WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative vehicle technologies

  1. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  2. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  3. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  4. High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

  5. Individual Characteristics and Stated Preferences for Alternative Energy Sources and Propulsion Technologies in Vehicles: A Discrete Choice Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas R. Ziegler

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the determinants of the demand for alternative energy sources and propulsion technologies in vehicles. The data stem from a stated preference discrete choice experiment with 598 potential car buyers. In order to simulate a realistic automobile purchase situation, seven alternatives were incorporated in each of the six choice sets, i.e. hybrid, gas, biofuel, hydrogen, and electric as well as the common fuels gasoline and diesel. The vehicle types were additional...

  6. Well-to-wheels life-cycle analysis of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A well-to-wheels life cycle analysis on total energy consumptions and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions for alternative fuels and accompanying vehicle technologies has been carried out for the base year 2010 and projected to 2020 based on data gathered and estimates developed for China. The fuels considered include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, liquid fuels from coal conversion, methanol, bio-ethanol and biodiesel, electricity and hydrogen. Use of liquid fuels including methanol and Fischer–Tropsch derived from coal will significantly increase GHG emissions relative to use of conventional gasoline. Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit because of the present highly inefficient agricultural practice and plant processing in China. Electrification of vehicles via hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle technologies offers a progressively improved prospect for the reduction of energy consumption and GHG emission. However, the long-term carbon emission reduction is assured only when the needed electricity is generated by zero- or low-carbon sources, which means that carbon capture and storage is a necessity for fossil-based feedstocks. A PHEV that runs on zero- or low-carbon electricity and cellulosic ethanol may be one of the most attractive fuel-vehicle options in a carbon-constrained world. - Highlights: ► Data and estimates unique to China are used in this analysis. ► Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit in China. ► Use of methanol derived from coal will incur even more carbon disbenefit. ► Plug-in-hybrid with cellulosic ethanol and clean electricity may be a viable option.

  7. The importance of grid integration for achievable greenhouse gas emissions reductions from alternative vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative vehicles must appropriately interface with the electric grid and renewable generation to contribute to decarbonization. This study investigates the impact of infrastructure configurations and management strategies on the vehicle–grid interface and vehicle greenhouse gas reduction potential with regard to California's Executive Order S-21-09 goal. Considered are battery electric vehicles, gasoline-fueled plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicles, and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles. Temporally resolved models of the electric grid, electric vehicle charging, hydrogen infrastructure, and vehicle powertrain simulations are integrated. For plug-in vehicles, consumer travel patterns can limit the greenhouse gas reductions without smart charging or energy storage. For fuel cell vehicles, the fuel production mix must be optimized for minimal greenhouse gas emissions. The plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle has the largest potential for emissions reduction due to smaller battery and fuel cells keeping efficiencies higher and meeting 86% of miles on electric travel keeping the hydrogen demand low. Energy storage is required to meet Executive Order S-21-09 goals in all cases. Meeting the goal requires renewable capacities of 205 GW for plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles and battery electric vehicle 100s, 255 GW for battery electric vehicle 200s, and 325 GW for fuel cell vehicles. - Highlights: • Consumer travel patterns limit greenhouse gas reductions with immediate charging. • Smart charging or energy storage are required for large greenhouse gas reductions. • Fuel cells as a plug-in vehicle range extender provided the most greenhouse gas reductions. • Energy storage is required to meet greenhouse gas goals regardless of vehicle type. • Smart charging reduces the required energy storage size for a given greenhouse gas goal

  8. Box Energy: rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles; Box-energy. Rental of energy. Storage systems and alternative-fuel. Technologies for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautz, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of study on the rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles. Experience gained in the area of battery-rental is discussed. The aims of the 'Box Energy' project are described, as is its market environment. The 'Box Energy' concept is described and possible customers and partners listed. Logistics aspects are discussed. The organisation of 'Box Energy' is described and the concept's chances and weaknesses are discussed. The launching of a pilot project in Switzerland is discussed. Recommendations on further work to be done are made.

  9. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  10. 2014 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This is the sixth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales and technologies specific to heavy trucks. The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards. In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible tables and figures.

  11. 2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

  12. 2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This is the seventh edition of the Vehicle Technologies Market Report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 22 and 23 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 63 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 70 through 81 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 90 through 94) and fuel use (Figures 97 through 100). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 105 through 118), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 130 through 137). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  13. 2013 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Williams, Susan E [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    This is the fifth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 24 through 51 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 56 through 64 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 73 through 75) and fuel use (Figures 78 through 81). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 84 through 95), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 106 through 110). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets.

  14. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  15. 2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    This report details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This third edition since this report was started in 2008 offers several marked improvements relative to its predecessors. Most significantly, where earlier editions of this report focused on supplying information through an examination of market drivers, new vehicle trends, and supplier data, this edition uses a different structure. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. In addition to making this sectional re-alignment, this year s edition of the report also takes a different approach to communicating information. While previous editions relied heavily on text accompanied by auxiliary figures, this third edition relies primarily on charts and graphs to communicate trends. Any accompanying text serves to introduce the trends communication by the graphic and highlight any particularly salient observations. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 11 through 13 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 20 and 21 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 26 through 33 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 38 through 43 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and

  16. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Alternative Passenger Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Nuri Cihat Onat; Murat Kucukvar; Omer Tatari

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable transportation and mobility are key components and central to sustainable development. This research aims to reveal the macro-level social, economic, and environmental impacts of alternative vehicle technologies in the U.S. The studied vehicle technologies are conventional gasoline, hybrid, plug-in hybrid with four different all-electric ranges, and full battery electric vehicles (BEV). In total, 19 macro level sustainability indicators are quantified for a scenario in which elect...

  17. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions. The...

  18. TAFV Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Choice Model Documentation; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for predicting choice of alternative fuel and among alternative vehicle technologies for light-duty motor vehicles is derived. The nested multinomial logit (NML) mathematical framework is used. Calibration of the model is based on information in the existing literature and deduction based on assuming a small number of key parameters, such as the value of time and discount rates. A spreadsheet model has been developed for calibration and preliminary testing of the model

  19. TAFV Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2001-07-27

    A model for predicting choice of alternative fuel and among alternative vehicle technologies for light-duty motor vehicles is derived. The nested multinomial logit (NML) mathematical framework is used. Calibration of the model is based on information in the existing literature and deduction based on assuming a small number of key parameters, such as the value of time and discount rates. A spreadsheet model has been developed for calibration and preliminary testing of the model.

  20. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Alternative Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Cihat Onat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable transportation and mobility are key components and central to sustainable development. This research aims to reveal the macro-level social, economic, and environmental impacts of alternative vehicle technologies in the U.S. The studied vehicle technologies are conventional gasoline, hybrid, plug-in hybrid with four different all-electric ranges, and full battery electric vehicles (BEV. In total, 19 macro level sustainability indicators are quantified for a scenario in which electric vehicles are charged through the existing U.S. power grid with no additional infrastructure, and an extreme scenario in which electric vehicles are fully charged with solar charging stations. The analysis covers all life cycle phases from the material extraction, processing, manufacturing, and operation phases to the end-of-life phases of vehicles and batteries. Results of this analysis revealed that the manufacturing phase is the most influential phase in terms of socio-economic impacts compared to other life cycle phases, whereas operation phase is the most dominant phase in the terms of environmental impacts and some of the socio-economic impacts such as human health and economic cost of emissions. Electric vehicles have less air pollution cost and human health impacts compared to conventional gasoline vehicles. The economic cost of emissions and human health impact reduction potential can be up to 45% and 35%, respectively, if electric vehicles are charged through solar charging stations. Electric vehicles have potential to generate income for low and medium skilled workers in the U.S. In addition to quantified sustainability indicators, some sustainability metrics were developed to compare relative sustainability performance alternative passenger vehicles. BEV has the lowest greenhouse gas emissions and ecological land footprint per $ of its contribution to the U.S. GDP, and has the lowest ecological footprint per unit of its energy consumption. The

  1. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  2. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Ervin, Frank [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  3. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  4. Reusable launch vehicle technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  5. 2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop "leap frog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  6. 2008 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.; Davis, S.

    2009-07-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop 'leap frog' technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  7. Exchange program. Alternative options for purchase of environmentally friendly vehicles in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader Olsson, Amy [Inregia AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Elam, N. [Atrax Energi AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    The city of Stockholm has decided to exchange 300 of its gasoline-driven vehicles for vehicles which emit fewer hazardous pollutants. A vehicle exchange program is being developed based on analyses which describe the driving patterns of Stockholm's vehicles, alternative fuel technology status, and financing alternatives. This report comprises the first two analyses, that of Stockholm's fleet driving patterns and alternative fuel technology options. The report has four major sections: * a technical analysis of the status of certain fuels and vehicles, including prognoses of availability in Sweden and the future development potential of each. (electric, biogas, ethanol, RME), * a driving study, which identifies those vehicles currently in Stockholm's fleet which could be exchanged for alternatively-fueled vehicles, * an analysis of five purchase package alternatives, and * a location analysis, which describes the accessibility of vehicles in each alternative to alternative fuel refueling facilities in Stockholm. Given current prices and availability of the alternative fuels and vehicles studied, we recommend a high share of electric and biogas vehicles for purchases during 1997. The cost-effectiveness of different vehicle types in their reduction of various hazardous pollutants, may however change dramatically as prices and availability of vehicles changes and the market for alternative fuels develops. Accessibility to alternative fuel refueling facilities is adequate in Stockholm, though not always ideal. To improve the accessibility of biogas vehicles further, we suggest a third biogas refueling facility in the city's northeastern area (Ropsten, Vaertahamnen). If MFO chooses to purchase a significant number of diesel passenger vehicles to be driven on RME; we propose that a facility in the northeastern area would improve accessibility more than another facility in southern Stockholm.

  8. Emissions deterioration for three alternative fuel vehicle types: Natural gas, ethanol, and methanol vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there have been several studies examining emissions from in-use alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), little is known about the deterioration of these emissions over vehicle lifetimes and how this deterioration compares with deterioration from conventional vehicles (CVs). This paper analyzes emissions data from 70 AFVs and 70 CVs operating in the federal government fleet to determine whether AFV emissions deterioration differs significantly from CV emissions deterioration. The authors conduct the analysis on three alternative fuel types (natural gas, methanol, and ethanol) and on five pollutants (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbons, non-methane hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides). They find that for most cases they studied, deterioration differences are not statistically significant; however, several exceptions suggest that air quality planners and regulators must further analyze AFV emissions deterioration in order to properly include these technologies into broader air quality management schemes

  9. California's experience with alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    California is often referred to as a nation-state, and in many aspects fits that description. The state represents the seventh largest economy in the world. Most of California does not have to worry about fuel to heat homes in the winter. What we do worry about is fuel for our motor vehicles, approximately 24 million of them. In fact, California accounts for ten percent of new vehicle sales in the United States each year, much of it used in the transportation sector. The state is the third largest consumer of gasoline in the world, only exceeded by the United States as a whole and the former Soviet Union. California is also a leader in air pollution. Of the nine worst ozone areas in the country cited in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, two areas the Los Angeles Basin and San Diego are located in California. Five of California's cities made the top 20 smoggiest cities in the United States. In reality, all of California's major metropolitan areas have air quality problems. This paper will discuss the beginnings of California's investigations of alternative fuels use in vehicles; the results of the state's demonstration programs; and future plans to improve California's air quality and energy security in the mobile sector

  10. Competitive Cost Analysis of Alternative Powertrain Technologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Redelbach, Martin; Propfe, Bernd; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the cost competitiveness of different electrified propulsion technologies from hybrid cars to full battery electric vehicles in the time horizon 2010 to 2020. The assessment shows that the current TCO gaps for alternative drivetrains will increasingly converge over time mainly driven by decreasing production cost. However, the cost-efficiency of different powertrain architectures depends highly on the mileage a user expects to drive per year. In the mid-run, hybrid elec...

  11. Energy efficient vehicles technology I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeker, Bernard [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. of Automotive Technology Dresden - IAD; Morawietz, Lutz (eds.) [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Vehicle Mechatronics; IAM GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ongoing demand for optimization of today's (auto-)mobility concepts towards increased efficiency and customer perceivable functionality can only be realized using novel mechatronic sensor, control and actuator systems. This development trend is especially evident in the field of alternative or hybrid/full electric powertrain systems of vehicles. This book originates from the 1{sup st} International Energy Efficient Vehicles Conference (EEVC 2011) which took place from June 30{sup th} - July 1{sup st} in Dresden, Germany. The special conference program for EEVC 2011 contained contributions and presentations by researcher, developers, product planners and managers of all main German and international OEMs, system suppliers and research institutes. So all the main topics related to energy efficient vehicles could be covered, as there are for example aerodynamics and thermal management, renewable energy management linked to mobile systems, hybrid power trains, semiconductors and driver assistance systems. Different types of vehicles such as cars, trains and even fork lift trucks were also discussed.

  12. Environmental and Financial Evaluation of Passenger Vehicle Technologies in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Messagie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles with alternative drive trains are regarded as a promising substitute for conventional cars, considering the growing concern about oil depletion and the environmental impact of our transportation system. However, “clean” technologies will only be viable when they are cost-efficient. In this paper, the environmental impacts and the financial costs of different vehicle technologies are calculated for an average Belgian driver. Environmentally friendly vehicles are compared with conventional petrol and diesel vehicles. The assessments are done from a life cycle perspective. The effect on human health, resources and ecosystems is considered when calculating the environmental impact. The total cost of ownership (TCO model includes the purchase price, registration and road taxes, insurance, fuel or electricity cost, maintenance, tires replacement, technical control, battery leasing and battery replacement. In the presented analysis different vehicle technologies and fuels are compared (petrol, diesel, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, battery electric vehicles (BEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs on their level of environmental impact and cost per kilometer. The analysis shows a lower environmental impact for electric vehicles. However, electric vehicles have a higher total cost of ownership compared to conventional vehicles, even though the fuel operating costs are significantly lower. The purchase cost of electric vehicles is highly linked to the size of the battery pack, and not to the size of the electric vehicle. This explains the relative high cost for the electric city cars and the comparable cost for the medium and premium cars.

  13. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  14. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  15. Transition challenges for alternative fuel vehicle and transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen Struben; John D. Sterman

    2008-01-01

    Automakers are now developing alternatives to internal combustion engines (ICE), including hydrogen fuel cells and ICE – electric hybrids. Adoption dynamics for alternative vehicles are complex, owing to the size and importance of the auto industry and vehicle installed base. Diffusion of alternative vehicles is both enabled and constrained by powerful positive feedbacks arising from scale and scope economies, research and development, learning by doing, driver experience, word of mouth, and ...

  16. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles C. Investments 1. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure 2. Alternative... plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are commercialized (see Part IV.B.2 below). Except in those... EPAct 1992, as amended, as ``an electric, hybrid electric, or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with...

  17. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  18. Technological perspectives of clean vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of the different technologies of available commercially cars were studied (now or in the halfway through time limit) of smaller contaminants gases generation, with the objective to carry out a comparative evaluation of their competitiveness and feasibilities of real insertion.They were studied thus the self-electric 'pure' and hybrid, from motors of conventional combustion and of cells of fuels with reformers; as well as them fed by hydrogen, utilized in motors of combustion and in direct conversion fuels cells. It is appreciated that the cars hibridos conventional present large advantages that are permitting their effective insertion in the market. Of the remainders, only the conventional motor of hydrogen does not present technological obstacles and has real potentiality in the medium time limit.The electric cars have strong limitations owed al poor performance of the batteries set against the liquid fuels, that have shown do not they permit him to be inserted in the real market in spite of the enormous efforts carried out.The fuel cells continue being very costly. Being that the technologies selected for electric vehicles (of polimer membrane) use essentially hydrogen as fuel, which (besides other disadvantages) has a prohibitive cost set against the hydrocarbons, their possibility of massive insertion is little probable, still low environmental incentives.There are several reasons to think that the EVs with fuel cells of hydrogen (PEM) can run the same luck that the EVs of batteries.The use of internal converters of gasoline or the cells of metanol direct appear with an interesting horizon, although they will need still strong investments in basic investigations associates to be competitive.The hydrogen is a vector energy, not a resource, and being its main producing market and consumer the industry of the petroleum, very with difficulty this return competitive before an increase in the oil price.Their use in vehicles way the adaptation

  19. Consumer Views on Transportation and Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from countries around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce gasoline and diesel consumption. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues surrounding advanced vehicle technologies and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, increase mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability. Understanding and tracking consumer sentiments can influence the prioritization of development efforts by identifying barriers to and opportunities for broad acceptance of new technologies. Predicting consumer behavior toward developing technologies and products is inherently inexact. A person's stated preference given in an interview about a hypothetical setting may not match the preference that is demonstrated in an actual situation. This difference makes tracking actual consumer actions ultimately more valuable in understanding potential behavior. However, when developing technologies are not yet available and actual behaviors cannot be tracked, stated preferences provide some insight into how consumers may react in new circumstances. In this context this report provides an additional source to validate data and a new resource when no data are available. This report covers study data captured from December 2005 through June 2015 relevant to VTO research efforts at the time of the studies. Broadly the report covers respondent sentiments about vehicle fuel economy, future vehicle technology alternatives, ethanol as a vehicle fuel, plug-in electric vehicles, and willingness to pay for vehicle efficiency. This report represents a renewed effort to publicize study findings and make consumer sentiment data available to

  20. Effects of alternative-fuel vehicles on air quality in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economies of the developed world are increasingly including green technologies and processes that consider social, environmental and economic consequences. Hybrid electric vehicles and other fuel-efficient vehicle types can supply consumers with vehicles that decrease their ecological footprint and reduce the cost of fuel. However, one of the societal concerns often overlooked is the impact of alternative-fuel vehicle usage on the air quality in the urban environment. This paper presented a study that assessed the impact on air quality stemming from the operation of alternative fuel vehicles in urban environments. The study specifically focused on the province-wide emissions in Ontario and urban air pollution in the city of Toronto. The paper considered the life-cycle impacts of using alternative fuels for transportation purposes in terms of six major stressors for climate change, acidification and urban air quality. The two types of vehicles that were studied were plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and fuel cell vehicles. Modeling of the penetration rates for both types of vehicles was completed based on the maximum capacity of the electrical grid including planned improvements. The scope of the study and discussion of health effects was first presented followed by data gathering and usage, methodology, results of supportable penetration and vehicle growth, and pollution abatement results. It was concluded that fuel cell vehicles have an advantage over, or near-equality with, PHEVs in almost every aspect of their emissions. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  1. An empirical analysis on the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles: The case of natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) has been regarded as one of the most important strategies to address the issues of energy dependence, air quality, and, more recently, climate change. Despite decades of effort, we still face daunting challenges to promote wider acceptance of AFVs by the general public. More empirical analyses are needed to understand the technology adoption process associated with different market structures, the effectiveness of regulations and incentives, and the density of infrastructure adequate to reach sustainable commercial application. This paper compares the adoption of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in eight countries: Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Italy, New Zealand, Pakistan, and the US. It examines the major policies aimed at promoting the use of NGVs, instruments for implementing those policies and targeting likely stakeholders, and a range of factors that influence the adoption of NGVs. The findings in this paper should be applicable to other AFVs

  2. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  3. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  4. Advances in Tube Hydroforming - An Enabling Technology for Low-Mass Vehicle Manufacturing - Material, Lubrication,Loading, Simulation Issues, and Alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muammer Ko(c)

    2004-01-01

    The tube hydroforming process (THF) has recently found a wide application opportunity in the automotive industry, and is of increasing interest to other industries as well. The increased interest stems from the fact that, through the THF process, manufacturers are able to produce complex, consolidated, lightweight parts with reduced number of post-processing than through alternative metal forming techniques. In order to fully realize the benefits of this technology, various aspects have been under investigation in academia and industry world-wide. In this paper, effect of loading path, incoming material variation, and lubrication on the robustness of the hydroforming process and final part specifications are summarized based on previous experimental and computational work. In addition, the simulation of hydroforming and examples are presented in comparison with experimental findings. Briefly, results emphasized the importance of the loading path design whereas material variation within the experimentally tested range was not found to be significantly effective on the final part specifications. Selection of a lubricant for hydroforming of a frame rail part was presented demonstrating several aspects of lubrication selection methodology. Results of friction experiments show that only thickness, axial feeding, and force measurements are good indications of lubricant performance as these are found to be strongly discriminative.

  5. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  6. Energy security and climate change: How oil endowment influences alternative vehicle innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast growing global energy needs raise concerns on energy supply security and climate change. Although policies addressing the two issues sometimes benefit one at the expense of the other, technology innovation, especially in alternative energy, provides a win–win solution to tackle both issues. This paper examines the effect of oil endowment on the patterns of technology innovation in the transportation sector, attempting to identify drivers of technology innovation in alternative energy. The analysis employs panel data constructed from patent data on five different types of automobile-related technologies from 1990 to 2002: oil extraction, petroleum refining, fuel cells, electric and hybrid vehicles (EHV) and vehicle energy efficiency. I find that countries with larger oil endowments perform less innovation on refining and alternative technologies. Conversely, higher gasoline prices positively impact the patent counts of alternative technologies and energy efficiency technology. The findings highlight the challenges and importance of policy designs in international climate change agreements. - Highlights: • I examine the effect of oil endowment on technology innovation in the transportation sector. • An empirical model was developed for a cross-country analysis of oil endowments. • A country's oil endowment is a negative driver of alternative technologies. • Energy price is a positive driver of alternative technologies and energy efficiency technology. • Implications for domestic and international climate policy are discussed

  7. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  8. Innovative Vehicle Concept for the Integration of Alternative Power Trains

    OpenAIRE

    Steinle, Philipp; Kriescher, Michael; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The Institute of Vehicle Concepts is developing a safe, modularisable vehicle concept in rib and space frame design for tomorrow’s vehicles with alternative power trains. The vehicle can be powered either by a fuel cell system, a free-piston linear generator developed at the DLR, or a traction battery. Taking into account the given boundary conditions, the challenge is to design a body structure that is light and performs well in the event of an accident. The rib and space fra...

  9. Energy efficient vehicles technology II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeker, Bernard; Morawietz, Lutz (eds.) [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Vehicle Mechatronics

    2012-11-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 2{sup nd} International Energy Efficient Vehicles Conference (EEVC 2012) which took place from June 18{sup th}-19{sup th} in Dresden, Germany. The special conference program for EEVC 2012 contained contributions and presentations by researchers, developers, product planners and managers of the main German and international vehicle manufacturers, system suppliers and research institutes. So all the main topics related to energy efficient vehicles could be covered, as there are for example new development and optimization strategies, battery management systems, different power net topologies and hybridization concepts (e.g. hydraulic power trains). A special focus lies on different aspects of electric vehicles as there are charging strategies, light weight construction and also the point of view from an energy supplier. (orig.)

  10. Review on Conventional Air Conditioning, Alternative Refrigerants, and CO2 Heat Pumps for Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Moo-Yeon Lee; Dong-Yeon Lee

    2013-01-01

    With the reinforced ODP and GWP regulations, clean refrigerants including CO2, energy saving technology for fuel economy, especially focused on development and control strategy for the effective air conditioning system, and heat pump for vehicles have been widely investigated. Recently, the automotive CO2 heat pump for the next generation vehicles as an alternative to that of internal combustion engines has been evaluated and studied as a good option. In this paper, first part is reviewed on ...

  11. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  12. Achievement of alternative configurations of vehicles on multiple lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Ryosuke; Miki, Hiroshi; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Heavy traffic congestion occurs daily at merging sections on a highway. For relieving this congestion, possibility of alternative configuration of vehicles on multiple-lane road at a merging area is discussed in this paper. This is the configuration where no vehicles move aside on the other lane. It has merit in making a smooth merging at an intersection or a junction due to the so-called "zipper effect." We show, by developing a cellular automaton model for multiple lanes, that this configuration is achieved by simple local interactions between vehicles neighboring each other. The degree of the alternative configuration in terms of the spatial increase in parallel driving length is studied by using both numerical simulations and mean-field theory. We successfully construct a theoretical method for calculating this degree of the alternative configuration by using cluster approximation. It is shown that the theoretical results coincide with those of the simulations very well. PMID:19658576

  13. Potential Vehicle Fleet CO2 Reductions and Cost Implications for Various Vehicle Technology Deployment Scenarios in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    PASAOGLU KILANC GUZAY; HONSELAAR MICHEL; THIEL CHRISTIAN

    2011-01-01

    The continuous rise in transport demand in Europe has a significant effect on Europe¿s oil dependency and emissions of greenhouse gases. Alternative fuels and vehicle technology can mitigate these effects. This study analyses powertrain deployment scenarios for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in Europe for the 2010 to 2050 time horizon. It considers European policy developments on vehicle CO2 emissions, bioenergy mandates, and reductions in the CO2 footprint of the European energ...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Program Awards and Patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-13

    Award-winning technologies and processes are hallmarks of the programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and industrial partners. Awards, patents, and other recognition validate the products of research undertaken as part of the Vehicle Technologies Program.

  15. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  16. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  17. Robotic technologies for outdoor industrial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentz, Anthony

    2001-09-01

    The commercial industries of agriculture, mining, construction, and material handling employ a wide variety of mobile machines, including tractors, combines, Load-Haul-Dump vehicles, trucks, paving machines, fork trucks, and many more. Automation of these vehicles promises to improve productivity, reduce operational costs, and increase safety. Since the vehicles typically operate in difficult environments, under all weather conditions, and in the presence of people and other obstacles, reliable automation faces severe technical challenges. Furthermore, the viable technology solutions are constrained by cost considerations. Fortunately, due to the limited application domain, repetitive nature, and the utility of partial automation for most tasks, robotics technologies can have a profound impact on industrial vehicles. In this paper, we describe a technical approach developed at Carnegie Mellon University for automating mobile machines in several applications, including mass excavation, mining, and agriculture. The approach is introduced via case studies, and the results are presented.

  18. Software Component Technologies for Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Control-systems for heavy vehicles have advanced from an area where Industrial Requirements on Component Technologies for Embedded Systemsmainly mechanic and hydraulic solutions were used, to a highly computerised domain using distributed embedded real-time computer systems. To cope with the increasing level of end-customer demands on advanced features and functions in future vehicle systems, sophisticated development techniques are needed. The development techniques must support software in ...

  19. Autonomous Vehicle Transportation Using Wireless Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ragul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the use of a vehicle in several industries and is capable of reducing extra strenuous and/or time consuming activities of humans. The main concentration of this work was onvehicle navigation, tracking, obstacle detection, weight overload, battery power measuring and also be able to locate the respective service station goods. Vehicle navigation employs RFID technology. TheRFID reader is installed in the vehicle and reads the tags which are placed along its route. Whenever a vehicle reaches a service station it sends a message to the workers. Upon receiving a message, the workers can collect the respective service station goods using RFID. If the wrong goods are taken out of the vehicle, the buzzer gets activated. The obstacle detection can be done by ultrasonic sensors. If any obstacle in the route is detected, the message is sent to the control station of the industry using the GSM module. The load cell is used to indicate the weight overload to the workers. Two batteries have been together utilized to measure the required power by this developed vehicle. As soon as Battery1 becomes dry, the battery2 is made the main source of power and a message is sent to the control station through GSM. The control station having a GSM module receives the message and the result will be displayed in hyper terminal window on the PC (personal computer. The vehicle transportation uses PICmicrocontroller, sensors and wireless technology.

  20. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Program Educational Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-13

    Description of educational activities including: EcoCAR2: Plugging In to the Future, EcoCAR: The NeXt Challenge, Green Racing, Automotive X Prize, Graduate Technology Automotive Education (GATE), and Hydrogen Education.

  2. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section 611.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to demonstrate that a vehicle is...

  3. Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This roadmap explores the potential improvement of existing technologies to enhance the average fuel economy of motorised vehicles; the roadmap’s vision is to achieve a 30% to 50% reduction in fuel use per kilometre from new road vehicles including 2-wheelers, LDV s and HDV s) around the world in 2030, and from the stock of all vehicles on the road by 2050. This achievement would contribute to significant reductions in GHG emissions and oil use, compared to a baseline projection. Different motorised modes are treated separately, with a focus on LDV s, HDV s and powered two-wheelers. A section on in-use fuel economy also addresses technical and nontechnical parameters that could allow fuel economy to drastically improve over the next decades. Technology cost analysis and payback time show that significant progress can be made with low or negative cost for fuel-efficient vehicles over their lifetime use. Even though the latest data analysed by the IEA for fuel economy between 2005 and 2008 showed that a gap exists in achieving the roadmap’s vision, cutting the average fuel economy of road motorised vehicles by 30% to 50% by 2030 is achievable, and the policies and technologies that could help meet this challenge are already deployed in many places around the world.

  4. Dimethyl ether as alternative fuel for CI engine and vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen HUANG; Xinqi QIAO; Wugao ZHANG; Junhua WU; Junjun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    As a developing and the most populous country in the world, China faces major challenges in energy supply and environmental protection. It is of great importance to develop clean and alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. On the basis of researches on DME engine and vehicle at Shanghai Jiaotong University in the last twelve years, fuel injection, combustion, performance and exhaust emissions of DME engine and DME vehicle are introduced in this paper. The results indicate that DME engines can achieve high thermal efficiency and ultra low emissions, and will play a significant role in meeting the energy demand while minimizing environmental impact in China.

  5. Low Floor Americans with Disabilities Compliant Alternate Fuel Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bartel

    2004-11-26

    This project developed a low emission, cost effective, fuel efficient, medium-duty community/transit shuttle bus that meets American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and meets National Energy Policy Act requirements (uses alternative fuel). The Low Profile chassis, which is the basis of this vehicle is configured to be fuel neutral to accommodate various alternative fuels. Demonstration of the vehicle in Yellowstone Park in summer (wheeled operation) and winter (track operation) demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility for this vehicle to provide year around operation throughout the Parks system as well as normal transit operation. The unique configuration of the chassis which provides ADA access with a simple ramp and a flat floor throughout the passenger compartment, provides maximum access for all passengers as well as maximum flexibility to configure the vehicle for each application. Because this product is derived from an existing medium duty truck chassis, the completed bus is 40-50% less expensive than existing low floor transit buses, with the reliability and durability of OEM a medium duty truck.

  6. Revolutionizing Technology Prioritizing Emergency Vehicles in Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ramya Sundaram; E. Aravind; S. Harithaa; G. Karthick; Shriram K. Vasudevan

    2014-01-01

    The following study brings to the fore a technology exclusively engineered to eradicate the snags and inadequacies persisting in the existing system of traffic control and thus aims to provide a sophisticated operation and uninterrupted course for the emergency vehicles. The traffic in Indian roads has shown a tremendous rise over the years and the conventional pre-timed traffic signals and frequent traffic congestions, delaying the road commuters, have led to outrage and chaos on several occ...

  7. A Range-Based Vehicle Life Cycle Assessment Incorporating Variability in the Environmental Assessment of Different Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Messagie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How to compare the environmental performance of different vehicle technologies? Vehicles with lower tailpipe emissions are perceived as cleaner. However, does it make sense to look only to tailpipe emissions? Limiting the comparison only to these emissions denies the fact that there are emissions involved during the production of a fuel and this approach gives too much advantage to zero-tailpipe vehicles like battery electric vehicles (BEV and fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV. Would it be enough to combine fuel production and tailpipe emissions? Especially when comparing the environmental performance of alternative vehicle technologies, the emissions during production of the specific components and their appropriate end-of-life treatment processes should also be taken into account. Therefore, the complete life cycle of the vehicle should be included in order to avoid problem shifting from one life stage to another. In this article, a full life cycle assessment (LCA of petrol, diesel, fuel cell electric (FCEV, compressed natural gas (CNG, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, hybrid electric, battery electric (BEV, bio-diesel and bio-ethanol vehicles has been performed. The aim of the manuscript is to investigate the impact of the different vehicle technologies on the environment and to develop a range-based modeling system that enables a more robust interpretation of the LCA results for a group of vehicles. Results are shown for climate change, respiratory effects, acidification and mineral extraction damage of the different vehicle technologies. A broad range of results is obtained due to the variability within the car market. It is concluded that it is essential to take into account the influence of all the vehicle parameters on the LCA results.

  8. Comparative Studies of Alternative Anaerobic Digestion Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Washington D.C. Water and Sewage Authority is planning to construct a new anaerobic digestion facility at its Blue Plains WWTP by 2008. The research conducted in this study is to aid the designers of this facility by evaluating alternative digestion technologies. Alternative anaerobic digestion technologies include thermophilic, acid/gas phased, and temperature phased digestion. In order to evaluate the relative merits of each, a year long study evaluated the performance of bench scale dig...

  9. A personal vehicle transactions choice model for use in forecasting demand for future alternative-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, W.; Brownstone, D.; Bunch, D.S.; Golob, T.F.

    1994-12-31

    A discrete choice model has been developed in which the choice alternatives consist of vehicle transactions rather than portfolios of vehicle holdings. The model is based on responses to customized stated preference questions involving both hypothetical future vehicles and the household`s current vehicle holdings. The stated choices were collected from 4747 survey respondents located throughout most of the urbanized portions of California. Respondents were asked what their next vehicle transaction would most likely be (replace a current vehicle, add another vehicle, or dispose of a current vehicle), and respondents who wanted to replace or add vehicles were asked to indicate their most preferred vehicle from a set of six hypothetical vehicles. The hypothetical vehicles were described in terms of fourteen attributes, manipulated according to an experimental design. The transactions model is a multinomial logic model of the choice of the hypothetical vehicles and whether or not the hypothetical vehicle will be a replacement or addition to the household fleet. The model is conditioned on the household`s current vehicle stock, and the characteristics of the current vehicles are important explanators of the stated preference choices. In addition to the model estimates, forecasts are given for a base case scenario in 1998. The model is one component in a micro-simulation demand forecasting system being designed to produce annual forecasts of new and used vehicle demand by type of vehicle and geographic area. The system will also forecast annual vehicle miles traveled for all vehicles and recharging demand by time of day for electric vehicles. These results are potentially useful to utility companies in their demand-side management planning, to public agencies in their evaluation incentive schemes, and to manufacturers faced with designing and marketing alternative-fuel vehicles.

