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Sample records for alternative study leu-mo

  1. Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Division of URS

    2008-07-01

    This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.

  2. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  3. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  4. Millimeter Wave Alternate Route Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    A0-AI02 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC FIG 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALENT ROUTE STUDT.(U) APR W C ADAMS J J PAN, W C...481-487. 4-7 abm ADAOO0 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION S -ETC F/G 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALTERNATE ROUTE STUDY.(U) APR 81 W C...7-21L’j r AD-A102 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC F/A 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALTERNATE ROUTE STUDY(U) APR 81 W C ADAMS

  5. Alternative Education Completers: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Becky L.; Holt, Carleton R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the elements of the alternative education experience significant to successful completion of the program. This phenomenological paradigm provided the framework for all aspects of the qualitative study. Students, parents, administrators, and staff members of two alternative programs in the southeast Kansas…

  6. Cornerstone Third Party Alternative Cost Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The attached cost analyses sheets have been developed for use in planning during the Third Party Alternative study currently underway for the Sandia CREATE project. This cost analysis builds upon the previously submitted base estimate dated June 14, 2013 and includes comparison information collected during a Market Validation exercise conducted in August/September 2013.

  7. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  8. Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA

    2014-10-01

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.

  9. IronMaking Process Alternatives Screening Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-10-01

    This study by Lockwood Greene evaluates a number ironmaking processes. The appendices provide greater detail and further exploration of the ironmaking processes, including components, relative costs, and comparisons.

  10. Alternative Frameworks for the Study of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Ivana

    1979-01-01

    Two frameworks for the study of man are discussed. The Cartesian model views man as a physical object. A dialectic framework, with the emphasis on the self, grew out of nineteenth century romanticism and reflects the theories of Hegel. Both models have had an effect on social psychology and the study of interpersonal communication. (BH)

  11. [Felines: an alternative in genetic toxicology studies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Perez, Ana; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Ramos-Ibarra, Maria L; Batista-González, Cecilia M; Luna-Aguirre, Jaime; González-Rodríguez, Andrés; Rodríguez-Avila, José L; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M

    2008-06-01

    The micronuclei (MN) test carry out in peripheral blood is fast, simple, economic and it is used to detect genotoxic environmental agents. MN are fragments of chromosomes or complete chromosomes remaining in the cytoplasm after cell division, which increase when organisms are exposed to genotoxic agents. Therefore, species with the highest values of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) are the most suitable to be potentials biomonitor of micronucleogenic agents, using a drop of blood. Nine species of Felines that present spontaneous MNE in peripheral blood are shown. From these species, the cat has been previously proven, with positive results and also lion (Panthera leo), yaguaroundi (Felis yagoaroundi), lynx (Lynx ruffus), jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), tiger (Panthera tigris), ocelote (Felis padalis) and leopard (Panthera pardus) display spontaneous MNE, and with this characteristic this Family can be propose like a potential group to be used in toxicogenetic studies.

  12. Lithic studies: an alternative approach to Neolithization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gurova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most models of Neolithization of the Balkans have focused on pottery, with little attention paid to other aspects of material culture. A distinctive feature of the Early Neolithic Karanovo I culture of Bulgaria is a flint industry characterized by ‘macroblade’ technology and widespread use of ‘Balkan Flint’ in conjunction with formal toolkits. The origins of this technology and the associated raw material procurement system are still unresolved. Balkan flint also occurs in Early Neolithic contexts outside the Karanovo I culture area, notably in the southern Balkans (Turkish Thrace and in the lower Danube catchment (Carpathian Basin, Iron Gates, southern Romania and northern Bulgaria. The only securely identified outcrops of Balkan flint are in the Upper Cretaceous Mezdra Formation in the Pleven-Nikopol region of northern Bulgaria. One of the most challenging aspects of the Neolithization debate is to accommodate the evidence provided by lithic studies. Among outstanding questions are: (i was Balkan flint used by the first (‘pre-Karanovo’ Neolithic communities in Bulgaria; (ii what role did Balkan flint play in the Neolithization of Southeast Europe; (iii did access to Balkan flint result in the emergence of a new laminar technology; (iv how did the Early Neolithic Balkan flint exchange network compare to that based on obsidian, which developed in and around the Aegean Basin; and (iv what and where were the origins of the Balkan flint network and the formal tools associated with it?

  13. Alternative techniques to study characters of the genitalia in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2010-01-01

    The present note aims to describe two alternative methods for observing genitalia in Lepidoptera. The first one provides means to examine both male and female genitalia without spoiling the scales of the abdomen, preserving it attached to the thorax and aesthetically similar to an unexamined specimen. The second one provides ways of observing certain characters on the male genitalia in a non-destructive way, and does not depend on time-consuming removing and dissection of the abdomen. It is expected that the presented techniques will help on morphological studies and on identifying similar species which consistently differ in genitalic armatures.

  14. Exploring the Experiences of Former Alternative Education Participants: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Cobb, Shirley L.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative education has become an integral program, in one form or another throughout most school districts in the United States. Alternative education is a very complex and controversial issue that is best understood through the stories of former alternative education students looking back on their lived experiences. Children in the alternative…

  15. A Comprehensive Study of the Tocks Island Lake Project and Alternatives. Part D. Institutional Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    AT DWGNRA WITH AND WITHOUT TILP XVII-80 1. Market Demand XVII-80 2. Facilities Provided XVII-85 3. Rationing Techniques XVII-87 4. Programmed...basketball off road driving tennis baseball bicycling horseback riding football boating hiking and nature walks hockey birdwatching snowmobiling...determinants of the actual patronage for alternative concepts of DWGNRA: market demand, facilities provided, rationing techniques and programmed activities

  16. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  17. A study of alternative splicing in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Gilchrist, Michael J.;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since at least half of the genes in mammalian genomes are subjected to alternative splicing, alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays an important contribution to the complexity of the mammalian proteome. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide evidence of a great number of possible...... and mouse, we find putative splice variants in about 30% of the contigs with more than 50 ESTs. Based on the criteria that a minimum of two EST sequences confirmed each splice event, a list of 100 genes with the most distinct tissue-specific alternative splice events was generated from the list...... of candidates. To confirm the tissue specificity of the splice events, 10 genes with functional annotation were randomly selected from which 16 individual splice events were chosen for experimental verification by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Six genes were shown to have tissue specific alternatively spliced...

  18. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  19. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  20. Alternative Assessment: Implications for Social Studies. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Pat

    Alternative forms of evaluating student progress are changing testing or assessment in U.S. schools. From the teacher-made to the standardized test, the familiar over-emphasis on multiple-choice items is giving way to expanded generative formats in which students are called upon to demonstrate mastery through applications in which they use complex…

  1. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  2. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: CORROSION STUDIES RESULTS: FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2010-09-29

    Due to the need to close High Level Waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the removal of sludge heel materials remaining at the completion of mechanical tank cleaning efforts. Oxalic acid is considered the preferred cleaning reagent for heel dissolution of iron-based sludge. However, the large quantity of chemical reagents added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acidic systems may be required for specific waste components that have low solubility in oxalic acid, and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Electrochemical corrosion studies were conducted with 1 wt. % oxalic acid at mineral acid concentrations above and below the optimal conditions for this oxalic acid concentration. Testing environments included pure reagents, pure iron and aluminum phases, and sludge simulants. Mineral acid concentrations greater than 0.2 M and temperatures greater than 50 C result in unacceptably high corrosion rates. Results showed that manageable corrosion rates of carbon steel can be achieved at dilute mineral acid concentrations (i.e. less than 0.2 M) and low temperatures based on the contact times involved. Therefore, it is recommended that future dissolution and corrosion testing be performed with a dilute mineral acid and a less concentrated oxalic acid (e.g., 0.5 wt.%) that still promotes optimal dissolution. This recommendation requires the processing of greater water volumes than those for the baseline process during heel dissolution, but allows for minimization of oxalic acid additions. The following conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) In both nitric and sulfuric acid based reagents, the low temperature and

  3. Using biofuel tracers to study alternative combustion regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J. H.; Flowers, D. L.; Buchholz, B. A.; Dibble, R. W.

    2007-06-01

    Interest in the use of alternative fuels and engines is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO2 emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and higher noise. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions. However, relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic due to economic constraints and difficult due to the emerging PM standards. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K inhibits NOx formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NOx threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder (homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NOx and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to improve our combustion modeling.

  4. Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonali eBlanco Ayala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenic acid (KYNA, an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and excitatory amino acid receptors, regulates glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in several regions of the rodent brain. Synthesis of KYNA in the brain and elsewhere is generally attributed to the enzymatic conversion of L-kynurenine (L-KYN by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs. However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO and the direct transformation of kynurenine to KYNA by reactive oxygen species (ROS, have been demonstrated in the rat brain. Using the rat cerebellum, a region of low KAT activity and high DAAO activity, the present experiments were designed to examine KYNA production from L-KYN or D-KYN by KAT and DAAO, respectively, and to investigate the effect of ROS on KYNA synthesis. In chemical combinatorial systems, both L-KYN and D-KYN interacted directly with peroxynitrite (ONOO- and hydroxyl radicals (OH•, resulting in the formation of KYNA. In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D-KYN by 85.1 ± 1.7% and 27.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 µM each attenuated KYNA formation from L-KYN and D-KYN by ~35% and ~66%, respectively. ONOO- (25 µM potentiated KYNA production from both L-KYN and D-KYN, and these effects were reduced by DAAO inhibition. AOAA attenuated KYNA production from L-KYN + ONOO- but not from D-KYN + ONOO-. In vivo, extracellular KYNA levels increased rapidly after perfusion of ONOO- and, more prominently, after subsequent perfusion with L-KYN or D-KYN (100 µM. Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative routes

  5. Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Ayala, Tonali; Lugo Huitrón, Rafael; Carmona Aparicio, Liliana; Ramírez Ortega, Daniela; González Esquivel, Dinora; Pedraza Chaverrí, José; Pérez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Ríos, Camilo; Schwarcz, Robert; Pérez de la Cruz, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and excitatory amino acid receptors, regulates glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in several regions of the rodent brain. Synthesis of KYNA in the brain and elsewhere is generally attributed to the enzymatic conversion of L-kynurenine (L-KYN) by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN) by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and the direct transformation of kynurenine to KYNA by reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been demonstrated in the rat brain. Using the rat cerebellum, a region of low KAT activity and high DAAO activity, the present experiments were designed to examine KYNA production from L-KYN or D-KYN by KAT and DAAO, respectively, and to investigate the effect of ROS on KYNA synthesis. In chemical combinatorial systems, both L-KYN and D-KYN interacted directly with peroxynitrite (ONOO−) and hydroxyl radicals (OH•), resulting in the formation of KYNA. In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM) reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D-KYN by 85.1 ± 1.7% and 27.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 μM each) attenuated KYNA formation from L-KYN and D-KYN by ~35% and ~66%, respectively. ONOO− (25 μM) potentiated KYNA production from both L-KYN and D-KYN, and these effects were reduced by DAAO inhibition. AOAA attenuated KYNA production from L-KYN + ONOO− but not from D-KYN + ONOO−. In vivo, extracellular KYNA levels increased rapidly after perfusion of ONOO− and, more prominently, after subsequent perfusion with L-KYN or D-KYN (100 μM). Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative

  6. Can Alternative Education Increase Children's Early School Engagement? A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Van Damme, Jan; Lamote, Carl; De Fraine, Bieke

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of alternative education on children's early school engagement in terms of school enjoyment and independent participation. A sample of 2,776 children from traditional (e.g., mainstream) and alternative (Freinet and Waldorf) Flemish schools was followed from their 3rd year of kindergarten until 3rd grade. The…

  7. Alternate space shuttle concepts study: Design requirements and phased programs evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A study to determine program and technical alternatives to the design of the space shuttle orbiter is described. The alternatives include a phased approach, involving orbiter development and operation with an expendable booster for an interim period, as well as design variations to the basic vehicle. The space shuttle orbiter configurations and predicted performance parameters are presented.

  8. ALTERNATING METHOD STUDY ON STRESS ANALYSIS OF SURROUNDING ROCK FOR TWO RANDOM GEOMETRY TUNNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱钟; 张路青

    1997-01-01

    The stress analysis of surrounding rock for two random geometry tunnels is studied inthis paper by using Schwarz's alternating method. The simple and effective alternating algorithm is found, in which the surplus surface force is approximated by Fourier series, thus the iteration derivation can be conducted according to the precision required, finally, the stress results with high precision are obtained.

  9. 'Red Yeast Rice' Statin Alternative Not Harmless Either, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study appears in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology . SOURCES: Paul D. Thompson, M.D., chief, cardiology, ... Nutrition; Jan. 19, 2017, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , online HealthDay Copyright (c) 2017 HealthDay . All rights ...

  10. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associate

  11. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  12. Biowaiver: an alternative to in vivo pharmacokinetic bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, V; Gupta, U; Jain, N K

    2010-03-01

    Bioequivalence is a vital concern in drug development even more significant in the case of Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI) drugs. In clinical development of New Chemical Entities (NCE), bioequivalence studies necessitate to be performed when the formulation of the pharmaceutical dosage form has been changed. In vivo pharmacokinetic data can be used as surrogate parameters for in vivo solubility and permeability data. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has emerged as a helpful tool in product development by alluding to the in vivo performance of the active substance. The bio-relevance of the BCS properties and the in vitro release are best expressed through a correlation between in vitro and in vivo data. Recently BCS has been implemented for waiving bioequivalence studies on the basis of the solubility and gastrointestinal permeability of drug substance and can be strategically deployed to save time and resources during generic drug development. The BCS has been adopted as a very useful tool for in vivo drug design and development worldwide, particularly in terms of regulatory standards. A BCS-based biowaiver has become an important and cost-saving tool in approval of generic drugs.

  13. Numerical Studies On Bubble Pump With Alternate Working Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bruno Augustin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of energy conservation in the context of growing global population and dwindling fossil fuel resources cannot be overemphasized. Energy can be conserved by using it more efficiently. The energy spent for an application should be of the correct amount and type. It would make more sense to spend heat energy for heating rather than the high grade electricity as most of the electric power in the world is generated from driving heat engines, for which heat is supplied from the combustion of fossil fuels. At the same time, depletion of these conventional resources also poses a serious problem in meeting energy requirements. In this paper, the bubble pump, which is an integral part of diffusion- absorption refrigeration system, has been investigated numerically .A thermally driven bubble pump, which can be powered by solar thermal energy, is used to lift the liquid. The bubble pump runs on solar energy and reduces the amount of energy spent by replacing the compressor in conventional vapour absorption refrigeration system. As a result of the absence of any mechanical moving part, the refrigerator is silent and very reliable in addition to an economical and environmental friendly device. The concept of such a pump is already in existence but optimization studies are yet to be extensively investigated. This paper deals with the comparison of various parameters of the bubble pump using water and Nonane as the working fluid. Numerical simulation of the bubble pump is carried out using simple numerical equations which assume slug flow in the bubble pump. The mass flow rate, the sensible heating time and position of heating element are varied and the effect it has on diameter of the pipe, pumping ratio and the heat required is studied for both the working fluids

  14. Study On Decision-Making for Cafe Management Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-I Hou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many new cafés have emerged onto t he market. Other than view cafés, beautiful cafés t hat seem as if they came from Paris or New York have gr adually appeared in leisure and quiet residential areas, in alleyways, in peripheral areas, and in lo cal commercial areas. In particular, leisure is tre ndy at present, and modern restaurants innovate in terms o f their food, leisure, and consumption. Unlike traditional restaurants, they are able to develop i nto cafés with unique styles to attract consumers. Even though not all of these new cafés are successful, a s cafés are an industry that is at the forefront of fashion, many individuals who dream of entrepreneurship woul d want to open a café. However, as there are many types of cafés on the market, what type and style o f cafés are the most suitable? An overview of cafés in Taiwan shows that each café offer unique services a nd functions to attract consumers, which is the key to sustainable operations of cafés. Therefore, this st udy explores the decisions of companies when choosi ng the style for their cafés. This study uses the anal ytical hierarchy process (AHP to explore the selec tion of café styles, in order to provide references for caf é operators to achieve successful and sustainable operations. Based on literature review, expert inte rviews, and AHP, this study intends to provide usef ul results to the operators of cafés.

  15. Experimental study on the effect of alternator speed to the car charging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlan Rozdman K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present our work, which is doing an energy audit on alternator’s current output and battery’s voltage based on alternator speed. Up until today, the demand for power in automobile is ever increasing. As technology advances, more and more electrical devices were produced and being installed in vehicles. To cope with the demand, alternator has been designed and modified so that it can produce enough power. This research is to study the effect of alternator speed to the charging system. The car used in this experiment is Proton Preve 1.6 Manual. In both ISO 8854 and SAE J 56, alternator testing and labelling standards indicate that the rated output an alternator is the amount of current that it is capable of producing at 6,000 RPM. Three different constant speed of engine which is 750 RPM as idle speed, 1500 RPM and 3000 RPM as cruise speed were taken as parameter. The speed of the alternator was measured using tachometer, digital multi-meter was used to measure battery’s voltage, and AC/DC Clamp was used to measure alternator current output. The result shows that the faster the alternator spin, the more power it can produce. And when there is more power, the faster the charging rate of the battery.

  16. An ornithological study of alternate gas pipeline routes in Alaska, Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study was an attempt to describe and estimate the numbers of species and relative densities of birds along the two alternate pipeline routes, and to arrive at...

  17. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex

  18. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex

  19. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-05-05

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  20. Alternative medicine in Paris and Rio de Janeiro: a study on transformative health experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Eglem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the practice of alternative medicine as an experience capable of modifying the very perception of the body and body feeling, based in a two-field research in France (Paris and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro. In this research, the resort to alternative medicines was considered as urban practice and a possible response to emotional needs, beyond the curative specificities of these medicines. The two countries were chosen for their supposed complementarity concerning the perception of spirituality and therefore, the perception of holistic health concepts. The study relies on an inductive approach and a qualitative methodology: introspective interviews with consumers and professionals, as well as participant observations. After a review of the theoretical aspects on the subject — concepts related to health, alternative medicine, transformative experience —, empirical results are presented. They show that the experience of alternative medicine tends to modify body perception, understood as how individuals define their own body. It also tends to modify body internal feeling, literally how people feel their body. The second conclusion that can be drawn from our study is that, beyond cultural specificities, some similarities appear in the way the practice of alternative medicine impacts on body perception and individual values. In that sense, alternative medicine practices in big urban centers appear to be related to a global consumer culture. However, alternative health behaviors rely on a subjective quest of sense which can be expressed through a variety of practices related to better health, not necessarily involving consumption.

  1. A case study using grounded theory of environmental education in an alternative school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Laurina Isabella

    This study examines the appropriate practices of an alternative school in west Tennessee in educating middle and high school students in long- and short-term alternative school placement. The participants included 23 students in grades 7-12 who had been classified as disruptive or failing academically, thus requiring intervention. The study's aim was to determine the effect of environmental education on the academic progress of these students. Data were obtained through multi-triangulation methodology and analyzed by grounded theory methodology. Four concepts emerged: social dynamics, relevance, conversion, and affirmation. A grounded theory for effective alternative education through environmental education based on the emergent concepts is proposed, including a new learning framework from which alternative school educators can design curricula and instructional units.

  2. Charcoal-Oil Mixture as an Alternative Fuel: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roila Awang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast depletion of fuel oil and continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. The world energy consumption is projected to grow at an average of 2.7-3.7% from 1996 to 2010. Therefore search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus this study presents the results on the characteristic of charcoal-oil mixture as an alternative fuel. The calorific value, ash content and stability of the mixture are determined.

  3. A study of three IACUCs and their views of scientific merit and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Two ethical issues facing Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees [IACUCs] today are assessing scientific merit and the use of alternatives in research proposals. This study evaluated 3 IACUCs using a 19-question survey, with a 77.8% response rate. Although 76% of members answered that scientific merit should be more dili-gently assessed if more than slight pain is caused, 14% believed that assessing scien-tific merit is not the role of the IACUC. Nearly 86% agreed that the search for alterna-tives should be more diligent for protocols that incur more than slight pain to the animals involved. Some members believed that alternatives were not actively enough sought after, while others believed no viable alternatives existed. Additional guide-lines are needed to clarify these issues.

  4. Constructed-Response as an Alternative to Interviews in Conceptual Change Studies: Students' Explanations of Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleigh, Sharon Price; Clark, Douglas B.; Menekse, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Although interview formats support rich data collection in conceptual change studies, interview formats limit sample sizes. This study explores the possibility of using constructed-response formats as an alternative or supplement for collecting similarly rich data across larger pools of subjects in conceptual change studies. While research in…

  5. A Study on Becoming an Alternatively Certified Career and Technical Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton-Flanagan, Kymberli A.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method study examined the perspectives of twelve practicing high school CTE teachers engaged in a newly approved university model for alternative certification. Using Creswell's (2008) Sequential Exploratory Design and the lens of adult learning theory as established in Knowles' (1970) Theory of Andragogy, this study examines how…

  6. Study of alternative strategies and methods for conserving energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    Objectives of the study were: (1) to identify and analyze alternative methods, means, and techniques, for controlling and moderating the consumption of energy; (2) to evaluate the impact of regulatory actions, taxes, incentives, subsidies or other strategies and methods on alternative physical technologies for energy conservation; and (3) to evaluate, macro- and micro-economic impacts and consequences of alternative energy conservation methods, means and techniques on work, leisure, life styles, and institutions on a local, regional, and national level. The study excludes automobile and related road vehicle energy consumption control strategies, but includes those for residential, commercial, industrial, and other energy end-use sectors. The time frame is from 1973 to 1990/2000, with emphasis on the period 1973-1980.

  7. An interpretive study of Yosemite National Park visitors' perspectives toward alternative transportation in Yosemite Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dave D

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors' experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors' behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  8. A case study of alternatively trained science teachers: Attainment of pedagogical content knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Benjamin R.

    Elements essential to effective teaching are closely aligned with the domains of a teacher's pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (Park & Oliver, 2008). Often, alternatively trained teachers enter the teaching profession lacking exposure to pedagogical events that allow these educators opportunities to reflect on their practice and construction of their PCK (Friedrichsen et al., 2007); yet little is known about the knowledge of experienced alternatively trained educators and the complexities associated with their PCK development. The purpose of this study was to describe the nature and sources of alternatively trained secondary school science teachers' PCK after gaining classroom experience. The Park and Oliver (2008) hexagon PCK model was used as the theoretical framework. A case study of two experienced secondary science teachers at a school in the southeastern region of the United States was conducted. Data were collected from multiple sources, such as interviews, classroom observations, participant field journals, lesson plans, classroom assignments, classroom assessments, and researcher's field notes. Data analysis was conducted using the constant comparative method, qualitative deductive analysis, and a content representation. The results showed that experienced alternatively trained science teachers' PCK development was heavily influenced by each teacher's orientation to science teaching. Alternatively trained science teachers compensated for their lack of pedagogical training by relying heavily upon their content knowledge, their knowledge of students, and past experiences. Even after gaining years of experience in a school setting, alternatively trained teachers still lacked familiarity with traditional educational terminology and practices, rather relying upon instructional approaches and techniques independently acquired while each teacher was in "survival" mode. This study provides several implications for teacher preparation, research, and policy.

  9. Spontaneously Fluctuating Motor Cortex Excitability in Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, William M.; Desikan, Mahalekshmi; Hoad, Damon; Jaffer, Fatima; Strigaro, Gionata; Sander, Josemir W.; Rothwell, John C.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a very rare and serious neurodevelopmental syndrome; its genetic basis has recently been established. Its characteristic features include typically-unprovoked episodes of hemiplegia and other transient or more persistent neurological abnormalities. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess the effect of the condition on motor cortex neurophysiology both during and between attacks of hemiplegia. Nine people with alternating hemiplegia of childhood were recruited; eight were successfully tested using transcranial magnetic stimulation to study motor cortex excitability, using single and paired pulse paradigms. For comparison, data from ten people with epilepsy but not alternating hemiplegia, and ten healthy controls, were used. Results One person with alternating hemiplegia tested during the onset of a hemiplegic attack showed progressively diminishing motor cortex excitability until no response could be evoked; a second person tested during a prolonged bilateral hemiplegic attack showed unusually low excitability. Three people tested between attacks showed asymptomatic variation in cortical excitability, not seen in controls. Paired pulse paradigms, which probe intracortical inhibitory and excitatory circuits, gave results similar to controls. Conclusions We report symptomatic and asymptomatic fluctuations in motor cortex excitability in people with alternating hemiplegia of childhood, not seen in controls. We propose that such fluctuations underlie hemiplegic attacks, and speculate that the asymptomatic fluctuation we detected may be useful as a biomarker for disease activity. PMID:26999520

  10. Alternative Conceptions in Animal Classification Focusing on Amphibians and Reptiles: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Chih

    2004-01-01

    This study examined students' alternative conceptions of reptiles and amphibians and the extent to which these conceptions remain intact through the elementary (grades 4 and 6), junior, and senior high school years. We administered multiple-choice and free-response instruments to a total of 513 students and interviewed at least 20 students at each…

  11. An Alternative Counseling Model for Alcohol Abuse in College: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, B. Grant; Curry, Jennifer; Freeman, Mark S.; Kuch, Tyson H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstinence education remains a prevailing approach for addressing college student alcohol abuse. This case study illustrates an alternative method of intervening that combines motivational interviewing, harm reduction, and a brief solution-focused model. The counseling approach illustrated emphasizes reduction in, rather than abstinence from,…

  12. Korean Word Frequency and Commonality Study for Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangeun; Hill, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vocabulary frequency results have been reported to design and support augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions. A few studies exist for adult speakers and for other natural languages. With the increasing demand on AAC treatment for Korean adults, identification of high-frequency or core vocabulary (CV) becomes…

  13. Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

  14. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  15. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN BANYUMAS REGENCY: IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singkir Hudijono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses about an Alternative Dispute Resolution in BanyumasRegency as a non-litigation dispute resolution. The problem observed was a breakthroughtaken by the Society in Banyumas Regency in overcoming the so far deadlock of lawenforcement and the attitude of not trusting the justice enforcement. It has been a publicsecret that the dispute resolutions employing the legal centralism paradigm have beendominated by the judicial network. This has caused the acknowledgement of the state lawto decrease, being a commodity that can be traded. The research aims at finding out anddescribing how the alternative dispute resolution (ADR emerges as an alternativemechanism in deconstructing the legal centralism; interpreting and describing what ismeant by the alternative dispute resolution (ADR in the development of progressive law.This research was conducted employing qualitative method. In this context, theresearcher explored various pieces of related information with the reason that the societyin Banyumas Regency has chosen the alternative dispute resolution mechanism as themechanism in deconstructing the legal centralism. The research was conducted asfollows: the problems were identified, the theories for analyzing the data were selected,the primary and secondary data were collected, the collected data were analyzed andinterpreted, and finally, the results of the research were written and constructed. Thetheories employed were critical legal studies, deconstruction, and large narration criticismtheories.The results of the research show that: firstly, the alternative dispute resolution hasemerged because of the awakened local knowledge, as the form of anticipation to theineffective formal law domination. With regard to the effect of global intercourse, thealternative dispute resolution has emerged because of the refusal against the culturalhomogeneity. Secondly, the implementation of the alternative dispute resolution hasbecome the preferred

  16. An Independent Evaluation of the FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis Alternative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    The present instruments of safety and reliability risk control for a majority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs/projects consist of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Critical Items List (CIL), and Hazard Report (HR). This extensive analytical approach was introduced in the early 1970's and was implemented for the Space Shuttle Program by NHB 5300.4 (1D-2. Since the Challenger accident in 1986, the process has been expanded considerably and resulted in introduction of similar and/or duplicated activities in the safety/reliability risk analysis. A study initiated in 1995, to search for an alternative to the current FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis methodology generated a proposed method on April 30, 1996. The objective of this Summer Faculty Study was to participate in and conduct an independent evaluation of the proposed alternative to simplify the present safety and reliability risk control procedure.

  17. Designing medical and educational intervention studies. A review of some alternatives to conventional randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Clare

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of RCT designs are discussed, and a range of alternative designs for medical and educational intervention studies considered. Designs selected are those that address the much neglected psychological issues involved in the recruitment of patients and allocation of patients to treatments within trials. Designs include Zelen's (18) randomized consent design, Brewin and Bradley's (20) partially randomized patient-centered design, and Korn and Baumrind's (21) partial...

  18. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also examined. Methods A convenience sample of adolescents (n = 145; 61% minority, 52% male attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed baseline surveys. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention pilot trial. Mixed model multivariate analyses procedures were used to assess associations of interest. Results Daily cigarette smoking was reported by 36% of students. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with consumption of regular soda (p = 0.019, high-fat foods (p = 0.037, and fast food restaurant use (p = 0.002. Alcohol (p = 0.005 and marijuana use (p = 0.035 were positively associated with high-fat food intake. With increasing numbers of substances, a positive trend was observed in high-fat food intake (p = 0.0003. There were no significant associations between substance use and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Alternative high school students who use individual substances as well as multiple substances may be at high risk of unhealthful dietary practices. Comprehensive health interventions in alternative high schools have the potential of reducing health-compromising behaviors that are prevalent among this group of students. This study adds to the limited research examining substance use and diet among at-risk youth. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01315743

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the Pediatrics with Leukemia: A Narrative Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Miladinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor using of complementary and alternative medicine methods (CAM in the leukemia pediatrics than other types of cancer, we have two great challenges; first challenge is their safety and risks and second challenge is study gaps in this field. Regarding to these challenges, this study is a narrative review of some CAM methods in the leukemia pediatrics from the perspective of their safety, risks and study gaps.Materials and MethodsIn this narrative review study searched both international electronic databases including ISI Web of science, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ISC, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar and also, Iranian electronic databases including Magiran, Medlib and SID. Also, searches were performed separately in the specialized journals in the field of leukemia pediatrics and complementary and alternative medicine research.ResultsMusic therapy, gentle yoga movements, gentle massage types are quite safe for leukemia pediatrics. But, use of heavy yoga movements, massages with deep pressure, acupressure and acupuncture can be dangerous for leukemia pediatrics (risks of bleeding and or infection. Also, this study showed that, the number of investigations about the use of CAM in the leukemia pediatrics is very limited; especially in the field of yoga and acupuncture.ConclusionThe results of this study can be a basis both for chose of safe CAM method in these children and a basis for future studies on the basis of identified study gaps in this review study.

