO-Mordenite zeolite based catalyst have also a higher initial SCR activity compared to the commercial one before alkali poisoning. Thus, those two catalysts might be attractive for SCR deNO{sub x} purposes even under ''normal'' fuel conditions in power plants and elsewhere making them strong candidates for further development. These efforts regarding all the promising catalysts will be pursued after this project has expired through a one year Proof of Concept project granted by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation. Also the severe rate of deactivation due to alkali poisons can be avoided by coating the vanadium catalyst with Mg. Overall, the protective coating of SCR catalysts developed in the project seems promising and a patent application has been filed for this technology. Finally, a completely different approach to

  20. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric

  2. A Framework for Integration of IVHM Technologies for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Mike

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of IIVM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the effected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  3. Lightweight Materials for Vehicles: Needs, Goals, and Future Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    casting vs. 28 piece steel assembly - AHSS rear cradle for RWD vehicles - 28% lighter than conventional design, no loss of stiffness - Cost neutral...intensive - 30% weight reduction for BIW Energy Foundation - Lotus - AHSS intensive vehicle - 16% weight reduction for BIW Mg Front End - Mg...Road Map Properties and Manufacturing Multi-material Enabling Modeling and CMS Al Alloys CF Polymer Composites Mg Alloys AHSS Ti Alloys

  4. Hybrid Technologies for Clandestine Electric Reconnaissance Vehicles (CERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    of other on board equipment. The OPC and high voltage Energy Storage system operate in concert with the Motor-Generator and Controller to form...the Vehicle DC Bus. When operating in PHEV mode from external power, the OPC provides power to the Vehicle DC Bus if either the Energy Storage System...commercial electric and hybrid buses. He has designed several motor drives including a 500 HP drive for sonar pulse power using a flywheel for energy

  5. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaek, M.O.

    2012-03-15

    Enzymes are used in an increasing number of industries. The application of enzymes is extending into the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in processes that economically can compete with fossil fuels. Since lignocellulosic ethanol is based on renewable resources it will have a positive impact on for example the emission of green house gasses. Cellulases and hemi-cellulases are used for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass, and fermentable sugars are released upon the enzymatic process. Even though many years of research has decreased the amount of enzyme needed in the process, the cost of enzymes is still considered a bottleneck in the economic feasibility of lignocellulose utilization. The purpose of this project was to investigate and compare different technologies for production of these enzymes. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is currently used for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesis was to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed-batch fermentation. The process was carried out in pilot scale stirred tank reactors and based on a range of different process conditions, a process model was constructed which satisfactory described the course of fermentation. The process was governed by the rate limiting mass transfer of oxygen from the gas to the liquid phase. During fermentation, filamentous growth of the fungus lead to increased viscosity which hindered mass transfer. These mechanisms were described by a viscosity model based on the biomass concentration of the fermentation broth and a mass transfer correlation that incorporated a viscosity term. An analysis of the uncertainty and sensitivity of the model indicated the biological parameters to be responsible for most of the model uncertainty. A number of alternative

  6. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M.; Bremson, J.; Solo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

  7. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  8. Testing Low-Energy, High-Power Energy Storage Alternatives in a Full-Hybrid Vehicle (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, J.; Gonger, J.

    2014-01-01

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle gasoline use. However, the battery cost in HEVs contribute to higher incremental cost of HEVs (a few thousand dollars) than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. Significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost vs. benefit relationship for HEVs. Such an improvement could lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate gasoline savings. After significant analysis by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage program suggested a new set of requirements for ESS for power-assist HEVs for cost reduction without impacting performance and fuel economy significantly. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This poster will describe development of the LEESS HEV test platform, and LEESS laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results. The first LEESS technology tested was lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) - i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). We will discuss the performance and fuel saving results with LIC with comparison with original NiMH battery.

  9. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-07-31

    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36`` diameter x 6` high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20` diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling

  10. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  11. Opportunities of the new technological model of light vehicle fuels in South America; Oportunidades futuras no novo modelo tecnologico de combustiveis para veiculos leves na America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Jose Diamantino de A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chaves, Hernani Aquini F.; Jones, Cleveland Maximino [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia (DEPA)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to show which solutions the South American market is putting forth for the new technological model of the automotive fuel for light duty vehicles. A strong and irreversible trend is underway, which is seeking more environmentally friendly and economically attractive alternatives for the conventional automotive technology, based on the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel. This trend is evident not only in Latin America, but also in many other countries and regions, and has resulted in a great number of vehicle conversions, so as to operate with vehicular natural gas. Another important way in which this trend has expressed itself is the commercial acceptance and success of the tetra fuel technology vehicles. (author)

  12. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  13. 7th Conference Simulation and Testing for Vehicle Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Riese, Jens; Rüden, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The book includes contributions on the latest model-based methods for the development of personal and commercial vehicle control devices. The main topics treated are: application of simulation and model design to development of driver assistance systems; physical and database model design for engines, motors, powertrain, undercarriage and the whole vehicle; new simulation tools, methods and optimization processes; applications of simulation in function and software development; function and software testing using HiL, MiL and SiL simulation; application of simulation and optimization in application of control devices; automation approaches at all stages of the development process.

  14. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions.

  15. 77 FR 73458 - Vehicle Technologies Program; Request for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... consumers in reducing petroleum consumption in vehicles. DOE is seeking partners interested in including.... Authority and Background FuelEconomy.gov is authorized under the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Pub. L. 94-163), which required DOE to publish and distribute the annual Fuel Economy Guide...

  16. Application of lap laser welding technology on stainless steel railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxiao; Wang, Chunsheng; He, Guangzhong; Li, Wei; Liu, Liguo

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steel railway vehicles with so many advantages, such as lightweight, antirust, low cost of maintenance and simple manufacturing process, so the production of high level stainless steel railway vehicles has become the development strategy of European, American and other developed nations. The current stainless steel railway vehicles body and structure are usually assembled by resistance spot welding process. The weak points of this process are the poor surface quality and bad airtight due to the pressure of electrodes. In this study, the partial penetration lap laser welding process was investigated to resolve the problems, by controlling the laser to stop at the second plate in the appropriate penetration. The lap laser welding joint of stainless steel railway vehicle car body with partial penetration has higher strength and surface quality than those of resistance spot welding joint. The biggest problem of lap laser welding technology is to find the balance of the strength and surface quality with different penetrations. The mechanism of overlap laser welding of stainless steel, mechanical tests, microstructure analysis, the optimization of welding parameters, analysis of fatigue performance, the design of laser welding stainless steel railway vehicles structure and the development of non-destructive testing technology were systematically studied before lap laser welding process to be applied in manufacture of railway vehicles. The results of the experiments and study show that high-quality surface state and higher fatigue strength can be achieved by the partial penetration overlap laser welding of the side panel structure, and the structure strength of the car body can be higher than the requirements of En12663, the standard of structural requirements of railway vehicles bodies. Our company has produced the stainless steel subway and high way railway vehicles by using overlap laser welding technology. The application of lap laser welding will be a big

  17. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  18. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-29

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles.

  19. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications advanced analysis of vehicle related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This book looks at the broad field of engineering science through the lens of nonlinear approaches. Examples focus on issues in vehicle technology, including vehicle dynamics, vehicle-road interaction, steering, and control for electric and hybrid vehicles. Also included are discussions on train and tram systems, aerial vehicles, robot-human interaction, and contact and scratch analysis at the micro/nanoscale. Chapters are based on invited contributions from world-class experts in the field who advance the future of engineering by discussing the development of more optimal, accurate, efficient, and cost and energy effective systems. This book is appropriate for researchers, students, and practicing engineers who are interested in the applications of nonlinear approaches to solving engineering and science problems.

  20. Research of Energy Regeneration Technology in Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家新; 江建中; 汪信尧

    2003-01-01

    The theory of energy regeneration in electric vehicle (EV) has been introduced in most papers, but the mathematic model of EV energy regeneration system was little studied. In this paper the mathematic model of EV energy regeneration system is studied,and then the system ability under four control strategies is analyzed. In the end the system reliability is researched, and the calcula-tion model of system reliability is proposed.

  1. Magnesium Technology and Manufacturing for Ultra Lightweight Armored Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Bruce Davis and Rick DeLorme Magnesium Elektron North America, Inc. A reprint from the Proceedings of the 2008 Army Science Conference...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES *Magnesium Elektron North America, Inc., 1001 College St., Madison, IL 62060 A reprint from the Proceedings of the 2008 Army Science...initial emphasis on the Elektron WE43 alloy system for lightweight armored ground vehicle applications. Engineering design factors are reviewed and

  2. NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle Technologies: A Composite Materials Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Cook, Steve; Effinger, Mike; Smith, Dennis; Swint, Shayne

    1999-01-01

    A materials overview of the NASA's Earth-to-Orbit Space Transportation Program is presented. The topics discussed are: Earth-to-Orbit Goals and Challenges; Space Transportation Program Structure; Generations of Reusable Launch Vehicles; Space Transportation Derived Requirements; X 34 Demonstrator; Fastrac Engine System; Airframe Systems; Propulsion Systems; Cryotank Structures; Advanced Materials, Fabrication, Manufacturing, & Assembly; Hot and Cooled Airframe Structures; Ceramic Matrix Composites; Ultra-High Temp Polymer Matrix Composites; Metal Matrix Composites; and PMC Lines Ducts and Valves.

  3. Wright Brothers Lectureship in Aeronautics: Experience with HiMAT remotely piloted research vehicle - An alternate flight test approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deets, D. A.; Brown, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program explored the various and complex interactions of advanced technologies, such as aeroelastic tailoring, close-coupled canard, and relaxed static stability. A 0.44-subscale remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) of a hypothetical fighter airplane was designed and flight-tested to determine the effects of these interactions and to define the design techniques appropriate for advanced fighter technologies. Flexibility and high maneuverability were provided by flight control laws implemented in ground-based computers and telemetered to the vehicle control system during flight tests. The high quality of the flight-measured data and their close correlation with the analytical design modeling proved that the RPRV is a viable and cost-effective tool for developing aerodynamic, structure, and control law requirements for highly maneuverable fighter airplanes of the future.

  4. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  5. Electric vehicle technology : moving to commercial reality : lessons learned from a U.S. government agency's initiatives with the private sector in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R.K. [USAID, New Delhi (India); Schweitzer, S. [USAID, Washington, DC (United States); Vincent, D. [Nexant/A Bechtel Consulting Co., Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a growing concern in India. Acceleration and deceleration of inefficient vehicles and increasingly congested roadways generate exhaust gases, which results in hospital admissions and deaths from urban air pollution. However, India has a vehicle manufacturing industry that strives to determine the feasibility of alternative transport technologies. It represents an ideal area in which to introduce alternative vehicles, since the driving distances are relatively short, the disposable income is increasing, and its population is more conscious of urban air pollution. The stimulation of many partnerships with the private sector towards the creation of an electric vehicle market is the stated aim of the USAID's mission in India, in conjunction with the Global Environmental Center in Washington, D.C. Having gained useful experience from a similar effort in Thailand where they introduced a 3-wheeled electric vehicle (EV), the efforts in India cover a broader spectrum with targeted multi-prong EV demonstration programs involving scooters, autorickshaws, and automobiles. It is expected that by the end of 2000, the first electric automobiles will roll off the assembly line in India, as well as prototypes of electric scooters and autorickshaws on the streets of Delhi and Agra. Electric vehicles in India represent a relatively benign option for the consumer toward the goal of mitigating urban air pollution and its debilitating effects. tabs., figs.

  6. Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface PreparationlDepainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2006-01-01

    For this project, particulates and solvents used during the depainting process of steel structures were the identified hazardous material (HazMat) targeted for elimination or reduction. This Potential Alternatives Report (PAR) provides technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and center participant recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered fifteen (15) alternatives. In late 2004, stakeholders down-selected the list and identified specific processes as potential alternatives to the current depainting methods. The selected alternatives were: 1. Plastic Blast Media 2. Hard Abrasive Media 3. Sponge Blast Media 4. Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment 5. Liquid Nitrogen 6. Laser Coating Removal Available information about these processes was used to analyze the technical merits and the potential environmental, safety, and occupational health (ESOH) impacts of these methods. A preliminary cost benefit analysis will be performed to determine if implementation of alternative technologies is economically justified. NASA AP2

  7. Technology assessment of alternative transportation fuels. Management report No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-10

    A scenario is developed which depicts the transition, during the period from 1980 to 1997, of mainline freight railroads in the US from diesel to electric power. Progress in developing an econometric model of the market penetration of electric-powered vehicles in the US to the year 2010 is reported. (LCL)

  8. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  9. Multi-level multi-criteria analysis of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoun, Mousa; Madani, Kaveh; Reinhart, Debra

    2016-04-15

    Historically, the U.S. waste collection fleet was dominated by diesel-fueled waste collection vehicles (WCVs); the growing need for sustainable waste collection has urged decision makers to incorporate economically efficient alternative fuels, while mitigating environmental impacts. The pros and cons of alternative fuels complicate the decisions making process, calling for a comprehensive study that assesses the multiple factors involved. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods allow decision makers to select the best alternatives with respect to selection criteria. In this study, two MCDA methods, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), were used to rank fuel alternatives for the U.S. waste collection industry with respect to a multi-level environmental and financial decision matrix. The environmental criteria consisted of life-cycle emissions, tail-pipe emissions, water footprint (WFP), and power density, while the financial criteria comprised of vehicle cost, fuel price, fuel price stability, and fueling station availability. The overall analysis showed that conventional diesel is still the best option, followed by hydraulic-hybrid WCVs, landfill gas (LFG) sourced natural gas, fossil natural gas, and biodiesel. The elimination of the WFP and power density criteria from the environmental criteria ranked biodiesel 100 (BD100) as an environmentally better alternative compared to other fossil fuels (diesel and natural gas). This result showed that considering the WFP and power density as environmental criteria can make a difference in the decision process. The elimination of the fueling station and fuel price stability criteria from the decision matrix ranked fossil natural gas second after LFG-sourced natural gas. This scenario was found to represent the status quo of the waste collection industry. A sensitivity analysis for the status quo scenario showed the overall ranking of diesel and

  10. Impact of digital systems technology on man-vehicle systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretoi, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The present study, based on a NASA technology assessment, examines the effect of new technologies on trends in crew-systems design and their implications from the vantage point of man-vehicle systems research. Those technologies that are most relevant to future trends in crew-systems design are considered along with problems associated with the introduction of rapidly changing technologies and systems concepts from a human-factors point of view. The technologies discussed include information processing, displays and controls, flight and propulsion control, flight and systems management, air traffic control, training and simulation, and flight and resource management. The historical evolution of cockpit systems design is used to illustrate past and possible future trends in man-vehicle systems research.

  11. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector; Teknologivurdering af altgernative drivmidler til transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of the alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. (BA)

  12. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  13. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  14. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  15. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  16. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Fact sheets on technology elements and system calculations for technology tracks; Teknologivurdering af alternative drivmidler til transportsektoren. Fakta-ark for teknologi-elementer og systemberegninger for teknologi-spor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. This appendix presents key fact sheets which substantiate the analysis presented in the report 'Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector'. (BA)

  17. Measuring the distribution of equity in terms of energy, environmental, and economic costs in the fuel cycles of alternative fuel vehicles with hydrogen pathway scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E.

    Numerous analyses exist which examine the energy, environmental, and economic tradeoffs between conventional gasoline vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles powered by hydrogen produced from a variety of sources. These analyses are commonly referred to as "E3" analyses because of their inclusion of Energy, Environmental, and Economic indicators. Recent research as sought a means to incorporate social Equity into E3 analyses, thus producing an "E4" analysis. However, E4 analyses in the realm of energy policy are uncommon, and in the realm of alternative transportation fuels, E4 analyses are extremely rare. This dissertation discusses the creation of a novel E4 simulation tool usable to weigh energy, environmental, economic, and equity trade-offs between conventional gasoline vehicles and alternative fuel vehicles, with specific application to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The model, dubbed the F uel Life-cycle Analysis of Solar Hydrogen -- Energy, Environment, Economic & Equity model, or FLASH-E4, is a total fuel-cycle model that combines energy, environmental, and economic analysis methodologies with the addition of an equity analysis component. The model is capable of providing results regarding total fuel-cycle energy consumption, emissions production, energy and environmental cost, and level of social equity within a population in which low-income drivers use CGV technology and high-income drivers use a number of advanced hydrogen FCV technologies. Using theories of equity and social indicators conceptually embodied in the Lorenz Curve and Gini Index, the equity of the distribution of societal energy and environmental costs are measured for a population in which some drivers use CGVs and other drivers use FCVs. It is found, based on baseline input data representative of the United States (US), that the distribution of energy and environmental costs in a population in which some drivers use CGVs and other drivers use natural gas-based hydrogen FCVs can be

  18. The impact of active controls technology on the structural integrity of aeronautical vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Thomas E.; Austin, Edward; Donley, Shawn; Graham, George; Harris, Terry; Kaynes, Ian; Lee, Ben; Sparrow, James

    1993-01-01

    The findings of an investigation conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to assess the impact of active controls technology on the structural integrity of aeronautical vehicles and to evaluate the present state-of-the-art for predicting loads caused by a flight-control system modification and the resulting change in the fatigue life of the flight vehicle are summarized. Important points concerning structural technology considerations implicit in applying active controls technology in new aircraft are summarized. These points are well founded and based upon information received from within the aerospace industry and government laboratories, acquired by sponsoring workshops which brought together experts from contributing and interacting technical disciplines, and obtained by conducting a case study to independently assess the state of the technology. The paper concludes that communication between technical disciplines is absolutely essential in the design of future high performance aircraft.

  19. Vehicle technologies program Government Performance and Results Act (GPA) report for fiscal year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.; Stephens, T. S.; Birky, A. K. (Energy Systems); (DOE-EERE); (TA Engineering)

    2012-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has defined milestones for its Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP). This report provides estimates of the benefits that would accrue from achieving these milestones relative to a base case that represents a future in which there is no VTP-supported vehicle technology development. Improvements in the fuel economy and reductions in the cost of light- and heavy-duty vehicles were estimated by using Argonne National Laboratory's Autonomie powertrain simulation software and doing some additional analysis. Argonne also estimated the fraction of the fuel economy improvements that were attributable to VTP-supported development in four 'subsystem' technology areas: batteries and electric drives, advanced combustion engines, fuels and lubricants, and materials (i.e., reducing vehicle mass, called 'lightweighting'). Oak Ridge National Laboratory's MA{sup 3}T (Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies) tool was used to project the market penetration of light-duty vehicles, and TA Engineering's TRUCK tool was used to project the penetrations of medium- and heavy-duty trucks. Argonne's VISION transportation energy accounting model was used to estimate total fuel savings, reductions in primary energy consumption, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that would result from achieving VTP milestones. These projections indicate that by 2030, the on-road fuel economy of both light- and heavy-duty vehicles would improve by more than 20%, and that this positive impact would be accompanied by a reduction in oil consumption of nearly 2 million barrels per day and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of more than 300 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. These benefits would have a significant economic value in the U.S. transportation sector and reduce its dependency on oil and its vulnerability to oil price shocks.

  20. Alternative deNO{sub x} catalysts and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Due-Hansen, J.

    2010-06-15

    produced to evaluate the optimum mixing ratio. Based on these results, a monolith containing V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SO{sub 4}2-ZrO{sub 2} in 25 wt% sepiolite was produced, and evaluated with respect to the influence of space velocity, reaction temperature, and NH{sub 3}/NO feed ratio on the NO reduction efficiency. The last part of this thesis deals with the non-catalytic sorption of NO{sub x} in ionic liquids, collected in chapter 5. Since no previous studies of the absorption of NO in ionic liquids have been reported, a preliminary study was conducted to identify suitable solvents. Two resulting imidazolium-based candidates, namely [BMIM]OAc and [BMIM]OTf, were selected due to their impressively high sorption capacities. Both solvents examined here revealed solubilities about twofold higher than those previously reported for e.g. CO{sub 2}-capture in ionic liquids. Especially the [BMIM]OAc demonstrated extraordinary absorption capabilities, being able to retain around four NO molecules per molecule ionic liquid. However, [BMIM]OTf exhibited promising behavior due to its reversible absorption/desorption properties. This in principle allows recycling of the ionic liquid as well as harvesting the NO. The accumulated NO could hereby be used in e.g. the synthesis of nitric acid allowing production of value-added chemicals from waste flue gas effluent. Although additional understanding of the mechanisms of the presented system is required, the perspective of a selective NO stripping technology is a very interesting alternative to the catalytic removal of NO from industrial flue gases. (Author)

  1. Access to augmentative and alternative communication: new technologies and clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fager, Susan; Bardach, Lisa; Russell, Susanne; Higginbotham, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Children with severe physical impairments require a variety of access options to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and computer technology. Access technologies have continued to develop, allowing children with severe motor control impairments greater independence and access to communication. This article will highlight new advances in access technology, including eye and head tracking, scanning, and access to mainstream technology, as well as discuss future advances. Considerations for clinical decision-making and implementation of these technologies will be presented along with case illustrations.

  2. Impact of new computing systems on computational mechanics and flight-vehicle structures technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Storaasli, O. O.; Fulton, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Advances in computer technology which may have an impact on computational mechanics and flight vehicle structures technology were reviewed. The characteristics of supersystems, highly parallel systems, and small systems are summarized. The interrelations of numerical algorithms and software with parallel architectures are discussed. A scenario for future hardware/software environment and engineering analysis systems is presented. Research areas with potential for improving the effectiveness of analysis methods in the new environment are identified.

  3. Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.; Gore, B.F.; Overcast, T.D.; Rankin, W.R.; Schreiber, R.E.; Tawil, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets.