  10. Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Williams, Susan E [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  14. GENDER PREFERENCES FOR ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TRANSPORT WITH FOCUS ON ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation has become an important part of our day to day life. Due to changing lifestyle, frequent travels whether related to work or leisure has become a common phenomenon. Such lifestyle also demands comfortable transport medium and reasonable availability of fuels. As need of vehicle for transportation is rising, it has put pressure of fuel supply, fuel prices and environment as well. The rising prices of fuel, increasing pressure on resources and threatening environment pollution is driving the need for alternative and clean sources of energy. Increasing competition among nations to own the resources is becoming a serious threat for many developing countries. This paper empirically examines the gender preference for alternative energy sources and related technologies for vehicles. In total, 1168 questionnaires were received from respondents (male-711, female-442, not disclosed-15 from eleven cities in India viz. Bengaluru, Chennai, Cochin, Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Pune, Imphal, Rohtak, Sagar and Tiruvanathpuram in India and one city from Bhutan-Thimpu. Respondents who did not disclose their gender were excluded from the study. The study was conducted from October 2013 to June 2014. The objective of the study was to understand the social dimensions and gender preferences of the respondents regarding their preference for electric vehicle as an alternative energy transport for personal and public use. The primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS®. Findings indicate that in general fueled vehicles are still preferred over electric vehicles. However there is a strong interest in electric vehicles. It was observed that more than 66% of the respondents in the age group of 18-30 can become prospective customers in the near future, if the electric vehicles meet their expectations. In this age group, 59% of the respondents were male

  15. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts (back to 2009) are archived and still available at: http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/current-and-past-years-facts-week. Each Fact of the Week website page includes a link to an Excel file. That file contains the data from the Supporting Information section of the page so that researchers can easily use data from the Fact of the Week in their work. Beginning in August of 2015, a subscription list is available on the DOE website so that those interested can sign up for an email to be sent each Monday which includes the text and graphic from the current week s Fact. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2015. The Facts were created, written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  16. Potential vehicle fleet CO2 reductions and cost implications for various vehicle technology deployment scenarios in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous rise in demand for road transportation has a significant effect on Europe's oil dependency and emissions of greenhouse gases. Alternative fuels and vehicle technology can mitigate these effects. This study analyses power-train deployment scenarios for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in EU-27 until 2050. It considers European policy developments on vehicle CO2 emissions, bio-energy mandates and reductions in the CO2 footprint of the European energy mix and translates these into comprehensive scenarios for the road transport sector. It quantifies and assesses the potential impact of these scenarios on well-to-wheel (WtW) CO2 emission reductions primary energy demand evolution, and cost aspects for the prospective vehicle owners. The study reveals that, under the deployed scenarios, the use of bio-fuel blends, technological learning and the deployment of hybrids, battery electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell vehicles can decrease WtW CO2 emissions in EU-27 passenger road transport by 35–57% (compared to 2010 levels) and primary energy demand by 29–51 Mtoe as they would benefit from a future assumed decarbonised electricity and hydrogen mix in Europe. Learning effects can lead to acceptable payback periods for vehicle owners of electric drive vehicles. - Highlights: ► Power-train penetration scenarios for 2010–2050 passenger road transport in Europe. ► A dedicated tool is developed to analyse H2 production and distribution mix till 2050. ► Alternative vehicles can drastically reduce CO2 emissions and energy demand. ► Electric vehicles could become cost competitive to conventional vehicles by 2030. ► Policies needed to create adequate momentum and guarantee decarbonised transport.

  17. Off-highway vehicle technology roadmap.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The off-highway sector is under increasing pressure to reduce operating costs (including fuel costs) and to reduce emissions. Recognizing this, the Society of Automotive Engineers and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) convened a workshop in April 2001 (ANL 2001) to (1) determine the interest of the off-highway sector (consisting of agriculture, construction, surface mining, inland marine) in crafting a shared vision of off-highway, heavy machines of the future and (2) identify critical research and development (R and D) needs for minimizing off-highway vehicle emissions while cost-effectively maintaining or enhancing system performance. The workshop also enabled government and industry participants to exchange information. During the workshop, it became clear that the challenges facing the heavy, surface-based off-highway sector can be addressed in three major machine categories: (1) engine/aftertreatment and fuels/lubes, (2) machine systems, and (3) thermal management. Working groups convened to address these topical areas. The status of off-highway technologies was determined, critical technical barriers to achieving future emission standards were identified, and strategies and technologies for reducing fuel consumption were discussed. Priority areas for R and D were identified. Given the apparent success of the discussions at the workshop, several participants from industry agreed to help in the formation of a joint industry/government ''roadmap'' team. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has an extensive role in researching ways to make heavy-duty trucks and trains more efficient, with respect to both fuel usage and air emissions. The workshop participants felt that a joint industry/government research program that addresses the unique needs of the off-highway sector would complement the current research program for highway vehicles. With industry expertise, in-kind contributions, and federal government funding (coupled with

  18. Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen; Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; McQueen, S.; Brinch, J.

    2008-07-01

    DOE sponsored the Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen workshop to understand how lessons from past experiences can inform future efforts to commercialize hydrogen vehicles. This report contains the proceedings from the workshop.

  19. 2012 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    The 2012 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting was held May 14-18, 2012 in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Hydrogen Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 309 individual activities were reviewed for Vehicle Technologies, by a total of 189 reviewers. A total of 1,473 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews.

  20. 40 CFR 35.2032 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Innovative and alternative technologies... Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Funding for innovative and alternative technologies. Projects or... innovative or alternative technology shall receive increased grants under § 35.2152. (1) Only funds from...

  1. Evaluation Framework for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Shang Chang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Road transport accounts for 72.06% of total transport CO2, which is considered a cause of climate change. At present, the use of alternative fuels has become a pressing issue and a significant number of automakers and scholars have devoted themselves to the study and subsequent development of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs. The evaluation of AFVs should consider not only air pollution reduction and fuel efficiency but also AFV sustainability. In general, the field of sustainable development is subdivided into three areas: economic, environmental, and social. On the basis of the sustainable development perspective, this study presents an evaluation framework for AFVs by using the DEMATEL-based analytical network process. The results reveal that the five most important criteria are price, added value, user acceptance, reduction of hazardous substances, and dematerialization. Price is the most important criterion because it can improve the popularity of AFVs and affect other criteria, including user acceptance. Additional, the energy usage criterion is expected to significantly affect the sustainable development of AFVs. These results should be seriously considered by automakers and governments in developing AFVs.

  2. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  3. Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on ultracapactors (electrochemical capacitors) as energy storage in vehicle applications and thus evaluates the present state-of-the-art of ultracapacitor technologies and their suitability for use in electric and hybrid drivelines of various types of vehicles. A key consideration in determining the applicability of ultracapacitors for a particular vehicle application is the proper assessment of the energy storage and power requirements. For hybrid-electric vehicles, the ke...

  4. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Transportation accounts for two-thirds of U.S. petroleum use, and on-road vehicles are responsible for nearly 85% of this amount. U.S. dependence on petroleum affects the national economy and potential for future growth—making it a high-value opportunity for change. The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) develops and overcomes barriers to the widespread use of advanced highway transportation technologies that reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, while meeting or exceeding vehicle performance expectations.

  6. Demand for alternative-fuel vehicles when registration taxes are high

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential futures for alternative-fuel vehicles in Denmark, where the vehicle registration tax is very high and large tax rebates can be given. A large stated choice dataset has been collected concerning vehicle choice among conventional, hydrogen, hybrid, bio-diesel......, and electric vehicles. We estimate a mixed logit model that improves on previous contributions by controlling for reference dependence and allowing for correlation of random effects. Both improvements are found to be important. An application of the model shows that alternative-fuel vehicles with...

  7. Treatment Technology and Alternative Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    At this point in our settlement of the planet Earth, with over seven billion human inhabitants, there are very few unallocated sources of fresh water. We are turning slowly toward "alternatives" such as municipal and industrial wastewater, saline groundwater, the sea, irrigation return flow, and produced water that comes up with oil and gas deposits from deep beneath the surface of the earth. Slowly turning, not because of a lack in technological ability, but because it takes a large capital investment to acquire and treat these sources to a level at which they can be used. The regulatory system is not geared up for alternative sources and treatment processes. Permitting can be circular, contradictory, time consuming, and very expensive. The purpose for the water, or the value of the product obtained using the water, must be such that the capital and ongoing expense seem reasonable. There are so many technological solutions for recovering water quality that choosing the most reliable, economical, and environmentally sound technology involves unraveling the "best" weave of treatment processes from a tangled knot of alternatives. Aside from permitting issues, which are beyond the topic for this presentation, the "best" weave of processes will be composed of four strands specifically fitted to the local situation: energy, pretreatment, driving force for separation processes, and waste management. A range of treatment technologies will be examined in this presentation with a focus on how the quality of the feed water, available power sources, materials, and waste management opportunities aid in choosing the best weave of treatment technologies, and how innovative use of a wide variety of driving forces are increasing the efficiency of treatment processes.

  8. ESTIMATION OF THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRACTION BLDC MOTOR ON THE BASIS OF VEHICLE ALTERNATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A method of estimation of basic parameters of the BLDC motor based on the vehicle powerful alternator to convert an ordinary vehicle into a hybrid one is offered. The results of estimation of basic characteristics of the electric motor on the basis of the automobile alternator G290 are presented.

  9. "Bait vehicle" technologies and motor vehicle theft along the southwest border.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, over 33% of all the vehicles reported stolen in the United States occurred in the four southwestern border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, which all have very high vehicle theft rates in comparison to the national average. This report describes the utilization of 'bait vehicles' and associated technologies in the context of motor vehicle theft along the southwest border of the U.S. More than 100 bait vehicles are estimated to be in use by individual agencies and auto theft task forces in the southwestern border states. The communications, tracking, mapping, and remote control technologies associated with bait vehicles provide law enforcement with an effective tool to obtain arrests in vehicle theft 'hot spots'. Recorded audio and video from inside the vehicle expedite judicial proceedings as offenders rarely contest the evidence presented. At the same time, law enforcement is very interested in upgrading bait vehicle technology through the use of live streaming video for enhanced officer safety and improved situational awareness. Bait vehicle effectiveness could be enhanced by dynamic analysis of motor theft trends through exploitation of geospatial, timeline, and other analytical tools to better inform very near-term operational decisions, including the selection of particular vehicle types. This 'information-led' capability would especially benefit from more precise and timely information on the location of vehicles stolen in the United States and found in Mexico. Introducing Automated License Plate Reading (ALPR) technology to collect information associated with stolen motor vehicles driven into Mexico could enhance bait vehicle effectiveness.

  10. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  11. Emission factors for vehicles propelled by fossil or alternative fuels. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the project was to develop emission factors for commercial and alternative fuels such as alcohols and methane. The background to the decision to carry out the project was that there was a need for emission factors for some other KFB projects organized within the 'system study' carried out by KFB. The method used for the project was to use the today's emission levels and the knowledge about the emission control technology as a base for the estimation of future emission levels and the coming development of vehicles and the emission control technology. The results of the analysis and the estimation show that there exists a positive development concerning emission control technology and emission levels. However, the future positive development for alternative fuels strongly depends on the possibility of these fuels to capture a market which will have certain impact on the willingness and the economic possibilities of the car manufacturers to also invest in the development of alternative fuels. 70 refs

  12. Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

  13. Status and outlook for biofuels, other alternative fuels and new vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.-O.; Aakko-Saksa, P.; Sipilae, K.

    2008-03-15

    The report presents an outlook for alternative motor fuels and new vehicles. The time period covered extends up to 2030. The International Energy Agency and the U.S. Energy Information Administration predict that the world energy demand will increase by over 50% from now to 2030, if policies remain unchanged. Most of the growth in demand for energy in general, as well as for transport fuels, will take place in non-OECD countries. Gasoline and diesel are projected to remain the dominant automotive fuels until 2030. Vehicle technology and high quality fuels will eventually solve the problem of harmful exhaust emissions. However, the problem with CO{sub 2} still remains, and much attention will be given to increase efficiency. Hybrid technology is one option to reduce fuel consumption. Diesel engines are fuel efficient, but have high emissions compared with advanced gasoline engines. New combustion systems combining the best qualities of gasoline and diesel engines promise low emissions as well as high efficiency. The scenarios for alternative fuels vary a lot. By 2030, alternative fuels could represent a 10- 30% share of transport fuels, depending on policies. Ambitious goals for biofuels in transport have been set. As advanced biofuels are still in their infancy, it seems probable that traditional biofuels will also be used in 2030. Ethanol is the fastest growing biofuel. Currently the sustainability of biofuels is discussed extensively. Synthetic fuels promise excellent end-use properties, reduced emissions, and if produced from biomass, also reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. The report presents an analysis of technology options to meet the requirements for energy security, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, reduced local emissions as well as sustainability in general in the long run. In the short term, energy savings will be the main measure for CO{sub 2} reductions in transport, fuel switches will have a secondary role. (orig.)

  14. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects.An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐i...

  15. Vehicle technologies, fuel-economy policies, and fuel-consumption rates of Chinese vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the principal ways to reduce transport-related energy use is to reduce fuel-consumption rates of motor vehicles (usually measured in liters of fuel per 100 km). Since 2004, China has implemented policies to improve vehicle technologies and lower the fuel-consumption rates of individual vehicles. Policy evaluation requires accurate and adequate information on vehicle fuel-consumption rates. However, such information, especially for Chinese vehicles under real-world operating conditions, is rarely available from official sources in China. For each vehicle type we first review the vehicle technologies and fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. We then derive real-world (or on-road) fuel-consumption rates on the basis of information collected from various sources. We estimate that the real-world fuel-consumption rates of vehicles in China sold in 2009 are 9 L/100 km for light-duty passenger vehicles, 11.4 L/100 km for light-duty trucks, 22 L/100 km for inter-city transport buses, 40 L/100 km for urban transit buses, and 24.9 L/100 km for heavy-duty trucks. These results aid in understanding the levels of fuel consumption of existing Chinese vehicle fleets and the effectiveness of policies in reducing on-road fuel consumption, which can help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► Vehicle fuel-consumption rate (VFCR) data are rarely available in China. ► We review the fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. ► We derive real-world VFCRs on the basis of information collected from various sources. ► Results aid in understanding the fuel consumption levels of Chinese vehicle fleets. ► Results help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies.

  16. Status of ERA Vehicle System Integration Technology Demonstrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Khorrami, Mehdi; James, Kevin D.; Thomas, Russell; Fernandez, Hamilton

    2015-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project within the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) has the responsibility to explore and document the feasibility, benefits, and technical risk of air vehicle concepts and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. The primary goal of the ERA Project is to select air vehicle concepts and technologies that can simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise, and emissions. In addition, the ERA Project will identify and mitigate technical risk and transfer knowledge to the aeronautics community at large so that new technologies and vehicle concepts can be incorporated into the future design of aircraft.

  17. Bidirectional battery charger with grid-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-grid and vehicle-to-home technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, J. G.; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Gonçalves, Henrique; Exposto, Bruno Fernandes; Pedrosa, Delfim Duarte Rolo; Couto, Carlos; João L Afonso

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of na on-board bidirectional battery charger for Electric Vehicles (EVs) targeting Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V), Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), and Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) technologies. During the G2V operation mode the batteries are charged from the power grid with sinusoidal current and unitary power factor. During the V2G operation mode the energy stored in the batteries can be delivered back to the power grid contributing to the power system stability. In the V2H operat...

  18. Reusable launch vehicle: Technology development and test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) assess the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology development and test programs in the most critical component technologies. At a time when discretionary government spending is under close scrutiny, the RLV program is designed to reduce the cost of access to space through a combination of robust vehicles and a streamlined infrastructure. Routine access to space has obvious benefits for space science, national security, commercial technologies, and the further exploration of space. Because of technological challenges, knowledgeable people disagree about the feasibility of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The purpose of the RLV program proposed by NASA and industry contractors is to investigate the status of existing technology and to identify and advance key technology areas required for development and validation of an SSTO vehicle. This report does not address the feasibility of an SSTO vehicle, nor does it revisit the roles and responsibilities assigned to NASA by the National Transportation Policy. Instead, the report sets forth the NRC committee's findings and recommendations regarding the RLV technology development and test program in the critical areas of propulsion, a reusable cryogenic tank system (RCTS), primary vehicle structure, and a thermal protection system (TPS).

  19. Technology Requirements for Affordable Single-Stage Rocket Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Piland, William M.

    2004-01-01

    A number of manned Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicle options for replacing or complementing the current Space Transportation System are being examined under the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study. The introduction of a reusable single-stage vehicle (SSV) into the U.S. launch vehicle fleet early in the next century could greatly reduce ETO launch costs. As a part of the AMLS study, the conceptual design of an SSV using a wide variety of enhancing technologies has recently been completed and is described in this paper. This paper also identifies the major enabling and enhancing technologies for a reusable rocket-powered SSV and provides examples of the mission payoff potential of a variety of important technologies. This paper also discusses the impact of technology advancements on vehicle margins, complexity, and risk, all of which influence the total system cost.

  20. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...... developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while the......‐2013). Also the power capabilities may increase meaning that e.g. acceleration capabilities will improve as well as the top speed. This development occurs due to new battery technology that may experience substantial improvements in the coming years. When looking at plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles the...

  1. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Davies, J. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Zammit, M. (AC Rochester, NY (United States)); Patterson, P. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  2. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Davies, J. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zammit, M. [AC Rochester, NY (United States); Patterson, P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  3. Hybrid vehicles - an alternative for the Swedish market; Hybridfordon - ett alternativ foer den svenska bilparken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, Karl-Erik; Bucksch, S.

    2000-06-01

    The object of this report is to assemble information on and describe the situation for the development of hybrid vehicles and various alternatives within this field of development. In the report the description is concentrated mainly on the combination of combustion engine and electric battery, which is the most common combination in present day hybrid vehicles. In order to take a glimpse into the future even the combination of fuel cells and electric battery is described. The light duty electric hybrid vehicles which have been developed up to now are mainly parallel hybrids. If the development of hybrid systems takes place it will most certainly concern light duty vehicles which will come to be parallel hybrids equipped with an Otto or a diesel engine, depending on what the manufacturers wish to back. In the report the use of series hybrid vehicles is estimated to be limited to heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. Hybrids will not be likely to be relevant for heavy-duty vehicles, with the exception of those lorries which operate in city centres, i.e. lorries which are used to distribute goods to shops, garbage vehicles and certain types of working vehicle for service purposes. Continued development of the hybrid system for buses seems uncertain for various reasons. If there is a technical breakthrough in the manufacture of batteries and simultaneously the manufacturers increase their efforts to develop hybrid vehicles, the situation can be changed so that there is a speedier introduction of hybrid vehicles for heavy-duty vehicles.

  4. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... May 26, 2010, (75 FR 29606) EPA proposed rule changes to simplify and streamline the process \\5\\ by... on September 21, 1994 (59 FR 48472) and located in 40 CFR part 85, subpart F. \\6\\ See Response to... vehicle as a condition of being exempt from prosecution for tampering violations.'' \\21\\ \\21\\ 59 FR...

  5. Alternating-Current Motor Drive for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Rippel, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    New electric drive controls speed of a polyphase as motor by varying frequency of inverter output. Closed-loop current-sensing circuit automatically adjusts frequency of voltage-controlled oscillator that controls inverter frequency, to limit starting and accelerating surges. Efficient inverter and ac motor would give electric vehicles extra miles per battery charge.

  6. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (which will not allow someone with a positive BAC to drive) on their vehicles. While on the vehicle, interlocks have been shown to reduce recidivism by two-thirds. Use of these devices has been growing at the rate of 10 to 15 percent a year, and there currently are more than 300,000 units in use. This expansion in the application of interlocks has benefited from the integration of other emerging technologies into interlock systems. Such technologies include data systems that record both driver actions and vehicle responses, miniature cameras and face recognition to identify the user, Wi-Fi systems to provide rapid reporting on offender performance and any attempt to circumvent the device, GPS tracking of the vehicle, and more rapid means for monitoring the integrity of the interlock system. This article describes how these health technologies are being applied in interlock programs and the outlook for new technologies and new court sanctioning programs that may influence the growth in the use of interlocks in the future. PMID:26259002

  7. Alternative Sensor System and MLP Neural Network for Vehicle Pedal Activity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Wefky

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that the activity of the vehicle pedals (i.e., throttle, brake, clutch reflects the driver’s behavior, which is at least partially related to the fuel consumption and vehicle pollutant emissions. This paper presents a solution to estimate the driver activity regardless of the type, model, and year of fabrication of the vehicle. The solution is based on an alternative sensor system (regime engine, vehicle speed, frontal inclination and linear acceleration that reflects the activity of the pedals in an indirect way, to estimate that activity by means of a multilayer perceptron neural network with a single hidden layer.

  8. Sharp Technologies as Applied to a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Kinney, David; Reuther, James; Saunders, David

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts of Ames Research Center to develop Slender Hypersonic Aerothermodynamic Research Probes (SHARP) technologies as applied to the new Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV). Amongst these technologies are ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC). The results of Computational Fluid Dynamic simulations on prospective designs of the CTV are shown as well as wind tunnel test results.

  9. Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, John H.; Polubiatko, Peter; Tucchio, Michael A.

    2002-02-06

    This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles.

  10. Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles

  11. Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2011-11-01

    Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

  12. Seal Technology for Hypersonic Vehicle and Propulsion: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles and propulsion systems pose an extraordinary challenge for structures and materials. Airframes and engines require lightweight, high-temperature materials and structural configurations that can withstand the extreme environment of hypersonic flight. Some of the challenges posed include very high temperatures, heating of the whole vehicle, steady-state and transient localized heating from shock waves, high aerodynamic loads, high fluctuating pressure loads, potential for severe flutter, vibration, and acoustic loads and erosion. Correspondingly high temperature seals are required to meet these aggressive requirements. This presentation reviews relevant seal technology for both heritage (e.g. Space Shuttle, X-15, and X-38) vehicles and presents several seal case studies aimed at providing lessons learned for future hypersonic vehicle seal development. This presentation also reviews seal technology developed for the National Aerospace Plane propulsion systems and presents several seal case studies aimed at providing lessons learned for future hypersonic propulsion seal development.

  13. SCR technology for commercial vehicles; SCR-Technologie fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, W.; Huethwohl, G.; Maurer, B. [Purem Abgassysteme GmbH und Co.KG, Unna (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    All industrial nations make sure that laws and guidelines limit the exhaust gas emissions caused by vehicles. In the face of steadily growing vehicle numbers, this is an effective way of reducing harmful substances emitted by traffic. However, the future Euro 4 and Euro 5 emissions limits represent an enormous challenge for the industry. It is possible, however, to meet the new limits with progressive SCR technology, as shown in this article by Purem GmbH, Unna, Germany. (orig.)

  14. Effects of alternative-fuel vehicles on air quality in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is focused on the province-wide emissions in Ontario, Canada and urban air pollution in the city of Toronto. The life-cycle impacts of utilizing alternative fuels for transportation purposes is considered in terms of six major stressors for climate change, acidification and urban air quality. The two types of vehicle considered are plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. Modeling of the penetration rates for both types of vehicles has been completed based on the maximum capacity of the electrical grid including planned improvements. Results show that the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from adoption of either vehicle type will exceed 3% of the current emissions from the transportation sector in Ontario. Both vehicles exhibit similar impacts on the precursors for photochemical smog although the province-wide effects differ significantly. (author)

  15. Assessment of Vehicle Sizing, Energy Consumption and Cost Through Large Scale Simulation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moawad, Ayman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, Namdoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shidore, Neeraj [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, Aymeric [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) has been developing more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum. The long-term aim is to develop "leapfrog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment. This report reviews the results of the DOE VTO. It gives an assessment of the fuel and light-duty vehicle technologies that are most likely to be established, developed, and eventually commercialized during the next 30 years (up to 2045). Because of the rapid evolution of component technologies, this study is performed every two years to continuously update the results based on the latest state-of-the-art technologies.

  16. Emerging technologies for micro unmanned air vehicles (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijaya Mohan

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available "Technology,which has attracted the interest of engineers and scientists in recent times, is the development of micro-unmanned air vehicles (MAVs, with the largest linear dimension no greater than 15 cm. MAVs are a great challenge to scientists and technologists. Current technology is underway to meet the design and development of MAV. So in this paper, a literature survey of various emerging technologies in aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, controls, navigation, communication, and payloads for MAVs, is presented.

  17. High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    An Analysis of Alternatives and a Technology Requirements Study were conducted for two mission areas utilizing various types of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). A hurricane science mission and a communications relay mission provided air vehicle requirements which were used to derive sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative propulsion systems. A HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred concept given near-term technology constraints. The cost effectiveness analysis showed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can be a sub-optimum system solution. In addition, the HTA solar regenerative configuration was utilized to perform both a mission requirements study and a technology development study. Given near-term technology constraints, the solar regenerative powered vehicle was limited to operations during the long days and short nights at higher latitudes during the summer months. Technology improvements are required in energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency, along with airframe drag and mass reductions to enable the solar regenerative vehicle to meet the full mission requirements.

  18. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duleep, G. [ICF Incorporated, LLC., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies, other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles, and recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  19. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duleep, G.

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies? other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles and from recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  20. A Range-Based Vehicle Life Cycle Assessment Incorporating Variability in the Environmental Assessment of Different Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Messagie; Faycal-Siddikou Boureima; Thierry Coosemans; Cathy Macharis; Joeri Van Mierlo

    2014-01-01

    How to compare the environmental performance of different vehicle technologies? Vehicles with lower tailpipe emissions are perceived as cleaner. However, does it make sense to look only to tailpipe emissions? Limiting the comparison only to these emissions denies the fact that there are emissions involved during the production of a fuel and this approach gives too much advantage to zero-tailpipe vehicles like battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). Would it be ...

  1. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., voltage, whether the voltage is alternating current (“ac”) or direct current (“dc”), amperage, and whether... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of D 1945-91 and D 1946-90 may be obtained from the..., Washington, DC, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on...

  2. Technology of TRANSRAPID vehicles; Technik der TRANSRAPID-Fahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellmann, S. [Abt. Magnetregelung und Sensorik, Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel Magnetfahrtechnik, Muenchen (Germany); Kunz, S. [Abt. Konstruktion, Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel Magnetfahrtechnik, Muenchen (Germany); Wegerer, K. [Abt. Leistungselektronik, Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel Magnetfahrtechnik, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    In the course of TRANSRAPID system development programme, the technology of the prototype vehicle TRANSRAPID 07 will be optimized concerning the experiences on the test line Emsland leading to economical operation and cheap production. The level reached in development of TRANSRAPID vehicles will be described as well as its functions and technological solutions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Programms fuer die TRANSRAPID-Systementwicklung wird die Fahrzeugtechnik des Prototypfahrzeugs TRANSRAPID 07 unter Beruecksichtigung der Betriebserfahrungen auf der TRANSRAPID-Versuchsanlage Emsland im Hinblick auf wirtschaftlichen Betrieb und kostenguenstige Fertigung optimiert. Der erreichte Entwicklungsstand fuer TRANSRAPID-Fahrzeuge wird dargestellt und die Funktionen und technischen Loesungen beschrieben. (orig.)

  3. Virtual Laboratory Enabling Collaborative Research in Applied Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, John E.; Cronin, Catherine K.; Scott, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    The virtual laboratory is a new technology, based on the internet, that has had wide usage in a variety of technical fields because of its inherent ability to allow many users to participate simultaneously in instruction (education) or in the collaborative study of a common problem (real-world application). The leadership in the Applied Vehicle Technology panel has encouraged the utilization of this technology in its task groups for some time and its parent organization, the Research and Technology Agency, has done the same for its own administrative use. This paper outlines the application of the virtual laboratory to those fields important to applied vehicle technologies, gives the status of the effort, and identifies the benefit it can have on collaborative research. The latter is done, in part, through a specific example, i.e. the experience of one task group.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Lower-Energy Energy Storage Alternatives for Full-Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-11

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle fuel use. However, the incremental cost of HEVs such as the Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The b b b b battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can correspondingly improve the vehicle-level cost/benefit relationship. Such an improvement would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Program managers asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collaborate with a USABC Workgroup and analyze the trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the decade-old minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL’s analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than the previous targets, which prompted USABC to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform, and laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results with alternate energy storage configurations as compared to the production battery system. The alternate energy storage technologies considered include lithium-ion capacitors -- i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery

  5. An Alternate Configuration of the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) Team has developed an alternate configuration of the vehicle that can be used as a lunar lander. The MMSEV was originally conceived of during the Constellation program as the successor to the Apollo lunar rover as a pressurized rover for two-person, multiday excursions on the lunar surface. Following the cancellation of the Constellation program, the MMSEV has been reconfigured to serve as a free-flying scout vehicle for exploration of a Near Earth Asteroid and is also being assessed for use as a Habitable Airlock in a Cislunar microgravity spacecraft. The Alternate MMSEV (AMMSEV) variant of the MMSEV would serve as the transport vehicle for a four-person lunar crew, providing descent from an orbiting spacecraft or space station and ascent back to the spaceborne asset. This paper will provide a high level overview of the MMSEV and preliminary results from human-in-the-loop testing.

  6. Airframe Research and Technology for Hypersonic Airbreathing Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, David E.; Merski, N. Ronald; Glass, Christopher E.

    2002-01-01

    The Hypersonics Investment Area (HIA) within NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) has the responsibility to develop hypersonic airbreathing vehicles for access to space. The Airframe Research and Technology (AR and T) Project, as one of six projects in the HIA, will push the state-of-the-art in airframe and vehicle systems for low-cost, reliable, and safe space transportation. The individual technologies within the project are focused on advanced, breakthrough technologies in airframe and vehicle systems and cross-cutting activities that are the basis for improvements in these disciplines. Both low and medium technology readiness level (TRL) activities are being pursued. The key technical areas that will be addressed by the project include analysis and design tools, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), composite (polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix) materials development, thermal/structural wall concepts, thermal protection systems, seals, leading edges, aerothermodynamics, and airframe/propulsion flowpath technology. Each of the technical areas or sub-projects within the Airframe R and T Project is described in this paper.

  7. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  8. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Prospective Benefits Assessment Report for Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Taylor, C. H. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Moore, J. S. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Ward, J. [United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-02-23

    Under a diverse set of programs, the Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies offices of DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy invest in research, development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies. This report estimates the benefits of successfully developing and deploying these technologies (a “Program Success” case) relative to a base case (the “No Program” case). The Program Success case represents the future with completely successful deployment of Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) technologies. The No Program case represents a future in which there is no contribution after FY 2016 by the VTO or FCTO to these technologies. The benefits of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies were estimated on the basis of differences in fuel use, primary energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, including energy and emissions from fuel production, between the base case and the Program Success case. Improvements in fuel economy of various vehicle types, growth in the stock of fuel cell vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles, and decreased GHG intensity of hydrogen production and delivery in the Program Success case over the No Program case were projected to result in savings in petroleum use and GHG emissions. Benefits were disaggregated by individual program technology areas, which included the FCTO program and the VTO subprograms of batteries and electric drives; advanced combustion engines; fuels and lubricants; materials (for reduction in vehicle mass, or “lightweighting”); and, for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, reduction in rolling and aerodynamic resistance. Projections for the Program Success case indicate that by 2035, the average fuel economy of on-road, light-duty vehicle stock could be 47% to 76

  9. 78 FR 31535 - Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... On August 8, 2012, we published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 47375) inviting applications... Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative... Technology (AT) Alternative Financing Program (AFP) in fiscal year (FY) 2012 to make new grant awards in...

  10. Metal oxide electrocatalysts for alternative energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquette, Adele Lawren

    This dissertation focuses on the development of metal oxide electrocatalysts with varying applications for alternative energy technologies. Interest in utilizing clean, renewable and sustainable sources of energy for powering the planet in the future has received much attention. This will address the growing concern of the need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The facile synthesis of metal oxides from earth abundant metals was explored in this work. The electrocatalysts can be incorporated into photoelectrochemical devices, fuel cells, and other energy storage devices. The first section addresses the utilization of semiconductors that can harness solar energy for water splitting to generate hydrogen. An oxysulfide was studied in order to combine the advantageous properties of the stability of metal oxides and the visible light absorbance of metal chalcogenides. Bi 2O2S was synthesized under facile hydrothermal conditions. The band gap of Bi2O2S was smaller than that of its oxide counterpart, Bi2O3. Light absorption by Bi 2O2S was extended to the visible region (>600 nm) in comparison to Bi2O3. The formation of a composite with In 2O3 was formed in order to create a UV irradiation protective coating of the Bi2O2S. The Bi2O2S/In 2O3 composite coupled with a dye CrTPP(Cl) and cocatalysts Pt and Co3O4 was utilized for water splitting under light irradiation to generate hydrogen and oxygen. The second section focuses on improving the stability and light absorption of semiconductors by changing the shapes and morphologies. One of the limitations of semiconductor materials is that recombination of electron-hole pairs occur within the bulk of the materials instead of migration to the surface. Three-dimensional shapes, such as nanorods, can prevent this recombination in comparison to spherical particles. Hierarchical structures, such as dendrites, cubes, and multipods, were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, in order to reduce recombination and improve

  11. Promotional issues on alternative energy technologies in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative energy technologies are being disseminated in many countries with an objective to reduce the uses of traditional and commercial energy sources. These technologies convert local resources to usable energy forms. Since the scale of these technologies is small, their implementation is targeted mainly to individual households or small communities. However, due to various constraints, these implementation programmes have not been very successful. In this paper, the author introduces the main characteristics of alternative energy technologies used in Nepal and discusses promotional barriers for their implementation. It is hoped that this paper would help energy policy makers to devise better alternative energy programmes

  12. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  13. 2009 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting to review the FY2008 accomplishments and FY2009 plans for the Vehicle Technologies Program, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academic to give inputs to DOE on the Program with a structured and formal methodology.

  14. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Voas, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (wh...

  15. Alternative and sustainable fuelling options for 2-wheeled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided details of an experiment in which a small, single cylinder, 4-stroke motorcycle was converted to use hydrogen as its fuel. Emissions from the motorcycle's exhaust system were then compared with emissions from both gasoline and hydrogen engines. The thermal efficiencies and performance of the vehicles were also compared and evaluated. Design modifications included the use of port-mounted gaseous fuel injectors and a manifold assembled above the intake valves. The ignition system for the engine was based on a module that used a single pulse generator mounted at one end of the crankshaft to measure engine speed. A dedicated engine management system (EMS) was used to control the fuel injectors and the ignition timing. Thermal efficiencies were derived by dividing the ratio between power output from the engine and the power output associated with the mass flow rate of fuel consumed. Maximum exhaust emission quantities were compared at 2 different speeds. Results of the study showed that the hydrogen engine had a 30 to 50 per cent reduction in power compared to the gasoline engine. The thermal efficiency of the gasoline engine was between 50 to 65 per cent higher than the hydrogen engine at 30 km per hour. However, the hydrogen engine produced no traceable amounts of carbon monoxide (CO). It was concluded that further testing is needed to examine the mixture stoichiometry and the effects of additional engine tuning on the hydrogen engine. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  16. A Hydraulic Motor-Alternator System for Ocean-Submersible Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aintablian, Harry O.; Valdez, Thomas I.; Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    An ocean-submersible vehicle has been developed at JPL that moves back and forth between sea level and a depth of a few hundred meters. A liquid volumetric change at a pressure of 70 bars is created by means of thermal phase change. During vehicle ascent, the phase-change material (PCM) is melted by the circulation of warm water and thus pressure is increased. During vehicle descent, the PCM is cooled resulting in reduced pressure. This pressure change is used to generate electric power by means of a hydraulic pump that drives a permanent magnet (PM) alternator. The output energy of the alternator is stored in a rechargeable battery that powers an on-board computer, instrumentation and other peripherals.The focus of this paper is the performance evaluation of a specific hydraulic motor-alternator system. Experimental and theoretical efficiency data of the hydraulic motor and the alternator are presented. The results are used to evaluate the optimization of the hydraulic motor-alternator system. The integrated submersible vehicle was successfully operated in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. A brief overview of the actual test results is presented.

