WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative transportation modes

  1. Social marketing of alternative transportation modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    Researchers and practitioners working with travel demand management (TDM) seem to be increasingly interested in social marketing as a means for promoting non-car modes of transportation. However, as is true for social marketing in general, there is little clarity of the social marketing approach...... associated with TDM. Hence, it is not surprising that the effectiveness of this means is subject to considerable uncertainty. This chapter outlines the field and definition of social marketing and reviews practical experience and research on social marketing in TDM as a basis for evaluating the usefulness...... of social marketing in this area....

  2. Alternate transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  3. Alternate Transportation Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Since last school year, the St. Lucie County (Florida) Public Schools reduced the number of buses it operates from 399 to 362, despite opening two new schools. Add in some other smart changes in policy, and the district lowered its annual transportation costs by more than $3 million over last year. Saving $3 million a year does not come easily,…

  4. Modified Waste Emplacement Mode Design Alternative Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  5. Modified waste emplacement mode design alternative report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  6. Ship detection with Envisat's alternating polarization mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Chesworth, J.; Greidanus, H.

    2005-01-01

    A ship detection algorithm is developed that uses Envisat ASAR imagery in alternating polarisation mode. From airborne data it is shown that of the two co-polarisations, HH is preferred over VV because of a larger ship-to-clutter ratio. Combining the HH and HV images of alternating polarisation mode

  7. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Bi-modes alternation stepping ultrasonic motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiamei JIN; Chunsheng ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of alternative operation of two bending vibration modes in an annular stator, this paper presents a standing-wave stepping ultrasonic motor characterized by no accumulative errors driven by an open-loop control circuitry. The driving forces are generated from the motions of projections on the stator in two modes. The positioning of the motor is achieved by the cooperation between the stator projections and rotor teeth, and the number of the rotors determines the stepping angle of the motor. Two-phase sinusoidal signals corresponding to the two modal frequencies drive the motor bi-direction stepping rotation via a switch unit. The prototype runs steadily without miss-step on trial. The single-step angle displacement of the motor is 2.5°.

  9. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  10. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  11. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  12. Transportation Modes Classification Using Sensors on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hau Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the transportation and vehicular modes classification by using big data from smartphone sensors. The three types of sensors used in this paper include the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope. This study proposes improved features and uses three machine learning algorithms including decision trees, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine to classify the user’s transportation and vehicular modes. In the experiments, we discussed and compared the performance from different perspectives including the accuracy for both modes, the executive time, and the model size. Results show that the proposed features enhance the accuracy, in which the support vector machine provides the best performance in classification accuracy whereas it consumes the largest prediction time. This paper also investigates the vehicle classification mode and compares the results with that of the transportation modes.

  13. Transportation Modes Classification Using Sensors on Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shih-Hau; Liao, Hao-Hsiang; Fei, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Kai-Hsiang; Huang, Jen-Wei; Lu, Yu-Ding; Tsao, Yu

    2016-08-19

    This paper investigates the transportation and vehicular modes classification by using big data from smartphone sensors. The three types of sensors used in this paper include the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope. This study proposes improved features and uses three machine learning algorithms including decision trees, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine to classify the user's transportation and vehicular modes. In the experiments, we discussed and compared the performance from different perspectives including the accuracy for both modes, the executive time, and the model size. Results show that the proposed features enhance the accuracy, in which the support vector machine provides the best performance in classification accuracy whereas it consumes the largest prediction time. This paper also investigates the vehicle classification mode and compares the results with that of the transportation modes.

  14. Transportation Modes Classification Using Sensors on Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shih-Hau; Liao, Hao-Hsiang; Fei, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Kai-Hsiang; Huang, Jen-Wei; Lu, Yu-Ding; Tsao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the transportation and vehicular modes classification by using big data from smartphone sensors. The three types of sensors used in this paper include the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope. This study proposes improved features and uses three machine learning algorithms including decision trees, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine to classify the user's transportation and vehicular modes. In the experiments, we discussed and compared the performance from different perspectives including the accuracy for both modes, the executive time, and the model size. Results show that the proposed features enhance the accuracy, in which the support vector machine provides the best performance in classification accuracy whereas it consumes the largest prediction time. This paper also investigates the vehicle classification mode and compares the results with that of the transportation modes. PMID:27548182

  15. Sliding mode observers for automotive alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Shiou

    Estimator development for synchronous rectification of the automotive alternator is a desirable approach for estimating alternator's back electromotive forces (EMFs) without a direct mechanical sensor of the rotor position. Recent theoretical studies show that estimation of the back EMF may be observed based on system's phase current model by sensing electrical variables (AC phase currents and DC bus voltage) of the synchronous rectifier. Observer design of the back EMF estimation has been developed for constant engine speed. In this work, we are interested in nonlinear observer design of the back EMF estimation for the real case of variable engine speed. Initial back EMF estimate can be obtained from a first-order sliding mode observer (SMO) based on the phase current model. A fourth-order nonlinear asymptotic observer (NAO), complemented by the dynamics of the back EMF with time-varying frequency and amplitude, is then incorporated into the observer design for chattering reduction. Since the cost of required phase current sensors may be prohibitive, the most applicable approach in real implementation by measuring DC current of the synchronous rectifier is carried out in the dissertation. It is shown that the DC link current consists of sequential "windows" with partial information of the phase currents, hence, the cascaded NAO is responsible not only for the purpose of chattering reduction but also for necessarily accomplishing the process of estimation. Stability analyses of the proposed estimators are considered for most linear and time-varying cases. The stability of the NAO without speed information is substantiated by both numerical and experimental results. Prospective estimation algorithms for the case of battery current measurements are investigated. Theoretical study indicates that the convergence of the proposed LAO may be provided by high gain inputs. Since the order of the LAO/NAO for the battery current case is one order higher than that of the link

  16. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  17. Implementation barriers of alternative transport fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troelstra, W.P. [Innas, Breda (Netherlands); Smith, A. [AEA Technology, London (United Kingdom); Bol, M. [Sypher Mueller International, Morristown, New Jersey (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    The study on the title subject aims to present an overview of the practical barriers associated with the introduction of alternative fuels for transport applications in IEA countries. The aim is to provide an information source to which potential users can refer when deciding whether to introduce an alternative fuel. The report will highlight potential problems so that users can either select the alternative fuel best suited to their needs, or implement possible solutions to the problems. The study covers natural gas (both compressed (CNG) and liquefied (LNG)), LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), ethanol (mainly bio-ethanol), methanol, bio-diesel, hydrogen, DME(dimethyl ether), and electricity. 48 refs.

  18. Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenfelder, W; Kaye, S M; Nevins, W M; Wang, E; Bell, R E; Hammett, G W; LeBlanc, B P; Mikkelsen, D R

    2011-03-23

    This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.

  19. Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.

  20. 48 CFR 47.305-14 - Mode of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mode of transportation. 47... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-14 Mode of transportation. Generally, solicitations shall not specify a particular mode of transportation or a particular carrier....

  1. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: technical section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Eighteen different alternative fuels were considered in the preliminary screening, from three basic resource bases. Coal can be used to provide 13 of the fuels; oil shale was the source for three of the fuels; and biomass provided the resource base for two fuels not provided from coal. In the case of biomass, six different fuels were considered. Nuclear power and direct solar radiation were also considered. The eight prime movers that were considered in the preliminary screening are boiler/steam turbine; open and closed cycle gas turbines; low and medium speed diesels; spark ignited and stratified charge Otto cycles; electric motor; Stirling engine; free piston; and fuel cell/electric motor. Modes of transport considered are pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft. Section 2 gives the overall summary and conclusions, the future outlook for each mode of transportation, and the R and D suggestions by mode of transportation. Section 3 covers the preliminary screening phase and includes a summary of the data base used. Section 4 presents the methodology used to select the fuels and prime movers for the detailed study. Sections 5 through 8 cover the detailed evaluation of the pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft modes of transportation. Section 9 covers the demand related issues.

  2. Review of Transportation Mode Detection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Biancat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the works found in the literature in the field of Transportation Mode Detection (TMD which is a subfield of Activity Recognition aiming at indentifying (i.e. classifying the mean of transportation a person is using. The solutions found in literature have different characteristics according to the device for which the solution was tailored (smartphones or other systems such as, e.g., GPS loggers and to the algorithm used for the classification task. This may vary a lot according to the number and type of input used (e.g. accelerations, GPS, maps information or GIS - Geographical Information System information and to the identified classes of transportation mode. These two aspects are the most relevant to consider when evaluating and comparing the accuracies claimed by each work. A comparison of the works is proposed taking into account the characteristics discussed above. In general the accelerometer is the most widely used sensor for TMD applications, as it limits battery consumption and captures relevant features for detecting motion. Indeed a key challenge in TMD is to detect different motorized classes such as bus, car, train and metro because they share common characteristics (such as e.g. the average speed and accelerations which make hard identifying suitable features for the classification algorithm. Identifying the “walk” and “stationary” transportation modes is a simpler task because they are characterized by distinct features.

  3. Interferometry With ENVISAT ASAR Alternating Polarization Mode Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Zeng, Qiming; Liang, Cunren; Cui, Xiai; Jiao, Jian

    2010-10-01

    The Environmental Satellite Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) sensor has been designed to provide enhanced capabilities for interferometric applications [?]. Different types of interferometric products can be obtained by combining the various ASAR modes, most of which are stripmap [image mode (IM)] and ScanSAR [wide swath (WS) mode]. However, the Alternating Polarization [AP mode] has been rarely used for interferometric experiments. This letter deals with the possibility of using AP mode data to produce two kinds of differential interferograms (HH/HH and HH/VV). We propose a complete processing chain of AP mode interferometry and the results are encouraging, of which the specialty of meaning is explained. The data is processed by the newly developed Peking University Multi-mode SAR Interferometry Processing Kit (PUMSIP v1.0), supported by ROI_PAC of JPL/Caltech.

  4. Impact of Energetic Management on the Development of LEVS as an Mode Alternative Transport Solutions Mobility to Urban/Metropolitan; Impacto de la Gestion Energetica sobre el Desarrollo de los LEVS como Modo de Transporte Alternativo en las Soluciones de Movilidad Urbana/Metropolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, M.

    2011-05-13

    This work presents the study of the impact of energy and social management on the development of pedal assisted electric bikes as an alternative mode of personal transport in displacement of workers within the workplace and between their homes from/to the work, with the purpose of finding new solutions to urban/metropolitan mobility. Given the multidisciplinary nature of the project, designing a methodology that has focused on the achievement of five tasks covers the basic parameters of continuous improvement strategies, apply them throughout the project in three phases each of them centered in a specific mobility scenario urban/metropolitan setting the necessary interactions between the factors: physical, sociological and technical: Phase 1 (Mobility located in a workplace), Phase 2 (mobility between home and workplace) and Phase 3 (Integration of mobility pedal assisted electric bicycle in the context of public transportation). In addition, we introduce what we think may be two new alternatives to current mobility solutions posed environments: the design of a system of BIPA on demand for the internal displacement of a workplace and the system of mobility BIPA for displacement between a massive public transport node and the workplace. (Author) 32 refs.

  5. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  6. Momentum Transport and Stable Modes in Kelvin-Helmholtz Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, A E; Zweibel, E G

    2016-01-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, which arises in astrophysical and fusion systems where turbulent momentum transport is important, has an unstable and a stable mode at the same scales. We show that in KH turbulence, as in other types of turbulence, the stable mode affects transport, nonlinearly removing energy from the inertial-range cascade to small scales. We quantify energy transfer to stable modes and its associated impact on turbulent amplitudes and transport, demonstrating that stable modes regulate transfer in KH systems. A quasilinear momentum transport calculation is performed to quantify the reduction in momentum transport due to stable modes.

  7. Some issues of passenger choice of suburban transport mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тetyana М. Grigorova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the passenger choice of transport mode for moving to suburban is discussed. The analysis of methods of Transport Management in suburban transportation showed that they did not fully take into account the effect of the transport process parameters on the passenger choice of transport mode for travel. The aim of research is to determine the value of the factors that influence passenger choice of suburban transport. The study was conducted on the basis of passenger survey on the factors affecting the choice of transport mode, and the importance of these factors. Kendall's coefficient of concordance its statistical significance were used to evaluate the consistency of expert opinion. The main factors for choosing the mode of suburban transport are identified. The identified factors can then be used in determining selection patterns of suburban transport mode.

  8. Towards Indoor Transportation Mode Detection using Mobile Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun;

    2015-01-01

    Transportation mode detection is a growing field of research, in which a variety of methods have been developed for detecting transportation modes foremost for outdoor travels. It has been employed in application areas such as public transportation, environmental footprint profiling, and context-...

  9. The impact of sea-air mode on air cargo transport

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hajri, Ghanem Mohamed

    1997-01-01

    The following research looks into the concept of sea-air intermodality, a combination of two or more modes of transport for the carriage of goods from origin to destination. The study examines why and how this form of transport evolved to become a viable alternative to the conventional single modes of ocean and air transport. The viability of the sea-air mode depends on various equally important factors which are analysed in depth, with a special emphasis on the sea-ai...

  10. How do people choose their commuting mode? An evolutionary approach to transport choices

    OpenAIRE

    Borghesi, Simone; Calastri, Chiara; Fagiolo, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The issue of transportation is of primary importance in our societies. A large share of green-house gases is generated by the transport sector, and road casualties are one am ong the most common causes of death. In the present work, we study commuter choice between alternative transport modes using an evolutionary-game model, wherein commuters can choose between using their private car or taking the bus. We examine the possible dynamics that can emerge in a homogeneous urban population, where...

  11. Using Smart Phone Sensors to Detect Transportation Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Xia; Yanyou Qiao; Jun Jian; Yuanfei Chang

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of mobile smart devices has led to a rapid increase of location-based services, many of which are amassing large datasets of user trajectory information. Unfortunately, current trajectory information is not yet sufficiently rich to support classification of user transportation modes. In this paper, we propose a method that employs both the Global Positioning System and accelerometer data from smart devices to classify user outdoor transportation modes. The classified modes i...

  12. Politics in food markets: alternative modes of qualification and engaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carvalho de Rezende

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are increasingly practicing an alternative model of politics when they make food choices influenced by civic concerns. The new markets that emerge in this context carry specific modes of qualification that makes food products valuable not only for their intrinsic properties, but also for features associated with their production and distribution. This paper aims to describe the different modes of political qualification and consumer engagement that operate in food markets based on secondary data collected in papers, books, certification norms, and websites. Three distinct "political food markets" are identified: a Fair Trade; b sustainable agriculture; and c vegetarian. Whilst the latter is based on a boycott of "bad" products, the other two focus on "good" alternatives. Different types of political engagement are associated to these markets, ranging from a delegation form in Fair Trade, empowered consumption in sustainable agriculture, to a lifestyle engagement regarding vegetarianism. Market devices such as certification play a major role in the growth of these markets, but also affect the type of engagement that is solicited from consumers.

  13. Transport of polar molecules by an alternating gradient guide

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, T E; Hudson, J J; Sauer, B E; Dyne, J M; Hinds, E A; Tarbutt, M R

    2009-01-01

    An alternating gradient electric guide provides a way to transport a wide variety of polar molecules, including those in high-field seeking states. We investigate the motion of polar molecules in such a guide by measuring the transmission of CaF molecules in their high-field seeking ground state, with the guide operating at a variety of switching frequencies and voltages. We model the guide using analytical and numerical techniques and compare the predictions of these models to the experimental results and to one another. The analytical results are approximate, but provide simple and useful estimates for the maximum phase-space acceptance of the guide and for the switching frequency required. The numerical methods provide more accurate results over the full range of switching frequencies. Our investigation reveals a novel mode of guiding that uses static fields alone to transport high-field seeking molecules. We show that the maximum possible transmission requires accurate alignment within the guide and betwe...

  14. To investigate slow mode transport for urban tourism in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Cho-yam, Joe.; 關祖蔭.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of global competition, Hong Kong has positioned her social and urban infrastructure to foster the advanced service sector activities of urban tourism. The success of the urban area as a place making for tourism is the embedding of sustainable and innovative principles in the planning process and the implementation of the stakeholders and travelers aspirations. A holistic and adaptive public transport planning and alternative transport modes are one of the key issue that cont...

  15. Vertical Transport of Subwavelength Localized Surface Electromagnetic Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Youming; Shi, Xihang; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    Transport of subwavelength electromagnetic (EM) energy has been achieved through near-field coupling of highly confined surface EM modes supported by plasmonic nanoparticles, in a configuration usually staying on a two-dimensional (2D) substrate. Vertical transport of similar modes along the third dimension, on the other hand, can bring more flexibility in designs of functional photonic devices, but this phenomenon has not been observed in reality. In this paper, designer (or spoof) surface plasmon resonators (plasmonic meta-atoms) are stacked in the direction vertical to their individual planes in demonstrating vertical transport of subwavelength localized surface EM modes. Dispersion relation of this vertical transport is determined from coupled mode theory and is verified with near-field transmission spectrum and field mapping with a microwave near-field scanning stage. This work extends the near-field coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) theory into the vertical direction, and may find applications ...

  16. An Interpretive Study of Yosemite National Park Visitors' Perspectives Toward Alternative Transportation in Yosemite Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dave D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  17. Microtearing modes and anomalous transport in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, J.F.; Gladd, N.T.; Liu, C.S.; Chang, C.L.

    1980-04-14

    Microtearing (high-m) modes driven by the electron temperature gradient are found to be unstable for present tokamak parameters. A self-consistent calculation of the nonlinear saturation of this instability yields magnetic fluctuations vertical-barBvertical-bar/B approx. = rho/sub e//L/sub T/. The associated crossfield electron thermal conductivity is shown to be inversely proportional to density, consistent with Alcator scaling, and comparable in magnitude with that inferred from experiments.

  18. Report on Canadian alternative transportation programs : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    Existing alternative transportation programs and initiatives in Canada were presented as part of an effort to achieve the Canada-Wide Standards on Particulate Matter and Ground-level Ozone. This document is intended for employers that could implement support services in their workplace that promote methods of commuting that reduce vehicle kilometers traveled and encourage alternative transportation to the single occupant vehicle with the objective or reducing particulate matter and ground-level ozone. Alternative transportation programs such as employers programs, youth programs and institutional programs have environmental, economic, social and community benefits such as reduced emissions and greater transportation efficiency which lead to improved quality of life, health and sustainability of the transportation system. Organizations implement alternative transportation programs because of a commitment to; environmental responsibility, improving air quality, offering employee benefits, GHG reductions and corporate leadership. The programs are often initiated by large urban centres experiencing transportation-related problems such as congestion, air pollution or infrastructure capacity constraints. The U-Pass was presented as example of a very successful program that promotes change in behaviour at institutions to increase transit ridership. Telework also offers the opportunity of eliminating commutes. Ridematching is another key marketing tool employed by many organizations. The most successful programs are those with the greatest financial resources because sustained funding is necessary for program delivery, expansion and community acceptance. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Alternative scenarios for Federal transportation policy. Volume I. Summary. First year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedlaender, A.; Simpson, R.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of research evaluating the economic effects of existing and prospective federal policies governing intercity and international freight and passenger transportation enterprises in the economy of the United States. The analysis encompasses all modes of transportation, including rail, motor, water, air and intermodal coordinative institutions, and focuses upon the impact of alternative regulatory policies. However, other federal policies including subsidy, taxation, procurement, government ownership and investment, special programs for particular transportation industry problems and impacts of general national policies on transportation will be included when relevant. Economic evaluation includes the study of efficient resource allocation and distributional effects of alternative policies together with consideration of both partial and general equilibrium effects. The research is interdisciplinary in scope, drawing upon engineering, economics, statistics, law and administration.

  20. Transport threshold model of subsonic neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transport threshold model of subsonic neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) in tokamaks is developed. The basic procedure is to include the velocity-dependent term into the single-fluid heat-conductivity equation and to complement this equation with the single-fluid parallel plasma motion equation. These equations permit the determination of the perturbed plasma temperature and the bootstrap current drive of NTMs, for both strong and weak perpendicular heat transport, which is the precondition for developing the above model. It is shown that the subsonic NTMs transport threshold model can be more realistic than the standard transport model of NTMs suggested by Fitzpatrick [Phys. Plasmas 2, 825 (1995)

  1. Using smart phone sensors to detect transportation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hao; Qiao, Yanyou; Jian, Jun; Chang, Yuanfei

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of mobile smart devices has led to a rapid increase of location-based services, many of which are amassing large datasets of user trajectory information. Unfortunately, current trajectory information is not yet sufficiently rich to support classification of user transportation modes. In this paper, we propose a method that employs both the Global Positioning System and accelerometer data from smart devices to classify user outdoor transportation modes. The classified modes include walking, bicycling, and motorized transport, in addition to the motionless (stationary) state, for which we provide new depth analysis. In our classification, stationary mode has two sub-modes: stay (remaining in the same place for a prolonged time period; e.g., in a parked vehicle) and wait (remaining at a location for a short period; e.g., waiting at a red traffic light). These two sub-modes present different semantics for data mining applications. We use support vector machines with parameters that are optimized for pattern recognition. In addition, we employ ant colony optimization to reduce the dimension of features and analyze their relative importance. The resulting classification system achieves an accuracy rate of 96.31% when applied to a dataset obtained from 18 mobile users. PMID:25375756

  2. Using smart phone sensors to detect transportation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hao; Qiao, Yanyou; Jian, Jun; Chang, Yuanfei

    2014-11-04

    The proliferation of mobile smart devices has led to a rapid increase of location-based services, many of which are amassing large datasets of user trajectory information. Unfortunately, current trajectory information is not yet sufficiently rich to support classification of user transportation modes. In this paper, we propose a method that employs both the Global Positioning System and accelerometer data from smart devices to classify user outdoor transportation modes. The classified modes include walking, bicycling, and motorized transport, in addition to the motionless (stationary) state, for which we provide new depth analysis. In our classification, stationary mode has two sub-modes: stay (remaining in the same place for a prolonged time period; e.g., in a parked vehicle) and wait (remaining at a location for a short period; e.g., waiting at a red traffic light). These two sub-modes present different semantics for data mining applications. We use support vector machines with parameters that are optimized for pattern recognition. In addition, we employ ant colony optimization to reduce the dimension of features and analyze their relative importance. The resulting classification system achieves an accuracy rate of 96.31% when applied to a dataset obtained from 18 mobile users.

  3. Using Smart Phone Sensors to Detect Transportation Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of mobile smart devices has led to a rapid increase of location-based services, many of which are amassing large datasets of user trajectory information. Unfortunately, current trajectory information is not yet sufficiently rich to support classification of user transportation modes. In this paper, we propose a method that employs both the Global Positioning System and accelerometer data from smart devices to classify user outdoor transportation modes. The classified modes include walking, bicycling, and motorized transport, in addition to the motionless (stationary state, for which we provide new depth analysis. In our classification, stationary mode has two sub-modes: stay (remaining in the same place for a prolonged time period; e.g., in a parked vehicle and wait (remaining at a location for a short period; e.g., waiting at a red traffic light. These two sub-modes present different semantics for data mining applications. We use support vector machines with parameters that are optimized for pattern recognition. In addition, we employ ant colony optimization to reduce the dimension of features and analyze their relative importance. The resulting classification system achieves an accuracy rate of 96.31% when applied to a dataset obtained from 18 mobile users.

  4. Measurement of guided light-mode intensity: An alternative waveguide sensing principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Skivesen, N.; Pedersen, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    An alternative transduction mechanism for planar optical waveguide sensors is reported. Based on a simple measurement of the mode intensity, the presented transduction is an interesting alternative to the conventional mode-angle transduction, because the expensive, high-precision angular rotation...

  5. Estimating Energy Consumption of Transport Modes in China Using DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of transport requirements in China will incur increasing transport energy demands and associated environmental pressures. In this paper, we employ a generalized data envelopment analysis (DEA to evaluate the relative energy efficiency of rail, road, aviation and water transport from 1971 to 2011 by considering the energy input and passenger-kilometers (PKM and freight ton-kilometers (TKM outputs. The results show that the optimal energy efficiencies observed in 2011 are for rail and water transport, with the opposite observed for the energy efficiencies of aviation and road transport. In addition, we extend the DEA model to estimate future transport energy consumption in China. If each transport mode in 2020 is optimized throughout the observed period, the national transport energy consumption in 2020 will reach 497,701 kilotons coal equivalent (ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 5.7%. Assuming that efficiency improvements occur in this period, the estimated national transport energy consumption in 2020 will be 443,126 ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 4.4%, which is still higher than that of the national total energy consumption (3.8%.

  6. Sec16 alternative splicing dynamically controls COPII transport efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmi, Ilka; Kanski, Regina; Neumann, Alexander; Herdt, Olga; Hoff, Florian; Jacob, Ralf; Preußner, Marco; Heyd, Florian

    2016-08-05

    The transport of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi depends on COPII-coated vesicles. While the basic principles of the COPII machinery have been identified, it remains largely unknown how COPII transport is regulated to accommodate tissue- or activation-specific differences in cargo load and identity. Here we show that activation-induced alternative splicing of Sec16 controls adaptation of COPII transport to increased secretory cargo upon T-cell activation. Using splice-site blocking morpholinos and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering, we show that the number of ER exit sites, COPII dynamics and transport efficiency depend on Sec16 alternative splicing. As the mechanistic basis, we suggest the C-terminal Sec16 domain to be a splicing-controlled protein interaction platform, with individual isoforms showing differential abilities to recruit COPII components. Our work connects the COPII pathway with alternative splicing, adding a new regulatory layer to protein secretion and its adaptation to changing cellular environments.

  7. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

  8. The alternating access mechanism of transport as observed in the sodium-hydantoin transporter Mhp1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal structures of a membrane protein transporter in three different conformational states provide insights into the transport mechanism. Secondary active transporters move molecules across cell membranes by coupling this process to the energetically favourable downhill movement of ions or protons along an electrochemical gradient. They function by the alternating access model of transport in which, through conformational changes, the substrate binding site alternately faces either side of the membrane. Owing to the difficulties in obtaining the crystal structure of a single transporter in different conformational states, relatively little structural information is known to explain how this process occurs. Here, the structure of the sodium-benzylhydantoin transporter, Mhp1, from Microbacterium liquefaciens, has been determined in three conformational states; from this a mechanism is proposed for switching from the outward-facing open conformation through an occluded structure to the inward-facing open state

  9. Binding Mode Selection Determines the Action of Ecstasy Homologs at Monoamine Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandtner, Walter; Stockner, Thomas; Hasenhuetl, Peter S; Partilla, John S; Seddik, Amir; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Cao, Jianjing; Holy, Marion; Steinkellner, Thomas; Rudnick, Gary; Baumann, Michael H; Ecker, Gerhard F; Newman, Amy Hauck; Sitte, Harald H

    2016-01-01

    Determining the structural elements that define substrates and inhibitors at the monoamine transporters is critical to elucidating the mechanisms underlying these disparate functions. In this study, we addressed this question directly by generating a series of N-substituted 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine analogs that differ only in the number of methyl substituents on the terminal amine group. Starting with 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N,N-dimethylamphetamine (MDDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N,N,N-trimethylamphetamine (MDTMA) were prepared. We evaluated the functional activities of the compounds at all three monoamine transporters in native brain tissue and cells expressing the transporters. In addition, we used ligand docking to generate models of the respective protein-ligand complexes, which allowed us to relate the experimental findings to available structural information. Our results suggest that the 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine analogs bind at the monoamine transporter orthosteric binding site by adopting one of two mutually exclusive binding modes. 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine adopt a high-affinity binding mode consistent with a transportable substrate, whereas MDDMA and MDTMA adopt a low-affinity binding mode consistent with an inhibitor, in which the ligand orientation is inverted. Importantly, MDDMA can alternate between both binding modes, whereas MDTMA exclusively binds to the low-affinity mode. Our experimental results are consistent with the idea that the initial orientation of bound ligands is critical for subsequent interactions that lead to transporter conformational changes and substrate translocation.

  10. Transport of polar molecules by an alternating gradient guide

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, T. E.; Armitage, S; Hudson, J. J.; Sauer, B. E.; Dyne, J. M.; Hinds, E. A.; Tarbutt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    An alternating gradient electric guide provides a way to transport a wide variety of polar molecules, including those in high-field seeking states. We investigate the motion of polar molecules in such a guide by measuring the transmission of CaF molecules in their high-field seeking ground state, with the guide operating at a variety of switching frequencies and voltages. We model the guide using analytical and numerical techniques and compare the predictions of these models to the experiment...

  11. Impurity transport in trapped electron mode driven turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Mollén, A; Moradi, S; Fülöp, T

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence is studied by gyrokinetic simulations with the GYRO code. Its impact on radial transport of high-Z trace impurities close to the core is thoroughly investigated, including the situation when a poloidally varying equilibrium electrostatic potential is present, and the dependence of the zero-flux impurity density gradient (peaking factor) on local plasma parameters is presented. Parameters such as ion-to-electron temperature ratio, electron temperature gradient and main species density gradient mainly affect the impurity peaking through their impact on mode characteristics. The poloidal asymmetry, the safety factor and magnetic shear have the strongest effect on impurity peaking, and it is shown that under certain scenarios where trapped electron modes are dominant, core accumulation of high-Z impurities can be avoided.

  12. ANALYSIS OF MODES OF TRANSPORTATION USED FOR TRANSPORTATION OF STUDENTS TO A HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO DORIGUEL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The high number of motor vehicles is one of those responsible for polluting gases into the atmosphere contributing to global warming. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to study the modes of transport used by students of the Botucatu’s Faculty of Technology, then, after the results, to analyze the current situation and trends of changes in regard to private and public transport. Data were collected through a questionnaire in several rooms of the Faculty of nocturnal period cycles randomly, with the aim of having a sampling. The results showed increased use of auto mode followed by bus.

  13. Multidemand Multisource Order Quantity Allocation with Multiple Transportation Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a multidemand multisource order quantity allocation problem with multiple transportation alternatives. To solve this problem, a bilevel multiobjective programming model under a mixed uncertain environment is proposed. Two levels of decision makers are considered in the model. On the upper level, the purchaser aims to allocate order quantity to multiple suppliers for each demand node with the consideration of three objectives: total purchase cost minimization, total delay risk minimization, and total defect risk minimization. On the lower level, each supplier attempts to optimize the transportation alternatives with total transportation and penalty costs minimization as the objective. In contrast to prior studies, considering the information asymmetry in the bilevel decision, random and fuzzy random variables are used to model uncertain parameters of the construction company and the suppliers. To solve the bilevel model, a solution method based on Kuhn-Tucker conditions, sectional genetic algorithm, and fuzzy random simulation is proposed. Finally, the applicability of the proposed model and algorithm is evaluated through a practical case from a large scale construction project. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are efficient in dealing with practical order quantity allocation problems.

  14. Alternative(s) to fractional-diffusion equations in bedload-transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancey, Christophe; Mettra, François; Mettraux, Valentin

    2010-05-01

    The idea of stochastic sediment transport models emerged in the 1930s, notably with the doctoral work of Hans A. Einstein (1936). Einstein's seminal work gave impulse to several stochastic models, which usually led to thin-tailed or bounded distributions for the particle-transport rate. Experimental observations together with field surveys suggest that particle-transport rate exhibits frequent and large fluctuations, in particular at low flow rates (i.e., when the bottom shear just exceeds the threshold of incipient motion), which cannot be described using classic distributions used so far for modelling bedload transport (e.g., Hamamori's distribution). The existence of these large and frequent fluctuations could offer a wide field of applications to fractional-derivative theory. Alternative approaches exist as well: in this talk, we explore the potentialities of a birth-death Markov model to model sediment transport within a fixed volume of control. Under steady-uniform-flow conditions, the model predicts that the number of moving particles inside the control volume follows a negative binomial distribution. Although this probability distribution does not enter the family of heavy-tailed distributions, it may give rise to large and frequent fluctuations. We investigate the consequences of these fluctuations on bed dynamics, more especially on the features (growth rate and probability distribution) of nascent bedforms that develop on initially planar beds as a result of intermittent bedload transport.

  15. Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackin, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    The Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT) was established to advance the state of the art in knowledge and education on critical technologies that support a renewable energy future. Our research and education efforts have focused on alternative energy systems, energy storage systems, and research on battery and hybrid energy storage systems.This report details the Center's progress in the following specific areas: Development of a battery laboratory; Development of a demonstration system for compressed air energy storage; Development of electric propulsion test systems; Battery storage systems; Thermal management of battery packs; and Construction of a micro-grid to support real-world performance monitoring of a renewable energy system.

  16. Moving beyond alternative fuel hype to decarbonize transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Noel; Axsen, Jonn; Sperling, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In the past three decades, government, industry and other stakeholders have repeatedly been swept up with the ‘fuel du jour’, claiming that a particular alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) technology can succeed in replacing conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. However, AFV technologies have experienced relatively little success, with fossil fuels still accounting for about 95% of global transport energy use. Here, using the US as a case study, we conduct a media analysis to show how society’s attention has skipped among AFV types between 1980 and 2013, including methanol, natural gas, plug-in electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen and biofuels. Although our results provide no indication as to whether hype ultimately has a net positive or negative impact on AFV innovation, we offer several recommendations that governments can follow to move past hype to support significant AFV adoption and displace fossil fuel use in the transportation sector.

  17. Transportation mode detection by using smartphone sensors and machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensar Arif Sağbaş

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to detect transportation modes of the users by using smartphone sensors. Therefore, GPS (Global Positioning System, accelerometer and gyroscope sensor data have been collected while walking, running, cycling and travelling by bus or by car from the smartphone of the user. Sensor data were tagged with 12 second interval and 2500 pattern were obtained. 14 features were acquired from the dataset. Machine learning methods were tested on the dataset. Best result was obtained from GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope sensor combination and Random Forest method with 99.4% accuracy rate.

  18. Electromagnetic energy transport in nanoparticle chains via dark plasmon modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, David; Willingham, Britain; Nauert, Scott L; Slaughter, Liane S; Olson, Jana; Swanglap, Pattanawit; Paul, Aniruddha; Chang, Wei-Shun; Link, Stephan

    2012-03-14

    Using light to exchange information offers large bandwidths and high speeds, but the miniaturization of optical components is limited by diffraction. Converting light into electron waves in metals allows one to overcome this problem. However, metals are lossy at optical frequencies and large-area fabrication of nanometer-sized structures by conventional top-down methods can be cost-prohibitive. We show electromagnetic energy transport with gold nanoparticles that were assembled into close-packed linear chains. The small interparticle distances enabled strong electromagnetic coupling causing the formation of low-loss subradiant plasmons, which facilitated energy propagation over many micrometers. Electrodynamic calculations confirmed the dark nature of the propagating mode and showed that disorder in the nanoparticle arrangement enhances energy transport, demonstrating the viability of using bottom-up nanoparticle assemblies for ultracompact opto-electronic devices. PMID:22292470

  19. Natural Gas Container Transportation: the Alternative Way to Solve the World’s Energy Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Shendrik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The container gas transportation for low and medium level consumers as an alternative to pipelines is considered. The options for gas supply schemes, based on road and rail transport are given. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of gas transporting are described, the areas of their effective using are separated in the article. Promising implementations of technology in environment of economic crisis and also considering world trends of energy development are presented. The most advanced organization of compressed gas condensate transportation of unprepared gas fields in large diameter universal cylindrical balloons (up to 1000 mm are reasoned. The problem of compressed gas sea transportation are well disclosed, but the alternative ways of gas transportation by land are not investigated enough. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology - is new promising technology for natural gas transportation by specially designed vessels – CNG-vessels. The feature of this technology is that natural gas can be downloaded directly near gas deposits and unloaded - directly into the customer's network. This eliminates significant capital investments in underwater pipelining or gas liquefaction plants. The main objects of investment are CNG-vessels themselves. The most attractive places for implementation of CNG-technology are sea (offshore natural gas deposits. Numerous international experts estimate the natural gas transportation by CNG-vessels in 1.5-2.0 times more cost-beneficial in comparison with offshore pipelines transportation, or in comparison with LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shipping with natural gas transportation volume between 0.5 and 4.0 billion cubic meters per year on the route from 250 to 2,500 sea miles. This technology makes possible to provide gas supplement to the mountain and abounding in water areas, remote and weakly gasified regions. Described technology deserves special attention in the case of depleted and low-power oil and

  20. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  1. Nonlinear Gap Modes in a 1D Alternating Bond Monatomic Lattice with Anharmonicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Liu-Xian; ZHOU Guang-Hui; XIA Qing-Lin; YAN Jia-Ren

    2001-01-01

    We analytically study the nonlinear localized gap modes in a one-dimensional atomic chain with uniform atomic mass but two periodically alternating force constants between the nearest neighbors by means ofa quasi-continuum approximation.This model simulates a row of atoms in the direction of a diamond-structure type of crystals or molecular crystals with alternating double and single bonds.For this lattice system,we find that the harmonic plus quartic anharmonic terms of inter-site potential produce a new type of nonlinear localized gap modes with a slightly asymmetry distribution of atomic displacements.These localized gap modes are somewhat different from widely studied localized gap modes with a symmetry atomic displacement distribution in diatomic ion lattices.

  2. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  3. Platelet serotonin transporter function predicts default-mode network activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scharinger

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence.A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activity and platelet Vmax.The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity.This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation.

  4. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  5. Transport through dissipative trapped electron mode and toroidal ion temperature gradient mode in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-consistent transport code is used to evaluate how plasma confinement in tokamaks is influenced by the microturbulent fields which are excited by the dissipative trapped electron (DTE) instability. As shown previously, the saturation theory on which the code is based has been developed from first principles. The toroidal coupling resulting from the ion magnetic drifts is neglected; arguments are presented to justify this approximation. The numerical results reproduce well the neo-Alcator scaling law observed experimentally - e.g. in TEXTOR - in non detached ohmic discharges, the confinement degradation which results when auxiliary heating is applied, as well as a large number of other experimental observations. We also assess the possible impact of the toroidal ion temperature gradient mode on energy confinement by estimating the ion thermal flux with the help of the mixing length approximation. (orig./GG)

  6. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  7. A quasi chemistry-transport model mode for EMAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deckert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A quasi chemistry-transport model mode (QCTM is presented for the numerical chemistry-climate simulation system ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC. It allows for a quantification of chemical signals through suppression of any feedback between chemistry and dynamics. Noise would otherwise interfere too strongly. The signal follows from the difference of two QCTM simulations, reference and sensitivity. These are fed with offline chemical fields as a substitute of the feedbacks between chemistry and dynamics: offline mixing ratios of radiatively active substances enter the radiation scheme (a, offline mixing ratios of nitric acid enter the scheme for re-partitioning and sedimentation from polar stratospheric clouds (b. Offline methane oxidation is the exclusive source of chemical water-vapor tendencies (c. Any set of offline fields suffices to suppress the feedbacks, though may be inconsistent with the simulation setup. An adequate set of offline climatologies can be produced from a non-QCTM simulation of the reference setup. Test simulations reveal the particular importance of adequate offline fields associated with (a. Inconsistencies from (b are negligible when using adequate fields of nitric acid. Acceptably small inconsistencies come from (c, but should vanish for an adequate prescription of water vapor tendencies. Toggling between QCTM and non-QCTM is done via namelist switches and does not require a source code re-compilation.

  8. A quasi chemistry-transport model mode for EMAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deckert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A quasi chemistry-transport model mode (QCTM is presented for the numerical chemistry-climate simulation system ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC. It allows for a quantification of chemical signals through suppression of any feedback between chemistry and dynamics. Noise would otherwise interfere too strongly. The signal is calculated from the difference of two QCTM simulations, a reference simulation and a sensitivity simulation. In order to avoid the feedbacks, the simulations adopt the following offline chemical fields: (a offline mixing ratios of radiatively active substances enter the radiation scheme, (b offline mixing ratios of nitric acid enter the scheme for re-partitioning and sedimentation from polar stratospheric clouds, (c and offline methane oxidation is the exclusive source of chemical water-vapor tendencies. Any set of offline fields suffices to suppress the feedbacks, though may be inconsistent with the simulation setup. An adequate set of offline climatologies can be produced from a non-QCTM simulation using the setup of the reference simulation. Test simulations reveal the particular importance of adequate offline fields associated with (a. Inconsistencies from (b are negligible when using adequate fields of nitric acid. Acceptably small inconsistencies come from (c, but should vanish for an adequate prescription of chemical water vapor tendencies. Toggling between QCTM and non-QCTM is done via namelist switches and does not require a source code re-compilation.

  9. Theory-based transport simulations of TFTR L-mode temperature profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature profiles from a selection of TFTR L-mode discharges are simulated with the 1-1/2-D BALDUR transport code using a combination of theoretically derived transport models, called the Multi-Mode Model. The present version of the Multi-Mode Model consists of effective thermal diffusivities resulting from trapped electron modes and ion temperature gradient (ηi) modes, which dominate in the core of the plasma, together with resistive ballooning modes, which dominate in the periphery. Within the context of this transport model and the TFTR simulations reported here, the scaling of confinement with heating power comes from the temperature dependence of the ηi and trapped electron modes, while the scaling with current comes mostly from resistive ballooning modes. 24 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  11. Alternative radiative and dark mode-induced multi-broadband transmission in asymmetrical metallic grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Fei, Guang Tao; Xu, Shao Hui; Shang, Guo Liang; De Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of extraordinary and multi-broadband optical transmission through sub-wavelength metallic grating with symmetry breaking has been theoretically investigated. Under normal incident light, the radiative and dark modes appear in adjacent slits of the grating with asymmetric heights. Through the destructive interference of alternative radiative and dark modes, multiple broadband transmission and enhanced light propagation is realized. The counter-propagating light circulation results in sharp dips in the transmission spectrum. These characteristics of the asymmetric grating could provide highly controllable ways to design novel devices.

  12. Using GPS-derived speed patterns for recognition of transport modes in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, Anke; Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of active or sedentary modes of transport is of relevance for studies assessing physical activity or addressing exposure assessment. We assessed in a proof-of-principle study if speed as logged by GPSs could be used to identify modes of transport (walking, bicycling, and m

  13. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  14. INFLUENCE OF SERVICE FACTORS IN THE MODEL OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT MODE: A BANJARMASIN – BANJARBARU ROUTE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iphan F. Radam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to examine the extent to which the service factors will affect the probability of people choice on public transports offered. The service factors are essential since the habits in the planning of new public transport at developing cities tend to prioritizes “travel time” and “travel cost” only. Consequently, there will be more than a small number of new public transports that will meet the same fate as the previous ones, i.e. unable to attract the users’ interest. The research is focused on Banjarmasin City and Banjarbaru City which are two administrative cities with high development level and are large generation/attraction zones in South Borneo. The tendency of the use of private vehicles remains high with one of the reasons is the level of transportation services which are still low. Therefore, the planning of new alternative transports (bus is required, in addition to the existing Paratransit transportation (mikrolet/Indonesian minibus. To obtain a utility and probability model of the of travelers (users in selecting the public transport modes between the existing transports and new bus alternative transports, the Logit method approach was used and the data were collected by using Stated Preference technique. From the result of this research, the model of mode choice is obtained by including service factors showing the improvement of goodness of fit model, and is compared by those without including service factors. The average of service effect on the increase in the choice probability of the services is 22%, both in the sensitivity of the travel time and travel costs.

  15. Stability of Tokamak Equilibrium with Internal Transport Barrier against High-n MHD Ballooning Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Bing-Ren; QU Wen-Xiao; DONG Jia-Qi

    2006-01-01

    @@ A new eigen-mode equation for the tokamak high-n (the toroidal mode number) ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning mode in tokamak plasmas is derived to include the toroidal effects that are significant for stability of configurations with internal transport barriers (ITBs).

  16. Modes of Embodiment in Breast Cancer Patients Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salamonsen, Anita; Kruse, Tove Elisabeth; Eriksen, Sissel H.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer patients are frequent users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). They often have complex reasons for, and experiences from, their use of CAM. Bodily experiences are important and almost unexplored elements in CAM use. Our aim was to explore the meaning and importance...... of bodily experiences among breast cancer patients who were using CAM as a supplement or an alternative to conventional treatment (CT). Our findings based on qualitative interviews with 13 women suggest that bodily experiences were particularly important when positioned outside conventional health care...... prior to medical diagnosis and as users of CAM as alternative to CT. We introduce three central modes of embodiment related to CAM use: the right to one’s body, the body used as a gauge, and the body used as a guide. Patients’ positioning between treatment systems should be further explored from...