  4. Technical and Economical study of New Technologies and Reusable Space Vehicles promoting Space Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, Deepanshu; Malhotra, Sahil

    2012-07-01

    For many of us space tourism is an extremely fascinating and attractive idea. But in order for these to start we need vehicles that will take us to orbit and bring us back. Current space vehicles clearly cannot. Only the Space Shuttle survives past one use, and that's only if we ignore the various parts that fall off on the way up. So we need reusable launch vehicles. Launch of these vehicles to orbit requires accelerating to Mach 26, and therefore it uses a lot of propellant - about 10 tons per passenger. But there is no technical reason why reusable launch vehicles couldn't come to be operated routinely, just like aircraft. The main problem about space is how much it costs to get there, it's too expensive. And that's mainly because launch vehicles are expendable - either entirely, like satellite launchers, or partly, like the space shuttle. The trouble is that these will not only reduce the cost of launch - they'll also put the makers out of business, unless there's more to launch than just a few satellites a year, as there are today. Fortunately there's a market that will generate far more launch business than satellites ever well - passenger travel. This paper assesses this emerging market as well as technology that will make space tourism feasible. The main conclusion is that space vehicles can reduce the cost of human transport to orbit sufficiently for large new commercial markets to develop. Combining the reusability of space vehicles with the high traffic levels of space tourism offers the prospect of a thousandfold reduction in the cost per seat to orbit. The result will be airline operations to orbit involving dozens of space vehicles, each capable of more than one flight per day. These low costs will make possible a rapid expansion of space science and exploration. Luckily research aimed at developing low-cost reusable launch vehicles has increased recently. Already there are various projects like Spaceshipone, Spaceshiptwo, Spacebus, X-33 NASA etc. The

  5. Alternative energies for transportation at the end of the mineral-oil aera. Pt. 3. Electricity offers good chances for short-distance vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.G. (GES Gesellschaft fuer Elektrischen Strassenverkehr m.b.H., Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.)); Ehren, N.; Thomas, R.

    1977-09-01

    In three parts the article tests the possible ways of using an alternative fuel for motor vehicles. This third part deals with the application of electrical energy for the operation of motor vehicles. Special stress is laid on showing electronic drives which are rational for distances up to 100 km. A consequent development of vehicles used in short-haul traffic could lead to the result that, by the end of the century, 1/3 of all vehicles would be operated with electrical energy. Coal and nuclear energy will be used more and more instead of mineral oil.

  6. Impacts of Interior Permanent Magnet Machine Technology for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    system forms the backbone of modern society. Electricity and its accessibility is one of the major engineering achievements. In order to maintain and...Minimum weight and smallest size  Low fuel consumption rate (litre/km)  New ICE engine technology with hybrid gasoline/diesel  Homogenous...charge-compression ignition ( HCCI )  Clean and environmentally benign  Quiet, smooth and comfortable ride  Better battery power and self-charging

  7. Uncertainty in diffusion of competing technologies and application to electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploetz, Patrick [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Systems

    2011-07-01

    The diffusion of innovations is an important process and its models have applications in many fields, with particular relevance in technological forecast. The logistic equation is one of most important models in this context. Extensions of this approach as the Lotka-Volterra model have been developed to include the effect of mutual influences between technologies such as competition. However, many of the parameters entering this description are uncertain, difficult to estimate or simply unknown, particularly at early stages of the diffusion. Here, a systematic way to study the effect of uncertain or unknown parameters on the future diffusion of interacting innovations is proposed. The input required is a general qualitative understanding of the system: is the mutual influence positive or negative and does it apply symmetrically to either technology? Since the parameters enter the problem via a set of coupled non-linear differential equations, the approach proposed here goes beyond simple Monte-Carlo-like methods where the result is an explicit function of the parameters. The methodology is developed in detail and applied the case of three types of upcoming electric vehicle propulsion technologies. The findings indicate that competition between electric vehicles and mild hybrid vehicles implies a slow decline of the latter. The approach can easily be generalised to include other initial conditions, more technologies or other technological areas to find stable results for future market evolution independent of specific parameters. (orig.)

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  9. Structures and Materials Technologies for Extreme Environments Applied to Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.; Clay, Christopher; Rezin, Marc

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the evolution of structures and materials technology approaches to survive the challenging extreme environments encountered by earth-to-orbit space transportation systems, with emphasis on more recent developments in the USA. The evolution of technology requirements and experience in the various approaches to meeting these requirements has significantly influenced the technology approaches. While previous goals were primarily performance driven, more recently dramatic improvements in costs/operations and in safety have been paramount goals. Technologies that focus on the cost/operations and safety goals in the area of hot structures and thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles are presented. Assessments of the potential ability of the various technologies to satisfy the technology requirements, and their current technology readiness status are also presented.

  10. Atmospheric Photochemistry Studies of Pollutant Emissions from Transportation Vehicles Operating on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, H.; Sexton, K.; Yu, J.

    1998-07-01

    This project was undertaken with the goal of improving our ability to predict the changes in urban ozone resulting from the widespread use of alternative fuels in automobiles. This report presents the results in detail.

  11. AVID - A design system for technology studies of advanced transportation concepts. [Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Rehder, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic AVID (Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design) is a general system for conceptual and preliminary design currently being applied to a broad range of future space transportation and spacecraft vehicle concepts. AVID hardware includes a minicomputer allowing rapid designer interaction. AVID software includes (1) an executive program and communication data base which provide the automated capability to couple individual programs, either individually in an interactive mode or chained together in an automatic sequence mode; and (2) the individual technology and utility programs which provide analysis capability in areas such as graphics, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, weights, sizing, and costs.

  12. Technology and alternative cancer therapies: an analysis of heterodoxy and constructivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, D J

    1996-12-01

    Theories of the construction of technology are reviewed from the wider interdisciplinary conversation known as science and technology studies (STS) and from the growing field of the anthropology of science and technology. These theories are used to contribute to research situated at the intersection of the anthropology of alternative medicine and of medical technologies. Cases drawn from the research tradition on microbial theories of cancer are considered to show how unorthodox medical theories become embedded in technologies through choices in microscope design and treatment technologies. In turn, the technologies contribute to the heterodox standing of the researchers, their research, and their therapies.

  13. Hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support (HVTE-TS) project. 1995--1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a summary of technical work accomplished on the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine--Technology Support (HVTE-TS) Project during calendar years 1995 and 1996. Work was performed under an initial National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract DEN3-336. As of September 1996 the contract administration was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DoE) Chicago Operations Office, and renumbered as DE-AC02-96EE50553. The purpose of the HVTE-TS program is to develop gas turbine engine technology in support of DoE and automotive industry programs exploring the use of gas turbine generator sets in hybrid-electric automotive propulsion systems. The program focus is directed to the development of four key technologies to be applied to advanced turbogenerators for hybrid vehicles: Structural ceramic materials and processes; Low emissions combustion systems; Regenerators and seals systems; and Insulation systems and processes. 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Research and technology goals and objectives for Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) is defined herein as the capability to efficiently perform checkout, testing, and monitoring of space transportation vehicles, subsystems, and components before, during, and after operational This includes the ability to perform timely status determination, diagnostics, and prognostics. IVHM must support fault-tolerant response including system/subsystem reconfiguration to prevent catastrophic failures; and IVHM must support the planning and scheduling of post-operational maintenance. The purpose of this document is to establish the rationale for IVHM and IVHM research and technology planning, and to develop technical goals and objectives. This document is prepared to provide a broad overview of IVHM for technology and advanced development activities and, more specifically, to provide a planning reference from an avionics viewpoint under the OAST Transportation Technology Program Strategic Plan.

  15. Alternative energy technologies an introduction with computer simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Buxton, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Alternative Energy SourcesGlobal WarmingPollutionSolar CellsWind PowerBiofuelsHydrogen Production and Fuel CellsIntroduction to Computer ModelingBrief History of Computer SimulationsMotivation and Applications of Computer ModelsUsing Spreadsheets for SimulationsTyping Equations into SpreadsheetsFunctions Available in SpreadsheetsRandom NumbersPlotting DataMacros and ScriptsInterpolation and ExtrapolationNumerical Integration and Diffe

  16. NASA's Advanced Propulsion Technology Activities for Third Generation Fully Reusable Launch Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) established the following three major goals, referred to as "The Three Pillars for Success": Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Propulsion Projects within ASTP under the investment area of Spaceliner100, focus on the earth-to-orbit (ETO) third generation reusable launch vehicle technologies. The goals of Spaceliner 100 is to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The ETO Propulsion Projects in ASTP, are actively developing combination/combined-cycle propulsion technologies that utilized airbreathing propulsion during a major portion of the trajectory. System integration, components, materials and advanced rocket technologies are also being pursued. Over the last several years, one of the main thrusts has been to develop rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. The focus has been on conducting ground tests of several engine designs to establish the RBCC flowpaths performance. Flowpath testing of three different RBCC engine designs is progressing. Additionally, vehicle system studies are being conducted to assess potential operational space access vehicles utilizing combined-cycle propulsion systems. The design, manufacturing, and ground testing of a scale flight-type engine are planned. The first flight demonstration of an airbreathing combined cycle propulsion system is envisioned around 2005. The paper will describe the advanced propulsion technologies that are being being developed under the ETO activities in the ASTP program. Progress, findings, and future activities for the propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  17. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous

  18. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Barriers and possibilities for the emerging alternative lighting technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Andersen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    the incandescent lamp; However, the emergence of other illumination technologies such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are currently raising in question, whether the fluorescent lamp is the technology that best can reduce the (large) illumination cological footprint. Europe and more specifically Denmark, a country...... with a strong experience on photonic technologies, could contribute in reducing the lighting ecological footprint due to its human, and physical capitals related to this industry. Still Europe struggles with the paradox of losing productive jobs in this sector. This study will explore the question: What...... are the main possibilities and limitations for the Danish lighting Industry to help reducing the global illumination ecological footprint and what can be improved in the current illumination value chain in order to use the possibilities?...

  20. The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

    2010-03-31

    Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

  1. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Mohd Ismail

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologist workforce in support of the government policy highlights issues pertaining to the development and offering of practical-oriented programs as a knowledge expansion in engineering education at universities as envisioned by the Malaysian Government.  This paper evaluates the current scenario and examines the application-oriented programs of engineering technology education as practice in local institutions in Malaysia in comparisons to some universities abroad. It also investigates the challenges faced by university management in dealing with issues concerning national quality assurance and accreditation pertaining to the engineering technology education programs. Specifically, it analyzes the faculty planning of pedagogies in term of hands-on skills in teaching and learning. A key conclusion of this research is that Malaysian universities need to evaluate its engineering technology education strategies if they aim for quality assurance and accreditation to be established and aspire for successful attempts towards the creation of the requisite knowledge workers that Malaysia needs.Keywords: application-oriented, engineering education, engineering technology, hands-on skills, knowledge expansion 

  2. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hamizah Hussain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologist workforce in support of the government policy highlights issues pertaining to the development and offering of practical-oriented programs as a knowledge expansion in engineering education at universities as envisioned by the Malaysian Government. This paper evaluates the current scenario and examines the application-oriented programs of engineering technology education as practice in local institutions in Malaysia in comparisons to some universities abroad. It also investigates the challenges faced by university management in dealing with issues concerning national quality assurance and accreditation pertaining to the engineering technology education programs. Specifically, it analyzes the faculty planning of pedagogies in term of hands-on skills in teaching and learning. A key conclusion of this research is that Malaysian universities need to evaluate its engineering technology education strategies if they aim for quality assurance and accreditation to be established and aspire for successful attempts towards the creation of the requisite knowledge workers that Malaysia needs. Keywords: application-oriented, engineering education, engineering technology, hands-on skills, knowledge expansion

  3. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: ELECTRO-PURE ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was authorized as part of the 1986 amendments to the Superfund legislation. It represents a joint effort between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development and Office of Solid W...

  4. Comparing energy technology alternatives from an environmental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, P W; Coleman, J A; Shull, R D; Matheny, R W; Hock, J C

    1981-02-01

    A number of individuals and organizations advocate the use of comparative, formal analysis to determine which are the safest methods for producing and using energy. Some have suggested that the findings of such analyses should be the basis upon which final decisions are made about whether to actually deploy energy technologies. Some of those who support formal comparative analysis are in a position to shape the policy debate on energy and environment. An opposing viewpoint is presented, arguing that for technical reasons, analysis can provide no definitive or rationally credible answers to the question of overall safety. Analysis has not and cannot determine the sum total of damage to human welfare and ecological communities from energy technologies. Analysis has produced estimates of particular types of damage; however, it is impossible to make such estimates comparable and commensurate across different classes of technologies and environmental effects. As a result of the deficiencies, comparative analysis connot form the basis of a credible, viable energy policy. Yet, without formal comparative analysis, how can health, safety, and the natural environment be protected. This paper proposes a method for improving the Nation's approach to this problem. The proposal essentially is that health and the environment should be considered as constraints on the deployment of energy technologies, constraints that are embodied in Government regulations. Whichever technologies can function within these constraints should then compete among themselves. This competition should be based on market factors like cost and efficiency and on political factors like national security and the questions of equity.

  5. Modeling and optimization of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles system architecture alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dongliang; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Feng; Wang, Weiping; He, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems have already been used in civilian activities, although very limitedly. Confronted different types of tasks, multi UAVs usually need to be coordinated. This can be extracted as a multi UAVs system architecture problem. Based on the general system architecture problem, a specific description of the multi UAVs system architecture problem is presented. Then the corresponding optimization problem and an efficient genetic algorithm with a refined crossover operator (GA-RX) is proposed to accomplish the architecting process iteratively in the rest of this paper. The availability and effectiveness of overall method is validated using 2 simulations based on 2 different scenarios.

  6. INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

    2000-03-01

    A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

  7. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  8. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  9. Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Günter

    In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

  10. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Kamsiah Mohd Ismail; Noor Hamizah Hussain; Norhayati Mohamed Nor; Normah Mulop; Zainai Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologi...

  11. Alternative technology of nanoparticles consolidation in the bulk material

    OpenAIRE

    VOLKOV Georgiy Michailovich

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical bases and technological principles of single-stages nanoparticles conso-lidation into bulk material were offered. The theory was implemented on the model system of carbon-carbon in the process of high-temperature pyrolysis of hydrocar-bons. The bulk carbon nanomaterial with unique technical properties was produced. That made it possible to create engineering products which technical characteristics are higher than the existing level in the world. The proposed theory can be ada...

  12. Victualling for Future Royal Australia Navy Platforms - Alternative Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Centre for Food Innovation, a collaboration with University of Tasmania, CSIRO and the Australian food industry. Theresa’s current interests are...Theresa received a PhD in Food Science and Technology from the University of Queensland (UQ) (2002). Based at CSIRO’s Cannon Hill, Qld. site for the PhD...1 key clusters are identified around galley design, food culture, logistics, and extended endurance ( waste and shelf-life). The current work will

  13. Development of other oil-alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development efforts are being given on a large wind power generation system which has high reliability and economy and suits the actual situations in Japan. Verification tests will be conducted to establish control systems to realize load leveling against the increase in maximum power demand and the differences in demands between seasons, days and nights. Development will also be made on technologies for systems to operate devices optimally using nighttime power for household use. Solar light and heat energies will be introduced and used widely in housing to achieve efficient comprehensive energy utilization. Wastes, waste heat and unused energies locally available will be utilized to promote forming environment harmonious type energy communities. Photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation facilities will be installed on a trial basis to promote building a groundwork for full-scale installations. Photovoltaic power generation systems will be installed on actual houses to establish technologies to assess and optimize the load leveling effect. Attempts will be made on practical application of high-efficiency regional heat supply systems which utilize such unutilized energies as those from sea water and river water. Assistance will be given through preparing manuals on introduction of wastes power generation systems by local governments, and introduction of regional energy systems by using new discrete type power generation technologies and consumer-use cogeneration systems. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M.; Barba, Francisco J.; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A.; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability. PMID:27879659

  15. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-11-22

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.

  16. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesha M. Poojary

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield, selectivity (purity, high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.; Stephens, T.; McManus, W.

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways. An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, Steve [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McManus, Walter [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  19. Hydrogen Production from Sea Wave for Alternative Energy Vehicles for Public Transport in Trapani (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The coupling of renewable energy and hydrogen technologies represents in the mid-term a very interesting way to match the tasks of increasing the reliable exploitation of wind and sea wave energy and introducing clean technologies in the transportation sector. This paper presents two different feasibility studies: the first proposes two plants based on wind and sea wave resource for the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen for public transportation facilities in the West Sicily; t...

  20. A Wireless Framework for Lecturers' Attendance System with Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emammer Khamis Shafter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI technology is one type of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID method which can be used to significantly improve the efficiency of lecturers' attendance system. It provides the capability of automatic data capture for attendance records using mobile device equipped in users’ vehicle. The intent of this article is to propose a framework for automatic lecturers' attendance system using AVI technology. The first objective of this work involves gathering of requirements for Automatic Lecturers' Attendance System and to represent them using UML diagrams. The second objective is to put forward a framework that will provide guidelines for developing the system. A prototype has also been created as a pilot project.

  1. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  2. Center for Alternative Energy Storage Research and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    and civilian markets . Research at CAESRT has been directed primarily at Defense Department (Army) applications to provide effective technology...system-level operational strategies . Specifically, CAESRT has conducted interrelated research on: nanostructured battery and capacitor...applications are sensitive to the characteristics of the applications. Often it takes more than 3nS 2pS 4pS 1pS 3pS 2nS 4nS 1Li 3Li 1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 2Li

  3. Alternative technology of nanoparticles consolidation in the bulk material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOLKOV Georgiy Michailovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical bases and technological principles of single-stages nanoparticles conso-lidation into bulk material were offered. The theory was implemented on the model system of carbon-carbon in the process of high-temperature pyrolysis of hydrocar-bons. The bulk carbon nanomaterial with unique technical properties was produced. That made it possible to create engineering products which technical characteristics are higher than the existing level in the world. The proposed theory can be adapted to other gas-phase, liquid phase and secondary crystallization processes to create bulk nanomaterials of another chemical composition with no less unique properties.

  4. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  5. Securing Public Safety Vehicles: Reducing Vulnerabilities by Leveraging Smart Technology and Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration PSRC Public Sector Reporting Center RFID radio-frequency identification SDDCTEA Surface Deployment...smart cards , PINs or biometric, and password. Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA) technology is implemented to ensure authorized changes can occur...Smartphone-to-Vehicle Communication Over Bluetooth,” Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE 5, no. 3 (2005). 40 Bob Violino, “What is RFID ?” RFID Journal (January

  6. The Design of Food Storage Guided Vehicle System Based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of the food transport system, RFID technology is integrated in the AGV automatic guided vehicle system in the food warehousing. The node RFID oriented method is chosen and the RFID note positioning function is used to realize more types and over horizon identification loading, handling and automatic storage function that improves the system flexibility through the design of tag oriented system.

  7. Hot dry rock: A versatile alternative energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

    1995-01-01

    Hot dry rock (HDR) is the most abundant geothermal resource, and is found almost everywhere at depth. The technology to extract energy from HDR for practical use has been under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than twenty years. During the 1970`s, the possibility of mining the heat from HDR by circulating water through an engineered geothermal reservoir was first demonstrated on a small scale. Between 1980 and 1986 a larger, deeper, and hotter HDR reservoir was constructed. This large reservoir was subsequently mated to a permanent surface plant. A number of flow tests of this large HDR reservoir were conducted between 1991 and 1995. The results of these tests have indicated that it should be practical to operate an HDR heat mining facility to produce power on a sustained basis. An industry-led, government cost-shared project to produce and market energy generated from HDR is currently being put in place. That project should help demonstrate that HDR reservoirs can be operated to provide energy for long periods of time at rates sufficient to be commercially viable. In the longer run, additional applications of HDR technology such as water and waste treatment, and steam generation for oil field flooding may come into widespread use.

  8. Technology alternatives towards low-cost and high-speed interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Kniknie, B.; Lankhorst, A.M.; Winands, G.; Poodt, P.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bressers, P.M.M.C.; Oosterhuis, G.; Mueller, M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we will review our recent work on novel alternative and disruptive technology concepts with industrial potential for cost-effective and high-speed interconnect manufacturing, in particular on the creation (drilling and filling) of advanced interconnects like TSVs. These technologies are

  9. X-38 Prototype Technology Demonstrator for the Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) and Project Managers Bob Ba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Bob Baron of the Dryden Flight Research Center (left) and Brian Anderson of the Johnson Space Flight Center (right) flank an X-38 prototype Crew Return Vehicle technology demonstrator under construction at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an

  10. Current State of Technology of Fuel Cell Power Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mendez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs are vehicles that are primarily used to accomplish oceanographic research data collection and auxiliary offshore tasks. At the present time, they are usually powered by lithium-ion secondary batteries, which have insufficient specific energies. In order for this technology to achieve a mature state, increased endurance is required. Fuel cell power systems have been identified as an effective means to achieve this endurance but no implementation in a commercial device has yet been realized. This paper summarizes the current state of development of the technology in this field of research. First, the most adequate type of fuel cell for this application is discussed. The prototypes and design concepts of AUVs powered by fuel cells which have been developed in the last few years are described. Possible commercial and experimental fuel cell stack options are analyzed, examining solutions adopted in the analogous aerial vehicle applications, as well as the underwater ones, to see if integration in an AUV is feasible. Current solutions in oxygen and hydrogen storage systems are overviewed and energy density is objectively compared between battery power systems and fuel cell power systems for AUVs. A couple of system configuration solutions are described including the necessary lithium-ion battery hybrid system. Finally, some closing remarks on the future of this technology are given.

  11. Benefits of Power and Propulsion Technology for a Piloted Electric Vehicle to an Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Pencil, Eric J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mason, Lee S.; Bury, Kristen M.; Manzella, David H.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Brophy, John P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s goal for human spaceflight is to expand permanent human presence beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA is identifying potential missions and technologies needed to achieve this goal. Mission options include crewed destinations to LEO and the International Space Station; high Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit; cis-lunar space, lunar orbit, and the surface of the Moon; near-Earth objects; and the moons of Mars, Mars orbit, and the surface of Mars. NASA generated a series of design reference missions to drive out required functions and capabilities for these destinations, focusing first on a piloted mission to a near-Earth asteroid. One conclusion from this exercise was that a solar electric propulsion stage could reduce mission cost by reducing the required number of heavy lift launches and could increase mission reliability by providing a robust architecture for the long-duration crewed mission. Similarly, solar electric vehicles were identified as critical for missions to Mars, including orbiting Mars, landing on its surface, and visiting its moons. This paper describes the parameterized assessment of power and propulsion technologies for a piloted solar electric vehicle to a near-Earth asteroid. The objective of the assessment was to determine technology drivers to advance the state of the art of electric propulsion systems for human exploration. Sensitivity analyses on the performance characteristics of the propulsion and power systems were done to determine potential system-level impacts of improved technology. Starting with a "reasonable vehicle configuration" bounded by an assumed launch date, we introduced technology improvements to determine the system-level benefits (if any) that those technologies might provide. The results of this assessment are discussed and recommendations for future work are described.