  17. What are customers willing to pay for future technology vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordal-Joergensen, J.

    2011-05-15

    In the energy sector there is a growing need to understand what customers want. Stated preference is the perfect technique for doing so, particularly where there is no historical precedence. It was originally introduced for use in the transportation sector, but is now used across a very wide variety of sectors including, amongst others: energy, finance, communications and health. Its strengths lie in the fact that it is a particularly robust means of prioritising product or service features, determining the relative values of the different potential attributes of a product of service and showing what people would be willing to pay for different products and services. The reasons for it being more robust than other techniques are because it places respondents in a more 'realistic' choice scenario by presenting a package of features for them to choose from (as would be the case for products and services in a real choice environment), rather than asking them to comment on individual features in isolation and because the resultant data much more clearly distinguishes relative priorities than standard questions (such as the use of importance ratings) can do. In the energy sector the stated preference technique is increasingly used to determine what customers would be willing to pay for investments in infrastructure and service and to provide robust data in response to regulatory requirements. It has also been used to explore the premium that customers would pay for green energy and to look at the likely churn between products and suppliers as prices and product specifications change. The current paper presents main findings from a Stated Preference survey of Danish car purchasers' preferences for future technology vehicles with alternative (green) fuels. (Author)

  18. An economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. L.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used and the results of an economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle. This vehicle was designed for a maximum range of 4000 n.mi. at a cruise speed of Mach 2.7 and carrying 292 passengers. The economic study includes the estimation of aircraft unit cost, operating cost, and idealized cash flow and discounted cash flow return on investment. In addition, it includes a sensitivity study on the effects of unit cost, manufacturing cost, production quantity, average trip length, fuel cost, load factor, and fare on the aircraft's economic feasibility.

  19. The application of a lifetime observer in vehicle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedman, S.; Wallaschek, J. [Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Heinz-Nixdorf Inst.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the concept of a lifetime observer for mobile systems and discusses some pilot applications in vehicle technology. The idea is to expand the basic mechanical system by sensors and electronic information-processing components in order to monitor the stress in critical components. Potential damage, upcoming failures, and the remaining lifetime of the system can then be predicted on-line by using a mathematical damage model. In particular, system aspects in the design of lifetime observers and condition monitoring systems are discussed. The application of a lifetime observer in a newly developed railway vehicle is presented as a detailed example. (orig.)

  20. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  1. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  2. A study of the diffusion of alternative fuel vehicles : An agent-based modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Ting; Gensler, Sonja; Garcia, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of an agent-based model (ABM) to investigate factors that can speed the diffusion of eco-innovations, namely alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The ABM provides the opportunity to consider the interdependencies inherent between key participants in the automotive indust

  3. 77 FR 33315 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Alternative for the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program AGENCY...) within the refrigeration and air-conditioning sector. This final rule only concerns the use of CO 2 in... their suppliers with a refrigerant option subject to use conditions for motor vehicle air...

  4. Study on the technical and economic viability of vehicles and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a resume of the research project under development in the COPPE/UFRJ, Brazil. This project compares different vehicle types and alternative fuels, considering the following parameters: average hourly consumption, level of total hydrocarbons, NOx and CO emissions, operation and maintenance costs. The following vehicle types are analysed: conventional using gasoline, vehicles using ethanol, natural gas and liquid petroleum gas, electric, hybrid electric, electric with fuel cells, electric with fuel cells and gasoline reformation and vehicles using methanol. The simulation packet ADVISOR 2.1 has been used for analysis of the emission made available by the US DOE. For the analysis of the performance/consumption, a code developed by the authors has been used

  5. Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Boucher

    2009-09-30

    High-level objective of this project is to develop nanoparticle based additive technology to improve friction and wear characteristics of engine oil with a long-term focus to enhance durability and efficiency of engines. The project encompasses a detailed investigation of various chemicals that favors stable boundary film formation and therefore reduce friction and wear of engine components. These active chemicals designed as nanomaterials will be surface-stabilized to gain maximum dispersion stability in a lubricant media. This effort shall be focused with the following objectives in mind: develop active nanoparticle composite, optimize process design, detailed tribological testing and surface characterization, physical and chemical characterization of nanomaterials, and limited component level testing to document friction and wear improvements. Additional motivation is to minimize sulfur/phosphorous contents and lower ash forming components in additives and therefore improve aftertreatment functioning and emission. This effort shall be focused, over a two year funding period: Phase-I will be primarily a feasibility study, which includes selection of components for active nanoparticles, design and formulation, and synthesis of the active nanoparticles, optimize process design, physical and chemical characterization of nanomaterials, tribological testing and document friction and wear improvements. As a continuous effort of the Phase-I, Phase-II will focus on the optimization of the identified nanoparticle-based additives specifically for DOE strategic goal - minimizing S and P contents in additives and lowering ash-forming components. Additional efforts will also be invested in extended component level tribo-testing, manufacturing process scale-up, cost evaluation, and commercial viability assessment. In boundary lubrication, mating surfaces in direct physical contact are in surface asperities dimensional scale. These conditions may benefit from the nanometric

  6. INDOT Fleet Management Strategies: Implementing Alternative Fuel Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This session will discuss INDOT’s initiative to introduce vechicles fueled by propane and compressed natural gas (CNG) to their fleet. Successes to date will be shared as well as recommendations for fleet managers considering these alternative technologies.

  7. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

  8. Data Query at the AFDC: Using Oracle Data Query to Access Vehicle Demonstration Data at the Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R. J.

    1994-11-01

    Through funding by the Office of Alternative Fuels of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collects operating data from alternative-fueled vehicles. These vehicles include passenger sedans and light trucks (light-duty vehicles) operating within the federal fleet; heavy-duty trucks operating in private, city, or state fleets and co-funded by DOE; and municipal transit buses operating in revenue service around the country. This document gives examples of accessing the light-duty vehicle data.

  9. METEV: Measurement Technologies for Emissions from Ethanol Fuelled Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandtroem-Dahl, Charlotte

    2009-11-15

    The interest of using alcohols, and especially ethanol, as vehicle fuel is high in Sweden. The advantages are many, such as; being renewable, the ethanol can be produced locally and it is easily mixed with gasoline. Alcohol fuels are considered to be a substantial part of the alternative fuel market, especially in Brazil, USA and Sweden. With this growing interest it is of most importance to investigate the emission performance of vehicles fuelled with alcohols. The focus in this study is on measurement and calculation of hydrocarbon emissions. The emission regulations in different countries have different ways to treat alcohol fuelled vehicles. When alcohols are used as blending components in gasoline, uncombusted alcohols from the fuel are emitted in the exhaust in various amounts. If a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) is used to measure hydrocarbons, the uncombusted alcohol will be included in the measurement. The alcohol is, per definition, however not a hydrocarbon (hydrocarbons contains only hydrogen and carbon). In the US regulations, the alcohol content is measured separately, and the FID measurement is adjusted for the alcohol part. This is not performed in the European regulations. The aim of this project is to highlight the need for a discussion regarding the methodology for measuring hydrocarbon and alcohol emissions from flexible fuelled vehicles operating on alcohol fuel blends.

  10. MODULTEC - Modular technology for lightweight vehicles; MODULTEC - Modultechnologie fuer Leichtmobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlacher, M.; Efler, T.; Wegmann, S.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of two research projects (MODULTEC I and II) that were carried out between 1995 and 2002. The project's aims were to develop and assess components for light-weight car bodies, study and test novel reinforced plastic materials and to examine the industrial implementation of light-weight vehicles. The report presents details on prototype vehicles and transport systems, as well as crash tests. The development of compound plastics and appropriate adhesives is discussed as is the co-operation with various industrial partners. Various prototype components are described and other associated topics such as recycling, storage of alternative fuels and pedestrian protection issues are discussed.

  11. Alternative energy technologies: integrated energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the smart energy technology which refers to fully integrated energy systems from generation through distribution and consumption. The main thrust of this approach is to make energy systems more reliable, intelligent and more eco-friendly. Population growth will increase the demand for energy. Climate change is driving the need for carbon dioxide reduction and increase demand for renewable energy sources. Canada's electricity infrastructure deficit is significant and there is a need to replace outdate infrastructure.

  12. Manufacturing the electric vehicle: a window of technological opportunity for Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    C O Quandt

    1995-01-01

    The California Air Resources Board has mandated that by 1998 2% of new vehicles sold in California must be zero emission, effectively, electric vehicles. This requirement is largely responsible for the electric vehicle development programs run by almost every global automobile manufacturer that does business in the United States. At present, no single electric vehicle technology, from battery type, to propulsion system, to vehicle design, represents a standard for a protoelectric vehicle indu...

  13. Image-Based Vehicle Identification Technology for Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A

    2002-10-08

    The threat of terrorist attacks against US civilian populations is a very real, near-term problem that must be addressed, especially in response to possible use of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Several programs are now being funded by the US Government to put into place means by which the effects of a terrorist attack could be averted or limited through the use of sensors and monitoring technology. Specialized systems that detect certain threat materials, while effective within certain performance limits, cannot generally be used efficiently to track a mobile threat such as a vehicle over a large urban area. The key elements of an effective system are an image feature-based vehicle identification technique and a networked sensor system. We have briefly examined current uses of image and feature recognition techniques to the urban tracking problem and set forth the outlines of a proposal for application of LLNL technologies to this critical problem. The primary contributions of the proposed work lie in filling important needs not addressed by the current program: (1) The ability to create vehicle ''fingerprints,'' or feature information from images to allow automatic identification of vehicles. Currently, the analysis task is done entirely by humans. The goal is to aid the analyst by reducing the amount of data he/she must analyze and reduce errors caused by inattention or lack of training. This capability has broad application to problems associated with extraction of useful features from large data sets. (2) Improvements in the effectiveness of LLNL's WATS (Wide Area Tracking System) by providing it accurate threat vehicle location and velocity. Model predictability is likely to be enhanced by use of more information related to different data sets. We believe that the LLNL can accomplish the proposed tasks and enhance the effectiveness of the system now under development.

  14. Emission Patterns under Alternative Congestion and Motor Vehicle Pollution Mitigation Policies in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongfeng; Li Fen; Li Xiangling

    2007-01-01

    As a megacity with thriving economy, Shanghai is experiencing rapid motorisation and confronted with traffic congestion problems despite its low car ownership. It is of value to look into the policies on emission control of motor vehicle and congestion reduction in such a city to explore how to reconcile mobility enhancement with the environment. Results of a dynamic simulation displayed time paths of emissions from motor vehicles in Shanghai over the period from 2000 to 2020. The simulation results showed that early policies on emission control of motor vehicle could bring about far-reaching effects on emission reduction, and take advantage of available low-polluting technologies and technical innovation over time. Travel demand management would play an important role in curbing congestion and reducing motor vehicle pollution by calming down car ownership rise and deterring inefficient trips as well as reducing fuel waste caused by congestion.

  15. Development of Structural Health Management Technology for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, NASA has focused considerable resources on the development of technologies for Structural Health Management (SHM). The motivations for these efforts are to increase the safety and reliability of aerospace structural systems, while at the same time decreasing operating and maintenance costs. Research and development of SHM technologies has been supported under a variety of programs for both aircraft and spacecraft including the Space Launch Initiative, X-33, Next Generation Launch Technology, and Aviation Safety Program. The major focus of much of the research to date has been on the development and testing of sensor technologies. A wide range of sensor technologies are under consideration including fiber-optic sensors, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, most notably being extremely light weight, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and have received considerable attention.

  16. New sterilization technologies alternative to ethylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, Maryam; Lerouge, Sophie; Debrie, Anne; Yahia, L'Hocine

    1997-06-01

    Sterilization of biomedical devices may induce bulk and surface modification, responsible for the decrease or loss of their biofunctionality. Pure ethylene oxide (EO) at low temperature and new alternative techniques such as cold gas plasma sterilization have been developed for heat-sensitive polymers. There is a lack of the knowledge concerning their safety in terms of materials damage and consequences on the biofunctionality of sterilized devices. The objective of our work consists in studying bulk and surface changes in biomedical devices induced by these two sterilization techniques. Samples from PVC, Polyurethane, Polyacrylate and Polyethylene-based medical devices are subjected to 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles by Steri-Vac-3M (pure EO), Sterrad-100$TM, J&J (gas plasma + H2O2), and studied by X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy. Preliminary results show an increasing in Oxygen/Carbon ratio by a factor of 1.3 to 4.4 between the first and tenth cycle indicating the surface oxidation by gas plasma sterilization processes. Some changes in C-C chemical bounding are associated with EO sterilization.

  17. Life-cycle analysis on energy consumption and GHG emission intensities of alternative vehicle fuels in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We analyzed the life cycle energy intensity and GHG emissions of about 40 pathways of alternative vehicle fuels in China. ► Coal-based liquid fuel has higher life cycle energy intensities and first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower intensity. ► By 2020 electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity and second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero intensities. -- Abstract: Fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities of major alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) in China are calculated and compared with conventional fuels by means of full life-cycle analysis. Currently most of the AVFs have not relatively obvious GHG emission reduction when compared to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF has higher intensities in terms of both the FEC and GHG emissions; (2) electricity from the average Chinese grid has the GHG emission intensity similar to that of gasoline pathway although relatively lower FEC intensity; and (3) first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower GHG emission intensity and substantially lower FEC intensity. It is forecasted that by 2020 when still comparing to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF will still have FEC and GHG emission intensities that are 1.5–1.8 and 1.8–2.5 time those of gasoline pathway, and the application of carbon capture and storage technology can reduce the GHG emission intensity of coal-based AVF; (2) electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity; and (3) second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero FEC and GHG intensities.

  18. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kouzes, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peerani, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Aspinall, M. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Baird, K. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bakel, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Borella, M. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Bourne, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bourva, L. [Canberra Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Cave, F. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Chandra, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Zurich (Sweden); Chernikova, D. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dermody, G. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Dougan, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Ely, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fanchini, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Gavron, Victor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ishiyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Lee, T. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Martin, Ch. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); McKinny, K. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, OH (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Orton, Ch. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Pappalardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Peranteau, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Plenteda, R. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pozzi, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schear, M. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Seya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Siciliano, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, L. [Proportional Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tagziria, H. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Vaccaro, S. [DG Energy (Luxembourg); Takamine, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Weber, A. -L. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yamaguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Zhu, H. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3He-alternative

  19. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3He-alternative technologies.

  20. Coupling Electric Vehicles and Power Grid through Charging-In-Motion and Connected Vehicle Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A traffic-assignment-based framework is proposed to model the coupling of transportation network and power grid for analyzing impacts of energy demand from electric vehicles on the operation of power distribution. Although the reverse can be investigated with the proposed framework as well, electricity flowing from a power grid to electric vehicles is the focus of this paper. Major variables in transportation network (including link flows) and power grid (including electricity transmitted) are introduced for the coupling. Roles of charging-in-motion technology and connected vehicle technology have been identified in the framework of supernetwork. A linkage (i.e. individual energy demand) between the two networks is defined to construct the supernetwork. To determine equilibrium of the supernetwork can also answer how many drivers are going to use the charging-in-motion services, in which locations, and at what time frame. An optimal operation plan of power distribution will be decided along the determination simultaneously by which we have a picture about what level of power demand from the grid is expected in locations during an analyzed period. Caveat of the framework and possible applications have also been discussed.

  1. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  2. Online kiosks: the alternative to mobile technologies for mobile users

    OpenAIRE

    Slack, Frances; Rowley, J.

    2002-01-01

    Online kiosks have the potential to be a significant alternative to mobile technologies in retailing, information provision and service delivery. This article describes the development and use of different types of online kiosk in contexts where users are on the move and away from fixed technologies. A case study of a major UK airport terminal is used to illustrate different types of kiosk applications. Comparisons are made with mobile phone technologies. Online kiosks have a niche in allowin...

  3. Federal Alternative Fuel Program Light Duty Vehicle Operations. Second annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This annual report to Congress details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations as required by Section 400AA(b)(1)(B) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, Public Law 100-494. In 1992, the Federal alternative fuel vehicle fleet expanded significantly, from the 65 M85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) vehicles acquired in 1991 to an anticipated total of 3,267 light duty vehicles. Operating data are being collected from slightly over 20 percent, or 666, of these vehicles. The 601 additional vehicles that were added to the data collection program in 1992 include 75 compressed natural gas Dodge full-size (8-passenger) vans, 25 E85 (85 percent denatured ethanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) Chevrolet Lumina sedans, 250 M85 Dodge Spirit sedans (planned to begin operation in fiscal year 1993), and 251 compressed natural gas Chevrolet C-20 pickup trucks. Figure ES-1 illustrates the locations where the Federal light duty alternative fuel vehicles that are participating in the data collection program are operating. The primary criteria for placement of vehicles will continue to include air quality attainment status and the availability of an alternative fuel infrastructure to support the vehicles. This report details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations, from October 1991 through September 1992.

  4. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  5. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Program (VTP) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/. These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current Fact is available Monday through Friday on the VTP homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2011. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  6. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  7. Systems Engineering and Technology Considerations of a Mars Ascent Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita; Kennett, Andrew; Pauken, Mike; Trinidad, Mark; Zabrensky, Ed

    2012-01-01

    A Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) systems engineering study is underway to define the driving requirements, system architecture, major risks, and required technology developments to support the launch of a rock core sample to a specified delivery orbit for later retrieval and return to Earth. The proposed MAV would essentially be a small-scale launch vehicle, the first of its kind to be launched autonomously from another planet. The MAV would be a flight element of the proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign architecture, which currently assumes a 2018 launch of the sample caching mission and a 2024 (Earth) launch date of the MAV and lander, with arrival on Mars in 2025. After 9 months on the surface the MAV would be erected and launched to a specified delivery orbit. In the delivery orbit it would release its payload, a 5 kg sphere containing the rock core sample. An orbiter would rendezvous and capture the payload, returning it to Earth a year later.

  8. Consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles: Comparing a utility maximization and a regret minimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a utility-based and a regret-based model of consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles, based on a large-scale stated choice-experiment held among company car leasers in The Netherlands. Estimation and application of random utility maximization and random regret minimization discrete choice models shows that while the two models achieve almost identical fit with the data and differ only marginally in terms of predictive ability, they generate rather different choice probability-simulations and policy implications. The most eye-catching difference between the two models is that the random regret minimization model accommodates a compromise-effect, as it assigns relatively high choice probabilities to alternative fuel vehicles that perform reasonably well on each dimension instead of having a strong performance on some dimensions and a poor performance on others. - Highlights: • Utility- and regret-based models of preferences for alternative fuel vehicles. • Estimation based on stated choice-experiment among Dutch company car leasers. • Models generate rather different choice probabilities and policy implications. • Regret-based model accommodates a compromise-effect

  9. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    G. Adinarayana; Ch. Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more...

  10. 2015 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: 258 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by 170 reviewers. A total of 1,095 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  11. 2013 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held May 13-17, 2013, in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 287 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 187 reviewers. A total of 1,382 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  12. 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 295 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 179 reviewers. A total of 1,354 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  13. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  14. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in water are up to 100 ug/1. According to MCL, present technologies are unadjusted for safely arsenic removal for concentrations below of 10 ug/1. This fact has inspired many companies to solve this problem adequately, by using an alternative technologies and new process able materials. In this paper the observation of conventional and the alternative technologies will be given, bearing in mind complex chemistry and electrochemistry of arsenic, formation of colloidal arsenic, which causes the biggest problems in water purification technologies. In this paper many results will be presented, which are obtained using the alternative technologies, as well as the newest results of original author's investigations. Using new nanomaterials, on Pilot plant "VALETA H2O-92", concentration of arsenic was removed far below MLC value.

  15. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program. DOE may issue, under the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program, 10 CFR part 611, subpart C, awards for eligible projects. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  16. Hydrogen storage alternatives - a technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Joakim; Hjortsberg, Ove [Volvo Teknisk Utveckling AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This study reviews state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage alternatives for vehicles. We will also discuss the prospects and estimated cost for industrial production. The study is based on published literature and interviews with active researchers. Among the alternatives commercially available today, we suggest using a moderate-pressure chamber for seasonal stationary energy storage; metal hydride vessels for small stationary units; a roof of high-pressure cylinders for buses, trucks and ferries; cryogenic high-pressure vessels or methanol reformers for cars and tractors; and cryogenic moderate-pressure vessels for aeroplanes. Initial fuel dispensing systems should be designed to offer hydrogen in pressurised form for good fuel economy, but also as cryogenic liquid for occasional needs of extended driving range and as methanol for reformer-equipped vehicles. It is probable that hydrogen can be stored efficiently in adsorbents for use in recyclable hydrogen fuel containers or rechargeable hydrogen vessels operating at ambient temperature and possibly ambient pressure by year 2004, and at reasonable or even low cost by 2010. The most promising alternatives involve various forms of activated graphite nanostructures. Recommendations for further research and standardisation activities are given.

  17. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  18. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  19. Zero-emission vehicle technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T.

    1995-08-01

    This is the final report in the Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Technology Assessment, performed for NYSERDA by Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. Booz-Allen wrote the final report, and performed the following tasks as part of the assessment: assembled a database of key ZEV organizations, their products or services, and plans; described the current state of ZEV technologies; identified barriers to widespread ZEV deployment and projected future ZEV technical capabilities; and estimated the cost of ZEVs from 1998 to 2004. Data for the ZEV Technology Assessment were obtained from several sources, including the following: existing ZEV industry publications and Booz-Allen files; major automotive original equipment manufacturers; independent electric vehicle manufacturers; battery developers and manufacturers; infrastructure and component developers and manufacturers; the U.S. Department of Energy, the California Air Resources Board, and other concerned government agencies; trade associations such as the Electric Power Research Institute and the Electric Transportation Coalition; and public and private consortia. These sources were contacted by phone, mail, or in person. Some site visits of manufacturers also were conducted. Where possible, raw data were analyzed by Booz-Allen staff and/or verified by independent sources. Performance data from standardized test cycles were used as much as possible.

  20. DUPIC technology as an alternative for closing nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of DUPIC technology as an alternative for closing nuclear fuel cycle has been carried out. The goal of this study is to understand the DUPIC technology and its possibility as an alternative technology for closing nuclear fuel cycle. DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In CANDU) is a utilization of PWR spent fuel to reprocess and fabricate become DUPIC fuel as nuclear fuel of Candu reactor. The synergy utilization is based on the fact that fissile materials contained in the PWR spent fuel is about twice as much as that in Candu fuel. Result of the study indicates that DUPIC is an alternative promising technology for closing nuclear fuel cycle. The DUPIC fuel fabrication technology of which the major process is the OREOX dry processing, is better than the conventional reprocessing technology of PUREX. The OREOX dry processing has no capability to separate fissile plutonium, thus give the impact of high nuclear proliferation resistance. When compared to once through cycle, it gives advantages of uranium saving of about 20% and spent fuel accumulation reduction of about 65%. Economic analysis indicates that the levelized cost of DUPIC cycle is cheaper by 0.073 mill$/kwh than that of once through cycle. (author)

  1. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Lease Car Drivers in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2012-04-15

    In this paper we aim to get insight into preferences of Dutch lease car drivers for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and their characteristics. Since AFVs are either not yet available on the market or have only very limited market shares, we have to rely on stated preference research. We perform a state-of-the-art conjoint analysis, based on data obtained through an online choice experiment among Dutch lease car drivers. Results show that under current tax regulations the average lease car driver is indifferent between the conventional technology, flexifuel and the hybrid car, while negative preferences exist for the plug-in hybrid, the electric and the fuel cell car. When current tax regulations would be abolished, strong negative preferences would result for all AFCs, and especially for the electric and fuel cell car. Increases in driving range, reductions in refuelling time, and reductions in additional detour time for reaching an appropriate fuel station, increase AFV preferences substantially. On average the gap between conventional technologies and AFVs remains large, however. We also find that there is considerable heterogeneity in preferences of lease car drivers, and that various market segments and potential early adopters can be identified. In this respect the most interesting finding is that preferences for electric and fuel cell cars decrease substantially, and willingness to pay for driving range increases substantially, when annual mileage increases. Annual mileage also has a substantial impact on sensitivity to monthly costs. We therefore use simulations to assess market shares of electric and fuel cell cars for different annual mileage categories. We find that people with a relatively low annual mileage are more likely to adopt than people with a relatively high annual mileage, regardless of driving range and monthly costs. For the fuel cell car we find similar results, although when driving range is high and cost differences are large, lease car

  2. Integrating Social Network Services with Vehicle Tracking Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed ElShafee; Mahmoud ElMenshawi; Mena Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives design, and implementation of a newly proposed vehicle tracking system, that uses the popular social network as a value added service for traditional tracking system. The proposed tracking system make use of Google maps service to trace the vehicle, each vehicle has an account that contains a posts of Google maps that display the vehicle location on real time mode. A hardware module is inside the vehicle that uses Global Positioning System (GPS) – to detect vehicle location- ...

  3. Analysis and innovation of key technologies for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高富东; 韩艳艳; 王海东; 徐男

    2015-01-01

    As the mission needs of the autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) have become increasingly varied and complex,the AUVs are developing in the direction of systematism, multifunction, and clustering technology, which promotes the progress of key technologies and proposes a series of technical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to make systemic analysis and in-depth study for the progress of AUV’s key technologies and innovative applications. The multi-functional mission needs and its key technologies involved in complex sea conditions are pointed out through analyzing the domestic and foreign technical programs, functional characteristics and future development plans. Furthermore, the overall design of a multi-moving state AUV is proposed. Then, technical innovations of the key technologies, such as thrust vector, propeller design, kinematics and dynamics, navigation control, and ambient flow field characteristics, are made, combining with the structural characteristics and motion characteristics of the new multi-moving state AUV. The results verify the good performance of the multi-moving state AUV and provide a theoretical guidance and technical support for the design of new AUV in real complex sea conditions.

  4. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla

    for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesiswas to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed...... their energy efficiencies were evaluated by use of the process model. For each technology the scale-up enzyme production was simulated at industrial scale based on equal mass transfer. The technical feasibility of each technology was assessed based on prior knowledge of successful implementation at...... industrial scale and mechanical complexity of the fermentation vessel. The airlift reactor was identified as a potential high energy efficiency technology for enzyme production with excellent chances for success. Two different pilot plant configurations of the airlift reactor technology were tested in nine...

  5. 40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... grant. (v) Only if sewer related costs qualify as alternatives to conventional treatment works for small... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act... waste water treatment works. Such technologies may be used in the construction of waste water...

  6. State of the Art and Trends in Vehicle Concept Development with Focus on Battery Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Klötzke, Matthias; Frieske, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center’s (DLR) Institute of Vehicle Concepts (Stuttgart, Germany) is carrying out an in-depth monitoring of key technologies in the field of electric mobility. Besides the state-of-the-art, also international trends in vehicle concept as well as key technology development are part of the analysis. Thus, an extensive vehicle concept database is being designed to investigate all electrified passenger cars and technologies used over the last 10 years. Besides serie...

  7. Sustainable Mobility: Using a Global Energy Model to Inform Vehicle Technology Choices in a Decarbonized Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Wallington; Margaret Whalen; Erica Klampfl; Maria Grahn

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of CO 2 emissions associated with vehicle use is an important element of a global transition to sustainable mobility and is a major long-term challenge for society. Vehicle and fuel technologies are part of a global energy system, and assessing the impact of the availability of clean energy technologies and advanced vehicle technologies on sustainable mobility is a complex task. The global energy transition (GET) model accounts for interactions between the different energy secto...

  8. Energy management in vehicles with alternative drives; Energiemanagement in Fahrzeugen mit alternativen Antrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, S.; Schimanski, M.

    2007-11-21

    Within the next few years, the automotive industry will be confronted with many challenges, as for example stricter emission standards and increasing oil prices. To meet the challenges, alternative drive concepts are currently being developed and placed in the market. To ensure a secure and efficient operation of the electric components, the introduction of an integrated energy management is required. It comprises all planning, controlling and predictive measures. The first part of this dissertation presents a new system concept, which can make an online prognosis of expected driving situations, such as speed and altitude profiles by means of internal vehicle information during an operating cycle. Based on this the control strategy can calculate the future power requirement of the vehicle and initiate control commands to enable a more efficient driving. The basis of this system concept is the recognition of routes with characteristic steering angle information and the creation of a history database for the routes driven with the respective vehicle speeds and altitudes. On the basis of an extensive analysis of the vehicle's electrical system in the second part of the dissertation, different effects on the development process for dimensioning the electrical system power supply are discussed. From this follows the necessity to develop a tool chain based on simulations. The tool chain consists of commercial simulation tools and the software Avanti (Advanced Analysis Tool and Simulation Interface) which is developed within the scope of the dissertation. Avanti enables an automated and optimal procedure when dimensioning the vehicle's electrical system in consideration of different control algorithms. A substantial part of this tool chain is the integration of a verified VHDL-AMS model library for the electrical system components. (orig.)

  9. Two-wheeled motor vehicle technology in India: Evolution, prospects and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By providing affordable mobility to millions of people, two-wheeled motor (M2W) vehicles play a vital role in urban transport in India and other low-income Asian countries. At the same time, these vehicles contribute significantly to urban transport impacts and energy consumption, and are characterized by high emissions and traffic mortalities per passenger-kilometre. Given the importance of technology in the popularity of these vehicles and their transport impacts, this paper discusses the evolution of M2W vehicle technology in India, and contributory factors including market forces, environmental regulation, and industry R and D efforts. It then discusses technologies that we expect to be implemented for M2W vehicles in India over the next two or three decades, the likely implications of these technologies in terms of vehicle price, emissions, fuel economy and service life, and issues related to vehicle technology development and implementation. The paper shows that while the Indian M2W vehicle industry has achieved a transformation in innovation, product development and quality in response to market demands and environmental concerns, various technological and institutional challenges need to be addressed by this and the oil and vehicle servicing industries, and government agencies at all levels, to successfully deploy advanced vehicle technologies

  10. Workshop on power conditioning for alternative energy technologies. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    As various alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaics, wind, fuel cells, and batteries are emerging as potential sources of energy for the future, the need arises for development of suitable power-conditioning systems to interface these sources to their respective loads. Since most of these sources produce dc electricity and most electrical loads require ac, an important component of the required power-conditioning units is a dc-to-ac inverter. The discussions deal with the development of power conditioners for each alternative energy technology. Discussion topics include assessments of current technology, identification of operational requirements with a comparison of requirements for each source technology, the identification of future technology trends, the determination of mass production and marketing requirements, and recommendations for program direction. Specifically, one working group dealt with source technology: photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries, and wind followed by sessions discussing system size and application: large grid-connected systems, small grid-connected systems, and stand alone and dc applications. A combined group session provided an opportunity to discuss problems common to power conditioning development.

  11. A Transactions Choice Model for Forecasting Demand for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Brownstone, David; Bunch, David S.; Golob, Thomas F.; Ren, Weiping

    1996-01-01

    The vehicle choice model developed here is one component in a micro-simulation demand forecasting system being designed to produce annual forecasts of new and used vehicle demand by vehicle type and geographic area in California. The system will also forecast annual vehicle miles traveled for all vehicles and recharging demand by time of day for electric vehicles. The choice model specification differs from past studies by directly modeling vehicle transactions rather than vehicle holdings. T...

  12. Real Time Vehicle Tracking System using GSM and GPS Technology- An Anti-theft Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Kunal Maurya; Mandeep Singh; Neelu Jain

    2012-01-01

    A vehicle tracking system is an electronic device installed in a vehicle to enable the owner or a third party to track the vehicle's location. This paper proposed to design a vehicle tracking system that works using GPS and GSM technology, which would be the cheapest source of vehicle tracking and it would work as anti-theft system. It is an embedded system which is used for tracking and positioning of any vehicle by using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global system for mobile communica...

  13. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies - Task 1 Report Technology Evaluation of Hydrogen Light Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Rousseau, Aymeric

    2007-12-01

    This task analyzes the candidate hydrogen-fueled vehicles for near-term use in the Southeastern U.S. The purpose of this work is to assess their potential in terms of efficiency and performance. This report compares conventional, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with gasoline and hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) as well as fuel cell and fuel cell hybrids from a technology as well as fuel economy point of view. All the vehicles have been simulated using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). First, some background information is provided on recent American automotive market trends and consequences. Moreover, available options are presented for introducing cleaner and more economical vehicles in the market in the future. In this study, analysis of various candidate hydrogen-fueled vehicles is performed using PSAT and, thus, a brief description of PSAT features and capabilities are provided. Detailed information on the simulation analysis performed is also offered, including methodology assumptions, fuel economic results, and conclusions from the findings.

  14. Transition to hydrogen-based transportation in China: Lessons learned from alternative fuel vehicle programs in the United States and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the experience of existing alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) programs in the US and China to provide insights into appropriate strategies for developing hydrogen vehicles and infrastructure in China. Although an increasing number of AFVs have been deployed in recent years, various factors have limited this progress, such as large sunk investments in conventional technologies, limited networks of refueling stations, the typically higher cost of AFVs, and the relatively low price of oil. Given these barriers, and additional barriers specific to hydrogen, a transition to hydrogen will be a slow process, and must be supported by both near- and long-term policies that have clear and measurable goals that take hydrogen beyond fleet applications into broader vehicle markets. Because a transition to hydrogen vehicles will not occur quickly, it is necessary for the government to have consistent and integrated transportation policies combining short- and long-term goals. These policies should draw upon resources from both governments and multinational companies to provide incentives for vehicle purchases, promote investment in infrastructure, and disseminate information to raise public awareness. Multinationals may find China to be an ideal testing ground for innovative hydrogen vehicles with appropriate incentive policies and programs

  15. Technology, risks and insurance of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion of conversion scenarios from nuclear energy to alternative energy sources has taken up a central position in the field of electrical and environmental policy. The possibilities of using solar energy and its conversion forms of hydroelectric power, wind energy, biomass, environmental heat and solar hydrogen (as a secondary energy carrier) are presented, using typical pilot projects. The analysis of the technological status, the main centres of development interest and the operating and damage experience demonstrates the risks involved in these energy technologies. The investigation of the technical and economic development potential leads to an assessment of the position of the alternative energy sources in the electricity supply market. This leads to a survey of their importance in the future insurance market. (orig.)