  17. Neonatal carrier: An easy to make alternative device to costly transport chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Milind

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of sick neonates to the surgical centers or transportation within the center is an essential requirement of neonatal surgery. Neonatal transport incubators are costly, space occupying, and are not available at many places in the developing countries. We report here a cheap yet effective and easy to make, alternate neonatal carrier device.

  18. Spin diffusive modes and thermal transport in neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we first review a method for obtaining the collective modes of pair-correlated neutron matter as found in a neutron star inner crust. We discuss two classes of modes corresponding to density and spin perturbations with energy spectra $\\omega = \\omega_0 + \\alpha q^2$, where $\\omega_0 = 2\\Delta$ is the threshold frequency and $\\Delta$ is the gap in the neutron fluid spectrum. For characteristic values of Landau parameters in neutron star crusts the exitonic density modes have $\\alpha 0$ and they exist above $\\omega_0$ which implies that these modes are damped. As an application of these findings we compute the thermal conductivity due to spin diffusive modes and show that it scales as $T^{1/2} \\exp(-2\\omega_0/T)$ in the case where their two-by-two scattering cross-section is weakly dependent on temperature.

  19. Characteristics of a new class of transport related MHD modes in JET H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of MHD mode, provisionally termed the Wash Board (WB) mode, has been observed during H-mode plasmas in JET. It occurs in all types of H-mode discharges, but is not seen during L-mode even at high values of β. The WB mode appears to be linked with saturation in the plasma confinement and central plasma temperatures. These modes have high m and n numbers and are localised in the outer part of the plasma, typically from the q=2 surface to the plasma edge. They rotate with the electron diamagnetic frequency and have a strong ballooning character. There is a good correlation between increasing plasma pressure and the growth of both the spectral extent and amplitude of the WB modes. Changes in the electron temperature profile also correlate well with changes in the amplitude of these modes. They are therefore regarded as a possible candidate to explain the power degradation of the empirically established H-mode scaling laws. (author)

  20. Particle transport in JET and TCV H-mode plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Maslov, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    Understanding particle transport physics is of great importance for magnetically confined plasma devices and for the development of thermonuclear fusion power for energy production. From the beginnings of fusion research, more than half a century ago, the problem of heat transport in tokamaks attracted the attention of researchers, but the particle transport phenomena were largely neglected until fairly recently. As tokamak physics advanced to its present level, the physics community realized...

  1. Instability of surface electron cyclotron TM-modes influenced by non-monochromatic alternating electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girka, I. O.; Girka, V. O.; Sydora, R. D.; Thumm, M.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of non-monochromaticity of an external alternating electric field on excitation of TM eigenmodes at harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency is considered here. These TM-modes propagate along the plasma interface in a metal waveguide. An external static constant magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly to the plasma interface. The problem is solved theoretically using the kinetic Vlasov-Boltzmann equation for description of plasma particles motion and the Maxwell equations for description of the electromagnetic mode fields. The external alternating electric field is supposed to be a superposition of two waves, whose amplitudes are different and their frequencies correlate as 2:1. An infinite set of equations for electric field harmonics of these modes is derived with the aid of nonlinear boundary conditions. This set is solved using the wave packet approach consisting of the main harmonic frequency and two nearest satellite temporal harmonics. Analytical studies of the obtained set of equations allow one to find two different regimes of parametric instability, namely, enhancement and suppression of the instability. Numerical analysis of the instability is carried out for the three first electron cyclotron harmonics.

  2. Automating Risk Assessments of Hazardous Material Shipments for Transportation Routes and Mode Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara H. Dolphin; William D. RIchins; Stephen R. Novascone

    2010-10-01

    The METEOR project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully addresses the difficult problem in risk assessment analyses of combining the results from bounding deterministic simulation results with probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment techniques. This paper describes a software suite designed to perform sensitivity and cost/benefit analyses on selected transportation routes and vehicles to minimize risk associated with the shipment of hazardous materials. METEOR uses Monte Carlo techniques to estimate the probability of an accidental release of a hazardous substance along a proposed transportation route. A METEOR user selects the mode of transportation, origin and destination points, and charts the route using interactive graphics. Inputs to METEOR (many selections built in) include crash rates for the specific aircraft, soil/rock type and population densities over the proposed route, and bounding limits for potential accident types (velocity, temperature, etc.). New vehicle, materials, and location data are added when available. If the risk estimates are unacceptable, the risks associated with alternate transportation modes or routes can be quickly evaluated and compared. Systematic optimizing methods will provide the user with the route and vehicle selection identified with the lowest risk of hazardous material release. The effects of a selected range of potential accidents such as vehicle impact, fire, fuel explosions, excessive containment pressure, flooding, etc. are evaluated primarily using hydrocodes capable of accurately simulating the material response of critical containment components. Bounding conditions that represent credible accidents (i.e; for an impact event, velocity, orientations, and soil conditions) are used as input parameters to the hydrocode models yielding correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. The Monte Carlo algorithms use random number generators to make selections at the various decision

  3. New Edge Coherent Mode Providing Continuous Transport in Long Pulse H-mode Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.Q.; Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.;

    2014-01-01

    An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20–90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Super-conducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond-coated reciproc......An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20–90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Super-conducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond...... the nature of dissipative trapped electron mode, as evidenced by gyrokinetic turbulence simulations....

  4. Interdigital H -mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Mibe, T.; Yoshida, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hayashizaki, N.; Iwashita, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kitamura, R.; Saito, N.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from β =v /c =0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 π and 0.195 π mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

  5. Effects of dispersive wave modes on charged particles transport

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiner, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    The transport of charged particles in the heliosphere and the interstellar medium is governed by the interaction of particles and magnetic irregularities. For the transport of protons a rather simple model using a linear Alfv\\'en wave spectrum which follows the Kolmogorov distribution usually yields good results. Even magnetostatic spectra may be used. For the case of electron transport, particles will resonate with the high-k end of the spectrum. Here the magnetic fluctuations do not follow the linear dispersion relation, but the kinetic regime kicks in. We will discuss the interaction of fluctuations of dispersive waves in the kinetic regime using a particle-in-cell code. Especially the scattering of particles following the idea of Lange et al. (2013) and its application to PiC codes will be discussed. The effect of the dispersive regime on the electron transport will be discussed in detail.

  6. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Scharinger; Ulrich Rabl; Christian H. Kasess; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Tina Hofmaier; Kersten Diers; Lucie Bartova; Gerald Pail; Wolfgang Huf; Zeljko Uzelac; Beate Hartinger; Klaudius Kalcher; Thomas Perkmann; Helmuth Haslacher; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy...

  7. Nonlinear charge transport in DNA mediated by twist modes

    OpenAIRE

    Palmero, F.; Archilla, J. F. R.; Hennig, D.; Romero, F. R.

    2003-01-01

    Recent works on localized charge transport along DNA, based on a three--dimensional, tight--binding model (Eur. Phys. J. B 30:211, 2002; Phys. D 180:256, 2003), suggest that charge transport is mediated by the coupling of the radial and electron variables. However, these works are based on a linear approximation of the distances among nucleotides, which forces for consistency the assumption that the parameter $\\alpha$, that describes the coupling between the transfer integral and the distance...

  8. Alternative ways to transport natural gas; Transporte alternativo de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, N.R.; Campos, F.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian energy matrix has been showing a huge increase in the demand of natural gas due mainly to industries and power plants. Today the Brazilian gas market is supplied with gas produced by PETROBRAS and imported from Bolivia. To increase the Brazilian gas supply, on the short and middle term, PETROBRAS will import LNG (liquefied natural gas) and exploit the new offshore fields discovered on the pre-salt area. The only proven technology available today to bring this offshore gas to the market is the pipeline, but its costs for the pre-salt area are high enough to keep the solution economically attractive. So, PETROBRAS are evaluating and developing alternative ways to transport offshore gas, such as LNG, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), GTS (Gas-to-Solids or Natural Gas Hydrates) and ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas). Using information available in the literature, this paper analyses the main concepts of CNG and LNG floating unities. This paper also presents the PETROBRAS R and D results on ANG and GTS aiming at offshore application. (author)

  9. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  10. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  11. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs

  12. Red Cell Properties after Different Modes of Blood Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhro, Asya; Huisjes, Rick; Verhagen, Liesbeth P.; Mañú-Pereira, María del Mar; Llaudet-Planas, Esther; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Wang, Jue; Eichler, Hermann; Bogdanova, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Vives-Corrons, Joan-Lluís; Kaestner, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing, or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extent has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 h of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin, and citrate-based CPDA) for two temperatures (4°C and room temperature) were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination), red blood cell (RBC) volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations, and formation of micro vesicles), Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes, and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameters may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature). Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+) handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4°C. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, the majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using an optimized shipment protocol, the majority of parameters were stable within 24 h, a condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the patients to

  13. Red cell properties after different modes of blood transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Makhro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extend has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 hours of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin and citrate-based CPDA for two temperatures (4oC and room temperature were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination, red blood cell (RBC volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations and formation of micro vesicles, Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameter may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature. Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+ handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4oC. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using optimized shipment protocol the majority of parameters were stable within 24 hours, the condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for the as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the

  14. Role of neutral in ELMy H-mode plasmas. 2D transport simulation with COCONUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral penetration through SOL is studied for ELMy H-mode plasma with 2D transport code COCONUT, which has been developed at JET Joint undertaking. Interaction between the neutral and the transport barrier is investigated, and it is shown that when increasing gas puffing, sudden increase of ELM frequency can take place and degradation of confinement follows. (author)

  15. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  16. 77 FR 5617 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ..., Efficient Transportation Equity Act--A Legacy for Users of 2005 (SAFETEA-LU) and its extensions, and... expenses for alternative transportation systems in parks and public lands. Federal land management agencies and State, tribal and local governments acting with the consent of a Federal land management...

  17. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 H. Review Under the Treasury and General Government..., 1996. 61 FR 10622. EPAct 1992 requires that SFP fleets acquire AFVs as minimum percentages of their... alternative fuels, the use of biodiesel blends without either the B20 threshold or the 50 percent cap...

  18. Dangerous goods regulations in Europe and worldwide inland navigation and other modes of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since, for historical reasons, separate dangerous goods regulations were developed for each mode of transport, there now exist several different regulatory regimes. For Europe, and indeed the whole world, these uncoordinated regulations pose a serious problem. In my paper I will show 1) which regulations are applicable in Europe, 2) which role international transport organizations play and 3) which role the European Community plays. Special emphasis will be placed on inland navigation, since it is this mode of transport that will experience extensive changes during 1992. (J.P.N.)

  19. Fluid treatment of convective-transport threshold model of neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluid treatment of convective-transport threshold model of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) in tokamaks is developed. A Grad-type system of moment equations of the drift kinetic equation with a model perpendicular transport is derived. The essence of this moment equation system is to allow for the parallel heat flux on an equal footing with pressure and temperature, what goes beyond the scope of the Braginskii approach. The suggested moment equation system is applied for analyzing the bootstrap current drive of NTMs. As a result, a threshold model of these modes is derived, which coincides qualitatively with the convective-transport threshold model initially formulated by means of intuitive considerations

  20. Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Buliung Ron; Faulkner Guy; Wong Bonny Yee-Man; Irving Hyacinth

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). 3,633 students in grades 7 th...

  1. Radial transport of poloidal momentum in ASDEX Upgrade in L-mode and H-mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlmann, F.; Schrittwieser, R.; Naulin, Volker;

    2012-01-01

    A reciprocating probe was used for localized measurements of the radial transport of poloidal momentum in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). The probe measured poloidal and radial electric field components and density. We concentrate on three components of the momentum transport: ......: Reynolds stress, convective momentum flux and triple product of the fluctuating components of density, radial and poloidal electric field. For the evaluation we draw mainly on the probability density functions (PDFs)....

  2. The Impact of Transport Mode and Carbon Policy on Low-Carbon Retailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon retail has become a strategic target for many developed and developing economies. This study discusses the impact of transport mode and carbon policy on achieving this objective. We investigated the retailer transportation mode, pricing, and ordering strategy, which all consider carbon-sensitive demand under the carbon cap-and-trade policy. We analyzed the optimal decision of retailer and their maximum profit affected by transport mode and cap-and-trade policy parameters. Results show that the two elements (cap-and-trade policy and consumer low-carbon awareness could encourage the retailer to choose low-carbon transportation. The two elements also influence the profit and optimal decision of retailer. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the applicability of the model.

  3. Satisfaction with transport and enjoyment of the commute by commuting mode in inner Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris; Crane, Melanie; Wen, Li Ming; Greaves, Stephen; Standen, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Travel satisfaction has become an increasingly popular construct for the assessment and monitoring of transport systems and services. However, satisfaction may not adequately assess emotion or mood towards walking and cycling, especially when infrastructure is biased towards motor vehicle modes. In this exploratory study we sought to examine the associations of both satisfaction with transport and enjoyment from the commute to work or study by commute mode in an Australian inner city context where transport mode choices are readily available. Methods As part of the Sydney Transport and Health Study, 675 baseline study participants (2013) were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September/October 2014 and 512 did so (76% response rate). Participants who did not travel to work were removed from analyses, giving complete data for 473. Participants provided data on usual travel mode to work or study, satisfaction with transport, enjoyment from their commute, and demographics and neighbourhood factors. Results The main mode of travel to work or study in this inner city sample was public transport (41%), followed by motor vehicle (27%), walking (21%) and cycling (10%). Most participants were satisfied with their transport (82%), with little variation by mode. Walkers (49%) and cyclists (52%) reported far higher levels of enjoyment from their commute than car drivers (14%) or public transport users (10%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.18 (95% confidence interval 3.10-12.29, Pactive travel. So what? Focusing on 'enjoyment' associated with walking or cycling to work may be a positive motivator to encourage active travel. PMID:26650670

  4. Cobenefits of Replacing Car Trips with Alternative Transportation: A Review of Evidence and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed.

  5. Auxiliary transportation mode in a fully-mechanized face in a nearly horizontal thin coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Tu Shihao; Zhang Lei; Yang Qianlong; Tu Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    On fully-mechanized faces in nearly horizontal thin coal seams (NHTCS), the selection of the auxiliary transportation mode is difficult. Generally, auxiliary transportation mainly includes trackless or rail transportation. Combined with a familiar NHTCS fully-mechanized face, a multi-attribute decision-making model was set up for the decision. The index weight was objectively determined with the fuzzy number and entropy method. The priority order of auxiliary transportation modes was obtained from the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE). The results show that: the net flow of the mode can be expressed by the function of the surrounding rock deformation of the roadway, the dimension of equipment and the thickness of the coal seam;Based on the cost type index, there is a positive correlation between the net flow with the height and width of the trackless aux-iliary transportation equipment, respectively. The trackless auxiliary transportation equipment selection principle should be‘height first then width”. Combined with the field application of the trackless auxil-iary transportation in Liangshuijing coal mine, the proper method to achieve the safe and high-efficient exploitation of a NHTCS fully-mechanized face is trackless tyred vehicle auxiliary transportation.

  6. Artemisinin inhibits chloroplast electron transport activity: mode of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyasha Bharati

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo, behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

  7. Impacts of Urban Transportation Mode Split on CO2 Emissions in Jinan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebin He

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policies have centered on vehicle technologies that promote vehicle efficiency and reduced emissions. Limited research exists on the control of greenhouse gases through mode shifts in urban transportation—in particular, through the promotion of public transit. The purpose of this study is to establish a methodology to analyze carbon emissions from the urban transportation sector at the Chinese city level. By using Jinan, the capital of China’s Shandong Province, as an example, we have developed an analytical model to simulate energy consumption and carbon emissions based on the number of trips, the transportation mode split, and the trip distance. This model has enabled us to assess the impacts of the transportation mode split on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Furthermore, this paper reviews a set of methods for data collection, estimation, and processing for situations where statistical data are scarce in China. This paper also describes the simulation of three transportation system development scenarios. The results of this study illustrate that if no policy intervention is implemented for the transportation mode split (the business-as-usual (BAU case, then emissions from Chinese urban transportation systems will quadruple by 2030. However, a dense, mixed land-use pattern, as well as transportation policies that encourage public transportation, would result in the elimination of 1.93 million tons of carbon emissions—approximately 50% of the BAU

  8. Mode of transport to work, car ownership and CO{sub 2} emissions in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaunky, V.C. (ETH Zuerich. Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Bundhoo, M.N.; Moco, S.Y. (Mauritius (Mauritius))

    2011-05-15

    Fast economical and demographic revolution in the small island developing state of Mauritius over the last decades has led to an unprecedented rise in private vehicle utilization. In this arena, the cognition of ongoing travel practices and their determinants is sine qua non. This paper examines the determinants of mode of transport, rise in car ownership and its related environmental impacts. We employ cross-section micro-data obtained from our household drop-off survey to estimate a multinomial logistic regression model of transport mode choice coupled with an exhaustive ordinary least squares analysis of carbon emissions. Empirical results indicate that factors such as travel time, expenses and time lost in traffic jam coupled with demographic and socio-economic characteristics such as age of individual and household income have profound upshots on transport mode decisions. On the other hand, fuel type, residential distance from work and age of individual displays statistically significant impacts on carbon dioxide emissions. (Author)

  9. Development of the Model of Decision Support for Alternative Choice in the Transportation Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabashkin Igor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision support system is one of the instruments for choosing the most effective decision for cargo owner in constant fluctuated business environment. The objective of this Paper is to suggest the multiple-criteria approach for evaluation and choice the alternatives of cargo transportation in the large scale transportation transit system for the decision makers - cargo owners. The large scale transportation transit system is presented by directed finite graph. Each of 57 alternatives is represented by the set of key performance indicators Kvi and set of parameters Paj. There has been developed a two-level hierarchy system of criteria with ranging expert evaluations based on Analytic Hierarchy Process Method. The best alternatives were suggested according to this method.

  10. Modeling transportation of efavirenz: inference on possibility of mixed modes of transportation and kinetic solubility

    OpenAIRE

    Nemaura, Tafireyi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding drug transportation mechanisms in the human body is of paramount importance in modeling Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic relationships. This work gives a novel general model of efavirenz transportation projections based on concentrations simulated from patients on a dose of 600 mg. The work puts forward a proposition that transportation can wholly be modeled by concentration and time in a uniform volumetric space. Furthermore, movement entities are used to inform the state of “ki...

  11. ALTERNATIVE WHEAT COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS FOR THE SOUTHERN U.S. PLAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Stephen W.; Sorenson, L. Orlo; Johnson, Marc A.; Oehrtman, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines means of improving efficiency of the transportation portion of the export wheat handling system in the southern Plains. Analysis focuses on the feasibility of restructuring grain handling facilities to accommodate unit train movements to port locations. To accomplish this, a cost-minimizing network flow model was developed. Results show that the alternative transportation systems would have substantial effects on costs, wheat flow patterns and the economic variability of c...

  12. Tourists intra-destination visits and transportation mode: a bivariate model

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Masiero; Judit Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates tourists’ profile in relation to both intra-destination movement patterns and transportation mode choices at the destination through the use of bivariate probit models. The analysis is based on a field survey conducted among tourists visiting the Canton of Ticino, Switzerland. The results show a positive correlation between visiting more than one region and the use of private transportation at the destination. In particular, the two variables are explained by a m...

  13. Changes in mode of travel to work: a natural experimental study of new transport infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, E; Panter, J.; MacKett, R; Ogilvie, D

    2015-01-01

    Background New transport infrastructure may promote a shift towards active travel, thereby improving population health. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a major transport infrastructure project on commuters’ mode of travel, trip frequency and distance travelled to work. Methods Quasi-experimental analysis nested within a cohort study of 470 adults working in Cambridge, UK. The intervention consisted of the opening of a guided busway with a path for walking and cycling ...

  14. Mode Choice between Private and Public Transport in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onn Chiu Chuen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, Klang Valley has only 17% trips each day were completed using public transport, with the rest of the 83% trips were made through private transport. The inclination towards private car usage will only get worse if the transport policy continues to be inefficient and ineffective. Under the National Key Economic Area, the priority aimed to stimulate the increase of modal share of public transport in the Klang Valley to 50% by 2020. In the 10th Malaysia Plan, the Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit was proposed, equipped with 141 km of MRT system, and will integrate with the existing rail networks. Nevertheless, adding kilometers into the rail system will not help, if people do not make the shift from private into public transport. This research would like to assess the possible mode shift of travellers in the Klang Valley towards using public transport, based on the utility function of available transport modes. It intends to identify the criteria that will trigger their willingness to make changes in favour of public transport as targeted by the NKEA.

  15. Mode choice between private and public transport in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu Chuen, Onn; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Klang Valley has only 17% trips each day were completed using public transport, with the rest of the 83% trips were made through private transport. The inclination towards private car usage will only get worse if the transport policy continues to be inefficient and ineffective. Under the National Key Economic Area, the priority aimed to stimulate the increase of modal share of public transport in the Klang Valley to 50% by 2020. In the 10th Malaysia Plan, the Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit was proposed, equipped with 141 km of MRT system, and will integrate with the existing rail networks. Nevertheless, adding kilometers into the rail system will not help, if people do not make the shift from private into public transport. This research would like to assess the possible mode shift of travellers in the Klang Valley towards using public transport, based on the utility function of available transport modes. It intends to identify the criteria that will trigger their willingness to make changes in favour of public transport as targeted by the NKEA. PMID:24701165

  16. Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buliung Ron

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. 3,633 students in grades 7 through 12 completed self-administered questionnaires. Socio-demographic, behavioural, psychological, and environmental predictors of active school transport (AST were assessed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 47% and 38% of elementary school students reported AST to and from school, respectively. The corresponding figures were 23% and 32% for secondary school students. The prevalence of AST varied temporarily and spatially. There was a higher prevalence of walking/biking found for elementary school students than for secondary school students, and there was an approximate 10% increase in AST in the afternoon. Different correlates of active school transport were also found across elementary and secondary school students. For all ages, students living in urban areas, with a shorter travel time between home and school, and having some input to the decision making process, were more likely to walk to and from school. Conclusions Future research examining AST should continue to make the analytic distinction between the morning and afternoon trip, and control for the moderating effect of age and geography in predicting mode choice. In terms of practice, these variations highlight the need for school-specific travel plans rather than 'one size fits all' interventions in promoting active school transport.

  17. Schizosaccharomyces pombe protection of telomeres 1 utilizes alternate binding modes to accommodate different telomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Sarah E; Dickey, Thayne H; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2011-09-01

    The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes consist of long tracts of repetitive GT-rich DNA with variable sequence homogeneity between and within organisms. Telomeres terminate in a conserved 3'-ssDNA overhang that, regardless of sequence variability, is specifically and tightly bound by proteins of the telomere-end protection family. The high affinity ssDNA-binding activity of S. pombe Pot1 protein (SpPot1) is conferred by a DNA-binding domain consisting of two subdomains, Pot1pN and Pot1pC. Previous work has shown that Pot1pN binds a single repeat of the core telomere sequence (GGTTAC) with exquisite specificity, while Pot1pC binds an extended sequence of nine nucleotides (GGTTACGGT) with modest specificity requirements. We find that full-length SpPot1 binds the composite 15mer, (GGTTAC)(2)GGT, and a shorter two-repeat 12mer, (GGTTAC)(2), with equally high affinity (<3 pM), but with substantially different kinetic and thermodynamic properties. The binding mode of the SpPot1/15mer complex is more stable than that of the 12mer complex, with a 2-fold longer half-life and increased tolerance to nucleotide and amino acid substitutions. Our data suggest that SpPot1 protection of heterogeneous telomeres is mediated through 5'-sequence recognition and the use of alternate binding modes to maintain high affinity interaction with the G-strand, while simultaneously discriminating against the complementary strand.

  18. Addressing the Need for Alternative Transportation Fuels: The Joint BioEnergy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanch, Harvey; Adams, Paul; Andrews-Cramer, Katherine; Frommer, Wolf; Simmons, Blake; Keasling, Jay

    2008-01-18

    Today, carbon-rich fossil fuels, primarily oil, coal, and natural gas, provide 85% of the energy consumed in the U.S. As world demand increases, oil reserves may become rapidly depleted. Fossil fuel use increases CO{sub 2} emissions and raises the risk of global warming. The high energy content of liquid hydrocarbon fuels makes them the preferred energy source for all modes of transportation. In the U.S. alone, transportation consumes >13.8 million barrels of oil per day and generates 0.5 gigatons of carbon per year. This release of greenhouse gases has spurred research into alternative, nonfossil energy sources. Among the options (nuclear, concentrated solar thermal, geothermal, hydroelectric, wind, solar, and biomass), only biomass has the potential to provide a high-energy-content transportation fuel. Biomass is a renewable resource that can be converted into carbon-neutral transporation fuels. Currently, biofuels such as ethanol are produced largely from grains, but there is a large, untapped resource (estimated at more than a billion tons per year) of plant biomass that could be utilized as a renewable, domestic source of liquid fuels. Well-established processes convert the starch content of the grain into sugars that can be fermented to ethanol. The energy efficiency of starch-based biofuels is however not optimal, while plant cell walls (lignocellulose) represent a huge untapped source of energy. Plant-derived biomass contains cellulose, which is more difficult to convert to sugars; hemicellulose, which contains a diversity of carbohydrates that have to be efficiently degraded by microorganisms to fuels; and lignin, which is recalcitrant to degradation and prevents cost-effective fermentation. The development of cost-effective and energy-efficient processes to transform lignocellulosic biomass into fuels is hampered by significant roadblocks, including the lack of specifically developed energy crops, the difficulty in separating biomass components, low

  19. Intrinsic Localized Lattice Modes and Thermal Transport: Potential Application in a Thermal Rectifier

    OpenAIRE

    Manley, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments provide evidence of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) in the lattice dynamics of conventional 3D materials. Here evidence that ILMs in uranium metal enhance the thermal conductivity is presented along with speculation on how thermal transport by ILMs might be used to improve a reported design for a solid-state thermal rectifier.

  20. Analytical approach to developing the transport threshold models of neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical solutions of the stationary conduction equation are obtained. The solutions are used for developing the transport threshold models (TTM) of the neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) in tokamaks. The following TTM are considered: collisional, convective, inertial and rotational. These TTM may be the fragments of the more general models of NTM

  1. Ubiquity of non-diffusive momentum transport in JET H-modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisen, H.; Camenen, Y.; Salmi, A.; Versloot, T. W.; de Vries, P. C.; Maslov, M.; Tala, T.; Beurskens, M.; Giroud, C.; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2012-01-01

    A broad survey of the experimental database of neutral beam heated baseline H-modes and hybrid scenarios in the JET tokamak has established the ubiquity of non-diffusive momentum transport mechanisms in rotating plasmas. As a result of their presence, the normalized angular frequency gradient R &

  2. An Analytic Approach to Developing Transport Threshold Models of Neoclassical Tearing Modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport threshold models of neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks are investigated analytically. An analysis is made of the competition between strong transverse heat transport, on the one hand, and longitudinal heat transport, longitudinal heat convection, longitudinal inertial transport, and rotational transport, on the other hand, which leads to the establishment of the perturbed temperature profile in magnetic islands. It is shown that, in all these cases, the temperature profile can be found analytically by using rigorous solutions to the heat conduction equation in the near and far regions of a chain of magnetic islands and then by matching these solutions. Analytic expressions for the temperature profile are used to calculate the contribution of the bootstrap current to the generalized Rutherford equation for the island width evolution with the aim of constructing particular transport threshold models of neoclassical tearing modes. Four transport threshold models, differing in the underlying competing mechanisms, are analyzed: collisional, convective, inertial, and rotational models. The collisional model constructed analytically is shown to coincide exactly with that calculated numerically; the reason is that the analytical temperature profile turns out to be the same as the numerical profile. The results obtained can be useful in developing the next generation of general threshold models. The first steps toward such models have already been made

  3. Replacement of the cross-site transfer system liquid waste transport alternatives evaluation, Project W-058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document examines high-/low-level radioactive liquid waste transport alternatives. Radioactive liquid waste will be transported from the 200 West Area to the 200 East Area and within the 200 East Areas for safe storage and disposal. The radioactive waste transport alternatives are the Aboveground Transport System (French LR-56 Cask System [3,800 L (1,000 gal)]), 19,000-L (5,000-gal) trailer tanker system, 75,700-L (20,000-gal) rail tanker system and Underground Transport System (buried pipe [unlimited transfer volume capability]). The evaluation focused on the following areas: initial project cost, operational cost, secondary waste generation, radiation exposure, and final decommissioning. The evaluation was based on the near term (1995 to 2005) estimated volume of 49.509 million L (13.063 million gal) and long term (1995 to 2028) estimated volume of 757.1 million L (200 million gal). The conclusion showed that the buried pipe (Underground Transport System) resulted in the lowest overall total cost for near and long term, the trailer container resulted in the highest total cost for near and long term, and the French truck was operationally impractical and cost prohibitive

  4. Commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C

    2016-01-15

    A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon.

  5. Walking as a Climate Friendly Transportation Mode in Urban Environment Case Study: Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Đukić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A large percent of CO2 (carbon dioxide emissions in Serbia originate from transport. In the last two decades, the number of private car users in Belgrade evidently increased compared to the number of users of environmentally friendly modes of transport. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of approaches to the improvement of the physical aspect of the open public spaces, which aim to increase the number of users of climate friendly modes of transport, particularly walking. Research was done using three methods: observation of the intensity of pedestrian movement in relation to different periods during the day, direct surveys of citizens and the evaluation of immediate pedestrian surroundings. Three kinds of results were obtained: the trends and concentration of pedestrian movement along the main street lines; the attitude of citizens pertaining to reliable pedestrian movement and elements which contribute to their commitment to walking; and the rhythm of activity units, transparency, and variety of activities on the ground floor of buildings. The contribution of the study is in combining different research methods. The interpretation of the results forms the basis for directing future research and campaigns on topics of climate friendly modes of transport in urban areas.

  6. Does Wind Discourage Sustainable Transportation Mode Choice? Findings from San Francisco, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungkyoo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether and to what extent wind discourages sustainable transportation mode choice, which includes riding public transportation, bicycling, and walking. A six month-long field study was carried out at four locations in San Francisco, a city that has been promoting sustainable transportation mode choice but that experiences high wind levels. It involved surveying pedestrians and on-site recording of microclimate data using various instruments. The survey adopted a mixed-method approach to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Statistical analyses using Kruskal Wallis tests and ordinal logistic regression models identified the significant effect of wind speed on San Francisco’s residents in estimating their discouragement for waiting at transit stop without shelter, bicycling, and walking. Qualitative data revealed a deeper understanding of how wind influences their sustainable transportation mode choice. This research argues for the need to adopt climate-based efforts in urban planning and policy and sheds light on the climate resilience of cities

  7. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  8. On the non-stiffness of edge transport in L-mode tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, O.; Brunner, S.; Kim, D.; Merlo, G.; Behn, R.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Federspiel, L.; Goodman, T. P.; Karpushov, A.; Merle, A.; Team, TCV, E-mail: olivier.sauter@epfl.ch [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, EPFL, PPB-Ecublens, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Camenen, Y. [CNRS, UMR 7345, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille (France)

    2014-05-15

    Transport analyses using first-principle turbulence codes and 11/2 -D transport codes usually study radial transport properties between the tokamak plasma magnetic axis and a normalized minor radius around 0.8. In this region, heat transport shows significantly stiff properties resulting in temperature scalelength values (R∕L{sub T}) that are relatively independent of the level of the radial heat flux. We have studied experimentally in the tokamak à configuration variable [F. Hofmann et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 36, B277 (1994)] the radial electron transport properties of the edge region, close to the last closed flux surface, namely, between ρ{sub V}=√(V/V{sub edge})=0.8 to 1. It is shown that electron transport is not stiff in this region and high R∕L{sub Te} values (∼20–40) can be attained even for L-mode confinement. We can define a “pedestal” location, already in L-mode regimes, where the transport characteristics change from constant logarithmic gradient, inside ρ{sub V} = 0.8, to constant gradient between 0.8 and 1.0. In particular, we demonstrate, with well resolved T{sub e} and n{sub e} profiles, that the confinement improvement with plasma current I{sub p}, with or without auxiliary heating, is due to this non-stiff edge region. This new result is used to explain the significant confinement improvement observed with negative triangularity, which could not be explained by theory to date. Preliminary local gyrokinetic simulations are now consistent with an edge, less stiff, region that is more sensitive to triangularity than further inside. We also show that increasing the electron cyclotron heating power increases the edge temperature inverse scalelength, in contrast to the value in the main plasma region. The dependence of confinement on density in ohmic plasmas is also studied and brings new insight in the understanding of the transition between linear and saturated confinement regimes, as well as of the density limit and

  9. FUZZY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION MODES ALONG THE CHANGJIANG RIVER MAIN LINE AND ITS DELTA AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shi-yu; XIAO Han-liang

    2003-01-01

    The Changjiang River (Yangtze) is one of the fastest growth areas of container transportation in Chi-na. Rail, road and water transportation have competed against each other for container transportation in the Chang-jiang River main line and its delta area. It is of significance to assess these different transportation modes scientifi-cally in order to organize container transportation efficiently in this area and make decision for integral plan and construction of transportation system in this area. This paper outlines application of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to appraise different modes of typical direction of containers. Twelve assessment indexes were decided. Membership functions were formulated. Evaluation results indicated that road transportation was optimal mode in the Changjiang River delta area, however water transportation was the primary way in the Changjiang River main line.

  10. Collective modes and generalized transport coefficients for a dense one-component plasma in a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Suttorp; A.J. Schoolderman

    1987-01-01

    The collective modes for a one-component Coulomb plasma in a magnetic field are derived from the microscopic balance equations. The mode frequencies contain nine independent generalized transport coefficients for which Green-Kubo expressions are determined. The discontinuity in the mode spectrum for

  11. Repression of the Escherichia coli modABCD (molybdate transport) operon by ModE.

    OpenAIRE

    Grunden, A M; Ray, R M; Rosentel, J K; Healy, F. G.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    1996-01-01

    The modABC gene products constitute the molybdate-specific transport system in Escherichia coli. Another operon coding for two proteins which diverges from the modABCD operon has been identified. The first gene of this operon codes for a 262-amino-acid protein, designated ModE (28 kDa), and the second genes codes for a 490-amino-acid protein. ModF (54 kDa). The role of ModF has not yet been determined; however, mutations in modE depressed modABCD transcription even in the presence of molybdat...

  12. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  13. Solute transport via alternating-direction collocation using the modified method of characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Myron B.; Khosravani, Azar

    We present a finite-element collocation method for modeling underground solute transport in two space dimensions when advection is dominant. The scheme uses a modified method of characteristics to approximate advective terms, thereby reducing the temporal truncation error and allowing accurate transport of solute by the velocity field. In conjunction with this approach, we employ an alternating-direction algorithm to yield a highly parallelizable algorithm for solving two-dimensional problems as sequences of simpler problems having one-dimensional matrix structure.

  14. Non-linear Heat Transport Modelling with Edge Localized Modes and Plasma Edge Control in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Garbet, X.; Zwingman, W.; Nardon, E. [Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Moyer, R. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla CA (United States); Evans, T.; Leonard, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents a new approach for the modelling of the pedestal energy transport in the presence of Type I ELMs (edge localized mode) based on the linear ideal MHD code MISHKA coupled with the non-linear energy transport code TELM in a realistic tokamak geometry. The main mechanism of increased transport through the External Transport Barrier (ETB) in this model of ELMs is the increased convective flux due to the MHD velocity perturbation and an additional conductive flux due the radial perturbation of the magnetic field leading to a flattening of the pressure profile in the unstable zone. The typical Type I ELM time-cycle including the destabilization of the ballooning modes leading to the fast (200 {mu}s) collapse of the pedestal pressure followed by the edge pressure profile re-building on a diffusive time scale was reproduced numerically. The possible mechanism of Type I ELMs control using a stochastic plasma boundary created by external coils is modelled in the paper. In the stochastic layer the transverse transport is effectively increased by the magnetic field line diffusion. The modelling results for DIII-D experiment on Type I ELM suppression using the external perturbation from the I-coils demonstrated the possibility to decrease the edge pressure gradient just under the ideal ballooning limit, leading to the high confinement regime without Type I ELMs. (authors)

  15. PREFACE: 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizuka, Tomonori

    2008-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers based on invited talks and contributed posters presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers. This meeting was held at the Tsukuba International Congress Center in Tsukuba, Japan, on 26-28 September 2007, and was organized jointly by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the University of Tsukuba. The previous ten meetings in this series were held in San Diego (USA) 1987, Gut Ising (Germany) 1989, Abingdon (UK) 1991, Naka (Japan) 1993, Princeton (USA) 1995, Kloster Seeon (Germany) 1997, Oxford (UK) 1999, Toki (Japan) 2001, San Diego (USA) 2003, and St Petersburg (Russia) 2005. The purpose of the eleventh meeting was to present and discuss new results on H-mode (edge transport barrier, ETB) and internal transport barrier, ITB, experiments, theory and modeling in magnetic fusion research. It was expected that contributions give new and improved insights into the physics mechanisms behind high confinement modes of H-mode and ITBs. Ultimately, this research should lead to improved projections for ITER. As has been the tradition at the recent meetings of this series, the program was subdivided into six topics. The topics selected for the eleventh meeting were: H-mode transition and the pedestal-width Dynamics in ETB: ELM threshold, non-linear evolution and suppression, etc Transport relations of various quantities including turbulence in plasmas with ITB: rotation physics is especially highlighted Transport barriers in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields Theory and simulation on transport barriers Projections of transport barrier physics to ITER For each topic there was an invited talk presenting an overview of the topic, based on contributions to the meeting and on recently published external results. The six invited talks were: A Leonard (GA, USA): Progress in characterization of the H-mode pedestal and L-H transition N Oyama (JAEA, Japan): Progress and issues in

  16. Simulation of the Internal Transport Phenomena for PEM Fuel Cells with Different Modes of Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鸣若; 朱新坚; 顾安忠

    2004-01-01

    A numerical model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is developed, which can simulate such basic transport phenomena as gas-liquid two-phase flow in a working fuel cell. Boundary conditions for both the conventional and the interdigitated modes of flow are presented on a three-dimensional basis. Numerical techniques for this model are discussed in detail. Validation shows good agreement between simulating results and experimental data. Furthermore, internal transport phenomena are discussed and compared for PEM fuel cells with conventional and interdigitated flows. It is found that the dead-ended structure of an interdigitated flow does increase the oxygen mass fraction and decrease the liquid water saturation in the gas diffusion layer as compared to the conventional mode of flow. However, the cathode humidification is important for an interdigitated flow to acquire better performance than a conventional flow fuel cell.

  17. Hall effects on anomalous heat, particle and helicity transports through tearing-mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The helicity transport in a current-carrying plasma results in heat and particle transports in the direction opposite to the helicity flux. Tearing-mode turbulence produces helicity flux that is proportional to the gradient of equilibrium parallel current. The helicity flux is a consequence of a fluctuating electric field with a circularly polarized component, which also causes a nonlinear parallel current (primarily an electron flux) and a nonlinear polarization current (primarily an ion flux). Such anomalous heat and particle fluxes are driven by the free-energy associated with the perturbed magnetic field in the tearing-mode turbulence, and are typically directed inward to the plasma. Both fluxes becomes large when the gradient of the equilibrium current is large. 12 refs

  18. The impact of transportation alternatives on the decision to cease driving by older adults in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Takahashi, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether the availability of transportation alternatives for older drivers is a determinant of the decision to cease driving. We recruited participants from a total of 7827 drivers aged 69 years or older living in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan who were scheduled to renew their driving license between February and April 2011. In November 2010, we distributed questionnaires to collect data on predictors of driving cessation, and again in December 2012 to determine who had act...

  19. Alternative Fuels for Transportation : A Sustainability Assessment of Technologies within an International Energy Agency Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Shehzad; Conradt, Marcos H. K.; Pereira, Valeria De Fusco

    2009-01-01

    Transport sector is an essential driver of economic development and growth, and at the same time, one of the biggest contributors to climate change, responsible for almost a quarter of the global carbon dioxide emissions. The sector is 95 percent dependent on fossil fuels. International Energy Agency (IEA) scenarios present different mixes of fuels to decrease both dependence on fossil fuels and emissions, leading to a more sustainable future. The main alternative fuels proposed in the Blue m...

  20. Dopamine Transporters in Striatum Correlate with Deactivation in the Default Mode Network during Visuospatial Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Dardo Tomasi; Volkow, Nora D.; Ruiliang Wang; Frank Telang; Gene-Jack Wang; Linda Chang; Thomas Ernst; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dopamine and dopamine transporters (DAT, which regulate extracellular dopamine in the brain) are implicated in the modulation of attention but their specific roles are not well understood. Here we hypothesized that dopamine modulates attention by facilitation of brain deactivation in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation i...

  1. Stability of tokamak plasmas with internal transport barriers against high n ideal magnetohydrodynamic ballooning mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Bing-Ren; Qu Wen-Xiao

    2006-01-01

    A ballooning mode equation for tokamak plasma, with the toroidicity and the Shafranov shift effects included, is derived for a shift circular flux tokamak configuration. Using this equation, the stability of the plasma configuration with an internal transport barrier (IT2 against the high n (the toroidal mode number) ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning mode is analysed. It is shown that both the toroidicity and the Shafranov shift effects are stabilizing.In the ITB region, these effects give rise to a low shear stable channel between the first and the second stability regions.Out of the ITB region towards the plasma edge, the stabilizing effect of the Shafranov shift causes the unstable zone to be significantly narrowed.

  2. Integration of geospatial multi-mode transportation Systems in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M. A.; Said, M. N.

    2014-06-01

    Public transportation serves people with mobility and accessibility to workplaces, health facilities, community resources, and recreational areas across the country. Development in the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to transportation problems represents one of the most important areas of GIS-technology today. To show the importance of GIS network analysis, this paper highlights the determination of the optimal path between two or more destinations based on multi-mode concepts. The abstract connector is introduced in this research as an approach to integrate urban public transportation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia including facilities such as Light Rapid Transit (LRT), Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) Komuter, Express Rail Link (ERL), KL Monorail, road driving as well as pedestrian modes into a single intelligent data model. To assist such analysis, ArcGIS's Network Analyst functions are used whereby the final output includes the total distance, total travelled time, directional maps produced to find the quickest, shortest paths, and closest facilities based on either time or distance impedance for multi-mode route analysis.

  3. Monte Carlo simulations of alternative sky observation modes with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Szanecki, M; Niedźwiecki, A; Sitarek, J; Bednarek, W

    2015-01-01

    We investigate possible sky survey modes with the Middle Sized Telescopes (MST, aimed at covering the energy range from $\\sim$100 GeV to 10 TeV) subsystem of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). We use the standard CTA tools, CORSIKA and sim_telarray, to simulate the development of gamma-ray showers, proton background and the telescope response. We perform simulations for the H.E.S.S.-site in Namibia, which is one of the candidate sites for the CTA experiment. We study two previously considered modes, parallel and divergent, and we propose a new, convergent mode with telescopes tilted toward the array center. For each mode we provide performance parameters crucial for choosing the most efficient survey strategy. For the non-parallel modes we study the dependence on the telescope offset angle. We show that use of both the divergent and convergent modes results in potential advantages in comparison with use of the parallel mode. The fastest source detection can be achieved in the divergent mode with larger offs...

  4. Two alternative modes for diffuse pollution control in Wuhan City Zoo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollution in urban zoos arises from diffuse and small point sources.However,its control has received little attention in past decades.Online and offline modes of ecological engineering technology were designed to control pollution from small point and diffuse sources in Wuhan City Zoo.China.Their characteristics and performances were investigated in sixteen runoff events from 2003 to 2005.The results showed that the two modes both improved runoff water quality and had high retention rates for water and pollutants.In the outflows,the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total suspended solids (TSS),chemical oxygen demand (COD),total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 88%,59%,46% and 71% for the online mode,and those were 77%,42%,50% and 66% for the offline mode.The annual retention rates of pollutant loads for the online mode were 94.9%-98.5% in the three study years;those for the offline mode were 70.59%-86.4%.Based on calculation.the online mode was able to store the runoff of 66.7 mm rainfall completely,and the offline mode could store that of 31.3 mm rainfall.In addition,the online mode can provide an effective way for rainwater utilization and good habitats for aquatic wildlives,and has an excellent aesthetics value for recreationsal pastimes.The offline mode can save land resources and may be an effective and economical measure for diffuse pollution control in urban areas.