  20. Alternative oxidizers for strip coal mine blasting agents. [Including study of possible substitutes; 53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudweeks, W.B.; Collins, T.K.

    1979-03-14

    Since ammonium nitrate manufacture is dependent on natural gas, a shortage in natural gas could lead to a critical shortage in coal by limiting the availability of ammonium nitrate for blasting. The purpose of this study was to assess the future availability of ammonium nitrate and to evaluate the potential of alternative oxidizers not dependent upon natural gas for use in blasting agents. Increased storage capacities and rapidly increasing levels of relativey cheap imported ammonia appear to ensure the availability of adequate levels of ammonium nitrate in the near future. In the longer time frame, rising energy costs have increased the potential for basing ammonia production on alternative sources of hydrogen as well as obtaining natural gas from relatively unlimited unconventional sources. While still somewhat uncertain, such unconventional sources appear to have sufficient potential to ensure the availability of ammonium nitrate even long term. However, there are several oxidizers that could be considered as possible replacements for ammonium nitrate if needed. After a critical evaluation two possible alternatives are recommended for further study: the use of sodium nitrate as a partial replacement and the development of a new type of blasting agent based upon water as the main oxidizer.

  1. Theoretical study of OCCHCN as a potential alternative insulation gas for SF6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanoketene (OCCHCN has been reported as a potential alternative insulation gas for SF6 in Patent US0135817. Stationary point equilibrium geometries on the ground state have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p level, and the harmonic vibration frequencies are calculated at the same level. The HOMO-LUMO energy gaps (Eg, ionization potentials (IP, and electron affinities (EA of the studied molecules are obtained. The minimum energy path (MEP is obtained by the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC theory, and the energetic information is further refined by QCISD(T (single-point method. The results show that OCCHCN can be used as SF6 alternative insulation gas in high voltage equipment according to potential energy surface analysis. As the isomerization and the cleavage reactions potential barriers are lower than the Eg and IP values, resulting in OCCHCN is not easy to be ionized and excited.

  2. Study on ultra-precision magnetic abrasive finishing process using low frequency alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinzhong, E-mail: wjz.0926@163.com; Zou, Yanhua, E-mail: yanhua@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Sugiyama, Hitoshi, E-mail: sugiyama@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp

    2015-07-15

    We proposed a new ultra-precision magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) process using low frequency alternating magnetic field in this paper. Magnetic cluster themselves may produce the up and down movement change under alternating magnetic force. The movement may not only promote the dispersion of micro-magnetic particles, but also improve stirring effect and cross-cutting effects of the abrasives, achieving circulation and update to ensure the stability of grinding tools. This process is considered to be able to efficiently apply in ultra-precision finishing of plane and complicated micro-surfaces. In this study, we investigated the effects of alternating magnetic field on magnetic field distribution, finishing force and abrasive behavior. Furthermore, a set of experimental devices have been designed for finishing SUS304 stainless steel plate. The present work is aimed at understanding finishing particularity of this process and studying impacts of important process parameters namely grinding fluid, rotational speed of magnetic pole, current frequency on change in finish surface and material removal. Experimental results indicate that the process can realize ultra-precision finishing of plane by using oily grinding fluid. In the present research, the surface roughness of SUS304 stainless steel plate was improved from 240.24 nm to 4.38 nm by this process. - Highlights: • We investigated magnetic field distribution in processing region. • Magnetic cluster can produce a fluctuating finishing force in alternating magnetic field. • Oily grinding fluid is more applicable to this process. • Few nanometer finish surface can be obtained by this process.

  3. Development and validation of an alternative disturbed skin model by mechanical abrasion to study drug penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schlupp

    2014-01-01

    Skin permeation of the three substances was increased in tape-stripped and abraded skin compared to untreated skin due to the reduced barrier integrity. Enhancement of drug uptake was highest for the most hydrophilic substance, caffeine, followed by sorbic acid and lipophilic testosterone. No significant difference in drug uptake studies was observed between the new abrasion method with an aluminum-coated sponge and the tape-stripping method. The obtained results demonstrate that this abrasion method is an alternative way to achieve a disturbed skin barrier for drug and chemical uptake studies.

  4. Use of alternative medicine for hypertension in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Nuwaha, Fred; Musinguzi, Geofrey

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of alternative medicine for chronic diseases such as hypertension is common in low as well as high income countries. This study estimated the proportion of people who were aware of their hypertension that use alternative medicine and identified factors predicting the use of alternative medicine. Methods In a community based cross sectional survey among people ≥ 15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda 258 people aware of their hypertension were questioned about use of ...

  5. Feasibility Study of Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Permanent Magnet Alternator Start Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Tokars, Roger P.

    2006-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission was a proposed, (recently cancelled) long duration science mission to study three moons of Jupiter: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. One design of the JIMO spacecraft used a nuclear heat source in conjunction with a Brayton rotating machine to generate electrical power for the electric thrusters and the spacecraft bus. The basic operation of the closed cycle Brayton system was as follows. The working fluid, a heliumxenon gas mixture, first entered a compressor, then went through a recuperator and hot-side heat exchanger, then expanded across a turbine that drove an alternator, then entered the cold-side of the recuperator and heat exchanger and finally returned to the compressor. The spacecraft was to be launched with the Brayton system off-line and the nuclear reactor shut down. Once the system was started, the helium-xenon gas would be circulated into the heat exchangers as the nuclear reactors were activated. Initially, the alternator unit would operate as a motor so as to drive the turbine and compressor to get the cycle started. This report investigated the feasibility of the start up sequence of a permanent magnet (PM) machine, similar in operation to the alternator unit, without any position or speed feedback sensors ("sensorless") and with a variable load torque. It is found that the permanent magnet machine can start with sensorless control and a load torque of up to 30 percent of the rated value.

  6. Parametric Study to Characterize Low Activity Waste Tank Heat Removal Alternatives for Phase 1 Specification Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRENARD, C.E.

    2000-09-11

    Alternative for removing heat from Phase 1, low-activity waste feed double-shell tanks using the ventilation systems have been analyzed for Phase 1 waste feed delivery. The analysis was a parametric study using a model that predicted the waste temperatures for a range of primary and annulus ventilation system flow rates. The analysis was performed to determine the ventilation flow required to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding the Limiting Conditions for Operation limits during normal operation and the Safety Limits during off-normal events.

  7. A Preliminary Study: Do Alternative Certification Route Programs Develop the Necessary Skills and Knowledge in Assistive Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sherry Mee; Cihak, David F.; Judge, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    A large number of special education teachers in the United States are prepared in alternative certification programs and insufficient empirical information exists regarding their knowledge of assistive technology. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of alternatively licensed special education teachers' knowledge,…

  8. School Process and Teacher Job Satisfaction at Alternative Schools: A Multilevel Study Using SASS 2007-08 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Izumi, Masashi; Gao, Xingyuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between public alternative schools' teacher job satisfaction and school processes. Based on a multilevel analysis of the national School and Staffing Survey 2007-08 data, we found that among the seven school processes, public alternative schools' administrative support, staff collegiality, career and working…

  9. Development and validation of an alternative disturbed skin model by mechanical abrasion to study drug penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlupp, P; Weber, M; Schmidts, T; Geiger, K; Runkel, F

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics for dermal application are usually tested on healthy skin, although the primary permeation barrier, the stratum corneum, is often impaired by skin diseases or small skin lesions, especially on the hands. These skin conditions can considerably influence the permeation of chemicals and drugs. Furthermore, risk assessment for example of nanoparticles should be performed under various skin conditions to reflect the true circumstances. Therefore, an alternative and reproducible method for a high throughput of skin samples with impaired skin barrier was developed and verified by skin permeation studies (25 h) of caffeine, sorbic acid and testosterone compared to healthy (untreated) and tape-stripped skin. Skin barrier disruption was controlled by TEWL measurement. Skin permeation of the three substances was increased in tape-stripped and abraded skin compared to untreated skin due to the reduced barrier integrity. Enhancement of drug uptake was highest for the most hydrophilic substance, caffeine, followed by sorbic acid and lipophilic testosterone. No significant difference in drug uptake studies was observed between the new abrasion method with an aluminum-coated sponge and the tape-stripping method. The obtained results demonstrate that this abrasion method is an alternative way to achieve a disturbed skin barrier for drug and chemical uptake studies.

  10. The relationship between marriage and family therapists and complementary and alternative medicine approaches: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becvar, Dorothy S; Caldwell, Karen L; Winek, Jon L

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we delineate the qualitative phase of a mixed-method research study focused on understanding the relationship between Clinical Members of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) and complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Based on an analysis of the data derived from telephone interviews with 54 respondents, we describe four themes: definitional issues, depth of awareness of CAM, fit with MFT, and ethical considerations. Our discussion focuses on the findings of this phase, considerations from the quantitative phase, and reflections on the research study as a whole. While acknowledging the limitations of the study, we conclude that the growing awareness of and involvement with CAM approaches and practitioners among MFTs suggest a need for further education for both professionals and clients. We also note the importance of additional research support for the use of CAM practices.

  11. Are some "safer alternatives" hazardous as PBTs? The case study of new flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro

    2016-04-05

    Some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), as PBDEs, are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic (PBT) and are restricted/prohibited under various legislations. They are replaced by "safer" flame retardants (FRs), such as new BFRs or organophosphorous compounds. However, informations on the PBT behaviour of these substitutes are often lacking. The PBT assessment is required by the REACH regulation and the PBT chemicals should be subjected to authorization. Several new FRs, proposed and already used as safer alternatives to PBDEs, are here screened by the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-Insubria), new software for the development/validation of QSAR models. The results, obtained directly from the chemical structure for the three studied characteristics altogether, were compared with those from the US-EPA PBT Profiler: the two different approaches are in good agreement, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in these screenings. A priority list of the most harmful FRs, predicted in agreement by the two modelling tools, has been proposed, highlighting that some supposed "safer alternatives" are detected as intrinsically hazardous for their PBT properties. This study also shows that the PBT Index could be a valid tool to evaluate appropriate and safer substitutes, a priori from the chemical design, in a benign by design approach, avoiding unnecessary synthesis and tests.

  12. Methodologic considerations in the study of diet as part of complementary and alternative medicine modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Mary E S; Wargovich, Michael J; Hebert, James R

    2004-01-01

    Diet is an essential component of most comprehensive health systems. Food figures prominently in the consciousness of most individuals, and the sensations of taste and smell are fundamentally important in human emotion. Complex configurations of dietary sanctions and strictures exist in virtually every human society, providing additional force to the power of diet. A wide variety of epidemiologic and laboratory-based studies have implicated a number of specific dietary factors in health and disease, with the former producing much in the way of equivocal evidence on most diet-health relationships and the latter often focusing so narrowly as to call into question the relevance of findings to human health. Assessing the role of diet as an important component of complementary and alternative medical treatment and preventive strategies will require a broad understanding of methodologic issues. Careful consideration of what is required to answer substantive questions in this intriguing and important area also will serve to advance the study of complementary and alternative modalities more generally.

  13. Preliminary studies of alternative feed additives for broilers: Alternanthera brasiliana extract, propolis extract and linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MW Biavatti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of alternative treatments using fluidextracts of Alternanthera brasiliana, propolis resin and linseed oil on the performance and blood biochemistry of broilers was evaluated. The study was done with five treatments: basal diet (negative control; basal diet + 40 ppm avylamicin and 120 ppm monensin (positive control; basal diet + A. brasiliana extract (180 mL/200 kg of feed; basal diet + propolis extract (200 mL/200 kg of feed and basal diet + linseed oil (2.5% replacing soybean oil. Propolis and A. brasiliana extracts improved broiler performance from 14 to 21 days, whereas linseed oil had no effect. The findings of this experiment revealed that A. brasiliana and propolis extracts can be used as antimicrobials, but further studies are necessary to find the best concentration in broiler diets.

  14. Carbon offsets as an economic alternative to large-scale logging: a case study in Guyana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, T. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Kiker, C. [Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, PO Box 110240, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic viability of carbon-offset projects that avoid logging in Guyana's forests. The results of this case study illustrate the cost effectiveness of alternative land-use options that reduce deforestation and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This analysis demonstrates that using Guyana's rainforests for climate change mitigation can generate equivalent revenue to that of conventional large-scale logging without detrimental environmental impacts. At a 12% discount rate, the break-even price for carbon is estimated to be about US$ 0.20/tC. This estimate falls toward the low range of carbon prices for existing carbon offset projects that avoid deforestation.

  15. Biodiversity loss and turnover in alternative states in the Mediterranean Sea: a case study on meiofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchelli, Silvia; Buschi, Emanuela; Danovaro, Roberto; Pusceddu, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea hard-bottom macroalgal meadows may switch to alternative and less-productive barrens grounds, as a result of sea urchins overgrazing. Meiofauna (and especially nematodes) represent key components of benthic ecosystems, are highly-diversified, sensitive to environmental change and anthropogenic impacts, but, so-far, have been neglected in studies on regime shifts. We report here that sedimentary organic matter contents, meiofaunal taxa richness and community composition, nematode α- and β-biodiversity vary significantly between alternative macroalgal and barren states. The observed differences are consistent in six areas spread across the Mediterranean Sea, irrespective of barren extent. Our results suggest also that the low biodiversity levels in barren states are the result of habitat loss/fragmentation, which is associated also with a lower availability of trophic resources. Furthermore, differences in meiofaunal and nematode abundance, biomass and diversity between macroalgal meadow and barren states persist when the latter is not fully formed, or consists of patches interspersed in macroalgal meadows. Since barren grounds are expanding rapidly along the Mediterranean Sea and meiofauna are a key trophic component in marine ecosystems, we suggest that the extension and persistence of barrens at the expenses of macroalgal meadows could also affect resilience of higher trophic level.

  16. Pulse Intravenous Clomipramine as an alternative antidepressant treatment to ECT: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Liz Persson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the antidepressant effect of a single pulse dose of intravenous clomipramine (200 mg i.v. followed by oral administration as an alternative method to electroconvulsive therapy. Methods: Twenty-one inpatients (8 male, 13 female with major depression were included. Depression severity was measured by Montgomery Asberg Rating Scale (MADRS and Clinical Global Impression severity scale (CGI-S before the pulse dose and 1 week after. The day after the pulse dose, the patient was medicated with 75 mg of oral clomipramine and from day two with 150 mg clomipramine daily. Results: The MADRS score dropped with 39% ± 22% and the CGI score with 28% ± 19% in one week. The improvement of the MADRS score after one week was 13.1 (C.I.9.5-17.0. CGI-ratings dropped from a mean of 5.5 (SD 1.2 to 3.9 (SD 1.1, an improvement of 28% ± 19%.(C.I. 1.0-2.1. Both improvements were significant (p<000.1. Conclusions: Single pulse dose clomipramine administration ameliorates depressive symptoms, and may be an alternative to ECT.

  17. Biodiversity loss and turnover in alternative states in the Mediterranean Sea: a case study on meiofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchelli, Silvia; Buschi, Emanuela; Danovaro, Roberto; Pusceddu, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea hard-bottom macroalgal meadows may switch to alternative and less-productive barrens grounds, as a result of sea urchins overgrazing. Meiofauna (and especially nematodes) represent key components of benthic ecosystems, are highly-diversified, sensitive to environmental change and anthropogenic impacts, but, so-far, have been neglected in studies on regime shifts. We report here that sedimentary organic matter contents, meiofaunal taxa richness and community composition, nematode α- and β-biodiversity vary significantly between alternative macroalgal and barren states. The observed differences are consistent in six areas spread across the Mediterranean Sea, irrespective of barren extent. Our results suggest also that the low biodiversity levels in barren states are the result of habitat loss/fragmentation, which is associated also with a lower availability of trophic resources. Furthermore, differences in meiofaunal and nematode abundance, biomass and diversity between macroalgal meadow and barren states persist when the latter is not fully formed, or consists of patches interspersed in macroalgal meadows. Since barren grounds are expanding rapidly along the Mediterranean Sea and meiofauna are a key trophic component in marine ecosystems, we suggest that the extension and persistence of barrens at the expenses of macroalgal meadows could also affect resilience of higher trophic level. PMID:27708343

  18. Numerical Study on Plume Interaction Above An Alternating Diffuser in Stagnant Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Cui-ping; LEE Joseph H.W.; LIU Shu-guang; GU Jie

    2006-01-01

    The plume interaction above an alternating diffuser in stagnant water is studied with 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) combined with a buoyancy-extended k-ε model. The steady three-dimensional turbulent flow and temperature fields are computed by use of the finite volume method on a non-uniform high resolution orthogonal grid. The numerical predictions demonstrate a generic flow pattern for different turbulent heated jet discharges: the buoyant jets on each side of the diffuser first merge to form an essentially two-dimensional plume which bends back toward the diffuser centerline due to a low pressure cavity. In general, an under-pressure exists in the cavity until the plumes merge; the pressure increases to slightly positive afterwards. Two-dimensionality of the scalar and flow field is attained much later than the point of zero pressure. The position of merging point is governed by mainly four parameters - the discharge densimetric Froude number, the port diameter and space, and the horizontal distance between alternating jet nozzles. A formula from numerical simulations is obtained through regression analysis and it is used to predict the position of plume merging point. The predicted temperature fields are comparable to previous experiments.

  19. Evaluation of microlithographic performance of `deep UV’ resists: Synthesis, and 2D NMR studies on alternating `high ortho’ novolak resins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maneesh Sharma; Anant A Naik; P Raghunathan; S V Eswaran

    2012-03-01

    Lithographic evaluation of a `deep UV’ negative photoresist is discussed along with the synthesis of an alternating `high-ortho’ novolak resin. 2-D NMR studies (COSY, NOESY, HSQC, HMBC) on this resin are also discussed.

  20. Diluted isoflurane as a suitable alternative for diethyl ether for rat anaesthesia in regular toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagate, Toshiaki; Chino, Tomonobu; Nishiyama, Chizuru; Okuhara, Daisuke; Tahara, Toru; Maruyama, Yoshimasa; Kasahara, Hiroko; Takashima, Kayoko; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Motokawa, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Shin-ichi; Kuroda, Junji

    2007-11-01

    Despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both animals and humans, diethyl ether is an agent long used in Japan in the anaesthesia jar method of rat anaesthetises. However, in response to a recent report from the Science Council of Japan condemning diethyl ether as acceptable practice, we searched for an alternative rat anaesthesia method that provided data continuous with pre-existing regular toxicology studies already conducted under diethyl ether anaesthesia. For this, we examined two candidates; 30% isoflurane diluted with propylene glycol and pentobarbitone. Whereas isoflurane is considered to be one of the representatives of modern volatile anaesthetics, the method of propylene glycol-diluted 30% isoflurane used in this study was our modification of a recently reported method revealed to have several advantages as an inhalation anaesthesia. Intraperitoneal pentobarbitone has long been accepted as a humane method in laboratory animal anaesthesiology. These 2 modalities were scrutinized in terms of consistency of haematology and blood chemistry with previous results using ether. We found that pentobarbitone required a much longer induction time than diethyl ether, which is suspected to be the cause of fluctuations in several haematological and blood chemical results. Conversely, only calcium ion concentration showed a slight difference from traditional results in the case of 30% isoflurane. Additionally, serum prolactin and corticosterone levels indicated that 30% isoflurane induced less stress than ether, confirming that 30% isoflurane can both provide results consistent with diethyl ether, while at the same time remove its disadvantages. As such 30% isoflurane appears to be a strong alternative anaesthetic agent for future regular toxicology studies in Japan.

  1. Study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives for the exploitation of non conventional oil sands in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchonneau, Deborah [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    High energy prices and greenhouse gases reduction represent the main challenges the current worldwide energetic situation has to face. As a consequence, paradox strategies can be highlighted: oil prices are sufficiently high to exploit non conventional oil resources, like extra heavy oils and oil sands. But the production of these resources emits larger GHG than the conventional oil path and implies other major environmental issues (water management, risks of soil pollution, destruction of the boreal forest), incompatible with the rules validated by the protocol of Kyoto. At the light of the new greenhouse gases reduction regulation framework announced by the Canadian Federal government, this work focuses on the study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives applied to the non conventional oil sands exploitation in Canada. (author)

  2. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  3. Closure Alternatives for Municipal Waste Landfills.Study Case: Municipal Waste Landfill Medias,Sibiu County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHĂIESCU R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the environmental impact produced by municipal solid wastes has received specialattention. All new EU countries are involved in the process of implementation of the European Council Directive31/99/EC on the landfill of waste in the European Union. As consequence National legislation, adapted to fit the EUrequirements, focuses on integrated waste management and environmental control of municipal solid waste landfills,from start-up to closure and assimilation into the environment. In Romania, by Government decision, HG 349/2005,was established the obligatoriness of closing unconform waste landfills located in urban areas starting at July 2009. Asconsequence the owner of municipal waste landfill Medias started the proceedings of closure for the landfill. The aim ofthis study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the closure of the municipalsolid waste landfill Somard-Medias (Romania.

  4. Oxidative degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates in aqueous solution by ultrasonic irradiation: Mechanistic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duk Kyung, E-mail: dkim@aum.edu [Department of Physical Science, Auburn University Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 36117 (United States); O' Shea, Kevin E., E-mail: osheak@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Cooper, William J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Urban Water Research Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Widespread pollution has been associated with gasoline oxygenates of branched ethers methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl ether (TAME) which enter groundwater. The contaminated plume develops rapidly and treatment for the removal/destruction of these ethers is difficult when using conventional methods. Degradation of MTBE, with biological methods and advanced oxidation processes, are rather well known; however, fewer studies have been reported for degradation of alternative oxygenates. Degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates (DIPE, ETBE, and TAME) by ultrasonic irradiation in aqueous oxygen saturation was investigated to elucidate degradation pathways. Detailed degradation mechanisms are proposed for each gasoline oxygenate. The common major degradation pathways are proposed to involve abstraction of {alpha}-hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl radicals generated during ultrasound cavitation and low temperature pyrolytic degradation of ETBE and TAME. Even some of the products from {beta}-H abstraction overlap with those from high temperature pyrolysis, the effect of {beta}-H abstraction was not shown clearly from product study because of possible 1,5 H-transfer inside cavitating bubbles. Formation of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides was also determined during sonolysis. These data provide a better understanding of the degradation pathways of gasoline oxygenates by sonolysis in aqueous solutions. The approach may also serve as a model for others interested in the details of sonolysis. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasoline oxygenates (ETBE, TAME, DIPE) were completely degraded after 6 hours under ultrasonic irradiation in O{sub 2} saturation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The major degradation pathways were proposed to involve abstraction of {alpha}-hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl radicals and low temperature pyrolytic degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of {beta

  5. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model.

  6. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder and alternative medicine therapies among dentists of North India: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Health professionals especially the dental professional are the frequent targets of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM can be of some help in managing these MSD especially in. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CAM therapies as a treatment modality for MSD management among dental professionals of north India. Materials and Methods: Registered dentist of North Indian origin, India (n = 3598 were included in the study. The questionnaire was sent to all the dentists which consisted of the demographic profile, MSD in the past year, CAM therapies utilization and opinion about CAM therapies. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21 and data were presented in tabular and graphic form. Test of significance was done using chi-square statistics with P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: A response rate of 80% (n = 2879 was obtained, and all complained of MDS in some or the other part of their life. The use of CAM was reported among 70% (n = 2015 of the dentist who suffered from MSD. Other dentists either used conventional treatment or did not use anything. Conclusion: As the name implies, alternative medical systems is a category that extends beyond a single modality and refers to an entire system of theory and practice that developed separately from conventional medicine. CAM should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that work are systematically distinguished from those that do not. In addition, the use of CAM treatments should be based on evidence of effectiveness and safety as demonstrated in randomized clinical trials.

  7. Preventing long-lasting fear recovery using bilateral alternating sensory stimulation: A translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, H; El-Khoury-Malhame, M; Wilhelm, F H; Michael, T; Beetz, E M; Roques, J; Reynaud, E; Courtin, J; Khalfa, S; Herry, C

    2016-05-03

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating and prevalent psychological disorder. It is characterized by highly distressing intrusive trauma memories that are partly explained by fear conditioning. Despite efficient therapeutic approaches, a subset of PTSD patients displays spontaneous recurrence of traumatic memories after successful treatment. The development of animal behavioral models mimicking the individual variability in treatment outcome for PTSD patients represent therefore an important challenge as it allows for the identification of predicting factors of resilience or susceptibility to relapse. However, to date, only few animal behavioral models of long-lasting fear recovery have been developed and their predictive validity has not been tested directly. The objectives of this study were twofold. First we aimed to develop a simple animal behavioral model of long-lasting fear recovery based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, which recapitulates the heterogeneity of fear responses observed in PTSD patients after successful treatment. Second we aimed at testing the predictive validity of our behavioral model and used to this purpose a translational approach based (i) on the demonstration of the efficiency of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce conditioned fear responses in PTSD patients and (ii) on the implementation in our behavioral model of an electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid which mimics the core feature of EMDR. Our data indicate that electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid during extinction learning alleviates long-lasting fear recovery of conditioned fear responses and dramatically reduces inter-individual variability. These results demonstrate the face and predictive validity of our animal behavioral model and provide an interesting tool to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of long-lasting fear recovery.

  8. A Correlational Study on Attachment Style and GPA of Students at an Alternative Education Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Cindy L.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents in America are dropping out of school in alarming rates. In the school year 2009-2010, 514,238 adolescents dropped out of high school. While alternative education centers have been created to meet the needs of these individuals, they are not always successful as evidenced by a graduation rate below 5% in several alternative centers in…

  9. Evaluation of Colocasia esculenta Starch as an Alternative Tablet Excipient to Maize Starch: Assessment by Preformulation and Formulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma. R; Venkat Reddy. P; Samba Shiva Rao. A

    2015-01-01

    Starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta plant was studied as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to maize and potato starch. The Colocasia esculenta starch has been evaluated by series of tests as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia before being used for evaluation. It was tested along with maize and potato starch as an alternative excipient by performing battery of preformulation and formulation tests. The results obtained for Colocasia esculenta starch was comparable with maize starch an...

  10. A Comprehensive Study of Internal Distraction Plating, an Alternative Method for Distal Radius Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavani, Kinjal J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of highly comminuted distal radius fractures still remains a major treatment challenge. Articular comminution and compromised bone quality are the culprits. One novel approach is the technique of Internal Distraction Plating which involves “bridging” the fracture with the use of a standard 3.5mm plate applied dorsally in distraction from the radius, proximal to the fracture, to the long finger metacarpal distally, bypassing the comminuted segment. The plate is removed once fracture union has been achieved. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the role of internal dorsal distraction plating as an alternative method in the treatment of fracture distal radius in terms of special indications, technique and outcome. Materials and Methods This study was a prospective longitudinal study on 20 patients (mean age 62 years) treated with internal distraction plating for comminuted distal radius fractures with specific indications. Regular follow-ups with standard radiographs and analysis were done upto 24 months. Functional outcome were assessed by DASH Score and the Gartland and Werley demerit score. Results At final follow-up, all fractures had united and X-rays showed mean palmar tilt of 7°, positive ulnar variance of 0.5mm, radial inclination of 18° and average loss of 2mm of radial height. Mean range of motion values for wrist flexion 46°, extension 50°, pronation 79° and supination 77° At final follow-up, the mean DASH score was 32. 85% patient had excellent to good result as per Gartland and Werley demerit score. This construct has yield satisfactory clinical and radiographic results with these very challenging injuries. Conclusion The purpose of this study was to report the radiographic and the functional outcomes of treatment with this technique. External fixator and volar plating in communited distal end radius fractures are not always satisfactory in old age with osteoporotic bone because of

  11. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH{sub 3}. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using

  12. Quantitative study of electrophoretic and electroosmotic enhancement during alternating current iontophoresis across synthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guang; Li, S Kevin; Peck, Kendall D; Zhu, Honggang; Higuchi, William I

    2004-12-01

    One of the primary safety and tolerability limitations of direct current iontophoresis is the potential for electrochemical burns associated with the necessary current densities and/or application times required for effective treatment. Alternating current (AC) transdermal iontophoresis has the potential to eliminate electrochemical burns that are frequently observed during direct current transdermal iontophoresis. Although it has been demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of skin can be increased by applying low-to-moderate AC voltages, transdermal transport phenomena and enhancement under AC conditions have not been systematically studied and are not well understood. The aim of the present work was to study the fundamental transport mechanisms of square-wave AC iontophoresis using a synthetic membrane system. The model synthetic membrane used was a composite Nuclepore membrane. AC frequencies ranging from 20 to 1000 Hz and AC fields ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 V/membrane were investigated. A charged permeant, tetraethyl ammonium, and a neutral permeant, arabinose, were used. The transport studies showed that flux was enhanced by increasing the AC voltage and decreasing AC frequency. Two theoretical transport models were developed: one is a homogeneous membrane model; the other is a heterogeneous membrane model. Experimental transport data were compared with computer simulations based on these models. Excellent agreement between model predictions and experimental data was observed when the data were compared with the simulations from the heterogeneous membrane model.