  12. The effect of attitudes on reference-dependent preferences: Estimation and validation for the case of alternative-fuel vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Jensen, Anders Fjendbo;

    2015-01-01

    reference-dependent preferences and attitudes together may explain individual choices. In a modelling framework based on a hybrid choice model allowing for both concepts, we investigate how attitudes and reference-dependent preferences interact and how they affect willingness-to-pay measures and demand...... of attitudes improves the models' ability to explain behaviour in the hold-out sample. While neither reference-dependent preferences nor the attitude affect the average willingness-to-pay measures in our sample, their effect on choice behaviour has implications for policy recommendations as segments...... with varying attitudes and reference values will act differently when affected by policy instruments related to the demand for alternative-fuel vehicles, e.g. subsidies....

  13. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  14. Final priority; Rehabilitation Services Administration--Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program administered by the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality assistive technology (AT) alternative financing programs (AFPs) that meet rigorous standards in order to enable individuals with disabilities to access and acquire assistive technology devices and services necessary to achieve education, community living, and employment goals.

  15. 智能车技术探讨%Discussion on the Intelligent Vehicle Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国胤; 陈乔松; 王进

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,the pollution of the environment,traffic safety and congestion are truly severe problems affecting the entire world. The intelligent vehicle(IV) is an attempt to move towards a new traffic paradigm, where drive becomes enjoyable experience,and cars don't crash anymore,and traffic congestion is drastically reduced. Therefore,the development of intelligent vehicle in new generation becomes one of the most important strategic objectives in main developed countries. In this paper, intelligent vehicle was creatively defined as a car with power-driven and intelligent control. Five basic functional features should be realized in intelligent vehicle, which consists of the vehicle-to-vehicle(V2V) interaction, vehicle-to-people(V2P) interaction, vehicle-to-road(V2R) interaction, vehicle-to-network( V2N) interaction and energy-saving. These four interactions prescribe a cooperative system between the intelligent vehicles and surroundings, while the energy-saving focuses on the clean and economical energy management system. Meanwhile, the novel theories and technologies for the development of intelligent vehicle were discussed in this paper. Finally, the autonomous driving simulation experiment was performed by miniature intelligent vehicles,and the future of intelligent vehicle industry was prospected.%近年来,环境污染、交通安全及拥堵等严峻的问题困扰着整个世界.智能汽车的出现是为了建立一种新的交通范例,以便在很大程度上降低驾驶人员的劳动强度,避免汽车碰撞和减轻交通拥堵等.因而,发展新一代的智能汽车就成为了世界主要国家的发展战略目标.提出智能汽车的新定义:以自身装备动力驱动的智能信息系统管控的车辆.它具有5大基本功能特征,即车车交互、车人交互、车路交互、车网交互和绿色节能.车、人、路、网4个交互规定了智能汽车和周边环境之间的协作关系,而绿色节能则关注于清洁节约的能

  16. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  17. Evaluating indoor exposure modeling alternatives for LCA: A case study in the vehicle repair industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demou, Evangelia; Hellweg, Stefanie; Wilson, Michael P.; Hammond, S. Katharine; McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-05-01

    We evaluated three exposure models with data obtained from measurements among workers who use"aerosol" solvent products in the vehicle repair industry and with field experiments using these products to simulate the same exposure conditions. The three exposure models were the: 1) homogeneously-mixed-one-box model, 2) multi-zone model, and 3) eddy-diffusion model. Temporally differentiated real-time breathing zone volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration measurements, integrated far-field area samples, and simulated experiments were used in estimating parameters, such as emission rates, diffusivity, and near-field dimensions. We assessed differences in model input requirements and their efficacy for predictive modeling. The One-box model was not able to resemble the temporal profile of exposure concentrations, but it performed well concerning time-weighted exposure over extended time periods. However, this model required an adjustment for spatial concentration gradients. Multi-zone models and diffusion-models may solve this problem. However, we found that the reliable use of both these models requires extensive field data to appropriately define pivotal parameters such as diffusivity or near-field dimensions. We conclude that it is difficult to apply these models for predicting VOC exposures in the workplace. However, for comparative exposure scenarios in life-cycle assessment they may be useful.

  18. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitch [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-11

    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  19. Technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immich, H.; Alting, J.; Kretschmer, J.; Preclik, D.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper an overview of recent technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines at Astrium, Space Infrastructure Division (SI), is shown. The main technology. developments shown in this paper are: Technologies Technologies for enhanced heat transfer to the coolant for expander cycle engines Advanced injector head technologies Advanced combustion chamber manufacturing technologies. The main technologies for enhanced heat transfer investigated by subscale chamber hot-firing tests are: Increase of chamber length Hot gas side ribs in the chamber Artificially increased surface roughness. The developments for advanced injector head technologies were focused on the design of a new modular subscale chamber injector head. This injector head allows for an easy exchange of different injection elements: By this, cost effective hot-fire tests with different injection element concepts can be performed. The developments for advanced combustion chamber manufacturing technologies are based on subscale chamber tests with a new design of the Astrium subscale chamber. The subscale chamber has been modified by introduction of a segmented cooled cylindrical section which gives the possibility to test different manufacturing concepts for cooled chamber technologies by exchanging the individual segments. The main technology efforts versus advanced manufacturing technologies shown in this paper are: Soldering techniques Thermal barrier coatings for increased chamber life. A new technology effort is dedicated especially to LOX/Hydrocarbon propellant combinations. Recent hot fire tests on the subscale chamber with Kerosene and Methane as fuel have already been performed. A comprehensive engine system trade-off between the both propellant combinations (Kerosene vs. Methane) is presently under preparation.

  20. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This annual guide features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  1. Hydrogen Production from Sea Wave for Alternative Energy Vehicles for Public Transport in Trapani (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Franzitta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of renewable energy and hydrogen technologies represents in the mid-term a very interesting way to match the tasks of increasing the reliable exploitation of wind and sea wave energy and introducing clean technologies in the transportation sector. This paper presents two different feasibility studies: the first proposes two plants based on wind and sea wave resource for the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen for public transportation facilities in the West Sicily; the second applies the same approach to Pantelleria (a smaller island, including also some indications about solar resource. In both cases, all buses will be equipped with fuel-cells. A first economic analysis is presented together with the assessment of the avoidable greenhouse gas emissions during the operation phase. The scenarios addressed permit to correlate the demand of urban transport to renewable resources present in the territories and to the modern technologies available for the production of hydrogen from renewable energies. The study focuses on the possibility of tapping the renewable energy potential (wind and sea wave for the hydrogen production by electrolysis. The use of hydrogen would significantly reduce emissions of particulate matter and greenhouse gases in urban districts under analysis. The procedures applied in the present article, as well as the main equations used, are the result of previous applications made in different technical fields that show a good replicability.

  2. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  3. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  4. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Technologies Testing of Heavy-Duty Vocational Vehicles and a Dry Van Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.

  5. AN ASSESSMENT OF FLYWHEEL HIGH POWER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR HYBRID VEHICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  6. Technology as a vehicle for inclusion of learners with attention deficits in mainstream schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, Hanne; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2015-01-01

    – and as a vehicle for general human growth in their learning community. The paper presents the primer results and describes and discusses the challenges of both teachers’ and learners’, involved in the inclusion process. Finally, on the basis of findings, a typology of tools is suggested, which may support......The potential of technology for supporting educational processes of participation, collaboration and creation is widely accepted. Likewise have digital tools proved to enhance learning processes for disabled learners. A currently topical group, politically and educationally, in the discourse...... of inclusion is learners with extensive developmental and attention deficit disorders. This paper investigates the potential of technology for supporting the inclusion of this group in the general school system, i.e. into mainstream classes, using technology as a tool to join, participate and contribute...

  7. Open Platform Technology-Based Mobile Communications to Identify a Vehicle in Any Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Lupu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project is to develop an openservice platform for identifying a vehicle in any given locationusing Trimble GPS receivers Lasser SK II and necessary forthe Zapp mobile terminals mobile Internet connection basedon CDMA technology and TCP / IP.The analysis can be based on: studying the specific for thedomain of identification of persons that are moving in adelimited region inside the country; studying of theinformatics and communication technologies as a support fora new vision on the localization of persons; studying the GPStechnology; studying the actually GIS solutions; standardsregarding the information exchange at international level.The main object consists in the elaboration of a softwareapplication for the localization of persons that are in difficultyand the receiving of the first-aid in real-time. According tothis, the persons that are moving (in buses, auto, train,airplane, etc. can request the first-aid and they are spottedand identified using modern informatics technologies.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Speech Recognition Systems as a Next-Generation Pilot-Vehicle Interface Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2016-01-01

    During the flight trials known as Gulfstream-V Synthetic Vision Systems Integrated Technology Evaluation (GV-SITE), a Speech Recognition System (SRS) was used by the evaluation pilots. The SRS system was intended to be an intuitive interface for display control (rather than knobs, buttons, etc.). This paper describes the performance of the current "state of the art" Speech Recognition System (SRS). The commercially available technology was evaluated as an application for possible inclusion in commercial aircraft flight decks as a crew-to-vehicle interface. Specifically, the technology is to be used as an interface from aircrew to the onboard displays, controls, and flight management tasks. A flight test of a SRS as well as a laboratory test was conducted.

  9. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Musgrave, B.C. [BC Musgrave, Inc. (United States); Drake, R.N. [Drake Engineering, Inc. (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX{sup SM}, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis.

  10. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Rober [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix [ORNL; Naskar, Amit [ORNL; Kaufman, Michael [ORNL; Yarborough, Ken [ORNL; Derstine, Chris [The Dow Chemical Company

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

  11. The Development Status and Key Technologies of Solar Powered Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Li; Wei, Zhou; Xueren, Wang

    2017-03-01

    By analyzing the development status of several typical solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) at home and abroad, the key technologies involved in the design and manufacture of solar powered UAV and the technical difficulties need to be solved at present are obtained. It is pointed out that with the improvement of energy system efficiency, advanced aerodynamic configuration design, realization of high applicability flight stability and control system, breakthrough of efficient propulsion system, the application prospect of solar powered UAV will be more extensive.

  12. Pilot vehicle interface on the advanced fighter technology integration F-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, W. H.; Smith, W. B.; Howard, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper focuses on the work load aspects of the pilot vehicle interface in regard to the new technologies tested during AMAS Phase II. Subjects discussed in this paper include: a wide field-of-view head-up display; automated maneuvering attack system/sensor tracker system; master modes that configure flight controls and mission avionics; a modified helmet mounted sight; improved multifunction display capability; a voice interactive command system; ride qualities during automated weapon delivery; a color moving map; an advanced digital map display; and a g-induced loss-of-consciousness and spatial disorientation autorecovery system.

  13. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  14. High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjipanayis, George C. [University of Delaware; McCallum, William R. [Ames Laboratory; Sellmyer, David J. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Harris, Vincent [Northeastern University; Carpenter, Everett E. [Virginia Commonwealth University; Liu, Jinfang [Electron Energy Corporation

    2013-12-17

    The report summarizes research undertaken by a multidisciplinary team aimed at the development of the next generation high-energy permanent magnets. The principal approach was relied on bottom-up fabrication of anisotropic nanocomposite magnets. Our efforts resulted in further development of the theoretical concept and fabrication principles for the nanocomposites and in synthesis of a range of rare-earth-based hard magnetic nanoparticles. Even though we did not make a breakthrough in the assembly of these hard magnetic particles with separately prepared Fe(Co) nanoparticles and did not obtain a compact nanocomposite magnet, our performed research will help to direct the future efforts, in particular, towards nano-assembly via coating, when the two phases which made the nanocomposite are first organized in core-shell-structured particles. Two other approaches were to synthesize (discover) new materials for the traditional singe-material magnets and the nanocomposite magnets. Integrated theoretical and experimental efforts lead to a significant advance in nanocluster synthesis technique and yielded novel rare-earth-free nanostructured and nanocomposite materials. Examination of fifteen R-Fe-X alloy systems (R = rare earth), which have not been explored earlier due to various synthesis difficulties reveal several new ferromagnetic compounds. The research has made major progress in bottom-up manufacturing of rare-earth-containing nanocomposite magnets with superior energy density and open new directions in development of higher-energy-density magnets that do not contain rare earths. The advance in the scientific knowledge and technology made in the course of the project has been reported in 50 peer-reviewed journal articles and numerous presentations at scientific meetings.

  15. Development of Novel Alternative Technologies for Decontamination of Warfare Agents: Electric Heating with Intrinsically Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in converting electric energy to thermal energy for the decon applications. Other conductive materials, such as polythiophenes , polypyrroles, carbon...Development of Novel Alternative Technologies for Decontamination of Warfare Agents: Electric Heating with Intrinsically Conductive Polymers...Joule)-heating with conducting polymers. The basic concept is that electrically conducting polymers, such as polyaniline, can be used as coatings or

  16. Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G.; Simmons, O. D.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Geospatial Technology Pushing the Limits of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Often referred to as unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs, drones were most commonly associated with military or police operations but with advancement in information technology in last two decades, cheaper and smaller sensors, better integration and ease-of-use options this tool is start revolutionizing the way geospatial data is collected in many countries, monitoring large, rugged areas, tracking down criminals, observing forest fires and disaster areas. Beyond just viewing the result, with the use of photogrammetry, image processing and ground control points, the captured imagery could provide a base for collecting all the 2D and 3D features that are the last-mile problem in modeling and visualizing the whole world. The research aims to understand various characteristics of this emerging technology that makes it the most promising geospatial and attribute data collection tool in GIS community. Second aim of this paper is to explore the possible applications of UAV in the developing country like India.

  18. Technology assessment for removal of total dissolved solids from salty washwaters generated from vehicle washing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, S.; Zaidi, A. [Department of the Environment, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre

    1995-12-31

    Vehicles used by the Ministry of Transport of Ontario to clean and de-ice the province`s highways in winter months are washed during regular maintenance. This washing produces significant volumes of salty wastewater. The purpose of this study was to identify economical methods for the removal of dissolved salts from washwater produced at Ministry of Transport patrol yards. Evaporation, membrane processes and freezing technologies were assessed. Freezing technology was not considered suitable since it is still in the developmental stage. Atmospheric evaporation and electrodialysis were considered suitable for producing saline liquid concentrates from the wastewaters. Vacuum distillation and atmospheric evaporation could also be used to produce solid concentrates. 2 refs., 22 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Genius Sand: A Miniature Kill Vehicle Technology to Support Boost Phase Intercepts and Midcourse Engagements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A.G.; Ng, L.C.; Kordas, J.F.; Jones, M.S.; McMahon, D.H.

    2002-06-30

    This paper summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) approach to a proposed Technology Demonstration program for the development of a new class of miniature kill vehicles (MKVs), that they have termed Genius Sand (GS). These miniaturized kinetic kill vehicles offer new capabilities for boost phase intercept (BPI) missions, as well as midcourse intercepts and the defeat of advanced countermeasures. The specific GS MKV properties will depend on the choice of mission application and system architecture, as well as the level of coordinated or autonomous operations in these missions. In general the GS MKVs will mass from between 1 to 5 kilograms and have several hundred meters per second of {Delta}v and be capable of several g's of acceleration. Based on the results of their previous study effort, they believe that it is feasible to develop and integrate the required technologies into a fully functional GS MKV prototype within the scope of a three-year development effort. They will discuss some of the system architecture trades and applicable technologies that can be applied in an operational MKV system, as a guide to focus any technology demonstration program. They will present the results of a preliminary 6DOF analysis to determine the minimum capabilities of an MKV system. They also will discuss a preliminary design configuration of a 2 kg GS MKV that has between 300-500 m/s of {Delta}v and has at least 2-g's of acceleration capability. They believe a successful GS MKV development effort will require not only a comprehensive component miniaturization program, but a rapid hardware prototyping process, and the ability to utilize high fidelity ground testing methodologies.

  20. USING THE AHP METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE STRATEGIC INVESTMENT ALTERNATIVES OF NEW PARADIGMS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIJA RISTOVA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise adoption of a Product Life Cycle Management (PLM system is a multi-faceted process that can be simplified by choosing the right information technology (IT deployment model. Cloud computing has been described as a technological change brought about by the convergence of a number of new and existing technologies. The paper provides a review of the main developments in the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Processmethodology as a tool for decision makers to be able to do more informed decisions regarding investments in new paradigms that IT offers. The AHP methodology is a multi-objective, multi criteria decision-making approach that employs a pair-wise comparison procedure to arrive at a scale of preferences among a set of alternatives. The selection process of the alternatives is not possible from the result of the financial analysis alone. Identification of the scalability and the risks assessment as criteria’s give us the comprehensiveness of the treated problem.

  1. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  2. Final Report: Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Ethylene, Caustic-Chlorine, Ethylene Oxide, Ammonia, and Terephthalic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-12-01

    This report evaluates alternative technologies for chemicals manufacturing which may present energy efficiency improvements compared to existing technologies. It is an extension of the Chemical Bandwidth Study, which evaluates energy and exergy losses in the U.S. chemicals industry.

  3. A Benefit-Cost Assessment of New Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Economy in the U.S. Market

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, R. A.; Shaver, G. M.; Tyner, W. E.; Garimella, S V

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations alongside efforts to reduce oil dependence have accelerated the global deployment of advanced vehicle technologies. In recent years, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and consumers have generally been successful in mutually deploying cleaner vehicle options with little sacrifice in cost, performance or overall utility. Projections regarding the challenges and impacts associated with compliance with mid- and long-term targets ...

  4. The technologies for heavy vehicles motors and their fuels; Les technologies des moteurs de vehicules lourds et leurs carburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plassat, G.

    2005-07-01

    The heavy vehicles are those the total weight (charged) is more than 3,5 tons. This document provides a comparative and parametric analysis of the main technologies developed for the future buses. A detailed presentation is done for each technique, as the operating principles and the advantages and disadvantages facing the today solution. More particularly the author presents the evolution of the diesel-fuel motor, the motor optimization for specific fuel as the natural gas and the liquefied petroleum gas, the hybrid thermal-electric motor, the hydrogen fuel cells, the biofuels and the de-pollution systems to eliminate the NO{sub X} and the particles. (A.L.B.)

  5. High-Throughput 3-D Monitoring of Agricultural-Tree Plantations with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Torres-Sánchez

    Full Text Available The geometric features of agricultural trees such as canopy area, tree height and crown volume provide useful information about plantation status and crop production. However, these variables are mostly estimated after a time-consuming and hard field work and applying equations that treat the trees as geometric solids, which produce inconsistent results. As an alternative, this work presents an innovative procedure for computing the 3-dimensional geometric features of individual trees and tree-rows by applying two consecutive phases: 1 generation of Digital Surface Models with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV technology and 2 use of object-based image analysis techniques. Our UAV-based procedure produced successful results both in single-tree and in tree-row plantations, reporting up to 97% accuracy on area quantification and minimal deviations compared to in-field estimations of tree heights and crown volumes. The maps generated could be used to understand the linkages between tree grown and field-related factors or to optimize crop management operations in the context of precision agriculture with relevant agro-environmental implications.

  6. High-Throughput 3-D Monitoring of Agricultural-Tree Plantations with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; López-Granados, Francisca; Serrano, Nicolás; Arquero, Octavio; Peña, José M

    2015-01-01

    The geometric features of agricultural trees such as canopy area, tree height and crown volume provide useful information about plantation status and crop production. However, these variables are mostly estimated after a time-consuming and hard field work and applying equations that treat the trees as geometric solids, which produce inconsistent results. As an alternative, this work presents an innovative procedure for computing the 3-dimensional geometric features of individual trees and tree-rows by applying two consecutive phases: 1) generation of Digital Surface Models with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology and 2) use of object-based image analysis techniques. Our UAV-based procedure produced successful results both in single-tree and in tree-row plantations, reporting up to 97% accuracy on area quantification and minimal deviations compared to in-field estimations of tree heights and crown volumes. The maps generated could be used to understand the linkages between tree grown and field-related factors or to optimize crop management operations in the context of precision agriculture with relevant agro-environmental implications.

  7. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation -- Gen 2 -- Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  8. Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) ceramic design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This ceramic component design manual was an element of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). The ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the ceramic automotive gas turbine engine as a primary power plant. Of the several technologies requiring development before such an engine could become a commercial reality, structural ceramic components represented the greatest technical challenge, and was the prime focus of the program. HVTE-TS, which was created to support the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program, continued the efforts begun in ATTAP to develop ceramic components for an automotive gas turbine engine. In HVTE-TS, the program focus was extended to make this technology applicable to the automotive gas turbine engines that form the basis of hybrid automotive propulsion systems consisting of combined batteries, electric drives, and on-board power generators as well as a primary power source. The purpose of the ceramic design manual is to document the process by which ceramic components are designed, analyzed, fabricated, assembled, and tested in a gas turbine engine. Interaction with ceramic component vendors is also emphasized. The main elements of the ceramic design manual are: an overview of design methodology; design process for the AGT-5 ceramic gasifier turbine rotor; and references. Some reference also is made to the design of turbine static structure components to show methods of attaching static hot section ceramic components to supporting metallic structures.

  9. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  10. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  11. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G. [BP - Gulf Coast Restoration (United States)], email: michael.cortez@bp.com

    2011-07-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  12. Putting people first: re-thinking the role of technology in augmentative and alternative communication intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Janice; McNaughton, David

    2013-12-01

    Current technologies provide individuals with complex communication needs with a powerful array of communication, information, organization, and social networking options. However, there is the danger that the excitement over these new devices will result in a misplaced focus on the technology, to the neglect of what must be the central focus - the people with complex communication needs who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In order to truly harness the power of technology, rehabilitation and educational professionals must ensure that AAC intervention is driven, not by the devices, but rather by the communication needs of the individual. Furthermore, those involved in AAC research and development activities must ensure that the design of AAC technologies is driven by an understanding of motor, sensory, cognitive, and linguistic processing, in order to minimize learning demands and maximize communication power for individuals with complex communication needs across the life span.

  13. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  14. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Peracetic acid as an alternative disinfection technology for wet weather flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Elizabeth E; Ormsbee, Lindell E; Brion, Gail M

    2014-08-01

    Rain-induced wet weather flows (WWFs) consist of combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, and stormwater, all of which introduce pathogens to surface waters when discharged. When people come into contact with the contaminated surface water, these pathogens can be transmitted resulting in severe health problems. As such, WWFs should be disinfected. Traditional disinfection technologies are typically cost-prohibitive, can yield toxic byproducts, and space for facilities is often limited, if available. More cost-effective alternative technologies, requiring less space and producing less harmful byproducts are currently being explored. Peracetic acid (PAA) was investigated as one such alternative and this research has confirmed the feasibility and applicability of using PAA as a disinfectant for WWFs. Peracetic acid doses ranging from 5 mg/L to 15 mg/L over contact times of 2 to 10 minutes were shown to be effective and directly applicable to WWF disinfection.