  5. Energy confinement and transport of H-mode plasmas in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A characteristic feature of the high-confinement (H-mode) regime is the formation of a transport barrier near the plasma edge, where steepening of the density and temperature gradients is observed. The H-mode is expected to be a standard operation mode in a next-step fusion experimental reactor, called ITER-the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. However, energy confinement in the H-mode has been observed to degrade with increasing density. This is a critical constraint for the operation domain in the ITER. Investigation of the main cause of confinement degradation is an urgent issue in the ITER Physics Research and Development Activity. A key element for solving this problem is investigation of the energy confinement and transport properties of H-mode plasmas. However, the influence of the plasma boundary characterized by the transport barrier in H-modes on the energy transport of the plasma core has not been examined sufficiently in tokamak research. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the energy confinement properties of H-modes in a variety of density, plasma shape, seed impurity concentration, and conductive heat flux in the plasma core using the experimental results obtained in the JT-60U tokamak of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Comparison of the H-mode confinement properties with those of other tokamaks using an international multi-machine database for extrapolation to the next step device was also one of the main subjects in this study. Density dependence of the energy confinement properties has been examined systematically by separating the thermal stored energy into the H-mode pedestal component determined by MHD stability called the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and the core component governed by gyro-Bohm-like transport. It has been found that the pedestal pressure imposed by the destabilization of ELM activities led to a reduction in the pedestal temperature with increasing density. The core temperature for each

  6. Alternative transportation fuels: Infrastructure requirements and environmental impacts for ethanol and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Heather L.

    Alternative fuels could replace a significant portion of the 140 billion gallons of annual US gasoline use. Considerable attention is being paid to processes and technologies for producing alternative fuels, but an enormous investment in new infrastructure will be needed to have substantial impact on the demand for petroleum. The economics of production, distribution, and use, along with environmental impacts of these fuels, will determine the success or failure of a transition away from US petroleum dependence. This dissertation evaluates infrastructure requirements for ethanol and hydrogen as alternative fuels. It begins with an economic case study for ethanol and hydrogen in Iowa. A large-scale linear optimization model is developed to estimate average transportation distances and costs for nationwide ethanol production and distribution systems. Environmental impacts of transportation in the ethanol life cycle are calculated using the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model. An EIO-LCA Hybrid method is developed to evaluate impacts of future fuel production technologies. This method is used to estimate emissions for hydrogen production and distribution pathways. Results from the ethanol analyses indicate that the ethanol transportation cost component is significant and is the most variable. Costs for ethanol sold in the Midwest, near primary production centers, are estimated to be comparable to or lower than gasoline costs. Along with a wide range of transportation costs, environmental impacts for ethanol range over three orders of magnitude, depending on the transport required. As a result, intensive ethanol use should be encouraged near ethanol production areas. Fossil fuels are likely to remain the primary feedstock sources for hydrogen production in the near- and mid-term. Costs and environmental impacts of hydrogen produced from natural gas and transported by pipeline are comparable to gasoline. However, capital costs are prohibitive and

  7. Anomalous transport arising from nonlinear resistive pressure-driven modes in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous transport caused by fluctuations of resistive pressure-driven modes is discussed within the framework of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The nonlinear reduced equations describing fluctuations localized near a particular magnetic field line are derived for tokamak and reversed-field-pinch (RFP) plasmas, taking into account nonzero viscosity and heat conductivity. Based on the reduced equations, the relationship between the dynamo effect, or the electric field caused by the fluctuations, and the anomalous heat transport is obtained. For an ideally stable but resistively slightly unstable plasma, the anomalous transport is caused particularly by convective motions. The convection is studied as bifurcation from the linearly unstable equilibrium and the expression of the anomalous transport in a tokamak plasma is obtained as a function of the mean pressure gradient near the critical point. In order to evaluate the effects of the convection on the anomalous transport under various conditions, the reduced equations are also solved numerically. It is found that the Nusselt number, that is, the ratio of the total heat conductivity including the anomalous heat transport to the classical collisional heat conductivity, is significantly large under some conditions. This partially explains the large heat losses in controlled thermonuclear fusion devices. 24 refs., 7 figs

  8. ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT AND VARIABILITY IN BOUNDARY LAYERS OF ACCRETION DISKS DRIVEN BY GLOBAL ACOUSTIC MODES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disk accretion onto a weakly magnetized central object, e.g., a star, is inevitably accompanied by the formation of a boundary layer near the surface, in which matter slows down from the highly supersonic orbital velocity of the disk to the rotational velocity of the star. We perform high-resolution two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations in the equatorial plane of an astrophysical boundary layer with the goal of exploring the dynamics of non-axisymmetric structures that form there. We generically find that the supersonic shear in the boundary layer excites non-axisymmetric quasi-stationary acoustic modes that are trapped between the surface of the star and a Lindblad resonance in the disk. These modes rotate in a prograde fashion, are stable for hundreds of orbital periods, and have a pattern speed that is less than and of the order of the rotational velocity at the inner edge of the disk. The origin of these intrinsically global modes is intimately related to the operation of a corotation amplifier in the system. Dissipation of acoustic modes in weak shocks provides a universal mechanism for angular momentum and mass transport even in purely hydrodynamic (i.e., non-magnetized) boundary layers. We discuss the possible implications of these trapped modes for explaining the variability seen in accreting compact objects.

  9. Cyclic negative pressure wound therapy: an alternative mode to intermittent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangwoo N; Ben-Nakhi, Muneera; Park, Eun J; Hong, Joon P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a novel mode of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) that minimises pain while preserving the efficacy in wound healing. A porcine model was used in this study. Wounds were generated in animals and treated with either simple dressing or various treatment modes of NPWT. The wound volume, perfusion level and vasculature status were analysed and compared among different groups. Clinical application was performed to evaluate the level of pain occurring when negative pressure is applied. Among the NPWT groups, the Cyclic-50 group showed most decrement in wound volume, even though statistical relevance was not found (P = 0·302). The perfusion level was significantly increased in the Cyclic-50 group compared with the Intermittent group (P NPWT mode decreased patient discomfort while maintaining superior wound healing effects as the intermittent mode. PMID:24373578

  10. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  11. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs

  12. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  13. Vibration Control of Flexible Mode for a Beam-Type Substrate Transport Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Hoon Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beam‐type substrate transport robots are widely used to handle substrates, especially in the solar cell manufacturing process. To reduce the takt time and increase productivity, accurate position control becomes increasingly important as the size of the substrate increases. However, the vibration caused by the flexible forks in beam‐type robots interferes with accurate positioning, which results in long takt times in the manufacturing process. To minimize the vibration and transport substrates on the fork as fast as possible, the trajectories should be prevented from exciting the flexible modes of the forks. For this purpose, a fifth‐order polynomial trajectory generator and input shaping were incorporated into the controller of the beam‐type robot in this study. The flexible modes of the forks were identified by measuring the frequency response function (FRF, and the input shaping was designed so as not to excite the flexible modes. The controller was implemented by using MATLAB/xPC Target. In this paper, the design procedure of input shaping and its effectiveness for vibration attenuation in both “no load” and “load” cases is presented.

  14. Structural basis of the alternating-access mechanism in a bile acid transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Levin, Elena J.; Pan, Yaping; McCoy, Jason G.; Sharma, Ruchika; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes and secreted through the biliary tract into the small intestine, where they aid in absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Through a process known as enterohepatic recirculation, more than 90% of secreted bile acids are then retrieved from the intestine and returned to the liver for resecretion. In humans, there are two Na+-dependent bile acid transporters involved in enterohepatic recirculation, the Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP; also known as SLC10A1) expressed in hepatocytes, and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; also known as SLC10A2) expressed on enterocytes in the terminal ileum. In recent years, ASBT has attracted much interest as a potential drug target for treatment of hypercholesterolaemia, because inhibition of ASBT reduces reabsorption of bile acids, thus increasing bile acid synthesis and consequently cholesterol consumption. However, a lack of three-dimensional structures of bile acid transporters hampers our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms of substrate selectivity and transport, and to interpret the wealth of existing functional data. The crystal structure of an ASBT homologue from Neisseria meningitidis (ASBTNM) in detergent was reported recently, showing the protein in an inward-open conformation bound to two Na+ and a taurocholic acid. However, the structural changes that bring bile acid and Na+ across the membrane are difficult to infer from a single structure. To understand the structural changes associated with the coupled transport of Na+ and bile acids, here we solved two structures of an ASBT homologue from Yersinia frederiksenii (ASBTYf) in a lipid environment, which reveal that a large rigid-body rotation of a substrate-binding domain gives the conserved `crossover' region, where two discontinuous helices cross each other, alternating accessibility from either side of the cell membrane. This result has implications

  15. Final environmental statement on the transportation of radioactive material by air and other modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is presented of the environmental impact from transportation of shipments of radioactive material into, within, and out of the United States. It is intended to serve as background material for a review by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of regulations dealing with transportation of radioactive materials. The impetus for such a review results not only from a general need to examine regulations to ensure their continuing consistency with the goal of limiting radiological impact to a level that is as low as reasonably achievable, but also from a need to respond to current national discussions of the safety and security aspects of nuclear fuel cycle materials. Chapters are included on regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials, radiological effects, transport impact under normal conditions, impacts of transportation accidents, alternatives, and security and safeguards. A standard shipments model is also included along with a demographic model, excerpts from federal regulations, data on Pu, Population dose formulas, a list of radioactive material incidents, accident analysis methodology, and an analysis of risk assessment sensitivity

  16. Fourier mode analysis of slab-geometry transport iterations in spatially periodic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a Fourier analysis of the diffusion-synthetic acceleration (DSA) and transport-synthetic acceleration (TSA) iteration schemes for a spatially periodic, but otherwise arbitrarily heterogeneous, medium. Both DSA and TSA converge more slowly in a heterogeneous medium than in a homogeneous medium composed of the volume-averaged scattering ratio. In the limit of a homogeneous medium, our heterogeneous analysis contains eigenvalues of multiplicity two at ''resonant'' wave numbers. In the presence of material heterogeneities, error modes corresponding to these resonant wave numbers are ''excited'' more than other error modes. For DSA and TSA, the iteration spectral radius may occur at these resonant wave numbers, in which case the material heterogeneities most strongly affect iterative performance

  17. Alternative Splicing Regulates the Subcellular Localization of Divalent Metal Transporter 1 Isoforms

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Naotaka; Nishida-Kitayama, Junko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Kishi, Fumio

    2002-01-01

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) is responsible for dietary-iron absorption from apical plasma membrane in the duodenum and iron acquisition from the transferrin cycle endosomes in peripheral tissues. Two isoforms of the DMT1 transcript generated by alternative splicing of the 3′ exons have been identified in mouse, rat, and human. These isoforms can be distinguished by the different C-terminal amino acid sequences and by the presence (DMT1A) or absence (DMT1B) of an iron response element ...

  18. Numerical evaluation of the light transport properties of alternative He-3 neutron detectors using ceramic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohzu, A., E-mail: ohzu.akira@jaea.go.jp [Nuclear Science and Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Takase, M.; Haruyama, M.; Kurata, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Kureta, M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Toh, K.; Sakasai, K.; Suzuki, H.; Soyama, K. [J-PARC, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Seya, M. [Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-10-21

    The light transport properties of scintillator light inside alternative He-3 neutron detectors using scintillator sheets have been investigated by a ray-tracing simulation code. The detector consists of a light-reflecting tube, a thin rectangular ceramic scintillator sheet laminated on a glass plate, and two photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) mounted at both ends of the detector tube. The flashes of light induced on the surface of the scintillator sheet via nuclear interaction between the scintillator and neutrons are detected by the two PMTs. The light output at both ends of various detectors in which the scintillator sheets are installed with several different arrangements were examined and evaluated in comparison with experimental results. The results derived from the simulation reveal that the light transport property is strongly dependent on the arrangement of the scintillator sheet inside the tube and the shape of the tube.

  19. Interpretation and nonuniqueness of CTRW transition distributions: Insights from an alternative solute transport formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K.; Berkowitz, Brian

    2014-12-01

    The continuous time random walk (CTRW) has both an elegant mathematical theory and a successful record at modeling solute transport in the subsurface. However, there are some interpretation ambiguities relating to the relationship between the discrete CTRW transition distributions and the underlying continuous movement of solute that have not been addressed in existing literature. These include the exact definition of "transition", and the extent to which transition probability distributions are unique/quantifiable from data. Here, we present some theoretical results which address these uncertainties in systems with an advective bias. Simultaneously, we present an alternative, reduced parameter CTRW formulation for general advective transport in heterogeneous porous media, which models early- and late-time transport by use of random transition times between sparse, imaginary planes normal to flow. We show that even in the context of this reduced-parameter formulation there is nonuniqueness in the definitions of both transition lengths and waiting time distributions, and that neither may be uniquely determined from experimental data. For practical use of this formulation, we suggest Pareto transition time distributions, leading to a two-degree-of-freedom modeling approach. We then demonstrate the power of this approach in fitting two sets of existing experimental data. While the primary focus is the presentation of new results, the discussion is designed to be pedagogical and to provide a good entry point into practical modeling of solute transport with the CTRW.

  20. Drift Mode Growth Rate and Associated Ion Thermal Transport in Reversed Magnetic Shear Tokamak Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ai-Ke; QIU Xiao-Ming

    2001-01-01

    Drift mode linear growth rate and quasi-linear ion thermal transport in the reversed magnetic shear plasma are investigated by using the two-fluid theory, previously developed by Weiland and the Chalmers group [J. Nucl.Fusion, 29 (1989) 1810; ibid. 30 (1990) 983]. The theory is here extended to include both the radial electrical field shear (dEr/dr) and the electron fluid velocity (Ve) in the sheared coordinate system. Here, Ve describes the coupling between the safety factor q and the Er × B velocity V E. Their influences on the growth rate and associated ion thermal transport are obtained numerically. In addition, the ion heat pinch in the reversed shear plasma is observed. Qualitatively, the present conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Collective modes and generalized transport coefficients for a dense one-component plasma in a magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Suttorp, L.G.; Schoolderman, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The collective modes for a one-component Coulomb plasma in a magnetic field are derived from the microscopic balance equations. The mode frequencies contain nine independent generalized transport coefficients for which Green-Kubo expressions are determined. The discontinuity in the mode spectrum for wave vectors orthogonal to the magnetic field is discussed in detail. The connexion with the results obtained by means of kinetic theory is established.

  2. Application of the linear/exponential hybrid force field scaling scheme to the bond length alternation modes of polyacetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujiang; Kertesz, Miklos

    2006-12-01

    The two bond length alternation related backbone carbon-carbon stretching Raman active normal modes of polyacetylene are notoriously difficulty to predict theoretically. We apply our new linear/exponential scaled quantum mechanical force field scheme to tackle this problem by exponentially adjusting the decay of the coupling force constants between backbone stretchings based on their distance which extends over many neighbors. With transferable scaling parameters optimized by least squares fitting to the experimental vibrational frequencies of short oligoenes, the scaled frequencies of trans-polyacetylene and its isotopic analogs agree very well with experiments. The linear/exponential scaling scheme is also applicable to the cis-polyacetylene case.

  3. Visitor Assessment of the Mandatory Alternative Transportation System at Zion National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Britton L.; Marquit, Joshua D.; Bates, Scott C.

    2013-11-01

    Transportation infrastructure in national parks has historically been designed for the automobile. With more vehicles in the parks, visitors found themselves in circumstances more reminiscent of a city than a park. Traffic jams, overcrowding, illegal parking, horn honking, and idling vehicles became common, creating stress and contributing to air and noise pollution, the very things visitors were hoping to get away from. Park managers began searching for alternatives, including shuttle systems. Many national parks have implemented optional shuttle systems, but relatively few have completely closed roads to vehicles, transporting visitors on mandatory shuttles. Zion National Park instituted a mandatory shuttle system in May 2000 to relieve crowding and congestion in the main canyon and to protect natural resources. Taking a longitudinal approach, attributes of the shuttle (e.g., crowding, accessibility, freedom, efficiency, preference, and success) were assessed with experiential park factors (e.g., scenic beauty, naturalness, solitude, tranquility, air quality, and soundscape) in 2000, 2003, and 2010 by surveying shuttle-riding park visitors. While visitors initially reported a few reservations about the shuttle system, by 2003, the majority rated the system successful. Ratings of all shuttle-related variables, except crowding, improved over the decade. Improvements were greatest for freedom, accessibility, and efficiency. Multiple regression found overall shuttle success to be mediated by preference, freedom, accessibility, efficiency, and comfort. Experiential variables assessing park conditions followed a similar pattern, with improved ratings as the decade progressed. Results provide important insights into the visitor experience with mandatory alternative shuttle systems in national parks.

  4. Visitor assessment of the mandatory alternative transportation system at Zion National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Britton L; Marquit, Joshua D; Bates, Scott C

    2013-11-01

    Transportation infrastructure in national parks has historically been designed for the automobile. With more vehicles in the parks, visitors found themselves in circumstances more reminiscent of a city than a park. Traffic jams, overcrowding, illegal parking, horn honking, and idling vehicles became common, creating stress and contributing to air and noise pollution, the very things visitors were hoping to get away from. Park managers began searching for alternatives, including shuttle systems. Many national parks have implemented optional shuttle systems, but relatively few have completely closed roads to vehicles, transporting visitors on mandatory shuttles. Zion National Park instituted a mandatory shuttle system in May 2000 to relieve crowding and congestion in the main canyon and to protect natural resources. Taking a longitudinal approach, attributes of the shuttle (e.g., crowding, accessibility, freedom, efficiency, preference, and success) were assessed with experiential park factors (e.g., scenic beauty, naturalness, solitude, tranquility, air quality, and soundscape) in 2000, 2003, and 2010 by surveying shuttle-riding park visitors. While visitors initially reported a few reservations about the shuttle system, by 2003, the majority rated the system successful. Ratings of all shuttle-related variables, except crowding, improved over the decade. Improvements were greatest for freedom, accessibility, and efficiency. Multiple regression found overall shuttle success to be mediated by preference, freedom, accessibility, efficiency, and comfort. Experiential variables assessing park conditions followed a similar pattern, with improved ratings as the decade progressed. Results provide important insights into the visitor experience with mandatory alternative shuttle systems in national parks.

  5. Implementing of alternative fuels in Sweden. A report to the Governmental Commission on Transport and Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstroem, U.; Heinegaard, C. [Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board, Stockholm (Sweden); Widlert, S. [SIKA (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    The Governmental Commission on Transport and Communications has directed KFB, NUTEK, and SIKA to prepare material for a decision on the introduction on a large scale of alternative fuels. We have carried out this task jointly and the attached report outlines three different strategies for the introduction. Strategies 1 and 2 have been designed to achieve the target of 15% bio-based usage within the road transport sector by 2010. The third strategy extends the introduction period to 2020 and reduces the target to 10%. Strategy 3 also involves the introduction strategy being preceded by a five-year R and D programme. This should be complemented with continued tax exemption for ethanol and a broad evaluation programme to allow experiences gained from different areas of usage to be applied. Based on the background of the R and D situation for the various alternative fuels and the high cost of beginning the introduction on a large scale of bio-based fuels today, we would recommend Strategy 3.

  6. 40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80.350 Section 80.350 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements for Refiners and Importers § 80.350 What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

  7. GENDER PREFERENCES FOR ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TRANSPORT WITH FOCUS ON ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation has become an important part of our day to day life. Due to changing lifestyle, frequent travels whether related to work or leisure has become a common phenomenon. Such lifestyle also demands comfortable transport medium and reasonable availability of fuels. As need of vehicle for transportation is rising, it has put pressure of fuel supply, fuel prices and environment as well. The rising prices of fuel, increasing pressure on resources and threatening environment pollution is driving the need for alternative and clean sources of energy. Increasing competition among nations to own the resources is becoming a serious threat for many developing countries. This paper empirically examines the gender preference for alternative energy sources and related technologies for vehicles. In total, 1168 questionnaires were received from respondents (male-711, female-442, not disclosed-15 from eleven cities in India viz. Bengaluru, Chennai, Cochin, Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Pune, Imphal, Rohtak, Sagar and Tiruvanathpuram in India and one city from Bhutan-Thimpu. Respondents who did not disclose their gender were excluded from the study. The study was conducted from October 2013 to June 2014. The objective of the study was to understand the social dimensions and gender preferences of the respondents regarding their preference for electric vehicle as an alternative energy transport for personal and public use. The primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS®. Findings indicate that in general fueled vehicles are still preferred over electric vehicles. However there is a strong interest in electric vehicles. It was observed that more than 66% of the respondents in the age group of 18-30 can become prospective customers in the near future, if the electric vehicles meet their expectations. In this age group, 59% of the respondents were male

  8. A Review of Darcy's Law: Limitations and Alternatives for Predicting Solute Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Kung, K.-J. Sam; Jaynes, Dan; Helling, Charles S.; Gish, Tim; Kladivko, Eileen

    2016-04-01

    Darcy's Law that was derived originally empirically 160 years ago, has been used successfully in calculating the (Darcy) flux in porous media throughout the world. However, field and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the Darcy flux employed in the convective disperse equation could only successfully predict solute transport under two conditions: (1) uniformly or densely packed porous media; and (2) field soils under relatively dry condition. Employing the Darcy flux for solute transport in porous media with preferential flow pathways was problematic. In this paper we examine the theoretical background behind these field and laboratory observations and then provide an alternative to predict solute movement. By examining the characteristics of the momentum conservation principles on which Darcy's law is based, we show under what conditions Darcy flux can predict solute transport in porous media of various complexity. We find that, based on several case studies with capillary pores, Darcy's Law inherently merges momentum and in that way erases information on pore-scale velocities. For that reason the Darcy flux cannot predict flow in media with preferential flow conduits where individual pore velocities are essential in predicting the shape of the breakthrough curve and especially "the early arrival" of solutes. To overcome the limitations of the assumption in Darcy's law, we use Jury's conceptualization and employ the measured chemical breakthrough curve as input to characterize the impact of individual preferential flow pathways on chemical transport. Specifically, we discuss how best to take advantage of Jury's conceptualization to extract the pore-scale flow velocity to accurately predict chemical transport through soils with preferential flow pathways.

  9. Improved kinetic neoclassical transport calculation for a low-collisionality QH-mode pedestal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D. J.; Burrell, K. H.; Chang, C. S.; deGrassie, J. S.; Grierson, B. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Hager, R.

    2016-08-01

    The role of neoclassical, anomalous and neutral transport to the overall H-mode pedestal and scrape-off layer (SOL) structure in an ELM-free QH-mode discharge on DIII-D is explored using XGC0, a 5D full-f multi-species particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. The work in this paper builds on previous work aimed at achieving quantitative agreement between the flux-driven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles. Improved quantitative agreement is achieved by performing the calculations with a more realistic electron mass, larger neutral density and including finite-Larmor-radius corrections self-consistently in the drift-kinetic motion of the particles. Consequently, the simulations provide stronger evidence that the radial electric field ({{E}\\text{r}} ) in the pedestal is primarily established by the required balance between the loss of high-energy tail main ions against a pinch of colder main ions and impurities. The kinetic loss of a small population of ions carrying a large proportion of energy and momentum leads to a separation of the particle and energy transport rates and introduces a source of intrinsic edge torque. Ion orbit loss and finite orbit width effects drive the energy distributions away from Maxwellian, and describe the anisotropy, poloidal asymmetry and local minimum near the separatrix observed in the {{T}i} profile.

  10. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Altemative Fuels Assessment, the Department of Energy (DOE) is studying the use of derivatives of natural gas, including compressed natural gas and methanol, as altemative transportation fuels. A critical part of this effort is determining potential sources of natural gas and the economics of those sources. Previous studies in this series characterized the economics of unutilized gas within the lower 48 United States, comparing its value for methanol production against its value as a pipelined fuel (US Department of Energy 1991), and analyzed the costs of developing undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves in several countries (US Department of Energy 1992c). This report extends those analyses to include Alaskan North Slope natural gas that either is not being produced or is being reinjected. The report includes the following: A description of discovered and potential (undiscovered) quantities of natural gas on the Alaskan North Slope. A discussion of proposed altemative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. A comparison of the economics of the proposed alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the costs of transporting Alaskan North Slope gas to markets in the lower 48 States as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or methanol. It is not intended to recommend one alternative over another or to evaluate the relative economics or timing of using North Slope gas in new tertiary oil recovery projects. The information is supplied in sufficient detail to allow incorporation of relevant economic relationships (for example, wellhead gas prices and transportation costs) into the Altemative Fuels Trade Model, the analytical framework DOE is using to evaluate various policy options

  11. The effects of rising energy costs and transportation mode mix on forest fuel procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since fossil fuels have been broadly recognized as a non-renewable energy source that threatens the climate, sustainable and CO2 neutral energy sources - such as forest fuels - are being promoted in Europe, instead. With the expeditiously growing forest fuel demand, the strategic problem of how to design a cost-efficient distribution network has evolved. This paper presents an MILP model, comprising decisions on modes of transportation and spatial arrangement of terminals, in order to design a forest fuel supply network for Austria. The MILP model is used to evaluate the impacts of rising energy costs on procurement sources, transport mix and procurement costs on a national scale, based on the example of Austria. A 20% increase of energy costs results in a procurement cost increase of 7%, and another 20% increase of energy costs would have similar results. While domestic waterways become more important as a result of the first energy cost increase, rail only does so after the second. One way to decrease procurement costs would be to reduce the share of empty trips with truck and trailer. Reducing this share by 10% decreases the average procurement costs by up to 20%. Routing influences the modal split considerably, and the truck transport share increases from 86% to 97%, accordingly. Increasing forest fuel imports by large CHPs lowers domestic competition and also enables smaller plants to cut their procurement costs. Rising forest fuel imports via ship will not significantly decrease domestic market shares, but they will reduce procurement costs considerably. (author)

  12. The Determinants of Transportation Mode Choice in the Middle Eastern Cities: the Kerman Case, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Soltanzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Having a precise understanding of the determinants of transportation mode choices and decisions can be under the influence of regional and cultural aspects. This paper outlines such determinants in the Iranian city of Kerman as a representative of the similar Middle Eastern cities located in hot-arid climates and Moslem cultures. The descriptive analysis of the results derived from a short survey that was a part of a larger study conducted in the second half of 2013 indicated that adding to accessibility to public transportation and the convenience of using it can persuade people to shift from car driving to public transit use. The main barriers to bicycling are socio-cultural aspects, while for walking the obstacles are physical and objective. Increasing the quality of pedestrian infrastructure and spaces is a stronger deterrent than personal attitudes against walking. Such findings show slight dissimilarities from the results of some of the western studies that find the built environment more effective. These findings can be a general guide for the Middle Eastern planners to promote walking, biking, and public transport use.

  13. Electrostatic transport in L-mode scrape-off layer plasmas of Tore Supra tokamak. II. Transport by fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorczak, N.; Tynan, G. R. [Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Gunn, J. P.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Monier-Garbet, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Institut de Recherche pour la Fusion Magnetique Controlee, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Oost, G. van [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, St. Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2012-07-15

    The turbulent transport of particles is investigated using rake probes at the top of the scrape-off layer (SOL) of circular ohmically heated L-mode plasmas in the Tore Supra tokamak [G. Giruzzi et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104010 (2009)]. Both radial and poloidal non-linear fluxes are estimated by means of two reciprocating arrays separated toroidally by 120 Degree-Sign . The time average of the radial (poloidal) flux is positive (negative) through the whole SOL profile. The respective effective transport velocity are about {sub t} Almost-Equal-To 30m s{sup -1} and {sub t} Almost-Equal-To -60m s{sup -1} close to the last closed flux surface. Both components present a standard deviation about 10 times higher than their respective mean amplitude, and time-distributions highly skewed toward values of the same sign as their mean values. The existence of a nonlinear poloidal flux is associated with the local tilt of filament eddies due to electric and magnetic shear. At the last closed flux surface, where plasma filaments experience their early life, the orientation of the velocity field is consistent with structure dynamics which originate from the outboard midplane and spread along field lines toward the rest of the poloidal section. The localized tilt of the eddy structures corresponds to the effect of the magnetic shear. Further into the SOL, the orientation of the velocity field evolves along radius in agreement with a simple model of propagating filaments progressively tilted by an electric shear. The combined effects of electric and magnetic shear on the eddy tilting have potentially a crucial impact on the existence of a Reynolds stress {sub t} component, which is strongly poloidally asymmetric at the edge of tokamak plasmas.

  14. Alternative modes for optical trapping and manipulation using counter-propagating shaped beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Lindballe, T.B.; Kristensen, M.V.;

    2011-01-01

    Counter-propagating beams have enabled the first stable three-dimensional optical trapping of microparticles and this procedure has been enhanced and developed over the years to achieve independent and interactive manipulation of multiple particles. In this work, we analyse counter...... deviating from using perfectly counter-propagating beams to use oblique beams can improve the axial stability of the traps and improve the axial trapping stiffness. These alternative geometries can be particularly useful for handling larger particles. These results hint at a rich potential for light shaping......-propagating shaped-beam traps that depart from the conventional geometry based on symmetric, coaxial counter-propagating beams. We show that projecting shaped beams with separation distances previously considered axially unstable can, in fact, enhance the axial and transverse trapping stiffnesses. We also show that...

  15. The Dependence of H-mode Energy Confinement and Transport on Collisionality in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S. M.; Gerhardt, S.; Guttenfelder, W.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.

    2012-11-27

    Understanding the dependence of confi nement on collisionality in tokamaks is important for the design of next-step devices, which will operate at collisionalities at least one order of magnitude lower than in present generation. A wide range of collisionality has been obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by employing two different wall conditioning techniques, one with boronization and between-shot helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC+B), and one using lithium evaporation (Li EVAP). Previous studies of HeGDC+B plasmas indicated a strong and favorable dependence of normalized con nement on collisionality. Discharges with lithium conditioning discussed in the present study gen- erally achieved lower collisionality, extending the accessible range of collisionality by almost an order of unity. While the confinement dependences on dimensional, engineering variables of the HeGDC+B and Li EVAP datasets differed, collisionality was found to unify the trends, with the lower collisionality lithium conditioned discharges extending the trend of increasing normalized confi nement time with decreasing collisionality when other dimension less variables were held as fi xed as possible. This increase of confi nement with decreasing collisionality was driven by a large reduction in electron transport in the outer region of the plasma. This result is consistent with gyrokinetic calculations that show microtearing and Electron Temperature Gradient modes to be more stable for the lower collisionality discharges. Ion transport, near neoclassical at high collisionality, became more anomalous at lower collisionality, possibly due to the growth of hybrid TEM/KBM modes in the outer regions of the plasma.

  16. The Dependence of H-mode Energy Confinement and Transport on Collisionality in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S. M.; Gerhardt, S.; Guttenfelder, W.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.

    2012-11-28

    Understanding the dependence of confi nement on collisionality in tokamaks is important for the design of next-step devices, which will operate at collisionalities at least one order of magnitude lower than in present generation. A wide range of collisionality has been obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by employing two different wall conditioning techniques, one with boronization and between-shot helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC+B), and one using lithium evaporation (Li EVAP). Previous studies of HeGDC+B plasmas indicated a strong and favorable dependence of normalized con nement on collisionality. Discharges with lithium conditioning discussed in the present study gen- erally achieved lower collisionality, extending the accessible range of collisionality by almost an order of unity. While the confinement dependences on dimensional, engineering variables of the HeGDC+B and Li EVAP datasets differed, collisionality was found to unify the trends, with the lower collisionality lithium conditioned discharges extending the trend of increasing normalized confi nement time with decreasing collisionality when other dimension less variables were held as fi xed as possible. This increase of confi nement with decreasing collisionality was driven by a large reduction in electron transport in the outer region of the plasma. This result is consistent with gyrokinetic calculations that show microtearing and Electron Temperature Gradient modes to be more stable for the lower collisionality discharges. Ion transport, near neoclassical at high collisionality, became more anomalous at lower collisionality, possibly due to the growth of hybrid TEM/KBM modes in the outer regions of the plasma

  17. Edge energy transport barrier and turbulence in the I-mode regime on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Churchill, R. M.; Cziegler, I.; Dominguez, A.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Greenwald, M. J.; Howard, N.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E. S.; Reinke, M. L.; Rowan, W. L.; Terry, J. L.

    2011-05-01

    We report extended studies of the I-mode regime [Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)] obtained in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [Marmar et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 51(3), 3261 (2007)]. This regime, usually accessed with unfavorable ion B × ∇B drift, features an edge thermal transport barrier without a strong particle transport barrier. Steady I-modes have now been obtained with favorable B × ∇B drift, by using specific plasma shapes, as well as with unfavorable drift over a wider range of shapes and plasma parameters. With favorable drift, power thresholds are close to the standard scaling for L-H transitions, while with unfavorable drift they are ˜ 1.5-3 times higher, increasing with Ip. Global energy confinement in both drift configurations is comparable to H-mode scalings, while density profiles and impurity confinement are close to those in L-mode. Transport analysis of the edge region shows a decrease in edge χeff, by typically a factor of 3, between L- and I-mode. The decrease correlates with a drop in mid-frequency fluctuations (f ˜ 50-150 kHz) observed on both density and magnetics diagnostics. Edge fluctuations at higher frequencies often increase above L-mode levels, peaking at f ˜ 250 kHz. This weakly coherent mode is clearest and has narrowest width (Δf/f ˜ 0.45) at low q95 and high Tped, up to 1 keV. The Er well in I-mode is intermediate between L- and H-mode and is dominated by the diamagnetic contribution in the impurity radial force balance, without the Vpol shear typical of H-modes.

  18. Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge transport in organic electronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bakulin, Artem A.

    2015-08-06

    The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge transport in organic electronic devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.

  19. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Fact sheets on technology elements and system calculations for technology tracks; Teknologivurdering af alternative drivmidler til transportsektoren. Fakta-ark for teknologi-elementer og systemberegninger for teknologi-spor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. This appendix presents key fact sheets which substantiate the analysis presented in the report 'Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector'. (BA)

  20. 3D MODELING OF TRANSPORT BINARY ELECTROLYTE IN THE GALVANOSTATIC MODE IN THE CONDITION OF ELECTRONEUTRALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have derived mathematical models of non-stationary transport binary electrolyte in EMS (electromembrane systems: electrodialysis apparatus, electromembrane cell, etc. for the galvanostatic mode. To be specific, as EMS viewed channel of desalting of EDA (electrodialysis apparatus and EMS with RMD (rotating membrane disk. We present a formula expressing the intensity of the electric field through the current density and concentration. Also, we have received the differential equation for the current density. The fundamental point here is derived new equation for the unknown vector function of current density of the initial system of equations of Nernst-Planck. In addition, the article shows the output equation for the current density in three dimensions; we have proposed various methods for solving the equation of the current density and the boundary conditions for the current density. The proposed mathematical models of transport binary electrolyte are easy to be generalized to an arbitrary electrolyte. However, the corresponding equations are cumbersome. It should be also noted that the boundary conditions can be varied and depend on the purpose of a particular study in this regard, in this work are just the equation having the general form

  1. Design of an alternating phase focusing Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac with low injection energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Pang, J.; He, X.; Ying, Z.; Shi, J.

    2016-01-01

    An Inter-digital H-mode (IH) Drift Tube Linac (DTL) was designed to accelerate a proton beam in the low energy region with high RF efficiency and high gradient. The IH DTL is 1.078 m long and operates at 200 MHz. Protons could be accelerated from 0.04 MeV to 2.4 MeV (the β range is from 0.0092 to 0.0714). The method of alternating phase focusing (APF) was applied for beam focusing. The simulation results show that the transmission is 38% and the longitudinal acceptance is approximately 140°. The shunt impedance of the entire cavity is 365 MΩ/m. Adjustments of the electric-field were performed, and the beam dynamics design was described. The beam loss and voltage sensitivity were calculated.

  2. Travel path and transport mode identification method using ''less-frequently-detected'' position data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to seek method on travel path and transport mode identification in case positions of travellers are detected in low frequency. The survey in which ten test travellers with GPS logger move around Tokyo city centre was conducted. Travel path datasets of each traveller in which position data are selected every five minutes are processed from our survey data. Coverage index analysis based on the buffer analysis using GIS software is conducted. The condition and possibility to identify a path and a transport mode used are discussed

  3. The role of MHD in the sustainment of electron internal transport barriers and H-mode in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced scenarios exhibit improved confinement properties, which make them attractive candidate for ITER. For these to be achieved, the sustainment of transport barriers and therefore high pressure gradients is inherent. Their stability properties both in the transient and steady state phases is a major issue [1], because of the relationship between high performances and proximity to a stability limit. Core MHD modes are one of the key issues in the development and sustainment of transport barriers, as they degrade the confinement properties and, in the worse case, disrupt the plasma. The understanding of the underlying physics can provide the means of finding regimes without modes. In TCV (Tokamak a Configuration Variable) H-mode and electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) have been obtained with different schemes, usually accompanied by various types of MHD phenomenon [2, 3, 4]. In this paper we focus on the low-shear Quasi-Stationary ELM free H-mode (QSEFHM) scenarios [4], which displays infrequent sawteeth and/or NTMs. In addition to that, high-performance eITBs shots are discussed, during which a variety of resistive to ideal modes are observed and ascribable to the infernal stability limit [3, 5]. Analysis of data from TCV highest performance discharges can clarify the potential threats of MHD modes in advanced scenarios. MHD core analysis of the QSEFHM [4], and of eITBs is presented, focusing on the existence of stability windows

  4. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-02-01

    The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation system are investigated. Contactless transport was achieved by varying the height between the radiating plate and the reflector. Transport and levitation of droplets in particular involve two limits of the acoustic forces. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum force required to overcome the gravitational force. The upper limit corresponds to the maximum acoustic pressure beyond which atomization of the droplet occurs. As the droplet size increases, the lower limit increases and the upper limit decreases. Therefore to have large droplets levitated, relatively flat radiation pressure amplitude during the translation is needed. In this study, using a finite element model, the Gor'kov potential was calculated for different heights between the reflector and the radiating plate. The application of the Gor'kov potential was extended to study the range of droplet sizes for which the droplets can be levitated and transported without atomization. It was found that the third resonant mode (H(3)-mode) represents the best compromise between high levitation force and smooth pattern transition, and water droplets of millimeter radius can be levitated and transported. The H(3)-mode also allows for three translation lines in parallel.

  5. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-02-01

    The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation system are investigated. Contactless transport was achieved by varying the height between the radiating plate and the reflector. Transport and levitation of droplets in particular involve two limits of the acoustic forces. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum force required to overcome the gravitational force. The upper limit corresponds to the maximum acoustic pressure beyond which atomization of the droplet occurs. As the droplet size increases, the lower limit increases and the upper limit decreases. Therefore to have large droplets levitated, relatively flat radiation pressure amplitude during the translation is needed. In this study, using a finite element model, the Gor'kov potential was calculated for different heights between the reflector and the radiating plate. The application of the Gor'kov potential was extended to study the range of droplet sizes for which the droplets can be levitated and transported without atomization. It was found that the third resonant mode (H(3)-mode) represents the best compromise between high levitation force and smooth pattern transition, and water droplets of millimeter radius can be levitated and transported. The H(3)-mode also allows for three translation lines in parallel. PMID:22352478

  6. Functional characterisation of an intron retaining K+ transporter of barley reveals intron-mediated alternate splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, K.

    2015-01-01

    Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5 and 3 splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K+ transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably retained introns from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and transcript profiling in yeast and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is presented. Expression of intron-retaining HvHKT2;1 cDNA (HvHKT2;1-i) in trk1, trk2 yeast strain defective in K+ uptake restored growth in medium containing hygromycin in the presence of different concentrations of K+ and mediated hypersensitivity to Na+. HvHKT2;1-i produces multiple transcripts via alternate splicing of two regular introns and three exons in different compositions. HKT isoforms with retained introns and exon skipping variants were detected in relative expression analysis of (i) HvHKT2;1-i in barley under native conditions, (ii) in transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing HvHKT2;1-i, and (iii) in trk1, trk2 yeast expressing HvHKT2;1-i under control of an inducible promoter. Mixed proportions of three HKT transcripts: HvHKT2;1-e (first exon region), HvHKT2;1-i1 (first intron) and HvHKT2;1-i2 (second intron) were observed. The variation in transcript accumulation in response to changing K+ and Na+ concentrations was observed in both heterologous and plant systems. These findings suggest a link between intron-retaining transcripts and different splice variants to ion homeostasis, and their possible role in salt stress.

  7. Dopamine transporters in striatum correlate with deactivation in the default mode network during visuospatial attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardo Tomasi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dopamine and dopamine transporters (DAT, which regulate extracellular dopamine in the brain are implicated in the modulation of attention but their specific roles are not well understood. Here we hypothesized that dopamine modulates attention by facilitation of brain deactivation in the default mode network (DMN. Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation in the DMN during an attention task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this purpose we assessed the relationship between DAT in striatum (measured with positron emission tomography and [(11C]cocaine used as DAT radiotracer and brain activation and deactivation during a parametric visual attention task (measured with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy controls. We show that DAT availability in caudate and putamen had a negative correlation with deactivation in ventral parietal regions of the DMN (precuneus, BA 7 and a positive correlation with deactivation in a small region in the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32. With increasing attentional load, DAT in caudate showed a negative correlation with load-related deactivation increases in precuneus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide evidence that dopamine transporters modulate neural activity in the DMN and anterior cingulate gyrus during visuospatial attention. Our findings suggest that dopamine modulates attention in part by regulating neuronal activity in posterior parietal cortex including precuneus (region involved in alertness and cingulate gyrus (region deactivated in proportion to emotional interference. These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of stimulant medications (increase dopamine by blocking DAT in inattention reflect in part their ability to facilitate the deactivation of the DMN.

  8. Dopamine Transporters in Striatum Correlated with Deactivation in the Default Mode Network during Visuospatial Attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi, D.; Fowler, J.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, R.L.; Telang, F.; Wang, Chang, L.; Ernst, T.; /Fowler, J.S.

    2009-06-01

    Dopamine and dopamine transporters (DAT, which regulate extracellular dopamine in the brain) are implicated in the modulation of attention but their specific roles are not well understood. Here we hypothesized that dopamine modulates attention by facilitation of brain deactivation in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation in the DMN during an attention task. For this purpose we assessed the relationship between DAT in striatum (measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]cocaine used as DAT radiotracer) and brain activation and deactivation during a parametric visual attention task (measured with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging) in healthy controls. We show that DAT availability in caudate and putamen had a negative correlation with deactivation in ventral parietal regions of the DMN (precuneus, BA 7) and a positive correlation with deactivation in a small region in the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32). With increasing attentional load, DAT in caudate showed a negative correlation with load-related deactivation increases in precuneus. These findings provide evidence that dopamine transporters modulate neural activity in the DMN and anterior cingulate gyrus during visuospatial attention. Our findings suggest that dopamine modulates attention in part by regulating neuronal activity in posterior parietal cortex including precuneus (region involved in alertness) and cingulate gyrus (region deactivated in proportion to emotional interference). These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of stimulant medications (increase dopamine by blocking DAT) in inattention reflect in part their ability to facilitate the deactivation of the DMN.