  13. Studies on a frustrated Heisenberg spin chain with alternating ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Shaon; Durga Prasad Goli, V M L; Sen, Diptiman; Ramasesha, S

    2014-07-09

    We study Heisenberg spin-1/2 and spin-1 chains with alternating ferromagnetic (J(F)(1)) and antiferromagnetic (J(A)(1)) nearest-neighbor interactions and a ferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor interaction (J(F)(2)). In this model frustration is present due to the non-zero J(F)(2). The model with site spin s behaves like a Haldane spin chain, with site spin 2s in the limit of vanishing J(F)(2)and large J(F)(1)/J(A)(1). We show that the exact ground state of the model can be found along a line in the parameter space. For fixed J(F)(1), the phase diagram in the space of J(A)(1)-J(F)(2) is determined using numerical techniques complemented by analytical calculations. A number of quantities, including the structure factor, energy gap, entanglement entropy and zero temperature magnetization, are studied to understand the complete phase diagram. An interesting and potentially important feature of this model is that it can exhibit a macroscopic magnetization jump in the presence of a magnetic field; we study this using an effective Hamiltonian.

  14. A STUDY ON LIMITATION OF GOVERNMENT INITIATIVE MODEL FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV PROMOTION IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghun Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese responsibility for reducing Greenhouse Gas or carbon dioxide emission increases continuously. Chinese government suggested two targets; Alternative Fuel Vehicle output volume 500 thousand and AFV market share 5% by the end of 2011. However any of two targets did not come true. Therefore this study accessed the question, ‘why Chinese government initiative model for AFV promotion has been so poor?’ This study reviewed the transition process for AFV policies in China and made a structural analysis for three key policies since 2009. As a result the number of articles for related industries or factor endowments was relatively more than firm strategy or demand conditions. Also this study accessed the AFV strategy of Six SOEs from the perspective of social responsibility. Six SOEs have more concentrated on electric vehicle rather than hybrid vehicle with following the government leadership. However major EV or HEV models of them mostly were made by Joint Ventures being under control of foreign makers and the JVs have actually controlled over AFV business. So the limitation of Chinese government initiative model resulted from supplier-centric approach with targeting for public transportation and institution consumer, and it caused a failure to create the demand conditions of general customers.

  15. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: the case study of a new Italian incineration line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, A; Mazzi, A; Niero, M; Boatto, T

    2009-09-01

    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis).

  16. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue.

  17. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  18. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF ECONOMIC ALTERNATIVES FOR THE ELDERLY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podoabă Lucia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of an applied, broad, based popular empirical procedures (such as natural observation scientific research. The positivist research methodology used was based on consensual-inductive system (Locke, which is why we studied different specialists’ opinions on the use of EU funds for the elderly in Romania or employer contributions to voluntary private funds, necessary to formulate the problem of generating relevant information. The used research strategies were the comparative and longitudinal ones, as we analyzed the time evolution in time of the number of pensioners and employees in Romania, in the main time with the EU funding for the elderly, to determine Romania's concrete economic alternatives to support this category of populations. Causality assumptions about the relationship efficient use of EU funds-beneficiaries was inductively built in this paper (by analyzing the European funds management issue in Romania, causally (by cause and effect explanation of the studied phenomenon, deductively, logically and subjectively (on the basis of existence and perpetuation of fund premise conflict between strategic absorption of European funds and regional development. The qualitative approach of the phenomenon studied was made by collecting information (using the mediate data collection technique has allowed relevant findings and practical solutions necessary for all those involved in this concerted action for the elderly, which affects us all.

  19. Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as an alternative host to study fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patrícia Canteri; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Castanheira, Gabriel Marcondes; Bocate, Karla Paiva; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Ito, Fabio Augusto; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Costa, Idessânia Nazareth; Mora-Montes, Hector Manuel; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio

    2015-11-01

    Models of host–pathogen interactions are crucial for the analysis of microbial pathogenesis. In this context, invertebrate hosts, including Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Galleria mellonella (moth), have been used to study the pathogenesis of fungi and bacteria. Each of these organisms offers distinct benefits in elucidating host–pathogen interactions. In this study,we present a newinvertebrate infection model to study fungal infections: the Tenebrio molitor (beetle) larvae. Here we performed T. molitor larvae infection with one of two important fungal human pathogens, Candida albicans or Cryptococcus neoformans, and analyzed survival curves and larva infected tissues.We showed that increasing concentrations of inoculum of both fungi resulted in increased mortality rates, demonstrating the efficiency of the method to evaluate the virulence of pathogenic yeasts. Additionally, following 12 h post-infection, C. albicans formsmycelia, spreading its hyphae through the larva tissue,whilst GMS stain enabled the visualization of C. neoformans yeast and theirmelanin capsule. These larvae are easier to cultivate in the laboratory than G. mellonella larvae, and offer the same benefits. Therefore, this insect model could be a useful alternative tool to screen clinical pathogenic yeast strainswith distinct virulence traits or different mutant strains.

  20. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  1. Use of multi-criteria decision analysis in regulatory alternatives analysis: a case study of lead free solder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Sinsheimer, Peter J; Blake, Ann; Linkov, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Regulators are implementing new programs that require manufacturers of products containing certain chemicals of concern to identify, evaluate, and adopt viable, safer alternatives. Such programs raise the difficult question for policymakers and regulated businesses of which alternatives are "viable" and "safer." To address that question, these programs use "alternatives analysis," an emerging methodology that integrates issues of human health and environmental effects with technical feasibility and economic impact. Despite the central role that alternatives analysis plays in these programs, the methodology itself is neither well-developed nor tailored to application in regulatory settings. This study uses the case of Pb-based bar solder and its non-Pb-based alternatives to examine the application of 2 multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods to alternatives analysis: multi-attribute utility analysis and outranking. The article develops and evaluates an alternatives analysis methodology and supporting decision-analysis software for use in a regulatory context, using weighting of the relevant decision criteria generated from a stakeholder elicitation process. The analysis produced complete rankings of the alternatives, including identification of the relative contribution to the ranking of each of the highest level decision criteria such as human health impacts, technical feasibility, and economic feasibility. It also examined the effect of variation in data conventions, weighting, and decision frameworks on the outcome. The results indicate that MCDA can play a critical role in emerging prevention-based regulatory programs. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods offer a means for transparent, objective, and rigorous analysis of products and processes, providing regulators and stakeholders with a common baseline understanding of the relative performance of alternatives and the trade-offs they present.

  2. An 11-year follow-up study of neonatal-onset, bath-induced alternating hemiplegia of childhood in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorpora, Gemma; Pavone, Piero; Polizzi, Agata; Cocuzza, Mariadonatella; Privitera, Michael; Pavone, Lorenzo; Ruggieri, Martino

    2012-05-01

    The authors previously reported on the initial manifestations in a set of female twins, who presented soon after birth with bath-induced paroxysmal events each time they were immersed in a warm water bath. These episodes progressively ceased by the age of 36 months, replaced by paroxysmal episodes of alternating hemiplegia unrelated to water immersion. By age 4 years, the twins developed the classic features of alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Clinical outcomes at the age of 11 years are now reported. Standard and video-electroencephalograms showed a large, slow background activity followed by lower amplitude waves without focal abnormalities or other abnormal findings. This represents the first report on (a) alternating hemiplegia of childhood started with bath-induced paroxysmal episodes; (b) this condition in monozygotic twins; and (c) an 11-year follow-up study in which the twins continue to experience episodes of alternating hemiplegia in the setting of baseline cognitive impairment without epileptic episodes.

  3. An Empirical Study on Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine Usage among Malaysian Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Murthy, Vasudeva; Mruthyunjaya, Anil Tumkur; Li Ann, Lim

    2015-01-01

    Usage of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) has gained popularity over the past few years. However, very little is known about TCAM use among Malaysian cancer patients. This study aimed to identify the determinants of TCAM usage among cancer patients with determination of relationships between demographic factors, patient satisfaction with conventional treatment, knowledge on TCAM and healthcare professional influence. Patient's perceptions towards TCAM were also determined. A simple random convenient sampling method was used to recruit 354 patients from Hospital Kuala Lumpur between February to April 2013. All were directly interviewed with a structured questionnaire. In this study, 172 respondents were TCAM users. There was no significant differences between demographic background of respondents in the usage of TCAM. Minimal correlation was found between patient satisfaction with the conventional treatment and usage of TCAM (r=0.091). A poor correlation was found between healthcare professional's influence and TCAM usage (r=-0.213) but the results suggested that increase in influence would decrease TCAM usage. Patient TCAM knowledge correlated negatively with the TCAM usage (r=-0.555) indicated that cancer patients are less likely to use TCAM when they have more TCAM knowledge. Healthcare professionals should be fully equipped with the necessary TCAM knowledge while maintaining patient satisfaction with the conventional treatment. They should also intervene on patient TCAM usage where a potential drug interaction or a harmful adverse event can occur.

  4. a Study on the Alternative Technology Using Unsm Instead of the Presetting Method for Torsion Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Kim, Min-Ho; Baek, Un-Bong; Pyoun, Young-Sik; Kim, Chang-Sik; Chi, Chong-Ho

    The torsion bar must be changed periodically due to its lack of durability and a phenomenon related to stress relaxation. Therefore technical development regarding the torsion bar's durability is urgently needed. In order to improve the fatigue life and durability of the dynamic components, new surface treatment technology such as ultrasonic shot peening, deep rolling, laser shock peening, etc. are developing widely. In this study, Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (UNSM) technology is applied as an advanced one to replace the presetting method (PM). UNSM and PM technology also induced the compressive residual stress on the surface layer of the torsion bar, which is the main improvement factor of fatigue life. DIN17221 material as a new MIL specification of torsion bar and SCM440 (as an alternative one to a old MIL-DTL-62567C) were processed with the UNSM technology to obtain the basic data and compare it between two, and then torsion fatigue tests of two materials were carried out to obtain the characteristics of torsion fatigue in this study.

  5. Alternating current cloud point extraction on a microchip: a comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoki; Takemura, Azusa; Sato, Kae

    2012-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of alternating current cloud point extraction (ACPE) on a microchip. ACPE is an extraction technique for preconcentration of membrane-associated biomolecules. To characterize and optimize ACPE, we carried out ACPE experiments under various experimental conditions including amplitude and frequency of applied voltages, flow velocity, and concentration of surfactant, analyte, and salt. We found that ACPE has an amplitude threshold (15 V(p-p)), above which the extraction was more efficient. The dependence of the extraction on frequency (>5 MHz) was insignificant. Efficient extraction was achieved when the velocity of the test solution was 0.10∼0.67 mm s⁻¹ and the concentration of surfactant was 0.10∼1.0%. In contrast, the extraction was independent of the concentration of analytes (0.20∼20 μmol dm⁻³). The technique was applicable to solutions with a salt concentration of 0.050∼0.15 mol dm⁻³ under temperature control of the devices. Solution temperature in ACPE was also studied. These results provide guidelines for use of the ACPE technique in microfluidic chemical and biochemical analyses.

  6. Photovoltaic system as an alternative source of electricity generation : a case study in Hashemite University, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etier, I. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Ababneh, M. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Mechatronics Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Approximately 97 per cent of the primary energy is imported in Jordan, of which 30 per cent is used to generate electrical energy. In response to increasing oil prices, renewable-energy sources are becoming increasingly viable in Jordan. As such, photovoltaic (PV) systems are gaining attention as an alternative source of energy. This paper presented a case study involving the design and simulation of a 10-kW photovoltaic system in Hashemite University, Jordan. The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using solar energy in Jordan using a grid-connected photovoltaic-system in an effort to encourage investment in this field. In addition, the site was selected because the campus is located in a desert area where the global radiation numbers are among the highest in the world; the campus has a great deal of safe building flat-roof areas to install solar panels; and most of the power demand occurs during the daytime so that implementing grid-connected PV system would contribute to a considerable savings in electricity. The paper discussed the PV system and described the system components. Actual and simulated meteorological data was used to define and optimize different parts of the system. It was concluded that future work might include improving system-efficiency and optimizing system components by investigating a new mechanism to keep the sun radiation vertical to solar-panels, or using newer technologies for solar cells and inverters. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  8. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vivek; Srivastava, Nikhil; Chandna, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Vital pulpotomy is a single-stage procedure of surgical amputation of the coronal portion of exposed vital pulp, usually as a means of preserving the vitality and function of the remaining radicular portion. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rates for ferric sulfate (FS), electrosurgery (ES) and laser pulpotomy in human primary molars. Materials and methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 30 primary molars indicated for pulpotomy in children aged 4 to 10 years were treated using either a FS (10 teeth), ES technique (10 teeth) and laser (10 teeth). Following the pulpotomy, the teeth were evaluated for clinical and radiographic success at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on the basis of the presence of pain, sinus, mobility, internal and external resorption, periapical radiolucency, calcification in the canal and bone loss. Statistical analysis: The data were assessed with Chi-square test. Results: After 12 months of follow-up, both clinical and radiographic success rates were 100% in the laser group but only 80% in both ES and FS groups. There was statistically significant difference between the success rates of three groups (p pulpotomy showed better clinical as well as radiographical results than ES and FS pulpotomy. Laser pulpotomy was also found superior in terms of operating time, patient cooperation, ease of use and pain. Although results of the study showed the failure rates for electrosurgical pulpotomy to be equal to those for FS pulpotomy, electrosurgical pulpotomy being a nonpharmacological technique considered more favorable. Further studies using larger sample size and longer evaluation periods are suggested. How to cite this article: Gupta G, Rana V, Srivastava N, Chandna P. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):18-21. PMID:26124576

  9. Atmospheric Photochemistry Studies of Pollutant Emissions from Transportation Vehicles Operating on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, H.; Sexton, K.; Yu, J.

    1998-07-01

    This project was undertaken with the goal of improving our ability to predict the changes in urban ozone resulting from the widespread use of alternative fuels in automobiles. This report presents the results in detail.

  10. LM-Tests for Linearity Against Smooth Transition Alternatives: A Bootstrap Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jonathan B.

    2004-01-01

    The universal method for testing linearity against smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) alternatives is the linearization of the STAR model around the null nuisance parameter value, and performing F-tests on polynomial regressions in the spirit of the RESET test. Polynomial regressors, however, are poor proxies for the nonlinearity associated with STAR processes, and are not consistent (asymptotic power of one) against STAR alternatives, let alone general deviations from the null. Moreover...

  11. Flame ignition studies of conventional and alternative jet fuels and surrogate components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning

    concentrations. As for the detailed high temperature oxidation chemistry, ignition of normal, branched, and cyclic alkane flames were found to be sensitive largely to H2/CO and C1-C4 small hydrocarbon chemistry, while for branched alkanes fuel-related reactions do have accountable effect on ignition due to the low rate of initial fuel decomposition that limits the overall reactions preceding ignition. Analyses of the computed flame structures revealed that the concentrations of ignition-promoting radicals such as H, HCO, C2H3, and OH, and ignition-inhibiting radicals such as C3H6, aC3H5, and CH3 are key to the occurrence of ignition. Finally, the ignition characteristics of conventional and alternative jet fuels were studied and were to correlate with the chemical classifications and diffusivities of the neat species that are present in the practical fuel.

  12. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  13. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  14. Hypersensitivity reaction studies of a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Cheng, Guang; Du, Yuan; Ye, Liang; Chen, Wenzhong; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Tian; Tian, Jingwei; Fu, Fenghua

    2013-03-01

    The commercial drug paclitaxel (Taxol) may introduce hypersensitivity reactions associated with the polyethoxylated castor oil-ethanol solvent. To overcome these problems, we developed a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation, known as Lipusu. In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to compare the safety profiles of Lipusu and Taxol, with special regard to hypersensitivity reactions. First, Swiss mice were used to determine the lethal dosages, and then to evaluate hypersensitivity reactions, followed by histopathological examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of serum SC5b-9 and lung histamine. Additionally, healthy human serum was used to analyze in vitro complement activation. Finally, an MTT assay was used to determine the in vitro anti-proliferation activity. Our data clearly showed that Lipusu displayed a much higher safety margin and did not induce hypersensitivity or hypersensitivity-related lung lesions, which may be associated with the fact that Lipusu did not activate complement or increase histamine release in vivo. Moreover, Lipusu did not promote complement activation in healthy human serum in vitro, and demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cells, similar to that of Taxol. Therefore, the improved formulation of paclitaxel, which exhibited a much better safety profile and comparable cytotoxic activity to Taxol, may bring a number of benefits to cancer patients.

  15. Systematic study of the structure of alternate pyromellitimide-PEO copolymers: Influence of the chain flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurado, David [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire Organique and Hybride, DRFMC/SPrAM/CEA Grenoble, UMR CEA-CNRS-UJF 5819, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Curtet, Jean Pierre; Bee, Marc [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique (UMR CNRS-UJF-5588) Universite J. Fourier, Grenoble I, Domaine Universitaire, B.P. 87 38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Michot, Christophe [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C JJ7 (Canada); Armand, Michel [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C JJ7 (Canada); Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, UMR 6007 CNRS, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2007-12-31

    The structure of a family of copolyimides in which are alternating stiff/redox pyromellitimide units and flexible/solvating polyethyleneoxide (PEO) strands were studied by using wide angle and small angle X-ray scattering techniques and is fully discussed. It is shown that the rich variety of structures exhibited by these compounds can be understood by considering the dramatic change of flexibility of the chain induced by the variation of the length of the PEO strand compared to that of the pyromellimide segment. In this respect, concerning the compounds which exhibit fully amorphous structures a better understanding of their structural behavior can be obtained in the framework of Flory's theory of semi-rigid polymers. In this approach, the degree of flexibility of the chain is mainly resulting from the relative amount of flexible units constituting the repetition unit of the polymer chain. The final structural mode adopted by each compound in the solid state is then directly a consequence of this intrinsic property of the chain. The introduction of a lithium salt in contact with the copolymer chains induces some structure changes which can also be explained by the modification of the degree of flexibility of the chain. It is found that the best performances in terms of electroactivity and mixed conduction are precisely obtained with the only compound which keeps full amorphicity in absence and in presence of the lithium salt. (author)

  16. Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardi Murachman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasohol is a mixture of premium petrol (gasoline with alcohol, in this case ethanol. The use of gasohol can reduce fuel consumption without having to modify the existing engine. Therefore, this research is conducted to study the characteristics and performance of gasohol in various mixing ratios, which includes analysis of physical properties and the use of gasohol in the machine. Results show that the addition of technical ethanol at 7.0169%v increases the value of gasohol vapor pressure on the value of 8.6682 psi (7.7 psi for regular gasoline. Gasohol with technical ethanol content above 30%v decreases vapor pressure, promotes phase separation, and causes a sharp drop in temperature from 40%v distillation. In term of corrosivity, gasohol with up to 50%v ethanol content has the same corrosion level with regular gasoline, which is corrosion level 1A. Based on gasohol characteristics test, it is known that gasohol with technical ethanol content below 20%v can be used as a fuel substitute for gasoline. Real-time performance test of gasohol in engines has shown that the addition of ethanol content in gasohol tend to increase the engine power at a certain compression ratio, but it also increases fuel consumption because the heat value of ethanol is lower than gasoline. Machine in gasohol with ethanol content below 20%v can operate smoothly without having to modify the engine. Based on the studies that have been done, gasohol in the range of 10%v ethanol content is well-functioned as a substitute for gasoline fuel and meets fuel specifications required by the General Director of Oil and Gas. The feasibility of using gasohol as an alternative fuel can be studied further.

  17. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  18. Patella spp. as na alternative to Mytilus spp in marine pollution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pérez-Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most widely used species for marine pollution studies is mussel, Mytilus spp., as it is a filter feeder, sessile, easy to get and present in most worldwide coasts. However, sometimes it is necessary to have an alternative for areas where mussels are scarce or even absent. Patella spp. could be a useful substitute to Mytilus as these organisms have already been used in some pollution studies (Bartolomé, 2011 and both groups have similar characteristics except for the feeding strategy that in limpets is based on grazing on the small algae that grow on the rocks where they live. For this study, four sampling sites where selected: two in Galicia (Ría de Arousa and Ría de Ferrol and two in the Bay of Biscay (Suances and Fuenterrabía. In the four sampling sites both mussels and limpets were collected and 12 parent PAHs were analysed by means of HPLC and fluorescence detector with programmable wavelength (Viñas 2002. The method is subject to a strict quality control that guarantees the quality of the data. Mussels always present a higher PAH content than limpets sampled in the same area. When comparing the value for the sum of PAHs, it is shown that the maximum value measured in limpets (26.0 µg/kg d.w. in Arousa is less than the minimum value measured in mussels (63.7 µg/kg d.w. in Fuenterrabía. However, the sites pointed as more polluted using limpets coincide with the ones that are pointed out using mussels and the other way around. The individual PAH distribution pattern also presents some differences in both species mainly due to the phenathrene proportion that is higher in limpets than in mussels and this is clearer in the Bay of Biscay area. The main conclusion of the study is that there is no direct conversion factor between the PAH burden in both species but it could be possible to estimate the pollution status of an area using limpets. To compare levels between species it would be necessary to do some more work including more

  19. Use of complementary alternative medicine for low back pain consulting in general practice: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum Erika

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although back pain is considered one of the most frequent reasons why patients seek complementary and alternative medical (CAM therapies little is known on the extent patients are actually using CAM for back pain. Methods This is a post hoc analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study embedded in a RCT. General practitioners (GPs recruited consecutively adult patients presenting with LBP. Data on physical function, on subjective mood, and on utilization of health services was collected at the first consultation and at follow-up telephone interviews for a period of twelve months Results A total of 691 (51% respectively 928 (69% out of 1,342 patients received one form of CAM depending on the definition. Local heat, massage, and spinal manipulation were the forms of CAM most commonly offered. Using CAM was associated with specialist care, chronic LBP and treatment in a rehabilitation facility. Receiving spinal manipulation, acupuncture or TENS was associated with consulting a GP providing these services. Apart from chronicity disease related factors like functional capacity or pain only showed weak or no association with receiving CAM. Conclusion The frequent use of CAM for LBP demonstrates that CAM is popular in patients and doctors alike. The observed association with a treatment in a rehabilitation facility or with specialist consultations rather reflects professional preferences of the physicians than a clear medical indication. The observed dependence on providers and provider related services, as well as a significant proportion receiving CAM that did not meet the so far established selection criteria suggests some arbitrary use of CAM.

  20. Preconceptual Feasibility Study to Evaluate Alternative Means to Produce Plutonium-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Matthew S. Everson

    2013-02-01

    There is currently no large-scale production of 238Pu in the United States. Feasibility studies were performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to assess the capability of developing alternative 238Pu production strategies. Initial investigations indicate potential capability to provision radioisotope-powered systems for future space exploration endeavors. For the short term production of 238Pu, sealed canisters of dilute 237Np solution in nitric acid could be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Targets in the large and medium “I” positions of the ATR were irradiated over a simulated period of 306 days and analyzed using MCNP5 and ORIGEN2.2. Approximately 0.5 kg of 238Pu could be produced annually in the ATR with purity greater than 92%. Optimization of the irradiation cycles could further increase the purity to greater than 98%. Whereas the typical purity of space batteries is between 80 to 85%, the higher purity 238Pu produced in the ATR could be blended with existing lower-purity inventory to produce useable material. Development of irradiation methods in the ATR provides the fastest alterative to restart United States 238Pu production. The analysis of 238Pu production in the ATR provides the technical basis for production using TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) nuclear reactors. Preliminary analyses envisage a production rate of approximately 0.7 kg annually using a single dedicated 5-MW TRIGA reactor with continuous flow loops to achieve high purity product. Two TRIGA reactors represent a robust means of providing at over 1 kg/yr of 238Pu annually using dilute solution targets of 237Np in nitric acid. Further collaboration and optimization of reactor design, radiochemical methods, and systems analyses would further increase annual 238Pu throughput, while reducing the currently evaluated reactor requirements.

  1. A pilot study of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall GC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a complex disorder, with primary symptoms of sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue. FMS is one of the most common reasons for patient visits to a rheumatologist. Previous studies have suggested that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use in patients with rheumatic diseases is common, but such data specific to FMS patients is limited. Objective: The following study sought to describe the prevalence of CAM use in a primary care practice of patients with FMS and assess whether these patients discuss CAM use with their physician, physician-extender, and/or pharmacist. Methods: A one-group cross-sectional survey design was implemented in a large, community-based, private physician practice of patients diagnosed with FMS. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed during clinic visits. It solicited information related to demographic characteristics; FMS-specific health background; whether CAM use had been discussed with a health care provider; and the “ever-use” of common types of CAM. Respondents returned the questionnaire via US mail in a postage-paid, self-addressed envelope. Results: A total of 115 surveys were distributed with 54 returned for analysis (47% completion rate. The sample was predominantly female, well educated and had a mean age of 55.6 years. All respondents were White. Most respondents (92.6% reported using some type of CAM. Exercise (92.2%, chiropractic treatment (48.1%, lifestyle and diet (45.8%, relaxation therapy (44.9%, and dietary and herbal supplements (36.5% were most commonly reported CAM therapies “ever-used” by respondents. Dietary and herbal supplements with the highest prevalence of “ever-use” were magnesium (19.2%, guaifenesin (11.5%, and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM (9.6%. Respondents most commonly discussed CAM with the clinic rheumatologist and the primary care physician (53.7% and 38.9%, respectively. Only 14.8% of respondents discussed CAM with a pharmacist

  2. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; MNV

    2000-01-01

    Deze GEO-2000 studie naar alternatief beleid voor Europa en Centraal Azie is gericht op energie als een belangrijke kracht achter milieuproblemen in de hele regio. De studie heeft betrekking op klimaatverandering, verzuring, zomersmog, stedelijke luchtverontreiniging en het risico op dodelijke o

  3. Study of the optimal reaction conditions for assay of the mouse alternative complement pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H. van; Rademaker, P.M.; Klerx, J.P.A.M.; Willers, J.M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The optimal reaction conditions for hemolytic assay of alternative complement pathway activity in mouse serum were investigated. A microtiter system was used, in which a number of 7.5×106 rabbit erythrocytes per test well appeared to be optimal. Rabbit erythrocytes were superior as target cells over

  4. Multivoiced Supervision of Master's Students: A Case Study of Alternative Supervision Practices in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysthe, Olga; Samara, Akylina; Westrheim, Kariane

    2006-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes an alternative supervision model at the Master of Education Programme at the University of Bergen aimed at improving research supervision. A three-pronged approach was introduced, combining supervision groups, student colloquia and individual supervision. The supervision groups consisted of two supervisors and…

  5. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  6. A BETTER INDICATOR STUDY EXAMINES ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION IN LIME-TREATED BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the current regulations (CFR 503), Class B biosolids may be land applied with certain site restrictions. One method for achieving Class B status is to raise the pH of the sludge to >12 for a minimum of 2 hours with an alkaline material (normally lime). Alternately, a Clas...

  7. Evaluation of Colocasia esculenta Starch as an Alternative Tablet Excipient to Maize Starch: Assessment by Preformulation and Formulation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma. R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta plant was studied as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to maize and potato starch. The Colocasia esculenta starch has been evaluated by series of tests as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia before being used for evaluation. It was tested along with maize and potato starch as an alternative excipient by performing battery of preformulation and formulation tests. The results obtained for Colocasia esculenta starch was comparable with maize starch and the Colocasia esculenta starch can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient in tablets preparation.

  8. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Wouters, P. J. M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Observational learning from animated models: effects of studying-practicing alternation and illusion of control on transfer. Instructional Science, 38(1), 89-104. doi:10.1007/s11251-008-9079-0

  9. Effects of alternating and direct electrical current application on the odontoblastic layer in human teeth : an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alwas-Danowska, HM; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Verdonschot, EH

    1999-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a low intensity alternating current on the odontoblasts and odontoblast layer and compare this with the effects of a direct current. Methodology Teeth extracted for orthodontic were immersed in physiological saline stabilized with thymol

  10. Engineering study - alternatives for SHMS high temperature/moisture gas sample conditioners for the aging waste facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMPSON, J.F.

    1999-06-02

    The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems have been experiencing high temperature/moisture problems with gas samples from the Aging Waste Tanks. These moist hot gas samples have stopped the operation of the SHMS units on tanks AZ-101, AZ-102, and AY-102. This study looks at alternatives for gas sample conditioners for the Aging Waste Facility.

  11. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  12. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: Insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Emmanuelle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and in their geographic and cultural origin. The sessions focused on the role of these medications in selected resource poor settings in Africa and Asia now that access to anti-retroviral therapy is increasing. The aims of the sessions were to (1 identify the actors involved in the diffusion of these alternative medicines for HIV/AIDS, (2 explore uses and forms, and the way these medicines are given legitimacy, (3 reflect on underlying processes of globalisation and cultural differentiation, and (4 define priority questions for future research in this area. This article presents the insights generated at the meeting, illustrated with some findings from the case studies (Uganda, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, China and Indonesia that were presented. These case studies reveal the wide range of actors who are involved in the marketing and supply of alternative medicines. Regulatory mechanisms are weak. The efficacy claims of alternative medicines often reinforce a biomedical paradigm for HIV/AIDS, and fit with a healthy living ideology promoted by AIDS care programs and support groups. The AIDSImpact session concluded that more interdisciplinary research is needed on the experience of people living with HIV/AIDS with these alternative medicines, and on the ways in which these products interact (or not with anti-retroviral therapy at pharmacological as well as psychosocial levels.