  16. Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackin, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    The Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT) was established to advance the state of the art in knowledge and education on critical technologies that support a renewable energy future. Our research and education efforts have focused on alternative energy systems, energy storage systems, and research on battery and hybrid energy storage systems.This report details the Center's progress in the following specific areas: Development of a battery laboratory; Development of a demonstration system for compressed air energy storage; Development of electric propulsion test systems; Battery storage systems; Thermal management of battery packs; and Construction of a micro-grid to support real-world performance monitoring of a renewable energy system.

  17. Intelligent Transportation Technology Elements and Operational Methodologies for Shared-Use Vehicle Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2004-01-01

    There has been significant interest and activity in shared-use vehicle systems as an innovative mobility solution. Shared-use vehicle systems, that is, carsharing and station cars, consist of a fleet of vehicles used by several different individuals throughout the day. Shared-use vehicles offer the convenience of a private automobile and more flexibility than public transportation alone. From the 1990s to today, varying degrees of intelligent transportation system technologies have been appli...

  18. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in wat...

  19. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Power Distribution System Considering Vehicle to Grid Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aljanad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comprehensive review of the potential technical impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power distribution and transmission systems. This review also presents various power quality impacts on the power system in several aspects. This review conveys a detailed analysis of electric vehicle charging strategies on electrical distribution networks. The two charging aspects (coordinated/uncoordinated and intelligent scheduling of charging are discussed in terms of their impacts on power systems. Vehicle to grid technology are investigated, elaborated and evaluated based on technical, suitability and configuration aspects.

  20. Technology and future prospects for lightweight plastic vehicle structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Cuenca, R.M.; Bonsignore, P.V.

    1997-08-01

    The state of the technology and the materials and processing issues of using plastics in vehicle body applications (structural and semistructural) were assessed. Plastics are significantly lighter in weight, more easily fabricated into complex shapes, and more corrosion resistance than sheet steel, high-strength steel, or aluminum. However, at their current stage of development, plastics are deficient in one or more necessary properties: heat resistance and dimensional stability, stiffness and tensile strength, toughness, and impact resistance. To upgrade their physical properties for automotive chassis/body applications, plastics need to be compounds with suitable reinforcing fibers. As a short-term approach, the material of choice is a composite structure made with low-cost glass-fiber reinforcement, such as that made in the resin-transfer-molding (RTM) process and used in the body of the Dodge Viper. However, RTM technology based on thermosets requires a processing cycle time that is too long for large production runs. Adaptation of RTM to the formation of thermoplastic composite bodies could have a significant advantage over thermoset technology. Cyclic oligomers, which are precursors to thermoplastic matrix polymers, show promise for this application. Farther on the horizon are advanced composites compounds with the much more expensive (but stronger and stiffer) carbon-fiber reinforcement. However, significant price reductions of precursor materials and advances in processing and fabrication would be needed. Other materials holding promise are liquid crystal polymers (LCP) and LCP blends with other polymers (molecular composites). However, the cost of monomers and the subsequent polymerization technology also remains a considerable drawback to the widespread and increasing acceptance of LCPs.

  1. A Transaction Choice Model for Forecasting Demand for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Brownstone, David; Bunch, David S.; Golob, Thomas F.; Ren, Weiping

    1996-01-01

    The vehicle choice model developed here is one component in a mlcro-slmulatlon demand forecasting system being designed to produce annual forecasts of new and used vehicle demand by vehicle type and geographic area in Cahforma. The system will also forecast annual vehicle miles traveled for all vehicles and recharging demand by ume of day for electric vehicles. The choice model specification differs from past studies by directly modehng vehicle transactions rather than vehlcle holdings. The m...

  2. Modeling and simulation of electric vehicles - The effect of different Li-ion battery technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hülsebusch, Dirk; Schwunk, Simon; Caron, Simon; Propfe, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Limited range is one of the main drawbacks of battery electric vehicles. Especially at low temperatures the range is reduced due to low battery capacity and power as well as additional energy demand for auxiliaries. In order to compare different battery technologies regarding their in-vehicle performance, a model based approach is chosen. Several battery technologies are modeled and implemented into a simulation environment for vehicle systems. In addition, varying test cases are defined to a...

  3. The Allure of Technology: How France and California Promoted Electric Vehicles to Reduce Urban Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calef, David; Goble, Robert

    2005-01-01

    All advanced industrialized societies face the problem of air pollution produced by motor vehicles. In spite of striking improvements in internal combustion engine technology, air pollution in most urban areas is still measured at levels determined to be harmful to human health. Throughout the 1990s and beyond, California and France both chose to improve air quality by means of technological innovation, adopting legislation that promoted clean vehicles, prominently among them, electric vehicl...

  4. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations. PMID:26867100

  5. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO2 emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC's and their alternatives, with adequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO2 emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America. This study should be considered an overview of key issues. The analysis addressed CFCs as well as alternative chemicals and technology alternatives in uses such as refrigeration, foam insulation, and metal and electronic cleaning and drying processes

  6. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Yu Liu; Chun-Cheng Lin; Ching-Ren Chiu; You-Song Tsao; Qunwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP). This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, a...

  7. Integrating Social Network Services with Vehicle Tracking Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed ElShafee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives design, and implementation of a newly proposed vehicle tracking system, that uses the popular social network as a value added service for traditional tracking system. The proposed tracking system make use of Google maps service to trace the vehicle, each vehicle has an account that contains a posts of Google maps that display the vehicle location on real time mode. A hardware module is inside the vehicle that uses Global Positioning System (GPS – to detect vehicle location- and Global system for mobile communication (GSM – to update vehicle location in vehicle account on social network -. System uses the well-known Arduino microcontroller to control GSM-GPS Modem. The proposed system can be used for a broad range of applications such as traffic management and vehicle tracking/ anti theift system, and finally traffic routing and navigation. it can be applied in many business cases, like public transportation, so passengers can track their buses, trains, by following the vehicle account on social network. It also can be used in private business sector as an easy and simple fleet tracking and management system , or can be used by anyone who wants to track his car, or to find his way in case he get lost.

  8. Solar energised transport solution and customer preferences and opinions about alternative fuel Vehicles – the case of slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž KNEZ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Authorities in Slovenia and other EU member states are confronted with problems of city transportation. Fossil-fuel based transport poses two chief problems – local and global pollution, and dwindling supplies and ever increasing costs. An elegant solution is to gradually replace the present automobile fleet with low emission vehicles. This article first explores the economics and practical viability of the provision of solar electricity for the charging of electric vehicles by installation of economical available PV modules and secondly the customer preferences and opinions about alternative low emission vehicles. Present estimates indicate that for the prevailing solar climate of Celje – a medium-sized Slovenian town – the cost would be only 2.11€ cents/kWh of generated solar electricity. Other results have also revealed that the most relevant factor for purchasing low emission vehicle is total vehicle price.

  9. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  10. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. The model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed natural gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives. -- Highlights: •We present a parametric analysis of factors U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. •Conventional diesels will be more than 70% of U.S. heavy-duty vehicles through 2050. •CNG trucks are well suited to large, urban fleets with private refueling. •Ultra-efficient long haul diesel trucks are preferred over LNG at current fuel prices

  11. Using Natural Gas for Vehicles: Comparing Three Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas could be used as a transportation fuel, especially with the recent expansion of U.S. resource and production. This could mean burning natural gas in an internal combustion engine like most of the vehicles on the road today. Or, with the advanced vehicles now becoming available, other pathways are possible to use natural gas for personal vehicles. This fact sheet summarizes a comparison of efficiency and environmental metrics for three possible options.

  12. Automatic Vehicle Speed Reduction System Using Rf Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa B Chavan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For vehicle safety and safety for passengers in vehicle is an important parameter. Most of the vehicles get accident because no proper safety measures are taken especially at curves and hair pin bends humps and any obstacles in front of the vehicle. This system can be used for the prevention of such a problem by indicating a pre indication and also reducing the speed of vehicles by reducing the fuel rate of vehicle. As the action is in terms of fuel rate so the vehicle automatically goes to control and avoids the accidents. At curves and hair pin bends the line of sight is not possible for the drivers so the special kind of transmitter which is tuned at a frequency of 433MHZ are mounted as these transmitters continuously radiate a RF signal for some particular area. As the vehicle come within this radiation the receiver in the vehicle gets activate. The transmitter used here is a coded transmitter which is encoded with encoder. The encoder provides a 4 bit binary data which is serially transmitted to transmitter. The transmitter used here is ASK type (amplitude shift keying which emits the RF radiation.

  13. Heat pump technology in electric powered vehicles; Waermepumpentechnik in Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerth, Leonhard; Spinnler, Markus; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik

    2011-07-01

    Modern passenger cars use waste heat of the engine and electric systems to heat the passenger compartment. In future electric-powered vehicles, the problem of range will make it necessary to develop new technologies. For example, the refrigerating circuit of the vehicle can used to ensure thermal comfort via a heat exchanger. Further, the battery must be conditioned via the cooling circuit for two reasons: First, the performance of the energy store decreases in cold conditions; secondly, service life will be shorter at very high temperatures. The waste heat of the electric motor can also be used for heating purposes. The architecture of the refrigerating circuit was modified accordingly. The result is a refrigerating circuit with different operating modes and with different heat sources and heat sinks that may have different temperature levels. The functions of the R134a/R1234yf refrigerator were simulated in 1D. The results show the different potentials for different heat sources and for different modes of operation in summer and winter. Selected operating modes are presented for two different heat sources and are evaluated for different power demands. [German] Derzeitige Personenkraftfahrzeuge bedienen sich der Motorabwaerme und elektrischen Zuheizern, um die Fahrzeugkabine zu beheizen. In zukuenftigen Elektrofahrzeugen hingegen muss aufgrund der Reichweitenproblematik auf andere Techniken zugegriffen werden. Die Nutzung des Kaeltekreises im Fahrzeug als Waermepumpe ist hierzu eine Loesung, effizienter den thermischen Komfort zu gestalten. Zusaetzlich wird es notwendig sein, die Batterie mittels Kaeltekreis zu konditionieren, da zum einen bei kalten Bedingungen die Leistungsfaehigkeit des Energiespeichers eingeschraenkt ist und zum anderen die Lebensdauer bei sehr hohen Temperaturen stark sinkt. Ueberdies ist es sinnvoll, die Abwaerme der E-Maschine zur Beheizung des Innenraums zu nutzen. Um den oben genannten Anforderungen zu genuegen, ist die Architektur des

  14. Assessment of the influence on vehicle emissions of driving style, vehicle technology and traffic measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgwal, H.C. van de; Gense, N.L.J.; Mierlo, J. van; Maggetto, G.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of traffic measures and driving style on different vehicle emissions and on primary energy consumption, and the definition of vehicle parameters influencing the relation between them, is an interesting issue to be assessed in order to allow more realistic estimations of the impact of t

  15. Variety of technological trajectories in low emission vehicles (LEVs): a patent data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Oltra, Vanessa; Saint-Jean, Maïder

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the diversity of engine technologies for Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs) that are developed by car manufacturers in order to substitute for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicle. Our purpose is to analyse the competition between the various technologies for LEVs as well as the innovative strategy of car manufacturers. We first propose to define and to represent these technological trajectories in order to compare their performances and to identify their streng...

  16. A Methodology to Estimate Capacity Impact due to Connected Vehicle Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Haizhong Wang; Steven Andrews; Jia Li; Daiheng Ni

    2012-01-01

    Recent development in connected vehicle technology or equivalently vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) has stimulated tremendous interests among decision makers, practitioners, and researchers due to the potential safety and mobility benefits provided by these technologies. A primary concern regarding the deployment of connected vehicle technology is the degree of market penetration required for effectiveness. This paper proposes a methodology to analyze the benefit of highway capacity gained f...

  17. Real Time Vehicle Tracking System using GSM and GPS Technology- An Anti-theft Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Maurya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle tracking system is an electronic device installed in a vehicle to enable the owner or a third party to track the vehicle's location. This paper proposed to design a vehicle tracking system that works using GPS and GSM technology, which would be the cheapest source of vehicle tracking and it would work as anti-theft system. It is an embedded system which is used for tracking and positioning of any vehicle by using Global Positioning System (GPS and Global system for mobile communication (GSM. This design will continuously monitor a moving Vehicle and report the status of the Vehicle on demand. For doing so an AT89C51 microcontroller is interfaced serially to a GSM Modem and GPS Receiver. A GSM modem is used to send the position (Latitude and Longitude of the vehicle from a remote place. The GPS modem will continuously give the data i.e. the latitude and longitude indicating the position of the vehicle. The same data is sent to the mobile at the other end from where the position of the vehicle is demanded. When the request by user is sent to the number at the GSM modem, the system automatically sends a return reply to that mobile indicating the position of the vehicle in terms of latitude and longitude in real time.

  18. Technology Development on Alternate Source Term Analysis and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Source term presented in TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4 has been used to estimate radiation dose from design basis accidents. However, a more realistic and physically-based source term, alternate source term, has been developed and presented in NUREG-1465 and Regulatory Guide 1.183. In addition, the concept and criteria of radiological dose estimation has been changed through the serial publications of ICRP-9, 26, and 60. In ICRP-60, ICRP introduced effective dose concept in stead of dose concept based on critical organ and whole body since the publication of ICRP-9. Korean regulatory authority is planning to issue the new regulation to adopt the alternate source term and the effective dose concept to radiation dose analysis for design basis accidents. As a measure for the issuance of the new regulation, the application methodology of alternate source term and effective dose for design basis accidents was established and merged to the computer program called DBADOSE. This program was verified in accordance with the verification procedure. The result of calculation by DBADOSE showed small difference of less than 5% in comparison with the result of STARDOSE which was developed by Polestar Applied Technology, Inc. Kori Units 3,4 was selected as a pilot plant to apply the alternate source term and the effective dose. The margins to licensing criteria were reanalyzed for design basis accidents. As a result of this application, it was assured that current design of Kori Units 3,4 has enough margins and design simplification were proposed. (authors)

  19. 40 CFR Appendix Xvii to Part 86 - Procedure for Determining Vehicle Emission Control Technology Category/Fuel Reactivity Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Control Technology Category/Fuel Reactivity Adjustment Factors for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light... Part 86—Procedure for Determining Vehicle Emission Control Technology Category/Fuel Reactivity... certifying a vehicle of specific emission control technology category and fuel for the National LEV...

  20. A Microscopic Simulation Modelling of Vehicle Monitoring Using Kinematic Data Based on GPS and ITS Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Wang; Ruey Long Cheu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an en-route anti-terrorism security system for commercial vehicle operations (CVO) using kinematic data based on Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technologies. The real-time information of the coordinate position and speed of the concerned vehicle as well as the speed of and the gap to the vehicle ahead was taken into account during the terrorism detection. Two typical cases studies, i.e. container trucks running through a freew...

  1. Design Concept for a Minimal Volume Spacecraft Cabin to Serve as a Mars Ascent Vehicle Cabin and Other Alternative Pressurized Vehicle Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The Evolvable Mars Campaign is developing concepts for human missions to the surface of Mars. These missions are round-trip expeditions, thereby requiring crew launch via a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). A study to identify the smallest possible pressurized cabin for this mission has developed a conceptual vehicle referred to as the minimal MAV cabin. The origin of this concept will be discussed as well as its initial concept definition. This will lead to a description of possible configurations to integrate the minimal MAV cabin with ascent vehicle engines and propellant tanks. Limitations of this concept will be discussed, in particular those that argue against the use of the minimal MAV cabin to perform the MAV mission. However, several potential alternative uses for the cabin are identified. Finally, recommended forward work will be discussed, including current work in progress to develop a full scale mockup and conduct usability evaluations.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric

  3. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, S.; Due-Hansen, J.; Putluru, S.S.R.; Kunov-Kruse, A.; Fehrmann, R.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-04-15

    The aim of the project is to identify, make and test possible alkali resistant deNO{sub x} catalysts for use in biomass, waste or fossil fuelled power plants, where the flue gas typically has a high level of potassium compounds, which rapidly de-activate the traditional V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst. Furthermore, new technologies are investigated based on a protective coating of the catalyst elements and selective reversible absorption of NO{sub x} with ionic liquids. Several promising alternative deNO{sub x} catalyst types have been made during the project: 1) V, Fe, CU based nano-TiO{sub 2} and nano-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} catalysts; 2) V/ZrO{sub 2}-SO{sub 2}- and V/ZrO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} catalysts; V, Fe, Cu based Zeolite catalysts; 4) V, Fe, Cu based Heteropoly acid catalysts. Several of these are promising alternatives to the state-of the art industrial reference catalyst. All catalysts prepared in the present project exhibit higher to much higher alkali resistance compared to the commercial reference. Furthermore, two catalysts, i.e. 20 wt% V{sub 2}O-3-TiO{sub 2} nano-catalyst and the 4 wt% CuO-Mordenite zeolite based catalyst have also a higher initial SCR activity compared to the commercial one before alkali poisoning. Thus, those two catalysts might be attractive for SCR deNO{sub x} purposes even under ''normal'' fuel conditions in power plants and elsewhere making them strong candidates for further development. These efforts regarding all the promising catalysts will be pursued after this project has expired through a one year Proof of Concept project granted by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation. Also the severe rate of deactivation due to alkali poisons can be avoided by coating the vanadium catalyst with Mg. Overall, the protective coating of SCR catalysts developed in the project seems promising and a patent application has been filed for this technology. Finally, a completely different approach to

  4. Design of an Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for an Integrated Starter-Alternator System Used on an Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    FILIP Andrei-Toader; HANGIU Radu-Petru; MARŢIŞ Claudia; BIRO Karoly-Agoston

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, to reduce fuel consumption, weuse more often vehicles with hybrid propulsion usingfor traction an electric motor and the regularcombustion engine. There are three types of hybridvehicles: serial, parallel and mixed propulsion.Hybrid vehicles use Integrated Starter Alternator(ISA) system instead of usual starter and alternator.This article points out the advantages of using anIntegrated Starter Alternator System in comparisonwith the classical starter and alternator. This systemsaves...

  5. Information technology of detection viewpoint of camera of unmanned aerial vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Нічіков, Є. П.; Національний авіаційний університет; Чирков, А. В.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2016-01-01

    An information technology of detection viewpoint of camera of unmanned aerial vehicle developed.Software architecture allows receive input data for the implementation of the proposed methods bothfrom local sources (ie local video files and logs of telemetry) and from the cameras and unmannedaerial vehicle sensors or from simulator

  6. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  7. Electric car batteries: Avoiding the environmental drawbacks via alternative technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlimont, Hans; Olper, Marco

    1996-07-01

    In this article, we address the question of whether air pollution resulting from the pyrometallurgical winning, recycling, and casting of lead for car batteries is a serious threat to the environmental acceptability of introducing electric cars. Specifically, we describe an alternative to pyrometallurgical processes—an electrochemical process called CX-EWS that can be used for the winning and recycling of lead. Also presented is a new manufacturing route for battery grids; it employs a combination of electroforming, the codeposition of dispersoids, and the electrowinning of spent batteries. The technology cannot only eliminate the casting of conventional or expanded metal grids but can also serve to reduce battery weight and, thus, increase energy density.

  8. A Storable, Hybrid Mars Ascent Vehicle Technology Demonstrator for the 2020 Launch Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, A. A.; Karabeyoglu, M. A.; Cantwell, B. J.; Reeve, R.; Goldstein, B. G.; Hubbard, G. S.

    2012-06-01

    A Phoenix sized mission including a reduced payload, two-stage, hybrid Mars Ascent Vehicle technology demonstrator is proposed for the 2020 opportunity. The hybrid MAV is storable on Mars and would retire risk for a Mars Sample Return campaign.

  9. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaek, M.O.

    2012-03-15

    Enzymes are used in an increasing number of industries. The application of enzymes is extending into the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in processes that economically can compete with fossil fuels. Since lignocellulosic ethanol is based on renewable resources it will have a positive impact on for example the emission of green house gasses. Cellulases and hemi-cellulases are used for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass, and fermentable sugars are released upon the enzymatic process. Even though many years of research has decreased the amount of enzyme needed in the process, the cost of enzymes is still considered a bottleneck in the economic feasibility of lignocellulose utilization. The purpose of this project was to investigate and compare different technologies for production of these enzymes. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is currently used for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesis was to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed-batch fermentation. The process was carried out in pilot scale stirred tank reactors and based on a range of different process conditions, a process model was constructed which satisfactory described the course of fermentation. The process was governed by the rate limiting mass transfer of oxygen from the gas to the liquid phase. During fermentation, filamentous growth of the fungus lead to increased viscosity which hindered mass transfer. These mechanisms were described by a viscosity model based on the biomass concentration of the fermentation broth and a mass transfer correlation that incorporated a viscosity term. An analysis of the uncertainty and sensitivity of the model indicated the biological parameters to be responsible for most of the model uncertainty. A number of alternative

  10. Diffusion of new automotive technologies for improving energy efficiency in Brazil's light vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, Brazil has promoted the development and sales of light duty vehicles running on ethanol (firstly, ethanol-dedicated cars, and recently flexfuel cars). In the 1990s, the country also favored the sales of compact cars to middle and low-income classes. However, in the last years, the profile of vehicles sold in Brazil has converged towards larger and less-efficient vehicles. In 2008, Brazil launched the vehicle labeling program. Based on the outcomes of the historical programs oriented towards the development of automotive innovations, and on a survey conducted with the country's main auto makers, this article evaluates whether the vehicle labeling program will both improve the energy efficiency of light vehicles, and introduce new technologies. Our results indicate that, despite its virtuous intentions, the program will not control the tendency of rising fuel consumption of passenger cars sold in Brazil. Therefore, other policies are needed to boost innovations in Brazil's automotive industry.

  11. Diffusion of new automotive technologies for improving energy efficiency in Brazil's light vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, Brazil has promoted the development and sales of light duty vehicles running on ethanol (firstly, ethanol-dedicated cars, and recently flexfuel cars). In the 1990s, the country also favored the sales of compact cars to middle and low-income classes. However, in the last years, the profile of vehicles sold in Brazil has converged towards larger and less-efficient vehicles. In 2008, Brazil launched the vehicle labeling program. Based on the outcomes of the historical programs oriented towards the development of automotive innovations, and on a survey conducted with the country's main auto makers, this article evaluates whether the vehicle labeling program will both improve the energy efficiency of light vehicles, and introduce new technologies. Our results indicate that, despite its virtuous intentions, the program will not control the tendency of rising fuel consumption of passenger cars sold in Brazil. Therefore, other policies are needed to boost innovations in Brazil's automotive industry. (author)

  12. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  13. The 'neighbor effect'. Simulating dynamics in consumer preferences for new vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding consumer behaviour is essential in designing policies that efficiently increase the uptake of clean technologies over the long-run. Expert opinion or qualitative market analyses have tended to be the sources of this information. However, greater scrutiny on governments increasingly demands the use of reliable and credible evidence to support policy decisions. While discrete choice research and modeling techniques have been applied to estimate consumer preferences for technologies, these methods often assume static preferences. This study builds on the application of discrete choice research and modeling to capture dynamics in consumer preferences. We estimate Canadians' preferences for new vehicle technologies under different market assumptions, using responses from two national surveys focused on hybrid gas-electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The results support the relevance of a range of vehicle attributes beyond the purchase price in shaping consumer preferences towards clean vehicle technologies. They also corroborate our hypothesis that the degree of market penetration of clean vehicle technologies is an influence on people's preferences ('the neighbor effect'). Finally, our results provide behavioural parameters for the energy-economy model CIMS, which we use here to show the importance of including consumer preference dynamics when setting policies to encourage the uptake of clean technologies. (author)

  14. Hybrid electric vehicle technology assessment : methodology, analytical issues, and interim results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.; Anderson, J.; Wang, M.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.

    2002-03-13

    This report presents the results of the first phase of Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) examination of the costs and energy impacts of light-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We call this research an HEV Technology Assessment, or HEVTA. HEVs are vehicles with drivetrains that combine electric drive components (electric motor, electricity storage) with a refuelable power plant (e.g., an internal combustion engine). The use of hybrid drivetrains is widely considered a key technology strategy in improving automotive fuel efficiency. Two hybrid vehicles--Toyota's Prius and Honda's Insight--have been introduced into the U.S. market, and all three auto industry participants in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) have selected hybrid drivetrains for their prototype vehicles.

  15. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M.; Bremson, J.; Solo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

  16. The Alternative Investment Market and the Financing of Technological Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Visconti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Alternative Investment Market (AIM is characterized by the presence of numerous firms operating in sectors with a high rate of technological innovation. In this research we will deal with IPOs about companies active in the sector of Information Technology and Software & Computer Services. The purpose of the research is testing the market’s ability to attract the listing of new companies in these sectors and to examine the following questions: 1 Have the IPOs about economic sectors examined a concentration in specific periods? 2 Have firms’ average size, the average capital raised on the market and the share of capital on average placed with the initial offer, at the time of listing, changed during the analysed periods? We consider three periods. The first, from the birth of the market (1995 until the speculative bubble (2001, which follows the so-called dot.com boom. The second, from 2002 to 2007, beginning of the severe economic and financial crisis, and the third from 2008 until June 2013.

  17. Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology With In-Flight Adaptive-Wing Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Martin R. (Technical Monitor); Shkarayev, Sergey; Null, William; Wagner, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This is a final report on the research studies, "Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology with In-Flight Adaptrive-Wing Structure". This project involved the development of variable-camber technology to achieve efficient design of micro air vehicles. Specifically, it focused on the following topics: 1) Low Reynolds number wind tunnel testing of cambered-plate wings. 2) Theoretical performance analysis of micro air vehicles. 3) Design of a variable-camber MAV actuated by micro servos. 4) Test flights of a variable-camber MAV.

  18. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  19. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jiwoon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Naeson 2-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 437-713 (Korea); Jeong, Gicheol [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-402, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-744 (Korea); Kim, Yeonbae [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-318, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, South Seoul, 151-744 (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  20. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  1. Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

  2. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – Cumulative; Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  3. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-07-31

    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36`` diameter x 6` high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20` diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling

  4. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36'' diameter x 6' high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20' diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling

  5. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  6. Evaluation of battery cost competitiveness of alternative transportation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The battery cost and the competitiveness of PHEV with ICEV and HEV are evaluated for setting R and D goals for battery development. The comparison was made on the sum of vehicle purchase cost and fuel/electricity cost for a 10-year vehicle life. One example on Prius-class vehicles shows that, for the PHEV to become comparable with ICEVs and HEVs, it is necessary to reduce the cost of lithium-ion batteries from the present cost (200 K Yen/KWh) by a factor of about 7 ( to 30 KYen/KWh). This information was obtained from a report, ''Recommendations for the Future of Next-Generation Vehicle Batteries,'' by the Study Group on Next-Generation Vehicle Batteries, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan, August 2006

  7. 7th Conference Simulation and Testing for Vehicle Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Riese, Jens; Rüden, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The book includes contributions on the latest model-based methods for the development of personal and commercial vehicle control devices. The main topics treated are: application of simulation and model design to development of driver assistance systems; physical and database model design for engines, motors, powertrain, undercarriage and the whole vehicle; new simulation tools, methods and optimization processes; applications of simulation in function and software development; function and software testing using HiL, MiL and SiL simulation; application of simulation and optimization in application of control devices; automation approaches at all stages of the development process.

  8. Opportunities of the new technological model of light vehicle fuels in South America; Oportunidades futuras no novo modelo tecnologico de combustiveis para veiculos leves na America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Jose Diamantino de A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chaves, Hernani Aquini F.; Jones, Cleveland Maximino [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia (DEPA)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to show which solutions the South American market is putting forth for the new technological model of the automotive fuel for light duty vehicles. A strong and irreversible trend is underway, which is seeking more environmentally friendly and economically attractive alternatives for the conventional automotive technology, based on the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel. This trend is evident not only in Latin America, but also in many other countries and regions, and has resulted in a great number of vehicle conversions, so as to operate with vehicular natural gas. Another important way in which this trend has expressed itself is the commercial acceptance and success of the tetra fuel technology vehicles. (author)

  9. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  10. Testing Low-Energy, High-Power Energy Storage Alternatives in a Full-Hybrid Vehicle (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, J.; Gonger, J.

    2014-01-01

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle gasoline use. However, the battery cost in HEVs contribute to higher incremental cost of HEVs (a few thousand dollars) than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. Significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost vs. benefit relationship for HEVs. Such an improvement could lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate gasoline savings. After significant analysis by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage program suggested a new set of requirements for ESS for power-assist HEVs for cost reduction without impacting performance and fuel economy significantly. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This poster will describe development of the LEESS HEV test platform, and LEESS laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results. The first LEESS technology tested was lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) - i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). We will discuss the performance and fuel saving results with LIC with comparison with original NiMH battery.

  11. Why has the introduction of natural gas vehicles failed in Germany?—Lessons on the role of market failure in markets for alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite private investments exceeding two billion Euros and tax incentives of more than 500 million Euros, the market share of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in Germany has lagged far behind expectations and behind market developments in other countries. With total cost of ownership being on average lower for NGVs than for gasoline and diesel vehicles this raises the question of the existence of market failure in the German NGV-market. We use a case study approach where we combine quantitative data with insights from a multi-industry expert panel and in-depth interviews with experts from industry, government and civil society in order to examine whether and how different types of market failure contribute to the status quo in the German market for NGVs. We conclude that coordination failure in complementary markets, an artificially created monopoly of service stations at motorways, imperfect information, bounded consumer rationality, and principle-agent-problems are the most prominent market failures inhibiting the development of a functioning market for NGVs. Our results are instructive for the design of effective public policies and investor strategies aiming to create markets for alternative fuel vehicles. - Highlights: • We analyze market failure in the German market for natural gas vehicles. • Coordination failure is the most important reason for market failure to arise. • Minor factors: regulatory deficits, imperfect information, bounded rationality. • Policies encompass stabilizing expectations and supporting actor coordination. • Our results are instructive for policies and investor strategies in AFV-markets

  12. Development and use of GREET 1.6 fuel-cycle model for transportation fuels and vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1995, with funds from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT), Argonne National Laboratory has been developing the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model is intended to serve as an analytical tool for use by researchers and practitioners in estimating fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Argonne released the first version of the GREET mode--GREET 1.0--in June 1996. Since then, it has released a series of GREET versions with revisions, updates, and upgrades. In February 2000, the latest public version of the model--GREET 1.5a--was posted on Argonne's Transportation Technology Research and Development Center (TTRDC) Web site (www.transportation.anl.gov/ttrdc/greet)

  13. The Fair Distribution of Power to Electric Vehicles: An Alternative to Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yingjie; Maxemchuk, Nicholas; Qian, Xiangying; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    As the popularity of electric vehicles increases, the demand for more power can increase more rapidly than our ability to install additional generating capacity. In the long term we expect that the supply and demand will become balanced. However, in the interim the rate at which electric vehicles can be deployed will depend on our ability to charge these vehicles without inconveniencing their owners. In this paper, we investigate using fairness mechanisms to distribute power to electric vehic...

  14. Cost and benefit estimates of partially-automated vehicle collision avoidance technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Corey D; Hendrickson, Chris T; Samaras, Constantine

    2016-10-01

    Many light-duty vehicle crashes occur due to human error and distracted driving. Partially-automated crash avoidance features offer the potential to reduce the frequency and severity of vehicle crashes that occur due to distracted driving and/or human error by assisting in maintaining control of the vehicle or issuing alerts if a potentially dangerous situation is detected. This paper evaluates the benefits and costs of fleet-wide deployment of blind spot monitoring, lane departure warning, and forward collision warning crash avoidance systems within the US light-duty vehicle fleet. The three crash avoidance technologies could collectively prevent or reduce the severity of as many as 1.3 million U.S. crashes a year including 133,000 injury crashes and 10,100 fatal crashes. For this paper we made two estimates of potential benefits in the United States: (1) the upper bound fleet-wide technology diffusion benefits by assuming all relevant crashes are avoided and (2) the lower bound fleet-wide benefits of the three technologies based on observed insurance data. The latter represents a lower bound as technology is improved over time and cost reduced with scale economies and technology improvement. All three technologies could collectively provide a lower bound annual benefit of about $18 billion if equipped on all light-duty vehicles. With 2015 pricing of safety options, the total annual costs to equip all light-duty vehicles with the three technologies would be about $13 billion, resulting in an annual net benefit of about $4 billion or a $20 per vehicle net benefit. By assuming all relevant crashes are avoided, the total upper bound annual net benefit from all three technologies combined is about $202 billion or an $861 per vehicle net benefit, at current technology costs. The technologies we are exploring in this paper represent an early form of vehicle automation and a positive net benefit suggests the fleet-wide adoption of these technologies would be beneficial

  15. Bioleaching - an alternate uranium ore processing technology for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeting the feed supply of uranium fuel in the present and planned nuclear reactors calls for huge demand of uranium, which at the current rate of production, shows a mismatch. The processing methods at UCIL (DAE) needs to be modified/changed or re-looked into because of its very suitability in near future for low-index raw materials which are either unmined or stacked around if mined. There is practically no way to process tailings with still some values. Efforts were made to utilize such resources (low-index ore of Turamdih mines, containing 0.03% U3O8) by NML in association with UCIL as a national endeavor. In this area, the R and D work showed the successful development of a bioleaching process from bench scale to lab scale columns and then finally to the India's first ever large scale column, from the view point of harnessing such a processing technology as an alternative for the uranium industry and nuclear sector in the country. The efforts culminated into the successful operation of large scale trials at the 2 ton level column uranium bioleaching that was carried out at the site of UCIL, Jaduguda yielding a maximum recovery of 69% in 60 days. This achievement is expected to pave the way for scaling up the activity to a 100T or even more heap bioleaching trials for realization of this technology, which needs to be carried out with the support of the nuclear sector in the country keeping in mind the national interest. (author)

  16. 1991-92 Canadian directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1991-1992 Canadian Directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies. The three main sections cover Alternative Energy Companies, Energy Efficiency Companies and Energy Service Companies. Contact and company information is provided

  17. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation – Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-29

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles.

  18. Regional distribution and layout evolution of technological innovation in the new energy electric vehicles industry of China

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Jun Tang; Xi Zheng; Ke Wang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the initial stage situation of new energy electric vehicles (electric vehicles) industry in China, this paper uses patents retrieval and literatures polymerization methods to analyze the technological innovation status quo and the regional distribution features in the electric vehicles industry at home and abroad. Then, the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method is applied to quantifiably evaluate technological innovation efficiency of the 17 major producing areas of electric vehicle...

  19. Research of Energy Regeneration Technology in Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家新; 江建中; 汪信尧

    2003-01-01

    The theory of energy regeneration in electric vehicle (EV) has been introduced in most papers, but the mathematic model of EV energy regeneration system was little studied. In this paper the mathematic model of EV energy regeneration system is studied,and then the system ability under four control strategies is analyzed. In the end the system reliability is researched, and the calcula-tion model of system reliability is proposed.