  9. Alternative oxidase: a respiratory electron transport chain pathway essential for maintaining photosynthetic performance during drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C; Martyn, Greg D; Dahal, Keshav

    2016-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are the hubs of energy metabolism in plants. Drought strongly perturbs photosynthesis as a result of both diffusive limitations resulting from stomatal closure, and in some cases biochemical limitations that are associated with a reduced abundance of key photosynthetic components. The effects of drought on respiration, particularly respiration in the light (RL ), are less understood. The plant mitochondrial electron transport chain includes a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase called alternative oxidase (AOX). Several studies have shown that drought increases AOX transcript, protein and maximum capacity. Here we review recent studies comparing wild-type (WT) tobacco to transgenic lines with altered AOX protein amount. Specifically during drought, RL was compromised in AOX knockdown plants and enhanced in AOX overexpression plants, compared with WT. Significantly, these differences in RL were accompanied by dramatic differences in photosynthetic performance. Knockdown of AOX increased the susceptibility of photosynthesis to drought-induced biochemical limitations, while overexpression of AOX delayed the development of such biochemical limitations, compared with WT. Overall, the results indicate that AOX is essential to maintaining RL during drought, and that this non-energy conserving respiration maintains photosynthesis during drought by promoting energy balance in the chloroplast. This review also outlines several areas for future research, including the possibility that enhancement of non-energy conserving respiratory electron sinks may be a useful biotechnological approach to increase plant performance during stress. PMID:27080742

  10. COMET-PE as an Alternative to Monte Carlo for Photon and Electron Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Robert M.; Rahnema, Farzad

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo methods are a central component of radiotherapy treatment planning, shielding design, detector modeling, and other applications. Long calculation times, however, can limit the usefulness of these purely stochastic methods. The coarse mesh method for photon and electron transport (COMET-PE) provides an attractive alternative. By combining stochastic pre-computation with a deterministic solver, COMET-PE achieves accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo methods in only a fraction of the time. The method's implementation has been extended to 3D, and in this work, it is validated by comparison to DOSXYZnrc using a photon radiotherapy benchmark. The comparison demonstrates excellent agreement; of the voxels that received more than 10% of the maximum dose, over 97.3% pass a 2% / 2mm acceptance test and over 99.7% pass a 3% / 3mm test. Furthermore, the method is over an order of magnitude faster than DOSXYZnrc and is able to take advantage of both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel architectures for increased performance.

  11. Investigation of scrape-off layer and divertor heat transport in ASDEX Upgrade L-mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieglin, B.; Eich, T.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Scarabosio, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-05-01

    Power exhaust is one of the major challenges for the development of a fusion power plant. Predictions based upon a multimachine database give a scrape-off layer power fall-off length {λq}≤slant 1 mm for large fusion devices such as ITER. The power deposition profile on the target is broadened in the divertor by heat transport perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. This profile broadening is described by the power spreading S. Hence both {λq} and S need to be understood in order to estimate the expected divertor heat load for future fusion devices. For the investigation of S and {λq} L-Mode discharges with stable divertor conditions in hydrogen and deuterium were conducted in ASDEX Upgrade. A strong dependence of S on the divertor electron temperature and density is found which is the result of the competition between parallel electron heat conductivity and perpendicular diffusion in the divertor region. For high divertor temperatures it is found that the ion gyro radius at the divertor target needs to be considered. The dependence of the in/out asymmetry of the divertor power load on the electron density is investigated. The influence of the main ion species on the asymmetric behaviour is shown for hydrogen, deuterium and helium. A possible explanation for the observed asymmetry behaviour based on vertical drifts is proposed.

  12. The impact of governance modes on sustainable transport - the case of bus transport in Greater Manchester, UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    on how the transport sector is organised and governed. In this paper, we study the impacts of new public management (NPM) reforms in the British local transport sector on the attraction of passengers to buses. Britain is an interesting example since high level sustainable transport policies have been...... pursued in a deregulated context. We focus on bus transport in Greater Manchester as the case in point. First, we study the effects of the NPM reforms on modal shift. We find that the reforms generally have contributed to a decline in bus passengers, while some reform elements have made positive...

  13. Draft environmental statement on the transportation of radioactive material by air and other modes. DOCKET No. PR-71,73 (40 FR 23768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft environmental statement was prepared in connection with the NRC re-evaluation of its present regulations governing air transportation of radioactive materials, to provide sufficient analysis to determine the effectiveness of the present rules and of possible alternatives to those rules. The following topics are discussed: regulations governing radioactive materials transport; radiological effects; transport impacts under normal conditions; effect of transport under accident conditions; alternatives; and security and safeguards

  14. Full-f Neoclassical Simulations toward a Predictive Model for H-mode Pedestal Ion Energy, Particle and Momentum Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, D. J. [PPPL; Boedo, J. A. [University of California San Diego; Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics; Chang, C. S. [PPPL; Canik, J. M. [ORNL; deGrassie, J. S. [General Atomics; Gerhardt, S. P. [PPPL; Grierson, B. A. [General Atomics; Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics; Maingi, Rajesh [PPPL; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics

    2014-09-01

    Energy and particle transport rates are decoupled in the H-mode edge since the ion thermal transport rate is primarily set by the neoclassical transport of the deuterium ions in the tail of the thermal energy distribution, while the net particle transport rate is set by anomalous transport of the colder bulk ions. Ion orbit loss drives the energy distributions away from Maxwellian, and describes the anisotropy, poloidal asymmetry and local minimum near the separatrix observed in the Ti profile. Non-Maxwellian distributions also drive large intrinsic edge flows, and the interaction of turbulence at the top of the pedestal with the intrinsic edge flow can generate an intrinsic core torque. The primary driver of the radial electric field (Er) in the pedestal and scrapeoff layer (SOL) are kinetic neoclassical effects, such as ion orbit loss of tail ions and parallel electron loss to the divertor. This paper describes the first multi-species kinetic neoclassical transport calculations for ELM-free H-mode pedestal and scrape-off layer on DIII-D using XGC0, a 5D full-f particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. Quantitative agreement between the flux-driven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles is achieved by adding random-walk particle diffusion to the guiding-center drift motion. This interpretative technique quantifies the role of neoclassical, anomalous and neutral transport to the overall pedestal structure, and consequently illustrates the importance of including kinetic effects self-consistently in transport calculations around transport barriers.

  15. Dynamical Phenomena in an Optical-Wavelength Phonon Laser (Phaser): Nonlinear Resonances and Self-Organized Mode Alternation

    CERN Document Server

    Makovetskii, D N

    2011-01-01

    This is a part of an overview of my early studies on nonlinear spin-phonon dynamics in solid state optical-wavelength phonon lasers (phasers) started in 1984. The main goal of this work is a short description and a qualitative analysis of experimental data on low-frequency nonlinear resonances revealed in a nonautonomous ruby phaser. Under phaser pumping modulation near these resonances, an unusual kind of self-organized motions in the ruby spin-phonon system was observed by me in 1984 for the first time. The original technique of optical-wavelength microwave-frequency acoustic stimulated emission (SE) detection and microwave-frequency power spectra (MFPS) analysis was used in these experiments (description of the technique see: D.N.Makovetskii, Cand. Sci. Diss., Kharkov, 1983). The real time evolution of MFPS was studied using this technique at scales up to several hours. The phenomenon of the self-organized periodic alternation of SE phonon modes was experimentally revealed at hyperlow frequencies from abou...

  16. Phonon Transport at Crystalline Si/Ge Interfaces: The Role of Interfacial Modes of Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiz, Kiarash; Henry, Asegun

    2016-03-01

    We studied the modal contributions to heat conduction at crystalline Si and crystalline Ge interfaces and found that more than 15% of the interface conductance arises from less than 0.1% of the modes in the structure. Using the recently developed interface conductance modal analysis (ICMA) method along with a new complimentary methodology, we mapped the correlations between modes, which revealed that a small group of interfacial modes, which exist between 12–13 THz, exhibit extremely strong correlation with other modes in the system. It is found that these interfacial modes (e.g., modes with large eigen vectors for interfacial atoms) are enabled by the degree of anharmonicity near the interface, which is higher than in the bulk, and therefore allows this small group of modes to couple to all others. The analysis sheds light on the nature of localized vibrations at interfaces and can be enlightening for other investigations of localization.

  17. Gyrokinetic study of impurity transport from neoclassical and turbulent mechanisms in and across H-mode pedestal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuho; Chang, C. S.; Ku, Seunghoe; Hager, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The edge gyrokinetic code XGC1 has been used to study impurity transport from combined neoclassical and turbulent mechanisms in and across a steep H-mode pedestal, in realistic magnetic separatrix geometry. Both low-Z and high-Z impurity transport are studied.. The effect on the turbulence and transport is found to be different whether the impurity radial profile gradient is in the same or opposite direction to the main ion profile gradient. Co-existence of the low- and high-Z impurities also makes difference in the transport of each species. Edge impurity behavior in NSTX, JET, and DIII-D tokamak plasma will be discussed. Work funded by National Research Foundation of Korea and US DOE. Computing time was supported by NERSC.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Subjective Quality of the Mobility between a New Portable Electric Transportation Mode and Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ohta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the psychological impacts of the introduction of new portable electric transportation modes, we implemented an experiment using a personal mobile vehicle (PMV. We investigated its effects on 2 types of the subjective quality of mobility (SQM: instrumental aspects including “easiness” and “speed”: and affective aspects including “enjoyment,” “seeing scenery,” and “enjoying the atmosphere.” The result indicated that PMV might contribute to the improvement of the instrumental aspects of SQM, but walking was regarded as more preferable in terms of the affective aspects. The results suggest that such a new transportation mode could contribute to the improvement of subjective quality of mobility, if and only if it can be introduced in an appropriate situation.

  19. Algorithm to quantify energy consumption and pollutant emissions in ground transportation of persons for alternative transportation system structures. Contribution to an objectification of transportation policy measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golling, B.

    1978-01-01

    A calculation system, consisting of a frame model MACSIM and a core model MICSIM, is developed in order to quantify the effects of changes in the transportation system structure in ground transportation of persons on energy consumption and pollutant emissions. This system is an aid in analyzing the efficiency of measures to reduce energy consumption and pollutant emissions in this field of transportation, and it helps in making more accurate prognoses on energy demand in transportation.

  20. Study on Emergency Logistics Transportation Mode Selection%应急物流运输方式选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴利清; 兰培真

    2012-01-01

    为解决应急物流运输中最优运输方式的组合问题,在建立运输方式选择多目标优化数学模型的基础上,构造了求解该问题的虚拟运输网络,运用Floya法求解,并进行了算例计算.模拟结果表明,这种方法可以方便有效地求解该问题.%In emergency logistics transport, bow to select an optimized combination of transportation modes is a difficult problem. On the basis of mathematical model for multi-object optimization of transportation mode selection, this paper presented a virtual transportation network and Floyd algorithm to solve this prob- lem. Experimental calculations were made. They demonstrated that using this algorithm could effectively solve the problem.

  1. STREAM International Freight 2011. Comparison of various transport modes on a EU scale with the STREAM database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.; Otten, M.; Van Essen, H.

    2011-07-15

    This study is an update of the original STREAM study published in 2008. It provides a comprehensive review of vehicle-based freight transport emissions per tonne-kilometre for the various market segments of international freight carriage. The report also compares tonne-kilometre emissions based on average vehicle technology (average age) and average load factors in various scenarios, including substantial modal shifts in the coming decade. In the calculations due allowance has been made for upstream and downstream transport. The scale of transport is of crucial importance for emissions. In addition, load factors and other logistical issues also play a key role. Which mode of transport is 'greenest' differs from situation to situation, depending on the type of emissions considered. Electric rail transport remains a very clean and efficient form of transport. The main focus of the study was on emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) and air pollutants like particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulphur (SOx)

  2. Atmospheric Photochemistry Studies of Pollutant Emissions from Transportation Vehicles Operating on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, H.; Sexton, K.; Yu, J.

    1998-07-01

    This project was undertaken with the goal of improving our ability to predict the changes in urban ozone resulting from the widespread use of alternative fuels in automobiles. This report presents the results in detail.

  3. Mode Choice between Private and Public Transport in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Onn Chiu Chuen; Mohamed Rehan Karim; Sumiani Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Klang Valley has only 17% trips each day were completed using public transport, with the rest of the 83% trips were made through private transport. The inclination towards private car usage will only get worse if the transport policy continues to be inefficient and ineffective. Under the National Key Economic Area, the priority aimed to stimulate the increase of modal share of public transport in the Klang Valley to 50% by 2020. In the 10th Malaysia Plan, the Klang Valley Mass Rapid ...

  4. Joint EPA/UMTA/FEA strategy for urban transportation and air quality. Volume 3. The potential of dual mode. Literature review, 1964--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Henneman, S.S.

    1974-12-01

    Interdependence of goals of the three agencies, EPA, UMTA, and FEA generates this four-volume study. The common issue around which all three agencies' policies revolve is the use of the private auto involving both incentives and penalties to catalyze a change in existing urban travel characteristics. This third volume expresses INTERPLAN's judgment about the applicability, timing, and impact of dual mode urban transportation technologies. A three-system, three-phase, gradual evolution of demand for dual mode is suggested. The dual mode essay is prefaced by a short overview and comparison of the propulsion and energy use characteristics of conventional and future urban transportation modes.

  5. Treatment of alkali-injured cornea by cyclosporine A-loaded electrospun nanofibers - An alternative mode of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejkova, Jitka; Cejka, Cestmir; Trosan, Peter; Zajicova, Alena; Sykova, Eva; Holan, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    contributed to beneficial corneal healing. This is in contrast to CsA eye drops, which are quickly washed from the ocular surface and the contact of CsA with the damaged cornea was limited. In conclusion, the approach with CsA-loaded nanofibers could represent an effective alternative mode of therapy for corneal chemical burns. PMID:27181227

  6. Application of Adaptive Backstepping Sliding Mode Control in Alternative Current Servo System of Rocket Launcher%Application of Adaptive Backstepping Sliding Mode Control in Alternative Current Servo System of Rocket Launcher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚军; 马大为; 王晓峰; 乐贵高

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive backstepping sliding mode control approach is introduced to control the pitch motion of a rocket launcher. Its control law is proposed to guarantee that the control system is ultimately bounded in a Lyapunov sense and make the servo system track the instruction of reference position globally and asymptotically. In addition, the sliding mode control can restrain the effects of parameter uncertainties and external disturbance. The functions of adaptive mechanism and sliding mode control are analyzed through the simulation in the different conditions. The simulation results illustrate that the method is applicable and robust.

  7. Michel's Transport Medium as an Alternative to Liquid Nitrogen for PCR Analysis of Skin Biopsy Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Boraiy, Logeina; Fontao, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Formalin fixation and paraffin embedding are standard procedures for histopathological diagnosis and allow long-term archiving of tissue specimens. The cross-linking properties of formalin cause fragmentation of nucleic acids and reduce the sensitivity of PCR analysis. Michel's medium is a well-established transport medium used by dermatologists for biopsy transport to maintain tissue-fixed immunoreactants prior to direct immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Here we report that M...

  8. RATIONAL MODES DETERMINATION OF TRACTION MOTORS LOADING-BACK FOR ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK IN MAINLINE AND INDUSTRIAL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Loading-back systems are used for post-maintenance acceptance tests of electric traction motors of electric rolling stock (ERS in mainline and industrial transport. The aim of the research is justification of choice method of the rational loading-back parameters of traction electric motors during the tests for heating. Methodology. At the heart of the choice method justification of the rational loading-back parameters is a theory of heating the homogeneous solid body and well-known methods of heating calculations of traction electric machines. Findings. Expediency of heating tests for electric traction motors at load currents equal to the starting current (for ERS of mainline transport or fifteen minutes current (for ERS of industrial transport was substantiated. It was shown that this increase of load current will reduce the electricity costs of the tests for 20–30% and shorten the tests duration for three–four times while ensuring the corrected power minimum of energy sources in loading-back system. Originality. It is shown that the energy costs for heating tests of the traction motors can be reduced by both the increasing the energy efficiency of the loading-back system and by the optimizing of loading mode of traction electric machines. Choice technique of rational modes of loading-back for electric traction motors of rolling stock in mainline and industrial transport was grounded. Practical value. Load current increase of traction electric motors during their tests for heating will reduce the total electricity consumption for the acceptance tests, reduce test time and total material costs for repair of the electric traction motors of rolling stock in mainline and industrial transport.

  9. Time spent by Brazilian students in different modes of transport going to school: changes over a decade (2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Samara Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To examine changes in the time spent in each mode of transportation used for going to school by gender and age among adolescents from Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Two school-based surveys were performed in 2001 (N = 5,028 and 2011 (N = 6,529 in high school students (15-19 years old. The mode of transportation (on foot; by bicycle; by bus; car/motorcycle and the time spent for commuting to school were assessed. Active commuting increased for short trips in both genders (male: 25.1% to 36.7%; female: 18.8% to 29.2% and in all ages (15-16 years: 21% to 32.7%; 17-19 years: 21.9% to 32.4%, and declined for longer trips in males (30.5% to 21.9% and in 15-16 years old students (25.7% to 34.7%. Car/motorcycle use has doubled for short trips in males (38.1% to 65.9% and in 17-19 years old students (37.7% to 62.7%, while the use of buses remained stable in both genders. Our findings contribute to discussions on public policy focusing on the design of safe environments to promote active commuting to schools, particularly to decrease the use of motorized transport for short trips.

  10. Observing mesoscale eddy effects on mode-water subduction and transport in the North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lixiao; Li, Peiliang; Xie, Shang-Ping; Liu, Qinyu; Liu, Cong; Gao, Wendian

    2016-02-01

    While modelling studies suggest that mesoscale eddies strengthen the subduction of mode waters, this eddy effect has never been observed in the field. Here we report results from a field campaign from March 2014 that captured the eddy effects on mode-water subduction south of the Kuroshio Extension east of Japan. The experiment deployed 17 Argo floats in an anticyclonic eddy (AC) with enhanced daily sampling. Analysis of over 3,000 hydrographic profiles following the AC reveals that potential vorticity and apparent oxygen utilization distributions are asymmetric outside the AC core, with enhanced subduction near the southeastern rim of the AC. There, the southward eddy flow advects newly ventilated mode water from the north into the main thermocline. Our results show that subduction by eddy lateral advection is comparable in magnitude to that by the mean flow--an effect that needs to be better represented in climate models.

  11. THE FUTURE OF MOTOR TRANSPORTALTERNATIVE FUEL AND CANCEROGENIC SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanilo, P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of application of synthetic hydrocarbonic motor fuels and hydrogen as the basic and additional energy carriers are analysed. It is shown that the use of alternative fuels does not only effectively replaces oil fuel, but also provides essential decrease of environmental contamination by supertoxic substancses, namely cancerogenic and mutagen.

  12. Effects of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) on the Metabolism and Transport of Anticancer Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiman, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), such as herbs and dietary supplements, has become more popular among cancer patients. Cancer patients use these supplements for different reasons such as reduction of side effects and improvement of their quality of life. In general, the use

  13. The decision-making that disregarded electrofuels as alternative within transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    Understanding why some alternatives are mentioned, promoted or implemented while some are not, is a crucial step in order to understand how to implement the radical technological change necessary to achieve 100% renewable energy system. Until today, it is noticeable that biofuels has been in focu...

  14. Alternate closures for radiation transport using Legendre polynomials in 1D and spherical harmonics in 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2012-04-01

    When using polynomial expansions for the angular variables in the radiation transport equation, the usual procedure is to truncate the series by setting all higher order terms to zero. At low order, such simple closures may not give the optimum solution. This work tests alternate closures that scale either the time- or spatial-derivatives in the highest order equation. These scale factors can be chosen such that waves propagate at exactly the speed of light in optically thin media. Alternatively, they may be chosen to significantly improve the accuracy of low-order solutions with no additional computational cost. The same scaling procedure and scale factors work in one- and multi-dimensions. In multidimensions, reducing the order of a solution can save significant amounts of computer time.

  15. Effect of entropy on anomalous transport in electron-temperature-gradient-modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqub Khan, M., E-mail: myaqubsultani@gmail.com [Department of Basic Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Iqbal, J. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ul Haq, A. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Physics, Riphah International University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2014-05-15

    Due to the interconnection of entropy with temperature and density of plasma, it would be interesting to investigate plasma related phenomena with respect to entropy. By employing Braginskii transport equations, it is proved that entropy is proportional to a function of potential and distribution function of entropy is re-defined, ∇S–drift in obtained. New dispersion relation is derived; it is found that the anomalous transport depends on the gradient of the entropy.

  16. Impacts of Urban Transportation Mode Split on CO 2 Emissions in Jinan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Kebin He; Fei Meng; Dongquan He; Wang, Michael Q

    2011-01-01

    As the world’s largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policie...

  17. Transport of super-thermal particles and their effect on the stability of global modes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneller, Mirjam Simone

    2013-08-02

    In thermonuclear plasmas, a population of super-thermal particles generated by external heating methods or fusion reactions can lead to the excitation of global instabilities. The transport processes due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions and the consequential particle losses reduce the plasma heating and the efficiency of the fusion reaction rate. Furthermore, these energetic or fast particles may cause severe damages to the wall of the device. This thesis addresses the resonance mechanisms between these energetic particles and global MHD and kinetic MHD waves, employing the hybrid code HAGIS. A systematic investigation of energetic particles resonant with multiple modes (double-resonance) is presented for the first time. The double-resonant mode coupling is modeled for waves with different frequencies in various overlapping scenarios. It is found that, depending on the radial mode distance, double-resonance is able to significantly enhance, both the growth rates and the saturation amplitudes. Small radial mode distances, however can lead to strong nonlinear mode stabilization of a linear dominant mode. For the first time, simulations of experimental conditions in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are performed for different plasma equilibria (particularly for different q profiles). An understanding of fast particle behavior for non-monotonic q profiles is important for the development of advanced fusion scenarios. The numerical tool is the extended version of the HAGIS code, which computes the particle motion in the vacuum region between vessel wall in addition to the internal plasma volume. For this thesis, a consistent fast particle distribution function was implemented, to represent the fast particle population generated by the particular heating method (ICRH). Furthermore, HAGIS was extended to use more realistic eigenfunctions, calculated by the gyrokinetic eigenvalue solver LIGKA. One important aim of these simulations is to allow fast ion loss

  18. Suppressing the neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks during anomalous transverse transport owing to predomination of the magnetic well effect over the bootstrap drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppression of neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks under anomalous transverse transport conditions when the magnetic well effect predominates over the bootstrap drive is studied. Reduced equations of transfer are used in the description. Geodetic effects are considered during the magnetic well calculation. A criterion for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by the compound effect at an arbitrary level of the transverse heat transport by electrons and ions is derived

  19. Solar energised transport solution and customer preferences and opinions about alternative fuel Vehicles – the case of slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž KNEZ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Authorities in Slovenia and other EU member states are confronted with problems of city transportation. Fossil-fuel based transport poses two chief problems – local and global pollution, and dwindling supplies and ever increasing costs. An elegant solution is to gradually replace the present automobile fleet with low emission vehicles. This article first explores the economics and practical viability of the provision of solar electricity for the charging of electric vehicles by installation of economical available PV modules and secondly the customer preferences and opinions about alternative low emission vehicles. Present estimates indicate that for the prevailing solar climate of Celje – a medium-sized Slovenian town – the cost would be only 2.11€ cents/kWh of generated solar electricity. Other results have also revealed that the most relevant factor for purchasing low emission vehicle is total vehicle price.

  20. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies); Coppi, B. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics)

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  1. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Coppi, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics

    1992-08-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  2. Alpha particle effects on global MHD modes, and alpha particle transport in ignited tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high frequency, low mode number toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) are shown to be driven unstable primarily by the circulating α-particles through wave-particle resonances. To destabilize the TAE modes, the inverse Landau damping associated with the α-particle pressure gradient free energy must overcome the velocity space Landau damping due to both the α-particles and the core electrons and ions, as well as Alfven continuum damping. Stability criteria are presented for TFTR, CIT, and ITER tokamaks in terms of the α-particle beta βα, the α-particle pressure gradient parameter (ω*/ωA), where ω* is the α-particle diamagnetic drift frequency, and the α-particle velocity (vα/vA) parameter. Typically the volume averaged α-particle beta threshold is on the order of 10-4. Rough estimates of the TAE mode saturation level give δBr/B ∼ 10-3 for typical D-T tokamak operations. Significant α-particle losses are found when the amplitude of the global MHD modes is large, on the order of (δBr/B) ≥ 10-4. For (δBr/B) = 5 x 10-4, the α-particle loss time is appreciably shorter than the α-particle slowing-down time. 13 refs., 1 fig

  3. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity χi have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode (ηi mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal ηi mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal ηi mode, and that the observed reduction of χi(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the χi. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed χi(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula

  4. Alternative photosynthetic electron transport pathways during anaerobiosis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Happe, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis uses light as energy source to generate an oxidant powerful enough to oxidize water into oxygen, electrons and protons. Upon linear electron transport, electrons extracted from water are used to reduce NADP(+) to NADPH. The oxygen molecule has been integrated into the cellular metabolism, both as the most efficient electron acceptor during respiratory electron transport and as oxidant and/or "substrate" in a number of biosynthetic pathways. Though photosynthesis of higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria produces oxygen, there are conditions under which this type of photosynthesis operates under hypoxic or anaerobic conditions. In the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this condition is induced by sulfur deficiency, and it results in the production of molecular hydrogen. Research on this biotechnologically relevant phenomenon has contributed largely to new insights into additional pathways of photosynthetic electron transport, which extend the former concept of linear electron flow by far. This review summarizes the recent knowledge about various electron sources and sinks of oxygenic photosynthesis besides water and NADP(+) in the context of their contribution to hydrogen photoproduction by C. reinhardtii. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Electron Transport in Chloroplasts. PMID:21376011

  5. Assessment of Two Alternative Sample Transport and Fixation Methods in the Microbiological Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Eason

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The standard method for specimen collection and transport for microbiological diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is an air-dried smear of vaginal secretions, promptly heat- or alcohol-fixed, Gram-stained and scored by Nugent's criteria.

  6. 78 FR 22026 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... authorized by Section 3021 of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act--A Legacy... lands. Federal land management agencies and State, tribal and local governments acting with the consent of a federal land management agency are eligible recipients. This program was not re-authorized...

  7. 76 FR 5244 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Section 3021 of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act--A Legacy for Users.... Federal land management agencies and State, Tribal and local governments acting with the consent of a Federal land management agency are eligible recipients. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Project...

  8. The potential of alternative rail freight transport corridors between central europe and china

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, D.M.Z.; Zunder, T.H.; Jackson, R.; Nesterova, N.; Burgess, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the potential of three rail corridors: Trans-Sib, Central and TRACECA for freight transport between Central Europe and China. The paper applies a qualitative research method including a review of current literature and interviews. The research examines the technical, operational a

  9. Alternative connection between territory of Poland and Far / Middle East countries for containers transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Żuchowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The new cyclical service, available on the Polish market, related to the railway connection between Port of Koper and the terminal in Silesia, enables delivery of containers, skipping the Polish and German ports. To "the opening" of a direct connection with the Adriatic Sea arises dilemma that requires the identification of sustainability of the containers' transport to the Polish territories in economical and ecological terms. The key to this problem is a solution of the equation with several unknowns, which include the cost and time of transport, sea freight operator procedures, infrastructure constraints and the interests of local and regional communities. The analysis of the impact area of rail connection Koper - Slawkow was carried within Empiric project. The assumptions and results are described below. Material and methods: Based on the experience of the Slawkow-Koper link's operator and analysis of distances, cost, duration of containers transport, the research has been conducted, intended to estimate the area of influence of ports, located on the shores of the four seas surrounding area of Central Europe: Adriatic, Baltic, Black and North, with particular reference to the Port of Koper. The research used publicly available information, calculators, and disseminated investment plans. Results: Analysis of factors possible to calculate, especially the cost of containers' transport, by adopted assumptions, the study allowed to estimate the theoretical impact area of the Port of Koper. The area covers a large part of Poland, south from the line Szczecin-Brest. Besides aspect of cost impact area has been expanded due to different rail-gauge along the eastern Polish border. Also the environmental aspects indicate south direction of transport containers, as beneficial to the natural environment. As the factors reducing the development of the connections financial policies of the sea freight operators and infrastructure limitations of

  10. Effectiveness of the Rotterdam Rules in multimodal transport : a critical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kar-lok; 李家樂

    2012-01-01

    Each mode of transport has their limitation but multimodal transport which combines various transport modes is an alternative solution to breakthrough such limitation by way of synergy. To achieve such synergy, containerization and electronic commerce are, inter alia, the two indispensible factors for the rapid development of the multimodal transport. In the modern supply chain operation, containerization facilitates the interchange of goods among different transport modes whereas electronic ...

  11. Beach nourishment alternative assessment to constrain cross-shore and longshore sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, Servet; Work, Paul; Uzlu, Ergun; Kankal, Murat; Yuksek, Omer

    2016-01-01

    A combined field and laboratory investigation was conducted to assess five options for creation of a recreational beach on a steep, armored shoreline on the eastern Black Sea coast. All designs incorporated a beach nourishment project placed between two existing, shore-normal, rubble-mound groins. Alternatives included the placement of a nearshore berm, longshore extensions added to the existing groins, and shore-parallel breakwaters. Several alternatives are reviewed for quantifying the performance of each design, including assessment of the change in shoreline position and project volume retained between the groins. Dimensionless benefits and benefit-cost ratios are quantified, and recommendations made on how to select the best outcome from a benefit-to-cost standpoint when options including hard structures are incorporated into a beach nourishment project design.

  12. Commuter Transport Mode Choice and Typologies in the Bicycle City Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Vingaard; Kjems, Erik; Reinau, Kristian Hegner;

    2016-01-01

    “Bicycle Cities” such as Copenhagen can serve as role models: how far can we push the commuter modal shares in the direction of more sustainable transport? This paper presents a study that aims to give a state-of-the-art picture of a Copenhagen that provides wide cycling highways and the politica...... restricted our analysis to commuters both living and working within the city center. The characterization of these commuter types was strikingly short of personal attitudes about environmental concerns....... transport and car use. Furthermore, we derived a typology of four commuter types: “cyclists because of short distances” (40 percent), ”commuters by car or public transport out of necessity” (35 percent), ”more eco-oriented cyclists and others” (16 percent) and ”passionate motorists” (8 percent) when we...

  13. "Working and Learning Alternation" Nursing Teaching Mode in Hospital%护理"工学交替"教学模式在医院的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱艳华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore practical effects of reformed nursing teaching mode "working and learning alternation" performed by hospital and school together. Method: On the foundation of meeting the requirement of major courses, corresponding class featured in hospital and clinical practice teaching, which centered on nursing practice teaching and guided by employment, were administered to students by hospital. Result: Nursing teaching mode "working and learning mode" could effectively help students accumulate clinical work experience, enhance personal communication skills, fully improve comprehensive quality of students and also the scores of nursing licensed exam. Conclusion: Nursing teaching mode "working and learning alternation" demonstrates remarkable advantages in improving students' comprehensive quality, master and application of the knowledge compared with traditional teaching mode of school.%目的:探讨学校与医院联合进行"工学交替"护理教学模式改革的实践效果.方法:医院以护理实践教学为中心,以就业为导向,在满足学校本专业课程的基础上,对学生进行具有医院特色的课堂教学及临床实践教学.结果:"工学交替"的护理教学模式有效促进了学生实际工作经验的积累,增强了学生的人际沟通技巧,全面提高了学生的综合素质,学生护理执业考试成绩大幅提高.结论:"工学交替"的护理教学模式相较于学校传统教学模式在学生的综合素质提高、知识的掌握及运用上都有明显优势.

  14. Michel's Transport Medium as an Alternative to Liquid Nitrogen for PCR Analysis of Skin Biopsy Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logeina Boraiy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Formalin fixation and paraffin embedding are standard procedures for histopathological diagnosis and allow long-term archiving of tissue specimens. The cross-linking properties of formalin cause fragmentation of nucleic acids and reduce the sensitivity of PCR analysis. Michel's medium is a well-established transport medium used by dermatologists for biopsy transport to maintain tissue-fixed immunoreactants prior to direct immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Here we report that Michel's medium also allows short-term preservation of DNA for PCR analysis and permits amplification of amplicons larger than 1 kb. Therefore, Michel's medium appears to be a reserve medium for performing PCR when no other samples are available. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. An alternative membrane transport pathway for phosphate and adenine nucleotides in mitochondria and its possible function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1978-10-01

    This paper describes the properties and a possible biological role of a transport process across the inner membrane of rat liver mitochondria resulting in the exchange of ATP(4-) (out) for ADP(3-) (in) + 0.5 phosphate(2-) (in). This transmembrane exchange reaction, designated as the ATP-ADP-phosphate exchange, is specific for the ligands shown, electroneutral, insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide or mersalyl, inhibited by atractyloside, and appears to occur only in the direction as written. It is thus distinct from the well-known phosphate-hydroxide and phosphate-dicarboxylate exchange systems, which are inhibited by mersalyl, and from the ATP-ADP exchanger, which does not transport phosphate. During ATP hydrolysis by mitochondria, half of the phosphate formed from ATP passes from the matrix to the medium by the mersalyl-insensitive ATP-ADP-phosphate exchange and the other half by the well-known mersalyl-sensitive phosphate-hydroxide exchange. These and other considerations have led to a hypothesis for the pathway and stoichiometry of ATP-dependent reverse electron transport, characterized by a requirement of 1.33 molecules of ATP per pair of electrons reversed and by the utilization of a different membrane transport pathway for phosphate and adenine nucleotides than is taken in forward electron flow and oxidative phosphorylation. The possible occurrence of independent pathways for ATP-forming forward electron flow and ATP-consuming reverse electron flow is consonant with the fact that the opposing degradative and synthetic pathways in the central routes of cell metabolism generally have different pathways that are independently regulated.

  16. NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis; Breakthrough Offers Cleaner Alternative for Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    NREL scientists have demonstrated a way to produce ethylene through photosynthesis, a breakthrough that could lead to more environmentally friendly ways to produce a variety of materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels. The scientists introduced a gene into a cyanobacterium and demonstrated that the organism remains stable through at least four generations, producing ethylene gas that can be easily captured. In the laboratory, the organism, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, produced 720 milligrams of ethylene per liter each day.

  17. An alternative membrane transport pathway for phosphate and adenine nucleotides in mitochondria and its possible function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1978-10-01

    This paper describes the properties and a possible biological role of a transport process across the inner membrane of rat liver mitochondria resulting in the exchange of ATP(4-) (out) for ADP(3-) (in) + 0.5 phosphate(2-) (in). This transmembrane exchange reaction, designated as the ATP-ADP-phosphate exchange, is specific for the ligands shown, electroneutral, insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide or mersalyl, inhibited by atractyloside, and appears to occur only in the direction as written. It is thus distinct from the well-known phosphate-hydroxide and phosphate-dicarboxylate exchange systems, which are inhibited by mersalyl, and from the ATP-ADP exchanger, which does not transport phosphate. During ATP hydrolysis by mitochondria, half of the phosphate formed from ATP passes from the matrix to the medium by the mersalyl-insensitive ATP-ADP-phosphate exchange and the other half by the well-known mersalyl-sensitive phosphate-hydroxide exchange. These and other considerations have led to a hypothesis for the pathway and stoichiometry of ATP-dependent reverse electron transport, characterized by a requirement of 1.33 molecules of ATP per pair of electrons reversed and by the utilization of a different membrane transport pathway for phosphate and adenine nucleotides than is taken in forward electron flow and oxidative phosphorylation. The possible occurrence of independent pathways for ATP-forming forward electron flow and ATP-consuming reverse electron flow is consonant with the fact that the opposing degradative and synthetic pathways in the central routes of cell metabolism generally have different pathways that are independently regulated. PMID:283393

  18. Energy efficiency of the oil transportation processes and alternative energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The energy efficiency of the transportation processes of Azerbaijan oil by pipelines on Western routes has been assessed. It was shown that the surface facilities of oil pipelines in many cases, the power supply is realized through autonomous energy sources. This report dedicated to analysis of organic fuel combustion processes in the autonomic generators and turbogenerators, definition of energy efficiency of these facilities. The facilities are grouped by energy capacity

  19. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed. PMID:26650230

  20. A MAGICTRAC [Microwave Antenna for Whispering-Gallery-Mode Conversion using a Twist Reflector Antenna Converter] design for the MTX [Microwave Tokamak Experiment] transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design of a MAGICTRAC (Microwave Antenna for Whispering-Gallery-Mode Conversion using a Twist Reflector Antenna Converter) device is presented for use on the MTX (Microwave Tokamak Experiment) transport system. The MAGICTRAC device, consisting of a mode converting waveguide taper and three metal reflectors, transforms the TE15,2 circular waveguide mode output of a VARIAN Associates 140 GHz gyrotron into a free-space Gaussian-like beam with >95% efficiency. Dimensions of the MAGICTRAC are chosen to produce a beam matched to the MTX quasi-optical transport system

  1. 甩挂运输模式在 CNG 运输行业的效益优势分析%The advantage analysis of the drop and pull transportation mode in the field of the Compressed Natural Gas transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武怀宁

    2016-01-01

    文章主要对比分析了压缩天然气(CNG)运输行业应用甩挂运输模式较传统运输模式的效益优势。甩挂运输作为一种效率型、绿色型、节约型的先进道路物流组织方式,将成为我国道路运输发展的必然趋势。%This paper mainly analyzes the advantages of the application of drop and pull transportation mode in the field of compressed natural gas transportation in comparison with the traditional transportation mode. As an efficient, environmental and economical advanced road logistics organization mode, the drop and pull transportation will become an inevitable trend of the development of Chinese road transportation.

  2. Vibrational modes and electrical transport in Sr{sub 2}GdTaO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Binita, E-mail: binita_ghosh@yahoo.co.in; Dutta, Alo; Sinha, T.P.

    2013-12-16

    The double perovskite oxide strontium gadolinium tantalate, Sr{sub 2}GdTaO{sub 6} (SGT) is synthesized by solid-state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern of the sample shows monoclinic phase at room temperature. FTIR spectrum shows two primary phonon modes of the sample at around 373 cm{sup −1} and 562 cm{sup −1}. The electronic structure of SGT has been investigated by Vienna ab-initio simulation package. The eigen frequencies of different phonon modes have been calculated and compared with the experimental data observed by Raman spectroscopy. Dielectric properties of the sample are investigated in a temperature range from 303 K to 673 K and in a frequency range of 42 Hz–1 MHz. The relaxation peaks are observed in the frequency dependent spectra for imaginary part of the dielectric constant. The modified Cole–Cole equation is used to describe the relaxation mechanism in SGT. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra follow the Jonscher power law. - Highlights: • Sr{sub 2}GdTaO{sub 6} ceramic is crystallized in monoclinic structure. • DOS and band structure reveals a band gap of about 3.4 eV. • All Raman and FTIR lines in the experimental spectra are assigned to definite vibrations of the structure. • Theoretically calculated frequencies of the different phonon modes are in good agreement with the experimental data. • Activation energy is 0.18 eV.

  3. Modelling Public Transport Route Choice, with Multiple Access and Egress Modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, T.; De Romph, E.; Veitch, T.; Cook, J.

    2014-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is important, because the current traffic system faces well known problems like congestion, environmental impact and use of public space. To be able to assess the effects of policy measures properly, it is necessary to model the behavior of the (PT) traveler in a realistic way.

  4. Modelling public transport route choice, with multiple access and egress modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, T.; Romph, de E.; Veitch, T.; Cook, J.

    2014-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is important, because the current traffic system faces well known problems like congestion, environmental impact and use of public space. To be able to assess the effects of policy measures properly, it is necessary to model the behavior of the (PT) traveler in a realistic way.

  5. Transport modes and pathways of the strongly sorbing pesticides glyphosate and pendimethalin through structured drained soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Jeanne; Ernsten, Vibeke; Jacobsen, Ole H; Hansen, Nis; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Olsen, Preben

    2011-07-01

    Leaching of the strongly sorbing pesticides glyphosate and pendimethalin was evaluated in an 8-month field study focussing on preferential flow and particle-facilitated transport, both of which may enhance the leaching of such pesticides in structured soils. Glyphosate mainly sorbs to mineral sorption sites, while pendimethalin mainly sorbs to organic sorption sites. The two pesticides were applied in equal dosage to a structured, tile-drained soil, and the concentration of the pesticides was then measured in drainage water sampled flow-proportionally. The leaching pattern of glyphosate resembled that of pendimethalin, suggesting that the leaching potential of pesticides sorbed to either the inorganic or organic soil fractions is high in structured soils. Both glyphosate and pendimethalin leached from the root zone, with the average concentration in the drainage water being 3.5 and 2.7 μg L(-1), respectively. Particle-facilitated transport (particles >0.24 μm) accounted for only a small proportion of the observed leaching (13-16% for glyphosate and 16-31% for pendimethalin). Drain-connected macropores located above or in the vicinity of the drains facilitated very rapid transport of pesticide to the drains. That the concentration of glyphosate and pendimethalin in the drainage water remained high (>0.1 μg L(-1)) for up to 7d after a precipitation event indicates that macropores between the drains connected to underlying fractures were able to transport strongly sorbing pesticides in the dissolved phase. Lateral transport of dissolved pesticide via such discontinuities implies that strongly sorbing pesticides such as glyphosate and pendimethalin could potentially be present in high concentrations (>0.1 μg L(-1)) in both water originating from the drainage system and the shallow groundwater located at the depth of the drainage system. PMID:21481435

  6. Transport barriers and edge localized modes-like bursts in a plasma model with turbulent equipartition profiles (Erratum in Phys. Plasmas v. 9, 3804 (2003))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nycander, J.

    2003-01-01

    Self-consistent development of transport barriers is investigated analytically and numerically in flux driven interchange turbulence with highly intermittent turbulent fluxes. Numerical simulations on a bounded domain show turbulence leading to a homogenization of Lagrangian invariants by mixing,......, and constitute transport barriers for the turbulent fluxes, but are intermittently disrupted by strong bursts in the transport, which may be related to the strong edge localized modes observed in toroidal devices. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics....

  7. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Hérick de Sá; Parra, Diana C.; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in urban mobility play a major role in transforming metropolitan areas into healthier places. This study quantified the impact of changes in travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation of working age adult population of São Paulo. Methods and findings: Through different scenarios, we estimated the daily time spent in transportation per inhabitant (divided in active and non-active transportation time) and the proportion of inhabitants accu...

  8. Short-term regulation and alternative pathways of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsin, Boris V; Vershubskii, Alexey V; Priklonskii, Vladimir I; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2015-11-01

    In this work, using the EPR and PAM-fluorometry methods, we have studied induction events of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves. The methods used are complementary, providing efficient tools for in situ monitoring of P700 redox transients and photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII). The induction of P700(+) in dark-adapted leaves is characterized by the multiphase kinetics with a lag-phase, which duration elongates with the dark-adaptation time. Analyzing effects of the uncoupler monensin and artificial electron carrier methylviologen (MV) on photooxidation of P700 and slow induction of chlorophyll a fluorescence (SIF), we could ascribe different phases of transient kinetics of electron transport processes in dark-adapted leaves to the following regulatory mechanisms: (i) acceleration of electron transfer on the acceptor side of PSI, (ii) pH-dependent modulation of the intersystem electron flow, and (iii) re-distribution of electron fluxes between alternative (linear, cyclic, and pseudocyclic) pathways. Monensin significantly decreases a level of P700(+) and inhibits SIF. MV, which mediates electron flow from PSI to O2 with consequent formation of H2O2, promotes a rapid photooxidation of P700 without any lag-phase peculiar to untreated leaves. MV-mediated water-water cycle (H2O→PSII→PSI→MV→O2→H2O2→H2O) is accompanied by generation of ascorbate free radicals. This suggests that the ascorbate peroxidase system of defense against reactive oxygen species is active in chloroplasts of H. rosa-sinensis leaves. In DCMU-treated chloroplasts with inhibited PSII, the contribution of cyclic electron flow is insignificant as compared to linear electron flow. For analysis of induction events, we have simulated electron transport processes within the framework of our generalized mathematical model of oxygenic photosynthesis, which takes into account pH-dependent mechanisms of electron transport control and re-distribution of

  9. Sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland by different modes of transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb Karen E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in neighbourhoods of lower socioeconomic status have been shown to have higher rates of obesity and a lower likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations than their more affluent counterparts. This study examines the sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland and whether such access differs by the mode of transport available and by Urban Rural Classification. Methods A database of all fixed physical activity facilities was obtained from the national agency for sport in Scotland. Facilities were categorised into light, moderate and vigorous intensity activity groupings before being mapped. Transport networks were created to assess the number of each type of facility accessible from the population weighted centroid of each small area in Scotland on foot, by bicycle, by car and by bus. Multilevel modelling was used to investigate the distribution of the number of accessible facilities by small area deprivation within urban, small town and rural areas separately, adjusting for population size and local authority. Results Prior to adjustment for Urban Rural Classification and local authority, the median number of accessible facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity activity increased with increasing deprivation from the most affluent or second most affluent quintile to the most deprived for all modes of transport. However, after adjustment, the modelling results suggest that those in more affluent areas have significantly higher access to moderate and vigorous intensity facilities by car than those living in more deprived areas. Conclusions The sociospatial distributions of access to facilities for both moderate intensity and vigorous intensity physical activity were similar. However, the results suggest that those living in the most affluent neighbourhoods have poorer access to facilities of either type that can be reached on foot

  10. Alternative electron transports participate in the maintenance of violaxanthin De-epoxidase activity of Ulva sp. under low irradiance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Xie

    Full Text Available The xanthophyll cycle (Xc, which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP, is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx to zeaxanthin (Zx via antheraxanthin (Ax. However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ΔpH required for activation of VDE is built. In this study, we used salicylaldoxime (SA to inhibit ZEP activity in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta and then characterized VDE under low light and dark conditions with various metabolic inhibitors. With inhibition of ZEP by SA, VDE remained active under low light and dark conditions, as indicated by large accumulations of Ax and Zx at the expense of Vx. When PSII-mediated linear electron transport systems were completely inhibited by SA and DCMU, alternative electron transport systems (i.e., cyclic electron transport and chlororespiration could maintain VDE activity. Furthermore, accumulations of Ax and Zx decreased significantly when SA, DCMU, or DBMIB together with an inhibitor of chlororespiration (i.e., propyl gallate (PG were applied to Ulva sp. This result suggests that chlororespiration not only participates in the build-up of the necessary ΔpH, but that it also possibly influences VDE activity indirectly by diminishing the oxygen level in the chloroplast.