  13. Study of Alternative GPS Network Meteorological Sensors in Taiwan: Case Studies of the Plum Rains and Typhoon Sinlaku.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Peng, Wei-Chih; Yeh, Yen-Hua; Chen, Kwo-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Plum rains and typhoons are important weather systems in the Taiwan region. They can cause huge economic losses, but they are also considered as important water resources as they strike Taiwan annually and fill the reservoirs around the island. There are many meteorological sensors available for investigating the characteristics of weather and climate systems. Recently, the use of GPS as an alternative meteorological sensor has become popular due to the catastrophic impact of global climate change. GPS provides meteorological parameters mainly from the atmosphere. Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a proven algorithm that has attracted attention in GPS related studies. This study uses GPS measurements collected at more than fifty reference stations of the e-GPS network in Taiwan. The first data set was collected from June 1st 2008 to June 7th 2008, which corresponds to the middle of the plum rain season in Taiwan. The second data set was collected from September 11th to September 17th 2008 during the landfall of typhoon Sinlaku. The data processing strategy is to process the measurements collected at the reference stations of the e-GPS network using the PPP technique to estimate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) values of the sites; thus, the correlations between the ZTD values and the variation of rainfall during the plum rains and typhoon are analyzed. In addition, several characteristics of the meteorological events are identified using spatial and temporal analyses of the ZTD values estimated with the GPS network PPP technique.

  14. Study of Alternative GPS Network Meteorological Sensors in Taiwan: Case Studies of the Plum Rains and Typhoon Sinlaku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hwa Chen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plum rains and typhoons are important weather systems in the Taiwan region. They can cause huge economic losses, but they are also considered as important water resources as they strike Taiwan annually and fill the reservoirs around the island. There are many meteorological sensors available for investigating the characteristics of weather and climate systems. Recently, the use of GPS as an alternative meteorological sensor has become popular due to the catastrophic impact of global climate change. GPS provides meteorological parameters mainly from the atmosphere. Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a proven algorithm that has attracted attention in GPS related studies. This study uses GPS measurements collected at more than fifty reference stations of the e-GPS network in Taiwan. The first data set was collected from June 1st 2008 to June 7th 2008, which corresponds to the middle of the plum rain season in Taiwan. The second data set was collected from September 11th to September 17th 2008 during the landfall of typhoon Sinlaku. The data processing strategy is to process the measurements collected at the reference stations of the e-GPS network using the PPP technique to estimate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD values of the sites; thus, the correlations between the ZTD values and the variation of rainfall during the plum rains and typhoon are analyzed. In addition, several characteristics of the meteorological events are identified using spatial and temporal analyses of the ZTD values estimated with the GPS network PPP technique.

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of General Practitioners toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikani, Ameneh; Beheshti, Akram; Javadi, Maryam; Yasi, Marzieh

    2015-08-01

    Orientation of public and physicians to the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is one of the most prominent symbols of structural changes in the health service system. The aim of his study was a determination of knowledge, attitude, and practice of general practitioners in complementary and alternative medicine. This cross- sectional study was conducted in Qazvin, Iran in 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting data including four information parts: population information, physicians' attitude and knowledge, methods of getting information and their function. A total of 228 physicians in Qazvin comprised the population of study according to the deputy of treatment's report of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. A total of 150 physicians were selected randomly, and SPSS Statistical program was used to enter questionnaires' data. Results were analyzed as descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. Sixty percent of all responders were male. About sixty (59.4) percent of participating practitioners had worked less than 10 years.96.4 percent had a positive attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine. Knowledge of practitioners about traditional medicine in 11 percent was good, 36.3% and 52.7% had average and little information, respectively. 17.9% of practitioners offered their patients complementary and alternative medicine for treatment. Although there was little knowledge among practitioners about traditional medicine and complementary approaches, a significant percentage of them had attitude higher than the lower limit.

  16. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.

    1998-12-07

    The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the

  17. [Alternative treatment forms used by patients with muscular atrophy. A questionnaire study of the use of alternative treatment by 345 patients with muscular atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsballe, J M; Mortensen, F V

    1990-04-30

    An investigation about the use of alternative treatment by a group of persons with muscular atrophy revealed that 24% had employed alternative treatment during the period 1.1.1983-1.4.1986. This is probably a greater proportion than in the Danish population as a whole. Patients with muscular atrophy were subdivided into three groups on the basis of their ability to function in daily life. No significant connection was found between the degree of loss of function and alternative treatment as regards the frequencies of alternative treatment and the numbers of treatments employed. A given form form of treatment was most frequently recommended by an unaffected acquaintance. Physical forms of treatment such as zone therapy and chiropractics were employed more frequently than chemical forms of therapy. Less than half of the patients were satisfied with the results of treatment. Treatment was often concluded in a negative manner. Patients considered that, in contrast to the alternative therapist, the doctor performs the best and most thorough examination and provides them with the best information about their condition.

  18. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  19. Utilization of Alternative Fuels in Cement Pyroprocessing : the Messebo Factory case study in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ebuy Teka, Axumawi

    2015-01-01

    Energy costs and environmental standards encouraged cement manufacturers worldwide to evaluate to what extent conventional fuels (Furnace oil, Coal and Petcock) can be replaced by alternative fuels in cement production, i.e. biomass or processed waste materials like sewage sludge, MSW (municipal solid waste), Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF), Tire Derived Fuel (TDF), Plastic Derived Fuel (PDF), Biomass Derived Fuels (BDF), meat and bone meal (MBM), etc.  High temperature of >1500 C, long residen...

  20. KAJIAN CIDER SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGANEKARAGAMAN PRODUK KOPI Study of Cider as Alternative Product Diversivication from Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Suharyono Apno Sugito

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is an important export commodity from Indonesia. There are not many processed product from coffee, and sincecoffee is a delightful refreshing beverage, it is interesting to make product diversivication from coffee. An alternative processing could be a cider. Coffee used in this research were decaffeinated, Robusta and Arabica coffee. The amount of added sugar were 15 %, 20 %, and 25 %. Natural cultures, combination of Sacharomyces cerevisiae and Acetobacter xylinum, combination of Sach...

  1. Development and validation of an alternative disturbed skin model by mechanical abrasion to study drug penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Schlupp, P.; M. Weber; T. Schmidts; Geiger, K.; Runkel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics for dermal application are usually tested on healthy skin, although the primary permeation barrier, the stratum corneum, is often impaired by skin diseases or small skin lesions, especially on the hands. These skin conditions can considerably influence the permeation of chemicals and drugs. Furthermore, risk assessment for example of nanoparticles should be performed under various skin conditions to reflect the true circumstances. Therefore, an alternative and re...

  2. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Sarkar, Ashoke K.

    2016-01-01

    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  3. Feasibility Study of Contamination Remediation at Naval Weapons Station, Concord, California. Volume 1. Remedial Action Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    few years, particularly along the Port Chicago Highway across from the main gate of NWS Concord. Phillips Petroleum Company and Monsanto--V 2.23 %" r...acci- dental disturbance of the monofill. ,p Grading and Revegetation. See Alternative 3-3A. Operation and Maintenance of Remediation Area. See...washing process; b. Site preparation and support facilities; c. Excavation of contaminated materials; d. Classification of contaminated materialL ; e

  4. A qualitative model for strategic analysis of organizations. Application and alternative proposal on a study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ferro Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategic analysis of organizations is based on the internal and external environments, in order to identify positive and negative variables and factors. The interrelation and timing of these strategic forces are essential to create alternative solutions that tend to achieve the organizational objectives.The normative prospective has theorical and methodological foundations to create a desired future and from it, be able to identify impelling and restraining forces that have influence on the particular problematic situation (go from the current situation to a better one in a certain time.The aim of this article is to analyze on a strategic way a real case with a normative-prospective model that considers the temporal dynamics of the factors impact and variables in time allowing to suggest alternative solutions.Semi-structured interviews were performed with all the employees of this case and structured observations and workshops with the commercial and general management.In consequence, with the results, the desired, current and improved situations were built. Additionally, forces were identified classified and appreciated and lastly solutions were suggested. With the proposed prospective method, alternative solutions could be constructed in order to settle temporary organizational objectives. No constraints were found to use the current method in other cases.Keywords: Strategic forces, Normative prospective, Problematic situations, Strategies

  5. REESTABLISHING "THE SOCIAL" IN RESEARCH ON DEMOCRATIC PROCESSES: MID-CENTURY VOTER STUDIES AND PAUL F. LAZARSFELD'S ALTERNATIVE VISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Voter studies conducted in the United States during the first decades after World War II transformed social scientific research on democracy. Especially important were the rapid innovations in survey research methods developed by two prominent research centers at Columbia University and the University of Michigan. This article argues that the Columbia and Michigan voter studies presented two visions for research on democracy. Where the Michigan research produced quantitative measures expressing the 'political behavior' of the electorate, the Columbia studies, and especially Paul F. Lazarsfeld, presented an alternative vision for qualitative research on political choice. Largely ignored by later voter studies, this vision prefigured much contemporary research on democracy that embraces a qualitative or interpretive approach. This article reconstructs Lazarsfeld's alternative vision, describes the institutional context in which scholars disregarded it in favor of formal quantitative models, and argues for its recognition as a forerunner to qualitative research on democratic processes.

  6. Comparative study between an alternating current (AC) and a direct current (DC) electrification of an urban railway

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Turu, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study will evaluate technically, energetic and economically the traction electrification network of the line Barcelona – Vallès operated by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) in the existing voltage system (1500 Vdc) and a new electrification under alternative current (25 kVac) will be proposed to be as well studied. The results obtained will be compared in order to obtain decision factors on which system best fits.

  7. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerson A; Name, Fernando T; Pacheco, Frederico C L; Marcondes, Carlos B

    2010-12-01

    The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water) for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera), Scirtidae (Coleoptera) and Coenagrionidae (Odonata) in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05) from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p insects in both species of bromeliads. The higher mobility of immature forms of beetles and dragonflies, and the availability of only one tank in Aechea lindenii, contrasting to several tanks in Vriesea friburgensis that help the suction of these immature, probably influenced the results, which indicated that the suction method should not replace the dismantling in the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae. This method can be useful to get immature forms of Scirtidae and Coenagrionidae in one-tank bromeliads.

  8. The study on injection parameters of selected alternative fuels used in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Lew, K.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents selected results concerning fuel charging and spraying process for selected alternative fuels, including regular diesel fuel, rape oil, FAME, blends of these fuels in various proportions, and blends of rape oil with diesel fuel. Examination of the process included the fuel charge measurements. To this end, a set-up for examination of Common Rail-type injection systems was used constructed on the basis of Bosch EPS-815 test bench, from which the high-pressure pump drive system was adopted. For tests concerning the spraying process, a visualisation chamber with constant volume was utilised. The fuel spray development was registered with the use of VisioScope (AVL).

  9. F- and H-Area Seepage Basins Water Treatment System Process Optimization and Alternative Chemistry Ion Exchange/Sorbent Material Screening Clearwell Overflow Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-08-30

    This study investigated alternative ion exchange/sorbent materials and polishing chemistries designed to remove specific radionuclides not removed during the neutralization/precipitation/clarification process.

  10. Study on Spacing Threshold of Nonsubmerged Spur Dikes with Alternate Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the spacing threshold of nonsubmerged spur dikes with alternate layout to classify the impact scale of spur dikes. A mathematical model was built based on standard k-ε model, finite volume method (FVM, and rigid lid assumption and was verified by experimental data. According to dimensional analysis, three indices, that is, Fr (Froude number, B/b (channel width to dike length, and B/h (channel width to water depth, were identified as the influencing factors on the spacing threshold, based on which fifteen sets of conditions were simulated. The calculation results indicate that B/h is the most influencing parameter on Sc/b (spacing threshold to dike length, followed by B/b and Fr. A dimensionless empirical formula of spacing threshold is fitted by multivariate regression. The results of four sets of additional conditions illustrate that the generalization of empirical formula is satisfactory and the precision of interpolation is higher than that of extrapolation. Furthermore, the spacing threshold of alternate spur dikes is generally smaller than ipsilateral spur dikes.

  11. Availability of Alternatives and the Processing of Scalar Implicatures: A Visual World Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Judith; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Two visual world experiments investigated the processing of the implicature associated with some using a "gumball paradigm." On each trial, participants saw an image of a gumball machine with an upper chamber with orange and blue gumballs and an empty lower chamber. Gumballs dropped to the lower chamber, creating a contrast between a partitioned set of gumballs of one color and an unpartitioned set of the other. Participants then evaluated spoken statements, such as "You got some of the blue gumballs." Experiment 1 investigated the time course of the pragmatic enrichment from some to not all when the only utterance alternatives available to refer to the different sets were some and all. In Experiment 2, the number terms two, three, four, and five were also included in the set of alternatives. Scalar implicatures were delayed relative to the interpretation of literal statements with all only when number terms were available. The results are interpreted as evidence for a constraint-based account of scalar implicature processing.

  12. A Parallel World for the World Bank: A Case Study of Urgent: Evoke, An Educational Alternate Reality Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Waddington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the World Bank launched Urgent: Evoke, an alternate reality game. Conceived in response to the demands of African universities, the game was designed to promote the World Bank Institute’s vision of positive global change through social innovation, and made substantial use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, personal profiles, and social networks. This article offers a case study of Urgent: Evoke, divided into four sections: first, the potential to use video games as citizenship education tools is discussed; second, the unique game genre (alternate reality games into which Evoke falls is explained and some possible uses of this genre in higher education are examined; third, the functioning of the Evoke game world is explained; and fourth, the results of the Evoke educational project are assessed. The case study concludes with some commentary on Evoke’s ideological message, which those less sympathetic to capitalism may view as problematic.

  13. Electric impedance study of elastic alternating propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer (PCO-200)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Jawad, Saadi; Abu-Surrah, Adnan S.; Maghrabi, Mufeed; Khattari, Ziad

    2011-07-01

    The electrical properties of elastic alternating propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer (PCO-200) were investigated using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The results revealed a phase transition at about 70 °C where the material transforms from its insulating phase of conductivity in the order of 6×10-9 to about 9×10-5 (Ω m)-1, The second phase is characterized by temperature dependent electrical relaxation phenomena. The plot of the complex electric modulus and the complex impedance yields semicircles in the temperature range 70 up to 110 °C and a decreasing radius with increasing temperature. The activation energy was found to be in the order of 0.8 eV.

  14. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Epileptic Children in Tehran: A Cross-Sectional Study (2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan TONEKABONI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Tonekaboni Sh, Jafari Naeini S, Khajeh A, Yaghini O, Ghazavi A, Abdollah Gorji F. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Epileptic Children in Tehran: A Cross-Sectional Study (2009-2011. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:26-31.ObjectiveAlthough the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM has been evaluated globally, there are few studies in our country on this subject. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, pattern of use, parental sources of information, and benefits of CAM in epileptic children in Tehran.Materials & MethodsOne hundred thirty-three parents or relatives of epileptic children who were referred to outpatient clinics or admitted in neurologic ward of four major hospitals in Tehran, were interviewed by our researcher based on a structured questionnaire; from 2009 to 2010. The information obtained comprised the demographic data of patients and their parents, frequency and morphology of convulsions, the type and sources of CAM and finally, the benefits and adverseeffects of this practice.ResultsForty-four percent of the respondents had used CAM methods either alone or in combination with other methods. The most frequently used CAM was written prayers followed by oral herbs and special diets. CAM was mainly introduced to them by relatives. Only 16.7% of these parents had discussed this matter with their children’s physicians. No efficacy to control seizure was observed for most of these methods.ConclusionThis study showed that use of CAM in our study group is relatively common and may have a potentially hazardous role in the treatment process. So, it is necessary for physicians to have enough information about CAM practice in their patients. References:National Institutes of health. More than one third of US adults use complementary and alternative medicine, according to new government survey. [Serial online] 2004 (cited 2004 May 27. Available

  15. The Effect of the Japan 2011 Disaster on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Stocks Worldwide: An Event Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferstl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This event study investigates the impact of the Japanese nuclear disaster in Fukushima-Daiichi on the daily stock prices of French, German, Japanese, and U.S. nuclear utility and alternative energy firms. Hypotheses regarding the (cumulative abnormal returns based on a three-factor model are analyzed through joint tests by multivariate regression models and bootstrapping. Our results show significant abnormal returns for Japanese nuclear utility firms during the one-week event window and the subsequent four-week post-event window. Furthermore, while French and German nuclear utility and alternative energy stocks exhibit significant abnormal returns during the event window, we cannot confirm abnormal returns for U.S. stocks.

  16. Perceived quality of an alternative to acute hospitalization: an analytical study at a community hospital in Hallingdal, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappegard, Øystein; Hjortdahl, Per

    2014-10-01

    There is growing international interest in the geography of health care provision, with health care providers searching for alternatives to acute hospitalization. In Norway, the government has recently legislated for municipal authorities to develop local health services for a selected group of patients, with a quality equal to or better than that provided by hospitals for emergency admissions. General practitioners in Hallingdal, a rural district in southern Norway, have for several years referred acutely somatically ill patients to a community hospital, Hallingdal sjukestugu (HSS). This article analyzes patients' perceived quality of HSS to demonstrate factors applicable nationally and internationally to aid in the development of local alternatives to general hospitals. We used a mixed-methods approach with questionnaires, individual interviews and a focus group interview. Sixty patients who were taking part in a randomized, controlled study of acute admissions at HSS answered the questionnaire. Selected patients were interviewed about their experiences and a focus group interview was conducted with representatives of local authorities, administrative personnel and health professionals. Patients admitted to HSS reported statistically significant greater satisfaction with several care aspects than those admitted to the general hospital. Factors highlighted by the patients were the quiet and homelike atmosphere; a small facility which allowed them a good overall view of the unit; close ties to the local community and continuity in the patient-staff relationship. The focus group members identified some overarching factors: an interdisciplinary and holistic approach, local ownership, proximity to local general practices and close cooperation with the specialist health services at the hospital. Most of these factors can be viewed as general elements relevant to the development of local alternatives to acute hospitalization both nationally and internationally. This

  17. Complementary and alternative medicines and childhood eczema: a US population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lee-Wong, Mary; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in US children with eczema is unknown. Furthermore, it is unknown whether CAM use in the United States is associated with higher eczema prevalence. We sought to determine the eczema prevalence in association with CAM usage. We analyzed data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey that included a nationally representative sample of 9417 children ages 0 to 17 years. Overall, 46.9% (95% confidence interval, 45.6%-48.2%) of children in the United States used 1 or more CAM, of which 0.99% (0.28%-1.71%) used CAM specifically to treat their eczema, including herbal therapy (0.46%), vitamins (0.33%), Ayurveda (0.28%), naturopathy (0.24%), homeopathy (0.20%), and traditional healing (0.12%). Several CAMs used for other purposes were associated with increased eczema prevalence, including herbal therapy (survey logistic regression; adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.07 [1.40-3.06]), vitamins (1.45 [1.21-1.74]), homeopathic therapy (2.94 [1.43-6.00]), movement techniques (3.66 [1.62-8.30]), and diet (2.24 [1.10-4.58]), particularly vegan diet (2.53 [1.17-5.51]). In conclusion, multiple CAMs are commonly used for the treatment of eczema in US children. However, some CAMs may actually be harmful to the skin and be associated with higher eczema prevalence in the United States.

  18. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  19. A case study of alternative site response explanatory variables in Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.; Morgan, E.C.; Kaklamanos, J.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of densely-spaced strong-motion stations in Parkfield, California, and spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) profiles provides an ideal dataset for assessing the accuracy of different site response explanatory variables. We judge accuracy in terms of spatial coverage and correlation with observations. The performance of the alternative models is period-dependent, but generally we observe that: (1) where a profile is available, the square-root-of-impedance method outperforms VS30 (average S-wave velocity to 30 m depth), and (2) where a profile is unavailable, the topographic-slope method outperforms surficial geology. The fundamental site frequency is a valuable site response explanatory variable, though less valuable than VS30. However, given the expense and difficulty of obtaining reliable estimates of VS30 and the relative ease with which the fundamental site frequency can be computed, the fundamental site frequency may prove to be a valuable site response explanatory variable for many applications. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  20. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation: A Potential Risk for Genetic Generalized Epilepsy Patients (Study Case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Daniel; Sarmiento, Carlos Ignacio; Hernandez-Ruiz, Axel; Elizondo-Zepeda, Ernesto; Santos-Vázquez, Gabriel; Reyes-Acevedo, Gerardo; Zúñiga-Gazcón, Héctor; Zamora-Jarquín, Carol Marina

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a re-emergent neuromodulation technique that consists in the external application of oscillating electrical currents that induces changes in cortical excitability. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with pharmaco-resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy to 3 antiepileptic’s drugs characterized by 4 myoclonic and 20 absence seizures monthly. She received tACS at 1 mA at 3 Hz pulse train during 60 min over Fp1–Fp2 (10–20 EEG international system position) during 4 consecutive days using an Endeavor™ IOM Systems device® (Natus Medical Incorporated, Middleton, WI, USA). At the 1-month follow-up, she reported a 75% increase in seizures frequency (only myoclonic and tonic–clonic events) and developed a 24-h myoclonic status epilepticus that resolved with oral clonazepam and intravenous valproate. At the 2-month follow-up, the patient reported a 15-day seizure-free period. PMID:27965623

  1. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation: A potential risk for genetic generalized epilepsy patients (Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel San Juan Orta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS is a re-emergent neuromodulation technique that consists in the external application of oscillating electrical currents that induces changes in cortical excitability. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with pharmaco-resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy to three antiepileptic’s drugs characterized by four myoclonic and 20 absence seizures monthly. She received tACS at 1mA@3Hz pulse train during 60 minutes over Fp1-Fp2 (10-20 EEG international system position during 4 consecutive days using an Endeavor™ IOM Systems device® (Natus Medical Incorporated, Middleton, WI, USA. At the one-month follow-up, she reported a 75% increase in seizures frequency (only myoclonic and tonic-clonic events and developed a 24h myoclonic status epilepticus that resolved with oral clonazepam and intravenous valproate. At the two-month follow-up, the patient reported a 15-day seizure-free period.

  2. REFLECTIVE TEACHING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT IN TEACHER EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTI ASTIKA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical reflective teaching has been a goal of English teacher preparation program. Although many English educators have promoted and carried out reflective teaching in their methodology courses, success of such practice has been limited, not sufficiently reflecting what has been desired. Questions have been raised whether reflective teaching within pre-service English teacher education is a realistic aim. One argument for this has been: reflective teaching can only be learned by beginning teachers working in schools with experienced teachers who value critical reflection. This article examines 40 journals of teaching reflection produced by 40 pre-service English teachers after they completed teaching practicum in schools over a period of three months. The journals were analyzed using a theoretical model developed by Smith (2011 which encompasses different purposes with different forms of reflection: personal, interpersonal, contextual, and critical. The analysis shows that the teaching journals contained more reflection on the personal and contextual domains of teaching, indicating that the pre-service teachers were more concerned with the contextual aspects of teaching which influenced their practices in the classroom. It is recommended that a more balanced reflection be created as an alternative form of assessment in English teacher education involving personal as well as social aspects of teaching.

  3. Carbon/graphite composite material study. Appendix C: NASA studies on modification of carbon/graphite fibers and alternative materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of modifying resin matrix composites to reduce the potential of electrical shorting from fire released fiber was explored. The effort included modifications to or coatings for graphite fibers, alternative fibers, modifications to matrix materials, and hybrid composites. The objectives included reduction of the conductivity of the graphite fiber, char formation to reduce fiber release, glass formation to prevent fiber release, catalysis to assure fiber consumption in a fire, and replacement of the graphite fibers with nonconductive fibers of similar mechanical potential.

  4. Alternative metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    As the old 'publish or perish' adage is brought into question, additional research-impact indices, known as altmetrics, are offering new evaluation alternatives. But such metrics may need to adjust to the evolution of science publishing.

  5. On alternating quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseva, Jenia; Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2017-03-01

    We study an inhomogeneous quantum walk on a line that evolves according to alternating coins, each a rotation matrix. For the quantum walk with the coin alternating between clockwise and counterclockwise rotations by the same angle, we derive a closed form solution for the propagation of probabilities, and provide its asymptotic approximation via the method of stationary phase. Finally, we observe that for a x03c0;/4 angle, this alternating rotation walk will replicate the renown Hadamard walk.

  6. SLIM: an alternative Web interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackerman Michael

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid growth of medical information and the pervasiveness of the Internet, online search and retrieval systems have become indispensable tools in medicine. The progress of Web technologies can provide expert searching capabilities to non-expert information seekers. The objective of the project is to create an alternative search interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches using JavaScript slider bars. SLIM, or Slider Interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches, was developed with PHP and JavaScript. Interactive slider bars in the search form controlled search parameters such as limits, filters and MeSH terminologies. Connections to PubMed were done using the Entrez Programming Utilities (E-Utilities. Custom scripts were created to mimic the automatic term mapping process of Entrez. Page generation times for both local and remote connections were recorded. Results Alpha testing by developers showed SLIM to be functionally stable. Page generation times to simulate loading times were recorded the first week of alpha and beta testing. Average page generation times for the index page, previews and searches were 2.94 milliseconds, 0.63 seconds and 3.84 seconds, respectively. Eighteen physicians from the US, Australia and the Philippines participated in the beta testing and provided feedback through an online survey. Most users found the search interface user-friendly and easy to use. Information on MeSH terms and the ability to instantly hide and display abstracts were identified as distinctive features. Conclusion SLIM can be an interactive time-saving tool for online medical literature research that improves user control and capability to instantly refine and refocus search strategies. With continued development and by integrating search limits, methodology filters, MeSH terms and levels of evidence, SLIM may be useful in the practice of evidence-based medicine.

  7. Integrated Experimental and Computational Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and the Use of Alternative Fracking Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, H.; Carey, J. W.; Karra, S.; Porter, M. L.; Rougier, E.; Zhang, D.; Makedonska, N.; Middleton, R. S.; Currier, R.; Gupta, R.; Lei, Z.; Kang, Q.; O'Malley, D.; Hyman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas is an unconventional fossil energy resource that is already having a profound impact on US energy independence and is projected to last for at least 100 years. Production of methane and other hydrocarbons from low permeability shale involves hydrofracturing of rock, establishing fracture connectivity, and multiphase fluid-flow and reaction processes all of which are poorly understood. The result is inefficient extraction with many environmental concerns. A science-based capability is required to quantify the governing mesoscale fluid-solid interactions, including microstructural control of fracture patterns and the interaction of engineered fluids with hydrocarbon flow. These interactions depend on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes over scales from microns to tens of meters. Determining the key mechanisms in subsurface THMC systems has been impeded due to the lack of sophisticated experimental methods to measure fracture aperture and connectivity, multiphase permeability, and chemical exchange capacities at the high temperature, pressure, and stresses present in the subsurface. This project uses innovative high-pressure microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments on shale to explore fracture-permeability relations and the extraction of hydrocarbon. These data are integrated with simulations including lattice Boltzmann modeling of pore-scale processes, finite-element/discrete element models of fracture development in the near-well environment, discrete-fracture modeling of the reservoir, and system-scale models to assess the economics of alternative fracturing fluids. The ultimate goal is to make the necessary measurements to develop models that can be used to determine the reservoir operating conditions necessary to gain a degree of control over fracture generation, fluid flow, and interfacial processes over a range of subsurface conditions.

  8. A Study of Alternate Approaches to Utilization Review of Laboratory Services within an Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-06

    pH Trichomonas vaginalis Reducing Substances Fecal fat (qualitative) Trypsin Knott’s Concentration for Microfilariae Worm Identification Malaria Anti...Parasitology Bone Marrow Studies Trichomonas Vaginalis Special Coagulation Studies Leishmania Trypanosoma Osmotic Fragility Microfileriae Cryogl obul in

  9. Direct Marketing Alternatives in an Urban Setting: A Case Study of Seattle Youth Garden Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mykel; Young, Doug; Miles, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study is direct marketing of produce from an urban market garden. Rather than discussing broad issues of direct marketing, we use a case study to frame the decisions a market gardener is likely to face in developing both production and marketing plans. The garden featured in this study is located in Seattle, Washington, a city…

  10. KAJIAN CIDER SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGANEKARAGAMAN PRODUK KOPI Study of Cider as Alternative Product Diversivication from Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono Apno Sugito

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is an important export commodity from Indonesia. There are not many processed product from coffee, and sincecoffee is a delightful refreshing beverage, it is interesting to make product diversivication from coffee. An alternative processing could be a cider. Coffee used in this research were decaffeinated, Robusta and Arabica coffee. The amount of added sugar were 15 %, 20 %, and 25 %. Natural cultures, combination of Sacharomyces cerevisiae and Acetobacter xylinum, combination of Sacharomyces ludwigii and Acetobacter xylinum, combination of  S. cerevisiae, S. ludwigii, and A. xylinum were used as starters. The parameters observed included: reducing sugar content, alcohol, total tertitrasi acid, pH and Organoleptic Test (color, aroma, taste, clarity, and general acceptance. Coffee cider with the highest overall acceptance score was made from decaffeinated coffee, with 20 % sugar addition and combination of S. ludwigii and A. xylinum as starter.The result of correlation analysis showed a negative significant correlation between reducing sugar content and aroma of coffee cider. Positive significant correlation were found between total titrable acidity and aroma, taste and overall acceptance of coffee cider. ABSTRAK Kopi merupakan komoditas ekspor penting   Indonesia. Tidak banyak produk olahan dari kopi, yang lebih dikenalsebagai minuman menyegarkan dan menyenangkan, sehingga menarik untuk membuat diversifikasi produk kopi. Salah satu alternatif adalah pengolahan cider. Kopi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kopi tanpa kafein, Robusta dan Arabika. Jumlah gula yang ditambahkan adalah 15 %, 20 %, dan 25 %. Kultur alami, kombinasi Sacharomyces cerevisea dan Acetobacter xylinum, kombinasi Sacharomyces Ludwigii dan Acetobacter xylinum, kombinasi S. cerevisiae, S.Ludwigii , dan A.xylinum digunakan sebagai starter. Parameter yang diamati meliputi: kadar gula pereduksi, alkohol, total asam tertitrasi, pH dan Uji Organoleptik (warna

  11. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers. Ten case studies of implemented programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Program summaries, issue developments, governmental processes, and impacts are discussed for 10 case studies dealing with lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers, namely; the Boston Edison rate freeze; the California lifeline; Florida Power and Light conservation rate; the Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric small-use rate; the Maine demonstration lifeline program; the Massachusetts Electric Company A-65 rate; the Michigan optional senior citizen rate; the Narragansett Electric Company A-65 SSI rate; the Northern States Power Company conservation rate break; and the Potomac Electric Power Company rate freeze. (MCW)

  12. An alternative method to record rising temperatures during dental implant site preparation: a preliminary study using bovine bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Laurito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Overheating is constantly mentioned as a risk factor for bone necrosis that could compromise the dental implant primary stability. Uncontrolled thermal injury can result in a fibrous tissue, interpositioned at the implant-bone interface, compromising the long-term prognosis. The methods used to record temperature rise include either direct recording by thermocouple instruments or indirect estimating by infrared thermography. This preliminary study was carried out using bovine bone and a different method of temperatures rising estimation is presented. Two different types of drills were tested using fluoroptic thermometer and the effectiveness of this alternative temperature recording method was evaluated.