  20. The role of CAFE standards and alternative-fuel vehicle production credits in U.S. biofuels markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact of CAFE standards and alternative-fuel vehicle production incentives on the biofuel market and mandate, in particular. The study develops a structural model of the domestic light-duty vehicle sector, as well as reduced-form versions of domestic gasoline, diesel, and biofuel markets. The results suggest that holding CAFE standards at the 2010 level could facilitate U.S. ethanol market expansion, making it easier to meet the mandate. Alternative-fuel vehicle production incentives appear to have small effects. However, there is uncertainty about the level of automaker response to those incentives, and analysis indicates the model is fairly sensitive to the assumed level of response. - Highlights: • CAFE standards are estimated to have a moderate impact on RFS compliance costs. • Flex-fuel vehicle production incentives are estimated to have much less impact. • Level of auto manufacturer response to production incentives is uncertain. • Analysis suggests results are fairly sensitive to level of manufacturer response

  1. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  2. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications advanced analysis of vehicle related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This book looks at the broad field of engineering science through the lens of nonlinear approaches. Examples focus on issues in vehicle technology, including vehicle dynamics, vehicle-road interaction, steering, and control for electric and hybrid vehicles. Also included are discussions on train and tram systems, aerial vehicles, robot-human interaction, and contact and scratch analysis at the micro/nanoscale. Chapters are based on invited contributions from world-class experts in the field who advance the future of engineering by discussing the development of more optimal, accurate, efficient, and cost and energy effective systems. This book is appropriate for researchers, students, and practicing engineers who are interested in the applications of nonlinear approaches to solving engineering and science problems.

  3. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  4. ITS Technologies in Military Wheeled Tactical Vehicles: Status Quo and the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Army operates and maintains the largest trucking fleet in the United States. Its fleet consists of over 246,000 trucks, and it is responsible for buying and developing trucks for all branches of the armed forces. The Army's tactical wheeled vehicle fleet is the logistical backbone of the Army, and annually, the fleet logs about 823 million miles. The fleet consists of a number of types of vehicles. They include eight different families of trucks from the High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicles to M900 series line haul tractors and special bodies. The average age of all the trucks within the Army fleet is 15 years, and very few have more than traditional driving instrumentation on-board. Over the past decade, the Department of Transportation's (DOT's) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program has conducted research and deployment activities in a number of areas including in-vehicle systems, communication and telematics technologies. Many current model passenger vehicles have demonstrated the assimilation of these technologies to enhance safety and trip quality. Commercial vehicles are also demonstrating many new electronic devices that are assisting in making them safer and more efficient. Moreover, a plethora of new technologies are about to be introduced to drivers that promise greater safety, enhanced efficiency, congestion avoidance, fuel usage reduction, and enhanced trip quality. The U.S. Army has special needs with regard to fleet management, logistics, sustainability, reliability, survivability, and fuel consumption that goes beyond similar requirements within the private industry. In order to effectively apply emerging ITS technologies to the special needs of the U.S. Army, planning for the conduct of the Army's Vehicle Intelligence Program (AVIP) has now commenced. The AVIP will be focused on the conduct of research that: (1) will apply ITS technologies to the special needs of the Army, and (2) will conduct research for special needs

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  6. Technology watch of fuel cells for vehicles in 2012; Teknikbevakning av braensleceller foer fordon 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Hans

    2013-03-15

    The report presents results from an international survey covering the status and development of tractionary fuel cells. Interviews, study visits, reports, journals, media coverage and participation in IEA Advanced Fuel Cells Annex 26 have served as main sources of information. The development in Korea has been devoted particular attention this period. The report covers the development during the second part of 2011 and the whole 2012. The transport sector must change to provide mobility for people and goods in a long-term sustainable way. Fuel cell technology offers an important opportunity for the vehicle manufacturer and the vehicle user to maintain the same level of performance, comfort and versatility without compromising the sustainability requirements. Fuel cell vehicles typically use polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and pressurized hydrogen. They also use tractionary batteries for about the same reasons as other hybrid electric vehicles. For commercial vehicles fuel cells are developed for the production of auxiliary power, to be used when the vehicles are parked, for example. Until 2015, Hyundai aims at making up to 1,000 fuel cell vehicles. After 2015 the plan is for several thousand every year. Until 2025, Hyundai aims at a total delivery of more than 100,000 fuel cell vehicles and the technology is then expected to be fully competitive. A roadmap shows that Korea until 2015 has established 43 and until 2030, a total of 500 hydrogen refuelling stations are indicated. The Skaane Region has carried out the first Swedish procurement of fuel cell vehicles. Two Hyundai iX35 FCEV were purchased for delivery 2013. In addition, the city of Copenhagen has purchased 15 such vehicles. During the next few years three hydrogen refuelling stations will be established in the Copenhagen area. January 2012, the California Air Resources Board decided the new set of regulations Advanced Clean Cars. It comprises three parts; tailpipe emissions and greenhouse gases, Zero

  7. Wright Brothers Lectureship in Aeronautics: Experience with HiMAT remotely piloted research vehicle - An alternate flight test approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deets, D. A.; Brown, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program explored the various and complex interactions of advanced technologies, such as aeroelastic tailoring, close-coupled canard, and relaxed static stability. A 0.44-subscale remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) of a hypothetical fighter airplane was designed and flight-tested to determine the effects of these interactions and to define the design techniques appropriate for advanced fighter technologies. Flexibility and high maneuverability were provided by flight control laws implemented in ground-based computers and telemetered to the vehicle control system during flight tests. The high quality of the flight-measured data and their close correlation with the analytical design modeling proved that the RPRV is a viable and cost-effective tool for developing aerodynamic, structure, and control law requirements for highly maneuverable fighter airplanes of the future.

  8. When will hybrid technologies dominate the heavy-duty vehicle market? : Forecasting Using Innovation Diffusion Models

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid-electric technologies have recently been introduced into the market for heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). However, challenging an established technology with a new and untried technology is difficult, also under the best conditions. Forecasting is a vital tool in product portfolio management, since it provides guidance on how much resources a firm should allocate on new innovative projects and products and when and where to enter the market. Therefore, this thesis forecasts the market penetr...

  9. Multi-level multi-criteria analysis of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoun, Mousa; Madani, Kaveh; Reinhart, Debra

    2016-04-15

    Historically, the U.S. waste collection fleet was dominated by diesel-fueled waste collection vehicles (WCVs); the growing need for sustainable waste collection has urged decision makers to incorporate economically efficient alternative fuels, while mitigating environmental impacts. The pros and cons of alternative fuels complicate the decisions making process, calling for a comprehensive study that assesses the multiple factors involved. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods allow decision makers to select the best alternatives with respect to selection criteria. In this study, two MCDA methods, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), were used to rank fuel alternatives for the U.S. waste collection industry with respect to a multi-level environmental and financial decision matrix. The environmental criteria consisted of life-cycle emissions, tail-pipe emissions, water footprint (WFP), and power density, while the financial criteria comprised of vehicle cost, fuel price, fuel price stability, and fueling station availability. The overall analysis showed that conventional diesel is still the best option, followed by hydraulic-hybrid WCVs, landfill gas (LFG) sourced natural gas, fossil natural gas, and biodiesel. The elimination of the WFP and power density criteria from the environmental criteria ranked biodiesel 100 (BD100) as an environmentally better alternative compared to other fossil fuels (diesel and natural gas). This result showed that considering the WFP and power density as environmental criteria can make a difference in the decision process. The elimination of the fueling station and fuel price stability criteria from the decision matrix ranked fossil natural gas second after LFG-sourced natural gas. This scenario was found to represent the status quo of the waste collection industry. A sensitivity analysis for the status quo scenario showed the overall ranking of diesel and

  10. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  11. Impact of digital systems technology on man-vehicle systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretoi, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The present study, based on a NASA technology assessment, examines the effect of new technologies on trends in crew-systems design and their implications from the vantage point of man-vehicle systems research. Those technologies that are most relevant to future trends in crew-systems design are considered along with problems associated with the introduction of rapidly changing technologies and systems concepts from a human-factors point of view. The technologies discussed include information processing, displays and controls, flight and propulsion control, flight and systems management, air traffic control, training and simulation, and flight and resource management. The historical evolution of cockpit systems design is used to illustrate past and possible future trends in man-vehicle systems research.

  12. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  13. Design of an Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for an Integrated Starter-Alternator System Used on an Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILIP Andrei-Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, to reduce fuel consumption, weuse more often vehicles with hybrid propulsion usingfor traction an electric motor and the regularcombustion engine. There are three types of hybridvehicles: serial, parallel and mixed propulsion.Hybrid vehicles use Integrated Starter Alternator(ISA system instead of usual starter and alternator.This article points out the advantages of using anIntegrated Starter Alternator System in comparisonwith the classical starter and alternator. This systemsaves energy by using the stop/start function andproviding assistance during driving. For the study, apermanent magnet synchronous motor was chosen,due to its high efficiency.

  14. Assessment of battery technologies for EV (Electric Vehicle) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Elliot Z.; Henriksen, Gary L.; Warde, Charles J.

    To guide future R and D program planning, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned an assessment of all viable battery techniques for EV applications. Sixty-seven technology developers in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Africa were solicited to design a power pack for an Improved Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsions (IDSEP) van. A team of 10 consultants and 8 representatives from DOE's National Laboratories evaluated 43 developer responses and consultant-prepared conceptual designs. Using six criteria---five technical/economic criteria and a maturity/technical barriers criterion---the assessment identified 12 most promising battery technologies.

  15. Analyzing public awareness and acceptance of alternative fuel vehicles in China: The case of EV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to analyze consumers' awareness towards electric vehicle (EV) and examine the factors that are most likely to affect consumers' choice for EV in China. A comprehensive questionnaire survey has been conducted with 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. Three binary logistic regression models were used to determine the factors that contribute to consumers' acceptance of EVs, their purchase time and their purchase price. The results suggest that: (1)Whether a consumer chooses an EV is significantly influenced by the number of driver's licenses, number of vehicles, government policies and fuel price. (2)The timing of consumers' purchases of an EV is influenced by academic degree, annual income, number of vehicles, government policies, the opinion of peers and tax incentives. (3)The acceptance of purchase price of EVs is influenced by age, academic degree, number of family members, number of vehicles, the opinion of peers, maintenance cost and degree of safety. These findings will help understand consumer's purchase behavior of EVs and have important policy implications related to the promotions of EVs in China. - Highlights: → We survey 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. → We analyze consumer's awareness towards electric vehicle (EV). → The factors affecting consumers' choice for EV are examined by three binary logistic models. → Factors contributing to consumers' acceptance of EVs, purchase time and purchase price are indicated.

  16. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  17. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Fact sheets on technology elements and system calculations for technology tracks; Teknologivurdering af alternative drivmidler til transportsektoren. Fakta-ark for teknologi-elementer og systemberegninger for teknologi-spor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. This appendix presents key fact sheets which substantiate the analysis presented in the report 'Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector'. (BA)

  18. The impact of active controls technology on the structural integrity of aeronautical vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Thomas E.; Austin, Edward; Donley, Shawn; Graham, George; Harris, Terry; Kaynes, Ian; Lee, Ben; Sparrow, James

    1993-01-01

    The findings of an investigation conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to assess the impact of active controls technology on the structural integrity of aeronautical vehicles and to evaluate the present state-of-the-art for predicting loads caused by a flight-control system modification and the resulting change in the fatigue life of the flight vehicle are summarized. Important points concerning structural technology considerations implicit in applying active controls technology in new aircraft are summarized. These points are well founded and based upon information received from within the aerospace industry and government laboratories, acquired by sponsoring workshops which brought together experts from contributing and interacting technical disciplines, and obtained by conducting a case study to independently assess the state of the technology. The paper concludes that communication between technical disciplines is absolutely essential in the design of future high performance aircraft.

  19. Vehicle technologies program Government Performance and Results Act (GPA) report for fiscal year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.; Stephens, T. S.; Birky, A. K. (Energy Systems); (DOE-EERE); (TA Engineering)

    2012-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has defined milestones for its Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP). This report provides estimates of the benefits that would accrue from achieving these milestones relative to a base case that represents a future in which there is no VTP-supported vehicle technology development. Improvements in the fuel economy and reductions in the cost of light- and heavy-duty vehicles were estimated by using Argonne National Laboratory's Autonomie powertrain simulation software and doing some additional analysis. Argonne also estimated the fraction of the fuel economy improvements that were attributable to VTP-supported development in four 'subsystem' technology areas: batteries and electric drives, advanced combustion engines, fuels and lubricants, and materials (i.e., reducing vehicle mass, called 'lightweighting'). Oak Ridge National Laboratory's MA{sup 3}T (Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies) tool was used to project the market penetration of light-duty vehicles, and TA Engineering's TRUCK tool was used to project the penetrations of medium- and heavy-duty trucks. Argonne's VISION transportation energy accounting model was used to estimate total fuel savings, reductions in primary energy consumption, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that would result from achieving VTP milestones. These projections indicate that by 2030, the on-road fuel economy of both light- and heavy-duty vehicles would improve by more than 20%, and that this positive impact would be accompanied by a reduction in oil consumption of nearly 2 million barrels per day and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of more than 300 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. These benefits would have a significant economic value in the U.S. transportation sector and reduce its dependency on oil and its vulnerability to oil price shocks.

  20. Technical and Economical study of New Technologies and Reusable Space Vehicles promoting Space Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, Deepanshu; Malhotra, Sahil

    2012-07-01

    For many of us space tourism is an extremely fascinating and attractive idea. But in order for these to start we need vehicles that will take us to orbit and bring us back. Current space vehicles clearly cannot. Only the Space Shuttle survives past one use, and that's only if we ignore the various parts that fall off on the way up. So we need reusable launch vehicles. Launch of these vehicles to orbit requires accelerating to Mach 26, and therefore it uses a lot of propellant - about 10 tons per passenger. But there is no technical reason why reusable launch vehicles couldn't come to be operated routinely, just like aircraft. The main problem about space is how much it costs to get there, it's too expensive. And that's mainly because launch vehicles are expendable - either entirely, like satellite launchers, or partly, like the space shuttle. The trouble is that these will not only reduce the cost of launch - they'll also put the makers out of business, unless there's more to launch than just a few satellites a year, as there are today. Fortunately there's a market that will generate far more launch business than satellites ever well - passenger travel. This paper assesses this emerging market as well as technology that will make space tourism feasible. The main conclusion is that space vehicles can reduce the cost of human transport to orbit sufficiently for large new commercial markets to develop. Combining the reusability of space vehicles with the high traffic levels of space tourism offers the prospect of a thousandfold reduction in the cost per seat to orbit. The result will be airline operations to orbit involving dozens of space vehicles, each capable of more than one flight per day. These low costs will make possible a rapid expansion of space science and exploration. Luckily research aimed at developing low-cost reusable launch vehicles has increased recently. Already there are various projects like Spaceshipone, Spaceshiptwo, Spacebus, X-33 NASA etc. The

  1. Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.; Gore, B.F.; Overcast, T.D.; Rankin, W.R.; Schreiber, R.E.; Tawil, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets.

  2. Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets

  3. Alternative deNO{sub x} catalysts and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Due-Hansen, J.

    2010-06-15

    produced to evaluate the optimum mixing ratio. Based on these results, a monolith containing V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SO{sub 4}2-ZrO{sub 2} in 25 wt% sepiolite was produced, and evaluated with respect to the influence of space velocity, reaction temperature, and NH{sub 3}/NO feed ratio on the NO reduction efficiency. The last part of this thesis deals with the non-catalytic sorption of NO{sub x} in ionic liquids, collected in chapter 5. Since no previous studies of the absorption of NO in ionic liquids have been reported, a preliminary study was conducted to identify suitable solvents. Two resulting imidazolium-based candidates, namely [BMIM]OAc and [BMIM]OTf, were selected due to their impressively high sorption capacities. Both solvents examined here revealed solubilities about twofold higher than those previously reported for e.g. CO{sub 2}-capture in ionic liquids. Especially the [BMIM]OAc demonstrated extraordinary absorption capabilities, being able to retain around four NO molecules per molecule ionic liquid. However, [BMIM]OTf exhibited promising behavior due to its reversible absorption/desorption properties. This in principle allows recycling of the ionic liquid as well as harvesting the NO. The accumulated NO could hereby be used in e.g. the synthesis of nitric acid allowing production of value-added chemicals from waste flue gas effluent. Although additional understanding of the mechanisms of the presented system is required, the perspective of a selective NO stripping technology is a very interesting alternative to the catalytic removal of NO from industrial flue gases. (Author)

  4. Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles. Aerospace Education III. Instructional Unit II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles." It provides guidelines for each chapter. The guide includes objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for teaching,…

  5. Measuring the distribution of equity in terms of energy, environmental, and economic costs in the fuel cycles of alternative fuel vehicles with hydrogen pathway scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E.

    Numerous analyses exist which examine the energy, environmental, and economic tradeoffs between conventional gasoline vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles powered by hydrogen produced from a variety of sources. These analyses are commonly referred to as "E3" analyses because of their inclusion of Energy, Environmental, and Economic indicators. Recent research as sought a means to incorporate social Equity into E3 analyses, thus producing an "E4" analysis. However, E4 analyses in the realm of energy policy are uncommon, and in the realm of alternative transportation fuels, E4 analyses are extremely rare. This dissertation discusses the creation of a novel E4 simulation tool usable to weigh energy, environmental, economic, and equity trade-offs between conventional gasoline vehicles and alternative fuel vehicles, with specific application to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The model, dubbed the F uel Life-cycle Analysis of Solar Hydrogen -- Energy, Environment, Economic & Equity model, or FLASH-E4, is a total fuel-cycle model that combines energy, environmental, and economic analysis methodologies with the addition of an equity analysis component. The model is capable of providing results regarding total fuel-cycle energy consumption, emissions production, energy and environmental cost, and level of social equity within a population in which low-income drivers use CGV technology and high-income drivers use a number of advanced hydrogen FCV technologies. Using theories of equity and social indicators conceptually embodied in the Lorenz Curve and Gini Index, the equity of the distribution of societal energy and environmental costs are measured for a population in which some drivers use CGVs and other drivers use FCVs. It is found, based on baseline input data representative of the United States (US), that the distribution of energy and environmental costs in a population in which some drivers use CGVs and other drivers use natural gas-based hydrogen FCVs can be

  6. Impact of new computing systems on computational mechanics and flight-vehicle structures technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Storaasli, O. O.; Fulton, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Advances in computer technology which may have an impact on computational mechanics and flight vehicle structures technology were reviewed. The characteristics of supersystems, highly parallel systems, and small systems are summarized. The interrelations of numerical algorithms and software with parallel architectures are discussed. A scenario for future hardware/software environment and engineering analysis systems is presented. Research areas with potential for improving the effectiveness of analysis methods in the new environment are identified.

  7. Vehicle perceptibilty : reflectorized registration plates and alternative means : function, design and application.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, D.J. Thoenes, E. Schreuder, D.A. & Kranenburg, A.

    1970-01-01

    In November 1967 the Minister of Transport and Waterways in the Netherlands asked the Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV to examine the advisable design of reflectorized registration plates from the aspect of perceptibility. Allowance had to be made for the identification of motor vehicles. esp

  8. Uncertainty in diffusion of competing technologies and application to electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploetz, Patrick [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Systems

    2011-07-01

    The diffusion of innovations is an important process and its models have applications in many fields, with particular relevance in technological forecast. The logistic equation is one of most important models in this context. Extensions of this approach as the Lotka-Volterra model have been developed to include the effect of mutual influences between technologies such as competition. However, many of the parameters entering this description are uncertain, difficult to estimate or simply unknown, particularly at early stages of the diffusion. Here, a systematic way to study the effect of uncertain or unknown parameters on the future diffusion of interacting innovations is proposed. The input required is a general qualitative understanding of the system: is the mutual influence positive or negative and does it apply symmetrically to either technology? Since the parameters enter the problem via a set of coupled non-linear differential equations, the approach proposed here goes beyond simple Monte-Carlo-like methods where the result is an explicit function of the parameters. The methodology is developed in detail and applied the case of three types of upcoming electric vehicle propulsion technologies. The findings indicate that competition between electric vehicles and mild hybrid vehicles implies a slow decline of the latter. The approach can easily be generalised to include other initial conditions, more technologies or other technological areas to find stable results for future market evolution independent of specific parameters. (orig.)

  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  10. Advanced Sensor Technologies for Next-Generation Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S H; Chien, H T; Gopalsami, N; Jendrzejczyk, A; Raptis, A C

    2002-01-30

    This report summarizes the development of automobile emissions sensors at Argonne National Laboratory. Three types of sensor technologies, i.e., ultrasound, microwave, and ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS), were evaluated for engine-out emissions monitoring. Two acoustic sensor technologies, i.e., surface acoustic wave and flexural plate wave, were evaluated for detection of hydrocarbons. The microwave technique involves a cavity design and measures the shifts in resonance frequency that are a result of the presence of trace organic compounds. The IMS technique was chosen for further development into a practical emissions sensor. An IMS sensor with a radioactive {sup 63}Ni ion source was initially developed and applied to measurement of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} emissions. For practical applications, corona and spark discharge ion sources were later developed and applied to NO{sub x} emission measurement. The concentrations of NO{sub 2} in dry nitrogen and in a typical exhaust gas mixture are presented. The sensor response to moisture was evaluated, and a cooling method to control the moisture content in the gas stream was examined. Results show that the moisture effect can be reduced by using a thermoelectric cold plate. The design and performance of a laboratory prototype sensor are described.

  11. Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

    The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

  12. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, we analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in California for two target years, 1995 and 2010. We consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. We find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electr...

  13. Environmental and economic comparisons of the satellite power system and six alternative energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, R. G.; Habegger, L. J.; Levine, E. P.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system (SPS) was compared with alternative systems on life cycle cost and environmental impacts. Environmental and economic effects are evaluated and subdivided into the following issue areas: human health and safety, environmental welfare, resources (land, materials, energy, water, labor), macroeconomics, socioeconomics, and institutional. These evaluations are based on technology characterization data and alternative futures scenarios, developed as part of CDEP. The technologies and the scenarios are described. The cost and performance of the SPS and the alternative technologies provide the basis of the macroeconomic analyses.

  14. The Aluminum Smelting Process and Innovative Alternative Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kvande, Halvor; Drabløs, Per Arne

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The industrial aluminum production process is addressed. The purpose is to give a short but comprehensive description of the electrolysis cell technology, the raw materials used, and the health and safety relevance of the process. Methods: This article is based on a study of the extensive chemical and medical literature on primary aluminum production. Results: At present, there are two main technological challenges for the process—to reduce energy consumption and to mitigate greenh...

  15. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  16. Atmospheric Photochemistry Studies of Pollutant Emissions from Transportation Vehicles Operating on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, H.; Sexton, K.; Yu, J.

    1998-07-01

    This project was undertaken with the goal of improving our ability to predict the changes in urban ozone resulting from the widespread use of alternative fuels in automobiles. This report presents the results in detail.

  17. Alternatives to Industrial Work Placement at Dublin Institute of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Catherine; Gamble, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic crisis, higher education graduates need transferable professional skills more than ever. They need resourcefulness, an ability to work reflectively, a sense of civic awareness and an impressive curriculum vitae. This case study analyses how Dublin Institute of Technology’s Programme for Students Learning With Communities provides cost-effective, sustainable solutions to these needs, offering an alternative to industrial work placement. Community-based learning and rese...

  18. Alternative energy technologies an introduction with computer simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Buxton, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Alternative Energy SourcesGlobal WarmingPollutionSolar CellsWind PowerBiofuelsHydrogen Production and Fuel CellsIntroduction to Computer ModelingBrief History of Computer SimulationsMotivation and Applications of Computer ModelsUsing Spreadsheets for SimulationsTyping Equations into SpreadsheetsFunctions Available in SpreadsheetsRandom NumbersPlotting DataMacros and ScriptsInterpolation and ExtrapolationNumerical Integration and Diffe

  19. A Dynamic household Alternative-fuel Vehicle Demand Model Using Stated and Revealed Transaction Information

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Hongyan

    1999-01-01

    Improving air quality has long been a big concern for society. The original Clean Air Act was signed by president Nixon in 1970 in accordance to national clamor for environmental healing. In 1990, president Bush signed the Clean Air bill which made significant revisions tot he original Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 establishes tighter pollution standards for emissions from automobiles and trucks. The new law also allows stricter emission limits for vehicles in Californi...

  20. Vehicle routing problems with alternative paths: an application to on-demand transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Garaix, Thierry; Artigues, Christian; Feillet, Dominique; Josselin, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The class of vehicle routing problems involves the optimization of freight or passenger transportation activities. These problems are generally treated via the representation of the road network as a weighted complete graph. Each arc of the graph represents the shortest route for a possible origin-destination connection. Several attributes can be defined for one arc (travel time, travel cost . . . ), but the shortest route modelled by this arc is computed according to one single criterion, gen...

  1. Comparing energy technology alternatives from an environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of individuals and organizations advocate the use of comparative, formal analysis to determine which are the safest methods for producing and using energy. Some have suggested that the findings of such analyses should be the basis upon which final decisions are made about whether to actually deploy energy technologies. Some of those who support formal comparative analysis are in a position to shape the policy debate on energy and environment. An opposing viewpoint is presented, arguing that for technical reasons, analysis can provide no definitive or rationally credible answers to the question of overall safety. Analysis has not and cannot determine the sum total of damage to human welfare and ecological communities from energy technologies. Analysis has produced estimates of particular types of damage; however, it is impossible to make such estimates comparable and commensurate across different classes of technologies and environmental effects. As a result of the deficiencies, comparative analysis connot form the basis of a credible, viable energy policy. Yet, without formal comparative analysis, how can health, safety, and the natural environment be protected. This paper proposes a method for improving the Nation's approach to this problem. The proposal essentially is that health and the environment should be considered as constraints on the deployment of energy technologies, constraints that are embodied in Government regulations. Whichever technologies can function within these constraints should then compete among themselves. This competition should be based on market factors like cost and efficiency and on political factors like national security and the questions of equity

  2. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. How to proceed with competing alternative energy technologies. A real options analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns about CO2 emissions create incentives for the development and deployment of energy technologies that do not use fossil fuels. Indeed, such technologies would provide tangible benefits in terms of avoided fossil-fuel costs, which are likely to increase as restrictions on CO2 emissions are imposed. However, a number of challenges need to be overcome prior to market deployment, and the commercialisation of alternative energy technologies may require a staged approach given price and technical risk. We analyse how a firm may proceed with staged commercialisation and deployment of competing alternative energy technologies. An unconventional new alternative technology is one possibility, where one could undertake cost-reducing production enhancement measures as an intermediate step prior to deployment. By contrast, the firm could choose to deploy a smaller-scale existing renewable energy technology, and, using the real options framework, we compare the two projects to provide managerial implications on how one might proceed. (author)

  4. Hydrogen Storage Options: Technologies and Comparisons for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andy; Gardiner, Monterey

    2005-01-01

    This report is concerned with the characterization and comparison of various technologies for hydrogen storage for light-duty vehicle applications. The storage technologies considered are compressed gas, cryogenic liquid, metallic and chemical hydrides, and activated carbon at 77 K. The technologies were evaluated in terms of weight and volume metrics - %wt H2/ system kg and gm H2/system and an energy intensity metric kJ/kg H2 for preparing the hydrogen fuel and placing it into storage for us...

  5. Fusion reactor technology impact of alternate fusion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial results of a study carried out to assess some of the technology implications of non-D-T fusion fuel cycles are presented. The primary emphasis in this paper is on D-D, catalyzed-D and D-3He fuel cycles. Tokamaks and field-reversed mirrors have been selected as sample confinement concepts. The technology areas considered include first wall design considerations, shielding requirements, fuel cycle requirements and some safety and environmental considerations. Conclusions resulting from the study are also presented

  6. Alternative administration routes and delivery technologies for polio vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; van der Stel, Wanda; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Global polio eradication is closer than ever. Replacement of the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) by inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended to achieve complete eradication. Limited global production capacity and relatively high IPV costs compared to OPV spur the need for improved polio vaccines. The target product profile of these vaccines includes not only dose sparing but also high stability, which is important for stockpiling, and easy application important for (emergency) vaccination campaigns. In this review, the current status of alternative polio vaccine delivery strategies is given. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility of these strategies by highlighting challenges, hurdles to overcome, and formulation issues relevant for optimal vaccine delivery. PMID:26912100

  7. Interim report on cold trap alternatives, sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an interim report on the modifications which are being made to an existing sodium loop so that a new method of removing hydrogen from sodium can be evaluated in a flowing sodium system. Some preliminary results on the performance of this type of cold trap alternative in a static sodium system are reported. Some tentative reactor design parameters for this type of getter device are presented based on the static test results. The life of such a unit is calculated to be substantially greater than that of a cold trap of equal volume

  8. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Second Quarterly Report January - March 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Zirker; James E. Francfort

    2003-05-01

    This report details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the PuraDYN Corporation. Because of the reported filtering (down to 0.1 microns) capability of bypass filter systems, the technology is intended to extend oil-drain intervals. To validate the extended usability of the oil, an oil analysis regime is used to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil, to detect undesirable contaminants and engine wear metals, and to evaluate the fitness of the oil for continued service. The eight buses have accumulated 101,000 miles to date and some preliminary results are reported. The INEEL light-duty vehicle fleet is also being evaluated to identify candidate vehicles for inclusion in the test fleet.

  9. Superfund TIO videos. Set C. Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (ATTIC). Part 9. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The videotape covers Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (ATTIC) computer program and ways in which OSCs and RPMs can use ATTIC in their jobs. (Access to ATTIC for hands-on practice is recommended.)

  10. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: ELECTRO-PURE ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was authorized as part of the 1986 amendments to the Superfund legislation. It represents a joint effort between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development and Office of Solid W...

  11. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Mohd Ismail

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologist workforce in support of the government policy highlights issues pertaining to the development and offering of practical-oriented programs as a knowledge expansion in engineering education at universities as envisioned by the Malaysian Government.  This paper evaluates the current scenario and examines the application-oriented programs of engineering technology education as practice in local institutions in Malaysia in comparisons to some universities abroad. It also investigates the challenges faced by university management in dealing with issues concerning national quality assurance and accreditation pertaining to the engineering technology education programs. Specifically, it analyzes the faculty planning of pedagogies in term of hands-on skills in teaching and learning. A key conclusion of this research is that Malaysian universities need to evaluate its engineering technology education strategies if they aim for quality assurance and accreditation to be established and aspire for successful attempts towards the creation of the requisite knowledge workers that Malaysia needs.Keywords: application-oriented, engineering education, engineering technology, hands-on skills, knowledge expansion 

  12. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  13. The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

    2010-03-31

    Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

  14. Toward a Concept of Facilitative Theorizing: An Alternative to Prescriptive and Descriptive Theory in Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, Stephen C.; Faulconer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the concept of facilitative theorizing as an alternative to prescriptive and descriptive theory in educational technology. The authors contend that these traditional forms of theory do not offer sufficient assistance to practitioners as they go about everyday design work. Facilitative theorizing, as an alternative, is…

  15. Modeling and optimization of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles system architecture alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dongliang; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Feng; Wang, Weiping; He, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems have already been used in civilian activities, although very limitedly. Confronted different types of tasks, multi UAVs usually need to be coordinated. This can be extracted as a multi UAVs system architecture problem. Based on the general system architecture problem, a specific description of the multi UAVs system architecture problem is presented. Then the corresponding optimization problem and an efficient genetic algorithm with a refined crossover operator (GA-RX) is proposed to accomplish the architecting process iteratively in the rest of this paper. The availability and effectiveness of overall method is validated using 2 simulations based on 2 different scenarios. PMID:25140328

  16. INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

    2000-03-01

    A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

  17. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.; Stephens, T.; McManus, W.

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways. An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, Steve [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McManus, Walter [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. Market Structure and the Penetration of Alternative Energy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos

    2009-01-01

    Energy market prices ignore external effects, hence miss-allocate energy generation between (polluting) fossil fuels and (clean) solar technologies. Correcting the failure requires understanding the market allocation forces at hand. An important feature of solar energy is that its cost of supply is predominantly due to upfront investments in capital infrastructure (rather than to the actual supply rate) and this feature has far reaching implications for the market allocation outcome. Studying...

  1. Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. II. Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnier, E. L.; Watson, A. P.

    1981-09-01

    No energy technology is risk free when all aspects of its utilization are taken into account. Every energy technology has some attendant direct and indirect health and safety concerns. Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For many of these technologies, insufficient historical data are available from which to assess the health risks and environmental impacts. However, their similarities to other projects make certain predictions possible. For example, anticipated problems in worker safety in constructing ocean thermal energy conversion systems will be similar to those associated with other large-scale construction projects, like deep-sea oil drilling platforms. Occupational hazards associated with photovoltaic plant operation would be those associated with normal electricity generation, although for workers involved in the actual production of photovoltaic materials, there is some concern for the toxic effects of the materials used, including silicon, cadmium, and gallium arsenide. Satellite power systems have several unique risks. These include the effects of long-term space travel for construction workers, effects on the ozone layer and the attendant risk of skin cancer in the general public, and the as-yet-undetermined effects of long-term, low-level microwave exposure. Hazards may arise from three sources in solar heating and cooling systems: water contamination from corrosion inhibitors, heat transfer fluids, and bactericides; collector over-heating, fires, and “out-gassing” and handling and disposal of system fluids and wastes. Similar concerns exist for solar thermal power systems. Even passive solar systems may increase indoor exposure levels to various air pollutants and toxic substances, eitherdirectly from the solar system itself or indirectly by trapping released

  2. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Kamsiah Mohd Ismail; Noor Hamizah Hussain; Norhayati Mohamed Nor; Normah Mulop; Zainai Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologi...

  3. Development of other oil-alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development efforts are being given on a large wind power generation system which has high reliability and economy and suits the actual situations in Japan. Verification tests will be conducted to establish control systems to realize load leveling against the increase in maximum power demand and the differences in demands between seasons, days and nights. Development will also be made on technologies for systems to operate devices optimally using nighttime power for household use. Solar light and heat energies will be introduced and used widely in housing to achieve efficient comprehensive energy utilization. Wastes, waste heat and unused energies locally available will be utilized to promote forming environment harmonious type energy communities. Photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation facilities will be installed on a trial basis to promote building a groundwork for full-scale installations. Photovoltaic power generation systems will be installed on actual houses to establish technologies to assess and optimize the load leveling effect. Attempts will be made on practical application of high-efficiency regional heat supply systems which utilize such unutilized energies as those from sea water and river water. Assistance will be given through preparing manuals on introduction of wastes power generation systems by local governments, and introduction of regional energy systems by using new discrete type power generation technologies and consumer-use cogeneration systems. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

  5. A Wireless Framework for Lecturers' Attendance System with Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emammer Khamis Shafter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI technology is one type of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID method which can be used to significantly improve the efficiency of lecturers' attendance system. It provides the capability of automatic data capture for attendance records using mobile device equipped in users’ vehicle. The intent of this article is to propose a framework for automatic lecturers' attendance system using AVI technology. The first objective of this work involves gathering of requirements for Automatic Lecturers' Attendance System and to represent them using UML diagrams. The second objective is to put forward a framework that will provide guidelines for developing the system. A prototype has also been created as a pilot project.