  16. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric Volkswagen Rabbit with developmental low-power armature chopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, J. E.; Bryant, J. A.; Livingston, R.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamometer performance of a South Coast Technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit designated SCT-8 was tested. The SCT-8 vehicle was fitted with a transistorized chopper in the motor armature circuit to supplement the standard motor speed control via field weakening. The armature chopper allowed speed control below the motor base speed. This low speed control was intended to reduce energy loss at idle during stop-and-go traffic; to eliminate the need for using the clutch below base motor speed; and to improve the drivability. Test results indicate an improvement of about 3.5% in battery energy economy for the SAE J227a-D driving cycle and 6% for the C-cycle with only a minor reduction in acceleration performance. A further reduction of about 6% would be possible if provision were made for shutting down field power during the idle phases of the driving cycles. Drivability of the vehicle equipped with the armature chopper was significantly improved compared with the standard SCT Electric Rabbit.

  17. Influenza Vaccine: Federal Investments in Alternative Technologies and Challenges to Development and Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    late 1990s and early 2000s, detection of the H5N1 avian influenza (also known as “bird flu”) virus in animals raised concerns among experts that it or...of infection by, for example, the H5N1 avian influenza virus (also known as “bird flu”). Alternative technologies that can be used in producing...genes. Recombinant technology is currently used in U.S.-marketed vaccines against other diseases, such as hepatitis B and the human papillomavirus

  18. 40 CFR 80.583 - What alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, or ECA marine fuel by truck or rail car? 80.583 Section 80.583 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel...

  19. New technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining. Preprints of the conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Jess, A.; Lercher, J.A.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Marchionna, M. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    This international conference paper provides a forum for chemists and engineers from refinery, petrochemistry and the chemical industry as well as from academia to discuss new technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining with the special topic ''Shale Gas, Heavy Oils and Coal''. 23 Lectures and 18 Posters are presented. All papers are analyzed for the ENERGY database.

  20. Parameters Matching and Control Method of Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles with Secondary Regulation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui; JIANG Jihai; WANG Xin

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV) with secondary regulation technology has the potential of improving fuel economy by operating the engine in the optimum efficiency range and making use of regenerative braking. Hydrostatic transmission technology has the advantage of higher power density and the ability to accept the high rates and high frequencies of charging and discharging, both of which are not favorable for batteries, but the lower energy density requires special power matching design and control strategy to coordinate all the powertrain components in an optimal manner. A multi-objective optimization method is proposed to distinguish the components size values of HHV by considering the requirements of driving cycles and technology aspects. The regenerative braking strategy and energy control strategy based on the optimized HHV is proposed to recovery the braking energy and distribute the regenerated braking energy. Simulation results show that by taking the optimized configuration of HHV, adopting the regenerative braking strategy and energy control strategy are helpful to improve the system efficiency and fuel economy of HHV under urban driving cycles.

  1. Are Green Vehicles Worth the Extra Cost? The Case of Diesel-Electric Hybrid Technology for Urban Delivery Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilla, Kerry; Graham, John D.

    2012-01-01

    A central question for environmental policy is whether the long-term benefits of energy-saving technologies are sufficient to justify their short-term costs, and if so, whether financial incentives are needed to stimulate adoption. The fiscal effects of incentivizing new technologies, and the revenue effects of using the technology, are also…

  2. Clean Cities 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-02-11

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  3. 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  4. Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  5. Research on the Key Technology of Cooperative Attack for Manned Vehicle/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle%有人/无人机协同作战关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马向玲; 雷宇曜

    2012-01-01

    After the analysis of unmanned combat aerial vehicle about its research and use in many countries, this paper gives a cooperative attack command and control system structure of manned/ unmanned aerial vehicles. According to the position and main mission, the system divided into two parts, the manned platform and unmanned platform, then the structure and function of each platform are discussed. It is analyzed that some key technologies of cooperative attack. The technologies are cooperative control technology, situation awareness, cooperative target allocation, path planning, cooperative damage assessment and intelligent decision making technology. A combat flow and information processing flow are given for a representative combat mission. Finally, the research area is proposed to address development tendency of unmanned combat aerial vehicle.%分析了无人作战飞机在各国的研究及使用情况,给出了有人/无人机协同作战指挥控制系统的结构,按照空间位置和主要完成任务的不同,将系统分为有人机、无人机两个平台,介绍了各平台的组成部分及相应的功能,归纳出协同作战所需要解决的关键技术:交互控制技术、协同态势感知、协同目标分配、协同航路规划技术、毁伤效能评估技术及智能决策技术,并且给出了一个在典型作战任务想定下的作战及信息处理流程.最后对无人作战飞机未来的发展方向进行了展望.

  6. 车载网络技术对汽车传统电路的影响%Influence of Vehicle Network Technology on Traditional Vehicle electric Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋捷

    2013-01-01

      文章论述了车载网络技术对汽车传统电路的影响。通过比较前照灯的传统电路与自适应前照明系统工作原理和布线方式等方面的不同,说明传统汽车电路已经远远不能满足智能汽车的需要。%The thesis discuss influence of vehicle network technology on traditional vehicle electric circuit. According to comparing with the headlamp traditional electric circuit and adaptive font-lighting system , we conclude that the tradi-tional automobile electric circuit data transmission has been far from satisfying the needs of the smart car.

  7. Cross Cutting Relative Navigation Technologies for Improved Landing Accuracy and Vehicle-to-Vehicle Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. L.; Masciarelli, J.; Rohrschneider, R. R.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation addresses recent development and test progress, as well as future technology advancement plans for precision landing and Autonomous Rendezvous, Proximity Operations and Docking (ARPOD).

  8. Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-03

    reporting period: Changes in research objectives (if any): Change in AFOSR Program Manager, if any: Extensions granted or milestones slipped, if any: AFOSR...LRIR Number LRIR Title Reporting Period Laboratory Task Manager Program Officer Research Objectives Technical Summary Funding Summary by Cost...AND SUBTITLE Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle

  9. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  10. Natural Environmental Service Support to NASA Vehicle, Technology, and Sensor Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The research performed under this contract involved definition of the natural environmental parameters affecting the design, development, and operation of space and launch vehicles. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) provided the manpower and resources to accomplish the following tasks: defining environmental parameters critical for design, development, and operation of launch vehicles; defining environmental forecasts required to assure optimal utilization of launch vehicles; and defining orbital environments of operation and developing models on environmental parameters affecting launch vehicle operations.

  11. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  12. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation - 1st Quarter 2014; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.

    2014-04-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

  13. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" technologies and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H 2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H 2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. This study integrates and extends previous analyses of H 2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. Further, it uses a new electric-drive-vehicle and vehicular-distributed-generation model to estimate zero-emission-power versus zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. By framing market development in terms of new consumer value flowing from Me-, this study suggests a way to move beyond the battery versus fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the development of integrated plug-in/plug-out hybrid platforms. As one possible extension of this Me- product platform, H 2FCVs might supply clean, high-power, and profitable Me- services as the technologies and markets mature.

  14. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. R. Zirker; J. E. Francfort; J. J. Fielding

    2006-03-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation final report documents the feasibility of using oil bypass filters on 17 vehicles in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) fleet during a 3-year test period. Almost 1.3 million test miles were accumulated, with eleven 4-cycle diesel engine buses accumulating 982,548 test miles and six gasoline-engine Chevrolet Tahoes accumulating 303,172 test miles. Two hundred and forty oil samples, taken at each 12,000-mile bus servicing event and at 3,000 miles for the Tahoes, documented the condition of the engine oils for continued service. Twenty-eight variables were normally tested, including the presence of desired additives and undesired wear metals such as iron and chrome, as well as soot, water, glycol, and fuel. Depending on the assumptions employed, the INL found that oil bypass filter systems for diesel engine buses have a positive payback between 72,000 and 144,000 miles. For the Tahoes, the positive payback was between 66,000 and 69,000 miles.

  15. Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging Technology%电动汽车的无线充电技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊

    2011-01-01

    发展电动汽车是节能、环保和低碳经济的需求,电动汽车的充电装置相当于汽车燃料的加注站,无线供电(WPT)是未来电动汽车供电技术的发展趋势。文章首先综述了无线充电技术能解决电动汽车发展的难题,接着介绍了无线充电技术是扩大电动汽车市场的关键而受到了关注,然后研究了电动汽车无线充电装置的类型、工作原理,最后讨论了电动汽车无线充电装置的应用前景。%The development of electric vehicles is in compliance with the demand of energy conservation, environmental protection and low-carbon economy. Electric car charging unit is the equivalent to a motor fuel filling station, the wireless power technology (WPT) will represent the trend of electric vehicles powered technology in the future. First, the paper tells us that the wireless charging technology is the solution to the development of electric vehicles. And then the paper introduces the wireless charging technology is the key to expanding electric vehicle market which has become the focus among people. At last, the paper studies the types of electric vehicle wireless charging device, operating principle as well as the discussion on the application prospects of electric car wireless charging device.

  16. Nickel/metal hydride technology for consumer and electric vehicle batteries—a review and up-date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, S. K.; Ovshínsky, S. R.; Gifford, P. R.; Corrigan, D. A.; Fetcenko, M. A.; Venkatesan, S.

    Nickel/metal hydride batteries today represent the fastest growing market segment for rechargeable batteries due to the high energy density and more environmentally acceptable chemistry offered by this technology. The high energy density of nickel/metal hydride batteries coupled with high power density and long cycle life make this battery chemistry a key enabling technology for practical electric vehicles, including cars, vans, trucks, and other forms of transportation such as scooters, bicycles, and three-wheelers. This paper provides a review of Ovonic technology and up-dates recent developments in materials and cell development for both consumer electronic and EV applications, and highlights areas for future development.

  17. ISO New England: Results of Ancillary Service Pilot Programs, Alternative Technology Regulation Pilot Program and Demand Response Reserves Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, Jon [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States); Yoshimura, Henry [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States)

    2011-10-26

    This PowerPoint presentation compares performance of pilot program assets and generation resources in alternative technology regulation and demand response reserves for flywheels and residential electric thermal storage.

  18. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  19. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  20. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  1. Do Oil Companies aquire Alternative Energy Patents to Limit Technological Innovation, in order to Maintain Economic Advantage in Fossil Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, George G.

    2002-01-01

    Do Oil Companies acquire Alternative Energy Patents to limit Technological Innovation, in order to maintain Economic Advantage in Fossil Fuels by George G. Sims Roger N. Waud, Chairman Economics (Abstract) This paper addresses the charge made by environmental groups that oil companies, since the 1970's, have been acquiring alternative energy patents, to restrict these technologies from reaching the market. The purpose of these restrictions was to protect profits from...

  2. A Preliminary Study: Do Alternative Certification Route Programs Develop the Necessary Skills and Knowledge in Assistive Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sherry Mee; Cihak, David F.; Judge, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    A large number of special education teachers in the United States are prepared in alternative certification programs and insufficient empirical information exists regarding their knowledge of assistive technology. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of alternatively licensed special education teachers' knowledge,…

  3. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Technologies for monitoring interstitial liquids in single-shell tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A global search of mature, emerging, and conceptual tank liquid monitoring technologies, along with a historical review of Hanford tank farm waste monitoring instrumentation, was conducted to identify methods for gauging the quantity of interstitial waste liquids contained in Hanford SSTs. Upon completion of the search, an initial screening of alternatives was conducted to identify candidates which might be capable of monitoring interstitial tank liquids. The nine candidate technologies that were selected, evaluated, and ranked are summarized. Hydrostatic tank gauging (HTG) is the technology generally recommended for gauging the quantity of process materials contained in Hanford SSTs. HTG is a mass-based technique that has the capability for continuous remote monitoring. HTG has the advantages of no moving parts, intrinsic safety, and potentially gauging a one-million gal tank with a precision of approximately {+-}500 pounds (i.e., {+-}62 gal of water or {+-}0.02 in. of level in a 75 ft diameter tank). HTG is relatively inexpensive and probe design, construction, testing, installation, and operation should be straightforward. HTG should be configured as part of a hybrid tank gauging system. A hybrid system employs two or more independent measurement systems which function in concert to provide redundancy, improved accuracy, and maximum information at minimum cost. An excellent hybrid system choice for monitoring interstitial liquids in SSTs might be the combination of HTG with thermal differential technology.

  4. a Study on the Alternative Technology Using Unsm Instead of the Presetting Method for Torsion Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Kim, Min-Ho; Baek, Un-Bong; Pyoun, Young-Sik; Kim, Chang-Sik; Chi, Chong-Ho

    The torsion bar must be changed periodically due to its lack of durability and a phenomenon related to stress relaxation. Therefore technical development regarding the torsion bar's durability is urgently needed. In order to improve the fatigue life and durability of the dynamic components, new surface treatment technology such as ultrasonic shot peening, deep rolling, laser shock peening, etc. are developing widely. In this study, Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (UNSM) technology is applied as an advanced one to replace the presetting method (PM). UNSM and PM technology also induced the compressive residual stress on the surface layer of the torsion bar, which is the main improvement factor of fatigue life. DIN17221 material as a new MIL specification of torsion bar and SCM440 (as an alternative one to a old MIL-DTL-62567C) were processed with the UNSM technology to obtain the basic data and compare it between two, and then torsion fatigue tests of two materials were carried out to obtain the characteristics of torsion fatigue in this study.

  5. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G. Page; Morgan, M. Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-10-21

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3–7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35–40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  6. Health Monitoring Technology for Thermal Protection Systems on Reusable Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.; Watters, D. G.; Heinemann, J. M.; Karunaratne, K. S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Integrated subsystem health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) in order to reduce life cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. This talk summarizes a joint effort between NASA Ames and industry partners to develop rapid non-contact diagnostic tools for health and performance monitoring of thermal protection systems (TPS) on future RLVs. The specific goals for TPS health monitoring are to increase the speed and reliability of TPS inspections for improved operability at lower cost. The technology being developed includes a 3-D laser scanner for examining the exterior surface of the TPS, and a subsurface microsensor suite for monitoring the health and performance of the TPS. The sensor suite consists of passive overlimit sensors and sensors for continuous parameter monitoring in flight. The sensors are integrated with radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips to enable wireless communication of-the sensor data to an external reader that may be a hand-held scanner or a large portal. Prototypes of the laser system and both types of subsurface sensors have been developed. The laser scanner was tested on Shuttle Orbiter Columbia and was able to dimension surface chips and holes on a variety of TPS materials. The temperature-overlimit microsensor has a diameter under 0.05 inch (suitable for placement in gaps between ceramic TPS tiles) and can withstand 700 F for 15 minutes.

  7. Information and Communication Technology and Electric Vehicles — Paving the Way towards a Smart Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Kenichi

    A smart community can be considered an essential component to realize a sustainable, low-carbon, and disaster-tolerant society, thereby providing a base for community inhabitants to lead a simple, healthy, and energy-saving way of life as well as ensuring safety, security, and a high quality-of-life in the community. In particular, a smart community can be essential for senior citizens in an aging society. Smart community enablers such as information and communication technology (ICT) and electric vehicles (EVs) can perform essential roles to realize a smart community. With regard to ICT, the necessity of a dedicated wireless sensor backbone has been identified. With regard to EV, a small-sized EV with one or two seats (Mini-EV) has been identified as an emerging player to support personal daily mobility in an aged society. The Mini-EV may be powered by a solar battery, thereby mitigating vehicular maintenance burden for the elderly. It is essential to realize a dependable ICT network and communication service for a smart community. In the study, we present the concept of trans-locatable design to achieve this goal. The two possible roles of EVs in contributing to a dependable ICT network are highlighted; these include EV charging of the batteries of the base stations in the network, and the creation of a Mini-EV based ad-hoc network that can enable applications such as safe driving assistance and secure neighborhoods.

  8. Survey of technology for hybrid vehicle auxiliary power units. Interim report, April 1994-June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, S.K.

    1995-10-01

    The state-of-the-art of heat engines for use as auxiliary power units in hybrid vehicles is surveyed. The study considers reciprocating or rotary heat engines, excluding gas turbines and fuel cells. The relative merits of various engine-generator concepts are compared. The concepts are ranked according to criteria tailored for a series-type hybrid drive. The two top APU concepts were the free-piston engine/linear generator (FPELG) and the Wankel rotary` engine. The FPELG is highly ranked primarily because of thermal efficiency cost, producibility. reliability, and transient response advantages; it is a high risk concept because of unproven technology. The Wankel engine is proven. with high power density, low cost and low noise. Four additional competitive concepts include two-stroke spark-ignition engine. two-stroke gas generator with turboalternator, free-piston engine gas generator with turboalternator, and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine. This study recommends additional work, including cycle simulation development and preliminary design to better quantify thermal efficiency and power density. Auxiliary concepts were also considered, including two which warrant further study: electrically actuated valves, and lean turndown of a normally stoichiometric engine. These concepts should be evaluated by retrofitting to existing engines.

  9. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  10. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.

  11. Treatment of clinical solid waste using a steam autoclave as a possible alternative technology to incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2012-03-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.

  12. Risk-Informed Decision Making: Application to Technology Development Alternative Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    NASA NPR 8000.4A, Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements, defines risk management in terms of two complementary processes: Risk-informed Decision Making (RIDM) and Continuous Risk Management (CRM). The RIDM process is used to inform decision making by emphasizing proper use of risk analysis to make decisions that impact all mission execution domains (e.g., safety, technical, cost, and schedule) for program/projects and mission support organizations. The RIDM process supports the selection of an alternative prior to program commitment. The CRM process is used to manage risk associated with the implementation of the selected alternative. The two processes work together to foster proactive risk management at NASA. The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters has developed a technical handbook to provide guidance for implementing the RIDM process in the context of NASA risk management and systems engineering. This paper summarizes the key concepts and procedures of the RIDM process as presented in the handbook, and also illustrates how the RIDM process can be applied to the selection of technology investments as NASA's new technology development programs are initiated.

  13. Vehicle Theft Alert and Location Identification Using GSM, GPS and Web Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garba Suleiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insecurity is one of the major challenges that the entire world is facing now, each country having their peculiar security issues. The crime rate in every part of the society these days has become a threatening issue such that vehicles are now used for committing criminal activities more than before. The issue of vehicle theft has increased tremendously, mostly at gunpoint or car parks. In view of these, there is a need for adequate records of stolen, identified and recovered vehicles which are not readily available in our society and as such very important. The development of a vehicle theft alert and location identification system becomes more necessary for vehicle owners to ensure theft prevention and a speedy identification towards recovery efforts in situations where a vehicle is missing, stolen or driven by an unauthorized person. The theft alert function makes use of a GSM application developed and installed in a mobile phone device which is embedded in the vehicle to communicate with the vehicle owner’s mobile phone. The communication is established via SMS (i.e. between the installed mobile phone device and that of the vehicle owner. The communications established include; (i. Sending an SMS alert from installed mobile phone device to vehicle owner mobile phone when the car ignition is put on. (ii. Sending an SMS from the vehicle owner’s mobile phone to start and stop the installed mobile phone device application. The location identification function makes use of a web application developed to; (i. Determine the real time location of a vehicle by means of tracking using GPS. (ii. Broadcast missing or stolen vehicle information to social media and security agency. The implementation of the installed mobile phone device application was done using JAVA because of its capabilities in programming mobile applications while PHP and MySQL was used for the web application functions. Integration testing of the system was carried out using

  14. Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy battery technology targets for battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Bae, Chulheung; Elder, Ron; Cunningham, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer significant potential to reduce the nation's consumption of petroleum based products and the production of greenhouse gases however, their widespread adoption is limited largely by the cost and performance limitations of modern batteries. With recent growth in efforts to accelerate BEV adoption (e.g. the Department of Energy's (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge) and the age of existing BEV battery technology targets, there is sufficient motivation to re-evaluate the industry's technology targets for battery performance and cost. Herein we document the analysis process that supported the selection of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium's (USABC) updated BEV battery technology targets. Our technology agnostic approach identifies the necessary battery performance characteristics that will enable the vehicle level performance required for a commercially successful, mass market full BEV, as guided by the workgroup's OEM members. The result is an aggressive target, implying that batteries need to advance considerably before BEVs can be both cost and performance competitive with existing petroleum powered vehicles.

  15. Bandwidth-limited active suspension controller for an off-road vehicle based on co-simulation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinzhi FENG; Songlin ZHENG; Fan YU

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design process of a controller for bandwidth-limited active hydro-pneumatic suspension employed by an off-road vehicle based on co-simulation technology. First, a detailed multi-body dynamic model of the vehicle is established by using the ADAMS/View software package, which is followed by validation using a vehicle field test. Second, a combined PID and fuzzy controller is designed for the bandwidth-limited active suspension system and then programmed by means of S-functions in Matlab/Simulink, to which a data exchange interface with ADAMS/View is also defined. Third, the proposed control algorithm is implemented on the multi-body dynamic vehicle model to enable the co-simulation to run repeatedly until a more practical controller is achieved. In the end, the proposed active suspension system is compared with a conven-tional passive system. Simulation results show that the proposed active suspension system considerably improves both the ride and handling performance of the vehicle and therefore increases the maximum travel-ing speeds even on rough roads.

  16. Technology and Key Strategy of IE4 Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Subramonium A K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection and energy conservations are the main concern of 21st century Asia Pacific developing countries. This concern has compelled to design and develop zero pollution road transportation Electric Vehicles (EVs. The EV system consist of energy storage devices such as battery, fuel cell, ultra-capacitors along with electric propulsion, body of the vehicle and energy management system with the diversified technology of electrical, electronics, mechanical, automotive and chemical engineering. The objective of electric vehicle is to produce commercial viable range, efficient performance, and comfort with safety and reliable operations at cheaper price than its counterpart the Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle (ICEV. The PMBLDC motors are the present choice of automobile industries and researchers because of its high power density, compact size, reliability, with noise free and minimum maintenance requirements. The present state of art Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC Motor drive for the electric vehicle application is studied / reviewed in this paper.. In addition the study also reveals the advancement of the Power Processing Unit (PPU which consists of Microelectronics and Controls (Me and C to produce the super-premium efficiency PMBLDC drive system for EV applications.