  13. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  14. Oxidising alternative species to chromium VI in zinc-galvanised steel surface treatment. Part 2. An electrochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, E. [Inst. Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Lisbon (Portugal); Fedrizzi, L. [Material Engineering Department, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Diamantinio, T.C. [Inst. Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Lisbon (Portugal)]|[Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    1998-06-05

    In the first part of this work, the authors present the main results and conclusions of a morphological and chemical study carried out on zinc conversion layers (ZCLs) obtained with oxidising alternative passivation baths, that includes molybdates, permanganates, vanadates and tungstates. A good chromate-based bath was used as reference. In this second part of the work, the authors present the main results obtained on selected zinc conversion layers (ZCLs), using a.c. electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results obtained were correlated with the morphological and chemical data obtained with the same ZCLs in the first part of this work. Finally, it is concluded that the alternative ZCLs studied, does not seem to be as efficient as that obtained with a chromate-based passivation bath used as reference. It is believed that a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the ZCL`s formation, can be useful for studying, in the very near future, possible synergetic effects between molybdates and other chemical species. (orig.) 24 refs.

  15. Challenges and potentials in using alternative landscape futures during climate change: A literature review and survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rastandeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the feasibility of applying alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning during climate change to provide a wider perspective and deeper understanding of this approach for better use and more effective application in the future. The study consists of a literature review and an analysis of recent applied projects carried out worldwide. In addition, an electronic survey was conducted from March to September 2014 to examine viewpoints on the use and application of this approach with reference to climate-change impacts. The survey participants were a group of highly experienced researchers from eighteen countries involved in at least one applied project since 2000 relating to this topic. After analysis of more than forty applied projects, the survey results were incorporated into the analysis to create a comprehensive picture regarding the potentials and limitations of alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning with particular attention to climate change. The findings show that this method is one of the most effective decision-making approaches for adopting landscape policies where landscapes change rapidly under the pressure of urbanisation and climate change. Nevertheless, there is a gap between the advances offered by the approach in various dimensions and the complexity of patterns, uncertainties and upheavals in landscapes due to climate-change impacts in the urbanising world. The research indicates that the approach opens up a great opportunity for decision-makers to expand their perspective and adopt appropriate landscape policies before reaching a point of no return from the sustainability point of view. Meanwhile, there are challenges and barriers in the application of alternative futures and scenario analysis for envisioning the landscapes influenced by climate change and urbanisation that should be pushed back. Although informative, this research raises new questions about this

  16. Alternatively Spliced Genes as Biomarkers for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Psychosis: A Blood-Based Spliceome-Profiling Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, S J; Chandler, S D; Bousman, C A; Chana, G; Lucero, G R; Tatro, E; May, T; Lohr, J B; Kremen, W S; Everall, I P; Tsuang, M T

    2009-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: Transcriptomic biomarkers of psychiatric diseases obtained from a query of peripheral tissues that are clinically accessible (e.g., blood cells instead of post-mortem brain tissue) have substantial practical appeal to discern the molecular subtypes of common complex diseases such as major psychosis. To this end, spliceome-profiling is a new methodological approach that has considerable conceptual relevance for discovery and clinical translation of novel biomarkers for psychiatric illnesses. Advances in microarray technology now allow for improved sensitivity in measuring the transcriptome while simultaneously querying the "exome" (all exons) and "spliceome" (all alternatively spliced variants). The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of spliceome-profiling to discern transcriptomic biomarkers of psychosis. METHODS: We measured exome and spliceome expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 13 schizophrenia patients, nine bipolar disorder patients, and eight healthy control subjects. Each diagnostic group was compared to each other, and the combined group of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients was also compared to the control group. Furthermore, we compared subjects with a history of psychosis to subjects without such history. RESULTS: After applying Bonferroni corrections for the 21,866 full-length gene transcripts analyzed, we found significant interactions between diagnostic group and exon identity, consistent with group differences in rates or types of alternative splicing. Relative to the control group, 18 genes in the bipolar disorder group, eight genes in the schizophrenia group, and 15 genes in the combined bipolar disorder and schizophrenia group appeared differentially spliced. Importantly, thirty-three genes showed differential splicing patterns between the bipolar disorder and schizophrenia groups. More frequent exon inclusion and/or over-expression was observed in psychosis. Finally, these observations are

  17. A pilot study of rivastigmine in the treatment of delirium after stroke : A safe alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Annemarie W.; de Kort, Paul L. M.; Jansen, Ben P. W.; Kappelle, Jaap; Roks, Gerwin

    2008-01-01

    Background: Delirium is a common disorder in the early phase of stroke. Given the presumed cholinergic deficiency in delirium, we tested treatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. Methods: This pilot study was performed within an epidemiological study. In 527 consecutive stroke

  18. Alternative Mechanisms for Compensatory Mitigation: Case Studies and Lessons About Fee-Based Compensatory Wetlands Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Grove West Vineyard Urban Study Area, Placer County, California . Key Features of Fee-Based Compensation as Represented by the Case Study Programs Fee...supports a wide variety of wildflower and other plant species. Scientists maintain that these forests are among the most floristically diverse in the

  19. Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems.

  20. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY ON SUB ARACHNOID BLOCK IN PRE SUBDUED CHILDREN IS A CHEAP, EFFECTIVE, SAFE ALTERNATIVE TO GENERAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilakshmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Technically, carrying out Spinal Anaesthesia in adults, may not pose much problems, because of patient co-operation, but same is not always so in case of toddlers and children, because of inherent fear of Hospital atmosphere, detachment from parents, immaturity and other. This study aims at performing Spinal Anaesthesia, in children, if they are pre-medicated, and pre-subdued, might pave way for the comfort of both patient and Anesthesiologists. So, pre-medicated, pre-subdued Spinal Technique may be cheaper, safer alternative to General Anaesthesia. In our Observational study, results are satisfactory, with no occurrence of described complications, and study needs to be done in large number of cases.

  1. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Studies of transformational leadership: evaluating two alternative models of trust and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluates the influence of leadership style and employee trust in their leaders on job satisfaction. 341 personnel (164 men, 177 women; M age = 33.5 yr., SD = 5.1) from four large insurance companies in Taiwan completed the transformational leadership behavior inventory, the leadership trust scale and a short version of the Minnesota (Job) Satisfaction Questionnaire. A bootstrapping mediation and structural equation modeling revealed that the effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction was mediated by leadership trust. This study highlights the importance of leadership trust in leadership-satisfaction relationships, and provides managers with practical ways to enhance job satisfaction.

  3. An alternative approach to treating lateral epicondylitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Fearon, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of noxious level electrical stimulation on pain, grip strength and functional abilities in subjects with chronic lateral epicondylitis. Design: Randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study. Setting: Physical Therapy Department, North Georgia College and Stat

  4. [Dental fluorosis in San Luis Potosi and its solution alternatives (pilot study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Prieto, M; Vázquez Guerrero, V; Silva Romo, E; Moreno Vélez, R; Ochoa Flores, L; Hernández, M J

    1988-12-01

    A study exposing the situation affecting the population of San Luis Potosí in central México, caused by dental fluorosis. Findings point to the need of implementing devices capable of regulating the concentrations of Fluorine ion (generating the efficient prevention of dental cavity incidence), to maintain them at optimal levels and without deletereal effects.

  5. Alternative, indirect measures of ballast water treatment efficacy during a shipboard trial: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, D.A.; Welschmeyer, N.A.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    A shipboard study was conducted aboard the cruise ship Coral Princess during a scheduled cruise from San Pedro, CA, USA to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The investigation involved three members of the global TestNet group, with experience in certification testing of ballast water treatment sy

  6. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  7. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  8. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triglyceride (fat) produced by processing coconut oil or palm kernel oil. The body breaks down caprylic acid into substances called “ketone bodies.” The theory behind Axona is that the ketone bodies derived from caprylic acid may provide an alternative energy source for brain cells that have lost ...

  9. Pilot study on using an alternative method of estimating emission of heavy metals from wood combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Bożym, Marta

    2014-09-01

    This thesis presents pilot studies concerning the assessment of the possibility of using organic materials of vegetative origin as indices of heavy metals emissions (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from domestic wood-fired fireplaces. Mosses of the Pleurozium schreberi species as well as cellulose and cotton wool were used during the study as the potential indices for the elements emission. It was proved that mosses are more reliable as indices of metals emissions than cellulose or cotton wool. It was found that the quantity of Ni accumulated in the moss tissue is comparable with the concentration of this compound in the dust assessed with the reference method. A correlation between the Ni, Cr, Zn and Pb concentrations defined in the mosses and dust filter was found. It was proved that mosses as adsorbers, more clearly than in the case of cellulose and cotton, react to the change of the size of the particulates emitted.

  10. Experimental Study of Dowel Bar Alternatives Based on Similarity Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichun Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a small-scaled accelerated loading test based on similarity theory and Accelerated Pavement Analyzer was developed to evaluate dowel bars with different materials and cross-sections. Jointed concrete specimen consisting of one dowel was designed as scaled model for the test, and each specimen was subjected to 864 thousand loading cycles. Deflections between jointed slabs were measured with dial indicators, and strains of the dowel bars were monitored with strain gauges. The load transfer efficiency, differential deflection, and dowel-concrete bearing stress for each case were calculated from these measurements. The test results indicated that the effect of the dowel modulus on load transfer efficiency can be characterized based on the similarity model test developed in the study. Moreover, round steel dowel was found to have similar performance to larger FRP dowel, and elliptical dowel can be preferentially considered in practice.

  11. Estimating survival rates in ecological studies with small unbalanced sample sizes: an alternative Bayesian point estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Damgaard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, the survival rates in experimental ecology are presented using odds ratios or log response ratios, but the use of ratio metrics has a problem when all the individuals have either died or survived in only one replicate. In the empirical ecological literature, the problem often has been ignored or circumvented by different, more or less ad hoc approaches. Here, it is argued that the best summary statistic for communicating ecological results of frequency data in studies with small unbalanced samples may be the mean of the posterior distribution of the survival rate. The developed approach may be particularly useful when effect size indexes, such as odds ratios, are needed to compare frequency data between treatments, sites or studies.

  12. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Garima; Rana, Vivek; Srivastava, Nikhil; Chandna, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Vital pulpotomy is a single-stage procedure of surgical amputation of the coronal portion of exposed vital pulp, usually as a means of preserving the vitality and function of the remaining radicular portion. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rates for ferric sulfate (FS), electrosurgery (ES) and laser pulpotomy in human primary molars. Materials and methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 30 primary molars ind...

  13. Roasted and Ground Coffee: A Study of Extenders, Substitutes and Alternative Coffee Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    with a Kitchenaid Coffee Mill Model KCM set at the coarsest grind setting. As with other equipment used for grinding, a high proportion of small...well as to concentration by evaporation. Real Coffee Flavor. Over the four studies, there were no significant decreases in this attribute after three...health, such as in the reduction of caffeine levels, as well as’ general consumer preferences for hot beverages with lower levels of coffee - like

  14. A pilot study of rivastigmine in the treatment of delirium after stroke: A safe alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Ben PW

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common disorder in the early phase of stroke. Given the presumed cholinergic deficiency in delirium, we tested treatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. Methods This pilot study was performed within an epidemiological study. In 527 consecutive stroke patients presence of delirium was assessed during the first week with the confusion assessment method. Severity was scored with the delirium rating scale (DRS. Sixty-two patients developed a delirium in the acute phase of stroke. Only patients with a severe and persistent delirium (defined as a DRS of 12 or more for more than 24 hours were enrolled in the present study. In total 26 fulfilled these criteria of whom 17 were treated with orally administered rivastigmine with a total dose between 3 and 12 mg a day. Eight patients could not be treated because of dysphagia and one because of early discharge. Results No major side effects were recorded. In 16 patients there was a considerable decrease in severity of delirium. The mean DRS declined from 14.8 on day one to 8.5 after therapy and 5.6 after tapering. The mean duration of delirium was 6.7 days (range; 2–17. Conclusion Rivastigmine is safe in stroke patients with delirium even after rapid titration. In the majority of patients the delirium improved after treatment. A randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the usefulness of rivastigmine in delirium after stroke. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR1395

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  16. Ichthyotherapy as Alternative Treatment for Patients with Psoriasis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grassberger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ichthyotherapy (therapy with the so-called ‘Doctorfish of Kangal’, Garra rufa has been shown to be effective in patients with psoriasis in the Kangal hot springs in Turkey. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of ichthyotherapy in combination with short-term ultraviolet A sunbed radiation in the treatment of psoriasis under controlled conditions. We retrospectively analyzed 67 patients diagnosed with psoriasis who underwent 3 weeks of ichthyotherapy at an outpatient treatment facility in Lower Austria between 2002 and 2004. Main outcome measures are as follows: overall relative reduction in Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI score; proportion of patients with an improvement in their PASI score of ≥75% (PASI-75 and ≥50% (PASI-50; patient-reported outcomes assessed with a custom questionnaire; and patient follow-up with a questionnaire sent out in March 2005. Safety was evaluated by reviewing adverse events and vital signs. Overall there was a 71.7% reduction in PASI score compared to baseline (P < 0.0001. Of the 67 patients studied, 31 (46.3% achieved PASI-75 and 61 patients (91% achieved at least PASI-50. Patients reported substantial satisfaction with the treatment. The reported mean remission period was 8.58 months [95% confidence interval (CI 6.05–11.11]. A total of 87.5% of patients reported a more favorable outcome with ichthyotherapy, when asked to compare ichthyotherapy to other previously tried therapies. Sixty-five percent stated that after the relapse their symptoms were less severe than before treatment. There were no significant adverse events. The benefit demonstrated in this study along with the favorable safety profile suggests that ichthyotherapy could provide a viable treatment option for patients with psoriasis.

  17. A Comparative Study of Alternate Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation Regimes in Childhood Anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuwan R Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of anaemia among children less than five years of age in India is around 70%. Anaemia in young children puts them at a higher risk of experiencing health problems such as stunted growth, mental retardation, and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of IFA supplementation (daily vs. biweekly vs. weekly regime on haemoglobin levels of young children. Materials and Methods: A total 740 children in age group of six months to five years were included in this community based interventional study using Systemic random sampling. The children having mild to moderate anaemia were then divided into three groups A, B and C by simple random sampling and were given Iron and Folic acid supplementation daily, biweekly and weekly respectively. Follow up data was collected after 3 months and analysed using appropriate tests. Results: Prevalence of Anaemia was 91.1% among study participants. Comparison after 3 months showed significant change in haemoglobin levels in all three groups with mean improvement of 1.31 gm%, 0.89 gm% and 0.85 gm% in group A, B and C respectively. However, no significant difference was noted among the groups in pre as well as post intervention phase. Conclusion: Weekly regime is as effective as daily or biweekly regime in improving haemoglobin levels in children. Moreover, it has better compliance, lesser side effects and cost of therapy. So, the same should be recommended for prophylaxis as well as treatment of mild to moderate anaemia cases. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 33-36

  18. Study of Solar Cooling Alternatives for Residential Houses in Bahir dar city :

    OpenAIRE

    Mengistu, Meron Mulatu

    2011-01-01

    The energy consumption rate of non-OECD countries rises about 2.3 percent per year as compared to the energy consumption rate of OECD countries which is 0.6 percent. If developing countries use energy efficient technology and integrate renewable energy systems in the new building their carbon dioxide emission rate reduces by 25 to 44 percent.  However, even now, renewable energy integrated buildings are hardly considered while constructing them.   This thesis work focuses on the study of sola...

  19. Technical Approach and Results from the Fuels Pathway on an Alternative Selection Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob Youngblood; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    The report presents a detailed plan for conducting case studies to characterize probabilistic safety margins associated with different fuel cladding types in a way that supports a valid comparison of different fuels' performance. Recent work performed in other programs is described briefly and used to illustrate the challenges posed by characterization of margin in a probabilistic way. It is additionally pointed out that consistency of evaluation of performance across different cladding types is not easy to assure; a process for achieving the needed consistency is described.

  20. Simulation Study Using an Injection Phase-locked Magnetron as an Alternative Source for SRF Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Plawski, Tomasz E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As a drop-in replacement for the CEBAF CW klystron system, a 1497 MHz, CW-type high-efficiency magnetron using injection phase lock and amplitude variation is attractive. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using analytical models and MATLAB/Simulink simulations. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron has not been built yet, previously measured characteristics of a 2.45GHz cooker magnetron are used as reference. The results of linear responses to the amplitude and phase control of a superconducting RF (SRF) cavity, and the expected overall benefit for the current CEBAF and future MEIC RF systems are presented in this paper.

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans as an alternative model to study senescence of host defense and the prevention by immunonutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Tomomi; Ikeda, Takanori; Hoshino, Kaori; Shibamura, Ayumi; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Whether nutritional control can retard senescence of immune function and decrease mortality from infectious diseases has not yet been established; the difficulty of establishing a model has made this a challenging topic to investigate. Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively used as an experimental system for biological studies. Particularly for aging studies, the worm has the advantage of a short and reproducible life span. The organism has also been recognized as an alternative to mammalian models of infection with bacterial pathogens in this decade. Hence we have studied whether the worms could be a model host in the fields of immunosenescence and immunonutrition. Feeding nematodes lactic acid bacteria (LAB) resulted in increases in average life span of the nematodes compared to those fed Escherichia coli strain OP50, a standard food bacteria. The 7-day-old nematodes fed LAN from age 3 days were clearly endurable to subsequent salmonella infection compared with nematodes fed OP50 before the salmonella infection. The worm could be a unique model to study effects of food factors on longevity and host defense, so-called immunonutrition. Then we attempted to establish an immunosenescence model using C. elegans. We focused on the effects of worm age on the Legionella infection and the prevention by immunonutrition. No significant differences in survival were seen between 3-day-old worms fed OP50 and 3-day-old worms infected with virulent Legionella strains. However, when the worms were infected from 7.5 days after hatching, the virulent Legionella strains were obviously nematocidal for the worms' immunosenescence. In contrast, nematodes fed with bifidobacteria prior to Legionella infection were resistant to Legionella. C. elegans could act as a unique alternative host for immunosenescence and resultant opportunistic infection, and immunonutrition researches.

  2. Experimental study on spray characteristics of alternate jet fuels using Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels have gained global attention due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. The chemical and physical properties of GTL jet fuels are different from conventional jet fuels owing to the difference in their production methodology. It is important to study the spray characteristics of GTL jet fuels as the change of physical properties can affect atomization, mixing, evaporation and combustion process, ultimately affecting emission process. In this work, spray characteristics of two GTL synthetic jet fuels are studied using a pressure-swirl nozzle at different injection pressures and atmospheric ambient condition. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size and velocity are compared with those of regular Jet A-1 fuel at several axial and radial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. Experimental results show that although the GTL fuels have different physical properties such as viscosity, density, and surface tension, among each other the resultant change in the spray characteristics is insignificant. Furthermore, the presented results show that GTL fuel spray characteristics exhibit close similarity to those of Jet A-1 fuel. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  3. Alternations of functional connectivity in amblyopia patients: a resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Hu, Ling; Li, Wenjing; Xian, Junfang; Ai, Likun; He, Huiguang

    2014-03-01

    Amblyopia is a common yet hard-to-cure disease in children and results in poor or blurred vision. Some efforts such as voxel-based analysis, cortical thickness analysis have been tried to reveal the pathogenesis of amblyopia. However, few studies focused on alterations of the functional connectivity (FC) in amblyopia. In this study, we analyzed the abnormalities of amblyopia patients by both the seed-based FC with the left/right primary visual cortex and the network constructed throughout the whole brain. Experiments showed the following results: (1)As for the seed-based FC analysis, FC between superior occipital gyrus and the primary visual cortex was found to significantly decrease in both sides. The abnormalities were also found in lingual gyrus. The results may reflect functional deficits both in dorsal stream and ventral stream. (2)Two increased functional connectivities and 64 decreased functional connectivities were found in the whole brain network analysis. The decreased functional connectivities most concentrate in the temporal cortex. The results suggest that amblyopia may be caused by the deficits in the visual information transmission.

  4. Study of Oxidizing Agents for Tritium Removal in ITER -Compatible Conditions: Alternatives to Oxygen and Ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C.; Maria Albella, J.; Soria, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.

    2007-07-20

    In the present report, the studies of tritiated carbon-film removal by oxidizing agents other than Oxygen and Ozone in ITER are described. Exposure of laboratory produced a-C:H/D films and tokamak flakes (Asdex Upgrade and Textor) to nitric oxide, water and hydrogen peroxide has been carried out. Temperatures of exposure up to 350 degree centigree were used, and thermal desorption of the samples at temperatures up to 750 degree centigree was performed for sample characterization prior to and after the treatment. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Infrared Spectroscopy, XPS and Nano indentation hardness analysis were applied to the characterization of the physical and chemical changes of the samples. This work was done under the EFDA Task 04-1175. (Author) 8 refs.

  5. Miscanthus plants used as an alternative biofuel material. The basic studies on ecology and molecular evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chang-Hung [Graduate Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Miscanthus Anderss, widely distributed in Asia and Pacific Islands, possesses 20 species. Of which 8 species and 1 variety were recorded in Chinese Mainland; 6 species and 1 variety found in Japan; 5 species and 3 varieties distributed in Taiwan; 3 species documented in the Philippines; and rest of species have been recorded in Jawa, eastern Himalaya, and Sikkim. The plant is a C{sub 4} perennial grass with high productivity of biomass. In the 19th and early 20th centuries in Taiwan, Miscanthus was a very important crop used for forage grass, clothing, and shelter, etc. The relatively high germination, and high yield of biomass made the plant available for people of Taiwan including aboriginal. The taxonomic study of Miscanthus plants was much done by several scientists, and its ecological study has been only taken by the present author since 1972. Chou and his associates paid a great attention to elucidate the mechanism of dominance of Miscanthus vegetation and found that allelopathy plays an important role. In addition, the population biology of Miscanthus taxa by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses technique to examine the patterns of peroxidase and esterase among populations (over 100) of Miscanthus in Taiwan were conducted. They also elucidated the phylogenetic relationship among species and varieties in Taiwan. Chou and Ueng proposed an evolutionary trend of Miscanthus species, indicating that the Miscanthus sinensis was assumed to be the origin of Miscanthus Anderss, which evolved to M. sinensis var. formosana, and M. sinensis var. flavidus, and M. sinensis var. transmorrisonensis, and Miscanthus floridulus was thought to be an out group of M. sinensis complex. Moreover, molecular phylogeny was attempted to clarify the population heterogeneity of M. sinensis complex, resulting in a substantial information. It would be available for making hybridization between Miscanthus species and its related species, such as Saccharum (sugar cane) spp. which is a

  6. Battlefield Utility of Antipersonnel Landmines and Proposed Alternatives (Analysis in Support of the NATO SAS-023 APM Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandley, J F; Greenwalt, R J; Magnoli, D E; Randazzo, A S

    2002-02-05

    This study consists of work done in support of the U.S. delegation to the NATO SAS-023 Antipersonnel Landmine Study Group, supplemented by additional work done for the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense Antipersonnel Landmine Alternative Concept Exploration Program (Track III). It explores the battlefield utility of current antipersonnel landmines (APL) in both pure and mixed APL/antitank minefields and evaluates the value of military suggested non-materiel alternatives. The historical record is full of examples where the presence (or absence) of antipersonnel landmines made a critical difference in battle. The current generation of military thinkers and writers lack any significant combat experience employing either mixed or antipersonnel minefields, which leaves a critical gap in available expert advice for policy and decision-makers. Because of this lack of experienced-based professional military knowledge, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed the employment of antipersonnel landmines in tactical mixed minefields and in protective antipersonnel minefields. The scientific method was employed where hypotheses were generated from the tactics and doctrine of the antipersonnel landmine era and tested in a simulation laboratory. A high-resolution, U.S. Joint Forces Command combat simulation model (the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation--JCATS) was used as the laboratory instrument. A realistic European scenario was obtained from a multi-national USAREUR exercise and was approved by the SAS-023 panel members. Additional scenarios were provided by U.S. CINC conferences and were based on Southwest Asia and Northeast Asia. Weapons data was obtained from the U.S. family of Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manuals. The U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency conducted a limited verification and validation assessment of JCATS for purposes of this study.

  7. Cyclic voltammetry studies of n-type polymers with non-alternant fluoranthene units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo, Gonzalo [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Kapturkiewicz, Andrzej [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: akaptur@ichf.edu.pl; Palmaerts, Arne [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Agoralaan, Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Lutsen, Laurence [IMEC, Division IMOMEC, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Cleij, Thomas J. [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Agoralaan, Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vanderzande, Dirk [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Agoralaan, Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC, Division IMOMEC, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2009-02-01

    Poly(p-fluoranthenevinylenes) and their dithiocarbamate precursors have been deposited on indium-tin oxide electrodes and electrochemical properties of the obtained films have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry studies in acetonitrile solutions containing 0.1 M (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}NBF{sub 4} as supporting electrolyte. It has been found that all investigated polymers display well pronounced n-doping processes. Electrochemical reduction of the dithiocarbamate precursors seems to be associated with C-S bond cleavage with elimination of -SC(S)N(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2} group. In view of UV-vis spectroscopic data the obtained products, tentatively identified as polymers containing fluoranthene units connected by -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}- bridges, are somewhat less conjugated than the corresponding poly(p-fluoranthenevinylenes). Reversible electrochemical reduction of poly(p-fluoranthenethanes) occurs at potentials only somewhat (ca. 0.1 V) more negative as found for their poly(p-fluoranthenevinylenes) analogues suggesting relatively weak coupling between fluoranthene kernels in both kinds of investigated polymers.

  8. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  9. Assessing mouse alternatives to access to computer: a case study of a user with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousada, Thais; Pareira, Javier; Groba, Betania; Nieto, Laura; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the process of assessment of three assistive devices to meet the needs of a woman with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to provide her with computer access and use. The user has quadriplegic CP, with anarthria, using a syllabic keyboard. Devices were evaluated through a three-step approach: (a) use of a questionnaire to preselect potential assistive technologies, (b) use of an eTAO tool to determine the effectiveness of each devised, and (c) a conducting semi-structured interview to obtain qualitative data. Touch screen, joystick, and trackball were the preselected devices. The best device that met the user's needs and priorities was joystick. The finding was corroborated by both the eTAO tool and the semi-structured interview. Computers are a basic form of social participation. It is important to consider the special needs and priorities of users and to try different devices when undertaking a device-selection process. Environmental and personal factors have to be considered, as well. This leads to a need to evaluate new tools in order to provide the appropriate support. The eTAO could be a suitable instrument for this purpose. Additional research is also needed to understand how to better match devices with different user populations and how to comprehensively evaluate emerging technologies relative to users with disabilities.

  10. Study on Color and Antioxidant Properties of Rambutan Seed Fat as Cocoa Butter Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Khairy. H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the color (whiteness, L*, a*, b* and antioxidant properties (radical scavenging activity, total phenolic compound of rambutan seed fat (RSF and its mixture with cocoa butter (CB were investigated. Different proportions were applied in preparing the samples between (RSF and (CB. The results showed that significant differences among samples in the whiteness, (L* and (a* value, whereas (b* value had no significant differences. With regard antioxidant activity the results showed that total phenolic compound (TPC of cocoa butter was (47.37±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat, while the other mixtures between (RSF and (CB showed (40.49±0.01-11.12±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat. Radical scavenging activity (DPPH of cocoa butter valued (67.32±0.44 µmol trolox/100 g fat, similar to the mixture M1 (60.16±0.23. Based on the results the study recommended that mixture ratio up to 40% rambutan seed fat (RSF can benefit as a cocoa butter replacer whereas a higher ratio completely change original cocoa butter characteristics. Thus, there is the possibility of using the (RSF as replacer of (CB and could utilize by chocolate products.

  11. Study on an alternating current electrothermal micropump for microneedle-based fluid delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rumi; Jullien, Graham A.; Dalton, Colin

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we report on a modeling study of an AC electrothermal (ACET) micropump with high operating pressures as well as fast flow rates. One specific application area is for fluid delivery using microneedle arrays which require higher pressures and faster flow rates than have been previously reported with ACET devices. ACET is very suitable for accurate actuation and control of fluid flow, since the technique has been shown to be very effective in high conductivity fluids and has the ability to create a pulsation free flow. However, AC electrokinetic pumps usually can only generate low operating pressures of 1 to 100 Pa, where flow reversal is likely to occur with an external load. In order to realize a high performance ACET micropump for continuous fluid delivery, applying relatively high AC operating voltages (20 to 36 Vrms) to silicon substrate ACET actuators and using long serpentine channel allows the boosting of operating pressure as well as increasing the flow rates. Fast pumping flow rates (102-103 nl/s) and high operating pressures (1-12 kPa) can be achieved by applying both methods, making them of significant importance for continuous fluid delivery applications using microneedle arrays and other such biomedical devices.