  11. Self-consistent mode-coupling approach to one-dimensional heat transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Luca; Lepri, Stefano; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    In the present Rapid Communication we present an analytical and numerical solution of the self-consistent mode-coupling equations for the problem of heat conductivity in one-dimensional systems. Such a solution leads us to propose a different scenario to accommodate the known results obtained so far for this problem. More precisely, we conjecture that the universality class is determined by the leading order of the nonlinear interaction potential. Moreover, our analysis allows us to determine the memory kernel, whose expression puts on a more firm basis the previously conjectured connection between anomalous heat conductivity and anomalous diffusion.

  12. Assessing the Impact of Parking Pricing on Transportation Mode Choice and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wei-Shiuen

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of parking pricing on travel demand and behavior, using the University of California (UC), Berkeley campus as a study site. Parking pricing is often implemented to recover costs or to serve as a source of revenue for cities or private parking operators. However, parking pricing can also be an effective transportation demand management tool. Parking price can be set at market rates or can be set to meet other objectives, such as reducing emissions or tr...

  13. Bacterial heme-transport proteins and their heme-coordination modes

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Yong; Guo, Maolin

    2008-01-01

    Efficient iron acquisition is critical for an invading microbe’s survival and virulence. Most of the iron in mammals is incorporated into heme, which can be plundered by certain bacterial pathogens as a nutritional iron source. Utilization of exogenous heme by bacteria involves the binding of heme or hemoproteins to the cell surface receptors, followed by the transport of heme into cells. Once taken into the cytosol, heme is presented to heme oxygenases where the tetrapyrrole ring is cleaved ...

  14. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  15. Chemical and toxicological characterization of exhaust emissions from alternative fuels for urban public transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS, the National Institute of Health of Italy) and the Istituto dei Motori (IM) of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR, National Research Council) have carried out this study, jointly funded by the two institutes together with the Ministry of Environment. The chemical and toxicological characteristics of emissions from two urban bus engines were studied: a diesel engine fueled with both diesel oil and bio diesel blend and an equivalent spark-ignition one fuelled with compressed natural gas, operating in steady-state conditions. Regulated and unregulated pollutants, such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated derivatives, carbonyl compounds and light aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified. Mutagenicity of the emissions was evaluated by the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The effect of the fuels under study on the size distribution of particulate matter was also evaluated. The impact of diesel-powered transport on urban air quality, and the potential benefits for human health deriving from the use of natural gas for public transport, are discussed

  16. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  17. Momentum transport studies in JET H-mode discharges with an enhanced toroidal field ripple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, P C; Howell, D H; Giroud, C; Parail, V [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Versloot, T W [FOM institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, PO Box 1207, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Salmi, A [Association Euratom-Tekes, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Hua, M-D [Imperial College, SW7 2BY, London (United Kingdom); Saibene, G [Fusion for Energy Joint Undertaking, 0819 Barcelona (Spain); Tala, T, E-mail: Peter.de.Vries@jet.efda.or [Association Euratom-Tekes, VTT, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2010-06-15

    In this study, enhancement of the toroidal field (TF) ripple has been used as a tool in order to reveal the impact of the momentum pinch on the rotation profiles in H-mode JET discharges. The analysis showed that flatter rotation profiles were obtained in discharges with a high TF ripple, attributed to a smaller inward momentum convection. An average inward momentum pinch of approximately V{sub p} {approx} 3.4 m s{sup -1} and a normalized pinch value of RV{sub p}/{chi} {approx} 6.6 could explain the observation. The data show that the momentum at the edge affects the peaking of the rotation and momentum density profiles. Under the assumption that the heat and momentum diffusivities are equal, an estimate of the levels of the momentum pinch in all discharges in the JET rotation database was made. For H-mode discharge these ranged from 0.3 m s{sup -1} < V{sub p} < 17 m s{sup -1}, with 2 < RV{sub p}/{chi} < 10. A larger momentum pinch was found in discharges with a smaller density profile gradient length, i.e. a more peaked density profile.

  18. COMMODITIES DISTRIBUTION USING ALTERNATIVE TYPES OF TRANSPORT. A STUDY IN THE COLOMBIAN BREAD SME'S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTÍN DARIO ARANGO SERNA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe un algoritmo para resolver el problema de micro ruteo cuando se dispone de medios como la Bicicleta y la motocicleta, con diferentes capacidades que cubren distintas rutas asociadas al conjunto de clientes con restricciones de tiempo. A partir de la investigación en el sector panificador de Palmira, donde se georeferenciaron las panaderías y se caracterizaron los sistemas de gestión de inventarios y transporte de insumos, se establecieron los parámetros necesarios para los ejemplos numéricos del algoritmo de ruteo que busca atender las necesidades diarias de los demandantes. Los resultados numéricos muestran la importancia e incidencia que tendría esta metodología en microempresas que no disponen de organización, recursos ni de sistemas de información apropiados para competir en los escenarios actuales.

  19. Development of an Edge Transport Barrier at the H-Mode Transition of ASDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F.; Fussmann, G.; Grave, T.; Keilhacker, M.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; McCormick, K.; Müller, E. R.; Stäbler, A.; Becker, G.; Bernhardi, K.; Ditte, U.; Eberhagen, A.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Gierke, G. V.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Hesse, M.; Janeschitz, G.; Karger, F.; Kissel, S.; Klüber, O.; Lisitano, G.; Mayer, H. M.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Murmann, H.; Poschenrieder, W.; Rapp, H.; Röhr, H.; Ryter, F.; Schneider, F.; Siller, G.; Smeulders, P.; Söldner, F.; Speth, E.; Steuer, K.-H.; Szymanski, Z.; Vollmer, O.

    1984-10-01

    The thermal wave of a minor disruption can initiate the H phase of a neutral-beam-heated divertor tokamak discharge. Its propagation is used to probe the plasma edge conditions at the H transition. The results show the existence of a transport barrier which forms at the plasma edge and impedes the flow of particles and energy across the plasma surface, giving rise to improved confinement properties. Location and extension of the barrier coincide with the edge zone of increased shear specific to the divertor configuration.

  20. Mode shift strategies in intercity transportation and their effect on energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky, S.

    1975-01-01

    Policies are examined which, if implemented, could lead to significant energy savings in intercity travel in the northeast corridor arena, without restricting the traveler's freedom of mode choice. The effects on arena energy consumption of introducing new, more energy-efficient aircraft are investigated; and several strategies unrelated to the implementation of new aircraft are introduced to yield reductions in overall intercity energy use. In both parts of this analysis, resulting changes in patronage (modal share) and energy use are demonstrated, leading to new insights into the effectiveness of different potential policies for achieving energy conservation. Some observations on induced demand trends that could be associated with certain strategies and the resultant potential effect on energy conservation are provided.

  1. Filtered density function modelling of near-wall scalar transport with POD velocity modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waclawczyk, Marta [Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80952 Gdansk (Poland)], E-mail: mw@imp.gda.pl; Pozorski, Jacek [Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80952 Gdansk (Poland); Minier, Jean-Pierre [Electricite de France, R and D, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France)

    2009-02-15

    This paper addresses the problem of heat transfer in the near-wall region of a turbulent channel flow. We investigate the role of coherent eddy structures on the thermal exchange between the solid and fluid materials. In the present approach, the instantaneous velocity field is modelled by means of a low-order dynamical system based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes while the temperature field is accounted for by using a stochastic filtered density function (FDF) method. A good comparison of results with reference DNS data on mean temperature and on temperature r.m.s. at various Prandtl numbers and for different wall boundary conditions (isotemperature, isoflux, and conjugate heat transfer) is achieved.

  2. Caenorhabditis elegans POT-2 telomere protein represses a mode of alternative lengthening of telomeres with normal telomere lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chen; Shtessel, Ludmila; Brady, Megan M.; Ahmed, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    Canonical telomere repeats at chromosome termini can be maintained by a telomerase-independent pathway termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Human cancers that survive via ALT can exhibit long and heterogeneous telomeres, although many telomerase-negative tumors possess telomeres of normal length. Here, we report that Caenorhabditis elegans telomerase mutants that survived via ALT possessed either long or normal telomere lengths. Most ALT strains displayed end-to-end chromosome f...

  3. Management functions, issues, and configuration alternatives: TO support a transportation management configuration study: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the safe transporation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel from utility-owned nuclear power generation reactors and high-level radioactive waste from both defense and civilian generators to long-term storage repositories. Given the volume, duration, and sensitivity of the operation, DOE is seeking not only the safest and best transportation system but also the most effective and resource-efficient management concept. Within the general guidelines of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 calling for the fullest possible use of private industry contracts, this study examines the technical and administrative functions as well as the key issues to be addressed in the formation of a management structure. In order to stand alone as a comprehensive treatment of the total requirement, the material contained in many seperate and sometimes divergent DOE/OCRWM documents was evaluated and is compiled here. An attempt was made to succinctly define the nature of the problem, the objectives and scope of both the operating and management systems, and then to dissect the functions required in order to meet the objectives and operating functions are listed and described

  4. THE POTENTIAL OF ALTERNATIVE RAIL FREIGHT TRANSPORT CORRIDORS BETWEEN CENTRAL EUROPE AND CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the potential of three rail corridors: Trans-Sib, Central and TRACECA for freight transport between Central Europe and China. The paper applies a qualitative research method including a review of current literature and interviews. The research examines the technical, operational and bureaucratic conditions of the corridors. The research finds that the unreliable transit time, higher cost and damage and theft of cargo are the most pressing barriers to towards offering an efficient and integrated logistics and supply chain service along the corridors. This is due to, amongst others, problematic, multiple border-crossings and the lack of visible cooperation among the countries. The technical and operational barriers include a change of gauge, differing power supply and signalling systems and non-automated and fragmented information systems. The research also finds that the Trans-Sib is the most attractive corridor currently running and shows promise with the active contribution from the Russian government and relevant direct stakeholders such as Russian Railway (RZD. The TRACECA route is the most problematic option due to, among others, numerous border-crossings, infrastructure and rolling stock constraints and other associated problems.

  5. An alternative approach for choice models in transportation: Use of possibility theory for comparison of utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’orco Mauro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of human choice mechanism has been a topic of intense discussion in the transportation community for many years. The framework of modeling has been rooted in probability theory in which the analyst’s uncertainty about the integrity of the model is expressed in probability. In most choice situations, the decision-maker (traveler also experiences uncertainty because of the lack of complete information on the choices. In the traditional modeling framework, the uncertainty of the analyst and that of the decision-maker are both embedded in the same random term and not clearly separated. While the analyst's uncertainty may be represented by probability due to the statistical nature of events, that of the decision maker, however, is not always subjected to randomness; rather, it is the perceptive uncertainty. This paper proposes a modeling framework that attempts to account for the decision maker’s uncertainty by possibility theory and then the analyst's uncertainty by probability theory. The possibility to probability transformation is performed using the principle of uncertainty invariance. The proposed approach accounts for the quality of information on the changes in choice probability. The paper discusses the thought process, mathematics of possibility theory and probability transformation, and examples.

  6. Fragility of Nonlocal Edge-Mode Transport in the Quantum Spin Hall State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin

    2016-07-01

    Nonlocal currents and voltages are better at withstanding the deleterious effects of dephasing than local currents and voltages in nanoscale systems. This hypothesis is known to be true in quantum Hall setups. We test this hypothesis in a four-terminal quantum spin Hall setup wherein we compare the local resistance measurement with the nonlocal one. In addition to inelastic-scattering-induced dephasing, we also test the resilience of the resistance measurements in the aforesaid setups to disorder and spin-flip scattering. We find the axiom that nonlocal resistance is less affected by the detrimental effects of disorder and dephasing to be untrue, in general, for the quantum spin Hall case. This has important consequences since it is widely communicated that nonlocal transport through edge channels in topological insulators have potential applications in low-power information processing.

  7. Tungsten transport and sources control in JET ITER-like wall H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of discharges performed with the JET ITER-like wall is investigated with respect to control capabilities on tungsten sources and transport. In attached divertor regimes, increasing fueling by gas puff results in higher divertor recycling ion flux, lower divertor tungsten source, higher ELM frequency and lower core plasma radiation, dominated by tungsten ions. Both pedestal flushing by ELMs and divertor screening (including redeposition) are possibly responsible. For specific scenarios, kicks in plasma vertical position can be employed to increase the ELM frequency, which results in slightly lower core radiation. The application of ion cyclotron radio frequency heating at the very center of the plasma is efficient to increase the core electron temperature gradient and flatten electron density profile, resulting in a significantly lower central tungsten peaking. Beryllium evaporation in the main chamber did not reduce the local divertor tungsten source whereas core radiation was reduced by approximately 50%

  8. Tungsten transport and sources control in JET ITER-like wall H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorczak, N., E-mail: nicolas.fedorczak@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Monier-Garbet, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pütterich, T. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jlich, Assoc EURATOM-FZJ, Jlich (Germany); Devynck, P.; Dumont, R.; Goniche, M.; Joffrin, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lerche, E. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lipschultz, B. [York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Luna, E. de la [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusin, Asociacin EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Maddison, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Maggi, C. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Matthews, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Nunes, I. [Istituto de plasmas e fusao nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Rimini, F. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Solano, E.R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusin, Asociacin EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Tsalas, M. [Association EURATOM-Hellenic Republic, NCSR Demokritos 153 10, Attica (Greece); Vries, P. de [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    A set of discharges performed with the JET ITER-like wall is investigated with respect to control capabilities on tungsten sources and transport. In attached divertor regimes, increasing fueling by gas puff results in higher divertor recycling ion flux, lower divertor tungsten source, higher ELM frequency and lower core plasma radiation, dominated by tungsten ions. Both pedestal flushing by ELMs and divertor screening (including redeposition) are possibly responsible. For specific scenarios, kicks in plasma vertical position can be employed to increase the ELM frequency, which results in slightly lower core radiation. The application of ion cyclotron radio frequency heating at the very center of the plasma is efficient to increase the core electron temperature gradient and flatten electron density profile, resulting in a significantly lower central tungsten peaking. Beryllium evaporation in the main chamber did not reduce the local divertor tungsten source whereas core radiation was reduced by approximately 50%.

  9. Multi-mode Alfv\\'enic Fast Particle Transport and Losses: Numerical vs. Experimental Observation

    CERN Document Server

    Schneller, Mirjam; Bilato, Roberto; García-Muñoz, Manuel; Brüdgam, Michael; Günter, Sibylle

    2013-01-01

    In many discharges at ASDEX Upgrade fast particle losses can be observed due to Alfv\\'enic gap modes, Reversed Shear Alfv\\'en Eigenmodes or core-localized Beta Alfv\\'en Eigenmodes. For the first time, simulations of experimental conditions in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are performed for different plasma equilibria (particularly for different, also non-monotonic q profiles). The numerical tool is the extended version of the HAGIS code [Pinches'98, Br\\"udgam PhD Thesis, 2010], which also computes the particle motion in the vacuum region between vessel wall in addition to the internal plasma volume. For this work, a consistent fast particle distribution function was implemented to represent the strongly anisotropic fast particle population as generated by ICRH minority heating. Furthermore, HAGIS was extended to use more realistic eigenfunctions, calculated by the gyrokinetic eigenvalue solver LIGKA [Lauber'07]. The main aim of these simulations is to allow fast ion loss measurements to be interpreted with ...

  10. LQ Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Periodic Review Perishable Inventories with Transportation Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Leśniewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we apply the control-theoretic approach to design a new replenishment strategy for inventory systems with perishable stock. Such systems are supposed to effectively satisfy an unknown and permanently time-varying consumers’ demand. The main obstacle of achieving this goal is the need of obtaining supplies from a distant source. During the supply process goods are inevitably lost due to various causes. Furthermore, those goods which successfully arrive at the distribution center still deteriorate while stored in its warehouse. We explicitly take into account both of these factors in designing our control strategy. We propose a sliding mode strategy and choose its parameters to minimize a quadratic quality criterion. This approach allows us to ameliorate the bullwhip effect (the amplification of the demand variations when going up in the supply chain. The control strategy proposed in this work ensures bounded orders, guarantees full consumers’ demand satisfaction, and eliminates the risk of exceeding the warehouse capacity. These properties are stated in three theorems and proved in the paper.

  11. Commuter exposure to particulate matter and particle-bound PAHs in three transportation modes in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to fine and ultrafine particles as well as particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by commuters in three transportation modes (walking, subway and bus) were examined in December 2011 in Beijing, China. During the study period, real-time measured median PM2.5 mass concentration (PMC) for walking, riding buses and taking the subway were 26.7, 32.9 and 56.9 μg m−3, respectively, and particle number concentrations (PNC) were 1.1 × 104, 1.0 × 104 and 2.2 × 104 cm−3. Commuters were exposed to higher PNC in air-conditioned buses and aboveground-railway, but higher PMC in underground-subway compared to aboveground-railway. PNC in roadway modes (bus and walking) peaked at noon, but was lower during traffic rush hours, negatively correlated with PMC. Toxic potential of particulate-PAHs estimated based on benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQs) showed that walking pedestrians were subjected to higher BaP TEQs than bus (2.7-fold) and subway (3.6-fold) commuters, though the highest PMC and PNC were observed in subway. - Highlights: • The highest PNC and PM2.5 occurred around noon and late rush hours, respectively. • Higher PM2.5 and PNC, but lower PAHs and BaP TEQ were found in Beijing subway. • Traffic congestion, roadside cooking, and construction evidently enhanced roadway PM. • Ventilation and air-conditioning system impact PM level in bus and subway cabins. - Higher PMC and PNC, but lower particulate PAHs and BaP TEQ were found in Beijing subway. PNC and PMC in on-roadway modes were peaked around noon and late rush hours, respectively

  12. Symmetric caging formation for convex polygonal object transportation by multiple mobile robots based on fuzzy sliding mode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanyan; Kim, YoonGu; Wee, SungGil; Lee, DongHa; Lee, SukGyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of object caging and transporting is considered for multiple mobile robots. With the consideration of minimizing the number of robots and decreasing the rotation of the object, the proper points are calculated and assigned to the multiple mobile robots to allow them to form a symmetric caging formation. The caging formation guarantees that all of the Euclidean distances between any two adjacent robots are smaller than the minimal width of the polygonal object so that the object cannot escape. In order to avoid collision among robots, the parameter of the robots radius is utilized to design the caging formation, and the A⁎ algorithm is used so that mobile robots can move to the proper points. In order to avoid obstacles, the robots and the object are regarded as a rigid body to apply artificial potential field method. The fuzzy sliding mode control method is applied for tracking control of the nonholonomic mobile robots. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that multiple mobile robots are able to cage and transport the polygonal object to the goal position, avoiding obstacles.

  13. Walk Score, Transportation Mode Choice, and Walking Among French Adults: A GPS, Accelerometer, and Mobility Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Méline, Julie; Kestens, Yan; Day, Kristen; Elbel, Brian; Trasande, Leonardo; Chaix, Basile

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have used GPS data to analyze the relationship between Walk Score, transportation choice and walking. Additionally, the influence of Walk Score is understudied using trips rather than individuals as statistical units. The purpose of this study is to examine associations at the trip level between Walk Score, transportation mode choice, and walking among Paris adults who were tracked with GPS receivers and accelerometers in the RECORD GPS Study. Methods: In the RECORD GPS Study, 227 participants were tracked during seven days with GPS receivers and accelerometers. Participants were also surveyed with a GPS-based web mapping application on their activities and transportation modes for all trips (6969 trips). Walk Score, which calculates neighborhood walkability, was assessed for each origin and destination of every trip. Multilevel logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate associations between Walk Score and walking in the trip or accelerometry-assessed number of steps for each trip, after adjustment for individual/neighborhood characteristics. Results: The mean overall Walk Scores for trip origins were 87.1 (SD = 14.4) and for trip destinations 87.1 (SD = 14.5). In adjusted trip-level associations between Walk Score and walking only in the trip, we found that a walkable neighborhood in the trip origin and trip destination was associated with increased odds of walking in the trip assessed in the survey. The odds of only walking in the trip were 3.48 (95% CI: 2.73 to 4.44) times higher when the Walk Score for the trip origin was “Walker’s Paradise” compared to less walkable neighborhoods (Very/Car-Dependent or Somewhat Walkable), with an identical independent effect of trip destination Walk Score on walking. The number of steps per 10 min (as assessed with accelerometry) was cumulatively higher for trips both originating and ending in walkable neighborhoods (i.e., “Very Walkable”). Conclusions: Walkable

  14. Socio-demographic, personal, environmental and behavioral correlates of different modes of transportation to work among Norwegian parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oline Anita Bjørkelund

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling and brisk-walking to work represents an opportunity to incorporate sustainable transport related moderate- to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA into daily routine among adults, and thus, may make an important contributing to health. Despite the fact that walking and cycling is an option for many commuters and also brings a number of benefits, a considerable proportion of commuters choose to use other means of transport when cycling and walking would be a highly appropriate transport mode. The object of this study was to assess the associations between modes of commuting to the workplace among parental adults; taking socio-demographic, personal, environmental and behavioral factors into account. Methods Data from a cross- sectional questionnaire were collected from a sample of 709 parents (23 % men and 77 % women of children aged 10–12 years-old in two Norwegian counties, Hedmark and Telemark. Commuting behavior, socio- demographic determinants, personal and environmental factors were ascertained using questionnaire data from the Fruit and Vegetables Makes the Marks project (FVMM. Multivariate logistic regressions were applied. Results In total, 70 % of adults were categorized as car commuters to and from work, 12 % was categorized as a cyclist and 7 % as a walker. The multivariate analyses showed that active commuters were more likely to have a shorter distance to work and perceived the traffic as more safe. Moreover, those who actively commute to the workplace considered commuting as a way to obtain health benefits and a way to reduce CO2 emissions. Active commuters also considered weather to be an obstacle to active commuting. Conclusion In this cross-sectional study of parents living in sub-urban Norway, we found that active commuting to and from the workplace were associated with a shorter distance to work, traffic safety, environmental concern, health benefits and weather condition. In light of these

  15. Elicitors as alternative strategy to pesticides in grapevine? Current knowledge on their mode of action from controlled conditions to vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Farace, Giovanni; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Development and optimisation of alternative strategies to reduce the use of classic chemical inputs for protection against diseases in vineyard is becoming a necessity. Among these strategies, one of the most promising consists in the stimulation and/or potentiation of the grapevine defence responses by the means of elicitors. Elicitors are highly diverse molecules both in nature and origins. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these molecules and will highlight their potential efficacy from the laboratory in controlled conditions to vineyards. Recent findings and concepts (especially on plant innate immunity) and the new terminology (microbe-associated molecular patterns, effectors, etc.) are also discussed in this context. Other objectives of this review are to highlight the difficulty of transferring elicitors use and results from the controlled conditions to the vineyard, to determine their practical and effective use in viticulture and to propose ideas for improving their efficacy in non-controlled conditions. PMID:23719689

  16. Radial transport in the far scrape-off layer of ASDEX upgrade during L-mode and ELMy H-mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionita, C.; Naulin, Volker; Mehlmann, F.;

    2013-01-01

    The radial turbulent particle flux and the Reynolds stress in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade were investigated for two limited L-mode (low confinement) and one ELMy H-mode (high confinement) discharge. A fast reciprocating probe was used with a probe head containing five Langmuir pro...

  17. Suppression of the Neoclassical Tearing Modes in Tokamaks under Anomalous Transverse Transport Conditions when the Magnetic Well Effect Predominates over the Bootstrap Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of the suppression of neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks under anomalous transverse transport conditions when the magnetic well effect predominates over the bootstrap drive. It is stressed that the corresponding effect, which is called the compound suppression effect, depends strongly on the profiles of the electron and ion temperature perturbations. Account is taken of the fact that the temperature profile can be established as a result of the competition between anomalous transverse heat transport, on the one hand, and longitudinal collisional heat transport, longitudinal heat convection, longitudinal inertial transport, and transport due to the rotation of magnetic islands, on the other hand. The role of geodesic effects is discussed. The cases of competition just mentioned are described by the model sets of reduced transport equations, which are called, respectively, collisional, convective, inertial, and rotational plasmophysical models. The magnetic well is calculated with allowance for geodesic effects. It is shown that, for strong anomalous heat transport conditions, the contribution of the magnetic well to the generalized Rutherford equation for the island width W is independent of W not only in the collisional model (which has been investigated earlier) but also in the convective and inertial models and depends very weakly (logarithmically) on W in the rotational model. It is this weak dependence that gives rise to the compound effect, which is the subject of the present study. A criterion for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by the compound effect at an arbitrary level of the transverse heat transport by electrons and ions is derived and is analyzed for two cases: when the electron heat transport and ion heat transport are both strong, and when the electron heat transport is strong and the ion heat transport is weak

  18. Prediction of Citizens’ Decisions on Transport Mode Choice in Bandung City, Indonesia by Using General Linear Model Given existing Level of Pedestrian Friendly Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariva Sugandi Permana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Significant contribution of non-motorized transport to energy and environment has changed the view of people on walking or cycling as one of transport modes. While promoting mass rapid transport, modern cities tend to promote pedestrianization as well to encourage people to walk instead of relying on motorized transport. Creating pedestrian friendly environment in particular parts of the city, especially in CBD, is one such attempt. This study tries to investigate the correlation between perceptions of the citizens on pedestrian friendly environment (PFE and their decision on the choices of transport modes. The central business district of Bandung City in Indonesia was chosen as the study area. A questionnaire-based research was used to acquire data on citizens’ perception. Eight variables were employed to understand citizens’ perception on PFE. The result shows that PFE does influence citizens’ decision on their transport modes choice. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  19. Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport System Planning:An Exploration of Sustainable Urban Transport Development on Condition of Limited Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With "integration" as the direction,Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport Planning integrates the plan,construction and management of all kinds of transport mode in the transport system,and integrates the transport with the social,economic and environment development.The planning specifies the strategic targets,key indicators,development strategies as well as major policies of the comprehensive transport system,which explores an alternative way for the sustainable urban transport development under the condition of limited resources in Shenzhen.

  20. 公路交通建设项目的PPP应用模式探讨%Discussion of PPP Mode Application in Highway Transportation Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德华

    2015-01-01

    PPP模式可以缓解建设项目投资与债务的矛盾,在我国公路交通建设项目中有广阔的应用前景.结合公路建设的特点,梳理政府与社会资本分工合作、融资建设相统一以及运营补偿等三种PPP模式的实施方法及优缺点,并从政府层面提出完善我国公路交通建设PPP模式保障机制的建议.%Public-Private Partnership(PPP)mode is a way which can ease the contradiction between project investment and debt,therefore has promising application in highway transportation construction in China. This paper combines the characteristics of highway transportation construction,analyzes three application methods with advantages and disadvantages known as division and corporation of government and social assets mode, unification of financing and constructing mode,and operating compensation mode,provides suggestions for perfection of guarantee mechanism of PPP mode in highway transportation construction from government level.

  1. A unifying mode-coupling theory for transport properties of electrolyte solutions. I. General scheme and limiting laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Aburto, Claudio; Nägele, Gerhard

    2013-10-01

    We develop a general method for calculating conduction-diffusion transport properties of strong electrolyte mixtures, including specific conductivities, steady-state electrophoretic mobilities, and self-diffusion coefficients. The ions are described as charged Brownian spheres, and the solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) are also accounted for in the non-instantaneous ion atmosphere relaxation effect. A linear response expression relating long-time partial mobilities to associated dynamic structure factors is employed in our derivation of a general mode coupling theory (MCT) method for the conduction-diffusion properties. A simplified solution scheme for the MCT method is discussed. Analytic results are obtained for transport coefficients of pointlike ions which, for very low ion concentrations, reduce to the Deby-Falkenhagen-Onsager-Fuoss limiting law expressions. As an application, an unusual non-monotonic concentration dependence of the polyion electrophoretic mobility in a mixture of two binary electrolytes is discussed. In addition, leading-order extensions of the limiting law results are derived with HIs included. The present method complements a related MCT method by the authors for the electrolyte viscosity and shear relaxation function [C. Contreras-Aburto and G. Nägele, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 464108 (2012)], so that a unifying scheme for conduction-diffusion and viscoelastic properties is obtained. We present here the general framework of the method, illustrating its versatility for conditions where fully analytic results are obtainable. Numerical results for conduction-diffusion properties and the viscosity of concentrated electrolytes are presented in Paper II [C. Contreras Aburto and G. Nägele, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134110 (2013)].

  2. In vitro phonophoresis: effect of ultrasound intensity and mode at high frequency on NSAIDs transport across cellulose and rabbit skin membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshali, M M; Abdel-Aleem, H M; Sakr, F M; Nazzal, S; El-Malah, Y

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intensity, mode, and duration of ultrasound application on the transport of three nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) across cellulose membrane and rabbit-skin. Ibuprofen, piroxicam and diclofenac sodium were used as the model drugs. Studies were performed in vitro using a modified Franz diffusion assembly adapted to a therapeutic ultrasound transducer. Ultrasound had a significant and positive effect on the transport of the model NSAIDs across cellulose and rabbit skin membranes. Increasing ultrasound intensity from 0.5 to 3.0 W/cm2 led to a proportional increase in drug transport. Continuous ultrasound mode was more effective in enhancing drug transport than the pulsed mode. Diclofenac sodium had the least flux and permeability coefficient. This was attributed to its comparatively lower pKa value that renders the drug more ionizable in the buffer solution, consequently reducing its selective penetration through the membranes. This study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of ultrasound in transdermal delivery of NSAIDs and the synergistic effect of temperature and ultrasound operational parameters on drug transport. PMID:18271303

  3. APPRAISING THE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED IMPACTS TO CHOOSE THE MODE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT: A CASE STUDY OF COLOMBO METROPOLITAN AREA IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Madhuwanthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a model to evaluate the probability of choosing the mode of public transport with finding most significant aspects related to the characteristic of the journey, characteristic of the traveler and the personal behavior of the traveler. The study area was focused on eleven Divisional Secretariat Divisions of the Colombo Metropolitan Area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. This area has the most economically advanced functions as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka. The current transportation sector in the focusing area has impact of increasing vehicle ownership and serious inadequacies in the road network such as traffic congestions, shortfall of road capacity and low speed level on road. Hence this study attempts to encourage people for the public transport by focusing about their perception related to the mode choice as a solution for the above issues. The results showed that “Number of Earning Members”, “Vehicle Ownership”, ”Education”, “Age”, “Gender”, “Occupation”, “Trip Distance.”, “Trip Time”, “Total Cost” and “Safety” of the mode were the most significant factors for affecting to choose the public transport. The obtained logistic model with the significant variables had the 78.4% of accuracy for the prediction of probability in using public transport.

  4. A unifying mode-coupling theory for transport properties of electrolyte solutions. II. Results for equal-sized ions electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto, Claudio Contreras; Nägele, Gerhard

    2013-10-01

    On the basis of a versatile mode-coupling theory (MCT) method developed in Paper I [C. Contreras Aburto and G. Nägele, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134109 (2013)], we investigate the concentration dependence of conduction-diffusion linear transport properties for a symmetric binary electrolyte solution. The ions are treated in this method as charged Brownian spheres, and the solvent-mediated ion-ion hydrodynamic interactions are accounted for also in the ion atmosphere relaxation effect. By means of a simplified solution scheme, convenient semi-analytic MCT expressions are derived for the electrophoretic mobilities, and the molar conductivity, of an electrolyte mixture with equal-sized ions. These expressions reduce to the classical Debye-Falkenhagen-Onsager-Fuoss results in the limit of very low ion concentration. The MCT expressions are numerically evaluated for a binary electrolyte, and compared to experimental data and results by another theoretical method. Our analysis encloses, in addition, the electrolyte viscosity. To analyze the dynamic influence of the hydration shell, the significance of mixed slip-stick hydrodynamic surface boundary conditions, and the effect of solvent permeability are explored. For the stick boundary condition employed in the hydrodynamic diffusivity tensors, our theoretical results for the molar conductivity and viscosity of an aqueous 1:1 electrolyte are in good overall agreement with reported experimental data for aqueous NaCl solutions, for concentrations extending even up to two molar.

  5. Development of Alternate Soil Clean-Up Goals for Hanford Waste Sites Using Fate and Transport Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remedial Action Goals (RAGs) for soil contaminant levels that are protective of groundwater have been determined for the Removal/Treatment/Disposal (RTD) sites at the 200-UW-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site. The RAG values were determined using a methodology involving the back-calculation of soil contaminant levels protective of groundwater (i.e., resulting groundwater concentrations are ≤ MCLs) in conjunction with the fate and transport modeling as a risk-based alternative to the currently prescribed use of background or detection limit default values. This methodology is important for waste management activities at the Hanford Site because it provides risk-based metrics and a technical basis for determining the levels of contamination 'left in place' in the Hanford Site vadose zone that are protective of human health and the environment. The methodology and the use of fate and transport modeling described here comply with federal guidelines for the use of environmental models. This approach is also consistent with one of several allowable methods identified in State guidelines for deriving soil concentrations for ground water protection. Federal and state guidelines recommend the use of site-specific information and data in risk-based assessments of risk and/or protectiveness. The site-specific characteristics of the Hanford Site, which include consideration of the semi-arid climate, an unsaturated zone thickness of over 80 m (262 feet), and associated/other site features and processes, are integral for the risk-based assessments associated with the protection of groundwater pathway. This methodology yields soil cleanup values (RAGs) for the 200-UW-1 OU waste sites selected for the removal/treatment/disposal (RTD) remedy. These proposed RAGs for uranium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are derived from soil concentrations calculated not to cause contamination of groundwater at levels that exceed the ground water MCLs, and are 40 to 200 times greater than

  6. Tourism transportation planning based on TOD mode in Penglai city%基于TOD模式的蓬莱市旅游交通规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鸿雁

    2011-01-01

    TOD模式与城市旅游交通规划结合,能够实现交通对旅游的支撑作用以及交通与土地利用之间的和谐互动.蓬莱市旅游交通规划从公共交通为主导、创造人性化交通环境的理念出发,探索了城市旅游交通规划中TOD模式的技术途径,即功能明确的旅游公交专线规划,无缝整合旅游换乘枢纽与核心景区,以公共交通为主体的交通组织,新区组团公交枢纽建设,完善的慢行交通体系构建,节约型旅游停车供给.%Combining TOD mode with tourism transportation planning achieves the supporting role of transportation in the tourism and the harmonious interaction between transportation and land use. The planning strategy is put forward based on TOD mode in Penglai city tourism transportation planning, that is, function defined tourism public transport planning, seamless integration of tourism transit hub and core scenic area, public transport as the main traffic organization, new district public transit hub construction, sound slow traffic system construction, and economical tourism parking supply.

  7. Role of collector alternating charged patches on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst in a patchwise charged heterogeneous micromodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Changyong; Hu, Dehong; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B.; Mylon, Steven E.; Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2013-02-04

    The role of collector surface charge heterogeneity on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst and carboxylate microsphere in 2-dimensional micromodels was studied. The cylindrical silica collectors within the micromodels were coated with 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100% Fe2O3 patches. The experimental values of average single collector removal efficiencies (η) of the Fe2O3 patches and on the entire collectors were determined. In the presence of significant (>3500 kT) Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) energy barrier between the microspheres and the silica collectors at pH 5.8 and 8.1, the values of η determined for Fe2O3 patches were significantly less (p < 0.05, t-test) than that obtained for collectors coated entirely with Fe2O3. However, η on Fe2O3 patches for microspheres at pH 4.4 and for oocysts at pH 5.8 and 8.1, where the DLVO energy barrier was relatively small (ca. 200-360 kT), were significantly greater (p < 0.05, t-test) than that on the collectors coated entirely with Fe2O3. The dependence of η determined for Fe2O3 patches on the DLVO energy barrier indicated the importance of periodic favorable and unfavorable electrostatic interactions between colloids and collectors with alternating Fe2O3 and silica patches. Differences between experimentally determined η and that predicted by a patchwise geochemical heterogeneous model was observed, but can be explained by the model’s lack of consideration for the spatial distribution of charge heterogeneity on the collector surface and colloid migration on patchwise heterogeneous collectors.

  8. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  9. Evaluation of Ketoconazole and Its Alternative Clinical CYP3A4/5 Inhibitors as Inhibitors of Drug Transporters: The In Vitro Effects of Ketoconazole, Ritonavir, Clarithromycin, and Itraconazole on 13 Clinically-Relevant Drug Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Lydia M M; Isringhausen, Caleb D; Ogilvie, Brian W; Buckley, David B

    2016-03-01

    Ketoconazole is a potent CYP3A4/5 inhibitor and, until recently, recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency as a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor in clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. Ketoconazole sporadically causes liver injury or adrenal insufficiency. Because of this, the FDA and European Medicines Agency recommended suspension of ketoconazole use in DDI studies in 2013. The FDA specifically recommended use of clarithromycin or itraconazole as alternative strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors in clinical DDI studies, but many investigators have also used ritonavir as an alternative. Although the effects of these clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors on other CYPs are largely established, reports on the effects on the broad range of drug transporter activities are sparse. In this study, the inhibitory effects of ketoconazole, clarithromycin, ritonavir, and itraconazole (and its CYP3A4-inhibitory metabolites, hydroxy-, keto-, and N-desalkyl itraconazole) toward 13 drug transporters (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K, P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, MRP3, and BSEP) were systematically assessed in transporter-expressing HEK-293 cell lines or membrane vesicles. In vitro findings were translated into clinical context with the basic static model approaches outlined by the FDA in its 2012 draft guidance on DDIs. The results indicate that, like ketoconazole, the alternative clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors ritonavir, clarithromycin, and itraconazole each have unique transporter inhibition profiles. None of the alternatives to ketoconazole provided a clean inhibition profile toward the 13 drug transporters evaluated. The results provide guidance for the selection of clinical CYP3A4/5 inhibitors when transporters are potentially involved in a victim drug's pharmacokinetics. PMID:26668209

  10. Edge Localized Mode Dynamics and Transport in the Scrape-Off Layer of the DIII-D Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedo, J A; Rudakov, D L; Hollmann, E; Gray, D S; Burrell, K H; Moyer, R A; McKee, G R; Fonck, R; Stangeby, P C; Evans, T E; Snyder, P B; Leonard, A W; Mahdavi, M A; Schaffer, M J; West, W P; Fenstermacher, M E; Groth, M; Allen, S L; Porter, G D; Wolf, N S; Colchin, R J; Zeng, L; Wang, G; Watkins, J G; Takahashi, T

    2004-12-03

    High temporal and spatial resolution measurements in the boundary of the DIII-D tokamak show that edge localized modes (ELMs) are produced in the low field side, are poloidally localized and are composed of fast bursts ({approx}20 to 40 {micro}s long) of hot, dense plasma on a background of less dense, colder plasma ({approx}5 x 10{sup 18} m{sup {+-}3}, 50 eV) possibly created by the bursts themselves. The ELMs travel radially in the scrapeoff layer (SOL), starting at the separatrix at {approx}450 m/s, and slow down to {approx}150 m/s near the wall, convecting particles and energy to the SOL and walls. The temperature and density in the ELM plasma initially correspond to those at the top of the density pedestal but quickly decay with radius in the SOL. The temperature decay length ({approx}1.2 to 1.5 cm) is much shorter than the density decay length ({approx}3 to 8 cm), and the latter decreases with increasing pedestal (and SOL) density. The local particle and energy flux at the midplane wall during the bursts are 10% to 50% ({approx}1 to 2 x 10{sup 21} m{sup {+-}2} s{sup {+-}1}) and 1% to 2 % ({approx}20 to 30 kW/m{sup 2}) respectively of the LCFS average fluxes, indicating that particles are transported radially much more efficiently than heat. Evidence is presented suggesting toroidal rotation of the ELM plasma in the SOL. The ELM plasma density and temperature increase linearly with discharge/pedestal density up to a Greenwald fraction of {approx}0.6, and then decrease resulting in more benign (grassier) ELMs.

  11. JUSTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS AND MODES OF PRESOWING TREATMENT OF SPRING BARLEY WITH ALTERNATING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD OF INDUSTRIAL FREQUENCY OF 50 HZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova M. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of the presowing seed treatment with alternating electromagnet field of the commercial frequency (EMF CF 50 Hz is economically efficient. The use of the EMF CF 50 Hz in the unit with ring pole pieces allows increasing the germinating energy and power. The electromagnet seed treatment in the units with ring pole pieces is the perspective process of the presowing treatment which does not make unhealthy influence on the operating personnel. At the presowing treatment one has to take into account three factors; they are the arrangement of seeds in the working chamber, the time of treatment and the seed humidity. In this article the authors recommend to promote the unit consisting of a magnetic circuit with ring pole pieces of the rectangular cross-section, a magnetizing coil and an embedding of the nonmagnetic material in the working chamber which allows to increase the germinating energy of spring barley by 10% and the germination by 6,5%. The addition to crop capacity has run to 7% as a result of the spring barley treatment. We analyzed the parameters of the working chamber of the alternating electromagnetic field source of industrial frequency of 50 Hz, we established the dependence of the rate of treatment on the parameters and modes of installation, which are confirmed by laboratory tests. Long-term field studies revealed that the field germination rate of the seeds of spring barley treated with EMF IF, even under adverse weather conditions, exceeds by more than 8% of the field germination rate of control samples

  12. The homodimeric ATP-binding cassette transporter LmrA mediates multidrug transport by an alternating two-site (two-cylinder engine) mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, HW; Margolles, A; Muller, M; Higgins, CF; Konings, WN

    2000-01-01

    The bacterial LmrA protein and the mammalian multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein are closely related ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that confer multidrug resistance on cells by mediating the extrusion of drugs at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. The mechanisms by which transport is mediated,

  13. The future role of alternative powertrains and fuels in the German transport sector. A model based scenario analysis with respect to technical, economic and environmental aspects with a focus on road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport sector is facing the challenges of satisfying the ever increasing transport demand on the one hand and achieving greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets without compromising economic development on the other hand. There are various alternative fuels and powertrains which might play a role in the future of the German transport sector. Amongst these options, biofuels are considered to help lower GHG emissions. However, they are severely criticized to create an additional strain for the energy system and particularly for the transport sector with land area requirement for energy crop production, which may imply a competition with food production. This study aims to assess the future role of alternative fuels and powertrains in the German transport sector in terms of their costs, efficiencies, GHG emissions and land area requirement for energy crops. To fulfill this aim, a techno-economic analysis of all relevant fuels and powertrain options was performed and a model based approach was employed. The utilized model belongs to the TIMES (The Integrated MARKAL EFOM System) family and is a bottom-up linear cost optimization energy system model. A scenario analysis was employed in order to assess the effect of different technological, economic, environmental and political conditions on the overall system. The results of the scenario analysis indicated that the transport system will still be dominated by conventional powertrains in 2030. Alternative powertrains are projected to play only a secondary role until 2030. It is not expected that fuel cell or battery electric passenger cars will be introduced into the market until 2030 in Germany. Nevertheless, hybrid electric powertrains have to be used in the German passenger car sector under ambitious GHG emission reduction targets and high oil prices. The introduction of alternative powertrains (such as hybrid electric and fuel cell powertrain) is much more likely in the bus sector (especially for public

  14. Cross sectional analysis of the association between mode of school transportation and physical fitness in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in relation to travel mode to school in children and adolescents.......To investigate the associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in relation to travel mode to school in children and adolescents....