  17. Natural gas application in light- and heavy-duty vehicles in Brazil: panorama, technological routes and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Guilherme Bastos, Cordeiro de Melo, Tadeu Cavalcante; Leao, Raphael Riemke de Campos Cesar; Iaccarino, Fernando Aniello; Figueiredo Moreira, Marcia

    2007-07-01

    The Brazilian CNG light-duty vehicle fleet has currently reached more than 1,300,000 units. This growth increased in the late 1990's, when CNG was approved for use in passenger cars. In 2001, the IBAMA (Brazilian Institute for Environment and Natural Renewable Resources), concerned with this uncontrolled growth, published CONAMA (National Environmental Council, controlled by IBAMA) resolution 291, which establishes rules for CNG conversion kit environmental certification.This paper discusses the technological challenges for CNG-converted vehicles to comply with PROCONVE (Brazilian Program for Automotive Air Pollution Control) emission limits. In the 1980's, because of the oil crisis, Natural Gas (NG) emerged as a fuel with great potential to replace Diesel in heavy-duty vehicles. Some experiences were conducted for partial conversions from Diesel to NG (Diesel-gas). Other experiences using NG Otto Cycle buses were conducted in some cities, but have not expanded. Another technological route called 'Ottolization' (Diesel to Otto cycle convertion) appeared recently. Population increase and the great growth in vehicle fleet promote a constant concern with automotive emissions. More restrictive emission limits, high international oil prices, and the strategic interest in replacing Diesel imports, altogether form an interesting scenario for CNG propagation to public transportation in the main Brazilian metropolises.

  18. Review on Vehicle Electromagnetic Suspension Technology%车辆电磁悬架技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻凡; 张勇超; 张国光

    2012-01-01

    主动悬架对路况和车况的自适应能力强,可显著提升车辆的行驶平顺性,而作为其核心部件之一的作动器,则是实现主动悬架性能的关键.随着电动车、电控系统和电磁减振技术的发展,电磁作动器在车辆悬架系统上的应用开始受到关注.本文中对车辆电磁悬架技术的研究和应用现状进行回顾和分析,并对其应用前景进行展望.%Due to the good adaptability to a variety of road and vehicle situations, active suspension can significantly improve vehicle ride comfort compared with passive suspension. As one of its core components, the actuator is the key to fulfilling the performance of active suspension. With the development of electric vehicles, electric/electronic control systems and electromagnetic technology for vibration attenuation, the applications of electromagnetic actuators to vehicle suspension system begin to attract more and more attentions. In this paper, the state-of-the-art review is presented on the research and application of electromagnetic suspension technology with its application prospects forecast.

  19. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles. A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes, Gustavo [Renergh Consulting and Department of Commerce, State of Washington, 2001 6th Ave, Suite 2600, Seattle, WA 98121 (United States); Melaina, Marc W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. (author)

  20. Modular Energy Storage System for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna International, Rochester Mills, MI (United States)

    2010-08-27

    The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plug-in electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. The in-depth research into the complex interactions between the lower and higher voltage systems from data obtained via modeling, bench testing and instrumented vehicle data will allow an optimum system to be developed from a performance, cost, weight and size perspective. The subsystems are designed for modularity so that they may be used with different propulsion and energy delivery systems. This approach will allow expansion into new alternative energy vehicle markets.

  1. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  2. Liquid metal alloy ion sources—An alternative for focussed ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Lothar; Mazarov, Paul; Bruchhaus, Lars; Gierak, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Today, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) processing is nearly exclusively based on gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS). But, many applications in the μm- or nm range could benefit from ion species other than gallium: local ion implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam synthesis, or Focused Ion Beam Lithography (IBL). Therefore, Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) represent a promising alternative to expand the remarkable application fields for FIB. Especially, the IBL process shows potential advantages over, e.g., electron beam or other lithography techniques: direct, resistless, and three-dimensional patterning, enabling a simultaneous in-situ process control by cross-sectioning and inspection. Taking additionally into account that the used ion species influences significantly the physical and chemical nature of the resulting nanostructures—in particular, the electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanic properties leading to a large potential application area which can be tuned by choosing a well suited LMAIS. Nearly half of the elements of the periodic table are recently available in the FIB technology as a result of continuous research in this area during the last forty years. Key features of a LMAIS are long life-time, high brightness, and stable ion current. Recent developments could make these sources feasible for nano patterning issues as an alternative technology more in research than in industry. The authors will review existing LMAIS, LMIS other than Ga, and binary and ternary alloys. These physical properties as well as the fabrication technology and prospective domains for modern FIB applications will similarly be reviewed. Other emerging ion sources will be also presented and their performances discussed.

  3. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    , mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology applications......As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...

  4. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  5. System analysis and assessment of technological alternatives for Nordic H{sub 2} energy foresight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Pursiheimo, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Gether, K. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Joergensen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2004-12-01

    The hydrogen scenarios developed during the Nordic Hydrogen Foresight project was analysed using a energy system model, which was developed during the project. The aim of the systems analysis was to analyse the technical and economical potential of hydrogen society in the Nordic countries in quantitative terms as well as the competitiveness of the selected hydrogen based systems. Visions and scenarios of the future energy systems in the Nordic area were defined in the workshops of the project. As a result of these workshops three scenarios were selected to outline the future of Nordic energy. The scenarios included different energy policies; scenarios for fossil fuel prices; and hydrogen energy demands, which varied from 6% to 18% of the total energy demand in 2030 for transport sector, and from 3% to 9% in heat and power production. In the roadmap workshops, the most important hydrogen based systems were selected, which were also included in the model. These include steam reforming of natural gas, electrolysis with renewable electricity, and biomass gasification for hydrogen production. For stationary applications, fuel cells and gas engines were selected for power and heat production. In our scenario calculations, biomass gasification and steam reforming seem to be the most competitive technologies for hydrogen production. The competitiveness of biomass gasification is greatly affected by the biomass fuel price, which is a local energy source. Electrolysis seems to be most competitive in decentralized systems, if the electricity price is low enough. For stationary applications, CHP fuel cells seem to be the most competitive in the long term, if the technological development and the decrease in investment costs follow the assumed scenario. The approximated Nordic market sizes in 2030 for the base scenarios varied from 1000 ME to 3000 MEuro for hydrogen production, from 1000 to 4000 MEuro for stationary applications and 4000 MEuro to 12.000 MEuro for hydrogen

  6. Two innovative healthcare technologies at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahnam, Sheryl; Brooks, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Using game technologies and digital media for improving physical and mental health and for the therapeutic benefit and well-being of a wide range of people is an area of study that is rapidly expanding. Much research in this emerging field is centered at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy. In this paper the authors describe their transdisciplinary work at this intersection: i) an integrative system of psychotherapy technologies called MyPsySpace currently being prototyped in Second Life with the aim of offering new and virtual translations of traditional expressive therapies (virtual sandplay, virtual drama therapy, digital expressive therapy, and virtual safe spaces) and ii) a mature body of research entitled SoundScapes that is exploring the use of interactive video games and abstract creative expression (making music, digital painting, and robotic device control) as a supplement to traditional physical rehabilitation intervention. Aside from introducing our work to a broader audience, our goal is to encourage peers to investigate ideas that reach across disciplines-to both risk and reap the benefits of combining technologies, theories, and methods stemming from multiple disciplines.

  7. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  8. Research on Vehicle Control Technology Using Four-Wheel Independent Steering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The enhancement of vehicle handling stability and maneuverability through active and independent rear wheels control is presented. Firstly, the configuration of four-wheel independent steering prototype vehicle is introduced briefly. Then the concrete overall design of the electronic controllers of four wheel independent steering system (4WIS) is formulated in details. Under the control strategy of zero sideslip angle at mass center, the mathematical model of 4WIS is established to deduce the equations of separated rear wheel steering angles. According to these equations, simulation analysis for 4WIS vehicle performances is finished to show that 4WIS vehicle can improve the maneuverability greatly at low speed and increase the handling stability at high speed. Finally, the road test of 4WIS vehicle has performed to verify the correctness of simulation and show that compared with the conventional four wheel steering (4WS) vehicle, the 4WIS vehicle not only improves the kinematical harmony but also decreases steering resistance and lighten abrasion of tires.

  9. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  10. Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells: Physics and technology by alternative tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea

    In this thesis I shall present the most scientifically interesting and/or practically useful results achieved in my PhD project. Such results are related to fundamental properties and technological aspects of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and related materials for solar cells. By "related materials" I mean two...... things: i) alternative solar absorbers (notably, Cu2SnS3) that are chemically related to CZTS and that have similar selling points; ii) other materials included in the device stack of CZTS solar cells. Here I list what I believe the main highlights of my work are. First, we achieve the highest reported...... power conversion eciency (5.2%) for a CZTS solar cell using pulsed laser deposition as a fabrication method for CZTS precursors. This is thanks to to joint work of PhD student Andrea Cazzaniga, PhD student Chang Yan (University of New South Wales, Australia) and myself. Perhaps more importantly, we...

  11. Polymeric nanocapsules as a technological alternative to reduce the toxicity caused by meloxicam in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Benonio T; Ianiski, Francine R; Vogt, Ane G; Pinz, Mikaela P; Reis, Angélica S; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Soares, Mauro P; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Luchese, Cristiane

    2016-11-01

    This study determined whether meloxicam in nanocapsules modifies stomach and liver damage caused by free meloxicam in mice. Male Swiss mice were treated with blank nanocapsules or meloxicam in nanocapsules or free meloxicam (10 mg/kg, intragastrically, daily for five days). On the seventh day, blood was collected to determine biochemical markers (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, albumin and alkaline phosphatase). Stomachs and livers were removed for histological analysis. There was no significant difference in the biochemical markers in the plasma of mice. Meloxicam in nanocapsules did not have an ulcerogenic potential in the stomach or cause lipid peroxidation in the stomach and liver. Free meloxicam increased the ulcerogenic potential in the stomach and lipid peroxidation in the stomach and liver. Meloxicam in nanocapsules caused less histological changes than free meloxicam. In conclusion, polymeric nanocapsules can represent a technological alternative to reduce the toxicity caused by meloxicam.

  12. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw......This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume......Wh of electricity from straw through gasification would lead to a global warming potential of 0.08 kg CO2e, non-renewable energy use of 0.2 MJ primary, acidification of 1.3 g SO2e, respiratory inorganics of 0.08 g PM2.5e and eutrophication potential of -1.9 g NO3e. The production of electricity from straw based...

  13. Controllable Alternating Magnetic Technology Research for Inducing Plants Breeding on Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-wen HU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Controllable alternating induction magnetic field generation technology which induces plant seeds to breed on floor space has been developed. The incentive ferrite induction coil is used in the device to produce induced magnetic field. The common AC-DC-AC topology was adopted for the variable frequency power supply, realizing the VF. AC-DC-AC AC power inverter circuit adopts SPWM inverter frequency modulation and voltage regulation mode, realizing the effect of sinusoidal variable. In order to improve the conversion efficiency of the system electrical energy to magnetic energy, the RLC series resonant circuit is chosen in the circuit of output magnetic field. The induction magnetic field in the air gap is the work area for seeds experiment. Its adjustable frequency range: 20~200Hz, adjustable field range: 0~500Gs. The experimental study of rice seeds shows that different magnetic environment has a significant impact on the biological characteristics of rice seeds.

  14. Alternative Technologies for Biofuels Production in Kraft Pulp Mills—Potential and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Vakkilainen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current global conditions provide the pulp mill new opportunities beyond the traditional production of cellulose. Due to stricter environmental regulations, volatility of oil price, energy policies and also the global competitiveness, the challenges for the pulp industry are many. They range from replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources to the export of biofuels, chemicals and biomaterials through the implementation of biorefineries. In spite of the enhanced maturity of various bio and thermo-chemical conversion processes, the economic viability becomes an impediment when considering the effective implementation on an industrial scale. In the case of kraft pulp mills, favorable conditions for biofuels production can be created due to the availability of wood residues and generation of black liquor. The objective of this article is to give an overview of the technologies related to the production of alternative biofuels in the kraft pulp mills and discuss their potential and prospects in the present and future scenario.

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T.

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  18. Advanced vehicles: Costs, energy use, and macroeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua

    Advanced vehicles and alternative fuels could play an important role in reducing oil use and changing the economy structure. We developed the Costs for Advanced Vehicles and Energy (CAVE) model to investigate a vehicle portfolio scenario in California during 2010-2030. Then we employed a computable general equilibrium model to estimate macroeconomic impacts of the advanced vehicle scenario on the economy of California. Results indicate that, due to slow fleet turnover, conventional vehicles are expected to continue to dominate the on-road fleet and gasoline is the major transportation fuel over the next two decades. However, alternative fuels could play an increasingly important role in gasoline displacement. Advanced vehicle costs are expected to decrease dramatically with production volume and technological progress; e.g., incremental costs for fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen could break even with gasoline savings in 2028. Overall, the vehicle portfolio scenario is estimated to have a slightly negative influence on California's economy, because advanced vehicles are very costly and, therefore, the resulting gasoline savings generally cannot offset the high incremental expenditure on vehicles and alternative fuels. Sensitivity analysis shows that an increase in gasoline price or a drop in alternative fuel prices could offset a portion of the negative impact.

  19. Drag Identification & Reduction Technology (DIRECT) for Elastically Shaped Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA and Boeing Phantom Works have been working on the Elastically Shaped Future Vehicle Concept (ESFVC) and have shown that aircraft with elastically shaped wings...

  20. Regeneratively-Cooled, Pump-Fed Propulsion Technology for Nano / Micro Satellite Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ventions proposes the development of a pump-fed, 2-stage nano launch vehicle for low-cost on demand placement of cube and nano-satellites into LEO. The proposed...

  1. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  2. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue.

  3. Two Alternative Strategies for Raising Public Awareness of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Couto Marques

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s knowledge society it is important to keep people informed about emerging technological developments while at the same time providing an accurate scientific and historical framework for such novelties in order to contribute to eradicate existing misconceptions. Dissemination of science and technology is presently essential to convey information within the research communities as well as among the younger generations and the general public. This paper describes two initiatives which pursue this objective by using multimedia tools. One consists in a set of 250 one-minute programs about engineering topics which were broadcast on TV, radio and the multimedia online platform of a daily journal. The other is a collection of videos produced by a research unit in two alternative formats aimed at specialist and general viewers. Both initiatives, based on two very different budgets, may be instrumental for improving the general perception of the role of engineering and for attracting new vocations. The multimedia contents developed are also valuable teaching tools.

  4. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used

  6. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles: A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo.collantes@commerce.wa.go [Renergh Consulting and Department of Commerce, State of Washington, 2001 6th Ave, Suite 2600, Seattle, WA 98121 (United States); Melaina, Marc W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. - Research Highlights: {yields}The broad scale adoption of CNG for transportation in Argentina was initiated by a market demand for an effective fuel that was priced at a significantly lower level compared to the mainstream alternatives. {yields}The Argentine played a marginal role in the development of refueling infrastructure. {yields}The role of the government focused on sending clear signals to the marketplace and developing effective codes and standards. {yields}Consumers willingness to switch to CNG increases as state of the economy deteriorates and disposable incomes decrease.

  7. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  8. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  9. Lightweight Combat Vehicle S&T Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Topology Opt •Metals •Plastics •Hybrids •Adv Materials/ Nanos •Joining •Additive Mfg •Forming/Part Mfg Technology Recommendations Vehicle Sub-system...Alternative Fuels and Lubricants Hybrid Propulsion Systems & Energy Storage Analytical Tools •High density, energy efficient powertrain •Extreme

  10. Summarize of Electric Vehicle Electric System Fault and Fault-tolerant Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Liwei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle drive system is a multi-variable function, running environment complexed and changeable system, so it’s failure form is complicated. In this paper, according to the fault happens in different position, establish vehicle fault table, analyze the consequences of failure may cause and the causes of failure. Combined with hardware limitations, and the maximum guarantee system performance requirements, passive software redundancy fault-tolerant strategy is put forward, give an example to analysis the pros and cons of this method.

  11. The prediction technology study of fatigue life for key parts of a tracked vehicle's suspension system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongyan; RUI Qiang; HE Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    In allusion to fatigue life of a tracked vehicle torsion bar, a virtual prototype model of the tracked vehicle suspension system including a flexible torsion bar was built based on dynamic simulation software-ADAMS. Node force and stress results of the torsion bar from last step simu- lation were acquired; taking into account the material charac- teristics and influential factors, fatigue life of the flexible body. of the torsion bar was predicted. Engineering results can be acquired through the contrast of the result of virtual test and statistical fatigue.

  12. The General Discussion on Thermal Technologies in Advanced Space Transfer Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Wang, Guo-hui

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the boundary of space exploration has been wider and wider. So the demand of new-generation spacecrafts, carriers and transfer vehicles becomes urged. In this article, thermal questions and first-stage counter-measure technical methods and the relative important recent improvements in these methods are discussed about two important types of new conceptive Space Transfer Vehicles (STVs), the nuclear-thermal propelling STV and laser propelled STV, especially on the heat generation, heat collection, heat transfer and heat control. At the end of this article, pieces of advice and several predictions are put forward, generally and principally.

  13. Analysis on Key Technologies of Internet of vehicles%车联网系统关键技术剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬; 张菲菲

    2014-01-01

    Internet of vehicles is the application and extension of IOT in the ifeld of trafifc, which is one of the key applications in the“12th Five-Year Plan”. The basic concept of internet of vehicles is introduced, and then the key technologies are analyzed, such as RFID, sensor, wireless transmission, information security, standardization, data integration, heterogeneous network convergence, big data processing, cloud computing, and mobile computing technologies. Meanwhile, the development trend of the key technologies is summarized and prospected.%车联网技术是物联网技术在交通领域的延伸及应用,是中国“十二五”规划的重点应用领域之一。文章首先介绍了车联网的基本概念,接着对车联网中的RFID、传感器、无线传输、信息安全、标准化、数据融合、异构网络融合、大数据处理、云计算、移动计算等关键技术进行了剖析。与此同时,也对部分关键技术的发展趋势进行了总结和展望。

  14. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stang, John H.

    2005-12-19

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS -- NOx = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY -- The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT -- Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis

  15. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Stang

    2005-12-31

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS--NO{sub x} = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NO{sub x} = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY--The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT--Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full

  16. Peptide KSL-W-Loaded Mucoadhesive Liquid Crystalline Vehicle as an Alternative Treatment for Multispecies Oral Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernegossi, Jéssica; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Sanches, Paulo Ricardo da Silva; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Garrido, Saulo Santesso; Chorilli, Marlus

    2015-12-25

    Decapeptide KSL-W shows antibacterial activities and can be used in the oral cavity, however, it is easily degraded in aqueous solution and eliminated. Therefore, we aimed to develop liquid crystalline systems (F1 and F2) for KSL-W buccal administration to treat multispecies oral biofilms. The systems were prepared with oleic acid, polyoxypropylene (5) polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl alcohol (PPG-5-CETETH-20), and a 1% poloxamer 407 dispersion as the oil phase (OP), surfactant (S), and aqueous phase (AP), respectively. We characterized them using polarized light microscopy (PLM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), rheology, and in vitro bioadhesion, and performed in vitro biological analysis. PLM showed isotropy (F1) or anisotropy with lamellar mesophases (F2), confirmed by peak ratio quantification using SAXS. Rheological tests demonstrated that F1 exhibited Newtonian behavior but not F2, which showed a structured AP concentration-dependent system. Bioadhesion studies revealed an AP concentration-dependent increase in the system's bioadhesiveness (F2 = 15.50 ± 1.00 mN·s) to bovine teeth blocks. Antimicrobial testing revealed 100% inhibition of multispecies oral biofilm growth after KSL-W administration, which was incorporated in the F2 aqueous phase at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Our results suggest that this system could serve as a potential vehicle for buccal administration of antibiofilm peptides.

  17. Peptide KSL-W-Loaded Mucoadhesive Liquid Crystalline Vehicle as an Alternative Treatment for Multispecies Oral Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Bernegossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Decapeptide KSL-W shows antibacterial activities and can be used in the oral cavity, however, it is easily degraded in aqueous solution and eliminated. Therefore, we aimed to develop liquid crystalline systems (F1 and F2 for KSL-W buccal administration to treat multispecies oral biofilms. The systems were prepared with oleic acid, polyoxypropylene (5 polyoxyethylene (20 cetyl alcohol (PPG-5-CETETH-20, and a 1% poloxamer 407 dispersion as the oil phase (OP, surfactant (S, and aqueous phase (AP, respectively. We characterized them using polarized light microscopy (PLM, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, rheology, and in vitro bioadhesion, and performed in vitro biological analysis. PLM showed isotropy (F1 or anisotropy with lamellar mesophases (F2, confirmed by peak ratio quantification using SAXS. Rheological tests demonstrated that F1 exhibited Newtonian behavior but not F2, which showed a structured AP concentration-dependent system. Bioadhesion studies revealed an AP concentration-dependent increase in the system’s bioadhesiveness (F2 = 15.50 ± 1.00 mN·s to bovine teeth blocks. Antimicrobial testing revealed 100% inhibition of multispecies oral biofilm growth after KSL-W administration, which was incorporated in the F2 aqueous phase at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Our results suggest that this system could serve as a potential vehicle for buccal administration of antibiofilm peptides.

  18. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

  19. Alternative technological approach for synthesis of ceramic pigments by waste materials recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doynov, M.; Dimitrov, T.; Kozhukharov, S.

    2016-05-01

    Alternative technological approach is proposed enabling utilization of raw materials from an oil refinery, such as waste guard layers from reactors. Reagent grade and purified MgO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), were used as additional precursors. The homogeneous mixtures obtained were formed into pellets and sintered at different temperatures. The main phase was proved by X-ray phase analysis (XRD) and compared to ICPDS database. The main phase in the ceramics synthesized was solid solution of spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and magnesiochromite. These minerals are classified as chromspinelide MgCr{sub 1}.2Al{sub 0}.4Fe{sub 0}.4O{sub 4} and alumochromite MgCr{sub 1}.6Al{sub 0}.4O{sub 4}. Additional SEM observations, combined with EDX analysis were performed, evincing agglomeration at lower temperatures, followed by agglomerate crumbling, at elevated calcination temperature. The complete transformation of initial precursors into the final ceramic compounds was found to occur at 800 degree centigrade 1 h. The ceramic samples synthesized had high density of 1.72-1.93 g/cm{sup 3} and large absorption area - 32.93% which is probably due to the high porosity of the sample. (Author)

  20. Fabrication of Alternate Stacking MnO2/MoS2 Layered Nanohybrid by a Sonochemistry Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Zhi-Kui; CUI Yan-Hua; TANG Xiu-Hua; ZHOU Qing; LIU Zong-Huai

    2008-01-01

    Layered manganese oxide was delaminated in a tetramethylammonium hydroxide by sonicating treatment for hated MnO2 colloid by ultrasonic treatment, and alternate stacking MnO2/MoS2 nanohybrid with a novel layered structure was fabricated by using a sonochemistry technology. A new hybridization method between two kinds of inorganic nanosheets with the same charge character was developed.