  6. A Low Speed Maneuvering Technology for Docking of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, K.

    2006-12-01

    Reliable docking mechanisms are essential for operation of AUV networks in harsh environment such as under ice in polar region. Hydrodynamic design of AUVs are often driven on a few competing fronts: (i) Rapid and efficient deployment to the work-zone and (ii) low speed maneuvering during the docking procedure and for operations at the work-zone. Rapid deployment necessitates a streamlined body of revolution (eg. Torpedo- shape design) for fast cruising with minimal energy. However, since the trajectory of this type of vehicles is adjusted using control surfaces, the magnitude of the available control force is proportional to the vehicle's speed. Consequently, these vehicles are difficult to maneuver at low speeds and in tight spaces. Therefore, they are particularly difficult to dock. Such vehicles also cannot opportunistically enter a precise loitering or hovering mode. As a result much current effort is devoted to the development of docking mechanisms, but this is just a solution for the symptoms, and does not really address the problem of the vehicle's actual maneuvering capabilities. On the other hand, low speed maneuvering and better control are often achieved by the so-called box-design where the low drag body-of-revolution design is sacrificed by adding multiple thrusters at different locations and directions. In this case, precise maneuvering can be achieved at the cost of increased drag and the need for an alternate technique to transport the vehicle from the offshore base or an escort ship to the work-zone. In an effort to resolve this trade-off, we have recently proposed to use compact synthetic jets for low speed maneuvering or locomotion of small unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). Inspired by the propulsion of cephalopod, we have designed and implemented compact vortex generators for low speed maneuvering, station keeping, and docking of small underwater vehicles. Design, fabrication, thrust optimization, and implementation of such compact actuators

  7. Enriching stable isotopes: Alternative use for Urenco technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhorst, H.; de Jong, P.G.T.; Dawson, P.D. [URENCO-NL, Almelo (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The International Urenco Group utilizes a technologically advanced centrifuge process to enrich uranium in the fissionable isotope {sup 235}U. The group operates plants in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Germany and currently holds a 10% share of the multibillion dollar world enrichment market. In the early 1990s, Urenco embarked on a strategy of building on the company`s uniquely advanced centrifuge process and laser isotope separation (LIS) experience to enrich nonradioactive isotopes colloquially known as stable isotopes. This paper summarizes the present status of Urenco`s stable isotopes business.

  8. Enriching stable isotopes: Alternative use for Urenco technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Urenco Group utilizes a technologically advanced centrifuge process to enrich uranium in the fissionable isotope 235U. The group operates plants in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Germany and currently holds a 10% share of the multibillion dollar world enrichment market. In the early 1990s, Urenco embarked on a strategy of building on the company's uniquely advanced centrifuge process and laser isotope separation (LIS) experience to enrich nonradioactive isotopes colloquially known as stable isotopes. This paper summarizes the present status of Urenco's stable isotopes business

  9. The Design of Food Storage Guided Vehicle System Based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of the food transport system, RFID technology is integrated in the AGV automatic guided vehicle system in the food warehousing. The node RFID oriented method is chosen and the RFID note positioning function is used to realize more types and over horizon identification loading, handling and automatic storage function that improves the system flexibility through the design of tag oriented system.

  10. Artist concept computer graphic of Lockheed Martin X-33 Advance Technology Demonstrator vehicle in f

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    An artist's conception of the X-33 in flight, with the aerospike engine firing. The X-33 demonstrator was designed to test a wide range of new technologies (including the aerospike engine), that would be used in a future single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called the VentureStar. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen tank, however, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

  11. Air-cushion vehicles as an alternative to conventional industrial trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective shieldings must be used for the transportation of radioactive materials, such as drums and containers within the control area, in order to observe the activity classes of the rooms. As a result of the change in the radiation protection ordinance, the operating areas of the floor conveyors have to be protected even more, i.e. transportation weights are becoming even bigger. When using pallet lift trucks without drive, weights over 2 tons are virtually unable to be operated. A fork-lift truck must be used for higher loads. If the transportation weight (transportation load and net weight of the lift truck) is doubled, usage within buildings is very restricted through the ceiling net load. This is the range of application of air cushion vehicles, in particular if positioning accuracy and remote-controlled driving become necessary. (orig.)

  12. Current State of Technology of Fuel Cell Power Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mendez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs are vehicles that are primarily used to accomplish oceanographic research data collection and auxiliary offshore tasks. At the present time, they are usually powered by lithium-ion secondary batteries, which have insufficient specific energies. In order for this technology to achieve a mature state, increased endurance is required. Fuel cell power systems have been identified as an effective means to achieve this endurance but no implementation in a commercial device has yet been realized. This paper summarizes the current state of development of the technology in this field of research. First, the most adequate type of fuel cell for this application is discussed. The prototypes and design concepts of AUVs powered by fuel cells which have been developed in the last few years are described. Possible commercial and experimental fuel cell stack options are analyzed, examining solutions adopted in the analogous aerial vehicle applications, as well as the underwater ones, to see if integration in an AUV is feasible. Current solutions in oxygen and hydrogen storage systems are overviewed and energy density is objectively compared between battery power systems and fuel cell power systems for AUVs. A couple of system configuration solutions are described including the necessary lithium-ion battery hybrid system. Finally, some closing remarks on the future of this technology are given.

  13. Benefits of Power and Propulsion Technology for a Piloted Electric Vehicle to an Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Pencil, Eric J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mason, Lee S.; Bury, Kristen M.; Manzella, David H.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Brophy, John P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s goal for human spaceflight is to expand permanent human presence beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA is identifying potential missions and technologies needed to achieve this goal. Mission options include crewed destinations to LEO and the International Space Station; high Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit; cis-lunar space, lunar orbit, and the surface of the Moon; near-Earth objects; and the moons of Mars, Mars orbit, and the surface of Mars. NASA generated a series of design reference missions to drive out required functions and capabilities for these destinations, focusing first on a piloted mission to a near-Earth asteroid. One conclusion from this exercise was that a solar electric propulsion stage could reduce mission cost by reducing the required number of heavy lift launches and could increase mission reliability by providing a robust architecture for the long-duration crewed mission. Similarly, solar electric vehicles were identified as critical for missions to Mars, including orbiting Mars, landing on its surface, and visiting its moons. This paper describes the parameterized assessment of power and propulsion technologies for a piloted solar electric vehicle to a near-Earth asteroid. The objective of the assessment was to determine technology drivers to advance the state of the art of electric propulsion systems for human exploration. Sensitivity analyses on the performance characteristics of the propulsion and power systems were done to determine potential system-level impacts of improved technology. Starting with a "reasonable vehicle configuration" bounded by an assumed launch date, we introduced technology improvements to determine the system-level benefits (if any) that those technologies might provide. The results of this assessment are discussed and recommendations for future work are described.

  14. The effect of attitudes on reference-dependent preferences: Estimation and validation for the case of alternative-fuel vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Jensen, Anders Fjendbo;

    2015-01-01

    reference-dependent preferences and attitudes together may explain individual choices. In a modelling framework based on a hybrid choice model allowing for both concepts, we investigate how attitudes and reference-dependent preferences interact and how they affect willingness-to-pay measures and demand...... elasticities. Using a data set with stated choices among alternative-fuel vehicles, we see that allowing for reference-dependent preferences improves our ability to explain the stated choices in the data and that the attitude (appreciation of car features) explains part of the preference heterogeneity across...... individuals. The results indicate that individuals have reference-dependent preferences that could be explained by loss aversion and that these are indeed related to an individual's attitude towards car features. The models are validated using a large hold-out sample. This shows that the inclusion of...

  15. Use of advanced regional airshed models to study the effect of alternatively fueled vehicles in urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strict, ambient level standards concerning ozone and particulate matter2.5 (particulate matter) have recently been introduced in Canada. The formation of these substances is dependent on chemical reactions in the atmosphere among primary emitted substances like nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compounds, ammonia, and sulphur dioxide. Therefore ozone and particulate matter have been classed as secondary. Complex modelling systems were created in an effort to better understand the origin of the ozone and particulate matter levels. The models include MC2/Calgrid, PATH framework in Hong Kong and the Models 3 Framework in the United States. The modelling systems enable scientists to assess air quality problems on a regional basis as well as the determination of appropriate potential solutions. The results of recent modelling efforts in Canada were reported on in this paper. The results of an assessment of the effects of alternatively fuelled vehicles on the ozone levels in the Vancouver area were included. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  16. IMPLEMENTING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR URBAN RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauni Hamid

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Revitalizing slum-area has been recognized as one of the most complicated parts in urban resettlement program. With such a context we need a particular mode of communication to initiate and generate the project based on people's own aspiration. There are problem characteristics here, which are usually executed by Information Technology (IT. It is a potential to overcome the problem by using IT based on its ability to manage abundant information with various variables. At least there are three prospective opportunities in applying IT in this area. Firstly, it is the role of visualization, where computer can execute several visual features of the projects, which will be more representative than the previous ones. Secondly, it is the role of IT in generating the customization process to everyone involved in the projects. The last is the role of IT as executing tool for project's database management.

  17. The Alternative Way of Creating Infographics Using SVG Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pavazza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article develops new ways of creating and using interactive SVG infographics. The emphasis lies on the compatibility of SVG standard with other web standards, like XML, XSL, CSS, SMIL and ECMAScript, the advantages that it brings are particularly explored. There is a XSLT template developed which transforms XML data into SVG infographic, and the way of achieving complete control over data and data visualization is tested. This enabled the achieving of dynamic control of content and its presentation, and contributed to the results in reduced developing cost and time, better flexibility and reliability of the organizational system. The paper also studied the possibility to convey infographic message by adding interactivity, and explored technologies by means of which this can be achieved. The aspects of establishing a more efficient communication with end users, such as searchability and accessibility are also considered. SVG infographics are compared with other approaches for creating infographics in raster and vector techniques.

  18. 智能车技术探讨%Discussion on the Intelligent Vehicle Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国胤; 陈乔松; 王进

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,the pollution of the environment,traffic safety and congestion are truly severe problems affecting the entire world. The intelligent vehicle(IV) is an attempt to move towards a new traffic paradigm, where drive becomes enjoyable experience,and cars don't crash anymore,and traffic congestion is drastically reduced. Therefore,the development of intelligent vehicle in new generation becomes one of the most important strategic objectives in main developed countries. In this paper, intelligent vehicle was creatively defined as a car with power-driven and intelligent control. Five basic functional features should be realized in intelligent vehicle, which consists of the vehicle-to-vehicle(V2V) interaction, vehicle-to-people(V2P) interaction, vehicle-to-road(V2R) interaction, vehicle-to-network( V2N) interaction and energy-saving. These four interactions prescribe a cooperative system between the intelligent vehicles and surroundings, while the energy-saving focuses on the clean and economical energy management system. Meanwhile, the novel theories and technologies for the development of intelligent vehicle were discussed in this paper. Finally, the autonomous driving simulation experiment was performed by miniature intelligent vehicles,and the future of intelligent vehicle industry was prospected.%近年来,环境污染、交通安全及拥堵等严峻的问题困扰着整个世界.智能汽车的出现是为了建立一种新的交通范例,以便在很大程度上降低驾驶人员的劳动强度,避免汽车碰撞和减轻交通拥堵等.因而,发展新一代的智能汽车就成为了世界主要国家的发展战略目标.提出智能汽车的新定义:以自身装备动力驱动的智能信息系统管控的车辆.它具有5大基本功能特征,即车车交互、车人交互、车路交互、车网交互和绿色节能.车、人、路、网4个交互规定了智能汽车和周边环境之间的协作关系,而绿色节能则关注于清洁节约的能

  19. The Clean Development Mechanism as a Vehicle for Technology Transfer and Sustainable Development - Myth or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Cox

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically examines the clean development mechanism (CDM established under Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol in terms of its effectiveness as a vehicle for technology transfer to developing countries, a specific commitment under the UNFCCC. Fundamentally, the paper poses the question of whether technology transfer as part of the CDM is a myth or a reality in the broader context of sustainable development. Technology transfer between countries of the North and South is explored in a historical context and the emergence of technology transfer obligations is traced in multilateral environmental agreements. The architecture of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol are examined in relation to technology transfer obligations. Empirical studies are reviewed to gain an understanding of how CDM operates in practice, with a closer examination of a small number of recent CDM projects. There is an update on the Technology Mechanism being established under the Copenhagen Accord. The paper concludes with a summary of the benefits of CDM to date and its current limitations in achieving the scaling-up of affordable environmentally sound technology transfer envisaged in the Bali Action Plan. The conclusion is that technology transfer must be a much more explicit objective of CDM with better targeting of projects in order to achieve locally sustainable equitable outcomes. Furthermore, the link between CDM and technology transfer needs to be much more explicitly made in order that, in the long run, such interventions will lead to viable low emission development pathways in developing countries.

  20. How to Proceed with Competing Alternative Energy Technologies: a Real Options Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Concerns with CO2 emissions are creating incentives for the development and deployment of energy technologies that do not use fossil fuels. Indeed, such technologies would provide tangible benefits in terms of avoided fossil-fuel costs, which are likely to increase as restrictions on CO2 emissions are imposed. However, there are a number of challenges that need to be overcome, and the current costs of developing new alternative energy technologies would be too high to be handled privately....

  1. Evaluating indoor exposure modeling alternatives for LCA: A case study in the vehicle repair industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demou, Evangelia; Hellweg, Stefanie; Wilson, Michael P.; Hammond, S. Katharine; McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-05-01

    We evaluated three exposure models with data obtained from measurements among workers who use"aerosol" solvent products in the vehicle repair industry and with field experiments using these products to simulate the same exposure conditions. The three exposure models were the: 1) homogeneously-mixed-one-box model, 2) multi-zone model, and 3) eddy-diffusion model. Temporally differentiated real-time breathing zone volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration measurements, integrated far-field area samples, and simulated experiments were used in estimating parameters, such as emission rates, diffusivity, and near-field dimensions. We assessed differences in model input requirements and their efficacy for predictive modeling. The One-box model was not able to resemble the temporal profile of exposure concentrations, but it performed well concerning time-weighted exposure over extended time periods. However, this model required an adjustment for spatial concentration gradients. Multi-zone models and diffusion-models may solve this problem. However, we found that the reliable use of both these models requires extensive field data to appropriately define pivotal parameters such as diffusivity or near-field dimensions. We conclude that it is difficult to apply these models for predicting VOC exposures in the workplace. However, for comparative exposure scenarios in life-cycle assessment they may be useful.

  2. Tests of an alternating current propulsion subsystem for electric vehicles on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The test results of a breadboard version of an ac electric-vehicle propulsion subsystem are presented. The breadboard was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center Road Load Simulator facility and tested under steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state tests were run to characterize the system and component efficiencies over the complete speed-torque range within the capability of the propulsion subsystem in the motoring mode of operation. Transient tests were performed to determine the energy consumption of the breadboard over the acceleration and cruise portions of SAE J227 and driving schedules B, C, and D. Tests in the regenerative mode were limited to the low-gear-speed range of the two speed transaxle used in the subsystem. The maximum steady-state subsystem efficiency observed for the breadboard was 81.5 percent in the high-gear-speed range in the motoring mode, and 76 percent in the regenerative braking mode (low gear). The subsystem energy efficiency during the transient tests ranged from 49.2 percent for schedule B to 68.4 percent for Schedule D.

  3. Technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immich, H.; Alting, J.; Kretschmer, J.; Preclik, D.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper an overview of recent technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines at Astrium, Space Infrastructure Division (SI), is shown. The main technology. developments shown in this paper are: Technologies Technologies for enhanced heat transfer to the coolant for expander cycle engines Advanced injector head technologies Advanced combustion chamber manufacturing technologies. The main technologies for enhanced heat transfer investigated by subscale chamber hot-firing tests are: Increase of chamber length Hot gas side ribs in the chamber Artificially increased surface roughness. The developments for advanced injector head technologies were focused on the design of a new modular subscale chamber injector head. This injector head allows for an easy exchange of different injection elements: By this, cost effective hot-fire tests with different injection element concepts can be performed. The developments for advanced combustion chamber manufacturing technologies are based on subscale chamber tests with a new design of the Astrium subscale chamber. The subscale chamber has been modified by introduction of a segmented cooled cylindrical section which gives the possibility to test different manufacturing concepts for cooled chamber technologies by exchanging the individual segments. The main technology efforts versus advanced manufacturing technologies shown in this paper are: Soldering techniques Thermal barrier coatings for increased chamber life. A new technology effort is dedicated especially to LOX/Hydrocarbon propellant combinations. Recent hot fire tests on the subscale chamber with Kerosene and Methane as fuel have already been performed. A comprehensive engine system trade-off between the both propellant combinations (Kerosene vs. Methane) is presently under preparation.

  4. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitch [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-11

    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  5. Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  6. Research on green vehicle and powertrain technologies and their intended application to green ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Z. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed fuel cell vehicle and backup power system applications for ships. The technology was based on proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) system designs. Technical problems related to the designs included issues related to heat and water management, as well as process and materials costs. Use of the technologies is inhibited by a lack of infrastructure and certification, as well as the problems associated with hydrogen fuel supply, transportation, distribution and storage. Modelling studies for other public transport applications are being modified for use in marine applications. Fuel cell models include empirical; theoretical-empirical; theoretical; and simulation-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and mass transfer models. Theoretical models are used to determine parasitic loads as well as to account for fuel storage. Testing results for various PEM fuel cell vehicles were provided. Research on next-generation hybrid powertrains was also discussed. Research is now being conducted on new architectures for multi-regime hybrid vehicles as well as on advanced hybrid energy storage systems. Various performance evaluation simulations were outlined. Details of a new powertrain and stationary components for a green boat design were also outlined. tabs., figs.

  7. 30 kW Power Boost System for Drive Trains for Electric Vehicles Based on Supercapacitor Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Lium, Frode

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the master thesis is to design, dimension and construct a power boost system for the drive trains in electric vehicles, utilizing supercapacitor technology. In order to build the system a supercapacitor bank and a converter has been constructed. The system has been designed to be used in the new Think electric vehicle, and each part of the converter has been dimensioned according to information provided by Think Technology. The master thesis is limited to the design and construc...

  8. Hydrocarbon emission fingerprints from contemporary vehicle/engine technologies with conventional and new fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Larisse; Duane, Matthew; Manfredi, Urbano; Astorga, Covadonga; Martini, Giorgio; Carriero, Massimo; Krasenbrink, Alois; Larsen, B. R.

    2010-06-01

    The present paper presents results from the analysis of 29 individual C 2-C 9 hydrocarbons (HCs) specified in the European Commission Ozone Directive. The 29 HCs are measured in exhaust from common, contemporary vehicle/engine/fuel technologies for which very little or no data is available in the literature. The obtained HC emission fingerprints are compared with fingerprints deriving from technologies that are being phased out in Europe. Based on the total of 138 emission tests, thirteen type-specific fingerprints are extracted (Mean ± SD percentage contributions from individual HCs to the total mass of the 29 HCs), essential for receptor modelling source apportionment. The different types represent exhaust from Euro3 and Euro4 light-duty (LD) diesel and petrol-vehicles, Euro3 heavy-duty (HD) diesel exhaust, and exhaust from 2-stroke preEuro, Euro1 and Euro2 mopeds. The fuels comprise liquefied petroleum gas, petrol/ethanol blends (0-85% ethanol), and mineral diesel in various blends (0-100%) with fatty acid methyl esters, rapeseed methyl esters palm oil methyl esters, soybean oil methyl or sunflower oil methyl esters. Type-specific tracer compounds (markers) are identified for the various vehicle/engine/fuel technologies. An important finding is an insignificant effect on the HC fingerprints of varying the test driving cycle, indicating that combining HC fingerprints from different emission studies for receptor modelling purposes would be a robust approach. The obtained results are discussed in the context of atmospheric ozone formation and health implications from emissions (mg km -1 for LD and mopeds and mg kW h -1 for HD, all normalised to fuel consumption: mg dm -3 fuel) of the harmful HCs, benzene and 1,3-butadiene. Another important finding is a strong linear correlation of the regulated "total" hydrocarbon emissions (tot-HC) with the ozone formation potential of the 29 HCs (ΣPO 3 = (1.66 ± 0.04) × tot-RH; r2 = 0.93). Tot-HC is routinely monitored in

  9. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  10. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-12-01

    This annual guide features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  11. HTS machines as enabling technology for all-electric airborne vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental protection has now become paramount as evidence mounts to support the thesis of human activity-driven global warming. A global reduction of the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere is therefore needed and new technologies have to be considered. A large part of the emissions come from transportation vehicles, including cars, trucks and airplanes, due to the nature of their combustion-based propulsion systems. Our team has been working for several years on the development of high power density superconducting motors for aircraft propulsion and fuel cell based power systems for aircraft. This paper investigates the feasibility of all-electric aircraft based on currently available technology. Electric propulsion would require the development of high power density electric propulsion motors, generators, power management and distribution systems. The requirements in terms of weight and volume of these components cannot be achieved with conventional technologies; however, the use of superconductors associated with hydrogen-based power plants makes possible the design of a reasonably light power system and would therefore enable the development of all-electric aero-vehicles. A system sizing has been performed both for actuators and for primary propulsion. Many advantages would come from electrical propulsion such as better controllability of the propulsion, higher efficiency, higher availability and less maintenance needs. Superconducting machines may very well be the enabling technology for all-electric aircraft development

  12. Market brief : The market for renewable energy and alternative fuels technologies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the renewable energy market and alternative fuels technologies in Mexico was presented. Mexico's environmental technologies and services market is expected to grow from $5.2 billion in 2003 to more than $26 billion in 2010. By 2015, it is estimated that technologies for renewable energy and alternative fuels such as electricity, ethanol and biodiesel technologies may be worth $2.6 billion. This market brief described the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. It described the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference opportunities with actual and planned projects. Since Mexico has been diversifying its energy sources for power generation, Canadian manufacturers of renewable energy and alternative fuels technology can find many opportunities in Canada's partner in the North American Free Trade Agreement. The main opportunity for exporters of equipment to generate renewable energy and alternative fuels come from small-scale hydro-electric projects, solar-photovoltaic systems, wind power and waste-to-energy systems such as biogas, biomass and biodiesel. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, the Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. Considerations for market-entry into Mexico were also outlined. The 3 main factors that drive the market for renewable energy and alternative fuels technologies in Mexico were presented. First, power generation from renewable energy is one of the only areas where the private sector can participate in the Mexican electricity generation, transmission and distribution market. Second, power generation from renewable energy is the only means to provide electricity to rural and off-grid areas. Last, international pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions plays an important role in

  13. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  14. AN ASSESSMENT OF FLYWHEEL HIGH POWER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR HYBRID VEHICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  15. Investigation of Particle and Gaseous Emissions from Conventional and Emerging Vehicle Technologies Operating on Bio-Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Short, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Light-duty vehicles emit gaseous and particle emissions that have the ability to effect climate, human health, and air quality. Vehicle technologies are changing rapidly due to the need to increase fuel efficiency. The use of biofuels (i.e., ethanol and iso-butanol) may increase due to the desire to reduce the use of fossil fuels. The changes in fuels and vehicle technologies may change the resulting emissions and need to be assessed. For instance, the water-soluble and water-insoluble parti...

  16. Maximizing Societal Benefits Associated With Alternative Fuel Subsidies: The Case of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Samir M.

    Government seeks to improve the welfare of its citizenry and intervenes in marketplaces to maximize benefits when externalities are not captured. By analyzing how welfare changes from area to area across the country in response to the same intervention informs where government should act. This thesis analyzes the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs have many societal benefits, including improving national security, economic, environmental, and health advantages. The magnitude and distribution of these benefits depends on where PHEVs are deployed. This thesis develops and applies a methodology to determine if the benefits from PHEV deployment vary across the country and for ranking regions where positive PHEV consequences are likely to be maximized. The metrics in this method are proxies of key variables which predict the level of benefits in a county from the deployment of a PHEV there; they include population, health benefits from reduced ozone concentration, vehicle miles traveled per capita, existence of non-federal policies, and CO 2 intensity of electricity. By shedding light on how benefits from PHEV deployment vary across counties, this thesis seeks to better inform where to enact government interventions to maximize the benefits of this technology.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Speech Recognition Systems as a Next-Generation Pilot-Vehicle Interface Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2016-01-01

    During the flight trials known as Gulfstream-V Synthetic Vision Systems Integrated Technology Evaluation (GV-SITE), a Speech Recognition System (SRS) was used by the evaluation pilots. The SRS system was intended to be an intuitive interface for display control (rather than knobs, buttons, etc.). This paper describes the performance of the current "state of the art" Speech Recognition System (SRS). The commercially available technology was evaluated as an application for possible inclusion in commercial aircraft flight decks as a crew-to-vehicle interface. Specifically, the technology is to be used as an interface from aircrew to the onboard displays, controls, and flight management tasks. A flight test of a SRS as well as a laboratory test was conducted.

  18. Performance and life evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle (EV) operating conditions at the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL). The ADL provides a common basis for both performance characterization and life evaluation with unbiased application of tests and analyses. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted in 1990 on nine single cells and fifteen 3- to 360-cell modules that encompass six technologies: (Na/S, Zn/Br, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R and D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modelling and continuing R and D.

  19. Open Platform Technology-Based Mobile Communications to Identify a Vehicle in Any Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Lupu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project is to develop an openservice platform for identifying a vehicle in any given locationusing Trimble GPS receivers Lasser SK II and necessary forthe Zapp mobile terminals mobile Internet connection basedon CDMA technology and TCP / IP.The analysis can be based on: studying the specific for thedomain of identification of persons that are moving in adelimited region inside the country; studying of theinformatics and communication technologies as a support fora new vision on the localization of persons; studying the GPStechnology; studying the actually GIS solutions; standardsregarding the information exchange at international level.The main object consists in the elaboration of a softwareapplication for the localization of persons that are in difficultyand the receiving of the first-aid in real-time. According tothis, the persons that are moving (in buses, auto, train,airplane, etc. can request the first-aid and they are spottedand identified using modern informatics technologies.

  20. Technology assessment of disposal alternatives to determine a reference geological repository system for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is to determine the most promising alternative, that will be developed further as a reference HLW repository system, by comparing the 7 alternatives that were proposed based on the spent fuel packaging options concerning the characteristics of spent PWR and CANDU fuel generated from the domestic NPP and the waste package arrangements and repository layout options. It should be determined by comparing the proposed alternatives from the aspects of technology, safety and economics. In this study, however, the comparison of alternatives was just based on the technology assessment because of the lack of the relevant information. The comparison criteria includes the degree of difficulty, development and maturity of the technology to be applied in repository system construction, operation, retrieval, etc. and the safety during the repository construction and operation. Based on such comparison criteria, the alternative comparison study was performed by a typical pair-wise comparison method. The result showed that, from the aspect of the construction, vertical emplacement options ranked high so that HSA and HCop ranked first and second, respectively. On the other hand, from the aspect of operation, the vertical emplacement options ranked high and VSA and VAT were ranked first and second. Depending upon the degree of importance of construction and operation of the repository, the final results of the alternatives comparison could be changed. (author). 19 refs., 6 tabs., 13 figs

  1. 代用燃料汽车技术发展现状及应用前景%Current Development and Application Prospect of Automotive Alternative Fuel Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗法

    2012-01-01

    分析了主要代用燃料的类型、特点、存在的问题与应用情况,研究了代用燃料汽车技术的应用现状和发展趋势,讨论了代用燃料汽车应用前景和发展潜力,指出我国汽车应用推广应当走多元化的能源之路。%This paper analyzes the alternative fuel' s main types, characteristics, existing problems and application, researches the application and development tendency of alternative fuel technology. The application prospect and development potential of alternative fuel automobile are discussed in the paper. And then a conclusion is drew that the diversified energy sources must be chosen for vehicle application promotion in China.

  2. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Musgrave, B.C. [BC Musgrave, Inc. (United States); Drake, R.N. [Drake Engineering, Inc. (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX{sup SM}, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis.

  3. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOXSM, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis

  4. Study on the technical and economic viability of vehicles and alternative fuels; Estudo de viabilidade tecnica e economica de veiculos e combustiveis alternativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Bruno Carvalho Alves de; Oliveira, Paulo Leandro de; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: baiano@labma.ufrj.br; silvio@serv.com.ufrj.br

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a resume of the research project under development in the COPPE/UFRJ, Brazil. This project compares different vehicle types and alternative fuels, considering the following parameters: average hourly consumption, level of total hydrocarbons, NO{sub x} and CO emissions, operation and maintenance costs. The following vehicle types are analysed: conventional using gasoline, vehicles using ethanol, natural gas and liquid petroleum gas, electric, hybrid electric, electric with fuel cells, electric with fuel cells and gasoline reformation and vehicles using methanol. The simulation packet ADVISOR 2.1 has been used for analysis of the emission made available by the US DOE. For the analysis of the performance/consumption, a code developed by the authors has been used.

  5. Technology mix alternatives with high shares of wind power and photovoltaics—case study for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shift to a low carbon society is an issue of highest priority in the EU. For electricity generation, such a target counts with three main alternatives: renewable energies, nuclear power and carbon capture and storage. This paper focuses on the renewables’ alternative. Due to resource availability, a technology mix with a high share of PV and wind power is gaining increasing interest as a major solution for several EU member states and in part for the EU collectively to achieve decarbonization and energy security with acceptable costs. Due to their intermittency, the integration of high shares of PV and wind power in the electricity supply is challenging. This paper presents a techno-economic assessment of technology mix alternatives with a high share of PV and wind power in Spain, as an example. Thereby, the focus is on the option of increasing wind curtailment versus substituting rigid baseload generation in favor of the more flexible gas turbines and combined cycle gas turbines. - Highlights: ► The potential of power generation from renewable energy resources in the EU is illustrated. ► The LEC of the different technologies considered is calculated for today and future scenarios. ► An excel-based model for the technology mix assessment is applied using Spanish data. ► Technology mix alternatives with a high share of PV and wind power are assessed. ► The focus is on increasing wind curtailment vs. relying on more flexible power generation units.

  6. Development and use of GREET 1.6 fuel-cycle model for transportation fuels and vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1995, with funds from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT), Argonne National Laboratory has been developing the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model is intended to serve as an analytical tool for use by researchers and practitioners in estimating fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Argonne released the first version of the GREET model--GREET 1.0--in June 1996. Since then, it has released a series of GREET versions with revisions, updates, and upgrades. In February 2000, the latest public version of the model--GREET 1.5a--was posted on Argonne's Transportation Technology Research and Development Center (TTRDC) Web site (www.transportation.anl.gov/ttrdc/greet). Major publications that address GREET development are listed. These reports document methodologies, development, key default assumptions, applications, and results of the GREET model. They are also posted, along with additional materials for the GREET model, on the TTRDC Web site. For a given transportation fuel/technology combination, the GREET model separately calculates: (A)--Fuel-cycle energy consumption for the following three source categories: (1) Total energy (all energy sources), (2) Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas [NG], and coal), and (3) Petroleum. (B)--Fuel-cycle emissions of the following three greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) Carbon dioxide (CO2) (with a global warming potential [GWP] of 1), (2) Methane (CH4) (with a GWP of 21), and (3) Nitrous oxide (N2O) (with a GWP of 310). (C)--Fuel-cycle emissions of the following five criteria pollutants (separated into total [T] and urban [U] emissions): (1) Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (2) Carbon monoxide (CO), (3) Nitrogen oxides (NOx), (4) Particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter of 10 (micro)m or less (PM10), and (5) Sulfur oxides (SOx)

  7. Critical analysis on hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent times, the global debate on the environment has been centered on CO2 emissions. This gas is the major cause of the ''greenhouse effect'' and people are more concerned with the idea that the emissions of this gas should be minimized. As a result of this concern, the Kyoto Protocol was enacted and subscribed to by many countries, setting the maximum gas emissions for them. Fossil fuels are a major source of CO2 emissions. For some years now The European Union has been seeking to promote some years now the use of biofuels as substitutes for diesel or petrol for transport purposes. As a result of this policy, in 2003 the European Union (EU) Directive 2003/30/EC was developed with the aim of promoting the use of biofuels as a substitute for diesel or gasoline among European Union countries as well as to contribute to fulfilling the commitments acquired on climate change, security of supply in environmentally friendly conditions and the promotion of renewable energy sources. In order to achieve these goals, the directive forces all EU members to ensure that before December 31 of 2010 at least 5.75% of all gasoline and diesel fuels sold for transport purposes are biofuels. European Union countries have social and economic characteristics unique to themselves. The energy dependence on foreign sources, the features of the agricultural sector or the degree of industrialization varies greatly from one country to another. In this context, it is questionable whether the obligation imposed by this directive is actually achieving in its application uniform and/or identical goals in each of the countries involved and whether the actions of the various governments are also aligned with these goals. All these ideas were developed in a previous report (Sobrino and Monroy (2009)). This report examines the possibility of using hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels from a technical, economic and environmental point of view in the specific case of a European

  8. The role of company car taxation to promote low carbon vehicle technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Stephen; Atchulo, Abukari

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the CO2 based company car taxation that has been in place in the UK since 2002. One aim of this ecotaxation reform was to promote the uptake of low carbon vehicle technologies, but in practice the tax reform led to the widespread use of diesel cars. With company cars making up 55% of new car sales, this has led to a major shift towards diesel in the UK car stock as a whole. In 2010 a modification to the company car taxation system was introduced, which prov...

  9. Technology as a vehicle for inclusion of learners with attention deficits in mainstream schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, Hanne; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2015-01-01

    The potential of technology for supporting educational processes of participation, collaboration and creation is widely accepted. Likewise have digital tools proved to enhance learning processes for disabled learners. A currently topical group, politically and educationally, in the discourse...... – and as a vehicle for general human growth in their learning community. The paper presents the primer results and describes and discusses the challenges of both teachers’ and learners’, involved in the inclusion process. Finally, on the basis of findings, a typology of tools is suggested, which may support...... inclusive teaching and learning for the target group in question....