  12. Mobile radio alternative systems study satellite/terrestrial (hybrid) systems concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesling, J. D.; Anderson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The use of satellites for mobile radio service in non-urban areas of the United States in the years from 1985 to 2000 was investigated. Several satellite concepts are considered: a system with single-beam coverage of the fifty United States and Puerto Rico, and multi-beam satellites with greater capacity. All of the needed functions and services identified in the market study are provided by the satellite systems, including nationwide radio access to vehicles without knowledge of vehicle location wideband data transmission from remote sites, two way exchange of short data and control messages between vehicles and dispatch or control centers, and automatic vehicle location (surveillance). The costs of providing the services are within acceptable limits, and the desired returns to the system investors are attractive. The criteria by which the Federal Communication judges the competing demands for public radio spectrum are reviewed with comments on how the criteria might apply to the consideration of land mobile satellites. Institutional arrangements for operating a mobile satellite system are based on the present institutional arrangements in which the services are offered to the end users through wireline and radio common carriers, with direct access by large private and government users.

  13. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  14. A pilot study evaluating alternative approaches of academic detailing in rural family practice clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartung Daniel M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Academic detailing is an interactive, convenient, and user-friendly approach to delivering non-commercial education to healthcare clinicians. While evidence suggests academic detailing is associated with improvements in prescribing behavior, uncertainty exists about generalizability and scalability in diverse settings. Our study evaluates different models of delivering academic detailing in a rural family medicine setting. Methods We conducted a pilot project to assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and satisfaction with academic detailing delivered face-to-face as compared to a modified approach using distance-learning technology. The recipients were four family medicine clinics within the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN. Two clinics were allocated to receive face-to-face detailing and two received outreach through video conferencing or asynchronous web-based outreach. Surveys at midpoint and completion were used to assess effectiveness and satisfaction. Results Each clinic received four outreach visits over an eight month period. Topics included treatment-resistant depression, management of atypical antipsychotics, drugs for insomnia, and benzodiazepine tapering. Overall, 90% of participating clinicians were satisfied with the program. Respondents who received in person detailing reported a higher likelihood of changing their behavior compared to respondents in the distance detailing group for five of seven content areas. While 90%-100% of respondents indicated they would continue to participate if the program were continued, the likelihood of participation declined if only distance approaches were offered. Conclusions We found strong support and satisfaction for the program among participating clinicians. Participants favored in-person approaches to distance interactions. Future efforts will be directed at quantitative methods for evaluating the economic and clinical effectiveness of detailing in rural

  15. Ceramicrete{trademark} Stabilization of CST Resin: ITP Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C A

    1998-12-07

    The Ceramicrete{trademark} waste form is a magnesium phosphate hydrate, which sets as the result of an acid-base reaction between KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and MgO in the presence of water. Based on the results of this feasibility study, this low temperature ceramic waste form is acceptable for stabilization of cesium loaded crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin. The performance objective of CST stabilization is to convert a friable powdered resin into a monolithic form to improve handling and storage and to reduce the waste mobility. Advantages of this type of the CST-Ceramicrete{trademark} waste form include: room temperature processing of a fluid slurry, limited off gas, flexible mix designs, rapid setting, no free liquids, temperature tolerant and durable up to at least 90 degrees C. The Ceramicrete/220 waste form can be processed by in-container mixing or by batch mixing. Since a trace amount of free water will be associated with the wet resin in the CST-Ceramicrete{trademark} waste form, radiolysis of the free water may cause pressurization of the containers. Leaching tests were conducted to evaluate the CST-Ceramicrete{trademark} waste form performance relative to high-level waste glass. Results were very encouraging given that only one waste loading (50 wt. percent resin) was tested and that the leaching procedures were not fully optimized for a non-glass waste form. In general, the cesium leachability per the PCT test of the CST-Ceramicrete{trademark} waste was about 2X more than that of the ARM glass and about 200X more than the EA glass. For monolithic samples (MCC-1 test), the CST-Ceramicrete{trademark} waste form leached 4X to7X more cesium than the ARM glass. (The EA glass is not suited to monolithic leaching.) The CST-Ceramicrete{trademark} leaching results appear to be independent of curing temperature over the range 24 to 90 degrees C.

  16. Dentine microhardness changes following conventional and alternate irrigation regimens: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusree Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the changes in microhardness of root dentin caused by two novel irrigation regimens with conventional irrigation. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human permanent incisor teeth were selected. Decoronated roots were separated longitudinally to get 80 specimens that were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin and grounded flat with silicon carbide abrasive papers. Of these, 60 root segments without any cracks or defects were selected and divided into four groups according to the irrigation regimen used (n = 15. Group I: 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl + 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA + 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX (conventional. Group II: 6% Morinda Citrifolia Juice + 17% EDTA (MCJ. Group III: 5% NaOCl + Q Mix 2 in 1 (QMix. Group IV: Distilled water (control. Irrigation regimens were performed for 5 minutes. Dentin microhardness was measured with a Vickers indenter under a 200-g load and a 20-s dwell time at the midroot level of root dentin. The data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis test and Dunn′s multiple comparison tests. Results: A significant difference was seen in the median values of the four groups. The control group showed the least reduction in microhardness when comparison with the other groups. Except for Group III (Q Mix, the other groups that were tested (MCJ and conventional regimens showed statistically significant difference from the control group. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that NaOCl + Q Mix were least detrimental to root dentin microhardness when compared with MCJ and conventional irrigation regimens.

  17. An exploratory study of complementary and alternative medicine in hospital midwifery: models of care and professional struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jon

    2006-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular amongst midwives in Australia. A growing number of hospital midwives are personally integrating one or a range of CAM within their midwifery practice. Despite this trend we still know little about CAM in midwifery, particularly at a grass-roots level. This paper reports findings from one section of a larger exploratory study examining grass-root practitioners' understandings and experiences of complementary therapies in nursing and midwifery. Thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with midwives working in New South Wales public hospitals and currently integrating CAM within their general midwifery practice. Analysis illustrates how midwives' explanations of, and affinity claims regarding, CAM feed into wider ongoing issues relating to professional autonomy and the relationship between midwifery and obstetrics.

  18. A scoping review of studies comparing the medication event monitoring system (MEMS) with alternative methods for measuring medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alili, Mohamed; Vrijens, Bernard; Demonceau, Jenny; Evers, Silvia M; Hiligsmann, Mickael

    2016-07-01

    Different methods are available for measuring medication adherence. In this paper, we conducted a scoping review to identify and summarize evidence of all studies comparing the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) with alternative methods for measuring medication adherence. A literature search was performed using the open database www.iAdherence.org that includes all original studies reporting findings from the MEMS. Papers comparing methods for measuring adherence to solid oral formulations were included. Data was extracted using a standardized extraction table. A total of 117 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 251 comparisons. Most frequent comparisons were against self-report (n = 119) and pill count (n = 59). Similar outcome measures were used in 210 comparisons (84%), among which 78 used dichotomous variables (adherent or not) and 132 used continuous measures (adherence expressed as percentage). Furthermore, 32% of all comparisons did not estimate adherence over the same coverage period and 44% of all comparisons did not use a statistical method or used a suboptimal one. Only eighty-seven (35%) comparisons had similar coverage periods, similar outcome measures and optimal statistical methods. Compared to MEMS, median adherence was grossly overestimated by 17% using self-report, by 8% using pill count and by 6% using rating. In conclusion, among all comparisons of MEMS versus alternative methods for measuring adherence, only a few used adequate comparisons in terms of outcome measures, coverage periods and statistical method. Researchers should therefore use stronger methodological frameworks when comparing measurement methods and be aware that non-electronic measures could lead to overestimation of medication adherence.

  19. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera, Scirtidae (Coleoptera and Coenagrionidae (Odonata in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05 from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p A eficiência do método alternativo de coleta (por sucção da água para o estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae (Diptera, Scirtidae (Coleoptera e Coenagrionidae (Odonata em bromélias com diferentes estruturas foliares de restinga em Florianópolis, SC, Brasil, foi estudada. O método alternativo foi menos eficiente para coletar Culicidae e Chironomidae (teste de Wilcoxon p 0, 05 a partir de Aechmea lindenii. Esse foi menos eficiente para coletar insetos de todos os grupos a partir de Vriesea friburgensis (teste de Wilcoxon p < 0,05. O método alternativo se mostrou eficiente em estimar a diversidade desses insetos nas duas espécies de bromélias. A alta mobilidade das formas imaturas dos coleópteros e libélulas e a disponibilidade de apenas um tanque em Aechea lindenii, em contraste com as várias axilas e Vriesea friburgensis, facilitando a sucção destas formas imaturas provavelmente influenciaram os resultados. Os resultados indicam que o método de sucção não deve substituir o desmanche no estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae; ele pode ser útil para a obtenção de formas imaturas de Scirtidae e Coenagrionidae em bromélias de um só tanque.

  20. The Cleveland Sorting Test: a preliminary study of an alternate form of the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreh, Amir; Pastel, Dan; Miller, Ashley; Levin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    During the past two decades, studies have repeatedly shown that the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST) is not as sensitive to prefrontal-lobe functioning as was originally suspected. Specifically, both clinical and brain-imaging studies have shown that several distinct neural circuits contribute to one's ability to successfully complete different aspects of the test. Another limitation of the WCST is its length, which makes it difficult and frustrating for certain clinical populations. To address the above limitations, researchers have proposed the development of new indexes and the integration of an adaptive testing approach that will allow for the premature termination of the test. Unfortunately, given the proprietary nature of the WCST, none of the above recommendations have been adopted. The present preliminary study examined an alternate form of the 64-Item WCST (WCST-64), the Cleveland Sorting Test (CST-64). The normative data of the two measures as well as the total number of errors, perseverative responses, perseverative errors, and categories completed were compared using a repeated-measures design. Overall, the study supports psychometric approximation of the CST-64 and the WCST-64. Suggestions for future studies and modifications of the CST-64, including the use of recently proposed indexes and adaptive administration approaches, are provided.

  1. Assessment of Control Tissue for Gene and Protein Expression Studies: A Comparison of Three Alternative Lung Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R. Passmore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of an appropriate control group in human research is essential in investigating the level of a pathological disorder. This study aimed to compare three alternative sources of control lung tissue and to determine their suitability for gene and protein expression studies. Gene and protein expression levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and gelatinase families and their receptors were measured using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The gene expression levels of VEGFA, placental growth factor (PGF, and their receptors, fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1, and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and the inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were significantly higher in lung cancer resections. The gene expression level of MMP-9 was significantly lower in the corresponding samples. Altered protein expression was also detected, depending on the area assessed. The results of this study show that none of the three control groups studied are completely suitable for gene and protein studies associated with the VEGF and gelatinase families, highlighting the need for researchers to be selective in which controls they opt for.

  2. Complementary and alternative medicine use and cost in functional bowel disorders: A six month prospective study in a large HMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drossman Douglas A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Bowel Disorders (FBD are chronic disorders that are difficult to treat and manage. Many patients and doctors are dissatisfied with the level of improvement in symptoms that can be achieved with standard medical care which may lead them to seek alternatives for care. There are currently no data on the types of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM used for FBDs other than Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, or on the economic costs of CAM treatments. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence, types and costs of CAM in IBS, functional diarrhea, functional constipation, and functional abdominal pain. Methods 1012 Patients with FBD were recruited through a health care maintenance organization and followed for 6 months. Questionnaires were used to ascertain: Utilization and expenditures on CAM, symptom severity (IBS-SS, quality of life (IBS-QoL, psychological distress (BSI and perceived treatment effectiveness. Costs for conventional medical care were extracted from administrative claims. Results CAM was used by 35% of patients, at a median yearly cost of $200. The most common CAM types were ginger, massage therapy and yoga. CAM use was associated with female gender, higher education, and anxiety. Satisfaction with physician care and perceived effectiveness of prescription medication were not associated with CAM use. Physician referral to a CAM provider was uncommon but the majority of patients receiving this recommendation followed their physician's advice. Conclusion CAM is used by one-third of FBD patients. CAM use does not seem to be driven by dissatisfaction with conventional care. Physicians should discuss CAM use and effectiveness with their patients and refer patients if appropriate.

  3. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: Insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardon, A.; Desclaux, A.; Egrot, M.; Simon, E.; Micollier, E.; Kyakuwa, M.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and i

  4. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  5. Immortalized mesenchymal stem cells: an alternative to primary mesenchymal stem cells in neuronal differentiation and neuroregeneration associated studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Min

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be induced to differentiate into neuronal cells under appropriate cellular conditions and transplanted in brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases animal models for neuroregeneration studies. In contrast to the embryonic stem cells (ESCs, MSCs are easily subject to aging and senescence because of their finite ability of self-renewal. MSCs senescence seriously affected theirs application prospects as a promising tool for cell-based regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In the present study, we established a reversible immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (IMSCs line by using SSR#69 retrovirus expressing simian virus 40 large T (SV40T antigen as an alternative to primary MSCs. Methods The retroviral vector SSR#69 expressing simian virus 40 large T (SV40T antigen was used to construct IMSCs. IMSCs were identified by flow cytometry to detect cell surface makers. To investigate proliferation and differentiation potential of IMSCs, cell growth curve determination and mesodermal trilineage differentiation tests were performed. Neuronal differentiation characteristics of IMSCs were detected in vitro. Before IMSCs transplantation, we excluded its tumorigenicity in nude mice firstly. The Morris water maze tests and shuttle box tests were performed five weeks after HIBD models received cells transplantation therapy. Results In this study, reversible IMSCs were constructed successfully and had the similar morphology and cell surface makers as primary MSCs. IMSCs possessed better ability of proliferation and anti-senescence compared with primary MSCs, while maintained multilineage differentiation capacity. Neural-like cells derived from IMSCs had similar expressions of neural-specific genes, protein expression patterns and resting membrane potential (RMP compared with their counterparts derived from primary MSCs. There was no bump formation in nude mice subcutaneously injected with IMSCs. IMSCs

  6. Closure of the Spent Fuel Repository in Forsmark - Studies of alternative concepts for sealing of ramp, shafts and investigation boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, Bjoern [SKB AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Luterkort, David [SGI, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Roland [Miljoe- och Energikonsult AB, Ekeroe (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    good sealing. Such a solution, which could be based on crushed rock with the right grain size distribution, might also be more robust to control and verify with respect to long-term durability. However, relaxing the design premises in this way would require additional sensitivity analyses. Further, the assessment in SR-Site indicates that the reference design is appropriate for the purpose. However, if the the design premises are relaxed, more robust designs might be worth investigating. This has been studied and the results are presented in this report. Research and development specifically focused on technology for repository closure has not yet been carried out. On the other hand, SKB and other organisations have for many years studied and conducted considerable research on backfilling and sealing of deposition tunnels, including full-scale tests. SKB has also developed and tested technology for sealing of investigation boreholes. Experience and results from these efforts comprise an important basis for this project. The work has focused on sealing of shafts, ramp and investigation boreholes. Alternatives for top sealing and sealing of the central area have not been studied, since their impact on the flow through the repository is judged to be marginal. Nor have alternative concepts for sealing of main and transport tunnels been developed, since it is believed that filling with blocks and pellets of swelling clay is the only alternative that ensures sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity.

  7. SPINAL ANESTHESIA A BETTER AND EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO GENERAL ANEASTHESIA IN SPINE SURGERIES: A PROSPECTIVE OPEN LABEL SINGLE ARM STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Babu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: In all practical purposes various thoraco lumbar and lumbar surgeries like discectomy, laminectomy and spinal fusion procedures are usually performed under general anesthesia (GA. Our aim of this study is to assess whether spinal anesthesia is a better and effective alternative to general anesthesia in terms of economic advantage and functional recovery with both intra and post-operative heamodynamic stability. METHODS: In our study hundred patients with age group 25-45 yrs within the ASA criteria of class I-III were enrolled. All patients were randomly selected based on age, sex, ASS criteria, duration of surgery, heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, blood loss, previous history of risk factors and co morbidities. The severity of postoperative pain based on visual analogue scale (VAS and use of analgesics post operatively, were recorded. RESULTS: There were 41 males and 59 females. The mean age of the patient was 39.28±9.27 yrs. Six patients had hypertension, 11 with diabetes. Patients with ASA Grade I and II and III were 60, 34 and 6 respectively. There were no episodes of air way compromises, 2 patients had spinal aneasthesia failures, no incidence of post dural puncture headache, 3 patients had mean blood pressure fluctuations among them, one patient had post-operative paraperesis due to hematoma treated by immediate decompression, and 13 patients had usage of propofol sedation in terms of comfort. The duration of surgery (range was 77.25±22.44 min (40-120 Severity of postoperative pain after four hours of surgery on VAS was 3.24±0.46. Twenty two patients (22% required analgesics. Two patients had post-operative vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: In our study we have considered that spinal anesthesia for advantages such as less blood loss, intra operative blood pressure and heart rate changes, postoperative pain, quick functional recovery and lower incidence of pulmonary complications. Additionally, during spinal anesthesia

  8. Alternatives evaluation and decommissioning study on shielded transfer tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, J.R.; Hinton, R.R.

    1994-08-01

    The shielded transfer tanks (STTs) are five obsolete cylindrical shipping casks which were used to transport high specific activity radioactive solutions by rail during the 1960s and early 1970s. The STTs are currently stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under a shed roof. This report is an evaluation to determine the preferred alternative for the final disposition of the five STTs. The decommissioning alternatives assessed include: (1) the no action alternative to leave the STTs in their present location with continued surveillance and maintenance; (2) solidification of contents within the tanks and holding the STTs in long term retrievable storage; (3) sale of one or more of the used STTs to private industry for use at their treatment facility with the remaining STTs processed as in Alternative 4; and (4) removal of tank contents for de-watering/retrievable storage, limited decontamination to meet acceptance criteria, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal through the DOE contaminated scrap metal program, and returning the shielding lead to the ORNL lead recovery program because the smelting contractor cannot reprocess the lead. To completely evaluate the alternatives for the disposition of the STTs, the contents of the tanks must be characterized. Shielding and handling requirements, risk considerations, and waste acceptance criteria all require that the radioactive inventory and free liquids residual in the STTs be known. Because characterization of the STT contents in the field was not input into a computer model to predict the probable inventory and amount of free liquid. The four alternatives considered were subjected to a numerical scoring procedure. Alternative 4, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal after removal/de-watering of the tank contents, had the highest score and is, therefore, recommended as the preferred alternative. However, if a buyer for one or more STT could be found, it is recommended that Alternative 3 be reconsidered.

  9. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles exposed to non-heating alternating magnetic field in biochemical applications: theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Yuri I.; Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Zhigachev, Alexander O.; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G.; Sokolsky, Marina; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2017-02-01

    In the past decade, magneto-nanomechanical approach to biochemical systems stimulation has been studied intensively. This method involves macromolecule structure local deformation via mechanical actuation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) by non-heating low frequency (LF) alternating magnetic field (AMF). Specificity at cellular or molecular level and spatial locality in nanometer scale are its key advantages as compared to magnetic fluid hyperthermia. However, current experimental studies have weak theoretical basis. Several models of magneto-nanomechanical actuation of macromolecules and cells in non-heating uniform LF AMF are presented in the article. Single core-shell spherical, rod-like, and Janus MNPs, as well as dimers consisting of two f-MNPs with macromolecules immobilized on their surfaces are considered. AMF-induced rotational oscillations of MNPs can affect properties and functioning of macromolecules or cellular membranes attached to them via periodic deformations in nanometer scale. This could be widely used in therapy, in particular for targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and cancer cell killing. An aggregate composed of MNPs can affect associated macromolecules by force up to several hundreds of piconewton in the case of MNPs of tens of nanometers in diameter and LF AMF below 1 T. AMF parameters and MNP design requirements for effective in vitro and in vivo magneto-nanomechanical treatment are presented.

  10. Effects of weak transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on brain activity – a review of known mechanisms from animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eReato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic neuronal activity is ubiquitous in the human brain. These rhythms originate from a variety of different network mechanisms, which give rise to a wide-ranging spectrum of oscillation frequencies. In the last few years an increasing number of clinical research studies have explored transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS with weak current as a tool for affecting brain function. The premise of these interventions is that tACS will interact with ongoing brain oscillations. However, the exact mechanisms by which weak currents could affect neuronal oscillations at different frequency bands are not well known and this, in turn, limits the rational optimization of human experiments. Here we review the available in vitro and in vivo animal studies that attempt to provide mechanistic explanations. The findings can be summarized into a few generic principles, such as periodic modulation of excitability, shifts in spike timing, modulation of firing rate, and shifts in the balance of excitation and inhibition. These effects result from weak but simultaneous polarization of a large number of neurons. Whether this can lead to an entrainment or a modulation of brain oscillations, or whether AC currents have no effect at all, depends entirely on the specific dynamic that gives rise to the different brain rhythms, as discussed here for slow wave oscillations (~1 Hz and gamma oscillations (~30 Hz. We conclude with suggestions for further experiments to investigate the role of AC stimulation for other physiologically relevant brain rhythms.

  11. Alternating irrigation water quality as a method to control solute concentrations and mass fluxes below irrigated fields: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, David

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present numerical study was to extend the data-driven protocol for the control of soil salinity, to control chloride and nitrate concentrations and mass fluxes below agricultural fields irrigated with treated waste water (TWW). The protocol is based on alternating irrigation water quality between TWW and desalinized water (DSW), guided by solute concentrations at soil depth, zs. Two different schemes, the first requires measurements of soil solution concentrations of chloride and nitrate at zs, while, the second scheme requires only measurements of soil solution EC at zs, were investigated. For this purpose, 3-D numerical simulations of flow and transport were performed for variably saturated, spatially heterogeneous, flow domains located at two different field sites. The sites differ in crop type, irrigation method, and in their lithology; these differences, in turn, considerably affect the performance of the proposed schemes, expressed in terms of their ability to reduce solute concentrations that drained below the root zone. Results of the analyses suggest that the proposed data-driven schemes allow the use of low-quality water for irrigation, while minimizing the consumption of high-quality water to a level, which, for given climate, soil, crop, irrigation method, and water quality, may be determined by the allowable nitrate and chloride concentrations in the groundwater. The results of the present study indicate that with respect to the diminution of groundwater contamination by chloride and nitrate, the more data demanding, first scheme is superior the second scheme.

  12. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  13. Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood: Retrospective Genetic Study and Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in 187 Subjects from the US AHCF Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viollet, Louis; Glusman, Gustavo; Murphy, Kelley J; Newcomb, Tara M; Reyna, Sandra P; Sweney, Matthew; Nelson, Benjamin; Andermann, Frederick; Andermann, Eva; Acsadi, Gyula; Barbano, Richard L; Brown, Candida; Brunkow, Mary E; Chugani, Harry T; Cheyette, Sarah R; Collins, Abigail; DeBrosse, Suzanne D; Galas, David; Friedman, Jennifer; Hood, Lee; Huff, Chad; Jorde, Lynn B; King, Mary D; LaSalle, Bernie; Leventer, Richard J; Lewelt, Aga J; Massart, Mylynda B; Mérida, Mario R; Ptáček, Louis J; Roach, Jared C; Rust, Robert S; Renault, Francis; Sanger, Terry D; Sotero de Menezes, Marcio A; Tennyson, Rachel; Uldall, Peter; Zhang, Yue; Zupanc, Mary; Xin, Winnie; Silver, Kenneth; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in ATP1A3 cause Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) by disrupting function of the neuronal Na+/K+ ATPase. Published studies to date indicate 2 recurrent mutations, D801N and E815K, and a more severe phenotype in the E815K cohort. We performed mutation analysis and retrospective genotype-phenotype correlations in all eligible patients with AHC enrolled in the US AHC Foundation registry from 1997-2012. Clinical data were abstracted from standardized caregivers' questionnaires and medical records and confirmed by expert clinicians. We identified ATP1A3 mutations by Sanger and whole genome sequencing, and compared phenotypes within and between 4 groups of subjects, those with D801N, E815K, other ATP1A3 or no ATP1A3 mutations. We identified heterozygous ATP1A3 mutations in 154 of 187 (82%) AHC patients. Of 34 unique mutations, 31 (91%) are missense, and 16 (47%) had not been previously reported. Concordant with prior studies, more than 2/3 of all mutations are clusteredin exons 17 and 18. Of 143 simplex occurrences, 58 had D801N (40%), 38 had E815K(26%) and 11 had G947R (8%) mutations [corrected].Patients with an E815K mutation demonstrate an earlier age of onset, more severe motor impairment and a higher prevalence of status epilepticus. This study further expands the number and spectrum of ATP1A3 mutations associated with AHC and confirms a more deleterious effect of the E815K mutation on selected neurologic outcomes. However, the complexity of the disorder and the extensive phenotypic variability among subgroups merits caution and emphasizes the need for further studies.

  14. BLENDED LEARNING (BL AS PEDAGOGICAL ALTERNATIVE TO TEACH BUSINESS COMMUNICATION COURSE: Case Study of UUM Executive Diploma Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham DZAKIRIA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globally, blended learning (BL technologies have been increasingly applied in a variety of fields, both public and private sectors. In recent years, universities, public and private businesses and organizations are among those employing blended learning methods and technologies in training and re-training of professionals in the workforce. In Malaysia, the increasing use of blended learning to enhance learning and enriching of soft skills among professionals and individuals in the work place is evident. The advancement of technology is an onset to many new avenues and tool for learning and teaching, and it is the coalescing of these various technologies with particular pedagogy or andragogy has helped to popularize BL. However, when an institution makes the critical choice of delivery methods, it is pertinent that the university needs to consider various success factors. One in particular is student-centered approach that entails the need to understand the students as the beneficiary of learning, and the support system they need to help them learn. This qualitative study reports in detail the experience of a small group of students undertaking Executive Diplomas at Executive Development Centre (EDC, Universiti Utara Malaysia as they progress through their Executive program. This paper looks at learning experiences as described by the learners- it is their story, their experience, and their perspective. This study suggests that BL offered a comfortable middle ground, and has lots of potential in higher education in Malaysia. It is a pedagogical alternative that could play a significant role not only for teaching Business Communication, but has the potential to promote lifelong learning initiatives in Malaysia in a much meaningful and inviting way. Although this study shows that BL contributed a significant and meaningful learning particularly for adult learners, it needs more definitive studies. Such information can be used to guide policy makers

  15. Utilization of reconstructed cultured human skin models as an alternative skin for permeation studies of chemical compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Satoshi; 藤堂, 浩明; 杉江, 謙一; 藤本, 英哲; 中田, 圭一; 徳留, 嘉寛; 橋本, フミ惠; 杉林, 堅次

    2010-01-01

    Two reconstructed human skin models, EpiskinSM and EpiDermTM, have been approved as alternative membranes for skin corrosive/irritation experiments due to their close correlation with animal skin. Such reconstructed human skin models were evaluated as alternative membranes for skin permeation experiments. Seven drugs with different lipophilicities and almost the same molecular weight were used as test penetrants. Relationships were investigated between permeability coefficients (P values) of ...

  16. The "case-chaos study" as an adjunct or alternative to conventional case-control study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Iain A; Mook, Piers; Adak, Goutam K; O'Brien, Sarah J; McCarthy, Noel D

    2012-09-15

    Case-control studies are important in infectious disease epidemiology for rapidly identifying and controlling risks, but challenges, including the need for speed, can place practical restrictions on control selection and recruitment. The biased comparisons that result can hamper or, worse, mislead investigators. Following a 2009 outbreak of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection associated with a petting farm in southeast England, it was hypothesized that case behavior alone could be used to identify risks. Case-patients' exposures were randomized on a case-by-case basis, and the resulting permuted data were compared with the actual events preceding illness by conditional logistic regression analysis. There was good agreement between the risks identified by using our new method and the risks elicited in the original outbreak case-control studies. This was also the case in analysis of 2 further historical outbreaks. These initial findings suggest that the technique, which we have called the "case-chaos" technique, appeared to be useful in this setting. Analysis of simulated data supports this view. Circumventing the need for traditional control data has the potential to reduce outbreak investigation lead times, leading to earlier interventions and reduced morbidity and mortality. However, further validation is necessary, coupled with an awareness of limitations of the method.

  17. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  18. Alternating and direct current electrochemical studies of a wool wax-based corrosion preventive coating on aluminum alloy 2024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, P.C.; Devereux, O.F. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    1998-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of Al 2024-T3 treated with a wool wax (lanolin)-based corrosion preventive coating in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and direct current electrode polarization. DC measurements were modeled by three reactions: oxidation of aluminum, reduction of oxygen, and reduction of hydrogen. Alternating current behavior of untreated specimens was modeled using the Randles circuit, and that of inhibited specimens was modeled using parallel resistance-capacitance circuits representing the coating and the charge-transfer process. AC and DC estimates of the polarization resistance of coated specimens were 50 M{Omega}-cm{sup 2} and 32 M{Omega}-cm{sup 2}, respectively. AC and DC values for bare control specimens were of the order of 3 k{Omega}-cm{sup 2} and 15 k{Omega}-cm{sup 2}, respectively. The wool wax coating was found to be a very effective corrosion preventative for this alloy in the aqueous saline environment whether applied to freshly prepared surfaces or to corroded specimens removed from simulated service.

  19. A comparative study between different alternatives to prepare gaseous standards for calibrating UV-Ion Mobility Spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-García, Laura; Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-07-15

    An UV-Ion Mobility Spectrometer is a simple, rapid, inexpensive instrument widely used in environmental analysis among other fields. The advantageous features of its underlying technology can be of great help towards developing reliable, economical methods for determining gaseous compounds from gaseous, liquid and solid samples. Developing an effective method using UV-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (UV-IMS) to determine volatile analytes entails using appropriate gaseous standards for calibrating the spectrometer. In this work, two home-made sample introduction systems (SISs) and a commercial gas generator were used to obtain such gaseous standards. The first home-made SIS used was a static head-space to measure compounds present in liquid samples and the other home-made system was an exponential dilution set-up to measure compounds present in gaseous samples. Gaseous compounds generated by each method were determined on-line by UV-IMS. Target analytes chosen for this comparative study were ethanol, acetone, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers. The different alternatives were acceptable in terms of sensitivity, precision and selectivity.