  15. Characterization of a mutation and an alternative splicing of UDP-galactose transporter in MDCK-RCAr cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Mariusz; Guillen, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) transporter present in the Golgi apparatus is a member of a transporter family comprising hydrophobic proteins with multiple transmembrane domains. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the full-length UDP-Gal transporter protein forms oligomeric structures in the MDCK cell. A ricin-resistant mutant of the MDCK cell line (MDCK-RCA(r)) is deficient in galactose linked to macromolecules because of a lower UDP-Gal transport rate into the Golgi apparatus. We cloned this mutated protein and found that it contains a stop codon close to the 5' terminus of its open reading frame. We also detected a shorter splicing variant of the UDP-Gal transporter which contains a 183-nt in-frame deletion in both the wild-type and the mutant mRNA. We showed that the protein, when overexpressed, is localized in the Golgi apparatus and could partially correct the phenotype of the MDCK-RCA(r) and CHO-Lec8 mutant cell lines. The level of mRNA of the UDP-Gal transporter is much lower (25-30 copies per cell) than those of the CMP-sialic acid transporter (100 copies per cell), UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter (80 copies per cell), and GDP-fucose transporter (65 copies per cell). The transcript level of the shorter splicing variant of the UDP-Gal transporter is extremely rare in wild-type MDCK cells (a few copies per cell), but it is significantly increased in the mutant, RCA-resistant cells. PMID:16434112

  16. Excitatory amino acid transporters: recent insights into molecular mechanisms, novel modes of modulation and new therapeutic possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Fahlke, Christoph; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden Emil;

    2015-01-01

    into the physiological functions mediated by the different transporter subtypes and their respective therapeutic potential have so far been sparse, in no small part due to the limited selection of pharmacological tools available. In the present update, we outline important new insights into the molecular compositions...... of EAATs and their intricate transport process, the novel approaches to pharmacological modulation of the transporters that have emerged, and interesting new perspectives in EAAT as drug targets proposed in recent years....

  17. Assessing patterns of spatial behavior in health studies: their socio-demographic determinants and associations with transportation modes (the RECORD Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Kestens, Yan; Thomas, Frédérique; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thierry, Benoit; Chaix, Basile

    2014-10-01

    Prior epidemiological studies have mainly focused on local residential neighborhoods to assess environmental exposures. However, individual spatial behavior may modify residential neighborhood influences, with weaker health effects expected for mobile populations. By examining individual patterns of daily mobility and associated socio-demographic profiles and transportation modes, this article seeks to develop innovative methods to account for daily mobility in health studies. We used data from the RECORD Cohort Study collected in 2011-2012 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A sample of 2062 individuals was investigated. Participants' perceived residential neighborhood boundaries and regular activity locations were geocoded using the VERITAS application. Twenty-four indicators were created to qualify individual space-time patterns, using spatial analysis methods and a geographic information system. Three domains of indicators were considered: lifestyle indicators, indicators related to the geometry of the activity space, and indicators related to the importance of the residential neighborhood in the overall activity space. Principal component analysis was used to identify main dimensions of spatial behavior. Multilevel linear regression was used to determine which individual characteristics were associated with each spatial behavior dimension. The factor analysis generated five dimensions of spatial behavior: importance of the residential neighborhood in the activity space, volume of activities, and size, eccentricity, and specialization of the activity space. Age, socioeconomic status, and location of the household in the region were the main predictors of daily mobility patterns. Activity spaces of small sizes centered on the residential neighborhood and implying a large volume of activities were associated with walking and/or biking as a transportation mode. Examination of patterns of spatial behavior by individual socio-demographic characteristics and in

  18. A comparison of the energy consumption and carbon emissions for different modes of transportation in open-cut coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fuming; Cai Qingxiang; Chen Shuzhao; Zhou Wei

    2015-01-01

    Transportation accounts for 80%of open-cut coal mine carbon emissions. With regard to the energy con-sumption and carbon emissions of transportation within an open-cut mine, this paper systematically compared the work and energy consumption of a truck and belt conveyor on a theoretical basis, and con-structed a model to calculate the energy consumption of open-cut mine transportation. Life cycle carbon emission factors and power consumption calculation model were established through a Process Analysis–Life Cycle Analysis (PA–LCA). The following results were obtained:(1) the energy consumption of truck transportation was four to twelve times higher than that of the belt conveyor;(2) the CO2 emissions from truck transportation were three to ten times higher than those of the belt conveyor;(3) with the increase in the slope angle for transportation, the ratio of truck to belt conveyor for both energy consumption and carbon emissions gradually decreased;(4) based on 2013 prices in China, the energy cost of transporta-tion using a belt conveyor in open-cut coal mines could save 0.6–2.4 Yuan/(t km) compared to truck transportation.

  19. Modes of sediment transport in channelized water flows with ramifications to the erosion of the Martian outflow channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses application to Martian water flows of the criteria that determine which grain-size ranges are transported as bed load, suspension, and wash load. The results show nearly all sand-sized material and finer would have been transported as wash load and that basalt pebbles and even cobbles could have been transported at rapid rates of suspension. An analysis of the threshold of sediment motion on Mars further indicates that the flows would have been highly competent, the larger flows having been able to transport boulder-sized material. Comparisons with terrestrial rivers which transport hyperconcentration levels of sediments suggest that the Martian water flows could have achieved sediment concentrations up to 70% in weight. Although it is possible that flows could have picked up enough sediment to convert to pseudolaminar mud flows, they probably remained at hyperconcentration levels and fully turbulent in flow character.

  20. Cysteine mutagenesis reveals alternate proximity between transmembrane domain 2 and hairpin loop 1 of the glutamate transporter EAAT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Zhang, Xiuping; Qu, Shaogang

    2014-07-01

    Excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) plays an important role in restricting the neurotoxicity of glutamate. Previous structure-function studies have provided evidence that reentrant helical hairpin loop (HP) 1 has predominant function during the transport cycle. The proposed internal gate HP1 is packed against transmembrane domain (TM) 2 and TM5 in its closed state, and two residues located in TM2 and HP2 of EAAT1 are in close proximity. However, the spatial relationship between TM2 and HP1 during the transport cycle remains unknown. In this study, we used chemical cross-linking of introduced cysteine pair (V96C and S366C) in a cysteine-less version of EAAT1 to assess the proximity of TM2 and HP1. Here, we show that inhibition of transport by copper(II)(1,10-phenanthroline)3 (CuPh) and cadmium ion (Cd(2+)) were observed in the V96C/S366C mutant. Glutamate or potassium significantly protected against the inhibition of transport activity of V96C/S366C by CuPh, while TBOA potentiated the inhibition of transport activity of V96C/S366C by CuPh. We also checked the kinetic parameters of V96C/S366C treated with or without CuPh in the presence of NaCl, NaCl + L-glutamate, NaCl + TBOA, and KCl, respectively. The sensitivity of V96C and S366C to membrane-impermeable sulfhydryl reagent MTSET [(2-trimethylammonium) methanethiosulfonate] was attenuated by glutamate or potassium. TBOA had no effect on the sensitivity of V96C and S366C to MTSET. These data suggest that the spatial relationship between Val-96 of TM2 and Ser-366 of HP1 is altered in the transport cycle.

  1. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  2. Effects of resonant magnetic perturbations on turbulence and transport in DIII-D L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordijck, S.; Rhodes, T. L.; Zeng, L.; Doyle, E. J.; Schmitz, L.; Chrystal, C.; Strait, T. J.; Moyer, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) affect the L- to H-mode power threshold. We find that during the L-mode phase, RMPs cause the particle pinch to reverse from traditionally inward to outward. As a result, the density at the plasma edge increases, while the density in the plasma core is reduced. Linear stability calculations indicate that the plasma transitions from an ion temperature gradient (ITG) to trapped electron mode (TEM) regime at the plasma edge. If the applied RMP current is below the threshold for penetration and island formation, we find that the changes in the edge radial electric field are minimal, while the carbon toroidal rotation brakes over the whole minor radius. Once the RMP field penetrates and the screening plasma response dissappears, the spin-up of the toroidal rotation at the plasma edge results in a positive radial electric field inside the separatrix.

  3. Discussion on Development Mode of Large Railway Hubs in High-speed Rail Era:From Transportation Complex to Urban Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At present, most of China’s railway hubs are developed to be transportation complexes, with some problems like unsmooth traffic circulation, mixed but disordered functions, separated spaces, etc. In high-speed rail era, high-speed railway hubs should be regarded as the catalyst to promoted urban development. The mode of urban complex should be developed, to closely connect the railway hub and the surrounding area within walking distance, so as people could get to their destinations in the most convenient way. Furthermore, it would strengthen people’s aggregation, thus to bring about larger scale urban development by the successful development of urban complex.

  4. Numerical and theoretical evaluations of AC losses for single and infinite numbers of superconductor strips with direct and alternating transport currents in external AC magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajikawa, K., E-mail: kajikawa@sc.kyushu-u.ac.j [Research Institute of Superconductor Science and Systems, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Funaki, K. [Research Institute of Superconductor Science and Systems, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1 Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    AC losses in a superconductor strip are numerically evaluated by means of a finite element method formulated with a current vector potential. The expressions of AC losses in an infinite slab that corresponds to a simple model of infinitely stacked strips are also derived theoretically. It is assumed that the voltage-current characteristics of the superconductors are represented by Bean's critical state model. The typical operation pattern of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil with direct and alternating transport currents in an external AC magnetic field is taken into account as the electromagnetic environment for both the single strip and the infinite slab. By using the obtained results of AC losses, the influences of the transport currents on the total losses are discussed quantitatively.

  5. Numerical and theoretical evaluations of AC losses for single and infinite numbers of superconductor strips with direct and alternating transport currents in external AC magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, K.; Funaki, K.; Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.

    2010-11-01

    AC losses in a superconductor strip are numerically evaluated by means of a finite element method formulated with a current vector potential. The expressions of AC losses in an infinite slab that corresponds to a simple model of infinitely stacked strips are also derived theoretically. It is assumed that the voltage-current characteristics of the superconductors are represented by Bean’s critical state model. The typical operation pattern of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil with direct and alternating transport currents in an external AC magnetic field is taken into account as the electromagnetic environment for both the single strip and the infinite slab. By using the obtained results of AC losses, the influences of the transport currents on the total losses are discussed quantitatively.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  7. Evidence for dual mode of action of a thiosemicarbazone, NSC73306: A potent substrate of the multidrug resistance-linked ABCG2 transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Pu; Shukla, Suneet; Calcagno, Anna Maria; Hall, Matthew D.; Gottesman, Michael M.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2008-01-01

    Multidrug resistance due to reduced drug accumulation is a phenomenon predominantly caused by the overexpression of members of the ATP-binding cassette transporters, including ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein), ABCG2 and several ABCC family members (MRPs). We previously reported that a thiosemicarbazone derivative, NSC73306, is cytotoxic to carcinoma cells that overexpress functional P-glycoprotein and it re-sensitizes these cells to chemotherapeutics. In this study, we investigated the effect of NSC73306 on cells overexpressing other ABC drug transporters, including ABCG2, MRP1, MRP4 and MRP5. Our findings demonstrated that NSC73306 is not more toxic to cells that overexpress these transporters compared to their respective parental cells, and these transporters do not confer resistance to NSC73306 either. In spite of this, we observed that NSC73306 is a transport substrate for ABCG2 that can effectively inhibit ABCG2-mediated drug transport and reverse resistance to both mitoxantrone and topotecan in ABCG2-expressing cells. Interactions between NSC73306 and the ABCG2 drug-binding site(s) were confirmed by its stimulatory effect on ATPase activity (140–150 nM concentration required for 50% stimulation) and by inhibition of [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin photolabeling (50% inhibition at 250–400 nM) of the substrate-binding site(s). Overall, NSC73306 appears to be a potent modulator of ABCG2 that does not interact with MRP1, MRP4 or MRP5. Collectively, these data suggest that NSC73306 can potentially be used, due to its dual mode of action, as an effective agent to overcome drug resistance by eliminating P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cells, and by acting as a potent modulator that re-sensitizes ABCG2-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapeutics. PMID:18089722

  8. Particle and energy transport in dedicated ρ*, β and ν* scans in JET ELMy H-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying plasma transport in terms of the non-dimensional parameters (ρ*, β, ν*) is a natural way to separate important physical transport processes. (ρ*, the ion Larmor radius normalised to the plasma minor radius, separates Bohm/gyro-Bohm transport; β, the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure separates electrostatic and electromagnetic transport; and ν*, the ion collision rate scaled to the ion bounce frequency, describes the effect of collisionality. With this in mind, scans have been performed on JET (MarkIIGB-SRP divertor) with one of ρ*, β, ν* varied whilst the other two remained fixed. Both particle transport, using trace tritium (T) injection, and energy transport have been studied. The ρ* behaviour of energy and trace T transport is found to be consistent with the essentially gyro-Bohm like dependence of the scaling used in the ITER design, IPB98(y,2), although trace T confinement in the outer region (x=0.65-0.85) is Bohm like (D/B0∝ρ*-1.90±0.38). The ν* scans showed energy confinement decreasing with increasing ν* (B0·τE∝ν*-0.35±0.04) more strongly than in IPB98(y,2), with trace T confinement having the opposite trend although the results are more ambiguous. The three β scans show a negligible effect of β on energy confinement (B0·τE∝β*0.04, β*-0.03, β*-0.01), in contrast to IPB98(y,2), which is consistent with electrostatic models. Trace T confinement, however, increases with increasing β (D∝Dg-Bohm·β*-0.34±0.08, D∝DBohm·β*-0.55±0.09) which is inconsistent with IPB98(y,2) and electrostatic models, but is shown to be consistent with a model based on stochastic electromagnetic fields. It remains to describe both particle and energy transport with a unified model. Extrapolation of these results to ITER indicates a moderate increase in energy confinement time for βN=1.8 (2%), but a dramatic improvement for higher βN (e.g. 50% higher for βN=3). The impact on ITER of increased particle confinement at high

  9. Transportation energy data book: edition 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlin, D.N. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 16 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares U.S. transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high- occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data on environmental issues relating to transportation.

  10. An energy-economic scenario analysis of alternative fuels for personal transport using the Global Multi-regional MARKAL model (GMM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guel, Timur; Kypreos, Socrates; Turton, Hal [Energy Economics Group, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Barreto, Leonardo [Energy Economics Group, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Energy Economics and Policy, Austrian Energy Agency, 1150 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-10-15

    This paper deals with the long-term prospects of alternative fuels in global personal transport. It aims at assessing key drivers and key bottlenecks for their deployment, focusing particularly on the role of biofuels and hydrogen in meeting climate policy objectives. The analysis is pursued using the Global Multi-regional MARKAL model (GMM), a perfect foresight ''bottom-up'' model of the global energy system with a detailed representation of alternative fuel chains, linked to the Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change (MAGICC). The analysis shows that biofuels are limited by the regional availability of low-cost biomass, but can be important for meeting mild climate policy targets. If policy-makers intend to pursue more stringent climate policy, then hydrogen becomes a competitive option. However, the analysis finds that the use of hydrogen in personal transport is restricted to very stringent climate policy, as only such policy provides enough incentive to build up the required delivery infrastructure. An analysis of costs additionally shows that ''keeping the hydrogen option open'' does not take considerable investments compared to the investment needs in the power sector within the next decades, but allows the use of hydrogen for the pursuit of stringent climate policy in the second half of the century. (author)

  11. Shannon's measure of information, path averages and the origins of random utility models in transport itinerary or mode choice analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudry, Marc; Quinet, Emile

    2012-01-01

    We interpret the often mentioned difference between Logsum and average utility in terms of Shannon's (1948) information measure S, leading to a Path Aggregation THeorem (PATH). It states that, in transport networks where unique measures of the utility of multiple paths are required for demand model formulation purposes and the true path choice model is Multinomial Logit (MNL), constructs based on weighted averages of path characteristics derived from multipath assignments always underestimate...

  12. An analysis of the binding of repressor protein ModE to modABCD (molybdate transport) operator/promoter DNA of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunden, A M; Self, W T; Villain, M; Blalock, J E; Shanmugam, K T

    1999-08-20

    Expression of the modABCD operon in Escherichia coli, which codes for a molybdate-specific transporter, is repressed by ModE in vivo in a molybdate-dependent fashion. In vitro DNase I-footprinting experiments identified three distinct regions of protection by ModE-molybdate on the modA operator/promoter DNA, GTTATATT (-15 to -8; region 1), GCCTACAT (-4 to +4; region 2), and GTTACAT (+8 to +14; region 3). Within the three regions of the protected DNA, a pentamer sequence, TAYAT (Y = C or T), can be identified. DNA-electrophoretic mobility experiments showed that the protected regions 1 and 2 are essential for binding of ModE-molybdate to DNA, whereas the protected region 3 increases the affinity of the DNA to the repressor. The stoichiometry of this interaction was found to be two ModE-molybdate per modA operator DNA. ModE-molybdate at 5 nM completely protected the modABCD operator/promoter DNA from DNase I-catalyzed hydrolysis, whereas ModE alone failed to protect the DNA even at 100 nM. The apparent K(d) for the interaction between the modA operator DNA and ModE-molybdate was 0.3 nM, and the K(d) increased to 8 nM in the absence of molybdate. Among the various oxyanions tested, only tungstate replaced molybdate in the repression of modA by ModE, but the affinity of ModE-tungstate for modABCD operator DNA was 6 times lower than with ModE-molybdate. A mutant ModE(T125I) protein, which repressed modA-lac even in the absence of molybdate, protected the same region of modA operator DNA in the absence of molybdate. The apparent K(d) for the interaction between modA operator DNA and ModE(T125I) was 3 nM in the presence of molybdate and 4 nM without molybdate. The binding of molybdate to ModE resulted in a decrease in fluorescence emission, indicating a conformational change of the protein upon molybdate binding. The fluorescence emission spectra of mutant ModE proteins, ModE(T125I) and ModE(Q216*), were unaffected by molybdate. The molybdate-independent mutant ModE

  13. Electron temperature profile invariance on OH, L- and H-mode plasmas and consequences for the anomalous transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.

    1992-01-01

    The shapes of the electron temperature and electron density profiles in the OH, L- and H-mode confinement regimes of ASDEX are explored by statistical analysis. It is shown that the shape of Te(r) is conserved in the outer half of the plasma in these regimes and that it is invariant with respect to heating power, heating profile, density, density scale length, q value and ion mass. These results suggest that microturbulence constrains the shape of the temperature profile by adjusting the electron heat diffusivity χe(r). No such invariance is found for the temperature profile in the inner half of the plasma and for the density profile over the whole cross-section. Properties of the empirical electron heat diffusivity and the diffusion coefficient in different regimes can be described by Te profile invariance. The improved confinement with peaked density profiles, the reduction of χe in the bulk of H-mode plasmas and the power dependence of χe in the L-regime are discussed

  14. AN ALTERNATE METHOD TO PREVENT SAND ABRASIVE EROSION IN PIPELINES FOR TRANSPORTING HIGH-SPEED NATURAL GAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an alternate method to re-move the sand carried by natural gas in the upstream pipelinestherefore preventing sand abrasive erosion in pipelines used intransporting high-speed natural gas. Conventionally, most ex-perts pay much attention to improving the anti-erosion charac-teristics of the pipeline materials to solve the problem of seri-ous abrasive erosion, but without significant success. Basedon the theory of multiphase flow and analysis of the character-istics of sandy jets, a new equipment named "Sand Catcher" isintroduced in this article. Experimental results show that theSand Catcher effectively removes most of the sand in the natu-ral gas and significantly reduces the abrasive erosion of thepipelines. The Sand Catcher can be widely applied in practicein the near future.

  15. Transportation energy data book: Edition 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 15 is a statistical compendium. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. Purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter I compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  16. Extended State Observer Based Adaptive Back-Stepping Sliding Mode Control of Electronic Throttle in Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high accuracy requirement of information exchange via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communications, an extended state observer (ESO is designed to estimate the opening angle change of an electronic throttle (ET, wherein the emphasis is placed on the nonlinear uncertainties of stick-slip friction and spring in the system as well as the existence of external disturbance. In addition, a back-stepping sliding mode controller incorporating an adaptive control law is presented, and the stability and robustness of the system are analyzed using Lyapunov technique. Finally, numerical experiments are conducted using simulation. The results show that, compared with back-stepping control (BSC, the proposed controller achieves superior performance in terms of the steady-state error and rising time.

  17. Effects of dipole-dipole interaction on the single-photon transport in a hybrid atom-optomechanical system coupling to a single-mode waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Qing; Zhu, Zhong-Hua; Peng, Zhao-Hui; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Tan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the single-photon transport in a hybrid atom-optomechanical system embedded with two dipole-coupled two-level atoms, interacting with a single-mode optical waveguide. The transmission amplitudes for the single-photon propagation in such a hybrid system are obtained via a real-space approach. It is shown that the dipole-dipole interaction can significantly change the amplitudes and symmetries of the single-photon spectra. Interestingly, we find that the dipole-dipole interaction plays a similar role as does the positive atom-cavity detuning. In addition, the influence from the atomic dissipation can be weakened by increasing the dipole-dipole interaction.

  18. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal

  19. Transport Catastrophe Analysis as an Alternative to a Monofractal Description: Theory and Application to Financial Crisis Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kamenshchikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this investigation was to overcome limitations of a persistency analysis, introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot for monofractal Brownian processes: nondifferentiability, Brownian nature of process, and a linear memory measure. We have extended a sense of a Hurst factor by consideration of a phase diffusion power law. It was shown that precatastrophic stabilization as an indicator of bifurcation leads to a new minimum of momentary phase diffusion, while bifurcation causes an increase of the momentary transport. An efficiency of a diffusive analysis has been experimentally compared to the Reynolds stability model application. An extended Reynolds parameter has been introduced as an indicator of phase transition. A combination of diffusive and Reynolds analyses has been applied for a description of a time series of Dow Jones Industrial weekly prices for the world financial crisis of 2007–2009. Diffusive and Reynolds parameters showed extreme values in October 2008 when a mortgage crisis was fixed. A combined R/D description allowed distinguishing of market evolution short-memory and long-memory shifts. It was stated that a systematic large scale failure of a financial system has begun in October 2008 and started fading in February 2009.

  20. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  1. Particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of the low energy beam transport for the SSC-linac injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Chen; HE Yuan; YUAN You-Jin; YAO Qing-Gao; WANG Zhi-Jun; CHANG Wei; LIU Yong; XIA Jia-Wen

    2011-01-01

    A new SSC-linac system (injector into separated sector cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of SSC-Linac, the LEBT (low energy beam transport) consists of seven solenoids, four quadrupoles, a bending magnet and an extra multi-harmonic buncher. The total length of this segment is about 7 meters. The beam dynamics in this LEBT has been studied using three-dimensional PIC (particle-in-cell) code BEAMPATH. The simulation results show that the continuous beam from the ion source is first well analyzed by a charge-to-mass selection system, and the beam of the selected charge-to-mass ratio is then efficiently pre-bunched by a multi-harmonic buncher and optimally matched into the RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole) for further acceleration. The principles and effects of the solenoid collimation channel are discussed, and it could limit the beam emittance by changing the aperture size.

  2. Electrostatic transport in L-mode scrape-off layer plasmas in the Tore Supra tokamak. I. Particle balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle balance is investigated using a Mach probe at the top of the scrape-off layer of circular ohmically heated L-mode plasmas in the Tore Supra tokamak [G. Giruzzi etal., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104010 (2009)]. Contributions from both poloidal EXB flows and ionization sources are found to be small. As a result the local parallel flow is a response of the radial flux distribution between the two strike points of open field lines, and the density profile is determined by the field-line-integrated radial flux. By scanning the poloidal position of the strike point on a secondary limiter situated at the outboard midplane, an indirect poloidal mapping of the radial flux distribution is obtained. The radial flux is centered at the outboard midplane and is relatively well described by a Gaussian distribution of half poloidal width of about 50° at the last closed flux surface, decaying to about 30° in the far scrape-off layer. The turbulent radial flux measured locally with a rake probe shows a reasonable agreement with the poloidal mapping obtained by the Mach probe. It is shown than the radial convective velocity decays along radius at the plasma top but should increase with radius at the outboard midplane.

  3. Electrostatic transport in L-mode scrape-off layer plasmas in the Tore Supra tokamak. I. Particle balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorczak, N. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organisation, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Gunn, J. P.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Monier-Garbet, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Institut de Recherche pour la Fusion Magnetique Controlee, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Marandet, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moleculaires, UMR 6633 Universite de Provence/CNRS, Centre de St. Jerome, F-13397 Marseille, Cedex-20 (France)

    2012-07-15

    Particle balance is investigated using a Mach probe at the top of the scrape-off layer of circular ohmically heated L-mode plasmas in the Tore Supra tokamak [G. Giruzzi etal., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104010 (2009)]. Contributions from both poloidal EXB flows and ionization sources are found to be small. As a result the local parallel flow is a response of the radial flux distribution between the two strike points of open field lines, and the density profile is determined by the field-line-integrated radial flux. By scanning the poloidal position of the strike point on a secondary limiter situated at the outboard midplane, an indirect poloidal mapping of the radial flux distribution is obtained. The radial flux is centered at the outboard midplane and is relatively well described by a Gaussian distribution of half poloidal width of about 50 Degree-Sign at the last closed flux surface, decaying to about 30 Degree-Sign in the far scrape-off layer. The turbulent radial flux measured locally with a rake probe shows a reasonable agreement with the poloidal mapping obtained by the Mach probe. It is shown than the radial convective velocity decays along radius at the plasma top but should increase with radius at the outboard midplane.

  4. Study of the Effect of Compressional Alfvin Modes on Thermal Transport in the National Spherical Torus Experiment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the first injection of neutral beams into the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)[Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] a broad spectrum of fluctuations consisting of nearly equally spaced peaks in the frequency range from about 0.2 to 1.2 times the ion cyclotron frequency was observed. The frequencies scale with toroidal field and plasma density consistently with Alfvin waves. From these and other observations, the modes have been identified as Compressional Alfvin Eigenmodes (CAE). It has also recently been found that the ratio of the measured ion and electron temperatures in NSTX during neutral-beam heating is anomalously high[Bell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46 (2001) 206]. To explain the anomaly in the ratio of ion to electron temperature, it has been suggested that the CAE, driven by the beam ions, stochastically heat the thermal ions[Gates, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 205003]. In this paper, it is shown through studies of the power balance that stochastic heating of the thermal ions by the observed CAE alone is not solely responsible for the anomaly in the ion to electron temperature ratio

  5. Study of the Effect of Compressional Alfven Modes on Thermal Transport in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the first injection of neutral beams into the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] a broad spectrum of fluctuations consisting of nearly equally spaced peaks in the frequency range from about 0.2 to 1.2 times the ion cyclotron frequency was observed. The frequencies scale with toroidal field and plasma density consistently with Alfvin waves. From these and other observations, the modes have been identified as Compressional Alfvin Eigenmodes (CAE). It has also recently been found that the ratio of the measured ion and electron temperatures in NSTX during neutral-beam heating is anomalously high [Bell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46 (2001) 206]. To explain the anomaly in the ratio of ion to electron temperature, it has been suggested that the CAE, driven by the beam ions, stochastically heat the thermal ions [Gates, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 205003]. In this paper, it is shown through studies of the power balance that stochastic heating of the thermal ions by the observed CAE alone is not solely responsible for the anomaly in the ion to electron temperature ratio

  6. Study of the effect of compressional Alfven modes on thermal transport in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the first injection of neutral beams into the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], a broad spectrum of fluctuations consisting of nearly equally spaced peaks in the frequency range from about 0.2 to 1.2 times the ion cyclotron frequency was observed. The frequencies scale with toroidal field and plasma density consistently with Alfven waves. From these and other observations, the modes have been identified as compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE). It has also recently been found that the ratio of the measured ion and electron temperatures in NSTX during neutral beam heating is anomalously high [Bell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46, 206 (2001)]. To explain the anomaly in the ratio of ion to electron temperature, it has been suggested that the CAE, driven by the beam ions, stochastically heat the thermal ions [Gates et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 205003 (2001)]. In this paper it is shown through studies of the power balance that stochastic heating of the thermal ions by the observed CAE alone is not solely responsible for the anomaly in the ion to electron temperature ratio

  7. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the properties of N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N′-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2′-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4 wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35 .1 lm/W (74 .0 lm/W) at 1000 cd/m2 and reach a very high brightness of 10 000 cd/m2 at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  8. Optical studies of carriers’ vertical transport in the alternately-strained ZnS{sub 0.4}Se{sub 0.6}/CdSe superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evropeytsev, E. A., E-mail: evropeitsev@beam.ioffe.ru; Sorokin, S. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Klimko, G. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Toropov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    We present the results of theoretical modelling and experimental optical studies of the alternatively-strained CdSe/ZnS{sub y}Se{sub 1−y} (y = 0.4) superlattice (SL) with effective band-gap E{sub g}{sup eff} ∼ 2.580 eV and a thickness of ∼300 nm, which was grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a GaAs substrate. The thicknesses and composition of the layers of the superlattice are determined on the basis of the SL minibands parameters calculated implying both full lattice matching of the SL as a whole to a GaAs substrate and high efficiency of photoexcited carriers transport along the growth axis. Photoluminescence studies of the transport properties of the structure (including a superlattice with one enlarged quantum well) show that the characteristic time of the diffusion of charge carriers at 300 K is shorter than the times defined by recombination processes. Such superlattices seem to be promising for the formation of a wide-gap photoactive region in a multijunction solar cell, which includes both III–V and II–VI compounds.

  9. Experimental validation of non-uniformity effect of the radial electric field on the edge transport barrier formation in JT-60U H-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-08-01

    The turbulent structure formation, where strongly-inhomogeneous turbulence and global electromagnetic fields are self-organized, is a fundamental mechanism that governs the evolution of high-temperature plasmas in the universe and laboratory (e.g., the generation of edge transport barrier (ETB) of the H-mode in the toroidal plasmas). The roles of inhomogeneities of radial electric field (Er) are known inevitable. In this mechanism, whether the first derivative of Er (shear) or the second derivative of Er (curvature) works most is decisive in determining the class of nontrivial solutions (which describe the barrier structure). Here we report the experimental identification of the essential role of the Er-curvature on the ETB formation, for the first time, based on the high-spatiotemporal resolution spectroscopic measurement. We found the decisive importance of Er-curvature on ETB formation during ELM-free phase, but there is only a low correlation with the Er-shear value at the peak of normalized ion temperature gradient. Furthermore, in the ELMing phase, the effect of curvature is also quantified in terms of the relationship between pedestal width and thickness of the layer of inhomogeneous Er. This is the fundamental basis to understand the structure of transport barriers in fusion plasmas.

  10. Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes of plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Stefan A.; Kik, Pieter G.; Atwater, Harry A.; Meltzer, Sheffer; Requicha, Aristides A. G.; Koel, Bruce E.

    2002-10-01

    We investigate the possibility of using arrays of closely spaced metal nanoparticles as plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy below the diffraction limit of light. Far-field spectroscopy on arrays of closely spaced 50 nm Au particles fabricated using electron beam lithography reveals the presence of near-field optical particle interactions that lead to shifts in the plasmon resonance frequencies for longitudinal and transverse excitations. We link this observation to a point-dipole model for energy transfer in plasmon waveguides and give an estimate of the expected group velocities and energy decay lengths for the fabricated structures. A near-field optical excitation and detection scheme for energy transport is proposed and demonstrated. The fabricated structures show a high propagation loss of about 3 dB / 15 nm which renders a direct experimental observation of energy transfer impossible. The nature of the loss and ways to decrease it by an order of magnitude are discussed. We also present finite-difference time-domain simulations on the energy transfer properties of plasmon waveguides.

  11. A particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of medium energy beam transport for the SSC-Linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Chen; XU Meng-Xin; HE Shou-Bo; XIA Jia-Wen; HE Yuan; YUAN You-Jin; LU Yuan-Rong; LIU Yong; WANG Zhi-Jun; DU Xiao-Nan; YAO Qing-Gao; LIU Ge

    2012-01-01

    A new linear accelerator system,called the SSC-Linac injector,is being designed at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou).As part of the SSC-Linac,the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) consists of seven magnetic quadrupoles,a re-buncher and a diagnose box.The total length of this segment is about 1.75 m.The beam dynamics simulation in MEBT has been studied using the TRACK 3D particlein-cell code,and the simulation result shows that the beam accelerated from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) matches well with the acceptance of the following drift tube linac (DTL) in both the transverse and longitudinal phase spaces,and that most of the particles can be captured by the final sector focusing cyclotronfor further acceleration.The longitudinal emittance of the RFQ and the longitudinal acceptance of the DTL was calculated in detail,and a multi-particle beam dynamics simulation from the ion source to the end of the DTL was done to verify the original design.

  12. A particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of medium energy beam transport for the SSC-Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chen; He, Yuan; Yuan, You-Jin; Lu, Yuan-Rong; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Du, Xiao-Nan; Yao, Qing-Gao; Liu, Ge; Xu, Meng-Xin; He, Shou-Bo; Xia, Jia-Wen

    2012-01-01

    A new linear accelerator system, called the SSC-Linac injector, is being designed at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of the SSC-Linac, the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) consists of seven magnetic quadrupoles, a re-buncher and a diagnose box. The total length of this segment is about 1.75 m. The beam dynamics simulation in MEBT has been studied using the TRACK 3D particle-in-cell code, and the simulation result shows that the beam accelerated from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) matches well with the acceptance of the following drift tube linac (DTL) in both the transverse and longitudinal phase spaces, and that most of the particles can be captured by the final sector focusing cyclotron for further acceleration. The longitudinal emittance of the RFQ and the longitudinal acceptance of the DTL was calculated in detail, and a multi-particle beam dynamics simulation from the ion source to the end of the DTL was done to verify the original design.

  13. Fluctuation signatures of rotation reversals and non-local transport events in KSTAR L-mode plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yuejiang

    2016-01-01

    Experiments in KSTAR tokamak show that non-local heat transport (NLT) is closely connected to toroidal rotation reversal. We demonstrate that NLT can be affected by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH), and the intrinsic rotation direction follows the changes of NLT. The cut-off density of NLT can be significantly extended by ECH. Without ECH, NLT disappears as the line averaged density ne increases above 1.25*10e19me-3. By applying ECH, NLT reappears with the ne= 2.4*10e19me-3. At the same density level, the core toroidal rotation also changes from counter-current to co-current direction by applying ECH. The poloidal flow of turbulence in core plasma estimated from MIR is in electron diamagnetic direction in ECH plasmas and ion diamagnetic direction in high density OH plasma. The auto-power spectra of density fluctuation measured by MIR are almost the same in the outer region for ECH and OH plasma. On the other hand, in the core region of ECH plasmas, the power spectra of the density fluctuations are b...

  14. Sources and transportation modes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami deposits on the central east Japan coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Purna Sulastya; Nishimura, Yuichi; Nakamura, Yugo; Yulianto, Eko

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated sediment sources of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami deposits along a 4500 m inland transect from the central east Japan coast, using grain size, mineralogy and foraminifera analyses. The tsunami run-up height in our study area was 13 to 20 m near the coastline, 1.4 to 2.8 m in the middle of the valley and 1.3 m around the inundation limit. The inundation distance was around 4800 m. The deposits are composed of sand and mud and show a fining and thinning trend. Mineral composition of the tsunami deposits was similar to that of coastal dune and beach deposits, indicating that most of the tsunami sediment originated from there. A minor foraminifera population in the deposit (≤ 15 specimens per 5 g of sample compared with ≥ 100 specimens per 1 g for typical marine sediment) indicates that marine sediment source was not dominant. Topography played an important role in sediment transport process and deposit distribution. The run-up wave accelerated faster in concave topography, became more erosive, and resulted in a thin deposit in topographic lows. We infer that the deposits up to 2300 m from the coastline were deposited by bedload and suspension, whereas suspension was responsible for deposits farther inland.

  15. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1994-05-01

    Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  16. 基于数据包络分析的军事运输方式选择研究%Research into the DEA-Based Choice of the Military Transportation Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾已泷; 李若蕾

    2012-01-01

    针对运输费用、能源消耗、运输时间,运输能力、适应能力、方便程度、安全性等影响军事运输方式选择的主要因素,利用数据包络分析理论,通过实例计算出了各种运输方式的投入产出比并按其值大小进行绩效排序,进而选出最优运输方式,并对其它运输方式进行分析评价。%Of conve With the transport costs, energy consumption, transportation duration, transportation capability, adaptability, degrees nlence, security, the input-output ratios o the paper, upon the basis valuated as well. etc. taken into account, by means of the DEA theory,and through the calculation of practical examples, f all the transportation modes are worked out,arrayed according to their performance and efficiency in of which the best transportation mode is chosen and the other transportation modes are analyzed and evaluated as well.

  17. 不同转运方式对主动脉夹层患者院内转运安全性的影响%Effects of Different Transportation Modes on Nosocomial Transportation Security for Aortic Dissection Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春雷; 方瑶; 林碎钗; 潘夏蓁; 张文侠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of different transshipment modes on nosocomial transportation security in patients with aortic dissection(AD) in the hospital. Methods From February 2006 to October 2011, the clinical data of 96 AD patients transferred to the ward or checkroom from the emergency department were retrospectively analyzed. From February 2006 to February 2009,47 patients with the traditional transportation way were taken as control group. From March 2009 to October 2011,49 AD patients who adopted the improved transportation way were taken as observational group. Comparisons were conducted on the exacerbated pain,changes of heart rate,blood pressure,oxygen saturation and adversecardiac events between two groups during transportation in the hospital. Results Compared with the control group,there were fewer exacerbated pain cases,and significantly less changes of heart rate,blood pressure, oxygen saturation (<95%)and total incidence of adverse events in the observational group(P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). Conclusion Improved transportation mode helps improve the nosocomial transportation security of AD patients.%目的 探讨不同转运方式对主动脉夹层(aortic dissection,AD)患者院内转运安全性的影响.方法 回顾性分析2006年2月至2011年10月温州医学院附属第一医院急诊科转送至手术室、病房或检查室的96例主动脉夹层患者的临床资料.其中2006年2月至2009年2月采取传统转运方式47例,设为对照组;2009年3月至2011年10月采取改进转运方式49例,设为观察组.比较两组患者转运过程中疼痛加剧、心率、血压、血氧饱和度以及不良事件发生率.结果 观察组患者转运过程中疼痛加剧者较少,且其心率、血压改变较小,血氧饱和度<95%者较少,不良事件总发生率较低,与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 改进转运方式有助于提高主动脉夹层患者在院内转运的安全性.

  18. Is “Warmth” a Mode of Social Behaviour? Considerations on a Cultural History of the Left-Alternative Milieu from the Late Sixties to the Mid Eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Reichardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the comprehensive counter-cultural milieu from the late 1960s until the early 1980s. Life style and habitus within this undogmatic and widely peaceful radical leftist milieu were practised according to a conduct of warmth. This alternative conduct of warmth corresponded with developments in the increasing individualized consumer society of the Federal Republic of Germany. The counter-cultural social behaviour was neither a departure into the land of freedom nor into a reign of normlessness. It was a form of self-guidance and governmentality with its own contradictions and coercions.

  19. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO(sub 2)), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NOx emissions from transportation may increase. The conclusions are: (1) It is essential to consider the entire fuel cycle in assessing the benefits, or disadvantages, of an alternative fuel option, i.e., feedstock and fuel production, in addition to vehicle operation; (2) Many improvements to the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle and engine combination will also reduce emissions by reducing fuel use, e.g., engine efficiency, reduced weight, drag and tire friction, and regenerative braking; (3) In reducing emissions it will be important to install the infrastructure to provide the improved fuels, support the maintenance of advanced vehicles, and provide emissions testing of both local vehicles and those from out of state; (4) Public transit systems using lower emission vehicles can play an important role in reducing emissions per passenger mile by carrying passengers more efficiently, particularly in congested areas. However, analysis is required for each situation; (5) Any reduction in emissions will be welcome, but the problems of air pollution in our region will not be solved by a few modest improvements. Substantial reductions in emissions of key pollutants are required both in East Tennessee and in

  20. Comparative analysis of core heat transport of JET high density H-mode plasmas in carbon wall and ITER-like wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Tae; Romanelli, M.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Koskela, T.; Conboy, J.; Giroud, C.; Maddison, G.; Joffrin, E.; contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    A consistent deterioration of global confinement in H-mode experiments has been observed in JET [1] following the replacement of all carbon plasma facing components (PFCs) with an all metal (‘ITER-like’) wall (ILW). This has been correlated to the observed degradation of the pedestal confinement, as lower electron temperature (Te) values are routinely measured at the top of the edge barrier region. A comparative investigation of core heat transport in JET-ILW and JET-CW (carbon wall) discharges has been performed, to assess whether core confinement has also been affected by the wall change. The results presented here have been obtained by analysing a set of discharges consisting of high density JET-ILW H-mode plasmas and comparing them against their counterpart discharges in JET-CW having similar global operational parameters. The set contains 10 baseline ({βN}=1.5∼ 2 ) discharge-pairs with 2.7 T toroidal magnetic field, 2.5 MA plasma current, and 14 to 17 MW of neutral beam injection (NBI) heating. Based on a Te profile analysis using high resolution Thomson scattering (HRTS) data, the Te profile peaking (i.e. core Te (ρ = 0.3) / edge Te (ρ = 0.7)) is found to be similar, and weakly dependent on edge Te, for both JET-ILW and JET-CW discharges. When ILW discharges are seeded with N2, core and edge Te both increase to maintain a similar peaking factor. The change in core confinement is addressed with interpretative TRANSP simulations. It is found that JET-ILW H-mode plasmas have higher NBI power deposition to electrons and lower NBI power deposition to ions as compared to the JET-CW counterparts. This is an effect of the lower electron temperature at the top of the pedestal. As a result, the core electron energy confinement time is reduced in JET-ILW discharges, but the core ion energy confinement time is not decreased. Overall, the core energy confinement is found to be the same in the JET-ILW discharges compared to the JET-CW counterparts.

  1. The Research of Transportation Logistics Resource Integration Mode Decision Analysis%交通物流资源整合模式决策分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吟龙

    2011-01-01

    As the application of exploration and practice of fourth party logistics (4PL) theory, there have not been mature theory, even unified quantitative criteria and model about how to reasonably and effectively integrate comprehensive transport logistics resources of the supply chain. In order to find the breakthrough of 4PL mode about integrating traffic logistics resources, the paper deeply analyzed the characteristics and theoretical frame of integrating process, excavated each main elements of system from operation and management. Considering increment of supply chain in system integration, the paper explored the complex relationships between input cost and the promotion of operational level of each main element, at last, built optimization pattern of transport logistics resources integration decision under the model of 4PL.%随着第四方物流(4PL)理论探索与实践的运用,如何合理有效地整合供应链的综合交通物流资源,目前尚无成熟的理论,更无统一的量化标准及模式.为了寻找4PL模式在整合综合交通物流资源的量化分析突破口,本文通过对整合过程的特征及理论框架进行深入分析,从经营管理运作的角度挖掘系统中的各个主要因素.在考虑系统整合过程的价值链增值基础上,探索系统的整合投入成本同各主要因素运作水平提升之间的复杂关系.构建4PL模式下交通物流资源整合决策的优化模型.

  2. Suppression of NDA-type alternative mitochondrial NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in arabidopsis thaliana modifies growth and metabolism, but not high light stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, Sabá V; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L; Escobar, Matthew A; Geisler, Daniela A; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G

    2014-05-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)⁺ ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins.