  10. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Rober [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix [ORNL; Naskar, Amit [ORNL; Kaufman, Michael [ORNL; Yarborough, Ken [ORNL; Derstine, Chris [The Dow Chemical Company

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

  11. Developing a 'Research Test Bed' to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's 'clean and green' image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water and Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal 'vehicle emissions research environment' supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

  12. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  13. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Power Distribution System Considering Vehicle to Grid Technology: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. Aljanad; Azah Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive review of the potential technical impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power distribution and transmission systems. This review also presents various power quality impacts on the power system in several aspects. This review conveys a detailed analysis of electric vehicle charging strategies on electrical distribution networks. The two charging aspects (coordinated/uncoordinated) and intelligent scheduling of charging are discussed in terms of thei...

  14. High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjipanayis, George C. [University of Delaware; McCallum, William R. [Ames Laboratory; Sellmyer, David J. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Harris, Vincent [Northeastern University; Carpenter, Everett E. [Virginia Commonwealth University; Liu, Jinfang [Electron Energy Corporation

    2013-12-17

    The report summarizes research undertaken by a multidisciplinary team aimed at the development of the next generation high-energy permanent magnets. The principal approach was relied on bottom-up fabrication of anisotropic nanocomposite magnets. Our efforts resulted in further development of the theoretical concept and fabrication principles for the nanocomposites and in synthesis of a range of rare-earth-based hard magnetic nanoparticles. Even though we did not make a breakthrough in the assembly of these hard magnetic particles with separately prepared Fe(Co) nanoparticles and did not obtain a compact nanocomposite magnet, our performed research will help to direct the future efforts, in particular, towards nano-assembly via coating, when the two phases which made the nanocomposite are first organized in core-shell-structured particles. Two other approaches were to synthesize (discover) new materials for the traditional singe-material magnets and the nanocomposite magnets. Integrated theoretical and experimental efforts lead to a significant advance in nanocluster synthesis technique and yielded novel rare-earth-free nanostructured and nanocomposite materials. Examination of fifteen R-Fe-X alloy systems (R = rare earth), which have not been explored earlier due to various synthesis difficulties reveal several new ferromagnetic compounds. The research has made major progress in bottom-up manufacturing of rare-earth-containing nanocomposite magnets with superior energy density and open new directions in development of higher-energy-density magnets that do not contain rare earths. The advance in the scientific knowledge and technology made in the course of the project has been reported in 50 peer-reviewed journal articles and numerous presentations at scientific meetings.

  15. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor

  16. Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G.; Simmons, O. D., III; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  17. Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (after-treatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R and D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Geospatial Technology Pushing the Limits of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Often referred to as unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs, drones were most commonly associated with military or police operations but with advancement in information technology in last two decades, cheaper and smaller sensors, better integration and ease-of-use options this tool is start revolutionizing the way geospatial data is collected in many countries, monitoring large, rugged areas, tracking down criminals, observing forest fires and disaster areas. Beyond just viewing the result, with the use of photogrammetry, image processing and ground control points, the captured imagery could provide a base for collecting all the 2D and 3D features that are the last-mile problem in modeling and visualizing the whole world. The research aims to understand various characteristics of this emerging technology that makes it the most promising geospatial and attribute data collection tool in GIS community. Second aim of this paper is to explore the possible applications of UAV in the developing country like India.

  19. Vehicle mounted direct push systems, sampling tools and case histories: An overview of an emerging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicles designed to perform subsurface sampling and testing without drilling include conventional cone penetrometers (CPTs), hybrid penetrometers,a nd truck or van mounted hydraulic/percussion probes. The reaction weight and corresponding depth of penetration for these vehicles ranges from 20+ tons and 100+ ft depths to less than 1 ton and about 20 ft depths depending on the degree of consolidation and soil type. Each vehicle allows for sampling without generation of drill cuttings and the site disruption of a typical drilling operation. Tools for direct push delivery have been developed for the collection of relatively undisturbed samples of soil, water and soil gas at discrete depths. Emerging technologies promise the continuous monitoring (vertical dynamic profiling) of the subsurface. These integrated penetration/chemical sensing systems include total and spectral gamma probes, fiber optic VOC sensors (for light and hydrocarbons C1 to C10) and spectral fluorimeters (for the heavy end hydrocarbons -- C10 to C20). Expert systems will allow for the rapid interpretation of the data. Automated data management systems provide for the continuous monitoring of chemical and physical parameters. Case studies of petroleum contaminated facilities are discussed describing how direct push technologies were used to both streamline and enhance a site investigation. By sampling and analyzing soil and water contamination and at the same time measure remedial parameters such as soil permeability, a greater degree of comprehension and information were obtained in a single site visit. Remedial option selection and remedial design were both based on the results of the direct push investigation

  20. The role of utilities in enabling technology innovation: The BC hydro alternative & emerging energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Alex; Leclair, Donna; Morrison, Allison

    2010-09-15

    In order for renewable energy to play a dominant role in the global electricity supply mix, emerging renewable energy technologies - such as wave, tidal, enhanced geothermal, and 3rd generation photovoltaic technologies - must prove their technical merits and achieve cost parity with conventional sources of supply. BC Hydro, a government-owned electric utility, launched an Alternative and Emerging Energy Strategy that describes its role as an enabler of technology innovation. This paper describes BC Hydro's goal, objectives and actions to accelerate the commercialization that will yield a diversity of supply options and a growing, local clean-tech cluster.

  1. Technological Determinism in Educational Technology Research: Some Alternative Ways of Thinking about the Relationship between Learning and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are…

  2. Selecting low carbon technologies for heavy goods vehicles: a case study in the UK fast food supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Velazquez Abad, Anthony; Cherrett, Tom; Waterson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The fast food supply chain is facing increased operating costs due to rising food and energy prices. Based on a case study of a major fast food logistics operator, this paper uses a metaheuristic evolutionary algorithm to find the optimal combination of low carbon vehicle, powertrain and transport refrigeration technologies that minimise net present costs for a heterogeneous fleet of heavy goods vehicles operating in the chilled and frozen food sector. Based on the financial and operatio...

  3. The technologies for heavy vehicles motors and their fuels; Les technologies des moteurs de vehicules lourds et leurs carburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plassat, G.

    2005-07-01

    The heavy vehicles are those the total weight (charged) is more than 3,5 tons. This document provides a comparative and parametric analysis of the main technologies developed for the future buses. A detailed presentation is done for each technique, as the operating principles and the advantages and disadvantages facing the today solution. More particularly the author presents the evolution of the diesel-fuel motor, the motor optimization for specific fuel as the natural gas and the liquefied petroleum gas, the hybrid thermal-electric motor, the hydrogen fuel cells, the biofuels and the de-pollution systems to eliminate the NO{sub X} and the particles. (A.L.B.)

  4. A market systems analysis of the U.S. Sport Utility Vehicle market considering frontal crash safety technology and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffenson, Steven; Frischknecht, Bart D; Papalambros, Panos Y

    2013-01-01

    Active safety features and adjustments to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) consumer-information crash tests have the potential to decrease the number of serious traffic injuries each year, according to previous studies. However, literature suggests that risk reductions, particularly in the automotive market, are often accompanied by adjusted consumer risk tolerance, and so these potential safety benefits may not be fully realized due to changes in consumer purchasing or driving behavior. This article approaches safety in the new vehicle market, particularly in the Sport Utility Vehicle and Crossover Utility Vehicle segments, from a market systems perspective. Crash statistics and simulations are used to predict the effects of design and policy changes on occupant crash safety, and discrete choice experiments are conducted to estimate the values consumers place on vehicle attributes. These models are combined in a market simulation that forecasts how consumers respond to the available vehicle alternatives, resulting in predictions of the market share of each vehicle and how the change in fleet mixture influences societal outcomes including injuries, fuel consumption, and firm profits. The model is tested for a scenario where active safety features are implemented across the new vehicle fleet and a scenario where the U.S. frontal NCAP test speed is modified. While results exhibit evidence of consumer risk adjustment, they support adding active safety features and lowering the NCAP frontal test speed, as these changes are predicted to improve the welfare of both firms and society. PMID:22898094

  5. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation -- Gen 2 -- Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  6. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  7. High-Throughput 3-D Monitoring of Agricultural-Tree Plantations with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; López-Granados, Francisca; Serrano, Nicolás; Arquero, Octavio; Peña, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The geometric features of agricultural trees such as canopy area, tree height and crown volume provide useful information about plantation status and crop production. However, these variables are mostly estimated after a time-consuming and hard field work and applying equations that treat the trees as geometric solids, which produce inconsistent results. As an alternative, this work presents an innovative procedure for computing the 3-dimensional geometric features of individual trees and tree-rows by applying two consecutive phases: 1) generation of Digital Surface Models with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology and 2) use of object-based image analysis techniques. Our UAV-based procedure produced successful results both in single-tree and in tree-row plantations, reporting up to 97% accuracy on area quantification and minimal deviations compared to in-field estimations of tree heights and crown volumes. The maps generated could be used to understand the linkages between tree grown and field-related factors or to optimize crop management operations in the context of precision agriculture with relevant agro-environmental implications. PMID:26107174

  8. High-Throughput 3-D Monitoring of Agricultural-Tree Plantations with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Torres-Sánchez

    Full Text Available The geometric features of agricultural trees such as canopy area, tree height and crown volume provide useful information about plantation status and crop production. However, these variables are mostly estimated after a time-consuming and hard field work and applying equations that treat the trees as geometric solids, which produce inconsistent results. As an alternative, this work presents an innovative procedure for computing the 3-dimensional geometric features of individual trees and tree-rows by applying two consecutive phases: 1 generation of Digital Surface Models with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV technology and 2 use of object-based image analysis techniques. Our UAV-based procedure produced successful results both in single-tree and in tree-row plantations, reporting up to 97% accuracy on area quantification and minimal deviations compared to in-field estimations of tree heights and crown volumes. The maps generated could be used to understand the linkages between tree grown and field-related factors or to optimize crop management operations in the context of precision agriculture with relevant agro-environmental implications.

  9. High-Throughput 3-D Monitoring of Agricultural-Tree Plantations with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; López-Granados, Francisca; Serrano, Nicolás; Arquero, Octavio; Peña, José M

    2015-01-01

    The geometric features of agricultural trees such as canopy area, tree height and crown volume provide useful information about plantation status and crop production. However, these variables are mostly estimated after a time-consuming and hard field work and applying equations that treat the trees as geometric solids, which produce inconsistent results. As an alternative, this work presents an innovative procedure for computing the 3-dimensional geometric features of individual trees and tree-rows by applying two consecutive phases: 1) generation of Digital Surface Models with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology and 2) use of object-based image analysis techniques. Our UAV-based procedure produced successful results both in single-tree and in tree-row plantations, reporting up to 97% accuracy on area quantification and minimal deviations compared to in-field estimations of tree heights and crown volumes. The maps generated could be used to understand the linkages between tree grown and field-related factors or to optimize crop management operations in the context of precision agriculture with relevant agro-environmental implications. PMID:26107174

  10. Preliminary Sizing Completed for Single- Stage-To-Orbit Launch Vehicles Powered By Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    Single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) propulsion remains an elusive goal for launch vehicles. The physics of the problem is leading developers to a search for higher propulsion performance than is available with all-rocket power. Rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technology provides additional propulsion performance that may enable SSTO flight. Structural efficiency is also a major driving force in enabling SSTO flight. Increases in performance with RBCC propulsion are offset with the added size of the propulsion system. Geometrical considerations must be exploited to minimize the weight. Integration of the propulsion system with the vehicle must be carefully planned such that aeroperformance is not degraded and the air-breathing performance is enhanced. Consequently, the vehicle's structural architecture becomes one with the propulsion system architecture. Geometrical considerations applied to the integrated vehicle lead to low drag and high structural and volumetric efficiency. Sizing of the SSTO launch vehicle (GTX) is itself an elusive task. The weight of the vehicle depends strongly on the propellant required to meet the mission requirements. Changes in propellant requirements result in changes in the size of the vehicle, which in turn, affect the weight of the vehicle and change the propellant requirements. An iterative approach is necessary to size the vehicle to meet the flight requirements. GTX Sizer was developed to do exactly this. The governing geometry was built into a spreadsheet model along with scaling relationships. The scaling laws attempt to maintain structural integrity as the vehicle size is changed. Key aerodynamic relationships are maintained as the vehicle size is changed. The closed weight and center of gravity are displayed graphically on a plot of the synthesized vehicle. In addition, comprehensive tabular data of the subsystem weights and centers of gravity are generated. The model has been verified for accuracy with finite element analysis. The

  11. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  12. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  13. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  14. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  16. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications

  17. Parameters Matching and Control Method of Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles with Secondary Regulation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui; JIANG Jihai; WANG Xin

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV) with secondary regulation technology has the potential of improving fuel economy by operating the engine in the optimum efficiency range and making use of regenerative braking. Hydrostatic transmission technology has the advantage of higher power density and the ability to accept the high rates and high frequencies of charging and discharging, both of which are not favorable for batteries, but the lower energy density requires special power matching design and control strategy to coordinate all the powertrain components in an optimal manner. A multi-objective optimization method is proposed to distinguish the components size values of HHV by considering the requirements of driving cycles and technology aspects. The regenerative braking strategy and energy control strategy based on the optimized HHV is proposed to recovery the braking energy and distribute the regenerated braking energy. Simulation results show that by taking the optimized configuration of HHV, adopting the regenerative braking strategy and energy control strategy are helpful to improve the system efficiency and fuel economy of HHV under urban driving cycles.

  18. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam

    2013-07-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country. purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

  19. Are Green Vehicles Worth the Extra Cost? The Case of Diesel-Electric Hybrid Technology for Urban Delivery Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilla, Kerry; Graham, John D.

    2012-01-01

    A central question for environmental policy is whether the long-term benefits of energy-saving technologies are sufficient to justify their short-term costs, and if so, whether financial incentives are needed to stimulate adoption. The fiscal effects of incentivizing new technologies, and the revenue effects of using the technology, are also…

  20. Development of Sensors and Sensing Technology for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, E L; Sekhar, P K; Mukundan, R; Williamson, T; Garzon, F H; Woo, L Y; Glass, R R

    2010-01-06

    One related area of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) development that cannot be overlooked is the anticipated requirement for new sensors for both the monitoring and control of the fuel cell's systems and for those devices that will be required for safety. Present day automobiles have dozens of sensors on-board including those for IC engine management/control, sensors for state-of-health monitoring/control of emissions systems, sensors for control of active safety systems, sensors for triggering passive safety systems, and sensors for more mundane tasks such as fluids level monitoring to name the more obvious. The number of sensors continues to grow every few years as a result of safety mandates but also in response to consumer demands for new conveniences and safety features. Some of these devices (e.g. yaw sensors for dynamic stability control systems or tire presure warning RF-based devices) may be used on fuel cell vehicles without any modification. However the use of hydrogen as a fuel will dictate the development of completely new technologies for such requirements as the detection of hydrogen leaks, sensors and systems to continuously monitor hydrogen fuel purity and protect the fuel cell stack from poisoning, and for the important, yet often taken for granted, tasks such as determining the state of charge of the hydrogen fuel storage and delivery system. Two such sensors that rely on different transduction mechanisms will be highlighted in this presentation. The first is an electrochemical device for monitoring hydrogen levels in air. The other technology covered in this work, is an acoustic-based approach to determine the state of charge of a hydride storage system.

  1. Comparative evaluation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions for alternate iron- and steelmaking process technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Y.; Kumar, S; Freislich, M.; Yaroshenko, Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In the changing global market scenario for raw materials for the steel industry, a number of novel iron- and steelmaking process technologies are being developed to provide the steel companies with economically-sustainable alternatives for iron- and steel-making. In addition, the steel industry is also focusing on reduction of energy consumption as well as green-house gas (GHG) emissions to address the crucial subject of climate change. In this context, it is important to assess these critica...

  2. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir; Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman; Md. Sohrab Hossain; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker; Venugopal Balakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree ...

  3. Cost-effectiveness of alternative green payment policies for conservation technology adoption with heterogeneous land quality

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Madhu; Isik, Murat; Zilberman, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper quantitatively analyses the cost-effectiveness of alternative green payment policies designed to achieve a targeted level of pollution control by heterogeneous micro units. These green payment policies include cost-share subsidies that share the fixed costs of adoption of a conservation technology and/or input reduction subsidies to reduce the use of a polluting input. The paper shows that unlike a pollution tax that achieves abatement through three mechanisms, a negative extensive...

  4. Rural energy assessment and potential alternative energy resources & technologies in rural areas of Abbottabad, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an in-depth review and critical analysis of the various rural energy resources and their socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods in Abbottabad, Pakistan. It also explores the potential alternative energy resources and affordable technologies for rural people and as well as their potential socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods. The review of the consumption aspect ...

  5. New technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining. Preprints of the conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Jess, A.; Lercher, J.A.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Marchionna, M. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    This international conference paper provides a forum for chemists and engineers from refinery, petrochemistry and the chemical industry as well as from academia to discuss new technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining with the special topic ''Shale Gas, Heavy Oils and Coal''. 23 Lectures and 18 Posters are presented. All papers are analyzed for the ENERGY database.

  6. From conventional Infrastructure to Technological Infrastructure Capabilities: A New Alternative for Harnessing Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries have relied on natural resources, tourism services and raw materials for economic growth. In the past the returns from such investments were high enough to sustain rapid population growth. The education system and hence the research and technology endeavors of these countries were directed at meeting the needs of the above economic drivers. the decline in the growth of gross domestic product from 7% in the seventies to three or negative percent growth of most developing countries in the last two to three decades has signaled countries are to compete favourably in a knowledge-led economy. The acceptance of the need to change on its own is not a sufficient condition for economic turn around unless the emphasis is also placed on investments that will improve the science and technological learning process. Improvement of a continuous learning process has several prerequisites, namely: Establishment of a strong science, technology and innovation policy with forward and backward linkages; Formulation of national innovation systems; Clustering of institutions and organizations to maximize co-operation between private sector, universities and research institutions and government; Establishments of legal and institutional framework laws and regulations which are essential for business investments; Provision of incentives, loans, investments and guarantees that will attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and private sector participation; and Restructuring of how government does business so that there is strong government leadership through policy formulation and operations without strong government command and obey practices

  7. Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring key technology in coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    The coastal wetland, a transitional zone between terrestrial ecosystems and marine ecosystems, is the type of great value to ecosystem services. For the recent 3 decades, area of the coastal wetland is decreasing and the ecological function is gradually degraded with the rapid development of economy, which restricts the sustainable development of economy and society in the coastal areas of China in turn. It is a major demand of the national reality to carry out the monitoring of coastal wetlands, to master the distribution and dynamic change. UAV, namely unmanned aerial vehicle, is a new platform for remote sensing. Compared with the traditional satellite and manned aerial remote sensing, it has the advantage of flexible implementation, no cloud cover, strong initiative and low cost. Image-spectrum merging is one character of high spectral remote sensing. At the same time of imaging, the spectral curve of each pixel is obtained, which is suitable for quantitative remote sensing, fine classification and target detection. Aimed at the frontier and hotspot of remote sensing monitoring technology, and faced the demand of the coastal wetland monitoring, this paper used UAV and the new remote sensor of high spectral imaging instrument to carry out the analysis of the key technologies of monitoring coastal wetlands by UAV on the basis of the current situation in overseas and domestic and the analysis of developing trend. According to the characteristic of airborne hyperspectral data on UAV, that is "three high and one many", the key technology research that should develop are promoted as follows: 1) the atmosphere correction of the UAV hyperspectral in coastal wetlands under the circumstance of complex underlying surface and variable geometry, 2) the best observation scale and scale transformation method of the UAV platform while monitoring the coastal wetland features, 3) the classification and detection method of typical features with high precision from multi scale

  8. Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Kārlis

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

  9. Research on the Key Technology of Cooperative Attack for Manned Vehicle/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle%有人/无人机协同作战关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马向玲; 雷宇曜

    2012-01-01

    After the analysis of unmanned combat aerial vehicle about its research and use in many countries, this paper gives a cooperative attack command and control system structure of manned/ unmanned aerial vehicles. According to the position and main mission, the system divided into two parts, the manned platform and unmanned platform, then the structure and function of each platform are discussed. It is analyzed that some key technologies of cooperative attack. The technologies are cooperative control technology, situation awareness, cooperative target allocation, path planning, cooperative damage assessment and intelligent decision making technology. A combat flow and information processing flow are given for a representative combat mission. Finally, the research area is proposed to address development tendency of unmanned combat aerial vehicle.%分析了无人作战飞机在各国的研究及使用情况,给出了有人/无人机协同作战指挥控制系统的结构,按照空间位置和主要完成任务的不同,将系统分为有人机、无人机两个平台,介绍了各平台的组成部分及相应的功能,归纳出协同作战所需要解决的关键技术:交互控制技术、协同态势感知、协同目标分配、协同航路规划技术、毁伤效能评估技术及智能决策技术,并且给出了一个在典型作战任务想定下的作战及信息处理流程.最后对无人作战飞机未来的发展方向进行了展望.

  10. Exploration life support technology challenges for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and future human missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2010-04-01

    As NASA implements the U.S. Space Exploration Policy, life support systems must be provided for an expanding sequence of exploration missions. NASA has implemented effective life support for Apollo, the Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) and continues to develop advanced systems. This paper provides an overview of life support requirements, previously implemented systems, and new technologies being developed by the Exploration Life Support Project for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Outpost and future Mars missions. The two contrasting practical approaches to providing space life support are (1) open loop direct supply of atmosphere, water, and food, and (2) physicochemical regeneration of air and water with direct supply of food. Open loop direct supply of air and water is cost effective for short missions, but recycling oxygen and water saves costly launch mass on longer missions. Because of the short CEV mission durations, the CEV life support system will be open loop as in Apollo and Space Shuttle. New life support technologies for CEV that address identified shortcomings of existing systems are discussed. Because both ISS and Lunar Outpost have a planned 10-year operational life, the Lunar Outpost life support system should be regenerative like that for ISS and it could utilize technologies similar to ISS. The Lunar Outpost life support system, however, should be extensively redesigned to reduce mass, power, and volume, to improve reliability and incorporate lessons learned, and to take advantage of technology advances over the last 20 years. The Lunar Outpost design could also take advantage of partial gravity and lunar resources.

  11. Cross Cutting Relative Navigation Technologies for Improved Landing Accuracy and Vehicle-to-Vehicle Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. L.; Masciarelli, J.; Rohrschneider, R. R.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation addresses recent development and test progress, as well as future technology advancement plans for precision landing and Autonomous Rendezvous, Proximity Operations and Docking (ARPOD).

  12. Natural Environmental Service Support to NASA Vehicle, Technology, and Sensor Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The research performed under this contract involved definition of the natural environmental parameters affecting the design, development, and operation of space and launch vehicles. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) provided the manpower and resources to accomplish the following tasks: defining environmental parameters critical for design, development, and operation of launch vehicles; defining environmental forecasts required to assure optimal utilization of launch vehicles; and defining orbital environments of operation and developing models on environmental parameters affecting launch vehicle operations.

  13. Assessment of the State of the Art of Integrated Vehicle Health Management Technologies as Applicable to Damage Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies assessed the state of the art in current integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) aircraft technologies. These are the technologies that are used for assessing vehicle health at the system and subsystem level. This study reports on how these technologies are employed by major military and commercial platforms for detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation. Over 200 papers from five conferences from the time period of 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. Over 30 of these IVHM technologies are then mapped into the 17 different adverse event damage conditions identified in a previous study. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IVHM Project.

  14. Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  15. Clean Cities 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-02-11

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  16. 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  17. Subgroup report on alternative technology strategies for the isolation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to support programmatic approaches to the disposal of high-level and transuranic-contaminated (TRU) wastes. For this purpose the report describes, in Appendices A through F, the state of knowledge relevant to selected nuclear waste disposal technologies. Within the main report a number of alternative technological strategies that could lead to a disposal facility are specified for illustrative and analytical purposes. These strategies span a wide range of variations of technological emphasis and programmatic diversity. Selected implications of these strategies are analyzed. In addition, subjects such as technical conservatism, retrievability, and intermediate scale facilities, that apply to any strategy, are examined and implications of each are discussed

  18. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable

  19. Estimating GHG Reduction from Combinations of Current Best-Available and Future Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for a Midsized Car Using EPA’s ALPHA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA identified the best, or most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to predict the GHG emissions would be from a midsized car incorporating the best combination of these technologies.

  20. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) Operator Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Heiss, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    A cultural debate exists to determine if the MQ-8B Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) should be operated by rated pilots, commissioned officers, or enlisted personnel. Each military service has historically treated this issue differently. The U.S. Navy currently requires rated pilots to fly Fire Scout, the U.S. Army and Marine Corps allow enlisted personnel to fly their Shadow Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), and the Air Force only allows rated pilo...

  1. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  2. Reliable and repeatable bonding technology for high temperature automotive power modules for electrified vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the feasibility of highly reliable and repeatable copper–tin transient liquid phase (Cu–Sn TLP) bonding as applied to die attachment in high temperature operational power modules. Electrified vehicles are attracting particular interest as eco-friendly vehicles, but their power modules are challenged because of increasing power densities which lead to high temperatures. Such high temperature operation addresses the importance of advanced bonding technology that is highly reliable (for high temperature operation) and repeatable (for fabrication of advanced structures). Cu–Sn TLP bonding is employed herein because of its high remelting temperature and desirable thermal and electrical conductivities. The bonding starts with a stack of Cu–Sn–Cu metal layers that eventually transforms to Cu–Sn alloys. As the alloys have melting temperatures (Cu3Sn: > 600 °C, Cu6Sn5: > 400 °C) significantly higher than the process temperature, the process can be repeated without damaging previously bonded layers. A Cu–Sn TLP bonding process was developed using thin Sn metal sheets inserted between copper layers on silicon die and direct bonded copper substrates, emulating the process used to construct automotive power modules. Bond quality is characterized using (1) proof-of-concept fabrication, (2) material identification using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis, and (3) optical analysis using optical microscopy and scanning acoustic microscope. The feasibility of multiple-sided Cu–Sn TLP bonding is demonstrated by the absence of bondline damage in multiple test samples fabricated with double- or four-sided bonding using the TLP bonding process. (paper)

  3. Reliable and repeatable bonding technology for high temperature automotive power modules for electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang Won; Glover, Michael D.; Mantooth, H. Alan; Shiozaki, Koji

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the feasibility of highly reliable and repeatable copper-tin transient liquid phase (Cu-Sn TLP) bonding as applied to die attachment in high temperature operational power modules. Electrified vehicles are attracting particular interest as eco-friendly vehicles, but their power modules are challenged because of increasing power densities which lead to high temperatures. Such high temperature operation addresses the importance of advanced bonding technology that is highly reliable (for high temperature operation) and repeatable (for fabrication of advanced structures). Cu-Sn TLP bonding is employed herein because of its high remelting temperature and desirable thermal and electrical conductivities. The bonding starts with a stack of Cu-Sn-Cu metal layers that eventually transforms to Cu-Sn alloys. As the alloys have melting temperatures (Cu3Sn: > 600 °C, Cu6Sn5: > 400 °C) significantly higher than the process temperature, the process can be repeated without damaging previously bonded layers. A Cu-Sn TLP bonding process was developed using thin Sn metal sheets inserted between copper layers on silicon die and direct bonded copper substrates, emulating the process used to construct automotive power modules. Bond quality is characterized using (1) proof-of-concept fabrication, (2) material identification using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis, and (3) optical analysis using optical microscopy and scanning acoustic microscope. The feasibility of multiple-sided Cu-Sn TLP bonding is demonstrated by the absence of bondline damage in multiple test samples fabricated with double- or four-sided bonding using the TLP bonding process.

  4. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. R. Zirker; J. E. Francfort; J. J. Fielding

    2006-03-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation final report documents the feasibility of using oil bypass filters on 17 vehicles in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) fleet during a 3-year test period. Almost 1.3 million test miles were accumulated, with eleven 4-cycle diesel engine buses accumulating 982,548 test miles and six gasoline-engine Chevrolet Tahoes accumulating 303,172 test miles. Two hundred and forty oil samples, taken at each 12,000-mile bus servicing event and at 3,000 miles for the Tahoes, documented the condition of the engine oils for continued service. Twenty-eight variables were normally tested, including the presence of desired additives and undesired wear metals such as iron and chrome, as well as soot, water, glycol, and fuel. Depending on the assumptions employed, the INL found that oil bypass filter systems for diesel engine buses have a positive payback between 72,000 and 144,000 miles. For the Tahoes, the positive payback was between 66,000 and 69,000 miles.

  5. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  6. Mitsubishi iMiEV: An Electric Mini-Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Mitsubishi iMiEV, an electric mini-car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's fast-charging research efforts, NREL engineers are conducting charge and discharge performance testing on the vehicle. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  7. Genome engineering with TAL-effector nucleases and alternative modular nuclease technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharenberg, Andrew M; Duchateau, Philippe; Smith, Julianne

    2013-08-01

    Over three years following the discovery of the TAL code, artificial TAL effector DNA binding domains have emerged as the premier platform for building site-specific DNA binding polypeptides for use in biological research. Here, we provide an overview of TAL effector and alternative modular DNA binding domain (mDBD) technologies, focusing on their use in established and emerging architectures for building site-specific endonucleases for genome engineering applications. We also discuss considerations for choosing TAL effector/mDBD or alternative nuclease technologies for genome engineering projects ranging from basic laboratory gene editing of cultured cell lines to therapeutics. Finally, we highlight how the rapid pace of development of mDBD-based, such as monomeric TALENs (I-TevI-TAL), and more recently RNA-guided nucleases (CRISPR-Cas9) has led to a transition in the field of genome engineering towards development of the next generation of technologies aimed at controlling events that occur after targeted DNA breaks are made. PMID:23888878

  8. Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging Technology%电动汽车的无线充电技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊

    2011-01-01

    发展电动汽车是节能、环保和低碳经济的需求,电动汽车的充电装置相当于汽车燃料的加注站,无线供电(WPT)是未来电动汽车供电技术的发展趋势。文章首先综述了无线充电技术能解决电动汽车发展的难题,接着介绍了无线充电技术是扩大电动汽车市场的关键而受到了关注,然后研究了电动汽车无线充电装置的类型、工作原理,最后讨论了电动汽车无线充电装置的应用前景。%The development of electric vehicles is in compliance with the demand of energy conservation, environmental protection and low-carbon economy. Electric car charging unit is the equivalent to a motor fuel filling station, the wireless power technology (WPT) will represent the trend of electric vehicles powered technology in the future. First, the paper tells us that the wireless charging technology is the solution to the development of electric vehicles. And then the paper introduces the wireless charging technology is the key to expanding electric vehicle market which has become the focus among people. At last, the paper studies the types of electric vehicle wireless charging device, operating principle as well as the discussion on the application prospects of electric car wireless charging device.

  9. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  10. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  11. Nickel/metal hydride technology for consumer and electric vehicle batteries—a review and up-date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, S. K.; Ovshínsky, S. R.; Gifford, P. R.; Corrigan, D. A.; Fetcenko, M. A.; Venkatesan, S.

    Nickel/metal hydride batteries today represent the fastest growing market segment for rechargeable batteries due to the high energy density and more environmentally acceptable chemistry offered by this technology. The high energy density of nickel/metal hydride batteries coupled with high power density and long cycle life make this battery chemistry a key enabling technology for practical electric vehicles, including cars, vans, trucks, and other forms of transportation such as scooters, bicycles, and three-wheelers. This paper provides a review of Ovonic technology and up-dates recent developments in materials and cell development for both consumer electronic and EV applications, and highlights areas for future development.

  12. ISO New England: Results of Ancillary Service Pilot Programs, Alternative Technology Regulation Pilot Program and Demand Response Reserves Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, Jon [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States); Yoshimura, Henry [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States)

    2011-10-26

    This PowerPoint presentation compares performance of pilot program assets and generation resources in alternative technology regulation and demand response reserves for flywheels and residential electric thermal storage.

  13. Comparison of Ultra Capacitors, Hydraulic Accumulators and Batteries Technologies to Optimize Hybrid Vehicle Ecoefficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nzisabira, Jonathan; Louvigny, Yannick; Duysinx, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of vehicle powertrain hybridization is to improve the fuel consumption and environment pollutants impact (Eco-score) without decreasing the vehicle performances and other user satisfaction criteria. The Eco efficiency is a global index which accounts for both environmental impacts and user satisfaction. The Hybrid vehicles ability to overcome these two requirements depends on the optimal choice of their key mechanical, electric or hydraulic components. Some energy storage ...

  14. Development and Improvement of Active Vehicle Safety Systems by Means of Smart Tire Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Arat, Mustafa Ali

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a vehicle is predominantly controlled by the forces and moments generated at the contact patch between the tire and the road surface. As a result, tire characteristics can dramatically change vehicle response, especially during maneuvers that yields the tires to reach to the limits of its adhesion capacity. To assist the driver in such cases and to prevent other possible instability scenarios, various vehicle control systems e.g. anti-lock brakes (ABS), ...

  15. Review and recent advances in battery health monitoring and prognostics technologies for electric vehicle (EV) safety and mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanizaniani, Seyed Mohammad; Liu, Zongchang; Chen, Yan; Lee, Jay

    2014-06-01

    As hybrid and electric vehicle technologies continue to advance, car manufacturers have begun to employ lithium ion batteries as the electrical energy storage device of choice for use in existing and future vehicles. However, to ensure batteries are reliable, efficient, and capable of delivering power and energy when required, an accurate determination of battery performance, health, and life prediction is necessary. This paper provides a review of battery prognostics and health management (PHM) techniques, with a focus on major unmet needs in this area for battery manufacturers, car designers, and electric vehicle drivers. A number of approaches are presented that have been developed to monitor battery health status and performance, as well as the evolution of prognostics modeling methods. The goal of this review is to render feasible and cost effective solutions for dealing with battery life issues under dynamic operating conditions.

  16. The application of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing technology in the FAST project construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Boqin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing application in Five-hundred-meter aperture spherical telescope (FAST) project is to dynamically record the construction process with high resolution image, monitor the environmental impact, and provide services for local environmental protection and the reserve immigrants. This paper introduces the use of UAV remote sensing system and the course design and implementation for the FAST site. Through the analysis of the time series data, we found that: (1) since the year 2012, the project has been widely carried out; (2) till 2013, the internal project begun to take shape;(3) engineering excavation scope was kept stable in 2014, and the initial scale of the FAST engineering construction has emerged as in the meantime, the vegetation recovery went well on the bare soil area; (4) in 2015, none environmental problems caused by engineering construction and other engineering geological disaster were found in the work area through the image interpretation of UAV images. This paper also suggested that the UAV technology need some improvements to fulfill the requirements of surveying and mapping specification., including a new data acquisition and processing measures assigned with the background of highly diverse elevation, usage of telephoto camera, hierarchical photography with different flying height, and adjustment with terrain using the joint empty three settlement method.