  20. Predictors for adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a total population (the Young-HUNT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Steinsbekk

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the factors predicting adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study conducted in an adolescent total population in Central Norway (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT. In Young-HUNT 1, all inhabitants aged 13 to 19 years (N = 8944, 89% response rate were invited to participate, and the youngest group (13 to 15 year olds was surveyed again 4 years later (Young-HUNT 2, N = 2429, 82% response rate. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire on health and life style which included a question regarding visits to a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months. RESULTS: One in eleven (8.7%, 95%CI 7.6-9.8% had visited a CAM practitioner, an increase of 26% in 4 years (1.8% points. The final multivariable analysis predicted increased odds of an adolescent becoming a CAM visitor four years later (p<0.05 if she or he had previously visited a CAM practitioner (adjOR 3.4, had musculoskeletal pain (adjOR 1.5, had migraine (adjOR 2.3, used asthma medicines (adjOR 1.8 or suffered from another disease lasting more than three months (adjOR 2.1. Being male predicted reduced odds of visiting a CAM practitioner in the future (adjOR 0.6. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from this study that future visits to a CAM practitioner are predicted by both predisposing factors (being female, having visited a CAM practitioner previously and medical need factors (having had musculoskeletal pain, migraine, used asthma medicines or experienced another disease lasting more than three months. None of the specific variables associated with CAM visits were predictive for CAM visits four years later.

  1. Is case-chaos methodology an appropriate alternative to conventional case-control studies for investigating outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Michael; Wallensten, Anders; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon

    2014-08-15

    Case-chaos methodology is a proposed alternative to case-control studies that simulates controls by randomly reshuffling the exposures of cases. We evaluated the method using data on outbreaks in Sweden. We identified 5 case-control studies from foodborne illness outbreaks that occurred between 2005 and 2012. Using case-chaos methodology, we calculated odds ratios 1,000 times for each exposure. We used the median as the point estimate and the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles as the confidence interval. We compared case-chaos matched odds ratios with their respective case-control odds ratios in terms of statistical significance. Using Spearman's correlation, we estimated the correlation between matched odds ratios and the proportion of cases exposed to each exposure and quantified the relationship between the 2 using a normal linear mixed model. Each case-control study identified an outbreak vehicle (odds ratios = 4.9-45). Case-chaos methodology identified the outbreak vehicle 3 out of 5 times. It identified significant associations in 22 of 113 exposures that were not associated with outcome and 5 of 18 exposures that were significantly associated with outcome. Log matched odds ratios correlated with their respective proportion of cases exposed (Spearman ρ = 0.91) and increased significantly with the proportion of cases exposed (b = 0.054). Case-chaos methodology missed the outbreak source 2 of 5 times and identified spurious associations between a number of exposures and outcome. Measures of association correlated with the proportion of cases exposed. We recommended against using case-chaos analysis during outbreak investigations.

  2. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Ma Shuangge [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [University of Michigan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Higgins, Susan A. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Shoreline Medical Center, Guilford, Connecticut (United States); Weidhaas, Joanne B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Lloyd, Shane [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Peschel, Richard [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Gaudreau, Bryant [Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Rockwell, Sara [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  3. A Longitudinal Comparative Study of Alternative and Traditional Teacher Education Programs in Israel: Initial Training, Induction Period, School Placement, and Retention Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Yehudith; Donitsa-Schmidt, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare alternative teacher education programs in English as a foreign language (EFL), biology, and mathematics to traditional programs in the same subjects. To do this, we analyzed data on all of the students who studied in the aforementioned programs during 2009 and 2010 in the largest college of education in…

  4. Mapping of heterologous expressed sequence tags as an alternative to microarrays for study of defense responses in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postnikova Olga A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology helped to accumulate an immense pool of data on gene expression changes in response to different environmental factors. Yet, computer- generated gene profiling using expressed sequence tags (EST represents a valuable alternative to microarrays, which allows efficient discovery of homologous sequences in evolutionarily different species and comparison of gene sets on the whole genome scale. In this study, we used publicly available EST database derived from different plant species infected with a variety of pathogens, to generate an expression profile of homologous genes involved in defense response of a model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana. Results EST-driven prediction identified 4,935 genes (16% of the total Arabidopsis genome which, according to the origin of EST sets, were associated with defense responses in the reference genome. Profiles of defense-related genes, obtained by mapping of heterologous EST, represent putative Arabidopsis homologs of the corresponding species. Comparison of these profiles in pairs and locating common genes allowed estimating similarity between defense-related gene sets of different plant species. To experimentally support computer data, we arbitrarily selected a number of transcription factor genes (TF detected by EST mapping. Their expression levels were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction during infection with yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus, a compatible virus systemically infecting Arabidopsis. We observed that 65% of the designated TF were upregulated in accordance with the EST-generated profile. Conclusion We demonstrated that heterologous EST mapping may be efficiently used to reveal genes involved in host defense responses to pathogens. Upregulated genes identified in this study substantially overlap with those previously obtained by microarrays.

  5. Role of Kekul\\'e and Non-Kekul\\'e Structures in the Radical Character of Alternant Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A TAO-DFT Study

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Chia-Nan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of Kekul\\'e and non-Kekul\\'e structures in the radical character of alternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT), an efficient electronic structure method for the study of large ground-state systems with strong static correlation effects. Our results reveal that the studies of Kekul\\'e and non-Kekul\\'e structures qualitatively describe the radical character of alternant PAHs, which could be useful when electronic structure calculations are infeasible due to the expensive computational cost. In addition, our results support previous findings on the increase in radical character with increasing system size. For alternant PAHs with the same number of aromatic rings, the geometrical arrangements of aromatic rings are responsible for their radical character.

  6. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    Full Text Available The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS. In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines.In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification.Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  7. Validity study of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test in the identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-bo SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the sensitivity and specificity of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test (ACFT differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal controls.  Methods A total of 121 MCI patients, 104 AD patients and 104 healthy controls, who were matched in sex, age and education level, were enrolled in this study. They performed Animal Category Verbal Fluency Test (AFT, City Category Verbal Fluency Test (CFT and ACFT. A series of standard neuropsychological tests were also administered to reflect episodic memory, verbal ability, working memory, executive function and processing speed. The validity and related influencing factors of ACFT was evaluated.  Results Compared with control group, the ACFT correct number in MCI and AD groups reduced significantly (P = 0.000, 0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed the sensitivity and specificity of ACFT in discriminating MCI (P = 0.012, 0.030 and AD (P = 0.004, 0.003 from normal controls were higher than those of AFT and CFT. There was no correlation of correct number in ACFT with age and education (P > 0.05, for all. The correlations of ACFT with Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Digital Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, Shape Trail Test (STT and Digit Span Test (DS, all of which reflected attention and executive function, were significantly closer than those of AFT and CFT (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusions ACFT is more efficient in early cognitive impairment identification than the other traditional category verbal fluency tests. It is a new variant form of category verbal fluency test that could assess cognitive function and could be broadly applied in clinical practice. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.010

  8. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with localized prostate carcinoma. Study at a single institute in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Koji; Ichioka, Kentaro; Terada, Naoki; Terai, Akito [Kurashiki Central Hospital, Okayama (Japan); Arai, Yoichi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    The use of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) has recently received considerable attention throughout the world. We evaluated the prevalence and predictors of CAM use among Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer. A total of 177 patients with localized prostate carcinoma underwent radical retropubic prostatecotomy or external beam radiation therapy between January 1994 and January 2001. Of them, 138 (78%) answered a self-administered questionnaire on CAM use and were eligible for this study. The overall prevalence, types of CAM used, and costs of CAM were assessed. The effects of age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, clinical stage, pretreatment Gleason score, patients' income, patients' final educational status, and general health-related quality of life at baseline and 1 year after treatment, as estimated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Prostate Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire on the prevalence of CAM use, were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients (20%) had once used or had been using some types of CAM. Herbal medicine and vitamins were the most common types of CAM used. Preoperative Gleason score was significantly associated with CAM use, as determined by the {chi}''2 test (P0.0198), and PSA level and posttreatment physical function domain were marginally associated with CAM use, as determined by the Mann-Whitney U-test (P=0.0734 and P=0.0597, respectively). Patient age, income, and final educational status had no impact on CAM use. A relatively small proportion of Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer have tried CAM compared with the proportions of patients described in previous reports from Western countries. (author)

  9. Transient Exposure to Ethanol during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Results in Defects in Neuronal Differentiation: An Alternative Model System to Study FASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pujades, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Background The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS). In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification. Conclusion Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development. PMID:25383948

  10. Alternatives to F-Test in One Way ANOVA in case of heterogeneity of variances (a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Moder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several articles deal with the effects of inhomogeneous variances in one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. A very early investigation of this topic was done by Box (1954. He supposed, that in balanced designs with moderate heterogeneity of variances deviations of the empirical type I error rate (on experiments based realized α to the nominal one (predefined α for H0 are small. Similar conclusions are drawn by Wellek (2003. For not so moderate heterogeneity (e.g. σ1:σ2:...=3:1:... Moder (2007 showed, that empirical type I error rate is far beyond the nominal one, even with balanced designs. In unbalanced designs the difficulties get bigger. Several attempts were made to get over this problem. One proposal is to use a more stringent α level (e.g. 2.5% instead of 5% (Keppel & Wickens, 2004. Another recommended remedy is to transform the original scores by square root, log, and other variance reducing functions (Keppel & Wickens, 2004, Heiberger & Holland, 2004. Some authors suggest the use of rank based alternatives to F-test in analysis of variance (Vargha & Delaney, 1998. Only a few articles deal with two or multifactorial designs. There is some evidence, that in a two or multi-factorial design type I error rate is approximately met if the number of factor levels tends to infinity for a certain factor while the number of levels is fixed for the other factors (Akritas & S., 2000, Bathke, 2004.The goal of this article is to find an appropriate location test in an oneway analysis of variance situation with inhomogeneous variances for balanced and unbalanced designs based on a simulation study.

  11. Of woods and webs: possible alternatives to the tree of life for studying genomic fluidity in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapointe François-Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce several forest-based and network-based methods for exploring microbial evolution, and apply them to the study of thousands of genes from 30 strains of E. coli. This case study illustrates how additional analyses could offer fast heuristic alternatives to standard tree of life (TOL approaches. Results We use gene networks to identify genes with atypical modes of evolution, and genome networks to characterize the evolution of genetic partnerships between E. coli and mobile genetic elements. We develop a novel polychromatic quartet method to capture patterns of recombination within E. coli, to update the clanistic toolkit, and to search for the impact of lateral gene transfer and of pathogenicity on gene evolution in two large forests of trees bearing E. coli. We unravel high rates of lateral gene transfer involving E. coli (about 40% of the trees under study, and show that both core genes and shell genes of E. coli are affected by non-tree-like evolutionary processes. We show that pathogenic lifestyle impacted the structure of 30% of the gene trees, and that pathogenic strains are more likely to transfer genes with one another than with non-pathogenic strains. In addition, we propose five groups of genes as candidate mobile modules of pathogenicity. We also present strong evidence for recent lateral gene transfer between E. coli and mobile genetic elements. Conclusions Depending on which evolutionary questions biologists want to address (i.e. the identification of modules, genetic partnerships, recombination, lateral gene transfer, or genes with atypical evolutionary modes, etc., forest-based and network-based methods are preferable to the reconstruction of a single tree, because they provide insights and produce hypotheses about the dynamics of genome evolution, rather than the relative branching order of species and lineages. Such a methodological pluralism - the use of woods and webs - is to be encouraged to

  12. Moving virtuality into reality: A comparison study of the effectiveness of traditional and alternative assessments of learning in a multisensory, fully immersive physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamor, Keysha Ingram

    This paper contains a research study that investigated the relative efficacy of using both a traditional paper-and-pencil assessment instrument and an alternative, virtual reality (VR) assessment instrument to assist educators and/or instructional designers in measuring learning in a virtual reality learning environment. To this end, this research study investigated assessment in VR, with the goal of analyzing aspects of student learning in VR that are feasible to access or capture by traditional assessments and alternative assessments. The researcher also examined what additional types of learning alternative assessments may offer. More specifically, this study compared the effectiveness of a traditional method with an alternative (performance-based) method of assessment that was used to examine the ability of the tools to accurately evidence the levels of students' understanding and learning. The domain area was electrostatics, a complex, abstract multidimensional concept, with which students often experience difficulty. Outcomes of the study suggest that, in the evaluation of learning in an immersive VR learning environment, assessments would most accurately manifest student learning if the assessment measure matched the learning environment itself. In this study, learning and assessing in the VR environment yielded higher final test scores than learning in VR and testing with traditional paper-and-pencil. Being able to transfer knowledge from a VR environment to other situations is critical in demonstrating the overall level of understanding of a concept. For this reason, the researcher recommends a combination of testing measures to enhance understanding of complex, abstract concepts.

  13. Are Alternative Conceptions Dependent on Researchers' Methodology and Definition?: A Review of Empirical Studies Related to Concepts of Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chee Leong; Chu, Hye-Eun; Yap, Kueh Chin

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no agreement among scientists and science educators on whether heat should be defined as a "process of energy transfer" or "form of energy." For example, students may conceive of heat as "molecular kinetic energy," but the interpretation of this alternative conception is dependent on educational…

  14. Sustainability indicators, alternative strategies and trade-offs in peasant agroecosystems : analysing 15 case studies from Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astier, M.; Speelman, E.N.; López-Ridaura, S.; Masera, O.R.; Gonzalez-Esquivel, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    In view of the urgent need to improve agroecosystem sustainability, several efforts have been made to evaluate the effect of alternative strategies on key environmental and socioeconomic variables at the farm, community and regional levels. Most peasant farmers manage complex and diverse agroecosyst

  15. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Technical Appendix J: alternatives studies. Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollom, M. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive review of a wide range of alternatives to the proposed action, the commercial demonstration of an industrial cogenerating facility fired with wood fuels is provided. An extensive effort has been devoted to the evaluation of all reasonable alternatives to this project. A number of possible actions were also briefly considered, but, for various reasons, they were found not to be appropriate at present for a commercial-scale demonstration of an alternative energy source. The critical characteristics of the wood-fueled commercial demonstration project at Westbrook are considered to be: industrial cogeneration of power; the production of 510,000 pounds per hour of industrial process steam; the production of approximately twenty-five megawatts of electric generating capacity, some of which would be available to a public utility in southern Maine; and the consumption of 2,000 tons of wood fuel per day. Each of the alternatives examined in this appendix offers a different option for one or several of the characteristics of the project listed above. As a whole, the appendix describes the range of possible actions that the US Department of Energy and its contractors have considered.

  16. Primary Healthcare Provider Knowledge, Beliefs and Clinic-Based Practices Regarding Alternative Tobacco Products and Marijuana: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S.; Scott, Kimberly N.; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A.; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This…

  17. The development of an in vitro model for studying mechanisms of nephrotoxicity as an alternative for animal experiments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.J.W.M.

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARYPresently in our society animal tests still form the main starting point for the assessment of the possible risks of chemicals with regard to human and animal health. For scientific. economic, and ethical reasons. attempts are undertaken continuously to develop cell models as alternatives to

  18. The use of non-medical/alternative treatment in multiple sclerosis. A 5 year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone;

    1995-01-01

    Forty-nine patients (22 males, 27 females) were examined and interviewed with 5 years interval in order to determine the extent of the use of non-medical (alternative) treatment and whether the use influenced the natural course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Using clinical course, Kurtzke Disability...

  19. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  20. Use of black vulture (Coragyps atratus in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in Colombia: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Pedraza Ricardo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease. The analysis of the text was based on an inductive thematic approach. Results Resistance to disease and immune enhancement are properties attributed to Coragyps atratus when used for cancer treatment. The most recommended method of use is fresh blood ingestion, and the associated mechanism of action is transfer of immune factors to the individual who consumes it. Conclusions Use of Coragyps atratus as a treatment for cancer is a popular alternative therapy in Colombia. More studies are needed to understand the clinical effects of this intervention in cancer patients. Spanish abstract Introducción Aunque Coragyps atratus se usa tradicionalmente como terapia para pacientes con cáncer, no existe suficiente información en la literatura científica sobre su forma de utilización ni sobre los mecanismos explicativos que subyacen a esta práctica terapéutica. Objetivos Conocer métodos de utilización y mecanismos explicativos dados por los pacientes y cuidadores de pacientes sobre el uso de Coragyps atratus en el tratamiento del cáncer. Materiales y métodos Diseño cualitativo basado en veinte entrevistas en profundidad de pacientes con cáncer o cuidadores de pacientes con esta enfermedad. Análisis de texto basado en enfoque temático inductivo. Resultados Al Coragyps atratus se le atribuyen propiedades de resistencia y fortalecimiento del sistema inmune de personas enfermas de cáncer. La forma de

  1. Use of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in Colombia: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease. The analysis of the text was based on an inductive thematic approach. Results Resistance to disease and immune enhancement are properties attributed to Coragyps atratus when used for cancer treatment. The most recommended method of use is fresh blood ingestion, and the associated mechanism of action is transfer of immune factors to the individual who consumes it. Conclusions Use of Coragyps atratus as a treatment for cancer is a popular alternative therapy in Colombia. More studies are needed to understand the clinical effects of this intervention in cancer patients. Spanish abstract Introducción Aunque Coragyps atratus se usa tradicionalmente como terapia para pacientes con cáncer, no existe suficiente información en la literatura científica sobre su forma de utilización ni sobre los mecanismos explicativos que subyacen a esta práctica terapéutica. Objetivos Conocer métodos de utilización y mecanismos explicativos dados por los pacientes y cuidadores de pacientes sobre el uso de Coragyps atratus en el tratamiento del cáncer. Materiales y métodos Diseño cualitativo basado en veinte entrevistas en profundidad de pacientes con cáncer o cuidadores de pacientes con esta enfermedad. Análisis de texto basado en enfoque temático inductivo. Resultados Al Coragyps atratus se le atribuyen propiedades de resistencia y fortalecimiento del sistema inmune de personas enfermas de cáncer. La forma de utilización mas común es la

  2. The Gillings Sampler – An Electrostatic Air Sampler as an Alternative Method for Aerosol In Vitro Exposure Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Jose; Lichtveld, Kim; Ebersviller, Seth; Carson, Johnny L.; Walters, Glenn W.; Jaspers, Ilona; Jeffries, Harvey E.; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Vizuete, William

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying the toxicity and health risk of exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures found in ambient air, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving towards setting standards for these types of mixtures. Additionally, the Health Effects Institute's strategic plan aims to develop and apply next-generation multi-pollutant approaches to understanding the health effects of air pollutants. There's increasing concern that conventional in vitro exposure methods are not adequate to meet EPA's strategic plan to demonstrate a direct link between air pollution and health effects. To meet the demand for new in vitro technology that better represents direct air-to-cell inhalation exposures, a new system that exposes cells at the air-liquid interface was developed. This new system, named the Gillings Sampler, is a modified two-stage electrostatic precipitator that provides a viable environment for cultured cells. Polystyrene latex spheres were used to determine deposition efficiencies (38-45%), while microscopy and imaging techniques were used to confirm uniform particle deposition. Negative control A549 cell exposures indicated the sampler can be operated for up to 4 hours without inducing any significant toxic effects on cells, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). A novel positive aerosol control exposure method, consisting of a p-tolualdehyde (TOLALD) impregnated mineral oil aerosol (MOA), was developed to test this system. Exposures to the toxic MOA at a 1 ng/cm2 dose of TOLALD yielded a reproducible 1.4 and 2 fold increase in LDH and IL-8 mRNA levels over controls. This new system is intended to be used as an alternative research tool for aerosol in vitro exposure studies. While further testing and optimization is still required to produce a “commercially ready” system, it serves as a stepping-stone in the development of cost-effective in vitro technology that can be made accessible to researchers

  3. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That Influence Enrolling in Alternative Educational Options: Adult Perceptions and Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis-McNerney, Violet

    2013-01-01

    This research obtained information using focus groups as qualitative method to determine the factors that influenced alternative education decisions. The purpose of this study was to help bridge theory, research, and educational practices and examine policy reform efforts. Through the lenses of returning adult education students, this research…

  4. An Exploratory Study to Develop an Alternative Model of Public Library Management Using the Institute of Museum and Library Services' Public Library Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyeong; Yu, So Young

    2011-01-01

    In this explorative study, we first investigate current use of public library statistics in public library management to identify a governing framework and then carefully suggest an alternative framework with income as a goal for sustainability. The meaning of income in terms of management is also discussed. Within this framework, we conduct a…

  5. An Introduction to Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares: Spectrophotometric Study of the Acid-Base Equilibria of 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-Sulfonic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina; Amigo, Jose Manuel; Coello, Jordi; Maspoch, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    A spectrophotometric study of the acid-base equilibria of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid to describe the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares algorithm (MCR-ALS) is described. The algorithm provides a lot of information and hence is of great importance for the chemometrics research.

  6. Ordering alternatives in MCDM problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Baets, B. [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science

    1994-12-31

    A new approach to the study of a set of alternatives in a multi-criteria decision making problem is presented. Alternatives are described by means of fuzzy sets in the set of criteria, expressing the degrees to which they fulfill the different criteria. The concept of a fuzzy inclusion is introduced and is discussed from an axiomatic point of view. To each implication operator corresponds a fuzzy inclusion. The fuzzy inclusion corresponding to the Goedel operator is used to measure the degree to which the scores of one alternative are contained in the scores of another one. Repeating this for all couples of alternatives yields a fuzzy quasi-order relation in a set of alternatives. The cuts of this fuzzy relation are then classical quasi-order relations: they express orderings of the alternatives, allowing alternatives to be indifferent or incomparable, corresponding to different degrees of confidence.

  7. Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamins and minerals important to the eye include zinc and copper, antioxidant vitamins C, E, and A ( ... positive impact on other glaucoma risk factors including diabetes and high blood pressure. In a recent study, ...

  8. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  9. THE STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF AN ALTERNATING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD OF COMMERCIAL FREQUENCY ON CROP SEED QUALITY OF SPRING BARLEY

    OpenAIRE

    Zholobova M. V.; Fedorishchenko M. G.; Shabanov N. I.; Grachyova N. N.

    2015-01-01

    The process of the presowing seed treatment with alternating electromagnet field of the commercial frequency (EMF CF) 50 Hz is economically efficient. The use of the EMF CF 50 Hz in the unit with ring pole pieces allows increasing the germinating energy and power. The electromagnet seed treatment in the units with ring pole pieces is the perspective process of the presowing treatment which does not make unhealthy influence on the operating personnel. At the presowing treatment we have to take...

  10. Palm oil production in Peruvian Amazon Basin. A case study of current effects and emerging localized alternatives in Loreto district

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Charlotte Bratberget

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of palm oil production in the Peruvian Amazon basin was carried out in a systemic way, as part of a whole, with its complexities. With an agroecological perspective, the social, ecological and economic effects of this production are discussed. Additionally, alternatives that could better fulfil the necessities of farmers were explored. The oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, originally from West Africa, is a common plant in an enormous industry that is extensive in South East Asia, ma...

  11. Estudos sobre Pedagogia da Alternância no Brasil: revisão de literatura e perspectivas para a pesquisa Studies on the Pedagogy of Alternating in Brazil: literature survey and perspectives for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edival Sebastião Teixeira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A Pedagogia da Alternância consiste numa metodologia de organização do ensino escolar que conjuga diferentes experiências formativas distribuídas ao longo de tempos e espaços distintos, tendo como finalidade uma formação profissional. Esse método começou a tomar forma em 1935 a partir das insatisfações de um pequeno grupo de agricultores franceses com o sistema educacional de seu país, o qual não atendia, a seu ver, as especificidades da Educação para o meio rural. A experiência brasileira com a Pedagogia da Alternância começou em 1969 no estado do Espírito Santo, onde foram construídas as três primeiras Escolas Famílias Agrícolas. Não obstante, decorridos 40 anos de sua implantação no país, essa proposta pedagógica ainda é discutida com pouca ênfase em nosso meio acadêmico. Em projeto de pesquisa que vimos desenvolvendo, realizamos um levantamento das dissertações de mestrado e teses de doutorado brasileiras sobre Pedagogia da Alternância defendidas entre 1969 e 2006. O objetivo deste artigo é mapear e discutir essa produção, visando estabelecer um primeiro esboço do "estado da arte" nesse campo de investigação. A revisão inclui 46 trabalhos, sendo 7 teses e 39 dissertações. Neste texto, apresentamos as temáticas de estudo mais recorrentes, a distribuição regional dessa produção e o que consideramos como consensos e limites nesses trabalhos.The Pedagogy of Alternating consists in a methodology for the organization of schooling that conjugates different formative experiences distributed along distinct times and spaces aiming at a professional education. This method began to take shape in 1935 from the complaints that a small group of French farmers had about the educational system of their country, which in their view did not correspond to the specificities of education for the rural reality. The Brazilian experience with the Pedagogy of Alternating started in 1969 in the State of Espírito Santo

  12. Estudo da durabilidade de argamassas alternativas contendo resíduos Durability study of alternative mortars containing wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Farias Filho

    2011-12-01

    study the durability of the alternative mortar incorporated with residues from civil construction and from granite industry. To quantify the durability of the studied materials, it was made test of natural and accelerated weathering through wetting and drying cycles. The materials were submitted to conditions that simulated their use to evaluate their degradation. In the studies of durability of the mortar elevation, percentages of substitutions of lime by recycling residue were used. The amount changed from 30% to 50%. The natural weathering cause a compromise in the durability of the material after 60 days with a decrease in the mechanical behavior and the best results occur to the sample with 30% and 50% of residue. In the accelerated weathering, the results show indicate the formation of calcium and potassium aluminosilicates that can give an increase in the mechanical behavior, however, it was not observed a compromise in the material durability.

  13. ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT R-134A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim KARABACAK

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the big damages on the ozone layer given by the refrigerants cloroflorocarbons that has been used up to now, new alternative gases should be developped and product at once. In this study, some informations about alternative to presently used CFCs, R-134A refrigerant's characteristics and its suitability to cooling systems is given. As it would be understood from these informations there is no objection on using alternative R-134A refrigerant

  14. Alternative Evaluation Study: Methods to Mitigate/Accommodate Subsidence for the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County Nevada, with Special Focus on Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, L.

    1997-09-01

    An Alternative Evaluation Study is a type of systematic approach to problem identification and solution. An Alternative Evaluation Study was convened August 12-15, 1997, for the purpose of making recommendations concerning closure of Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl and other disposal cells and mitigation/accommodation of waste subsidence at the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. This report includes results of the Alternative Evaluation Study and specific recommendations.

  15. On sulfur core level binding energies in thiol self-assembly and alternative adsorption sites: An experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Juanjuan [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Université-Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); CNRS, UMR 8214, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Orsay ISMO, Bâtiment 351, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Kara, Abdelkader, E-mail: abdelkader.kara@ucf.edu, E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Pasquali, Luca [Dipartimento di Ingegneria “E. Ferrari,” Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Bendounan, Azzedine; Sirotti, Fausto [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Esaulov, Vladimir A., E-mail: abdelkader.kara@ucf.edu, E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Université-Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); CNRS, UMR 8214, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Orsay ISMO, Bâtiment 351, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-09-14

    Characteristic core level binding energies (CLBEs) are regularly used to infer the modes of molecular adsorption: orientation, organization, and dissociation processes. Here, we focus on a largely debated situation regarding CLBEs in the case of chalcogen atom bearing molecules. For a thiol, this concerns the case when the CLBE of a thiolate sulfur at an adsorption site can be interpreted alternatively as due to atomic adsorption of a S atom, resulting from dissociation. Results of an investigation of the characteristics of thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) obtained by vacuum evaporative adsorption are presented along with core level binding energy calculations. Thiol ended SAMs of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol (BDMT) obtained by evaporation on Au display an unconventional CLBE structure at about 161.25 eV, which is close to a known CLBE of a S atom on Au. Adsorption and CLBE calculations for sulfur atoms and BDMT molecules are reported and allow delineating trends as a function of chemisorption on hollow, bridge, and atop sites and including the presence of adatoms. These calculations suggest that the 161.25 eV peak is due to an alternative adsorption site, which could be associated to an atop configuration. Therefore, this may be an alternative interpretation, different from the one involving the adsorption of atomic sulfur resulting from the dissociation process of the S–C bond. Calculated differences in S(2p) CLBEs for free BDMT molecules, SH group sulfur on top of the SAM, and disulfide are also reported to clarify possible errors in assignments.

  16. An Exploratory Study of a Subspace Iteration Method as an Alternative to the QR Method for Floquet Eigenanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achar, N. S.; Gaonkar, G. H.

    1994-01-01

    Floquet eigenanalysis requires a few dominant eigenvalues of the Floquet transition matrix (FTM). Although the QR method is used almost exclusively, it is expensive for such partial eigenanalysis; the operation counts and, thereby, the approximate machine-time grow cubically with the matrix order. Accordingly, for Floquet eigenanalysis, the Arnold-Saad method, a subspace iteration method, is investigated as an alternative to the QR method. The two methods are compared for machine-time efficiency and the residual errors of the corresponding eigenpairs. The Arnolds-Saad method takes much less machine-time than the QR method with comparable computational reliability and offers promise fpr large-scale Floquet eigenanalysis.