  1. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to vehicles and fuel emissions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  2. 柴油汽车SCR技术的应用研究%Application Study of SCR Technology to Diesel Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔勇; 陈靖芯; 王燕; 刘蕴青

    2013-01-01

    The analysis is made about the reason why the domestic manufacturers apply SCR technology to meet the Europe IV emission standard. The SCR system's composition and working principle, SCR technology application of diesel vehicle are introduced. The major factors affecting the NOX transformation efficiency of SCR system are re-searched.%  分析国内厂家采用SCR技术满足欧Ⅳ排放的原因,介绍SCR 系统的组成和工作原理、柴油汽车SCR系统的应用方案,研究影响SCR 系统NOX转化效率的主要因素。

  3. Using acoustic sensor technologies to create a more terrain capable unmanned ground vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odedra, Sid; Prior, Stephen D.; Karamanoglu, Mehmet; Erbil, Mehmet Ali; Shen, Siu-Tsen; International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicle’s (UGV) have to cope with the most complex range of dynamic and variable obstacles and therefore need to be highly intelligent in order to cope with navigating in such a cluttered environment. When traversing over different terrains (whether it is a UGV or a commercial manned vehicle) different drive styles and configuration settings need to be selected in order to travel successfully over each terrain type. These settings are usually selected by a human operator in ma...

  4. 汽车零部件的清洗技术%Vehicle Parts Cleaning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2013-01-01

      汽车零部件的清洗是汽车零部件的生产工艺过程的一个重要组成部份,主要介绍了清洗的目的不仅是外观装饰的需要,更重要的是确保和提高产品质量的需要。化学清洗是汽车零部件的清洗中应用最广泛、使用最方便、效果最理想、成本低廉的一种方法。%Vehicle parts cleaning were introduced in this paper is the production of vehicle parts is one of the most important link, is the pro⁃duction process is an important part of. The purpose of cleaning is not only the need of decorated appearance, more important is to ensure and improve product quality. In the industrial developed countries, the cleanliness and precision and smooth finish in same position. Chemical cleaning is the most widely used in vehicle parts cleaning, use the most convenient, effect ideal, a method of low cost. Cleaning mechaniza⁃tion, automation, to improve the cleaning effect and save energy, reduce costs, shorten time has obvious practical significance.

  5. Dispersion modeling to compare alternative technologies for odor remediation at swine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Susan S; Graham, Brevick G; Williams, C Mike

    2008-09-01

    The effectiveness of 18 alternative technologies for reducing odor dispersion at and beyond the boundary of swine facilities was assessed in conjunction with an initiative sponsored through agreements between the Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms, and Frontline Farmers. The trajectory and spatial distribution of odor emitted at each facility were modeled at 200 and 400 m downwind from each site under two meteorological conditions (daytime and nighttime) using a Eulerian-Lagrangian model. To predict the dispersion of odor downwind, the geographical area containing the odorant sources at each facility was partitioned into 10-m2 grids on the basis of satellite photographs and architectural drawings. Relative odorant concentrations were assigned to each grid point on the basis of intensity measurements made by the trained odor panel at each facility using a 9-point rating scale. The results of the modeling indicated that odor did not extend significantly beyond 400 m downwind of any of the test sites during the daytime when the layer of air above the earth's surface is usually turbulent. However, modeling indicated that odor from all full-scale farms extended beyond 400 m onto neighboring property in the evenings when deep surface cooling through long-wave radiation to space produces a stable (nocturnal) boundary layer. The results also indicated that swine housing, independent of waste management type, plays a significant role in odor downwind, as do odor sources of moderate to moderately high intensity that emanate from a large surface area such as a lagoon. Human odor assessments were utilized for modeling rather than instrument measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, or particulates less than 10 microm in diameter (PM10) because these physical measurements obtained simultaneously with human panel ratings were not found to accurately predict human odor intensity in the field.

  6. Status of clean vehicle technologies and impact of the accompanying public policies; Etat des filieres de vehicules propres et impact des politiques publiques d'accompagnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The French inter-ministry committee for clean vehicles (CIVP) published in 1999 a report about the status of development of the different clean vehicle technologies (electric-powered, LPG-fueled, natural gas fueled, hybrid, fuel cells) and accompanied by recommendations for public policies. A re-evaluation of these technologies was planned by the end of 2002 and is the purpose of this document. The first part makes a status of the actions carried out by the public authorities since the previous CIVP report. The second part presents the present day situation of the LPG, natural gas and electric technologies. It describes also the recent advances in the classical technologies (gasoline and diesel engines) and includes a part about battery technologies and about the use of bio-fuels. The status of each technology is presented both for France and for foreign countries and with its perspectives of evolution. (J.S.)

  7. Technology transfer metrics: Measurement and verification of data/reusable launch vehicle business analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivoli, George W.

    1996-01-01

    Congress and the Executive Branch have mandated that all branches of the Federal Government exert a concentrated effort to transfer appropriate government and government contractor-developed technology to the industrial use in the U.S. economy. For many years, NASA has had a formal technology transfer program to transmit information about new technologies developed for space applications into the industrial or commercial sector. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been in the forefront of the development of U.S. industrial assistance programs using technologies developed at the Center. During 1992-93, MSFC initiated a technology transfer metrics study. The MSFC study was the first of its kind among the various NASA centers. The metrics study is a continuing process, with periodic updates that reflect on-going technology transfer activities.

  8. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  9. Waste Crate and Container Imaging Using the Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    The Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is a highly penetrating gamma ray imaging system that provides a means to non-invasively image crate contents prior to crate disassembly. The VACIS unit uses a 1.6 Curie collimated source (Cesium-137) aimed at a linear detector to create an image as the unit passes by the crate. In the demonstrated mobile unit, the source and detector were mounted on a boom truck. As the crate passed between the source and detector, a near real-time composite image of the contents was constructed from the linear image of the VACIS unit's on board computer and recorded on disk.

  10. Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in Army Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    and mechanisms are identified. Based on this analysis, baselines sensor technologies are determined to prognosticate these types failure causes early...Current/voltage sensor measured at sensor terminals; Fluid level sensor Excessive slippage and clutch chatter Internal transmission failure ... TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in

  11. Business Models for Sustainable Technologies: Exploring Business Model Evolution in the Case of Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnsack, R.; Pinkse, J.; Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable technologies challenge prevailing business practices, especially in industries that depend heavily on the use of fossil fuels. Firms are therefore in need of business models that transform the specific characteristics of sustainable technologies into new ways to create economic value and

  12. Oxidative potential of semi-volatile and non volatile particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles retrofitted with emission control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subhasis; Verma, Vishal; Schauer, James J; Cassee, Flemming R; Cho, Arthur K; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-05-15

    Advanced exhaust after-treatment devices for diesel vehicles are less effective in controlling semivolatile species than the refractory PM fractions. This study investigated the oxidative potential (OP) of PM from vehicles with six retrofitted technologies (vanadium and zeolite based selective catalytic reduction (V-SCRT, Z-SCRT), Continuously regenerating technology (CRT), catalyzed DPX filter, catalyzed continuously regenerating trap (CCRT), and uncatalyzed Horizon filter) in comparison to a "baseline" vehicle (without any control device). Vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer atthree driving conditions, i.e., cruise, transient urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS), and idle. The consumption rate of dithiothreitol (DTT), one of the surrogate measures of OP, was determined for PM samples collected at ambient and elevated temperatures (thermally denuded of semivolatile species). Control devices reduced the OP expressed per vehicle distance traveled by 60-98%. The oxidative potential per unit mass of PM however, was highest for the Horizon followed by CRT, DPX -Idle, SCRTs, and baseline vehicles. Significant reduction in OP (by 50-100%) was observed forthermally denuded PM from vehicles with retrofitted technologies (PM with significant semivolatile fraction), whereas particles emitted bythe baseline vehicle (with insignificant semivolatile fraction) did not demonstrate any measurable changes in oxidative activity. This suggests that the semivolatile fraction of particles are far more oxidative in nature than refractory particles-a conclusion further supported by previous tunnel and ambient studies, demonstrating a decline in PM oxidative activity with increasing atmospheric dilution. Correlation analysis performed between all the species, showed that OP is moderately associated (R = 0.76) with organic carbon (OC) and strongly associated (R = 0.94) with the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC).

  13. Novel, low-cost alternative technologies to tackle practical, industrial conundrums – a case study of batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Victor K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas batteries in comparison with most other means of energy storage are more environmentally friendly and economical in their operation, they are beset by low energy replenishment rates, low energy storage density, high capital cost of themselves, and high capital cost of energy replenishment infrastructures. Mainly based on ergonomics, this paper proposes a novel, low-cost alternative technology to practically and industrially make these weaknesses irrelevant to some extent without calling for revolutionary technological breakthroughs in material science, batteries’ microstructures, or battery manufacturing technologies. The technology takes advantage of modularization of battery systems, prioritization of charging and discharging of battery module(s according to ease of unloading and/or loading the battery module(s and/or ease of loading replacement battery module(s of the battery module(s.

  14. FOUR-PARAMETER AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY FOR CONSTRUCTION VEHICLE BASED ON ELMAN RECURSIVE NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongyan; ZHAO Dingxuan; TANG Xinxing; Ding Chunfeng

    2008-01-01

    From the viewpoint of energy saving and improving transmission efficiency, the ZL50E wheel loader is taken as the study object. And the system model is analyzed based on the transmission system of the construction vehicle. A new four-parameter shift schedule is presented, which can keep the torque converter working in the high efficiency area. The control algorithm based on the Elman recursive neural network is applied, and four-parameter control system is developed which is based on industrial computer. The system is used to collect data accurately and control 4D180 power-shift gearbox of ZL50E wheel loader shift timely. An experiment is done on automatic transmission test-bed, and the result indicates that the control system could reliably and safely work and improve the efficiency of hydraulic torque converter. Four-parameter shift strategy that takes into account the power consuming of the working pump has important operating significance and reflects the actual working status of construction vehicle.

  15. 无人作战平台指挥控制技术%Command and Control Technology for Unmanned Combat Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑜; 张文玉

    2011-01-01

    无人作战平台(UCV)包括无人机(UAV)、无人艇(USV)和无人潜器(群)(UUV)等,能够在危险复杂环境中执行情报监视与侦察、目标攻击、通信中继和电子干扰等任务。作为武器作战平台,其信息化作战水平相对较低。针对智能指挥控制,重点讨论了无人作战平台的指挥控制关键技术,采用了实用的自主行为建模新技术,提出了目标分配、自主行为决策控制等研究方法。最后指出当前的技术解决方案的局限性。%Unmanned combat vehicles (UCVs) include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), unmanned surface vehicles(USVs) and unmanned underwater vehicles(UUVs), etc. UCVs can be used to complete tasks of intelligence surveillance, target attack, communication relay, and electronic jamming in dangerous and complex environments. They cannot be used as combat vehicles in information operations. Intelligent command and control technologies for UCV are analyzed. Autonomous modeling techniques are used to solve problems of target assignment and autonomous decision control. Finally, methods and solutions are given.

  16. New Literacy Studies: An Alternative Frame for Preparing Teachers to Use Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraian, Srikala; Surabian, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Even as research continues to suggest the potential of assistive technology for improving student outcomes, it remains under-utilized in schools. Among numerous challenges to the effective utilization of assistive technology, research has suggested that educators are inadequately prepared to consider and implement the use of such technologies. In…

  17. Assessing the viability of using rape methyl ester (RME) as an alternative to mineral diesel fuel for powering road vehicles in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.-M.; Badr, O. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1998-02-01

    Rape methyl ester (RME) is a suitable substitute for mineral diesel in existing compression-ignition engines. Its use as an alternative transport fuel will result in decreased emissions of atmospheric pollutants (particularly SO{sub 2}, hydrocarbons and smoke) from this source. However, to encourage such a trend in the UK, the Government needs to adopt the European Union`s recommendation of a reduction of excise duties on biofuels to 10% of the rate applied to lead-free petrol to ensure its economic short-term competitiveness in the UK market. Such a subsidy will not be required by the year 2004. The available resource base for rape-seed oil in the UK limits the production of RME so it could satisfy only up to 4% of demand on fuel by road vehicles powered by diesel engines in the UK. This suggests that it should be used preferentially in urban areas and waterways where its environmental benefits would be maximized. (author)

  18. A System Analysis for Determining Alternative Technological Issues for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrale, V. J.; Small, J.

    1967-01-01

    A systems engineering methodology is provided, by which future technological ventures may be examined utilizing particular national, corporate, or individual value judgments. Three matrix analyses are presented. The first matrix is concerned with the effect of technology on population increase, war, poverty, health, resources, and prejudice. The second matrix explores an analytical technique for determining the relative importance of different areas of technology. The third matrix explores how an individual or corporate entity may determine how its capability may be used for future technological opportunities. No conclusions are presented since primary effort has been placed on the methodology of determining future technological issues.

  19. Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

    1981-04-01

    A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis consists of comparison of characterizations, side-by-side analysis, and alternative futures analysis. (LEW)

  20. Business models for sustainable technologies: Exploring business model evolution in the case of electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bohnsack, R.; Pinkse, J.; van der Kolk, A

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Sustainable technologies challenge prevailing business practices, especially in industries that depend heavily on the use of fossil fuels. Firms are therefore in need of business models that transform the specific characteristics of sustainable technologies into new ways to create economic value and overcome the barriers that stand in the way of their market penetration. A key issue is the respective impact of incumbent and entrepreneurial firms' path-dependent behavio...

  1. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCar & Vehicle Technologies Program CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion engine Vehicle -- Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-01

    The CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle was undertaken to define the requirements to achieve a California Air Resource Board Executive Order for a hydrogenfueled vehicle retrofit kit. A 2005 to 2006 General Motors Company Sierra/Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD pickup was assumed to be the build-from vehicle for the retrofit kit. The emissions demonstration was determined not to pose a significant hurdle due to the non-hydrocarbon-based fuel and lean-burn operation. However, significant work was determined to be necessary for Onboard Diagnostics Level II compliance. Therefore, it is recommended that an Experimental Permit be obtained from the California Air Resource Board to license and operate the vehicles for the durability of the demonstration in support of preparing a fully compliant and certifiable package that can be submitted.

  2. Conversion of Gasoline Vehicles to CNG Hybrid Vehicles (CNG-Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Halvaei Niasar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigation of the feasibility and advantages of using the natural gas as an alternative to gasoline as a fuel for hybrid electric vehicles. Operating CNG vehicles are really beneficial in the Middle East region considering the fact that gasoline is offered at a heavily subsidized price and therefore, by converting a significant portion of the automobiles to run on CNG, the gasoline internal consumption could be reduced. This in turn will result in more oil being available for export which will be beneficial to the economy of country. Hybrid Vehicles mainly have a CNG engine along with an electric drive. The batteries of Hybrid Vehicles are charged by a CNG engine. The engine size is smaller and emissions may be considerably less in hybrid vehicles relative to typical vehicles since the CNG engine is employed only to recharge the electric batteries. Although CNG-Electric hybrid vehicles are less common than Diesel-Electric hybrids, but they have been tested in several U.S. cities such as Denver and Seattle. CNG-electric hybrids hold huge potential for the future in the fact that they are significantly cleaner sources of energy and are conveniently suited to serve the needs of the current economy and modes of transportation. The use of these alternative sources of fuels requires investment and significant studies need to be made to evaluate their efficiencies and reliability. This study would cover most of these aspects and also explores the use of these technologies with particular reference to Qatar and the Middle East.

  3. Definition, technology readiness, and development cost of the orbit transfer vehicle engine integrated control and health monitoring system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.

    1991-01-01

    An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.

  4. Research of Obstacle Recognition Technology in Cross-Country Environment for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being aimed at the obstacle recognition problem of unmanned ground vehicles in cross-country environment, this paper uses monocular vision sensor to realize the obstacle recognition of typical obstacles. Firstly, median filtering algorithm is applied during image preprocessing that can eliminate the noise. Secondly, image segmentation method based on the Fisher criterion function is used to segment the region of interest. Then, morphological method is used to process the segmented image, which is preparing for the subsequent analysis. The next step is to extract the color feature S, color feature a and edge feature “verticality” of image are extracted based on the HSI color space, the Lab color space, and two value images. Finally multifeature fusion algorithm based on Bayes classification theory is used for obstacle recognition. Test results show that the algorithm has good robustness and accuracy.

  5. Experiments Study on Charge Technology of Lead-Acid Electric Vehicle Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen; ZHANG Cheng-ning

    2008-01-01

    The basic theory of the fast charge and several charge methods are introduced. In order to heighten charge efficiency of valve-regulated lead-acid battery and shorten the charge time, five charge methods are investigated with experiments done on the Digatron BNT 400-050 test bench. Battery current, terminal voltage, capacity, energy and terminal pole temperature during battery experiment were recorded, and corresponding curves were depicted. Battery capacity-time ratio, energy efficiency and energy-temperature ratio are put forward to be the appraising criteria of lead-acid battery on electric vehicle (EV). According to the appraising criteria and the battery curves, multistage-current/negative-pulse charge method is recommended to charge lead-acid EV battery.

  6. Active linear mass absorber technology for the reduction of noise and vibration at a cylinder deactivation vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottner, T.; Eckel, H.G. [Vibracoustic GmbH und Co. KG (Germany); Kim, J.H. [Hyundai Motor Company (Korea); Klatt, C. [Freudenberg New Technologies, Weinheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Cylinder deactivation is a suitable strategy for reducing the fuel consumption of a vehicle. In this particular case, a V6 engine runs under partial load conditions in a restricted engine speed range as an inline three cylinder engine by deactivating an entire bank. As a side effect, noise and vibrations in the deactivated condition deteriorate significantly. For comfort reasons, however, a similar noise and vibration level for both - full and deactivated engine running condition - is desired. To achieve this, active technology is used. In the cylinder deactivation mode, two active linear mass aborbers installed at the engine mounts cancel out the main disturbing engine excitation orders of the engine mount forces. As a result, the noise and vibration in the passenger compartment is significantly reduced. (orig.)

  7. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation - Sixth Quarterly Report, January - March 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy; Larry Zirker

    2004-06-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (January-March 2004) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the puraDYN Corporation. The bypass filters are reported to have engine oil filtering capability of <1 micron and a built-in additive package to facilitate extended oil-drain intervals. This quarter, the heavy-duty buses traveled 88,747 miles, and as of the end of March 2004, the eight buses have accumulated 412,838 total test miles without requiring an oil change. This represents an avoidance of 34 oil changes, which equates to 1,199 quarts (300 gallons) of new oil not consumed and, furthermore, 1,199 quarts of waste oil not generated.

  8. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources for both terrestrial and space...

  9. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources. Thermo-electric power generation...

  10. Virtual simulation technology for displaying vehicle ride comfort%展示车辆平顺性的虚拟仿真技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红波; 薛亮; 吴渝; 张寅奇

    2012-01-01

    虚拟现实技术是车辆平顺性仿真展示的主要方法之一.为了能更直观地展示车辆平顺性,参考了1/2七自由度车辆模型,在分析三维模型车辆振动组戍结构后构建了1/2二自由度车辆模型,并导出车辆垂向受力方程,实现了对车辆平顺性的模拟.为观测车辆平顺性仿真过程,提出“固定跟车”观测算法,通过平移和旋转变换,让摄像机视角与车辆位置相对固定并随车一起运动.实验表明,在车轮受到外力激励的情况下可以较真实地模拟模型车辆的振动状态,摄像机随车定点观测也更好地展现了仿真过程.%Virtual reality technology is one of the main methods for vehicle ride simulation. In order to show vehicle ride more directly, a vehicle model of 1/2 7 degrees is established. By analyzing vibration composition of three-dimensional vehicle model, a vehicle model of 1/2 two degrees is built. Then vehicle vertical force equation is educed, and the vehicle ride simulation is a-chieved. To observe simulation process of the vehicle ride comfort, an observation algorithm named " fixed with the car" is proposed. By translation and rotation, the camera angle and position of the vehicle are relatively fixed and it moves with the vehicle. Experimental results show that when wheels of the model vehicle are motivated by external force, the vehicle vibration state can be simulated truthfully, and the camera's fixed-point observation with the vehicle can also show the simulation better.

  11. An Assessment Of The Life Cycle Costs And GHG Emissions For Alternative Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, C. Richard; Carias, Anibal; Ali, Mohammad; Wood, Nicholas; Morgenroth, Michael; Bridgeman, Andrew

    2010-09-15

    The best choices for supplying energy in a manner that can reduce emissions at a reasonable cost while still ensuring grid stability and reliability of supply is a matter of some debate. In this paper, a first principles analysis is performed to look at life-cycle costs and emissions as well as the amount of energy that is provided to the system from various low-emission alternatives, including wind, water, solar and nuclear power. These low-emission sources are then benchmarked against coal-fired energy production to establish a normalized assessment of the clean energy alternatives currently available.

  12. Geospatial Technologies as a Vehicle for Enhancing Graduate Education and Promoting the Value of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Alex P.; Joseph, Sue A.; May, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Geospatial technologies (GSTs), such as geographic information systems, global positioning systems and remote sensing, present an avenue for expanding the already strong interdisciplinary nature of geography. This paper discusses how GSTs served as a common thread for a crosscutting faculty institute that was established to enhance graduate…

  13. Automotive security functions: the use of new technologies to tackle vehicle-related crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    New technologies are mainly used in academia and industry to advance applications in three categories within the automotive field. The first category involves applications to improve traffic efficiency. The second set of applications aims to provide the driver and passengers with infotainment featur

  14. Estimating GHG Reduction from Combinations of Current Best-Available and Future Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for a Midsized Car Using EPA’s ALPHA Model (SAE 2016-01-0910)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA identified the best, or most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to predict the GHG emissions would be from a midsized car incorporating the best combination of these technologies.