  3. Effects of different fresh-keeping transportation modes on quality of litchi fruit%不同保鲜运输方式对荔枝果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨松夏; 吕恩利; 陆华忠; 曾志雄; 唐本源

    2014-01-01

    Litchi is special fruit in China. It is important and difficult to keep fresh for litchi during transportation after harvest because it matures in hot seasons and will deteriorate rapidly while stored and transported in normal atmospheric temperature. Foam box with ice, refrigeration, and controlled atmosphere are three main fresh-keeping transportation modes for litchi at present. In order to obtain the effects of different fresh-keeping transportation modes on the quality of litchi fruit, the experiments of these three fresh-keeping transportation modes for “Feizixiao” litchi were carried out based on fresh-keeping transportation platform for fruits and vegetables. The developed fresh-keeping transportation platform can adjust temperature, relative humidity and oxygen volume fraction automatically and intelligently according to initial parameters setting and real time feedback from container to create a suitable fresh-keeping environment for litchi. The main processing of the three experiments is conducted as follows. For the experiment of ice-added transportation in foam box, litchi was packaged with polyethylene bags and then put into foam boxes with appropriate crushed ice (mass proportion of ice to fruit was about 0.30) to maintain low temperature. While for the refrigerated transportation experiment, litchi was packaged with perforated polyethylene bags (aperture ratio was 5%) and then put into plastic baskets, keeping the container environment temperature of 3-5℃ and relative humidity of 90%-95%. The package type of the controlled atmosphere transportation experiment was the same as that of the refrigerated transportation experiment and the two experiments were at the same temperature and relative humidity in container, but the oxygen volume fraction should be set to 3%-5%. On this basis, the foam boxes or plastic baskets with packaged litchi were fixed on the vibration device workbench located in the container of fresh-keeping transportation platform

  4. Discussion on the Economic Attribute and Investment and Financing Mode of National Highway Transportation Junction%国家公路运输枢纽经济属性及投融资模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊

    2015-01-01

    This paper accurately and roundly analyzes the economic attribute of national highway transportation junction. Combined with the development situation of highway transportation, it chooses the reasonable and expansible investment and financing mode. There are different economic attributes and investment and financing modes for the highway transportation junction in different area.%对国家公路运输枢纽的经济属性进行正确的、全面的分析,结合公路运输的发展状况,选择合理的、有发展性的投融资模式。相对于不同地区的公路运输枢纽,都有截然不同的经济属性及投融资模式。

  5. A current view of serotonin transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are largely recognized for one aspect of their function-to transport serotonin back into the presynaptic terminal after its release. Another aspect of their function, however, may be to generate currents large enough to have physiological consequences. The standard model for electrogenic transport is the alternating access model, in which serotonin is transported with a fixed ratio of co-transported ions resulting in net charge per cycle. The alternating access model, however, cannot account for all the observed currents through SERT or other monoamine transporters.  Furthermore, SERT agonists like ecstasy or antagonists like fluoxetine generate or suppress currents that the standard model cannot support.  Here we survey evidence for a channel mode of transport in which transmitters and ions move through a pore. Available structures for dopamine and serotonin transporters, however, provide no evidence for a pore conformation, raising questions of whether the proposed channel mode actually exists or whether the structural data are perhaps missing a transient open state. PMID:27540474

  6. Effect of Transportation Policies on Modal Shift from Private Car to Public Transport in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdden, Abdullah; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Ismail, Amiruddin

    The car is the second (40%) most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. The rapid increase in the use of personal transportation has its roots in the weak Malaysian public transport system. As a result, traffic congestion, accidents, air pollution and need for parking space among other evils, have escalated. In this study, policies aimed at discouraging the use of private transportation were studied. In addition, this study sought to identify factors that prevent personal transport users from utilizing public transport so that rational policies could be formulated to encourage greater utilization of public transport. A survey was carried out on users of private and public (both bus and urban train transport) (n = 1200). A binary logit model was developed for the three alternative modes, Car, Bus and Train. This study found that age, gender, car ownership, travel time, travel cost, household size and income are significant factors in influencing the individual`s choice of transportation. The most important variables found likely to encourage the use of public transport were reduced travel time, reduce the distance from home to public transportation stations and subsidized fares. In conclusion, for the commuter to switch to public transport, proper incentives need to be provided for a successful implementation.

  7. Transportation energy conservation data book: edition I. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonka, D B; Loebl, A S; Ogle, M C; Johnson, M L; Howard, E B

    1977-01-01

    This document contains statistical information on the major transportation modes, their respective energy consumption patterns, and other pertinent factors influencing performance in the transportation sector. Data relating to past, present, and projected energy use and conservation in the transportation sector are presented under seven chapter headings. These focus on (1) modal transportation characteristics, (2) energy characteristics of the transportation sector, (3) energy conservation alternatives involving the transportation sector, (4) government impacts on the transportation sector, (5) the supply of energy to the transportation sector, (6) characteristics of transportation demand, and (7) miscellaneous reference materials such as energy conversion factors and geographical maps. References are included for each set of data presented, and a more general bibliography is included at the end of the book. In addition, a glossary of key terms and a subject index is provided for the user. A second edition of this document is scheduled for publication in September 1977.

  8. Modelling the Ohmic L-mode ramp-down phase of JET hybrid pulses using JETTO with Bohm-gyro-Bohm transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, João P. S.; Köchl, Florian; Voitsekhovitch, Irina; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2016-11-01

    The empirical Bohm-gyro-Bohm (BgB) transport model implemented in the JETTO code is used to predictively simulate the purely Ohmic (OH), L-mode current-ramp-down phase of three JET hybrid pulses, which combine two different ramp rates with two different electron densities (at the beginning of the ramp). The modelling is discussed, namely the strategy to reduce as much as possible the number of free parameters used to benchmark the model predictions against the experimental results. Hence, keeping the gas puffing rate as measured whilst controlling the line-averaged electron density via the recycling coefficient (which in the modelling is taken at the separatrix instead of the wall), one of the many possible ways to fix the total particle source, it is shown that the BgB model reproduces well the experimental data, as far as both average quantities (plasma internal inductance and volume-averaged electron temperature) and profiles (electron density and temperature) are concerned, with relative errors remaining mostly below 20 % . The sensitivenesses with respect to the recycling coefficient, the ion effective charge, the energy of neutrals entering the plasma through the separatrix and the need to introduce a particle pinch are assessed; the necessity for a proper sawtooth model if experimental results are to be reproduced is also shown. The strong non-linear coupling in a OH plasma between density, temperature and current (essentially via interplay between the power-balance equation, Joule’s heating with a temperature-dependent resistivity and the dependence of BgB transport coefficients on profile gradients) is put in evidence and analyzed in light of modelling results. It is still inferred from the modelling that the real value of the recycling coefficient at the separatrix (basically, the so-called fuelling efficiency times the actual recycling coefficient at the wall) must become close to one in the final stages of the discharges, when the gas puffing is

  9. 考虑偏好差异与备选方案相关性的居民出行方式选择模型%Travel Mode Choice Model Accounting for Individual Preference Heterogeneity and Correlation among Choice Alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨励雅; 赵鹏军

    2012-01-01

    为克服传统logit模型的ⅡA缺陷,构建合适的居民出行方式选择模型.尝试结合广义极值模型与潜在类别模型,选取出行费用、出行时间、停车费用及等待时间等作为方式选择效用变量,选取个人收入、出行目的与出行距离作为类属函数变量,构建一种区分潜在类别的配对巢式logit模型,该模型能同时刻画备选方式之间的相关性以及出行者的偏好差异.利用2005年北京市第三次居民出行调查数据,对模型参数进行估计和检验.参数估计结果表明:1)相较于传统MNL模型与不区分潜在类别的配对巢式logit模型,区分潜在类别的配对巢式logit模型具有更优的统计学特征;2)对出行费用敏感的出行者比例大于对出行时间敏感的出行者比例,提供交通服务时,降低费用将比缩短时间更为有效.%The authors proposed a new travel mode choice model to overcome the limitation of traditional logit model. Combining generalized extreme value model and latent class model, the authors present a modeling methodology capable of accounting for individual preference heterogeneity and correlation across choice alternatives. Travel cost, travel time, parking fee, and waiting time are defined as utility variables for mode choice, while individual income, travel purpose, and travel distance are selected as variables of segment membership function. This model can depict the correlation among choice alternatives and individual preference heterogeneity simultaneously. Using Beijing traffic survey data of 2005, the model parameters are estimated. Estimation results show that the latent class paired nested logit model outperforms the traditional models. Most travelers are cost-sensitive to travel modes, and thus strategies that reduce the travel cost can be more effective than reducing the travel time.

  10. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.

    1998-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 18 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. This edition of the Data Book has 11 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy Chapter 3 - emissions; Chapter 4 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 5 - highway vehicles; Chapter 6 - Light vehicles; Chapter 7 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 8 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 9 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 10 - household vehicles; and Chapter 11 - nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data.

  11. Sustainable Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    I assume we’ll want to sustain any mode of transport only if we judge it to be effective and desirable, and of course, only if we think we can afford to sustain it. Over time, we’ve abandoned any number of modes that failed those tests — horsecars, trolleycars, and pullmancars, among others; and we’ve kept those that passed the tests — most notably motorcars, airplanes, and ships. In retrospect, it seems we’ve been pretty draconian in rejecting transport modes that have failed in the market p...

  12. Effects of alternate different irrigation amount modes on yield and water use efficiency of Cassava%不同水量交替灌溉对木薯产量和水分利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵馀; 杨启良; 王亓剑; 刘小刚; 王卫华

    2016-01-01

    为探讨作物旱后复水的补偿效应,采用不同水量交替灌溉方式研究木薯的生长、产量及水分利用效率的变化规律,设计了5种水分处理模式,分别为3种常规灌水处理(处理 T1,T2和 T3的灌水定额分别为10,20,30 mm)和2种交替灌水处理(处理 T4:即对灌水定额10和20 mm 进行轮回交替;处理 T5:即对灌水定额10和30 mm 进行轮回交替).结果表明:与处理 T2相比,处理 T5的总叶面积、总干物质量、产量和水分利用效率分别显著增加31.1%,20.3%,64.6%和114.0%.与处理 T3相比,处理 T5节水33.3%,其总干物质量下降较小,而根系干物质量、水分利用效率和产量分别显著增加11.2%,119.0%和13.3%.因此,处理 T5是有利于木薯产量和水分利用效率提高的最佳灌溉模式.%In order to explore a compensatory effect of crops after encountering drought stress and then rehydration,the change of growth,yield and water use efficiency of Cassava under alternate different irrigation amount modes was studied.Five watering treatment modes were designed in this experiment, three conventional watering treatments:T1,T2,T3 (every time the irrigation amount of 10,20,30 mm, respectively),and two alternate watering treatments:T4 (repeated alternate two kinds of combined irrigation amount as 10 or 20 mm),T5(repeated alternate two kinds of combined irrigation amount as 10 or 30 mm).The results show that compared to T2 treatment,T5 treatment significantly increased total leaf area,total dry mass,yield and total water use efficiency by 31.1%,20.3%,64.6% and 114.0%,respectively.Compared to T3 treatment,T5 treatment saved irrigation water by 33.3%,the total dry mass reduced a little,but the root mass,total water use efficiency and yield significantly increased by 11.2%,119.0% and 13.3%,respectively.Therefore,T5 treatment is the best mode to improve yield and water use efficiency of Cassava in greenhouse.

  13. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  14. Simulation of the Internal Transport Phenomena for PEM Fuel Cells with Different Modes of Flow%采用不同流场的质子交换膜燃料电池内部传递现象模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鸣若; 朱新坚; 顾安忠

    2004-01-01

    A numerical model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is developed, which can simulate such basic transport phenomena as gas-liquid two-phase flow in a working fuel cell. Boundary conditions for both the conventional and the interdigitated modes of flow are presented on a three-dimensional basis. Numerical techniques for this model are discussed in detail. Validation shows good agreement between simulating results and experimental data. Furthermore, internal transport phenomena are discussed and compared for PEM fuel cells with conventional and interdigitated flows. It is found that the dead-ended structure of an interdigitated flow does increase the oxygen mass fraction and decrease the liquid water saturation in the gas diffusion layer as compared to the conventional mode of flow. However, the cathode humidification is important for an interdigitated flow to acquire better performance than a conventional flow fuel cell.

  15. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  16. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Caban; Agata Gniecka; Lukáš Holeša

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  17. Mathematical review of literature to assess alternative electron transports and interphotosystem excitation partitioning of steady-state C3 photosynthesis under limiting light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Harbinson, J.; Struik, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Linear whole-chain electron (e) transport plays a dominant role in generating NADPH and ATP required for carbon fixation in chloroplasts. However, other e pathways may be present to contribute to the flexibility of e transport in meeting demands by various downstream metabolic processes. The estimat

  18. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg;

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  19. Between-mode-differences in the value of travel time: Self-selection or strategic behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Hjorth, Katrine; Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Using stated preference survey data, we measure the value of travel time for several transport modes. We find, like many before us, that the value of travel time varies across modes in the opposite direction of what would be the consequence of differences in comfort. We examine three candidate...... causes for the observed differences: Comfort effects, self-selection and strategic behaviour of respondents. Using experiments with both the current and an alternative mode we find that the differences in the value of travel time are consistent with self-selection and comfort effects. Moreover...

  20. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick de Sá

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Transport and urban planning policies to reduce individual motorized trips and the number of long trips might produce important health benefits, both by increasing population levels of active transportation and reducing the non-active and the total time of daily trips.

  1. Determining Photosynthetic Parameters from Leaf CO2 Exchange and Chlorophyll Fluorescence (Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Specificity Factor, Dark Respiration in the Light, Excitation Distribution between Photosystems, Alternative Electron Transport Rate, and Mesophyll Diffusion Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisk, A.; Loreto, F.

    1996-03-01

    Using simultaneous measurements of leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, we determined the excitation partitioning to photosystem II (PSII), the CO2/O2 specificity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the dark respiration in the light, and the alternative electron transport rate to acceptors other than bisphosphoglycerate, and the transport resistance for CO2 in the mesophyll cells for individual leaves of herbaceous and tree species. The specificity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase for CO2 was determined from the slope of the O2 dependence of the CO2 compensation point between 1.5 and 21% O2. Its value, on the basis of dissolved CO2 and O2 concentrations at 25.5[deg]C, varied between 86 and 89. Dark respiration in the light, estimated from the difference between the CO2 compensation point and the CO2 photocompensation point, was about 20 to 50% of the respiration rate in the dark. The excitation distribution to PSII was estimated from the extrapolation of the dependence of the PSII quantum yield on F/Fm to F = 0, where F is steady-state and Fm is pulse-satuarated fluorescence, and varied between 0.45 and 0.6. The alternative electron transport rate was found as the difference between the electron transport rates calculated from fluorescence and from gas exchange, and at low CO2 concentrations and 10 to 21% O2, it was 25 to 30% of the maximum electron transport. The calculated mesophyll diffusion resistance accounted for about 20 to 30% of the total mesophyll resistance, which also includes carboxylation resistance. Whole-leaf photosynthesis is limited by gas phase, mesophyll diffusion, and carboxylation resistances in nearly the same proportion in both herbaceous species and trees. PMID:12226229

  2. Angular Momentum Transport in Protoplanetary and Black Hole Accretion Disks: The Role of Parasitic Modes in the Saturation of MHD Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias

    2010-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered a key process for driving efficient angular momentum transport in astrophysical disks. Understanding its nonlinear saturation constitutes a fundamental problem in modern accretion disk theory. The large dynamical range in physical conditions...

  3. Changes in mode of transportation to work or school from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Skreden

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of Norwegian women there was a significant change towards less active transportation to work or school and lower levels of physical activity from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy.

  4. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  5. On structural inelasticity of modal substitution in freight transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Kveiborg, Ole; Overgård, Christian Hansen

    2011-01-01

    At the European level there is an increasing focus on how freight transport can be moved from trucks on roads to more environmentally friendly modes such as rail and ship. A large proportion of the transport services between OD pairs, however, cannot be substituted since there is only one...... alternative available. The paper investigates the magnitude of this ‘‘structural inelasticity” of modal substitution in freight transport due to a sparser layout of rail and ship-based freight networks compared to road. In the analysis we use a recent Scandinavian freight demand model covering more than 800...

  6. Tri-level model of traffic mode choice in regional transportation corridors%区域运输通道交通方式选择3层模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 陆化普; 王庆云

    2011-01-01

    为实现区域运输通道内交通方式的合理配置,建立基于用户最优的通道内交通方式选择3层Nested Logit模型.模型采用分层的建模思想,运用不确定规划理论和随机效用理论,从概率的角度研究了通道内交通方式的选择问题.以京沪通道客运方式选择为例,并以京沪磁浮客流预测调查数据为基础,同时辅以一定量的交通调查,进行数据校合和模型参数的标定,验证了模型的合理性.该模型可克服多项Logit模型的ⅡA缺陷,对解决区域通道内各种运输方式的结构配置问题具有较好的辅助决策支持.%A tri-level Nested Logit choice model was developed to optimize regional transportation corridors al-location.From the perspective of users and by applying hierarchical ideas,uncertain programming theory and random utility theory,the traffic mode choice in corridors was discussed.Taking Beijing-Shanghai transporta-tion corridor for instance,the model parameters were calibrated by using the Beijing-Shanghai maglev transit passenger forecast survey and other supplementary traffic survey data,and the rationality of the model was vali-dated.Results show that the model could overcome the defects of Multinomial Logit Model and be a promising approach to improve the structure configuration of transportation modes in regional transportation corridors.

  7. Alternating-Current Transport Properties of the Interface between Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 Ceramic and a Ag Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shun-Sheng; YANG Chang-Ping; LUO Xiao-Jing; B(a)rnerK; Medvedeva I. V

    2012-01-01

    Electrical transport properties of the interface between a Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 ceramic and a Ag electrode are investigated using the ac impedance over a wide temperature and frequency ranges.The ac impedance measurements give the compressed semicircle arcs at different temperatures,which are used for the analysis of different contributions to electrical transport based on an electrical equivalent circuit.A significant interface-dependent electroresistance effect of 530% is clearly developed around the metal-insulator transition temperature 130K,which is confirmed as the interface-layer dependent Curie temperature by the plot of interfacial conductance with frequency at different temperatures.%Electrical transport properties of the interface between a Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 ceramic and a Ag electrode are investigated using the ac impedance over a wide temperature and frequency ranges. The ac impedance measurements give the compressed semicircle arcs at different temperatures, which are used for the analysis of different contributions to electrical transport based on an electrical equivalent circuit. A significant interface-dependent electroresistance effect of 530% is clearly developed around the metal-insulator transition temperature 130K, which is confirmed as the interface-layer dependent Curie temperature by the plot of interfacial conductance with frequency at different temperatures.

  8. Development of a Conceptual Model for Vadose Zone Transport of Tc-99 at Hanford's BC Cribs and the Screening of Remedial Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of waste trenches and cribs at Hanford's BC Cribs and Trenches site, which received about 10 Mgal of scavenged tank waste with elevated concentrations of technetium-99 and nitrate, are being evaluated for remediation. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a conceptual model for vadose zone transport of mobile contaminants, and 2) investigate the effects of fine-scale heterogeneity (i.e. horizontal laminations, cross-bedding) on the large-scale transport behavior with the goal of developing an appropriate remedial strategy. The vertical heterogeneity structure, conditioned on grain size distributions and borehole geophysical logs (water content and natural isotopes), was developed from a single borehole at the site. Geostatistical methods were used to impose a 3-D spatial correlation structure, using information from an adjacent well-characterized experimental site, and to merge heterogeneities at various scales. Flow and transport properties were derived using property transfer models based on grain size distributions. The STOMP simulator was used to predict flow and transport through the vadose zone and into a 5-m thick confined aquifer during the period of trench operations (1956-1958) through to the present time. Results show that fine-scale heterogeneity within the large-scale lithologic units enhanced lateral flow and mixing, limited vertical penetration in the vadose zone, and played a critical role in keeping contaminants above the water table. Model results show good agreement with a contaminant profile from a borehole installed in the 216-B-26 trench. Simulated distributions of nitrate and electrical resistivity are also in good agreement with the results of a field-scale resistivity survey. These results suggest that installation of an engineered surface barrier would reduce the threat to ground water by reducing the mass flux of contaminants to the water table and increasing the residence time in the vadose zone. (authors)

  9. Technologies for climate change mitigation - transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, R.; Newman, P. (Curtin Univ. Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute, Perth, WA (Australia)); Dhar, S. (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-03-15

    The options outlined in this guidebook are designed to assist you in the process of developing transport services and facilities in your countries and localities - transport that better serves people's needs and enhances their lives while at the same time producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions. This is a new challenge, as previously improving transport generally led to increased greenhouse gases. The challenge now is to provide transport that: 1) is cheaper, more extensive and better quality 2) reduces pollution, congestion, traffic accidents and other threats to health and wellbeing 3) is accessible to all 4) supports economic development 5) reduces greenhouse emissions overall. This can be achieved if: 1) mass transit, walking and cycling are supported and encouraged, and integrated in a way that allows seamless multimodal travel, including networks of taxis, auto-rickshaws and small buses. 2) the mass transit services - including trains, buses and light-rail - are frequent, extensive, attractive, comfortable, affordable and faster than alternatives, with features like integrated ticketing and real time information accessible through mobile phones and other sources 3) private vehicle use and air travel are discouraged through pricing and other demand management measures, and through the availability of better alternative modes 4) there is support for the adoption of cleaner, lower carbon fuels and technologies and better maintenance practices for all transport modes, including private vehicles, water transport, auto-rickshaws and freight vehicles 5) the overall need for travel is reduced through the development of denser localities with more mixed land use and better access to mass transit (which reduces overall travel in ways that will be explained) 6) travel space is better managed to give higher priority to more sustainable transport modes, to promote safety, and to prevent traffic from adversely affecting residents and businesses. As you address these

  10. Environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported in this paper is part of an OECD project with several case studies in different countries. The purpose of the project was to look for possible ways to reduce the environmental impact of transport to a level which is compatible with sustainability. The participants in the case studies agreed upon quantifying criteria for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which should describe environmentally sustainable transport (EST), and each case study constructed a business-as-usual scenario and three EST scenarios, considering the period from 1990 to 2030. Each EST scenario should meet the criteria in a backcasting effort, EST1 looking for solely technical solutions, EST2 restricting and shifting transport volumes while ignoring technological progress, and EST3 combining components of both strategies. In the German case study criteria were additionally quantified for particulate matter, noise and land-take for transport purposes. The German EST1 scenario is based on hybrid electric hypercars, hydrogen for public transport, freight and aviation, and electricity from renewable sources. In the EST2 scenario total transport activity for passenger and freight transport had to be reduced by 40% and 25% respectively, compared to 1990 in order to meet the criteria. In the EST3 scenario, while highly energy efficient conventional propulsion systems and engines were used, total passenger transport decreased only slightly and freight transport even increased. Implementation measures were then defined on the basis of the EST3 scenario. Emission regulation, fuel tax, and road pricing for heavy duty vehicles were the key features in order to achieve EST in this case study. They were complemented by additional sets of measures, designed to prevent urban sprawl, diminish freight traffic growth, increase liveability of towns, improve the infrastructure and service conditions of alternative modes as well as provide energy supply by regenerative

  11. Environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verron, H.; Friedrich, A. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The study reported in this paper is part of an OECD project with several case studies in different countries. The purpose of the project was to look for possible ways to reduce the environmental impact of transport to a level which is compatible with sustainability. The participants in the case studies agreed upon quantifying criteria for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which should describe environmentally sustainable transport (EST), and each case study constructed a business-as-usual scenario and three EST scenarios, considering the period from 1990 to 2030. Each EST scenario should meet the criteria in a backcasting effort, EST1 looking for solely technical solutions, EST2 restricting and shifting transport volumes while ignoring technological progress, and EST3 combining components of both strategies. In the German case study criteria were additionally quantified for particulate matter, noise and land-take for transport purposes. The German EST1 scenario is based on hybrid electric hypercars, hydrogen for public transport, freight and aviation, and electricity from renewable sources. In the EST2 scenario total transport activity for passenger and freight transport had to be reduced by 40% and 25% respectively, compared to 1990 in order to meet the criteria. In the EST3 scenario, while highly energy efficient conventional propulsion systems and engines were used, total passenger transport decreased only slightly and freight transport even increased. Implementation measures were then defined on the basis of the EST3 scenario. Emission regulation, fuel tax, and road pricing for heavy duty vehicles were the key features in order to achieve EST in this case study. They were complemented by additional sets of measures, designed to prevent urban sprawl, diminish freight traffic growth, increase liveability of towns, improve the infrastructure and service conditions of alternative modes as well as provide energy supply by regenerative

  12. Pedestal structure and stability in H-mode and I-mode: a comparative study on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New experimental data from the Alcator C-Mod tokamak are used to benchmark predictive modelling of the edge pedestal in various high-confinement regimes, contributing to greater confidence in projection of pedestal height and width in ITER and reactors. ELMy H-modes operate near stability limits for ideal peeling–ballooning modes, as shown by calculations with the ELITE code. Experimental pedestal width in ELMy H-mode scales as the square root of βpol at the pedestal top, i.e. the dependence expected from theory if kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) were responsible for limiting the pedestal width. A search for KBMs in experiment has revealed a short-wavelength electromagnetic fluctuation in the pedestal that is a candidate driver for inter-edge localized mode (ELM) pedestal regulation. A predictive pedestal model (EPED) has been tested on an extended set of ELMy H-modes from C-Mod, reproducing pedestal height and width reasonably well across the data set, and extending the tested range of EPED to the highest absolute pressures available on any existing tokamak and to within a factor of three of the pedestal pressure targeted for ITER. In addition, C-Mod offers access to two regimes, enhanced D-alpha (EDA) H-mode and I-mode, that have high pedestals, but in which large ELM activity is naturally suppressed and, instead, particle and impurity transport are regulated continuously. Pedestals of EDA H-mode and I-mode discharges are found to be ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stable with ELITE, consistent with the general absence of ELM activity. Invocation of alternative physics mechanisms may be required to make EPED-like predictions of pedestals in these kinds of intrinsically ELM-suppressed regimes, which would be very beneficial to operation in burning plasma devices. (paper)

  13. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  14. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  15. Optimization Model of Multi-mode Logistic Transportation Network Based on Benders Decomposition%基于Benders分解的多方式物流运输网络优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡辉; 顾丽琴; 倪明

    2015-01-01

    基于Benders分解,对多种交通方式下的物流运输网络优化模型的求解算法进行了研究。首先,以一个典型的物流运输网络优化模型求解为例,分析了Benders分解算法及其实现要点以及可能存在的问题,并提出相应的解决方法。然后在此基础上,通过引入不同交通方式的排放因子和各种排放物的排放成本,建立了多种交通方式下的物流运输网络优化模型。模型的目标函数为考虑运输排放的总成本最小,约束条件包括交通方式能力的限制等等,同时描述了基于Benders分解算法进行模型求解的主问题和子问题。最后,通过一个算例,对模型及其算法的效率和效果进行比较分析,说明模型和算法的可行性和有效性。%Based on Benders decomposition method, this paper studies the solving algorithm of a logistics transpor⁃tation network optimization model considering transport mode. Firstly, taking a typical logistic transportation net⁃work for example, it analyzes main points of Benders decomposition and provides a solution to potential problems. Then, by introducing emission factors of multiple transport modes and pollutants' emission cost, it proposes a logis⁃tics transportation network optimization model which considers total costs including emission costs as objective function and transportation capacity as constraints. Also, master problem with sub problem in this model is ex⁃plored on the basis of Benders decomposition. Finally, a numerical example is adopted to illustrate the model's fea⁃sibility and the algorithm's effectiveness.

  16. Study on Mechanism in Formation of Transportation Resource Conglomeration Mode of Modern Logistics Enterprises%现代物流企业运输资源集聚模式及其形成机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏娟

    2014-01-01

    分析了现代物流企业运输资源整合模式,指出现代物流业通过商业契约将分散的运输资源进行集成,形成以物流企业为核心,以任务为导向的合作运转的生产关系和网状交易关系的治理机制,现代物流企业成为运输网络链条的设计者。通过模型分析运输需求和运输企业向物流企业集聚的原因及运输资源集聚后的规模生产,实现了资源最优配置和规模经济效益。%In this paper, we analyzed the mode of transportation resource conglomeration of the modern logistics enterprises, pointed out that the modern logistics businesses integrated the scattered transportation resources through commercial contracts and thus became the designer of transportation networks. At the end, through a model analysis, we discussed the realization of the optimal resource deployment and the benefit of economy of scale.

  17. Failure mode and effect analysis oriented to risk-reduction interventions in intraoperative electron radiation therapy: The specific impact of patient transportation, automation, and treatment planning availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Industrial companies use failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to improve quality. Our objective was to describe an FMEA and subsequent interventions for an automated intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) procedure with computed tomography simulation, pre-planning, and a fixed conventional linear accelerator. Material and methods: A process map, an FMEA, and a fault tree analysis are reported. The equipment considered was the radiance treatment planning system (TPS), the Elekta Precise linac, and TN-502RDM-H metal–oxide-semiconductor-field-effect transistor in vivo dosimeters. Computerized order-entry and treatment-automation were also analyzed. Results: Fifty-seven potential modes and effects were identified and classified into ‘treatment cancellation’ and ‘delivering an unintended dose’. They were graded from ‘inconvenience’ or ‘suboptimal treatment’ to ‘total cancellation’ or ‘potentially wrong’ or ‘very wrong administered dose’, although these latter effects were never experienced. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) ranged from 3 to 324 and totaled 4804. After interventions such as double checking, interlocking, automation, and structural changes the final total RPN was reduced to 1320. Conclusions: FMEA is crucial for prioritizing risk-reduction interventions. In a semi-surgical procedure like IOERT double checking has the potential to reduce risk and improve quality. Interlocks and automation should also be implemented to increase the safety of the procedure

  18. Peri-Golgi vesicles contain retrograde but not anterograde proteins consistent with the cisternal progression model of intra-Golgi transport

    OpenAIRE

    José A Martínez-Menárguez; Prekeris, Rytis; Oorschot, Viola M J; Scheller, Richard; Slot, Jan W.; Geuze, Hans J.; Klumperman, Judith

    2001-01-01

    A cisternal progression mode of intra-Golgi transport requires that Golgi resident proteins recycle by peri-Golgi vesicles, whereas the alternative model of vesicular transport predicts anterograde cargo proteins to be present in such vesicles. We have used quantitative immuno-EM on NRK cells to distinguish peri-Golgi vesicles from other vesicles in the Golgi region. We found significant levels of the Golgi resident enzyme mannosidase II and the transport machinery proteins giantin, KDEL-rece...

  19. Genetic Analysis of the Mode of Interplay between an ATPase Subunit and Membrane Subunits of the Lipoprotein-Releasing ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter LolCDE†

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Yasuko; Matsuzawa, Hitomi; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    The LolCDE complex, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, releases lipoproteins from the inner membrane, thereby initiating lipoprotein sorting to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. The LolCDE complex is composed of two copies of an ATPase subunit, LolD, and one copy each of integral membrane subunits LolC and LolE. LolD hydrolyzes ATP on the cytoplasmic side of the inner membrane, while LolC and/or LolE recognize and release lipoproteins anchored to the periplasmic leaflet of the i...

  20. Strategic network design of Java Island fuel supply with production-transportation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianawati, Fauzia; Farizal, -; Surjandari, Isti; Marzuli, Rully

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to find more efficient supply network, from refineries / imports to fuel terminal, which still uses the Tanker, Tank Trucks or Rail Tank Wagon with an alternative pipeline that are considered more efficient than other transport modes, as well as gaining pipeline transportation network optimization analysis tailored to the capabilities/ capacity of refinery production and capacity of the pipe mode. With the complexity of the number of 3 point sources of supply, 19 destination of terminal, 4 kinds of products and 4 types of transport modes, transport-production model modified by adding multi-modal transport and investment costs of new pipeline. Then coded in Lingo program which adopts Branch & Bound technique and input the processed data in order to obtain an optimal distribution pattern produced the lowest distribution costs. This B&B solution was also compared with SCO solution which is a metaheuristic method. The results of this study lead to the development of new modes of pipeline connections in amount of 4 alternatives, generated from the optimal solution, but still potentially earned savings of about IDR 1 Trillion per year from cost-efficiency of product procurement and transportation costs.

  1. Effective mode volumes for leaky optical cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Van Vlack, Cole; Hughes, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    definition of an effective mode volume is ambiguous and not applicable. Instead, we propose an alternative effective mode volume which can be easily evaluated based on the mode calculation methods typically applied in the literature and which is directly applicable to a much wider range of physical systems....

  2. The Transport of Radioactive Materials under special arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material rule the international transport of these materials and provide the basis of national and regional regulations. The Regulations establish the technical, operational and administrative requirements which shall be accomplished to carry out the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). They also allow the transport in different conditions of those currently applicable and, in such cases, establish that the transport shall be made under special arrangement. To approve a transport under special arrangement the involved Competent Authority shall be satisfied that the alternative provisions are adequate to ensure that the overall level of safety in transport and in-transit storage is at least equivalent to that which would be provided if all the applicable requirements had been met (para. 2ll of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series No. 6). This paper explains some difficulties the Argentine Competent. Authority has experienced trying by comparing the equivalence between the level of safety resulting from the compliance with current requirements and the overall level of safety which is provided by the application of alternative provisions. As most of the experience gained come from the transport of RAM by road, only this mode of transport is considered. (J.P.N.)

  3. A Hydrostratigraphic Model and Alternatives for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat-Climax Mine, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geotechnical Sciences Group Bechtel Nevada

    2006-01-01

    area and the non-uniqueness of some of the interpretations incorporated into the base model made it necessary to formulate alternative interpretations for some of the major features in the model. Five of these alternatives were developed so they could be modeled in the same fashion as the base model. This work was done for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Underground Test Area subproject of the Environmental Restoration Project.

  4. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  5. The role of parallel heat transport in the relation between upstream scrape-off layer widths and target heat flux width in H-mode plasmas of NSTX.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J W; Boedo, J A; Maingi, R; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2009-01-05

    The physics of parallel heat transport was tested in the Scrape-off Layer (SOL) plasma of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000) and S. M. Kaye, et al., Nucl. Fusion 45, S168 (2005)] tokamak by comparing the upstream electron temperature (T{sub e}) and density (n{sub e}) profiles measured by the mid-plane reciprocating probe to the heat flux (q{sub {perpendicular}}) profile at the divertor plate measured by an infrared (IR) camera. It is found that electron conduction explains the near SOL width data reasonably well while the far SOL, which is in the sheath limited regime, requires an ion heat flux profile broader than the electron one to be consistent with the experimental data. The measured plasma parameters indicate that the SOL energy transport should be in the conduction-limited regime for R-R{sub sep} (radial distance from the separatrix location) < 2-3 cm. The SOL energy transport should transition to the sheath-limited regime for R-R{sub sep} > 2-3cm. The T{sub e}, n{sub e}, and q{sub {perpendicular}} profiles are better described by an offset exponential function instead of a simple exponential. The conventional relation between mid plane electron temperature decay length ({lambda}{sub Te}) and target heat flux decay length ({lambda}{sub q}) is {lambda}{sub Te} = 7/2{lambda}{sub q}, whereas the newly-derived relation, assuming offset exponential functional forms, implies {lambda}{sub Te} = (2-2.5){lambda}{sub q}. The measured values of {lambda}{sub Te}/{lambda}{sub q} differ from the new prediction by 25-30%. The measured {lambda}{sub q} values in the far SOL (R-R{sub sep} > 2-3cm) are 9-10cm, while the expected values are 2.7 < {lambda}{sub q} < 4.9 cm (for sheath-limited regime). We propose that the ion heat flux profile is substantially broader than the electron heat flux profile as an explanation for this discrepancy in the far SOL.

  6. 江海联运与长江散货物流系统转型模式%River-sea Combined Transportation and Bulk Cargo Logistics System in Transition Mode of the Yangtze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮宁

    2011-01-01

    通过对长江散货物流发展现状研究,分析了系统面临的问题以及发展江海联运散货物流系统的优势。从构建全新的长江散货物流系统方面,提出了转型战略的依据、目标和模式选择。%Through the hulk of logistics development status of the Yangtze River. Analysis of the problems facing the system and the development of intermordal bluk logistics in Sea combined Transportation. constraetion of the Yangtze River from the new bluk cargo logistics systems,proposed integrated resources,assets integrated,professional support mode selectiom strategy based transformation.

  7. A Hydrostrat Model and Alternatives for Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainer Mesa-Shoshone Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Geotechnical Sciences Group

    2007-03-01

    confining units. The underlying pre-Tertiary rocks are divided into six hydrostratigraphic units, including three aquifers and three confining units. Other units include an alluvial aquifer and a Mesozoic-age granitic confining unit. The model depicts the thickness, extent, and geometric relationships of these hydrostratigraphic units ('layers' in the model). The model also incorporates 56 Tertiary normal faults and 4 Mesozoic thrust faults. The complexity of the model area and the non-uniqueness of some of the interpretations incorporated into the base model made it necessary to formulate alternative interpretations for some of the major features in the model. Four of these alternatives were developed so they can be modeled in the same fashion as the base model. This work was done for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Underground Test Area Subproject of the Environmental Restoration Project.

  8. Air transportation energy consumption - Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascy, A. C.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy consumption by aviation is reviewed and projections of its growth are discussed. Forecasts of domestic passenger demand are presented, and the effect of restricted fuel supply and increased fuel prices is considered. The most promising sources for aircraft fuels, their availability and cost, and possible alternative fuels are reviewed. The energy consumption by various air and surface transportation modes is identified and compared on typical portal-to-portal trips. A measure of the indirect energy consumed by ground and air modes is defined. Historical trends in aircraft energy intensities are presented and the potential fuel savings with new technologies are discussed.

  9. Designing nanobowl arrays of mesoporous TiO2 as an alternative electron transporting layer for carbon cathode-based perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoli; Wei, Zhanhua; Chen, Haining; Zhang, Qianpeng; He, Hexiang; Xiao, Shuang; Fan, Zhiyong; Wong, Kam Sing; Yang, Shihe

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we have designed a mesoporous TiO2 nanobowl (NB) array with pore size, bowl size and film thickness being easily controllable by the sol-gel process and the polystyrene (PS) template diameter. Based on the TiO2 NB array, we fabricated carbon cathode based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) to investigate the impact of TiO2 NB nanostructures on the performance of the as-obtained C-PSCs devices. As expected, the TiO2 NB based devices show a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of the planar counterpart, mainly due to the enhanced light absorption arising from the NB-assisted light management, the improved pore-filling of high quality perovskite crystals and the increased interface contact for rapid electron extraction and fast charge transport. Leveraging these advantages of the novel TiO2 NB film, the 220 nm-PS templated TiO2 NB based devices performed the best on both light absorption capability and charge extraction, and achieved a PCE up to 12.02% with good stability, which is 37% higher than that of the planar counterpart. These results point to a viable and convenient route toward the fabrication of TiO2 ETL nanostructures for high performance PSCs.In this work, we have designed a mesoporous TiO2 nanobowl (NB) array with pore size, bowl size and film thickness being easily controllable by the sol-gel process and the polystyrene (PS) template diameter. Based on the TiO2 NB array, we fabricated carbon cathode based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) to investigate the impact of TiO2 NB nanostructures on the performance of the as-obtained C-PSCs devices. As expected, the TiO2 NB based devices show a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of the planar counterpart, mainly due to the enhanced light absorption arising from the NB-assisted light management, the improved pore-filling of high quality perovskite crystals and the increased interface contact for rapid electron extraction and fast charge transport. Leveraging these

  10. Fiber propagation of vector modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; McLaren, Melanie; Duparre, Michael; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Here we employ both dynamic and geometric phase control of light to produce radially modulated vector-vortex modes, the natural modes of optical fibers. We then measure these modes using a vector modal decomposition set-up as well as a tomography measurement, the latter providing a degree of the non-separability of the vector states, akin to an entanglement measure for quantum states. We demonstrate the versatility of the approach by creating the natural modes of a step-index fiber, which are known to exhibit strong mode coupling, and measure the modal cross-talk and non-separability decay during propagation. Our approach will be useful in mode division multiplexing schemes for transport of classical and quantum states.

  11. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  12. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  13. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  14. Automobiles and global warming: Alternative fuels and other options for carbon dioxide emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automobiles are a source of considerable pollution at the global level, including a significant fraction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Alternative fuels have received some attention as potential options to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles. This article discusses the feasibility and desirability (from a technical as well as a broader environmental perspective) of the large-scale production and use of alternative fuels as a strategy to mitigate automotive carbon dioxide emissions. Other options such as improving vehicle efficiency and switching to more efficient modes of passenger transportation are also discussed. These latter options offer an effective and immediate way to tackle the greenhouse and other pollutant emission from automobiles, especially as the limitations of currently available alternative fuels and the technological and other constraints for potential future alternatives are revealed

  15. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  16. Analysis Of Provided Service Quality In Flowers And Living Plants Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliaková, Adela

    2015-06-01

    This paper analyses quality of the living flowers and plants transportation. A part of this paper compares the demands for a particular transport mode and a practical demonstration of these transport modes within a specific transport mode. The paper presents a survey of quality of services provided by individual transport modes.

  17. Risk assessment for the off-site transportation of high-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of high-level waste (HLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers risks to collective populations and individuals under both routine and accident transportation conditions for truck and rail shipment modes. The report discusses the scope of the HLW transportation assessment, describes the analytical methods used for the assessment, defines the alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, and details important assessment assumptions. Results are reported for four alternatives. In addition, to aid in the understanding and interpretation of the results, specific areas of uncertainty are described, with an emphasis on how the uncertainties may affect comparisons of the alternatives. The number and scope of the WM PEIS HLW alternatives were revised after the preparation of this report. An addendum has been added to make this HLW transportation risk assessment consistent with that presented in the WM PEIS

  18. Functional diversification of sea urchin ABCC1 (MRP1) by alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökirmak, Tufan; Campanale, Joseph P; Reitzel, Adam M; Shipp, Lauren E; Moy, Gary W; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-06-01

    The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) family encodes a diverse repertoire of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters with multiple roles in development, disease, and homeostasis. Understanding MRP evolution is central to unraveling their roles in these diverse processes. Sea urchins occupy an important phylogenetic position for understanding the evolution of vertebrate proteins and have been an important invertebrate model system for study of ABC transporters. We used phylogenetic analyses to examine the evolution of MRP transporters and functional approaches to identify functional forms of sea urchin MRP1 (also known as SpABCC1). SpABCC1, the only MRP homolog in sea urchins, is co-orthologous to human MRP1, MRP3, and MRP6 (ABCC1, ABCC3, and ABCC6) transporters. However, efflux assays revealed that alternative splicing of exon 22, a region critical for substrate interactions, could diversify functions of sea urchin MRP1. Phylogenetic comparisons also indicate that while MRP1, MRP3, and MRP6 transporters potentially arose from a single transporter in basal deuterostomes, alternative splicing appears to have been the major mode of functional diversification in invertebrates, while duplication may have served a more important role in vertebrates. These results provide a deeper understanding of the evolutionary origins of MRP transporters and the potential mechanisms used to diversify their functions in different groups of animals. PMID:27053522

  19. Water-transporting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein. In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity of the transportate to approach isotonicity. PMID:20091162

  20. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo;

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained...

  1. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    An enduring characteristic of extant literature on foreign operation modes is its discrete choice approach, where companies are assumed to choose one among a small number of distinctive alternatives. In this paper we use detailed information about the operations of six Norwegian companies in three...... key markets (China, UK and USA) as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...... reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...

  2. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    An enduring characteristic of extant literature on foreign operation modes is its discrete choice approach, where companies are assumed to choose one among a small number of distinctive alternatives. In this paper, detailed information about the operations of six Norwegian companies in three key...... markets (China, UK and USA) is used as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...... reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...

  3. MANAGEMENT OF TOURISM TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Stănciulescu, Gabriela Cecilia; Casiana RADUT; Dan Matei DIACONESCU

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly, the relevance of transport activities in relation to tourism activities is essential, because it is extremely important and necessary to offer feasible information about tourism services to help consumer to choose the mode of travel to destinations ideal holiday. The methods used in the development of this hypothesis were explanation, exemplification (brief presentation of each mode of transport) comparison etc. Analyzing the current situation of national, European and Worl...