  17. Controlling and Reducing of Speed for Vehicles Automatically By Using Rf Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ravindra Babu,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For vehicle safety and safety for passengers in vehicle is an important parameter. Most of the vehicles get accident because no proper safety measures are taken especially at curves and hair pin bends humps and any obstacles in front of the vehicle. This system can be used for the prevention of such a problem by indicating a pre indication and also reducing the speed of vehicles by reducing the fuel rate of vehicle. As the action is in terms of fuel rate so the vehicle automatically goes to control and avoids the accidents. At curves and hair pin bends the line of sight is not possible for the drivers so the special kind of transmitter which is tuned at a frequency of 433MHZ are mounted as these transmitters continuously radiate a RF signal for some particular area. As the vehicle come within this radiation the receiver in the vehicle gets activate. The transmitter used here is a coded transmitter which is encoded with encoder. The encoder provides a 4 bit binary data which is serially transmitted to transmitter. The transmitter used here is ASK type (amplitude shift keying which emits the RF radiation.

  18. Vehicle Theft Alert and Location Identification Using GSM, GPS and Web Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garba Suleiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insecurity is one of the major challenges that the entire world is facing now, each country having their peculiar security issues. The crime rate in every part of the society these days has become a threatening issue such that vehicles are now used for committing criminal activities more than before. The issue of vehicle theft has increased tremendously, mostly at gunpoint or car parks. In view of these, there is a need for adequate records of stolen, identified and recovered vehicles which are not readily available in our society and as such very important. The development of a vehicle theft alert and location identification system becomes more necessary for vehicle owners to ensure theft prevention and a speedy identification towards recovery efforts in situations where a vehicle is missing, stolen or driven by an unauthorized person. The theft alert function makes use of a GSM application developed and installed in a mobile phone device which is embedded in the vehicle to communicate with the vehicle owner’s mobile phone. The communication is established via SMS (i.e. between the installed mobile phone device and that of the vehicle owner. The communications established include; (i. Sending an SMS alert from installed mobile phone device to vehicle owner mobile phone when the car ignition is put on. (ii. Sending an SMS from the vehicle owner’s mobile phone to start and stop the installed mobile phone device application. The location identification function makes use of a web application developed to; (i. Determine the real time location of a vehicle by means of tracking using GPS. (ii. Broadcast missing or stolen vehicle information to social media and security agency. The implementation of the installed mobile phone device application was done using JAVA because of its capabilities in programming mobile applications while PHP and MySQL was used for the web application functions. Integration testing of the system was carried out using

  19. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO(sub 2)), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NOx emissions from transportation may increase. The conclusions are: (1) It is essential to consider the entire fuel cycle in assessing the benefits, or disadvantages, of an alternative fuel option, i.e., feedstock and fuel production, in addition to vehicle operation; (2) Many improvements to the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle and engine combination will also reduce emissions by reducing fuel use, e.g., engine efficiency, reduced weight, drag and tire friction, and regenerative braking; (3) In reducing emissions it will be important to install the infrastructure to provide the improved fuels, support the maintenance of advanced vehicles, and provide emissions testing of both local vehicles and those from out of state; (4) Public transit systems using lower emission vehicles can play an important role in reducing emissions per passenger mile by carrying passengers more efficiently, particularly in congested areas. However, analysis is required for each situation; (5) Any reduction in emissions will be welcome, but the problems of air pollution in our region will not be solved by a few modest improvements. Substantial reductions in emissions of key pollutants are required both in East Tennessee and in

  20. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  1. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  2. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  3. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  4. Global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies: Combining fluorocarbon and CO2 effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are on their way out, due to their role in stratospheric ozone depletion and the related international Montreal Protocol agreement and various national phaseout timetables. As the research, engineering development, and manufacturing investment decisions have ensued to prepare for this transition away from CFCs, the climate change issue has emerged and there has recently been increased attention on the direct global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, there has been less focus on the indirect global warming effect arising from end-use energy changes and associated CO2 emissions. A study was undertaken to address these combined global warming effects. A concept of Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) was developed for combining the direct and indirect effects and was used for evaluating CFC-replacement options available in the required CFC transition time frame. Analyses of industry technology surveys indicate that CFC-user industries have made substantial progress toward near-equal energy efficiency with many HCFC/HFC alternatives. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the direct effect in many applications and stress energy efficiency when searching for suitable CFC alternatives. For chillers, household refrigerators, and unitary air-conditioning or heat pump equipment, changes in efficiency of only 2--5% would have a greater effect on future TEWI than completely eliminating the direct effect

  5. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Technologies for monitoring interstitial liquids in single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global search of mature, emerging, and conceptual tank liquid monitoring technologies, along with a historical review of Hanford tank farm waste monitoring instrumentation, was conducted to identify methods for gauging the quantity of interstitial waste liquids contained in Hanford SSTs. Upon completion of the search, an initial screening of alternatives was conducted to identify candidates which might be capable of monitoring interstitial tank liquids. The nine candidate technologies that were selected, evaluated, and ranked are summarized. Hydrostatic tank gauging (HTG) is the technology generally recommended for gauging the quantity of process materials contained in Hanford SSTs. HTG is a mass-based technique that has the capability for continuous remote monitoring. HTG has the advantages of no moving parts, intrinsic safety, and potentially gauging a one-million gal tank with a precision of approximately ±500 pounds (i.e., ±62 gal of water or ±0.02 in. of level in a 75 ft diameter tank). HTG is relatively inexpensive and probe design, construction, testing, installation, and operation should be straightforward. HTG should be configured as part of a hybrid tank gauging system. A hybrid system employs two or more independent measurement systems which function in concert to provide redundancy, improved accuracy, and maximum information at minimum cost. An excellent hybrid system choice for monitoring interstitial liquids in SSTs might be the combination of HTG with thermal differential technology

  6. Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy battery technology targets for battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Bae, Chulheung; Elder, Ron; Cunningham, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer significant potential to reduce the nation's consumption of petroleum based products and the production of greenhouse gases however, their widespread adoption is limited largely by the cost and performance limitations of modern batteries. With recent growth in efforts to accelerate BEV adoption (e.g. the Department of Energy's (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge) and the age of existing BEV battery technology targets, there is sufficient motivation to re-evaluate the industry's technology targets for battery performance and cost. Herein we document the analysis process that supported the selection of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium's (USABC) updated BEV battery technology targets. Our technology agnostic approach identifies the necessary battery performance characteristics that will enable the vehicle level performance required for a commercially successful, mass market full BEV, as guided by the workgroup's OEM members. The result is an aggressive target, implying that batteries need to advance considerably before BEVs can be both cost and performance competitive with existing petroleum powered vehicles.

  7. Bandwidth-limited active suspension controller for an off-road vehicle based on co-simulation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinzhi FENG; Songlin ZHENG; Fan YU

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design process of a controller for bandwidth-limited active hydro-pneumatic suspension employed by an off-road vehicle based on co-simulation technology. First, a detailed multi-body dynamic model of the vehicle is established by using the ADAMS/View software package, which is followed by validation using a vehicle field test. Second, a combined PID and fuzzy controller is designed for the bandwidth-limited active suspension system and then programmed by means of S-functions in Matlab/Simulink, to which a data exchange interface with ADAMS/View is also defined. Third, the proposed control algorithm is implemented on the multi-body dynamic vehicle model to enable the co-simulation to run repeatedly until a more practical controller is achieved. In the end, the proposed active suspension system is compared with a conven-tional passive system. Simulation results show that the proposed active suspension system considerably improves both the ride and handling performance of the vehicle and therefore increases the maximum travel-ing speeds even on rough roads.

  8. Natural gas application in light- and heavy-duty vehicles in Brazil: panorama, technological routes and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Guilherme Bastos, Cordeiro de Melo, Tadeu Cavalcante; Leao, Raphael Riemke de Campos Cesar; Iaccarino, Fernando Aniello; Figueiredo Moreira, Marcia

    2007-07-01

    The Brazilian CNG light-duty vehicle fleet has currently reached more than 1,300,000 units. This growth increased in the late 1990's, when CNG was approved for use in passenger cars. In 2001, the IBAMA (Brazilian Institute for Environment and Natural Renewable Resources), concerned with this uncontrolled growth, published CONAMA (National Environmental Council, controlled by IBAMA) resolution 291, which establishes rules for CNG conversion kit environmental certification.This paper discusses the technological challenges for CNG-converted vehicles to comply with PROCONVE (Brazilian Program for Automotive Air Pollution Control) emission limits. In the 1980's, because of the oil crisis, Natural Gas (NG) emerged as a fuel with great potential to replace Diesel in heavy-duty vehicles. Some experiences were conducted for partial conversions from Diesel to NG (Diesel-gas). Other experiences using NG Otto Cycle buses were conducted in some cities, but have not expanded. Another technological route called 'Ottolization' (Diesel to Otto cycle convertion) appeared recently. Population increase and the great growth in vehicle fleet promote a constant concern with automotive emissions. More restrictive emission limits, high international oil prices, and the strategic interest in replacing Diesel imports, altogether form an interesting scenario for CNG propagation to public transportation in the main Brazilian metropolises.

  9. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles. A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. (author)

  10. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  11. Liquid metal alloy ion sources—An alternative for focussed ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Lothar; Mazarov, Paul; Bruchhaus, Lars; Gierak, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Today, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) processing is nearly exclusively based on gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS). But, many applications in the μm- or nm range could benefit from ion species other than gallium: local ion implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam synthesis, or Focused Ion Beam Lithography (IBL). Therefore, Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) represent a promising alternative to expand the remarkable application fields for FIB. Especially, the IBL process shows potential advantages over, e.g., electron beam or other lithography techniques: direct, resistless, and three-dimensional patterning, enabling a simultaneous in-situ process control by cross-sectioning and inspection. Taking additionally into account that the used ion species influences significantly the physical and chemical nature of the resulting nanostructures—in particular, the electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanic properties leading to a large potential application area which can be tuned by choosing a well suited LMAIS. Nearly half of the elements of the periodic table are recently available in the FIB technology as a result of continuous research in this area during the last forty years. Key features of a LMAIS are long life-time, high brightness, and stable ion current. Recent developments could make these sources feasible for nano patterning issues as an alternative technology more in research than in industry. The authors will review existing LMAIS, LMIS other than Ga, and binary and ternary alloys. These physical properties as well as the fabrication technology and prospective domains for modern FIB applications will similarly be reviewed. Other emerging ion sources will be also presented and their performances discussed.

  12. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  13. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  14. The analysis of the state of problem renovation of the parts of a vehicle by technological methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ковалевський, Сергій Вадимович; Лукічов, Олександр Володимирович; Матвієнко, Сергій Анатолійович

    2015-01-01

    The problem of increase of the parts life of a vehicle by technological methods at production and repair is analyzed in the article. Among considered are welding, fusing, plastic deformation, surface plastic deformation, gas-thermal sputtering, galvanic coatings, soldering, putting synthetics, ultrasonic machining. Carried out the analysis is given an opportunity to separate out strengthening vibromechanical treatment in an elastic medium (SVTEM) as a resource-saving method which has large ma...

  15. System analysis and assessment of technological alternatives for Nordic H{sub 2} energy foresight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Pursiheimo, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Gether, K. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Joergensen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2004-12-01

    The hydrogen scenarios developed during the Nordic Hydrogen Foresight project was analysed using a energy system model, which was developed during the project. The aim of the systems analysis was to analyse the technical and economical potential of hydrogen society in the Nordic countries in quantitative terms as well as the competitiveness of the selected hydrogen based systems. Visions and scenarios of the future energy systems in the Nordic area were defined in the workshops of the project. As a result of these workshops three scenarios were selected to outline the future of Nordic energy. The scenarios included different energy policies; scenarios for fossil fuel prices; and hydrogen energy demands, which varied from 6% to 18% of the total energy demand in 2030 for transport sector, and from 3% to 9% in heat and power production. In the roadmap workshops, the most important hydrogen based systems were selected, which were also included in the model. These include steam reforming of natural gas, electrolysis with renewable electricity, and biomass gasification for hydrogen production. For stationary applications, fuel cells and gas engines were selected for power and heat production. In our scenario calculations, biomass gasification and steam reforming seem to be the most competitive technologies for hydrogen production. The competitiveness of biomass gasification is greatly affected by the biomass fuel price, which is a local energy source. Electrolysis seems to be most competitive in decentralized systems, if the electricity price is low enough. For stationary applications, CHP fuel cells seem to be the most competitive in the long term, if the technological development and the decrease in investment costs follow the assumed scenario. The approximated Nordic market sizes in 2030 for the base scenarios varied from 1000 ME to 3000 MEuro for hydrogen production, from 1000 to 4000 MEuro for stationary applications and 4000 MEuro to 12.000 MEuro for hydrogen

  16. Co-simulation Methodologies for Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Veintimilla Porlán, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, full electric and hybrid electric vehicles have emerged as an alternative to conventional cars due to a range of factors, including environmental and economic aspects. These vehicles are the result of considerable efforts to seek ways of reducing the use of fossil fuel for vehicle propulsion. Sophisticated technologies such as hybrid and electric powertrains require careful study and optimization. Mathematical models play a key role at this point. Currently, many advanced m...

  17. Determination of optimum alternative low-level radioactive waste disposal site/disposal technology combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is developed and demonstrated to determine a numerical figure of merit (FOM) by which alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLWR) disposal sites and disposal technologies can be evaluated. The FOM is an arbitrarily selected nominal value, representative of the societal value of products associated with the LLRW, modified by the positive and negative impacts of waste disposal. Impacts considered include radiological health effects, transportation accidents, disposal and transportation economics, and user-specified socioeconomic factors. All impacts are converted to an economic basis via a user-specified value of life to allow a common basis of comparison. A demonstration of the methodology evaluates the 1984 Pennsylvania LLRW source team in 24 cases, 2 general locations, 3 soil types, and 4 disposal technologies (Part 61 trench, above-ground vault, below-ground vault, and grouted trench or engineered container). Costs derived for each case in 1984 dollars range from $1990 to 1090/m/sup 3/ ($28 to 31/ft/sup 3/). Uniform criteria applied to each case assume a linear loss of containment and structural stability for LLRW in a waste cell. Radiological pathways are primarily a function of the site and generally show little or no dependence on the disposal technology

  18. Two innovative healthcare technologies at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahnam, Sheryl; Brooks, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Using game technologies and digital media for improving physical and mental health and for the therapeutic benefit and well-being of a wide range of people is an area of study that is rapidly expanding. Much research in this emerging field is centered at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy. In this paper the authors describe their transdisciplinary work at this intersection: i) an integrative system of psychotherapy technologies called MyPsySpace currently being prototyped in Second Life with the aim of offering new and virtual translations of traditional expressive therapies (virtual sandplay, virtual drama therapy, digital expressive therapy, and virtual safe spaces) and ii) a mature body of research entitled SoundScapes that is exploring the use of interactive video games and abstract creative expression (making music, digital painting, and robotic device control) as a supplement to traditional physical rehabilitation intervention. Aside from introducing our work to a broader audience, our goal is to encourage peers to investigate ideas that reach across disciplines-to both risk and reap the benefits of combining technologies, theories, and methods stemming from multiple disciplines. PMID:25488221

  19. Technologies for low-bandwidth high-latency unmanned ground vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Teresa; Cogan, Ken; Hunt, Lee; Restine, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Automation technology has evolved at a rapid pace in recent years; however, many real-world problems require contextual understanding, problem solving, and other forms of higher-order thinking that extends beyond the capabilities of robots for the foreseeable future. This limits the complexity of automation which can be supplied to modern unmanned ground robots (UGV) and necessitates human-in-the-loop monitoring and control for some portions of missions. In order for the human operator to make decisions and provide tasking during key portions of the mission, existing solutions first derive significant information from a potentially dense reconstruction of the scene utilizing LIDAR, video, and other onboard sensors. A dense reconstruction contains too much data for real-time transmission over a modern wireless data link, so the robot electronics must first condense the scene representation prior to transmission. The control station receives this condensed scene representations and provides visual information to the human operator; the human operator then provides tele-operation commands in real-time to the robot. This paper discusses approaches to dense scene reduction of the data required to transmit to a human-in-the loop as well as the challenges associated with them. In addition, the complex and unstructured nature of real-world environments increases the need for tele-operation. Furthermore, many environments reduce the bandwidth and increase the latency of the link. Ultimately, worsening conditions will cause the tele-operation control process to break down, rendering the robot ineffective. In a worst-case scenario, extreme conditions causing a complete loss-of-communications could result in mission failure and loss of the vehicle.

  20. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  1. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  2. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T.

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  5. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    that the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel references for electricity production takes place in a combined heat and power plant, but as a sensitivity analysis, we also consider combustion in a condensing mode power plant where only electricity is produced. Our results show that the production of 1 k......This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume...... on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw...

  6. Genome-wide alternative polyadenylation in animals: insights from high-throughput technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Sun; Yonggui Fu; Yuxin Li; Anlong Xu

    2012-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) plays an important role in gene expression by affecting mRNA stability,translation,and translocation in cells.However,genome-wide APA events have only recently been subjected to more systematic analysis with newly developed high-throughput methods.In this review,we focus on the recent technological development of APA analyses on a genome-wide scale,as well as the impact of APA switches on a number of critical biological processes in animals,including cell proliferation,differentiation,and oncogenic transformation.With the highly enlarged scope of genome-wide APA analyses,the APA regulations of various biological processes have increasingly become a new paradigm for the regulation of gene transcription and translation.

  7. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies for foam building insulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) have been used as blowing agents in foam insulation, as the working fluids in cooling and refrigeration equipment, and as solvents in general and precision cleaning applications since their introduction in the 1930s. The number of applications and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s, but in the mid-1980s it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric zone and that they are the primary cause of the CFCs have also been found to be second only to carbon dioxide as a factor causing increased greenhouse warming. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFCs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of those alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential building insulation, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. This paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to building insulation. In general the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reductions in total equivalent warming impact, lifetime equivalent C02 emissions (TEWI). Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use

  8. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative fuels Advanced gas and diesel vehicles Explaining EVs and PHEVs Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles GHG emissions ... gas emissions Routes to a lower GHG transportation future What if: Ideas for reducing transportation GHG We' ...

  9. Regeneratively-Cooled, Pump-Fed Propulsion Technology for Nano / Micro Satellite Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ventions proposes the development of a pump-fed, 2-stage nano launch vehicle for low-cost on demand placement of cube and nano-satellites into LEO. The proposed...

  10. Drag Identification & Reduction Technology (DIRECT) for Elastically Shaped Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA and Boeing Phantom Works have been working on the Elastically Shaped Future Vehicle Concept (ESFVC) and have shown that aircraft with elastically shaped wings...

  11. Evaluation of remedial alternatives for the Solar Ponds Plume, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the process used to select a remedial alternative for handling contaminated groundwater emanating from the Solar Evaporation Ponds (Solar Ponds) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) and prevent it from reaching the nearest surface water body, North Walnut Creek. Preliminary results of field investigations conducted to provide additional information for the alternatives analysis are also presented. The contaminated groundwater is referred to as the Solar Ponds Plume (SPP). The primary contaminants in the SPP are nitrate and uranium; however, some metals exceed the site action levels at several locations and volatile organic compounds, originating from other sources, also have been detected. Currently the SPP, local surface water runoff, and infiltrated precipitation are collected by a trench system located downgradient of the Solar Ponds and pumped to three storage tanks. The water (two to three million gallons annually) is then pumped to an on-site treatment plant for evaporation at an approximate cost of $7.57 per liter

  12. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  13. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the open-quotes RCRA Capclose quotes. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the open-quotes RCRA Capclose quotes that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration

  14. Fleet Purchase Behavior: Decision Processes and Implications for New Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, Kevin; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Vehicle fleets are a poorly understood part of the economy. They are important, though, in that they purchase a large share of light-duty vehicles and are often targeted by governments as agents of change. We investigate fleet purchase behavior, using focus groups, interviews, and mail and telephone surveys. We categorize fleets into four different decision-making structures (autocratic, bureaucratic, hierarchic, and democratic), determine what share of the market sector each represents, d...

  15. Rare-earth-free propulsion motors for electric vehicles: a technology review

    OpenAIRE

    Riba Ruiz, Jordi-Roger; López Torres, Carlos; Romeral Martínez, José Luis; García Espinosa, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Several factors including fossil fuels scarcity, prices volatility, greenhouse gas emissions or current pollution levels in metropolitan areas are forcing the development of greener transportation systems based on more efficient electric and hybrid vehicles. Most of the current hybrid electric vehicles use electric motors containing powerful rare-earth permanent magnets. However, both private companies and estates are aware of possible future shortages, price uncertainty and geographical conc...

  16. At what extent the benefits of introducing alternative light-duty vehicles offset those of increasing the buses average occupancy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Characterization of fuel consumption, emissions and daily distance, of road fleet by probability distribution functions. • The co-benefit of congestion level decrease due to mode-shifting from LDV to bus is explored. • A potential decrease in NOx + PM of 23% is foreseen, by 50% LDV replacement or mode-shifting (bus occupancy 40–80%). • A decrease of CO2 is foreseen as being 20%, by 50% LDV replacement or mode-shifting (bus occupancy 30–60%). • Electricity mix relaying on renewables will increase the window were the energy and CO2 benefits match to 35%. - Abstract: This paper quantifies the energy and emissions benefits of introducing electric drive vehicles (pure electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell) on a conventional light-duty fleet (LDV) versus promoting the intensification of the public transportation use by means of mode-shifting and increased average bus occupancy. The impact is assessed in terms of energy, local pollutants, HC, CO, NOx, PM, and global emissions of CO2. The specific fleet of Portugal is used as case study. This fleet has roughly 6 million LDV (30% diesel, 70% gasoline) and 15,000 buses, with a mobility indicator of 106 thousand million passengerxkm (pkm). Probability density functions for energy consumption and emissions are derived for conventional, electric drive vehicles, and buses, avoiding considering one representative vehicle of each. Scenarios of 30–50% conventional fleet replacement is compared against scenarios of bus occupancy increase from 20% to 80%. The increased bus occupancy is made by mode-shifting from conventional LDV vehicles keeping the mobility pkm and bus supply. The co-benefit of congestion level decrease due to mode-shifting is explored. The effect of different electricity mixes is also analyzed. The methodology used allowed obtaining likelihood functions for energy consumption and emissions for each scenario and offset areas where the benefits match. The use of the methodology for

  17. Reading comprehension as an alternative tool for teaching science and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, the vast amount of information originated in the production of knowledge and its applications, has highlighted the importance of being independent readers, critics, and able to interpret written material circulating referred to scientific and technological issues, that invade the people's daily life. Moreover, in the last stage of education system of all future citizens of the country, the results of many diagnoses have highlighted the difficulties of young students to understand the texts related to science and technology. However, simultaneously with these weaknesses, students permanently express the need to relate science and technology to everyday life, and are interested in the discussion of the news related to atomic energy spread by the mass media. This duality lack of interest in reading vs interest in knowledge in certain subjects, is what has been taken into account when proposing this pedagogical approach that simultaneously involves several aspects. From the need to find a trigger for the treatment of a particular issue, to familiarization of students with the vocabulary and methodology of science ill the debate on the characteristics of specific technological applications of nuclear technology. Considering particularly the last of these factors, since 2011 has been developed in Jose Maria Paz School of Cordoba, Reading Comprehension Experience, using texts with scientific and technological contents published by Institute for Energy and Development (IEDS) of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in Knowledge Leaves Series, as a methodological tool, to bring students to the physics of the atom and matter. The reading strategy used is based on the hypothesis of the type of questions being asked about the contents, can help students to develop reading strategies for comprehension and thus contribute positively to his learning. With this proposal it has been observed an increased on student interest in learning natural science

  18. Comparison of the primary energy consumption and the CO2-emission of an urban vehicle with conventional and alternative drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a model car with its basic data corresponding to those of a series-produced small passenger car, conventional and alternative drives were compared. Cars shared the following features: same basic weight without tank, one energy storage system for the same driving range, same acceleration capacity from 0 to 50 km/h. Petrol and diesel were the conventional fuels; methanol, natural gas (pressurized, liquid), hydrogen (pressurized, liquid, hydride) and electric energy (NaS battery) were the alternative fuels. Both primary energy and CO2 balancings take the different raw materials into account for the production of useful energies. (orig.)

  19. UPS CNG Truck Fleet Start Up Experience: Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UPS operates 140 Freightliner Custom Chassis compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles with Cummins B5.9G engines. Fifteen are participating in the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project being funded by DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies and the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies

  20. The impact of electric vehicles on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of recent studies have examined the greenhouse gas emissions of various light duty vehicle alternatives in some detail. These studies have highlighted the extreme range of predicted net greenhouse gas emissions depending on scenarios for fuel types, vehicle and power generation efficiencies, the relative greenhouse contributions of emitted gases and a number of uncertainties in fuel chain efficiencies. Despite the potential range of results, most studies have confirmed that electric vehicles generally have significant potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions relative to gasoline and most alternative fuels under consideration. This report summarizes the results of a study which builds on previous efforts with a particular emphasis on: (1) A detailed analysis of ICEV, FCV, and EV vehicle technology and electric power generation technology. Most previous transportation greenhouse studies have focused on characterization of fuel chains that have relatively high efficiency (65--85%) when compared with power generation (30--40%) and vehicle driveline (13--16%) efficiencies. (2) A direct comparison of EVs, FCVs with gasoline and dedicated alternative fuel, ICEVs using equivalent vehicle technology assumptions with careful attention to likely technology improvements in both types of vehicles. (3) Consideration of fuel cell vehicles and associated hydrogen infrastructure. (4) Extension of analyses for several decades to assess the prospects for EVs with a longer term prospective

  1. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue.

  2. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. IEEE AUV 96 / Oceanic Engineering Society Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Symposium on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technology / June 2 -6, 1996 in Monterey, California

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Oceanic Engineering Society Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Symposium On Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technology June 2-6, 1996 Advance Program Hosted by the Naval Postgraduate School at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey California USA General Information, registration information, conference proceedings, accomodations, etc. on the IEEE AUV 96 Symposium on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technology, June 2 - 6, 1996 Hosted by the Nav...

  4. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles: A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. - Research Highlights: →The broad scale adoption of CNG for transportation in Argentina was initiated by a market demand for an effective fuel that was priced at a significantly lower level compared to the mainstream alternatives. →The Argentine played a marginal role in the development of refueling infrastructure. →The role of the government focused on sending clear signals to the marketplace and developing effective codes and standards. →Consumers willingness to switch to CNG increases as state of the economy deteriorates and disposable incomes decrease.

  5. LISA technologies in new light: exploring alternatives for charge management and optical bench construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Giacomo; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Apple, Stephen; Conklin, John W.; Mueller, Guido

    2015-08-01

    A LISA-like gravitational wave observatory is the choice candidate for ESA's L3 large mission scheduled to launch in 2034. The LISA Test Package (LTP) mission will launch later this year and test many critical technologies needed for such an observatory, among which are picometer interferometry in space and UV charge management of the Test Mass (TM). The design of these subsystems has been frozen many years ago during the final formulation of the LTP mission; since then, the LISA mission concept has evolved and new technologies have become available, making it possible to re-think the way these subsystem are implemented. With the final formulation of the L3 mission still years in the future and the LTP results expected in about one year, now is an ideal time look for areas of possible improvement and explore alternative implementations that can enhance performance, reduce costs or mitigate risks.Recently developed UV LED are lighter, cheaper and more powerful than traditional mercury lamps; in addition, their fast response time can be used to implement AC discharge techniques that can save even more space and power, and provide a more precise control of the charge.The most recent iteration of the mission baseline design allows for eliminating some of the optical components initially deemed essential; paired with the use of polarization multiplexing, this permits a redesign of the optical bench that simplifies the layout and enables a modular approach to machining and assembly, thus reducing the risks and costs associated with the current monolithic design without compromising the picometer stability of the optical path.Leveraging on extensive previous experience with LISA interferometry and the availability of a torsion pendulum-based LISA test-bed, the University of Florida LISA group is working at developing, demonstrating and optimizing both these technologies. I will describe the most recent advancements and results.

  6. A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used

  7. Design and Analysis of Subscale and Full-Scale Buckling-Critical Cylinders for Launch Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Thornburgh, Robert P.; Rankin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) project has the goal of developing new analysis-based shell buckling design factors (knockdown factors) and design and analysis technologies for launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale levels. This paper describes the design and analysis of three different orthogrid-stiffeNed metallic cylindrical-shell test articles. Two of the test articles are 8-ft-diameter, 6-ft-long test articles, and one test article is a 27.5-ft-diameter, 20-ft-long Space Shuttle External Tank-derived test article.

  8. Technology Status and Expected Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery, Plug-In Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    2011-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) of various types are experiencing a commercial renaissance but of uncertain ultimate success. Many new electric-drive models are being introduced by different automakers with significant technical improvements from earlier models, particularly with regard to further refinement of drivetrain systems and important improvements in battery and fuel cell systems. The various types of hybrid and all-electric vehicles can offer significant greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions when compared to conventional vehicles on a full fuel-cycle basis. In fact, most EVs used under most condition are expected to significantly reduce lifecycle GHG emissions. This paper reviews the current technology status of EVs and compares various estimates of their potential to reduce GHGs on a fuel cycle basis. In general, various studies show that battery powered EVs reduce GHGs by a widely disparate amount depending on the type of powerplant used and the particular region involved, among other factors. Reductions typical of the United States would be on the order of 20-50%, depending on the relative level of coal versus natural gas and renewables in the powerplant feedstock mix. However, much deeper reductions of over 90% are possible for battery EVs running on renewable or nuclear power sources. Plug-in hybrid vehicles running on gasoline can reduce emissions by 20-60%, and fuel cell EV reduce GHGs by 30-50% when running on natural gas-derived hydrogen and up to 95% or more when the hydrogen is made (and potentially compressed) using renewable feedstocks. These are all in comparison to what is usually assumed to be a more advanced gasoline vehicle "baseline" of comparison, with some incremental improvements by 2020 or 2030. Thus, the emissions from all of these EV types are highly variable depending on the details of how the electric fuel or hydrogen is produced.

  9. Electric road vehicles in the field of tension between technology, ecology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing mobility of people has resulted in a growing air pollution, particularly in the inner cities. There will only be an improvement if environmentally friendly modes of transport are introduced, as people will not lower their mobility expectations. This is approached by e.g. electric-powered vehicles, which today have reached a very high technical standard. Distances of up to 30 km make up 90% of the total traffic, which is at the same time 44% of the driving capacity. This can presently be achieved by most electric-powered vehicles without any recharging. In the context of this article ordinary and electric-powered vehicles are compared with one another regarding their energy consumption as well as their exhaust emission. (BWI)

  10. 100-LBF LO2/LCH4 - Reaction Control Engine Technology Development for Future Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 100-lbf (445 N) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign MR, ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

  11. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  12. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  13. Using Pedagogical Dialogue as a Vehicle to Encourage Faculty Technology Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Terri; Britten, Jody; Compton, Beverly; Peak, Amy; Schoch, Kurt; VanTyle, W. Kent

    2009-01-01

    The pace of technology adoption by university faculty is often slow. Slow faculty technology adoption may result from fear of failure, disinterest, or aversion to change. However, in 2007 we experienced a different faculty response while training faculty for technology-enhanced teaching at Butler University. During a technology upgrade of…

  14. Buckling analysis and optimal structural design of supercavitating vehicles using finite element technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wanil; Kim, Min Ki; Park, Kook Jin; Kim, Seung Jo; Chung, Minho; Cho, Jin Yeon; Park, Sung-Han

    2011-12-01

    The supercavitating vehicle is an underwater vehicle that is surrounded almost completely by a supercavity to reduce hydrodynamic drag substantially. Since the cruise speed of the vehicle is much higher than that of conventional submarines, the drag force is huge and a buckling may occur. The buckling phenomenon is analyzed in this study through static and dynamic approaches. Critical buckling load and pressure as well as buckling mode shapes are calculated using static buckling analysis and a stability map is obtained from dynamic buckling analysis. When the finite element method (FEM) is used for the buckling analysis, the solver requires a linear static solver and an eigenvalue solver. In this study, these two solvers are integrated and a consolidated buckling analysis module is constructed. Furthermore, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is combined in the buckling analysis module to perform a design optimization computation of a simplified supercavitating vehicle. The simplified configuration includes cylindrical shell structure with three stiffeners. The target for the design optimization process is to minimize total weight while maintaining the given structure buckling-free.

  15. Dependence on technology, drivers, roads, and congestion of real-world vehicle fuel consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Kraan, T.C.; Eijk, A.R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch national transport CO2 emissions are determined by summing individual cases: a particular vehicle, on a particular road and traffic situation. In this paper the different aspects and the relations among them, as used in emission predictions, are outlined. In particular the central role tha

  16. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  17. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented

  18. Assessment of renewable energy technologies for charging electric vehicles in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric vehicle charging by renewable energy can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a data-intensive techno-economic model to estimate the cost of charging an electric vehicle with a battery capacity of 16 kW h for an average travel distance of 65 km from small-scale renewable electricity in various jurisdictions in Canada. Six scenarios were developed that encompass scale of operation, charging time, and type of renewable energy system. The costs of charging an electric vehicle from an off-grid wind energy system at a charging time of 8 h is 56.8–58.5 cents/km in Montreal, Quebec, and 58.5–60.0 cents/km in Ottawa, Ontario. However, on integration with a small-scale hydro, the charging costs are 9.4–11.2 cents/km in Montreal, 9.5–11.1 cents/km in Ottawa and 10.2–12.2 cents/km in Vancouver, British Columbia. The results show that electric vehicle charging from small-scale hydro energy integration is cost competitive compared charging from conventional grid electricity in all the chosen jurisdictions. Furthermore, when the electric vehicle charging time decreases from 8 to 4 h, the cost of charging increases by 83% and 11% from wind and hydro energy systems, respectively. - Highlights: • Techno-economic analysis conducted for EV charging from wind and hydro. • EV charging from hydro energy is cost competitive than from wind energy. • GHG mitigation estimated from operation of EV charged from renewable energy. • Sensitivity of key parameters on cost of charging considered

  19. Alternative energy technologies as a cultural endeavor: a case study of hydrogen and fuel cell development in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Galich, Ante; Marz, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Background: The wider background to this article is the shift in the energy paradigm from fossil energy sources to renewable sources which should occur in the twenty-first century. This transformation requires the development of alternative energy technologies that enable the deployment of renewable energy sources in transportation, heating, and electricity. Among others, hydrogen and fuel cell technologies have the potential to fulfill this requirement and to contribute to a sustainable and ...

  20. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... connectivity, mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology...... and governing the flow of data among them. In pervasive computing, composing services is, however, not the whole story. To fully realize their potential, applications must also deal with challenges such as device heterogeneity, context awareness, openendedness, and resilience to dynamism in network...