  15. Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies in infrastructure construction project management and delay and disruption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacanas, Yiannis; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2015-06-01

    Time in infrastructure construction projects has always been a fundamental issue as early as from the inception of a project, during the construction process and often after the completion and delivery. In a typical construction contract time related matters such as the completion date and possible delays are among the most important issues that are dealt with by the contract provisions. In the event of delay there are usually provisions for extension of time award to the contractor with possible reimbursement for the extra cost and expenses caused by this extension of time to the contract duration. In the case the contractor is not entitled to extension of time, the owner will be possibly entitled to amounts as compensation for the time prohibited from using his development. Even in the event of completion within the time agreed, under certain circumstances a contractor may have claims for reimbursement for extra costs incurred due to induced acceleration measures he had to take in order to mitigate disruption effects caused to the progress of the works by the owner or his representatives. Depending on the size of the project and the agreement amount, these reimbursement sums may be extremely high. Therefore innovative methods with the exploitation of new technologies for effective project management for the avoidance of delays, delay analysis and mitigation measures are essential; moreover, methods for collecting efficiently information during the construction process so that disputes regarding time are avoided or resolved in a quick and fair manner are required. This paper explores the state of art for existing use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technologies in the construction industry in general. Moreover the paper considers the prospect of using BIM technology in conjunction with the use of UAV technology for efficient and accurate as-built data collection and illustration of the works progress during an

  16. Analysis of the vehicle fleet in the Kathmandu Valley for estimation of environment and climate co-benefits of technology intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shreejan Ram; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Xu, Quishi; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2013-12-01

    Technologies and activities of the on-road traffic fleets, including bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and motorcycle (MC) in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, during 2010, were investigated with the aim to produce emission estimates, using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model, for the base year and for an optimistic technology scenario. The parking lot survey, GPS monitoring and video camera monitoring were conducted over four typical road types (arterial, highway, residential and outskirt roads). The average age of vehicles in the bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and MC fleet was 9, 8.7, 11, 9.5 and 4 years, respectively. There were some extremely old buses (over 40 years old) which had extremely high emission factors. Except for MCs that had a large share of Euro III technology (75%), other types of surveyed vehicles were at most Euro II or lower. The average vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) for each vehicle type was estimated based on odometer readings which showed comparable results with the GPS survey. The emission factors (EFs) produced by the IVE model for the driving and meteorological conditions in Kathmandu were used to estimate emissions for the base case of 2010. EFs in Kathmandu were higher than other developing cities, especially for PM and NOx from the bus fleet. Diurnal variations of the emissions were consistent with the diurnal vehicle density. From the fleet in 2010, total emissions of the major pollutants, i.e., CO, VOC, NOx, PM, BC, and CO2, were 31, 7.7, 16, 4.7, 2.1, and 1554 Gg, respectively. If the entire fleet in the Kathmandu Valley would comply with Euro III then the emission would decrease, as compared to the base case, by 44% for toxic air pollutants (excluding CO2) and 31% for climate-forcers in terms of the 20-year horizon CO2-equivalent. Future surveys should include other vehicle types such as trucks, personal cars, and non-road vehicles. The EFs obtained for the Euro III scenario in Kathmandu were well above those in other parts of the

  17. Alternative energies for motor vehicle drives. Lectures with discussion on September 7, 1995 in Bonn; Alternative Energien fuer den Antrieb von Kraftfahrzeugen. Vortraege mit Diskussion, 7. September 1995, Bonn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    In our endeavour to protect the environment and conserve our classical resources we must search for new possibilities that are both economically efficient and sufficiently safe. However, these two are not the only criteria we must observe. Given the present multitude of constraints it will not be easy for alternative energies to make headway in the world market - this we know from our daily discussions - but we are nevertheless sticking to our course. As far as the motor vehicle is concerned we are dealing with the fossil fuels, liquefied petroleum gas, and natural gas, but also with hydrogen and so-called renewable energies from natural sources such as solar energy as well as cultivable raw materials such as diesel oil from rapeseed. All of these energy sources are dealt with in the lectures contained in this booklet. (orig./KO) [Deutsch] Zunehmend muessen wir unter den Aspekten des Umweltschutzes und der Schonung unserer klassischen Ressourcen nach neuen Moeglichkeiten suchen, die einerseits wirtschaftlich, andererseits auch sicher genug sind. Dabei gilt es, neben diesen beiden auch andere Rahmenbedingungen einzuhalten. Unter den genannten Zwaengen haben es die alternativen Energien nicht leicht, sich in dieser Welt Marktanteile zu erobern - wir wissen das aus der taeglichen Diskussion -, aber wir sind auf dem Wege dahin. Wenn wir uns heute mit dem Thema Kraftfahrzeug befassen, meinen wir die fossilen Brennstoffe Fluessiggas und Erdgas, aber auch Wasserstoff sowie die sogenannten erneuerbaren Energien aus natuerlichen Quellen oder die nachwachsenden Rohstoffe wie etwa die Sonnenenergie oder Dieseloel aus Raps. Von all diesen Energiequellen wird die Rede sein. (orig./KO)

  18. Driving into Euroland with AdBlue. Environmental friendly diesel technology for utility vehicles; Mit AdBlue ins Euroland. Umweltfreundliche Dieseltechnologie fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The SCR-diesel technology introduced by DaimlerChrysler has already established itself successfully in the field of utility vehicles under the name BlueTec. This drive technique already meets today the exhaust gas limiting values of tomorrow and is now also available for buses. (orig.)

  19. Computers in the Cop Car: Impact of the Mobile Digital Terminal Technology on Motor Vehicle Theft Clearance and Recovery Rates in a Texas City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Samuel

    1993-01-01

    Assessed the impact of the Mobile Digital Terminal technology (computers used to communicate with remote crime databases) on motor vehicle theft clearance (arresting a perpetrator) and recovery rates in Fort Worth (Texas), using a time series analysis. Impact has been ambiguous, with little evidence of improved clearance or recovery. (SLD)

  20. Challenge and service outlook of vehicle network technology%车联网技术挑战及服务展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬; 张菲菲

    2014-01-01

    The vehicle network technology is an information communication-oriented vehicle-network connection technology, is a typical application of Internet of Things (IOT) technology in the field of city traffic, and plays an important role in solving the problems related with trafifc safety, environmental protection and energy saving. The concept of vehicle network technology and its key technologies are ifrstly discussed in this paper. The challenges for this technology are analyzed in detail, such as un-uniform industry standards, undeifned business mode, imperfect industry chain, defective technical support system, etc. The service and application status of vehicle network technology are summarized. The future of this technology is predicted at the end of this paper.%车联网是一种面向信息通信的车-网联合技术,是物联网技术在城市交通领域的典型应用,在解决城市交通的安全、环保、节能等方面发挥着重要作用。文章讨论了车联网的概念及车联网的关键技术;详细剖析了车联网所面临的挑战(如行业标准不统一、商业模式不明确、产业链不完善、技术支持体系等);总结了车联网服务与应用现状;最后对未来车联网服务进行了展望。

  1. Democratic Television in the Netherlands : Two Curious Cases of Alternative Media as Counter-Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, Tom; Aasman, Susan

    2015-01-01

    For this article, the authors retrieved two curious cases of non-conformist TV from the archives of the Netherlands Institute of Sound and Vision. Being made in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the two cases represent an alternative history of broadcast television in the Netherlands. Whereas Neon (19

  2. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  3. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  4. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  5. The age of alternative energies: the current status of new energy technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines Japan's Sunshine Project and presents the current status of the principal research and development programs involved. These are as follows: 1) solar energy (solar photovoltaic power generation, solar energy systems for industrial use); 2) geothermal energy (technology for geothermal exploration and excavation, hydrothermal power generation, discovery of high-temperature rock); 3) coal energy (coal liquefaction and gasification technology); 4) hydrogen energy (technology for production, transport, storage and utilization of hydrogen); 5) others (wind power and ocean thermal power generation). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Engineering Issue: Technology Alternatives for the Remediation of PCB Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Engineering Issue papers are a series of documents that summarize the available information on specific contaminates, selected treatment and site remediation technologies, and related issues. This Engineering Issue paper is intended...

  7. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Simon [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Electric-drive Vehicle Engineering (EVE) MS degree and graduate certificate programs have been continuing to make good progress, thanks to the funding and the guidance from DOE grant management group, the support from our University and College administrations, and to valuable inputs and feedback from our Industrial Advisory Board as well as our project partners Macomb Community College and NextEnergy. Table 1 below lists originally proposed Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO), which have all been completed successfully. Our program and course enrollments continue to be good and increasing, as shown in later sections. Our graduating students continue to get good job offers from local EV-related companies. Following the top recommendation from our Industrial Advisory Board, we were fortunate enough to be accepted into the prestigious EcoCAR2 (http://www.ecocar2.org/) North America university design competition, and have been having some modest success with the competition. But most importantly, EcoCAR2 offers the most holistic educational environment for integrating real-world engineering and design with our EVE graduate curriculum. Such integrations include true real-world hands-on course projects based on EcoCAR2 related tasks for the students, and faculty curricular and course improvements based on lessons and best practices learned from EcoCAR2. We are in the third and last year of EcoCAR2, and we have already formed a core group of students in pursuit of EcoCAR”3”, for which the proposal is due in early December.

  8. II. Evaluation of the impact of alternative light technology on male broiler chicken stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Allison G; Pritchett, Elizabeth M; Alphin, Robert L; Brannick, Erin M; Benson, Eric R

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the impact of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), and incandescent lamps on broiler welfare in response to recent interest in the agriculture industry to transition to more energy-efficient lighting technologies. Male Ross 708 broilers (n=672) were raised to 6 wk age in 8 light-tight modified large colony houses under identical intermittent lighting conditions using 4 unique types of lamps, which were gradually dimmed throughout the study. Incandescent lamps served as the control; experimental technologies tested were a CCFL, and 2 different LED lamps. Each technology was tested in duplicate for each of the 4 trials (8 replications total per technology) conducted across the course of one year to account for seasonal variance. Birds were removed from each house at days 7, 14, 35, and 42 to be humanely euthanized and weighed for necropsy evaluation and comparison of body mass. Blood collection via cardiac puncture was performed to obtain heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios for evaluation of environmental stress. Birds raised under CCFLs had significantly lower body weights (2,871 g±53) than the control (3,000±33 g) by 42 d. Birds raised under CCFLs additionally had significantly higher H:L ratios (0.68±0.06) than the control (0.53±0.03), indicating that these birds may have been chronically stressed (P=0.03). There were not significant differences in the H:L ratio between LED technologies at α=0.05. A significant age and seasonal correlation in H:L ratios was observed across all technologies, along with significant differences among birds raised under the experimental technologies. This study indicates that variation in broiler body weight and stress may be attributed in part to lighting technologies implemented in broiler houses.

  9. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  10. Alternative decision modelling techniques for the evaluation of health care technologies: Markov processes versus discrete event simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnon, Jonathan

    2003-10-01

    Markov models have traditionally been used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of competing health care technologies that require the description of patient pathways over extended time horizons. Discrete event simulation (DES) is a more flexible, but more complicated decision modelling technique, that can also be used to model extended time horizons. Through the application of a Markov process and a DES model to an economic evaluation comparing alternative adjuvant therapies for early breast cancer, this paper compares the respective processes and outputs of these alternative modelling techniques. DES displays increased flexibility in two broad areas, though the outputs from the two modelling techniques were similar. These results indicate that the use of DES may be beneficial only when the available data demonstrates particular characteristics.

  11. The iPad and mobile technology revolution: benefits and challenges for individuals who require augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, David; Light, Janice

    2013-06-01

    The iPad and other mobile technologies provide powerful new tools to potentially enhance communication for individuals with developmental disabilities, acquired neurogenic disorders, and degenerative neurological conditions. These mobile technologies offer a number of potential benefits, including: (a) increased awareness and social acceptance of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), (b) greater consumer empowerment in accessing AAC solutions, (c) increased adoption of AAC technologies, (d) greater functionality and interconnectivity, and (e) greater diffusion of AAC research and development. However, there remain a number of significant challenges that must be addressed if these benefits are to be fully realized: (a) to ensure the focus is on communication, not just technology, (b) to develop innovative models of AAC service delivery to ensure successful outcomes, (c) to ensure ease of access for all individuals who require AAC, and, (d) to maximize AAC solutions to support a wide variety of communication functions. There is an urgent need for effective collaboration among key stakeholders to support research and development activities, and to ensure the successful implementation of mobile technologies to enhance communication outcomes for individuals who require AAC and their families.

  12. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  13. Application and Research Status of Alternative Materials for 3D-printing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanqing; SHEN Jingxing; WU Haiquan

    2016-01-01

    Application features and research status of alternative 3D-printing materials for six typical 3D-printingtechniques were reviewed. From the point of view of physical forms, four kinds of materials of liquid photosensitive resin material, thin sheet material (paper or plastic film) , low melting point filament material and powder material are included. And from the composition point of view, nearly all kinds of materials in the production and life are included such as polymer materials: plasti...

  14. Replacement of Natural Sand with Efficient Alternatives: Recent Advances in Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzar Hamid Mir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most undisputable material being used in infrastructure development throughout the world. It is a globally accepted construction material in all types of Civil Engineering structures. Natural sand is a prime material used for the preparation of concrete and also plays an important role in Mix Design. Now a day‟s river erosion and other environmental issues have led to the scarcity of river sand. The reduction in the sources of natural sand and the requirement for reduction in the cost of concrete production has resulted in the increased need to find new alternative materials to replace river sand so that excess river erosion is prevented and high strength concrete is obtained at lower cost. Partial or full replacement of natural sand by the other alternative materials like quarry dust, foundry sand and others are being researched from past two decades, in view of conserving the ecological balance. This paper summarizes conclusions of experiments conducted for the properties like strength, durability etc. It was observed the results have shown positive changes and improvement in mechanical properties of the conventional concrete due to the addition or replacement of fine sand with efficient alternatives.

  15. Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2015) and Future (2025-2030) Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Han, Jeongwoo; Ward, Jacob; Joseck, Fred; Gohlke, David; Lindauer, Alicia; Ramsden, Todd; Biddy, Mary; Alexander, Marcus; Barnhart, Steven; Sutherland, Ian; Verduzco, Laura; Wallington, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    This study provides a comprehensive lifecycle analysis (LCA), or cradle-to-grave (C2G) analysis, of the cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of vehicle-fuel pathways, as well as the levelized cost of driving (LCD) and cost of avoided GHG emissions. This study also estimates the technology readiness levels (TRLs) of key fuel and vehicle technologies along the pathways. The C2G analysis spans a full portfolio of midsize light-duty vehicles (LDVs), including conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). In evaluating the vehicle-fuel combinations, this study considers both low-volume and high-volume “CURRENT TECHNOLOGY” cases (nominally 2015) and a high-volume “FUTURE TECHNOLOGY” lower-carbon case (nominally 2025–2030). For the CURRENT TECHNOLOGY case, low-volume vehicle and fuel production pathways are examined to determine costs in the near term.

  16. Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2015) and Future (2025–2030) Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ward, Jacob [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Joseck, Fred [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Gohlke, David [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Lindauer, Alicia [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Ramsden, Todd [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alexander, Marcus [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Barnhart, Steven [Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) US LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Sutherland, Ian [General Motors, Warren, MI (United States); Verduzco, Laura [Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, CA (United States); Wallington, Timothy J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This study provides a comprehensive life-cycle analysis (LCA), or cradle-to-grave (C2G) analysis, of the cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of vehicle-fuel pathways, as well as the levelized cost of driving (LCD) and cost of avoided GHG emissions. This study also estimates the technology readiness levels (TRLs) of key fuel and vehicle technologies along the pathways. The C2G analysis spans a full portfolio of midsize light-duty vehicles (LDVs), including conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). In evaluating the vehicle-fuel combinations, this study considers both low-volume and high-volume “CURRENT TECHNOLOGY” cases (nominally 2015) and a high-volume “FUTURE TECHNOLOGY” lower-carbon case (nominally 2025–2030). For the CURRENT TECHNOLOGY case, low-volume vehicle and fuel production pathways are examined to determine costs in the near term.

  17. IEA implementing agreement for hybrid and electric vehicle technologies and programmes, Annex VII hybrid vehicles : Topic 13, assessment of the energy consumption of hybrid trucks using ADVISOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, J.; Winkel, R.G.; Geraets, R.; Verbakel, M.J.L.

    2002-01-01

    This topic report focuses on the possible benefits of the application of a hybrid powertrain in heavy-duty vehicles. The main objective is to assess whether a significant reduction in fuel consumption is feasible. An average Dutch distribution truck with a conventional driveline will be compared to

  18. Saenger - The German aerospace vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegenauer, Ernst; Koelle, Dietrich E.

    1989-07-01

    The current status of the West German Saenger two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, encompassing the European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle (EHTV) first stage, the Hypersonic Orbital Reusable Upper Stage, and the Cargus unmanned alternative upper stage, is evaluated with a view to overall program organization and near-term planning initiatives. The first major milestone in the Saenger technology-development program was achieved with the hydrogen-fueled ramjet combustor tests conducted by the propulsion system prime contractor in 1988. Mach 5.6 demonstration flights of the EHTV are scheduled for 1999-2000.

  19. Unmanned vehicle technology for networked non-line-of-sight sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Miguel; Pepper, Gary; Mitra, Atindra K.; Hu, Colin; Zein-Sabatto, Saleh; Rogers, Tamara; Selmic, Rastko; Hamdan, Elrasheed; Malkani, Mohan

    2010-04-01

    We discuss the development, design, implementation, and demonstration of a robotic UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle) system for networked and non-line-of-sight sensing applications. Our development team is comprised of AFRL Summer Interns, University Faculty, and Personnel from AFRL. The system concept is based on a previously published technique known as "Dual-UAV Tandems for Indirect Operator-Assisted Control" [1]. This architecture is based on simulating a Mini-UAV Helicopter with a building-mounted camera and simulating a low-flying QuadRotor Helicopter with a Robotics UGV. The Robotics UGV is fitted with a custom-designed sensor boom and a surrogate chem/bio (Carbon Monoxide) PCB sensor extracted from a COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) product. The CO Sensor apparatus is co-designed with the sensor boom and is fitted with a transparent covering for protection and to promote CO (surrogate chem/bio) flow onto the sensor. The philosophy behind this non-line-of-sight system is to relay video of the UGV to an Operator station for purposes of investigating "Indirect Operator-Assisted Control" of the UGV via observation of the relayed EO video at the operator station. This would serve as a sensor fusion, giving the operator visual cues of the chemical under detection, enabling him to position the UGV in areas of higher concentration. We recorded this data, and analyzed the best approach given a test matrix of multiple scenarios, with the goal of determining the feasibility of using this layered sensing approach and the system accuracy in open field tests. For purposes of collecting scientific data with this system, we developed a Test (data collection) Matrix with following three parameters: 1. Chem/Bio detection level with side-looking sensor boom and slowly traversing UGV; 2. Chem/Bio detection level with panning sensor boom and slowly traversing UGV; 3. Chem/Bio detection level with forward-looking sensor boom and operator-assisted steering based on onboard wind vane

  20. What's the law got to do with it? Legislation regarding in-vehicle technology use and its impact on driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Katie J; Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L

    2017-03-01

    Legislation in the road transport domain aims to control safety on the roads. Despite this, a critical issue affecting road safety is that of driver distraction. Although poorly defined, distraction is a significant road safety issue which, in part, is caused by the prevalence of technology within vehicles. Legislation surrounding the use of in-vehicle technologies are explored in this paper from a socio-technical system perspective. This reveals the wider context of the road transport system operating under the current laws using an Accimap analysis. A distinction in the law between the use of hand-held mobile phones, a device that is typically banned for use by drivers worldwide, and the use of other technological devices that are covered by more general laws against 'careless' and/or 'dangerous' driving was found. Historically, individual drivers' have been blamed for distraction, whereas the systems approach shows how current legislation may have created the conditions necessary for driver distraction.

  1. 新技术对电动汽车造型设计的影响%The Impact of New Technology to Electric Vehicle Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉珏

    2012-01-01

    文章从电动汽车的驱动电机、轴距、前后悬挂系统、车门等技术的进步以及新能源、新材料、新工艺的出现为基础。引出新技术对电动汽车造型设计的影响,并对以上影响进行分析。%This article from the emergence of electric vehicles drive motor, wheelbase, front and rear suspension systems, doors and other advances in technology and new energy, new materials, new technology leads to new technologies of electric vehicle design, and analyzed the impact.

  2. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States); South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  3. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. (Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  4. Storytelling Supported by Technology: An Alternative for EFL Children with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sy-ying

    2012-01-01

    This action research aims to investigate how technology improves the conditions of storytelling to help enhance the learning attitude and motivation of EFL children with learning difficulty using power point designs and an online recording system--VoiceThread (http://voicethread.com/). The use of power point designs is to assure children of clear…

  5. An Alternative Approach for Designing and Teaching Communication Skills to University of Technology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineteh, Ernest A.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the contents and teaching strategies of communication skills courses at a South African higher institution: Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT). It seeks to understand why the courses have not been very responsive to increasing academic and professional challenges undergraduate students experience at this…

  6. Technology Transfer and Innovation Initiatives in Strategic Management: Generating an Alternative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper taps the strategic management discipline to inform our understanding of technology transfer and innovation (TTI) initiatives. With special focus on the UK Foresight programme it considers the impacts that the resource-based and core competence approaches to strategy can have on understanding the nature and effectiveness of TTI…

  7. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan; Zhanping You

    2016-01-01

    Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as f...

  8. Technologies of inclusive well-being serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Brahnam, Sheryl; Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    This book is the first single volume that brings together the topics of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy. The focus is on the use of digital media for the therapeutic benefit and well-being of a wide range of people−spanning those with special needs to the elderly to entire urban neighborhoods. This book brings together these topics to demonstrate the increasing trans/inter/multi-disciplinary initiatives apparent today in science, medicine, and academic research−interdisciplinary initiative that are already profoundly impacting society.