  4. A current view of serotonin transporters [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. De Felice

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin transporters (SERTs are largely recognized for one aspect of their function—to transport serotonin back into the presynaptic terminal after its release. Another aspect of their function, however, may be to generate currents large enough to have physiological consequences. The standard model for electrogenic transport is the alternating access model, in which serotonin is transported with a fixed ratio of co-transported ions resulting in net charge per cycle. The alternating access model, however, cannot account for all the observed currents through SERT or other monoamine transporters.  Furthermore, SERT agonists like ecstasy or antagonists like fluoxetine generate or suppress currents that the standard model cannot support.  Here we survey evidence for a channel mode of transport in which transmitters and ions move through a pore. Available structures for dopamine and serotonin transporters, however, provide no evidence for a pore conformation, raising questions of whether the proposed channel mode actually exists or whether the structural data are perhaps missing a transient open state.

  5. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  6. Optimization of existing transport services – case study of the Niko Transport d.o.o. Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor TRUPAC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational efficiency of the transport-logistics chains is affected by all actors involved: linear companies, port authorities, stevedores, forwarders, agents as well as of the level of integration of terminals and hinterland transportation modes. At the moment, only the company Niko Transport d.o.o. offers the intermodal way of transport in Slovenia. As for any other transportation problem, time window constraints and the availability of alternative routings of intermodal transport poses additional challenges.The new strategy of the company was named »We select green«. Its main goal is the same effect with lower pollution. They understand they are part of whole logistic chains for which it is typical to become more and more sensible to the demands that concerns the protection of the environment. That is also one of the priority strategies of the EU. Launched in the Freight Transport Logistics Action Plan, Green Corridors support today the EU's agenda towards decarbonising transport while emphasising the need for efficient logistics. The goal of the article is to present the business of the Niko Transport d.o.o. company on the UK market, the introduction of the multimodal transport, the approval of the Marco Polo project, the selection of courses and partners. A research of the students of the Caledonian University of Glasgow as a part of the project is also presented in the article.

  7. 神华集团煤炭产运销一体化运营模式分析%Analysis on Integrated Operation Mode of Coal Production,Transportation and Sales in Shenhua Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊

    2012-01-01

    文章结合分工理论、运输经济学理论以及交易费用理论分别从分工演进、生产性质、交易性质等3个视角对神华集团的煤炭产运销一体化运营模式进行了分析。认为,神华集团煤炭产运销一体化运营属于一种链网组织,在我国经济发展的现阶段,神华集团的链网组织是分工演进的必然结果,并且该组织形式有效降低了生产成本和交易费用。但是,神华集团链网组织与市场之间的边界需要通过权衡内部生产成本与交易费用之和与市场交易费用之间的差异来进行界定。%In combination with the labour division theory,the transportation economics theory and transaction cost theory and from the views of the labour division evolution,production properties and transaction properties individually,the paper had an analysis on the coal production,transportation and sales integrated operation mode of Shenhua Group.The paper think that integrated operation in Shenhua is a chain and internet organization.At the present stage of China economic development,the chain and internet organization of Shenhua Group is the positive results of the labour division evolution and the organization mode could effectively reduce the production cost and the transaction cost.But the boundary between the chain and internet organization of Shenhua Group and the market should be determined with the difference between the sum between the weight of the inner production cost and transaction cost and the market transaction cost.

  8. Transportation Energy Data Book (Edition 20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-10-09

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 20'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  9. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2001-09-13

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  10. Economic Evaluation Guide for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Percin, D.; Werner, J.F. Jr.

    1992-12-31

    The production of this Economic Evaluation Guide is one activity of AVFCAP. The guide is intended for use by project managers and fleet operators in the public sector. Public fleets have been identified as one of the most likely areas where ATFs will first gain widespread use, because of existing and impending state and federal legislative mandates, as well as for practical reasons such as centralized servicing and refueling. The purpose of this guide is to provide balanced decision-support information to project managers who are considering conducting, or currently managing, ATF demonstration programs. Information for this guide was gathered as part of a related AVFCAP activity, the development of an Information Resource Database. Economic issues related to the development and implementation of ATF programs at the local government level are extremely complex, and require an analysis of federal policies and national and international economics that is generally beyond the scope of local government project managers. The intent of this guide is to examine the information available on the economic evaluation of ATFs, and identify key elements that will help local governments realistically assess the potential costs and savings of an ATF program. The guide also discusses how these various economic factors are related, and how local government priorities affect how different factors are weighed.

  11. Economic Evaluation Guide for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Percin, D.; Werner, J.F. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The production of this Economic Evaluation Guide is one activity of AVFCAP. The guide is intended for use by project managers and fleet operators in the public sector. Public fleets have been identified as one of the most likely areas where ATFs will first gain widespread use, because of existing and impending state and federal legislative mandates, as well as for practical reasons such as centralized servicing and refueling. The purpose of this guide is to provide balanced decision-support information to project managers who are considering conducting, or currently managing, ATF demonstration programs. Information for this guide was gathered as part of a related AVFCAP activity, the development of an Information Resource Database. Economic issues related to the development and implementation of ATF programs at the local government level are extremely complex, and require an analysis of federal policies and national and international economics that is generally beyond the scope of local government project managers. The intent of this guide is to examine the information available on the economic evaluation of ATFs, and identify key elements that will help local governments realistically assess the potential costs and savings of an ATF program. The guide also discusses how these various economic factors are related, and how local government priorities affect how different factors are weighed.

  12. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  13. 自适应反演滑模控制在火箭炮交流伺服系统中的应用%Application of Adaptive Backstepping Sliding Mode Controlin in Alternative Current Servo System of Rocket Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚军; 王晓锋; 马大为; 乐贵高

    2011-01-01

    A adaptive backstepping sliding mode control approach was introduced to control the pitch motion of a rocket gun. Its control law was proposed to guarantee that the control system was ultimately bounded in a Lyapunov sense and make the servo system could track the instruction of reference position globally and asymptotically. In addition, the sliding mode control can restrain effects of parameter uncertainties and external disturbance. The functions of adaptive mechanism and sliding mode control were analyzed by using simulation under different conditions. The simulation results illustrate that the method is applicable and robust.%针对某火箭炮俯仰运动的位置控制问题,采用了一种自适应反演滑模控制方法.自适应反演控制律保证了闭环系统最终有界,使伺服系统能够全局渐进跟踪参考位置指令,从而达到交流伺服系统稳定跟踪控制的目的,滑模控制抑制了模型参数摄动和外界干扰的影响.通过不同条件下的仿真研究,分析了自适应机制和滑模控制在运动控制中的作用,结果表明该方法具有较强的适应性及鲁棒性.

  14. 我国农产品冷链物流运输模式问题与对策%Main Issues and Countermeasures on Mode of Transport Organization of the Agricultural Cold Logistics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嵬

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the agricultural cold logistics in China and developed countries. Analyzed the main issues of the impact of cold chain logistics development. Proposed changes in the cold chain logistics from the mode of transport organization, strengthening the cold chain logistics enterprises, improving the cold chain logistics technology, strengthening the cold chain logistics industry guide and policy support. In this way, improve the efficiency of cold chain logistics.%文章通过比较我国与发达国家农产品冷链物流的差距,分析了影响我国冷链物流发展的主要问题.提出从改变冷链物流企业运输组织模式、加强冷链物流企业合作、提高冷链物流技术以及加强冷链物流行业引导和政策扶持等方面来提高我国冷链物流运输的效率.

  15. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  16. Application of healthcare failure mode and effect analysis in hospital transport of critically ill patients in emergency department%医疗失效模式与效应分析在急诊危重患者院内转运中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the application of healthcare failure mode and effect analysis in hospital transport of critically ill patients in emergency department. Methods Healthcare failure mode and effect analysis were used to analyze the influencing factors of hospital transport of critically ill patients in e-mergency department. Failure mode was found from 3 processes of pre - transport,in transit and after - transport,and the control schemes were developed pertinently. Results The incidence of adverse events in transport was reduced, and the handover problems were reduced ( P < 0. 01 or P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Application of healthcare failure mode and effect analysis can improve the safety of hospital transport of critically ill patients in emergency department.%目的 探讨医疗失效模式与效应分析在急诊危重患者转运中的应用.方法 运用医疗失效模式与效应分析院内安全转运的影响因素,从转运前、转运中及转运后3个流程查找失效模式,并有针对性地制订控制方案.结果 降低了院内患者转运中意外的发生率,减少了与接收科室发生的交接问题(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 应用医疗失效模式与效应分析可提高急诊危重患者院内转运的安全性.

  17. Cycling in multimodal transport behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2016-01-01

    explores how cycling forms part of multimodal transport behaviour based on survey data on transport modes and travel purposes and the weekly frequency of out-of-home activities and travel mode use in a representative sample of adult Danes (n = 1957). The following five distinct multimodal travel segments......Multimodality is important for achieving less car dependent lifestyles and more sustainable transport behaviours. It is widely recognised that cycling plays a prominent role in sustainable transport. However, research has largely focused on cycling substituting motorised transport. This study...... or 'modality styles' are identified: 'education transport'; 'public-based transport'; 'limited transport'; 'bicycle-based transport'; and 'car-based transport'. Travel behaviour is predominantly multimodal with few unimodal car-drivers being identified. Substantial cycling takes place in all modality styles...

  18. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  19. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  20. Modethema Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bertschik

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Das Themenheft „Mode/Kunst – Fashion/Art“ der Zeitschrift figurationen versammelt heterogene Beiträge, die die Beziehung zwischen Kleidermode und Kunst von der Renaissance bis in die Gegenwart unter literaturwissenschaftlichem Schwerpunkt untersuchen. Reflexionen internationaler Künstler/-innen, Autorinnen und Autoren über die modischen Inszenierungsweisen des Körpers werden dabei auf ihre Darstellung der Geschlechter ebenso überprüft wie auf ihre ästhetische Stellung innerhalb des künstlerischen Gesamtwerks oder des zeitspezifischen Kanons.

  1. Microtearing modes in tokamak discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, T.; Weiland, J.; Kritz, A. H.; Luo, L.; Pankin, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Microtearing modes (MTMs) have been identified as a source of significant electron thermal transport in tokamak discharges. In order to describe the evolution of these discharges, it is necessary to improve the prediction of electron thermal transport. This can be accomplished by utilizing a model for transport driven by MTMs in whole device predictive modeling codes. The objective of this paper is to develop the dispersion relation that governs the MTM driven transport. A unified fluid/kinetic approach is used in the development of a nonlinear dispersion relation for MTMs. The derivation includes the effects of electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations, arbitrary electron-ion collisionality, electron temperature and density gradients, magnetic curvature, and the effects associated with the parallel propagation vector. An iterative nonlinear approach is used to calculate the distribution function employed in obtaining the nonlinear parallel current and the nonlinear dispersion relation. The third order nonlinear effects in magnetic fluctuations are included, and the influence of third order effects on a multi-wave system is considered. An envelope equation for the nonlinear microtearing modes in the collision dominant limit is introduced in order to obtain the saturation level. In the limit that the mode amplitude does not vary along the field line, slab geometry, and strong collisionality, the fluid dispersion relation for nonlinear microtearing modes is found to agree with the kinetic dispersion relation.

  2. 49 CFR 7.46 - Alternative sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative sources of information. 7.46 Section 7.46 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Fees § 7.46 Alternative sources of information. In the interest of making documents of general...

  3. Subordinate regulatory mode and leader power: Interpersonal regulatory complementarity predicts task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.W. Hamstra; E. Orehek; M. Holleman

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the implications of locomotion regulatory mode (orientation toward making progress on goals) and assessment regulatory mode (orientation toward critically evaluating alternatives) for employees' performance. Regulatory mode theory suggests that, although these are both integra

  4. Design of a lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are

  5. Thermal Operating Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higher and lower temperature operating modes (e.g., above and below the boiling point of water) are alternative approaches to managing the heat produced by the radioactive decay of spent nuclear fuel. Current analyses indicate that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site is likely to comply with applicable safety standards regardless of the particular thermal operating mode. Both modes have potential advantages and disadvantages. With a higher temperature operating mode (HTOM), waste packages (WPs) can be placed closer together. This reduces the number of drifts, the required emplacement area, construction costs, and occupational risks to construction workers. In addition, the HTOM would minimize the amount of water that might contact the waste for hundreds of years after closure. On the other hand, higher temperatures introduce uncertainties in the understanding of the long-term performance of the repository because of uncertainties in the thermal effects on WP lifetime and the near-field environment around the drifts. A lower temperature operating mode (LTOM) has the potential to reduce uncertainties in long-term performance of the repository by limiting the effects of temperature on WP lifetime and on the near-field environment around the drifts. Depending on the combination of operating parameters, a LTOM could require construction of additional drifts, a larger emplacement area, increased construction costs, increased occupational risks to construction works, and a longer period of ventilation than a HTOM. The repository design for the potential Yucca Mountain site is flexible and can be constructed and operated in various operating modes to achieve specific technical objectives, accommodate future policy decisions, and use of new information. For example, the flexible design can be operated across a range of temperatures and can be tailored to achieve specific thermal requirements in the future. To accommodate future policy decisions, the repository can be

  6. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  7. Study about Operation and management mode of Shanghai public transport infrastructure after the period of Expo%关于后世博时期上海公交基础设施运营管理模式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶磊

    2012-01-01

    本文简述了城市公交基础设施的范围和特点,上海城市公交基础设施的管理体制机制、资产现状,详细分析了上海公交基础设施现行的两种管理模式、各自特点及存在的问题,并对后世博时期公交基础设施管理模式创新-"站运分离"前提下的专业化管理模式进行了探讨。%This article outlines the scope and characteristics of the urban public transport infrastructure,Shanghai urban public transport infrastructure management system,and asset status.The characteristics and problems of two existing individual management mode of Shanghai public transport infrastructure were analyzed.And professional management mode based on public transport infrastructure management mode innovation named as "Separation of the railway infrastructures" after Expo was discussed.

  8. Collective modes of a helical liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Raghu, S.; Chung, Suk Bum; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    We study low energy collective modes and transport properties of the "helical metal" on the surface of a topological insulator. At low energies, electrical transport and spin dynamics at the surface are exactly related by an operator identity equating the electric current to the in-plane components of the spin degrees of freedom. From this relation it follows that an undamped spin wave always accompanies the sound mode in the helical metal -- thus it is possible to `hear' the sound of spins. ...

  9. 中新天津生态城居民绿色出行研究%Research On The Green Transportation Of Residents' Travel Mode In The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐漫辰; 于伟巍; 运迎霞

    2016-01-01

    With the development and perfection of China's economy, the planning and construction objective of cities has changed from the pursuit of construction speed to the construction quality, and urban planning directed to healthy cities rises at the right moment. The healthy cities contain many aspects in development and construction. As the skeleton of a city, the road transportation network is an important part of the healthy city. The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city, of which the construction of ecologic and environment health is taken as the target, was chosen as a case study for us to investigate residents' travel mode, to analyze the eco-city green transportation planning and to discover the advantages and shortcomings of the planning. At last, we propose improving strategies for the existing issues from the micro and macro aspects.%随着我国经济社会的不断发展,城市的规划建设目标已经由追求建设速度转向建设品质,健康城市为目标导向的城市规划应运而生。健康城市包含城市发展和建设的多个层面,而道路交通网络作为城市的骨架,是实现健康城市的重要组成部分。天津中新生态城是以建设生态环境健康为发展目标的城市新区,选取其作为研究对象,通过对居民出行方式的调研,对生态城的绿色交通规划进行分析,寻求规划的优点和不足,从微观和宏观层面对现存的问题提出改善策略,以期为实现健康城市发展目标的城市提供更加完善的绿色交通规划策略。

  10. 协同物流模式下多批次整车运输调度问题%Research on the Full-loaded Vehicle Routing Problem with Multiple Batches in Collaborative Transportation Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏江宁; 陆志强; 奚立峰

    2009-01-01

    The vehicle routing problem with time windows as well as multiple pickups and deliveries was studied in collaborative transportation mode. A mathematical model was developed considering the factors such as the number of trucks rented, the distances covered, and the penalty due to service delay. A hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed accordingly, integrating the restarting scheme which is able to improve the initial population and avoid premature convergence respectively. In addition, the local research strategy was fully used to get the optimal value quickly. The results of the computational experiment indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective.%研究了协同物流模式下,单车库、多集散点的带时间窗以及单点多批次配送与集货请求的联合运输问题.考虑车辆的租用费用、行驶费用、未按时完成服务产生的惩罚费用等因素,建立了数学模型并提出了混合遗传算法.算法中加入了重启动机制,以提高种群质量和避免早熟收敛,并采用局部搜索策略以快速寻找最优值.数值实验证明,混合遗传算法求解该类运输调度问题具有良好的效果,且算法效率较高.

  11. Transportation Energy Data Book. Edition 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  12. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  13. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  14. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  15. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  16. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  17. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2005-03-08

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  18. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2003-10-24

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  19. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  20. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  1. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2008-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  2. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2009-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with U.S Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program and the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  3. Designing an optimal transportation method of short sea shipping in Yemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海山; Zhigeng; Fang

    2015-01-01

    Today,it’s hard to imagine a transport world without short sea shipping.Not only does this modern version of coastal shipping experience no delays due to road congestion,low road assessment,also has the lowest transportation cost and co2 emission of all commercial transport modes.For these reasons,short sea shipping is in many cases a perfect alternative to road transport.In this research paper we designed an optimal transportation method of short sea shipping in Yemen to lower the country transportation cost of commercial goods,since Yemen is unfavorable in terms of transportation infrastructure,hard level of mountainous areas and roads are generally poor,short sea shipping is a great alternative to road transport.We collected data and computed the cost of short sea shipping in a multi stage method(warehouse and distribution centers) saving an average of 40% to 50% of transportation cost than if delivered by direct road to road.This research paper and its methodologies have favorable results in all studied aspects.

  4. Designing an optimal transportation method of short sea shipping in Yemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Today,it’s hard to imagine a transport world without short sea shipping.Not only does this modern version of coastal shipping experience no delays due to road congestion,low road assessment,also has the lowest transportation cost and co2 emission of all commercial transport modes.For these reasons,short sea shipping is in many cases a perfect alternative to road transport.In this research paper we designed an optimal transportation method of short sea shipping in Yemen to lower the country transportation cost of commercial goods,since Yemen is unfavorable in terms of transportation infrastructure,hard level of mountainous areas and roads are generally poor,short sea shipping is a great alternative to road transport.We collected data and computed the cost of short sea shipping in a multi stage method (warehouse and distribution centers) saving an average of 40%to 50%of transportation cost than if delivered by direct road to road. This research paper and its methodologies have favorable results in all studied aspects.

  5. 10 CFR 490.802 - Eligibility for alternative compliance waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for alternative compliance waiver. 490.802 Section 490.802 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.802 Eligibility for alternative compliance waiver. Any State subject to subpart...

  6. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any fleet... fueled vehicle credit to— (1) A fleet that is required to acquire alternative fueled vehicles; or (2)...

  7. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  8. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  10. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  11. Alternate Gauge Electroweak Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dalton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    We describe an alternate gauge electroweak model that permits neutrinos with mass, and at the same time explains why right-handed neutrinos do not appear in weak interactions. This is a local gauge theory involving a space [V ] of three scalar functions. The standard Lagrangian density for the Yang-Mills field part and Higgs doublet remain invariant. A ma jor change is made in the transformation and corresponding Lagrangian density parts involving the right-handed leptons. A picture involving two types of right-handed leptons emerges. A dichotomy of matter on the [V ] space corresponds to coupled and uncoupled right-handed Leptons. Here, we describe a covariant dipole-mode solution in which the neutral bosons A{\\mu} and Z{\\mu} produce precessions on [V ]. The W {\\pm} {\\mu} bosons provide nutations on [V ], and consequently, provide transitions between the coupled and uncoupled regions. To elucidate the [V ] space matter dichotomy, and to generate the boson masses, we also provide an alternate potential Lagran...

  12. A Strategic Planning Methodology for the Multimodal Transportation Systems: A Case Study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut R. Tuzkaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation costs have an important effect on companies’ competition capability in various sectors. To realize a positive effect, transportation industry should provide some specific performance criteria related with the economical efficiency and service quality. Also an increase in this performance degree depends on the obtaining optimum results of using the logistical resources in a convenient manner by the specialized logistics service providers. In this study, considering the effects of transportation modes on constituting a methodology that is interested in a strategic subject like constructing a transportation network is emphasized. In the process of selecting the most convenient transportation modes, all the required criteria are determined considering the related literature and the opinions of the experts. Then the analytical network process methodology is used to solve this selection problem. The close relationship between the transportation modes that will be used among the points in the network and the points that will be used for short storages and transshipment activities is considered. And the analytical network process is again used to select the most convenient ones among the alternative port locations. After decision making on these two important points, optimizing the freight flow among the supply chain by choosing the right transportation modes at each stage is aimed. To realize that optimization, the aims of decision makers from different levels or from different functional areas are satisfied by using the multilevel programming technique. Finally, the proposed methodology is applied on a transportation project of a logistic service provider, which gives service in a multimodal, multicommodity, multilevel and multiechelon transportation network.

  13. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  14. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  15. Problems and Countermeasures of Professional Ethics Education in Higher Vocational Colleges under the Work-study Alternation Mode%工学交替模式下高职职业道德教育存在问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounded some problems on professional ethics education in higher vocational colleges under the work-study alternation mode, such as the outdated concept, the unapparent effect, and the simple evaluation. And it proposed some measures like building the cultivation mechanism for professional ethics education, creating interactive education mode for school-enterprise cooperation and perfecting evaluation mechanism, which made the students accept the professional ethics education happily and become moral persons with good professional ethics.%在工学交替模式下,高职院校职业道德教育存在观念滞后、成效不明显、评价简单化等问题。本文探讨并提出了构建职业道德教育的培养机制、形成校企合作互动教育模式、完善评价机制等对策,让学生愉快地接受职业道德教育,做一个有良好职业道德的人。

  16. Majorana Zero Modes in Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    San-Jose, P.; Lado, Jose L.; Aguado Sola, Ramón; Guinea, F.; Fernández Rossier, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    A clear demonstration of topological superconductivity (TS) and Majorana zero modes remains one of the major pending goals in the field of topological materials. One common strategy to generate TS is through the coupling of an s-wave superconductor to a helical half-metallic system. Numerous proposals for the latter have been put forward in the literature, most of them based on semiconductors or topological insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approa...

  17. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  18. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  19. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  20. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats. PMID:9587137

  1. Ion surfing: a new mode for cryogenic gas catchers, experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Maxime; Bollen, Georg; Gehring, Amanda; Morrissey, David; Pang, Gregory

    2011-10-01

    A new mode of ion-transport and collection for low-energy precision experiments at projectile fragmentation facilities was recently proposed by Bollen. Present beam thermalization methods use gas-filled linear chambers equipped with sets of electrodes that provide an electrostatic gradient and/or alternating electric fields to transport the ions towards an extraction orifice. A new cryogenic linear gas cell of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University will transport ions using only electrodynamic RF fields imposed on a series of linear conductive stripes. Traditionally, the ions migrate along a descending electrostatic potential gradient applied on the individual stripes, called the drag field, which requires a large potential difference to be applied in the gas for transport over long distances. The new method to transport the ions, called ``ion surfing,'' replaces the drag field with a traveling wave. The new method can transport ions at greater speed while simplifying the overall system. We will present the results of recent measurements for the transport of 85-Rb ions over distances up to 40 cm with various gas pressures at room temperature. US Department of Energy and the US National Science Foundation.

  2. Physics of the H-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical picture of the H-mode is proposed which explains some of the most important features of this good confinement mode in neutral beam heated plasmas with divertors. From consideration of the transport through the separatrix and along the open field lines outside the separatrix, as well as the stability of the plasma inside the separatrix, we show that a bifurcation in the operating parameters is possible. At high edge temperatures, very large particle confinement times are possible because of the Ware pinch. The transport of particles and heat along the open field lines to the divertor region depends on temperature in a non-monotonic way, and the bifurcation of the thermal equilibrium which is implied may correspond to the L- to H-mode transition. The improvement of the interior confinement in the H-mode, when the edge temperature is higher, is shown to follow from the tearing mode stability properties of current profiles with pedestals. (author)

  3. Study of second stability for ITG modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second stability regime for ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) modes is studied in details with a global linear gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code which takes the full toroidal MHD equilibrium data. The trapped-ion and the toroidal ITG regimes are explored. We perform simultaneous ideal MHD stability computations for both kink (n = 1) and ballooning (n = ∝) modes. We use the results to find partially optimized configurations that are stable to ideal MHD modes and where the ITG modes are stable or have very low growth rates. Such configurations are expected to have very low level of ITG-induced transport. (orig.)

  4. Resistive interchange modes and plasma flow structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Roberto

    2011-10-01

    Interchange modes are ubiquitous in magnetic confinement systems and are likely to determine or influence their transport properties. For example a good agreement between theory predictions for linear interchange modes and experimental results has been found recently in a Reverse Field Pinch device. In this work a set of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) equations that describe the dynamical evolution for the pressure driven interchange modes in a magnetic confinement system are studied. Global and local solutions relevant for tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches (RFPs) configurations are considered. The emphasis is especially in the characterization of the plasma flow structures associated with the dominant modes.

  5. Beating the traffic with commuting alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This pamphlet describes how, by encouraging commuting options, local governments can help reduce air pollution, fuel consumption, and traffic congestion. Minimizing these problems makes the community more appealing to businesses, residents, and visitors and boosts the local economy. Approaches to alternative transportation are as varied as the communities devising and using them. But the critical factor is initiative from local governments, often one of communities largest employers. They can use and promote commuting alternatives among their employees. Local governments can also promote alternative transportation among other employers and the general public. They can provide information on commuting options, improve the infrastructure, and use local authority to require and reward those changes necessary to make alternative transportation a widely accepted part of community life. Best of all, local governments can lead by example and establish a template for other employers to follow.

  6. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  7. Effects of energy constraints on transportation systems. [Twenty-six papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, R. K. [ed.

    1977-12-01

    Twenty-six papers are presented on a variety of topics including: energy and transportaton facts and figures; long-range planning under energy constraints; technology assessment of alternative fuels; energy efficiency of intercity passenger and freight movement; energy efficiency of intracity passenger movement; federal role; electrification of railroads; energy impact of the electric car in an urban enviroment; research needs and projects in progress--federal viewpoint; research needs in transportation energy conservation--data needs; and energy intensity of various transportation modes--an overview. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers for inclusion in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  8. MANAGEMENT OF TOURISM TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, the relevance of transport activities in relation to tourism activities is essential, because it is extremely important and necessary to offer feasible information about tourism services to help consumer to choose the mode of travel to destinations ideal holiday. The methods used in the development of this hypothesis were explanation, exemplification (brief presentation of each mode of transport comparison etc. Analyzing the current situation of national, European and World Wide tourism transportation, the paper proposes practical applications able to explain that the conduct of economic activities as an integral part of the sector of trade and services within a national economy, would not be possible without the involvement of transport, whether by road, rail and air and naval. The results of the analysis are perfectly applicable offering guests the opportunity to reach the most remote corners of the world in a short time, high degree of comfort and affordable price.

  9. Heat transport within the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to interpret Earth's dynamic processes based upon heat transport concepts derived from ordinary experience. But, ordinary experience can be misleading, especially when underlain by false assumptions. Geodynamic considerations traditionally have embraced three modes of heat transport: conduction, convection, and radiation. Recently, I introduced a fourth, "mantle decompression thermal tsunami" that, I submit, is responsible for emplacing heat at the base of the Earth's crust. Here, I review thermal transport within the Earth and speculate that there might be a fifth mode: "heat channeling", involving heat transport from the core to "hot-spots" such as those that power the Hawaiian Islands and Iceland.

  10. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2004-01-01

    improved means of fast physical movement from one place to another. Yet, the impact that the technology of automobility came to have was not of a limited materialistic nature. As many literary and cultural critics have noted, car technology extended its influence into the field of imaginative transport....... According to film theorist Julian Smith, the automobile has been just as much “embraced … as a form of emotional transport, the state or condition of being transported by ecstasy” as “perceived as a mode of transportation in the primary and ordinary sense of the word.” This paper analyses the ways in which...... William Carlos Williams negotiates the relationship between these two kinds of automotive transport in some of his poetic and poetic prose writings from the period when the car was introduced on a more general scale in America. Intense moments of emotional and imaginative transport in Williams are often...

  12. Thermal transport in fractal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...

  13. Efficiency improvements in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Transport, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Transport of people, personal belongings and goods in private cars is fundamental to our modern welfare society and economic growth, and has grown steadily over many decades. Motor fuels have been based almost entirely on crude oil for the last century. During the last couple of decades engines built for traditional fuels have become more advanced and efficient; this has reduced fuel consumption by around 40% and emissions by more than 90%. Only in the same time span have we begun to look at alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanol and biogas can replace petrol and diesel, and in recent years algae have shown a new potential for diesel fuel. Natural gas is also becoming an interesting fuel due to its large resources worldwide. GTL, CTL and BTL are liquid fuels produced from solid or gaseous sources. GTL and CTL are expensive to produce and not very CO{sub 2}-friendly, but they are easily introduced and need little investment in infrastructure and vehicles. DME is an excellent fuel for diesel engines. Methanol and DME produced from biomass are among the most CO{sub 2}-reducing fuels and at the same time the most energy-efficient renewable fuels. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are currently fuelled by hydrogen, but other fuels are also possible. There are, however, several barriers to the implementation of fuel cell vehicles. In particular, a hydrogen infrastructure needs to be developed. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the advantage that energy conversion is centralised at the power plant where it can be done at optimum efficiency and emissions. EVs have to be charged at home, and also away from home when travelling longer distances. With an acceptable fast charging infrastructure at least 85% of the one-car families in Denmark could be potential EV customers. Range improvements resulting from better batteries are expected to create a large increase in the number of EVs in Denmark between 2020 and 2030. The hybrid electric vehicle

  14. Environmental impact assessment methodological framework for liquefied natural gas terminal and transport network planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent discovery of significant offshore natural gas reserves in the Aphrodite field, south of the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea, changes the energy landscape in the greater Mediterranean-Middle East-Caucasian Region. In this paper, different alternative locations for the construction and operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal station in Cyprus were evaluated, explicitly considering also their connection to the power generation station of Mari and the country's gateway. The problem of determining the optimal location for an LNG terminal in Cyprus has been approached using multiple methodological components, which consider environmental and transportation issues, both technocratic in nature, as well as more subjective and based on expert opinion. The first step was a REGIME multi-criteria decision analysis used to prioritize alternative LNG terminal locations. Then, multiple modes (railroad and pipeline) of transportation connections were evaluated and geometric alignments were proposed, considering a multitude of restrictions. Finally an environmental impact assessment based on a structured questionnaire and an expert panel was conducted to validate and assess the impact of the alternative options (combination of location and transportation mode and route). During the evaluation process parameters such as safety, existing infrastructure, and access were also considered. - Highlights: • Determined the optimal location for an LNG terminal in Cyprus. • REGIME multi-criteria analysis used to prioritize alternative LNG terminal locations. • Multiple modes of transportation connections were evaluated and geometric alignments were proposed. • Environmental impact assessment and validation was undertaken based on a structured questionnaire and an expert panel. • Parameters such as safety, existing infrastructure, and access were also considered

  15. Berreman mode and epsilon near zero mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassant, Simon; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss the existence of an electromagnetic mode propagating in a thin dielectric film deposited on a metallic film at the particular frequency such that the dielectric permittivity vanishes. We discuss the remarkable properties of this mode in terms of extreme subwavelength mode confinment and its potential applications. We also discuss the link between this mode, the IR absorption peak on a thin dielectric film known as Berreman effect and the surface phonon polariton mode at the air/dielectric interface. Finally, we establish a connection with the polarization shift occuring in quantum wells. PMID:23188363

  16. Intronic Alus influence alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Lev-Maor

    Full Text Available Examination of the human transcriptome reveals higher levels of RNA editing than in any other organism tested to date. This is indicative of extensive double-stranded RNA (dsRNA formation within the human transcriptome. Most of the editing sites are located in the primate-specific retrotransposed element called Alu. A large fraction of Alus are found in intronic sequences, implying extensive Alu-Alu dsRNA formation in mRNA precursors. Yet, the effect of these intronic Alus on splicing of the flanking exons is largely unknown. Here, we show that more Alus flank alternatively spliced exons than constitutively spliced ones; this is especially notable for those exons that have changed their mode of splicing from constitutive to alternative during human evolution. This implies that Alu insertions may change the mode of splicing of the flanking exons. Indeed, we demonstrate experimentally that two Alu elements that were inserted into an intron in opposite orientation undergo base-pairing, as evident by RNA editing, and affect the splicing patterns of a downstream exon, shifting it from constitutive to alternative. Our results indicate the importance of intronic Alus in influencing the splicing of flanking exons, further emphasizing the role of Alus in shaping of the human transcriptome.

  17. The H-mode of ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review of the work on the H-mode done on ASDEX since its discovery in 1982. In detail, it presents (1) the development of the plasma profiles - steep edge gradients and flat bulk profiles, (2) the MHD properties resulting from the profile changes, including an extensive stability analysis, (3) the impurity development with special emphasis on the MHD aspects and on neoclassical impurity transport effects in quiescent H-phases, (4) a detailed study of the edge properties including the evidence of 3-dimensional distortions at the edge. The part on confinement encompasses scaling studies and the results of transport analysis. The power threshold of the H-mode is found to depend slightly on the density but hardly on the toroidal field or current. The operational range of the H-mode includes new results on the limiter H-mode of ASDEX and on the development of the H-mode under beam current drive conditions. Several experiments are described which demonstrate the crucial role of the edge electron temperature in the H-mode transition. New material on magnetic and density fluctuation studies at the plasma edge within the edge transport barrier is presented. Finally, the findings on ADSEX are compared with those on other machines and are used to test various H-mode theories. (orig.)

  18. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transporation Program - State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Factsheet answering frequently asked questions about the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (the Program) that implements provisions of Titles III–V of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). Answers to questions that are frequently asked about the Program by managers of state government and alternative fuel provider fleets are provided in the factsheet.

  19. Mode-selection and mode-switching of an autonomous motor composed of a camphor rotor and a mobile loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Satoshi; Tenno, Ryoichi; Ikura, Yumihiko S.

    2011-09-01

    Mode-selection and mode-switching of self-motion were investigated for a loop driven by the movement of a camphor rotor on water, as a simple autonomous system. Three modes of self-motion (caterpillar motion, translation, and alternating mode-switching between them) were selectively generated depending on the state of a knot of the loop. The experimental results were numerically reproduced and categorized by using a differential equation of rotation with a fold bifurcation.

  20. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein...... is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial...

  1. Public investment and intergenerational distribution under alternative modes of financing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Horst, Albert van der; Meijdam, Lex

    2002-01-01

    The research into multi-product production/inventory control systems has mainly assumed one of the two strategies: Make-to-Order (MTO) or Make-to-Stock (MTS). In practice, however, many companies cater to an increasing variety of products with varying logistical demands (e.g. short due dates, specif

  2. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  3. Reducing the local environmental impacts of passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maentynen, J.; Kalenoja, H.; Maekelae, S. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Inst. of Transportation Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The local injurious effects of traffic appear mostly in densely populated areas, where the demand for transport is high. The local environmental effects of transportation can be reduced by measures of urban planning, traffic planning, vehicle technology and economical restrictions. Land use planning, concentration of urban structure and promoting distance working are examples of expedients of urban planning. The methods of urban planning usually affect very slowly on transport structure, but they also have a significant and continuous influence on travel demand. The methods of traffic planning generally tend to increase the fluency of traffic flow or reduce private car traffic with diverse restrictions by supporting environmentally more favourable vehicles or modes of travel. The improvements in vehicle technology can be significant in the short run. By economical regulations it is possible to guide the demand for traffic to a desirable direction. The local injurious effects of traffic vary by the size of urban areas. Local conditions, such as urban structure, population density, structure of employment, and composition of transport structure, influence on travel pattern and modal split. In Tampere University of Technology several measures to reduce environmental effects and energy consumption of transportation has been evaluated. This article presents three types of categories. As technological measures the introduction of electric vehicles and the alternative bus fuels have been studied. In addition, the effects of introducing midibuses, the car pool system and the increasing of vehicle occupancy have been evaluated as measures, which generally increase transportation system efficiency. (author)

  4. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into accoun...

  5. Alternative routes of insulin delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjith K. Krishnankutty; Aju Mathew; Saikiran K. Sedimbi; Shrikumar Suryanarayan; Carani B. Sanjeevi

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  6. List mode multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  7. Terminological issues of the intermodal transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A modern world’s transportation system in the global economy shows a high level of complexity of networks and transport processes. The division between the stages of carriage by modes of transport is often blurred, and delivery process itself increasingly involved more than one of its mode. Therefore, there are many different concepts and definitions that attempt to capture what is changing and relates to the transport sector. With this article we try to systematize concepts operating in the field of multimodal transport and proposes a reasoned one, common definition of intermodal transport as such a concept, which is able to extend to all transport processes consist of at least two transport modes with supporting of unitized cargo.

  8. Acquisitions and Real Options : The Greenfield Alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouthers, Keith D.; Dikova, Desislava

    2010-01-01

    P>Although acquisitions are a popular way to enter new markets, empirical evidence tends to indicate few benefits accrue to acquiring firms. This might be the case because firms use acquisitions when they should be employing an alternative mode of expansion. Applying real options theory to this issu

  9. Energy and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Banister, David; Edwards, Phil; Prentice, Andrew M; Roberts, Ian

    2007-09-22

    We examine the links between fossil-fuel-based transportation, greenhouse-gas emissions, and health. Transport-related carbon emissions are rising and there is increasing consensus that the growth in motorised land vehicles and aviation is incompatible with averting serious climate change. The energy intensity of land transport correlates with its adverse health effects. Adverse health effects occur through climate change, road-traffic injuries, physical inactivity, urban air pollution, energy-related conflict, and environmental degradation. For the world's poor people, walking is the main mode of transport, but such populations often experience the most from the harms of energy-intensive transport. New energy sources and improvements in vehicle design and in information technology are necessary but not sufficient to reduce transport-related carbon emissions without accompanying behavioural change. By contrast, active transport has the potential to improve health and equity, and reduce emissions. Cities require safe and pleasant environments for active transport with destinations in easy reach and, for longer journeys, public transport that is powered by renewable energy, thus providing high levels of accessibility without car use. Much investment in major road projects does not meet the transport needs of poor people, especially women whose trips are primarily local and off road. Sustainable development is better promoted through improving walking and cycling infrastructures, increasing access to cycles, and investment in transport services for essential needs. Our model of London shows how increased active transport could help achieve substantial reductions in emissions by 2030 while improving population health. There exists the potential for a global contraction and convergence in use of fossil-fuel energy for transport to benefit health and achieve sustainability. PMID:17868817

  10. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  11. Belarus : Transport Sector Policy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The transport sector is an important economic sector in Belarus, contributing 6.7 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2008 and 6.6 percent in 2009. Belarus has been a net exporter of practically all modes of transport services. The country serves as a transit transport corridor between the European Union (EU) and Russia and potentially between the EU and Asia; thus, the strategic ge...

  12. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  13. Using Decision Trees for Estimating Mode Choice of Trips in Buca-Izmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, L. O.; Tecim, V.

    2013-05-01

    Decision makers develop transportation plans and models for providing sustainable transport systems in urban areas. Mode Choice is one of the stages in transportation modelling. Data mining techniques can discover factors affecting the mode choice. These techniques can be applied with knowledge process approach. In this study a data mining process model is applied to determine the factors affecting the mode choice with decision trees techniques by considering individual trip behaviours from household survey data collected within Izmir Transportation Master Plan. From this perspective transport mode choice problem is solved on a case in district of Buca-Izmir, Turkey with CRISP-DM knowledge process model.

  14. USING DECISION TREES FOR ESTIMATING MODE CHOICE OF TRIPS IN BUCA-IZMIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Oral

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers develop transportation plans and models for providing sustainable transport systems in urban areas. Mode Choice is one of the stages in transportation modelling. Data mining techniques can discover factors affecting the mode choice. These techniques can be applied with knowledge process approach. In this study a data mining process model is applied to determine the factors affecting the mode choice with decision trees techniques by considering individual trip behaviours from household survey data collected within Izmir Transportation Master Plan. From this perspective transport mode choice problem is solved on a case in district of Buca-Izmir, Turkey with CRISP-DM knowledge process model.

  15. The Competitiveness of Alternative Hydrogen Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.

    to transport services and in market competitiveness and societal competitiveness. The major societal competitive advantage of hydrogen is its convertibility to electricity and from any other source of energy. This enables a flexible use of natural gas and primary electricity as transport fuels. The major......The paper surveys the literature on the competitiveness of alternative hydrogen pathways in the transport sector. The competitiveness of the alternative systems can be differentiated in the “well-to-tank (WtT)” and “tank-to-wheel (TtW)” sections of the pathway transforming primary energy...... advantage in market competitiveness is the energy efficiency of the fuel cell. This advantage is, however, to some extent balanced by the costs associated with conversion, transport, and storage. The balance between these factors required for market competitiveness is identified....

  16. Avaliação do peso e do modo de transporte do material escolar em alunos do ensino fundamental Evaluación del peso y del modo de transporte del material escolar en escolares de la enseñanza fundamental Assessment of weight and mode of transport of school material in highschool students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Tarragô Candotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar e comparar o modo de transporte e o peso do material escolar utilizado por escolares entre o 2º, 5º e 9º anos do ensino fundamental. MÉTODOS: Dentre as escolas do município Dois Irmãos (RS, uma escola foi sorteada e 58 escolares foram pesquisados por meio de questionário, que avaliou o acessório utilizado para transportar o material escolar e a forma de transporte. As variáveis antropométricas e o peso do material escolar foram mensurados ao longo de cinco dias. A análise do questionário envolveu tabelas de frequência e teste do qui-quadrado. O peso médio do material, relativo ao peso corporal e registrado ao longo da semana, foi analisado por ANOVA one-way e ao teste post hoc de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS: Escolares do 2º, 5º e 9º anos transportam seu material nas costas, em mochila com duas alças (60, 77,3 e 85,5%, respectivamente, pOBJETIVOS: Identificar y comparar el modo de transporte y el peso del material escolar utilizado por escolares entre el 2º, 5º y 9º años de la enseñanza fundamental. MÉTODOS: Entre las escuelas del municipio de Dois Irmãos (RS, Brasil, una escuela fue sorteada y 58 escolares fueron investigados mediante cuestionario, que evaluó el accesorio utilizado para transportar el material escolar y la forma de transporte, las variables antropométricas y el peso del material escolar fueron medidos a lo largo de cinco días. El análisis del cuestionario envolvió tablas de frecuencia y test del chi-cuadrado. El peso mediano del material, relativo al peso corporal, registrado a lo largo de la semana, fue sometido por ANOVA one-way y por el test post hoc de Bonferroni (α=0,05. RESULTADOS: Escolares del 2º, 5º y 9º años transportaron su material a la espalda, en mochila con dos asas (60, 77,3 y 85,5%, respectivamente, pObjectives: To identify the way school material is carried and the weight of the material carried, and to compare these findings for 2nd, 5th and 9th graders

  17. 77 FR 47361 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test... series of projects and tests throughout the decade. Contact involving cellular telephone numbers, text... mail, landline telephone, and internet modes. The 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test is the...

  18. 77 FR 41370 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test... series of projects and tests throughout the decade. Contact involving cellular telephone numbers, text... mail, landline telephone, and internet modes. The 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test is the...

  19. Spare Part Transportation Management in High North

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele, Yonas Zewdu; Barabadi, Abbas; Markeset, Tore

    2013-01-01

    The demanding physical conditions of the Arctic, remote location, and uncertainty regarding the travel time can both heighten the challenges related to transportation of spare part in the region. Managing to get the appropriate path for transportation of spare parts for oil and gas industries in the region, is one of the major and demanding tasks. In this paper we develop the concept of transportation block diagrams (TBD) for possible transportation routes and mode of transport...

  20. Transports and environment; Transports et environnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases reduction, this study proposes many advices to control the fuel consumption of the vehicles and to change habits in the transportation sector. It presents also the alternatives to the pollutant today vehicles in the domain of the vehicles and buses fuels but also the new motors. Many Internet addresses are provided to complete the presentation. (A.L.B.)