  9. Integration and Penetration Opportunities of Alternative Energy, Fuels, and Technologies within Military Systems, Logistics, and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    er -to -V ol um e (m W h/ m m 3) Note: European Ban 160 1756835 0.298 0.219 0.334 Sources: Varta Product Specifications, Handbook of Batteries (David... Linden ) 0.115 29 0.062 Figure 8. Rechargeable Battery Energy Density Comparison Small lightweight portable power afforded by battery ...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Integration and Penetration Opportunities of Alternative

  10. Results of the Alternative Water Processor Test, A Novel Technology for Exploration Wastewater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Adam, Niklas; Pickering, Karen D.; Barta, Daniel; Shull, Sarah A.; Vega, Leticia M.; Lange, Kevin; Christenson, Dylan; Jackson, W. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Biologically-based water recovery systems are a regenerative, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes to reclaim water from wastewater. This report summarizes the results of the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) Integrated Test, conducted from June 2013 until April 2014. The system was comprised of four (4) membrane aerated bioreactors (MABRs) to remove carbon and nitrogen from an exploration mission wastewater and a coupled forward and reverse osmosis system to remove large organic and inorganic salts from the biological system effluent. The system exceeded the overall objectives of the test by recovering 90% of the influent wastewater processed into a near potable state and a 64% reduction of consumables from the current state of the art water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS). However, the biological system fell short of its test goals, failing to remove 75% and 90% of the influent ammonium and organic carbon, respectively. Despite not meeting its test goals, the BWP demonstrated the feasibility of an attached-growth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, an innovative, volume- and consumable-saving design that does not require toxic pretreatment.

  11. Technological alternative on environmental management for pipeline installation in the Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Amadeu Farage; Teixeira, Ivan Jose [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Riquena, Renata Maria; Freitas, Wanderleia Isabel P. de [CONCREMAT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Usually pipelines construction are located in isolated places which are difficult to access. Due this characteristic the logistical support services are not available as easily as it is in large centers. Even so these enterprises may not release these services mainly due to high demand from stakeholders and the commitment to quality that these pipelines are submitted. This work presents some alternatives in environmental management implemented during an installation of pipelines in the Amazon forest with emphasis on the quality of water bodies and correct effluents destination. Located in western Amazonia in a region with several restrictions like: logistics, low supply of skilled labor and high environmental requirements. The project aligned competence and creativity since from its planning until its delivery to overcome difficulties and meet the demands of stakeholders. Usual techniques to assist legal requirements such as effluent treatment and environmental monitoring had to be adapted to the Amazon reality, always seeking for balance between technical and alignment economic and respect for social and environmental aspects. Using the methodology of 'wetland' (system of alternative treatment of effluents, based on the use of regional plants - macrophytes), the reuse of sludge from sewage treatment station, floating sewage treatment system, was crucial to meet the challenge to deploy this product to work in Amazonia. The aim of this work is to disseminate the techniques used and help other enterprises with the same challenges. (author)

  12. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  13. Agricultural Industry Advanced Vehicle Technology: Benchmark Study for Reduction in Petroleum Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Hoy

    2014-09-01

    Diesel use on farms in the United States has remained relatively constant since 1985, decreasing slightly in 2009, which may be attributed to price increases and the economic recession. During this time, the United States’ harvested area also has remained relatively constant at roughly 300 million acres. In 2010, farm diesel use was 5.4% of the total United States diesel use. Crops accounting for an estimated 65% of United States farm diesel use include corn, soybean, wheat, hay, and alfalfa, respectively, based on harvested crop area and a recent analysis of estimated fuel use by crop. Diesel use in these cropping systems primarily is from tillage, harvest, and various other operations (e.g., planting and spraying) (Figure 3). Diesel efficiency is markedly variable due to machinery types, conditions of operation (e.g., soil type and moisture), and operator variability. Farm diesel use per acre has slightly decreased in the last two decades and diesel is now estimated to be less than 5% of farm costs per acre. This report will explore current trends in increasing diesel efficiency in the farm sector. The report combines a survey of industry representatives, a review of literature, and data analysis to identify nascent technologies for increasing diesel efficiency

  14. Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Williams [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Advanced Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach C. Winfield

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many advanced vehicle technologies, including electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs, are gaining attention throughout the World due to their capability to improve fuel efficiencies and emissions. When evaluating the operational successes of these new fuel-efficient vehicles, it is essential to consider energy usage and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions throughout the entire lifetimes of the vehicles, which are comprised of two independent cycles: a fuel cycle and a vehicle cycle. This paper intends to contribute to the assessment of the environmental impacts from the alternative technologies throughout the lifetimes of various advanced vehicles through objective comparisons. The methodology was applied to six commercial vehicles that are available in the U.S. and that have similar dimensions and performances. We also investigated the shifts in energy consumption and emissions through the use of electricity and drivers’ behavior regarding the frequencies of battery recharging for EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This study thus gives insight into the impacts of the electricity grid on the total energy cycle of a vehicle lifetime. In addition, the total ownership costs of the selected vehicles were examined, including considerations of the fluctuating gasoline prices. The cost analysis provides a resource for drivers to identify optimal choices for their driving circumstances.

  16. Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2012-12-01

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

  17. Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

  18. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  19. Extraction and purification of high added value compounds from by-products of the winemaking chain using alternative/non-conventional processes/technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Sami; Brianceau, Sylène; Manteau, Sébastien; Turk, Mohammad; Ghidossi, Rémy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2016-12-21

    Grape byproducts are today considered as a cheap source of valuable compounds since existent technologies allow the recovery of target compounds and their recycling. The goal of the current article is to explore the different recovery stages used by both conventional and alternative techniques and processes. Alternative pre-treatments techniques reviewed are: ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields and high voltage discharges. Additionally, non-conventional solvent extraction under high pressure, specifically, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction are discussed. Finally alternative purification technologies, for example membrane processing were also examined. The intent is to describe the mechanisms involved by these alternative technologies and to summarize the work done on the improvement of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from winery by-products. With a focus on the developmental stage of each technology, highlighting the research need and challenges to be overcome for an industrial implementation of these unitary operations in the overall extraction process. A critical comparison of conventional and alternative techniques will be reviewed for ethe pre-treatment of raw material, the diffusion of polyphenols and the purification of these high added value compounds. This review intends to give the reader some key answers (costs, advantages, drawbacks) to help in the choice of alternative technologies for extraction purposes.

  20. Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2005-01-01

    and approve alternative surface preparation technologies for use at NASA and AFSPC installations. Materials and processes will be evaluated with the goal of selecting those processes that will improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated. This Field Evaluations Test Plan defines the field evaluation and testing requirements for validating alternative surface preparation/depainting technologies and supplements the JTP. The field evaluations will be performed at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, under the oversight of the Project Engineer. Additional field evaluations may be performed at other NASA centers or AFSPC facilities.

  1. How Well Do We Know the Future of CO2 Emissions? Projecting Fleet Emissions from Light Duty Vehicle Technology Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Niall P D; Bishop, Justin D K; Boies, Adam M

    2017-02-23

    While the UK has committed to reduce CO2 emissions to 80% of 1990 levels by 2050, transport accounts for nearly a fourth of all emissions and the degree to which decarbonization can occur is highly uncertain. We present a new methodology using vehicle and powertrain parameters within a Bayesian framework to determine the impact of engineering vehicle improvements on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Our results show how design changes in vehicle parameters (e.g., mass, engine size, and compression ratio) result in fuel consumption improvements from a fleet-wide mean of 5.6 L/100 km in 2014 to 3.0 L/100 km by 2030. The change in vehicle efficiency coupled with increases in vehicle numbers and fleet-wide activity result in a total fleet-wide reduction of 41 ± 10% in 2030, relative to 2012. Concerted internal combustion engine improvements result in a 48 ± 10% reduction of CO2 emissions, while efforts to increase the number of diesel vehicles within the fleet had little additional effect. Increasing plug-in and all-electric vehicles reduced CO2 emissions by less (42 ± 10% reduction) than concerted internal combustion engines improvements. However, if the grid decarbonizes, electric vehicles reduce emissions by 45 ± 9% with further reduction potential to 2050.

  2. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation – 4th Quarter 2013; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

  3. Alternative technologies for remediation of technogenic barrens in the Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens under the reduction of air pollutant emissions from the Severonikel smelter in the Kola Subarctic is determined largely by the soil state and the technology applied. The covering of the contaminated soils with artificially made material based on organomineral substrates and the following liming and fertilization promoted a sharp and long-term reduction of acidity, decrease in the biological availability of heavy metals, increase in the supply with nutrients, and improvement of the life state of willow and birch plantations. The effect of economically more profitable chemo-phytostabilization is short-term; it requires constant maintenance. Under the current production and a high level of soil contamination, repeated measures are required to optimize the soil reaction, supply with nutrients, and to correct the availability of heavy metals in the soils based on the results of continuous monitoring

  4. Development of an Autonomous Vehicle for Weed and Crop Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle

    The extension of information technology and computers on farming tools results in new possibilities for crop/weed handling. In this paper a system using an autonomous field robot (vehicle) able to make images in the field is described. In the recent farming has come to rely on intensive use...... degree of autonomy. The vehicle is part of an autonomous information system for crop and weed registration in fields which is developed at Aalborg University and The Danish Institute of Agricultural Science. The system consists of the vehicle and a stationary base station as well as a wireless...... be a solution but at present the image analysis technology does not have the capability for online analysis. An alternative way is to construct a weed map prior to the spraying. In order to avoid damage to the soil a light weight vehicle carrying a camera is an obvious choice. To minimize damage to the crop...

  5. C ─ NCAP and vehicle safety technology development analysis%关于C─NCAP及车辆安全技术发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2014-01-01

    The article according to the author's personal experience, this paper introduces the C - NCAP related situation, and for the development of vehicle safety technology has made the concrete analysis.%文章根据笔者的个人经验,主要介绍了C-NCAP的相关情况,并针对车辆安全技术的发展做出了具体分析。

  6. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as foaming agents through the measurements of rotational viscosity, the reduction in temperature during foaming, and volatile loss. The ethanol-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 80 °C and 100 °C, while the water-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 100 °C and 120 °C. Additionally, the rolling thin film oven (RTFO was used to generate short-term aging of the foamed asphalt binders. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity of the asphalt binders at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C, 140 °C, and 160 °C. Overall, ethanol can function in the same manner as water but requires less energy to foam. It is proven based on the smaller drop in temperature of the asphalt binder foamed using ethanol compared with that prepared with water. This is due to the lower latent heat capacity of ethanol, which requires less energy to vaporize compared with water. Through the rotational viscometer test, ethanol performs better in lowering the viscosity of asphalt binders, which is essential in allowing production processes at low temperatures, as well as a better workability and aggregate coating. Ethanol can be expelled from the foamed asphalt binders at a higher rate due to its lower boiling point and latent heat.

  7. Application and Research Status of Alternative Materials for 3D-printing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yanqing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Application features and research status of alternative 3D-printing materials for six typical 3D-printingtechniques were reviewed. From the point of view of physical forms, four kinds of materials of liquid photosensitive resin material, thin sheet material (paper or plastic film , low melting point filament material and powder material are included. And from the composition point of view, nearly all kinds of materials in the production and life are included such as polymer materials: plastic, resin, wax; metal and alloy materials; ceramic materials. Liquid photosensitive resin material is used for stereo lithigraphy apparatus(SLA; thin sheet materials such as paper or plastic film are used for laminated object manufacturing(LOM; low melting point polymer filament materials such as wax filament, polyolefin resin filament, polyamide filament and ABS filament are used for fused deposition modeling(FDM; very wide variety powder materials including nylon powder, nylon-coated glass powder, polycarbonate powder, polyamide powder, wax powder, metal powder(Re-sintering and infiltration of copper are needed after sintering, wax-coated ceramic powder, wax-coated metal powder and thermosetting resin-coated fine sand are used for selective laser sintering(SLS. Nearly the same above powder materials are used for selective laser melting(SLM, but the printed parts own much more higher density and better mechanical properties. Powder materials are likewise used for threedimensional printing and gluing(3DP, however, the powders are stuck together by tricolor binder sprayed through nozzle and cross-section shape of the part is color-printed on it. Finally, the development direction in both quality and the yield of 3D-printing materials were pointed out to be a bottle-neck issue and a hot topic in the field of 3D-printing.

  8. A car-following mo del with the consideration of vehicle-to-vehicle communication technology%考虑车与车互联通讯技术的交通流跟驰模型∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华雪东; 王炜; 王昊

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the research on traffic flow system based on some classical models, such as cellular automata and car-following models, has attracted much attention. Some meaningful achievements have been obtained in the past few years by scholars from various fields. This paper starts with literature review on traffic flow theory studies. Car-following models, including the initial model proposed by Newell in 1961 (Newell G F 1961 Oper. Res. 9 209) and some later modified ones (e.g. full velocity difference model, or FVD model for short) have been deeply investigated. Based on Newell’s car-following model, an extension of car-following model with consideration of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication is then developed. The vehicle-to-vehicle communication technology, which was proposed in the early 2000s, enable vehicles to collect traffic condition information from other vehicles (e.g. speed, headway, position, acceleration, etc.) and provide them for drivers in almost real time. Compared with those without V2V devices, drivers with information from V2V devices can react to traffic flow fluctuation timelier and more precisely. To represent the pre-reaction of drivers to traffic flow information provided by V2V devices, a parameter, α, is newly introduced into Newell’s car-following model. Then by second-order Taylor series expansion, a new car-following model with the influence of V2V (called V2V model) is proposed. Neutral stability condition of V2V model as well as phase diagram is derived theoretically with linear analysis method. The phase diagram of linear stability condition is divided into stable and unstable regions. By analyzing stability performance of the proposed model, it is evident that V2V communication technology can improve the stability of traffic flow system. Numerical simulation is demonstrated to study the influence of V2V devices on traffic flow on the one hand, and to acquire density waves as well as hysteresis loops under different values

  9. 基于电控技术的现代汽车维修%Modern Vehicle Maintenance Based on Electronic Control Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凤山

    2015-01-01

    Auto electronic control technology development and application for vehicle maintenance and repair work is both challenge and opportunity,vehicle maintenance and repair work in the specific operation practice also need to be closely integrated with electronic control technology.Therefore,modern vehicle maintenance based on electronic control technology demands the maintenance staff to grasp relevant knowledge and skills.Meanwhile,maintenance enterprises should draw into new type of diagnose equipment.%汽车电控技术的发展,给汽车维修带来了复杂性和难度,传统的维修手段和理念已不再适用.因此,基于电控技术的现代汽车维修,需要维修人员掌握相关知识和技能,同时维修企业还须引进添置四轮定位设备、解码器等新型诊断设备.

  10. Electric Demand Analysis of the Tunisian Network: Trends and Short Term Photovoltaic Implementation with Alternatives Prospects and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bouattour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to analyze the system of electric demand in Tunisia and to propose immediate alternative solution of photovoltaic implementation that can be suitable based on available natural solar energy resources in the country to respond to the short Forecast peak demand growth and energy consumptions taking into account financial strain. On the first step, analysis of the situation based on the recent historical data is proposed. In a second step, a solution is considered, based on photovoltaic implementation and using the results of historical data analysis. The resulting benefits are highlighted: financial, technical, environmental and social. Future studies may be made to use a mix of technology and policy as well: among it combining photovoltaic and battery storage, in parallel with energy efficiency programs.

  11. 车载定位定向技术应用现状%The Application Actuality of Vehicle Positioning and Orientation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学翠; 张春涛; 刘慧玲

    2014-01-01

    existing technology and future development of vehicle positioning and orientation system are discussed briefly,including all satellite navigation systems and inertial navigation system. Three pivotal technologies related about positioning and orientation navigation system are described.%简要论述了车载定位定向系统现有技术及对其未来发展的展望,包括各大卫星导航系统和惯性导航系统。描述了定位定向导航系统相关的三个关键技术。

  12. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine R&D Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Albert N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D (ACE R&D) is one of the subprograms within DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office. The ACE subprogram's R&D is conducted in cooperation with the DOE Combustion Research Facility (CRF). This report summarizes the findings from a retrospective study of the net benefits to society from investments by DOE (both EERE and cooperative CRF efforts) in laser diagnostic and optical engine technologies and combustion modeling for heavy-duty diesel engines.

  13. Alternative catalysts and technologies for NOx removal from biomass- and wastefired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schill, Leonhard

    poisoning problem: Use of Ag/Al2O3 as catalyt with hydrocarbons (ethanol, propene) as reductants (HCSCR), and by developing low-temperature catalysts for NH3-SCR to be used in the tail-end position at 150 C, making costly reheating redundant. The hope that HC-SCR is insensitive to potassium has been in vain...... removed with the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using a vanadia-tungsta-titania (VWT) catalyst and ammonia (NH3) as reductant. For application in coal- and gas-red power plants this technology is mature. However, when ring biomass the ue gas contains potassium in large amounts which deactivates....... The deNOx activity over Ag/Al2O3 used in ethanol-SCR is practically as much reduced as in the NH3-SCR case over the traditional VWT catalyst. Furthermore, poisoning with potassium leads to unselective oxidation of the hydrocarbons instead of NO reduction and SO2 concentrations as low as 20 ppm can...

  14. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies. Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putluru, S.S.R.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The increased use of biomass as fuel has created some new challenges to establish SCR flue gas treatment technology. One of these challenges comes from biomass complex chemical composition, which includes potassium shown to have a negative impact on the SCR catalyst. Studies have shown that potassium deactivates SCR catalyst and reduces its ability to reduce NO to N{sub 2}. An attempt was made to protect the SCR catalyst from alkali poisoning by the imposition of a coating on the catalyst surface. Various compounds were coated on a commercial catalyst supplied by Haldor Topsoee A/S and tested for alkali poisoning resistance. These materials were broadly divided as metal oxides, zeolites and other materials. The coated catalysts were exposed to potassium chloride aerosols at 350 deg. C for 650-1200 h. SCR activity, SEM and EDX measurements were performed to analyze the coated catalysts resistance to potassium poisoning. Coated catalysts (Mg, Mg containing compounds and Zeolites) showed appreciable alkali resistivity compared to the uncoated reference catalyst. Coated catalysts showed high potassium concentration at the surface of the coating and low potassium concentration across the cross section when compared to the uncoated reference catalyst. Thus, it is assumed that the coating layer accumulates the potassium at the surface and prevents to penetrate through the catalyst. The overall assessment is that it is possible to protect an SCR catalyst from potassium poisoning by the imposition of coating layer. (Author)

  15. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP): Emergence As an Alternative Technology for Herbal Medicine Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Yue; Liang, Jun-Song; Zhou, Xing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Correct identification of medicinal plant ingredients is essential for their safe use and for the regulation of herbal drug supply chain. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a recently developed approach to identify herbal medicine species. This novel molecular biology technique enables timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where infrastructures to support polymerase chain reaction facilities are lacking. Studies that used this method have altered our view on the extent and complexity of herbal medicine identification. In this review, we give an introduction into LAMP analysis, covers the basic principles and important aspects in the development of LAMP analysis method. Then we presented a critical review of the application of LAMP-based methods in detecting and identifying raw medicinal plant materials and their processed products. We also provide a practical standard operating procedure (SOP) for the utilization of the LAMP protocol in herbal authentication, and consider the prospects of LAMP technology in the future developments of herbal medicine identification and the challenges associated with its application.

  16. Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

  17. Technology status of hydrogen road vehicles. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement of the production and utilization of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, T.A.

    1998-01-31

    The report was commissioned under the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and examines the state of the art in the evolving field of hydrogen-fueled vehicles for road transport. The first phase surveys and analyzes developments since 1989, when a comprehensive review was last published. The report emphasizes the following: problems, especially backfiring, with internal combustion engines (ICEs); operational safety; hydrogen handling and on-board storage; and ongoing demonstration projects. Hydrogen vehicles are receiving much attention, especially at the research and development level. However, there has been a steady move during the past 5 years toward integral demonstrations of operable vehicles intended for public roads. Because they emit few, or no greenhouse gases, hydrogen vehicles are beginning to be taken seriously as a promising solution to the problems of urban air quality. Since the time the first draft of the report was prepared (mid-19 96), the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference took place in Stuttgart, Germany. This biennial conference can be regarded as a valid updating of the state of the art; therefore, the 1996 results are included in the current version. Sections of the report include: hydrogen production and distribution to urban users; on-board storage and refilling; vehicle power units and drives, and four appendices titled: 'Safety questions of hydrogen storage and use in vehicles', 'Performance of hydrogen fuel in internal production engines for road vehicles, 'Fuel cells for hydrogen vehicles', and 'Summaries of papers on hydrogen vehicles'. (refs., tabs.)

  18. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

    2004-08-15

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are

  19. Digial Technology Qualification Task 2 - Suitability of Digital Alternatives to Analog Sensors and Actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck

    2012-09-01

    The next generation reactors in the U.S. are an opportunity for vendors to build new reactor technology with advanced Instrumentation and Control Systems (control rooms, DCS, etc.). The advances made in the development of many current generation operating reactors in other parts of the world are being used in the design and construction of new plants. These new plants are expected to have fully integrated digital control rooms, computerized procedures, integrated surveillance testing with on-line monitoring and a major effort toward improving the O&M and fault survivability of the overall systems. In addition the designs are also incorporating major improvements in the man-machine interface based on lessons learned in nuclear and other industries. The above relates primarily to the scope of supply in instrumentation and control systems addressed by Chapter 7 of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) NUREG-0800 (Reference 9.5), and the associated Balance of Plant (BOP) I&C systems. This does not relate directly to the actuator and motor, breaker, initiation circuitry, valve position, etc. which is the subject of this report and normally outside of the traditional Distributed Control System (DCS), for both safety and non-safety systems. The recommendations presented in this report will be used as input to I&C research programming for the implementation of lessons learned during the early phases of new build both for large light water reactors (LWR) and also small modular reactors (SMR). This report is intended to support current research plans and provide user (vendor, owner-operator) input to the optimization of these research plans.

  20. Vehicle Lightweighting: 40% and 45% Weight Savings Analysis: Technical Cost Modeling for Vehicle Lightweighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarin, Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hannibal, Ted [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Raghunathan, Anand [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ivanic, Ziga [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, Materials area commissioned a study to model and assess manufacturing economics of alternative design and production strategies for a series of lightweight vehicle concepts. The strategic targets were a 40% and a 45% mass reduction relative to a standard North American midsize passenger sedan at an effective cost of $3.42 per pound (lb) saved. The baseline vehicle was an average of several available vehicles in this class. Mass and cost breakdowns from several sources were used, including original equipment manufacturers’ (OEMs’) input through U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office programs and public presentations, A2Mac1 LLC’s teardown information, Lotus Engineering Limited and FEV, Inc. breakdowns in their respective lightweighting studies, and IBIS Associates, Inc.’s decades of experience in automotive lightweighting and materials substitution analyses. Information on lightweighting strategies in this analysis came from these same sources and the ongoing U.S. Department of Energy-funded Vehma International of America, Inc. /Ford Motor Company Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Demonstration Project, the Aluminum Association Transportation Group, and many United States Council for Automotive Research’s/United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC lightweight materials programs.