  17. The analysis of covariance and alternatives statistical methods for experiments, quasi-experiments, and single-case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Huitema, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    A complete guide to cutting-edge techniques and best practices for applying covariance analysis methods The Second Edition of Analysis of Covariance and Alternatives sheds new light on its topic, offering in-depth discussions of underlying assumptions, comprehensive interpretations of results, and comparisons of distinct approaches. The book has been extensively revised and updated to feature an in-depth review of prerequisites and the latest developments in the field. The author begins with a discussion of essential topics relating to experimental design and analysis

  18. Study for the electric arc of alternative current at the single phase welding machine using the Matlab/Simulink environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, I.; Ghiormez, L.; Vasar, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper is presented a mathematical model of the electric arc for an alternative current welding machine of low power. The electric arc model is based on dividing the voltage-current characteristic of the electric arc in many functioning zones. For the model of the entire welding machine are used real parameters as the ones of the proper welding machine. The voltage and current harmonics spectrum that is obtained during the welding process is presented. Also, the waveforms for the current and voltage of the electric arc plotted against time and the voltage-current characteristic of the electric arc are illustrated. The electric arc is considered as being supplied by alternative voltage from the electrical power network using a single phase transformer which has the output voltage of 80 volts. The model of the welding machine is developed in Simulink and the variations of some parameters of the electric arc are obtained by modifying of them in a Matlab function. Also, in this paper is presented the total harmonic distortion for the voltage and current of the electric arc obtained during simulation of the welding machine.

  19. Joint U.S./Russian Study on the Development of a Preliminary Cost Estimate of the SAFSTOR Decommissioning Alternative for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant Unit #1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Garrett

    1998-09-28

    The objectives of the two joint Russian/U.S. Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit #1 studies were the development of a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable decom missioning strategy, and the preliminary cost evaluation of the developed strategy. The first study, resulting in the decommissioning strategy, was performed in 1996 and 1997. The preliminary cost estimation study, described in this report, was performed in 1997 and 1998. The decommissioning strategy study included the analyses of three basic RBM.K decommission- ing alternatives, refined for the Leningrad NPP Unit #1. The analyses included analysis of the requirements for the planning and preparation as well as the decommissioning phases.

  20. Psycho-socioeconomic factors affecting complementary and alternative medicine use among selected rural communities in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurubaran Ganasegeran

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM as a source of cure has gained much spectrum worldwide, despite skeptics and advocates of evidence-based practice conceptualized such therapies as human nostrum.This study aimed to explore the factors affecting CAM use among rural communities in Malaysia.A cross-sectional study was carried out on 288 occupants across four rural villages within the District of Selama, Perak, Malaysia. A survey that consisted of socio-economic characteristics, history of CAM use and the validated Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ were used.The prevalence of self-reported CAM use over the past one year was 53.1%. Multiple logistic regression analyses yielded three significant predictors of CAM use: monthly household income of less than MYR 2500, higher education level, and positive attitude towards CAM.Psycho-socioeconomic factors were significantly associated with CAM use among rural communities in Malaysia.

  1. A Study of Pollutant Formation from the Lean Premixed Combustion of Gaseous Fuel Alternatives to Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Keith Boyd, Jr.

    The goal of this research is to identify how nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions and flame stability (blowout) are impacted by the use of fuels that are alternatives to typical pipeline natural gas. The research focuses on lean, premixed combustors that are typically used in state-of-the-art natural gas fueled systems. An idealized laboratory lean premixed combustor, specifically the jet-stirred reactor, is used for experimental data. A series of models, including those featuring detailed fluid dynamics and those focusing on detailed chemistry, are used to interpret the data and understand the underlying chemical kinetic reasons for differences in emissions between the various fuel blends. An ultimate goal is to use these data and interpretive tools to develop a way to predict the emission and stability impacts of changing fuels within practical combustors. All experimental results are obtained from a high intensity, single-jet stirred reactor (JSR). Five fuel categories are studied: (1) pure H 2, (2) process and refinery gas, including combinations of H2, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8, (3) oxygen blown gasified coal/petcoke composed of H2, CO, and CO2, (4) landfill and digester gas composed of CH4, CO2, and N2, and (5) liquified natural gas (LNG)/shale/associated gases composed of CH4, C2H6, and C3 H8. NOx measurements are taken at a nominal combustion temperature of 1800 K, atmospheric pressure, and a reactor residence time of 3 ms. This is done to focus the results on differences caused by fuel chemistry by comparing all fuels at a common temperature, pressure, and residence time. This is one of the few studies in the literature that attempts to remove these effects when studying fuels varying in composition. Additionally, the effects of changing temperature and residence time are investigated for selected fuels. At the nominal temperature and residence time, the experimental and modeling results show the following trends for NOx emissions as a function of fuel type: 1.) NOx

  2. Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

    2012-01-01

    This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

  3. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... with conventional medicine or therapy, it is considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of alternative medicine. Acupuncture ...

  4. An interlaboratory study to find an alternative to the MPN technique for enumerating Escherichia coli in shellfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogden, I.D.; Brown, G.C.; Gallacher, S.;

    1998-01-01

    method and a Malthus conductance technique. The Petrifilm was found to be unsuitable and was subsequently dropped from the trial. After 669 analyses, a correlation of 0.83 was observed for log E. coli counts between the MPN and Chromocult methods and there was no significant evidence that either method......, the two methods appear equally suitable for E. coli enumeration in shellfish. There were poor correlations between these methods and the Malthus technique. A small but significant number of samples tested positive on the Malthus instrument but were recorded negative on the MPN and Chromocult tests....... Subsequent analysis positively identified E. coli from these Malthus assays. After statistical analysis, errors were noted in both the MPN and Chromocult methods but it was found that there would be no statistical differences if the Chromocult agar were used as an alternative to the MPN technique. Published...

  5. Computer-assisted learning as an alternative to didactic lectures: a study of teaching the physics of diagnostic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. M. Dale

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an expansion in the number of undergraduate students recruited to the veterinary courses in the UK veterinary schools. This growth in student numbers has not been matched by an increase in academic staff devoted to teaching. In addition, higher education has in the 1990s suffered an approximate 20 per cent reduction in government funding if the effects of inflation and student numbers are taken into account. At the same time there has been a demand for the investigation of teaching quality, leading to the Teaching Quality Assurance process (Ellis, 1993. Thus a number of converging factors have stimulated the need to look for alternative and innovative methods of teaching in veterinary undergraduate education.

  6. Study of criterion for assuring the effectiveness of cathodic protection of buried steel pipelines being interfered with alternative current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Jiang, G.; Qiu, Y.; Tang, H. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhang, G.; Jin, X.; Xiang, Z. [Huazhong Natural Gas Subsidiary of PetroChina Pipeline Company, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Z. [Dwell Company Limited, PetroChina Engineering Company, Ltd, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Interference of alternative current (AC) on corrosion of X65 steel was investigated in soil. It was observed that the unfavorable effect of interfering AC was able to be effectively inhibited by increasing the direct current density of the cathodic protection (CP) system. A clear correlation was established between the CP current density and the tolerable AC current density. This led to a new criterion for assuring the effectiveness of CP of buried pipelines being interfered with AC. Field experimental results on a buried pipeline running below a 500 kV transmission line showed that the criterion could satisfactorily predict the risk of AC interfering on the CP system. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Studies of an alternative glass pressure housing for optical modules in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosquer, Alain; Keller, Pascale; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-01-01

    KM3NeT is a future European research infrastructure, which will host a neutrino telescope with a volume of at least 1 Km3 in the deep Mediterranean Sea. This challenging project will require the installation of thousands of photon detectors with their related electronics and calibration systems several kilometres below the sea level. The design builds on the extensive experience gained in the pioneering ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR underwater neutrino telescope projects. However, independent of the technical and scientific challenges inherent to such a project, new solutions must be pursued in order to significantly increase the cost effectiveness. This contribution presents the first results of a finite element analysis (FEA) performed at CPPM, in association with the Schott glass R&D department, for an alternative low cost glass pressure housing for optical modules in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope.

  8. Energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge from UASB reactors: case study of the Laboreaux wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, A P; Conesa, J A; Fullana, A; Melo, G C B; Borges, J M; Chernicharo, C A L

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge generated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at the Laboreaux sewage treatment plant (STP), Brazil. Two scenarios were considered: (i) priority use of biogas for the thermal drying of dehydrated sludge and the use of the excess biogas for electricity generation in an ICE (internal combustion engine); and (ii) priority use of biogas for electricity generation and the use of the heat of the engine exhaust gases for the thermal drying of the sludge. Scenario 1 showed that the electricity generated is able to supply 22.2% of the STP power demand, but the thermal drying process enables a greater reduction or even elimination of the final volume of sludge to be disposed. In Scenario 2, the electricity generated is able to supply 57.6% of the STP power demand; however, the heat in the exhaust gases is not enough to dry the total amount of dehydrated sludge.

  9. Novel, low-cost alternative technologies to tackle practical, industrial conundrums – a case study of batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Victor K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas batteries in comparison with most other means of energy storage are more environmentally friendly and economical in their operation, they are beset by low energy replenishment rates, low energy storage density, high capital cost of themselves, and high capital cost of energy replenishment infrastructures. Mainly based on ergonomics, this paper proposes a novel, low-cost alternative technology to practically and industrially make these weaknesses irrelevant to some extent without calling for revolutionary technological breakthroughs in material science, batteries’ microstructures, or battery manufacturing technologies. The technology takes advantage of modularization of battery systems, prioritization of charging and discharging of battery module(s according to ease of unloading and/or loading the battery module(s and/or ease of loading replacement battery module(s of the battery module(s.

  10. A Pilot-scale Study on Coal Gasification Wastewater Reclamation Using Pretreatment Alternatives Combined with Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Zhao; Hongjun Han; Fang Fang; Peng Xu; Kun Li; Dexin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Aims to investigate the performance of the pilot⁃scale reclamation plant for coal gasification wastewater ( CGW) using ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis with appropriate pretreatment alternatives, different pre⁃treatment alternatives⁃coagulation, adsorption, and ozonation methods were employed to treat the secondary effluent of coal gasification wastewater ( SECGW ) in a pilot⁃scale pressurized membrane system. The performance was compared to choose the most suitable pre⁃treatment alternative for the SECGW reclamation. Ozone reaction achieved highest COD removal efficiency (79.6%-91.0%), resulting in the stable normalized parameters of the subsequent ultrafiltration and reverse osmoses. In contrast, the coagulation and adsorption processes achieved only 32. 8%-45. 7% and 53. 1%-64. 6% decreases in COD, respectively. The residual organic pollutants in the reverse osmosis feed water led to an increase in normalized pressure drop and a decrease in normalized permeability ( or membrane transference coefficient) . The hydrophobic fraction was the main constituent ( approx. 70% of DOC ) in pretreated SECGW, and the hydrophobic⁃neutral fraction contributed mostly to the UV absorbance ( 53%) . Fluorescence excitation emission matrices revealed that ozonation removed most of the hydrophobic and aromatic proteins such as tyrosine and tryptophan which dominated in raw wastewater. The recalcitrant compounds such as phenolic compounds, heterocyclic compounds, especially long⁃chain hydrocarbons, which were easily attached to the membrane surface and contributed to organic fouling, could be oxidized and mineralized by ozone. Among the three pretreatments, ozonation showed highest removal efficiencies of hydrophobic and aromatic proteins, therefore resulting in highest normalized permeability.

  11. Adaptive Alternating Minimization Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs; Wornell, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The classical alternating minimization (or projection) algorithm has been successful in the context of solving optimization problems over two variables or equivalently of finding a point in the intersection of two sets. The iterative nature and simplicity of the algorithm has led to its application to many areas such as signal processing, information theory, control, and finance. A general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the algorithm is quite well-known when the underlying problem parameters are fixed. In many practical situations, however, the underlying problem parameters are changing over time, and the use of an adaptive algorithm is more appropriate. In this paper, we study such an adaptive version of the alternating minimization algorithm. As a main result of this paper, we provide a general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the adaptive algorithm. Perhaps surprisingly, these conditions seem to be the minimal ones one would expect in ...

  12. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  13. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nathanael; Aliev, Ali; Baughman, Ray

    2015-03-01

    There is a large promise for thermophones in high power sonar arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding aerogel-like carbon nanotube sheets demonstrate the best performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large size freestanding carbon nanotube sheets and other even more exotic materials published recently, hampers the field. We present here new alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly and cost effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanoscale materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed.

  14. The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC): A Psychometric and Equivalence Study of an Alternate Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Jason K; Lurie, Jessica B; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Bell, Morris D

    2013-01-01

    The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) uses a 64-second video of geometric shapes set in motion to portray themes of social relatedness and intentions. Considered a test of "Theory of Mind," the SAT-MC assesses implicit social attribution formation while reducing verbal and basic cognitive demands required of other common measures. We present a comparability analysis of the SAT-MC and the new SAT-MC-II, an alternate form created for repeat testing, in a university sample (n = 92). Score distributions and patterns of association with external validation measures were nearly identical between the two forms, with convergent and discriminant validity supported by association with affect recognition ability and lack of association with basic visual reasoning. Internal consistency of the SAT-MC-II was superior (alpha = .81) to the SAT-MC (alpha = .56). Results support the use of SAT-MC and new SAT-MC-II as equivalent test forms. Demonstrating relatively higher association to social cognitive than basic cognitive abilities, the SAT-MC may provide enhanced sensitivity as an outcome measure of social cognitive intervention trials.

  15. THE STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF AN ALTERNATING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD OF COMMERCIAL FREQUENCY ON CROP SEED QUALITY OF SPRING BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova M. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of the presowing seed treatment with alternating electromagnet field of the commercial frequency (EMF CF 50 Hz is economically efficient. The use of the EMF CF 50 Hz in the unit with ring pole pieces allows increasing the germinating energy and power. The electromagnet seed treatment in the units with ring pole pieces is the perspective process of the presowing treatment which does not make unhealthy influence on the operating personnel. At the presowing treatment we have to take into account three factors, they are the arrangement of seeds in the working chamber, the time of treatment and the seed humidity. In this article the authors recommend to promote the unit consisting of a magnetic circuit with ring pole pieces of the rectangular cross-section, a magnetizing coil and an embedding of the non-magnetic material in the working chamber which allows increasing the germinating energy of spring barley by 10% and the germination by 7%. As field experiences have shown the highest seed germination and good crop capacity take place in the work chamber zone with boundaries R1=0,012 m and R2=0,035 m at seed humidity from 12% till 18% and the time of seed treatment is 0,9-2,75 s. The addition to crop capacity has run to 7% as a result of the spring barley treatment

  16. The Unsuccessful Poverty Reduction Strategies in Indonesia and the Alternatives Solutions (The Study on BLT and Jamkesmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Iriani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as the 16th largest economy in the world, the 4th in Asia-after China, Japan and India as well as Southeast Asia’s largest-has the potential to be the seventh biggest by 2030, due to the increasing economic. Indonesia also has many potential natural resources that can be utilized to support development in order to increase the nation welfare. However, the number of poor people still has not been significantly reduced, reaching 28.07 million or 11.37% of the total population in 2013. The Government has tried to reduce poverty with some programs such as BLT (Bantuan Langsung Tunai/Direct Cash Assistance and Jamkesmas (Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat/ Community Health Protection Scheme. However, the programs are considered not effective and do not make poor people become financially independent. Ironically, in inadequate evaluation, the Government continues to runs the programs. By using a qualitative approach, researchers will provide policy alternatives that can be implemented by Government.

  17. All About Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A primer on alternative schools. Described are existing programs in different areas, philosophy of the alternative schools, funding, student behavior, community relations, accountability, State regulations, management, and the environment of the alternative school. A list of sources of additional information on alternative schools is included.…

  18. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  19. Alternative medicine among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaedeke, R M; Tootelian, D H; Holst, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of "alternative" medicine has become increasingly popular in the United States. Books devoted to alternative medicine, e.g., Spontaneous Healing and 8 Weeks to Optimum Health, have become best sellers. Nevertheless, relatively few research studies have focused on the subject. This study examined the role of alternative medicine among college students. Issues addressed included students' familiarity with, use of, and perceptions regarding unconventional health therapies. The study substantiated a phenomenon health care providers across the country are discovering: a growing number of Americans with interest and financial resources support the development of "mainstream" alternative medicine programs. Results of the study also suggest that well-respected traditional health care organizations would not suffer reputation damage if they were to offer such programs.

  20. Studies on the relationship between cyanide-resistant respi-ration and expression of alternative oxidase in mung bean using antibodies prepared by synthetic polypeptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Chijun; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Liang, Z., Liang, H. G., The respiratory metabolism of plants, in Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology (eds. Yu, S. W., Tang, Z. C.) (in Chinese), 2nd ed., Beijing: Science Press, 1998, 344-365.[2]Lü, C. S., Liang, H. G., Induced respiration in melon fruits, Scientia Sinica, 1963, 12(4): 616.[3]Liang, H. G., Lü, C. S., A comparative study of CN-resistant respiration in different cultures of tobacco callus, Plant Physiol., 1984, 75: 876.[4]Elthon, T. E., McIntosh, L., Identification of the alternative terminal oxidase of higher plant mitochondria, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1987, 84: 8399.[5]Elthon, T. E., Nickels, R. L., McIntosh, L., Monoclonal antibodies to the alternative oxidase of higher plant mitochondria, Plant Physiol., 1989, 89: 1311.[6]Liang, W. S., Liang, H. G., Progress of the alternative oxidase, Chinese Bulletin of Botany (in Chinese), 1997, 14(2): 9.[7]Liang, W. S., Liang, H. G., Induction of alternative oxidase expression by endogenous ethylene in aging potato slices, Acta Phytophysiol. Sin. (in Chinese), 1999, 25(2): 205.[8]He, J. X., Wei, Z. Q., Liang, H. G., Effects of water stress on development, and operation and gene expression of cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway in wheat, Science in China, Ser. C, 1999, 42(3): 300.[9]McIntosh, L., Molecular biology of the alternative oxidase, Plant Physiol., 1994, 105: 781.[10] Wang, J., Zhang, L. X., Liu, Z. L. et al., A possible calcium binding site in D1 protein: A fluorescence and FTIR study of the interaction between lanthanides and a synthetic peptide, Photosynthesis Research, 1995, 44: 297.[11] Li, X. P., Du, L. F., Liang, H. G. et al., Preparation and identification of antidodecapeptide of polypeptide D1 or photosys-tem II reaction center, Prog. Biochem. Biophys. (in Chinese), 1997, 24(3): 283.[12] Wen, J. Q., Liang, H. G., Studies on energy status and mitochondria respiration during growth and senescence of mung bean cotyledons, Physiol

  1. Nationalism Studies between Methodological Nationalism and Orientalism : An Alternative Approach Illustrated with the Case of El Greco in Toledo, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Methodological nationalism is still dominant in nationalism studies. When studying the construction of national identities, scholars generally limit their study to the borders of one nation-state, while only paying attention to members of that particular nation. Implicitly, foreign actors and influe

  2. Alternative Approaches for Educating Future Global Marketing Professionals: A Comparison of Foreign Study and Research-Intensive Marketing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Peter A.; Melton, Horace L.; Varner, Iris I.; Hoelscher, Mark; Schmidt, Klaus; Spaulding, Aslihan D.

    2011-01-01

    Using an experiential learning model as a conceptual background, this article discusses characteristics and learning objectives for well-known foreign study programs such as study tours, study abroad, and internships and compares them with a less common overseas program called the "Global Marketing Program" (GMP). GMP involves…

  3. Alternative Approaches for Educating Future Global Marketing Professionals: A Comparison of Foreign Study and Research-Intensive Marketing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Peter A.; Melton, Horace L.; Varner, Iris I.; Hoelscher, Mark; Schmidt, Klaus; Spaulding, Aslihan D.

    2011-01-01

    Using an experiential learning model as a conceptual background, this article discusses characteristics and learning objectives for well-known foreign study programs such as study tours, study abroad, and internships and compares them with a less common overseas program called the "Global Marketing Program" (GMP). GMP involves interdisciplinary…

  4. The use of complementary and alternative medicines among patients with locally advanced breast cancer – a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakovitch Eileen

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use is common among cancer patients. This paper reviews the use of CAM in a series of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC. Methods Women with LABC attending a specialist clinic at a single Canadian cancer centre were identified and approached. Participants completed a self-administered survey regarding CAM usage, beliefs associated with CAM usage, views of their risks of developing recurrent cancer and of dying of breast cancer. Responses were scored and compared between CAM users and non-users. Results Thirty-six patients were approached, 32 completed the questionnaire (response rate 89%. Forty-seven percent of LABC patients were identified as CAM users. CAM users were more likely to be younger, married, in a higher socioeconomic class and of Asian ethnicity than non-users. CAM users were likely to use multiple modalities simultaneously (median 4 with vitamins being the most popular (60%. Motivation for CAM therapy was described as, "assisting their body to heal" (75%, to 'boost the immune system' (56% and to "give a feeling of control with respect to their treatment" (56%. CAM therapy was used concurrently with conventional treatment in 88% of cases, however, 12% of patients felt that CAM could replace their conventional therapy. Psychological evaluation suggests CAM users perceived their risk of dying of breast cancer was similar to that of the non-Cam group (33% vs. 35%, however the CAM group had less severe anxiety and depression. Conclusion The motivation, objectives and benefits of CAM therapy in a selected population of women with LABC are similar to those reported for women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. CAM users display less anxiety and depression and are less likely to believe they will die of their breast cancer. However the actual benefit to overall and disease free survival has yet to be demonstrated, as well as the possible interactions with

  5. An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2011-07-01

    significantly decrease availability of nighttime sleeping space for all family members if distributed nets do not remain within the household. Conclusions Emphasizing that net usage is acceptable and important for all family members regardless of age or gender, and addressing the complex behavioural economics of alternative net usages could have significant impacts on malaria control efforts in Timor-Leste, as the country's programmes make progress towards universal net coverage.

  6. Relation between bond-length alternation and two-photon absorption of a push pull conjugated molecules: a quantum-chemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowiak, W.; Zaleśny, R.; Leszczynski, J.

    2003-02-01

    The results of the semiempirical study of the structure/property relationships for the two-photon absorption cross-section ( δ) of a series of prototypical π-conjugated push-pull molecules are presented. The calculations of δ for the first charge-transfer (CT) excited state were performed as a function of the bond length alternation (BLA). The molecular hyperpolarizabilities ( β and γ) were calculated using the finite-field (FF) method. The obtained data were analyzed based on the simple two-state models. A strong dependence of δ on the BLA parameter was noticed.

  7. Relation between bond-length alternation and two-photon absorption of a push-pull conjugated molecules: a quantum-chemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartkowiak, W.; Zalesny, R.; Leszczynski, J

    2003-02-01

    The results of the semiempirical study of the structure/property relationships for the two-photon absorption cross-section ({delta}) of a series of prototypical {pi}-conjugated push-pull molecules are presented. The calculations of {delta} for the first charge-transfer (CT) excited state were performed as a function of the bond length alternation (BLA). The molecular hyperpolarizabilities ({beta} and {gamma}) were calculated using the finite-field (FF) method. The obtained data were analyzed based on the simple two-state models. A strong dependence of {delta} on the BLA parameter was noticed.

  8. Characterization techniques for fixed-field alternating gradient accelerators and beam studies using the KURRI 150 MeV proton FFAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, S. L.; Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S.; Rogers, C.; Prior, C. R.; Volat, L.; Haj Tahar, M.; Ishi, Y.; Kuriyama, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Uesugi, T.; Mori, Y.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we describe the methods and tools used to characterize a 150 MeV proton scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. Many of the techniques used are unique to this class of machine and are thus of relevance to any future FFAG accelerator. For the first time we detail systematic studies undertaken to improve the beam quality of the FFAG. The control of beam quality in this manner is crucial to demonstrating high power operation of FFAG accelerators in future.

  9. A Retrospective Study of Preferable Alternative Route to Right Internal Jugular Vein for Placing Tunneled Dialysis Catheters: Right External Jugular Vein versus Left Internal Jugular Vein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Wang

    Full Text Available Right internal jugular vein (IJV is a preferred access route for tunneled (cuffed dialysis catheters (TDCs, and both right external jugular vein (EJV and left IJV are alternative routes for patients in case the right IJV isn't available for TDC placement. This retrospective study aimed to determine if a disparity exists between the two alternative routes in hemodialysis patients in terms of outcomes of TDCs.49 hemodialysis patients who required TDCs through right EJV (n = 21 or left IJV (n = 28 as long-term vascular access were included in this study. The primary end point was cumulative catheter patency. Secondary end points include primary catheter patency, proportion of patients that never required urokinase and incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI.A total of 20,870 catheter-days were evaluated and the median was 384 (interquartile range, 262-605 catheter-days. Fewer catheters were removed in the right EJV group than in the left IJV group (P = 0.007. Mean cumulative catheter patency was higher in the right EJV group compared with the left IJV group (P = 0.031. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of CRBSI, primary catheter patency or proportion of patients that never required urokinase use. Total indwell time of antecedent catheters was identified as an independent risk factor for cumulative catheter patency by Cox regression hazards test with an HR of 2.212 (95% CI, 1.363-3.588; p = 0.001.Right EJV might be superior to left IJV as an alternative insertion route for TDC placement in hemodialysis patients whose right IJVs are unavailable.

  10. The Influence of Alternative Pedagogical Methods in Postsecondary Biology Education: How Do Students Experience a Multimedia Case-Study Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Bjorn Hugo Karl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how an online, multimedia case study method influenced students' motivation, performance, and perceptions of science in collegiate level biology classes. It utilized a mix-methods design including data from pre- and post-test, student surveys, and focus group interviews to answer one primary…

  11. Alternatives for Mixed-Effects Meta-Regression Models in the Reliability Generalization Approach: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, José Antonio; Botella, Juan; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Marín-Martínez, Fulgencio

    2013-01-01

    Since heterogeneity between reliability coefficients is usually found in reliability generalization studies, moderator analyses constitute a crucial step for that meta-analytic approach. In this study, different procedures for conducting mixed-effects meta-regression analyses were compared. Specifically, four transformation methods for the…

  12. Inhibition of the alternative complement activation pathway in traumatic brain injury by a monoclonal anti-factor B antibody: a randomized placebo-controlled study in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holers V Michael

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The posttraumatic response to traumatic brain injury (TBI is characterized, in part, by activation of the innate immune response, including the complement system. We have recently shown that mice devoid of a functional alternative pathway of complement activation (factor B-/- mice are protected from complement-mediated neuroinflammation and neuropathology after TBI. In the present study, we extrapolated this knowledge from studies in genetically engineered mice to a pharmacological approach using a monoclonal anti-factor B antibody. This neutralizing antibody represents a specific and potent inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway in mice. Methods A focal trauma was applied to the left hemisphere of C57BL/6 mice (n = 89 using a standardized electric weight-drop model. Animals were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: (1 Systemic injection of 1 mg monoclonal anti-factor B antibody (mAb 1379 in 400 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at 1 hour and 24 hours after trauma; (2 Systemic injection of vehicle only (400 μl PBS, as placebo control, at identical time-points after trauma. Sham-operated and untreated mice served as additional negative controls. Evaluation of neurological scores and analysis of brain tissue specimens and serum samples was performed at defined time-points for up to 1 week. Complement activation in serum was assessed by zymosan assay and by murine C5a ELISA. Brain samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL histochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR. Results The mAb 1379 leads to a significant inhibition of alternative pathway complement activity and to significantly attenuated C5a levels in serum, as compared to head-injured placebo-treated control mice. TBI induced histomorphological signs of neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis in the injured brain hemisphere of placebo-treated control mice for up to 7 days. In contrast, the

  13. 医学动物替代研究发展现状研究%Study on the Current Status of Medical Alternative Animal Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫茂玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the current status of alternative animal researches in China and thus find the problems and put forward countermeasures. Method: This study was carried out by the methods of literature search and qualitative description. The authors precisely searched the medicine databases commonly used in China ( CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data) using the MeSH word, title, or keyword namely"animal alternative","animal decrease" or"animal optimization", and added to find the related researches′references. Then the author included the literature regarding to the organization construction, legislation, medical education, and alternative research methods, and conducted a qualitative description. The deadline was July 20, 2015. Results:There were 219 ini-tial quotations published from 1999 to 2014, and mainly were descriptive researches. The fields of alternative ani-mal researches included skin and eye stimulating toxicology test, thermal hyperalgesia and animal model replace-ment, and etc. The information communication platform of replacement researches had established, part of teachers were in practice using the substitution principle, the related monographs had been published, but the law and regu-lation construction and validation system were lag, the cognitive of replacement researches was not optimistic, and the validation method researches were insufficient. Conclusion: The domestic alternative animal researches were insufficient and lacking of systematic construction. It should strengthen the study on alternative animal research sys-tem, focused on legislation, policy leading, medical education, talent cultivation, and research methods.%目的:了解我国动物替代研究发展现状,发现问题,提出对策。方法文献检索与定性描述法。以主题、篇名或关键词“动物替代”或“动物减少”或“动物优化”精确检索中文医学常用数据库中国知网、维普数据和万方数据库,补充查找相关研

  14. 金属管道交流腐蚀研究新进展%New progress in studying alternating current corrosion on metal pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自力; 杨燕

    2012-01-01

    交流腐蚀对金属管道的危害不容忽视,交流电不仅可以通过杂散电流的形式对金属管道造成腐蚀危害,还可以通过感应使金属管道中产生交流电流,形成交流干扰破坏.分别从交流腐蚀的实验研究、理论分析及腐蚀机理角度,对近年来国内外开展的交流腐蚀研究进行系统综述.实验证明交流电不仅能加速金属的腐蚀,破坏金属表面的钝化膜,诱发点蚀,还能造成阴极保护系统的阴极保护电流激增,保护电位严重波动,甚至引起牺牲阳极极性逆转等危害.交流腐蚀的机理十分复杂,人们试图通过理论分析和实验归纳对这一复杂行为进行解释,形成了几类较为典型的腐蚀机理假说.虽然交流腐蚀的研究已有百年的历史,但仍存在许多难点问题亟待解决,通过对目前研究中存在的重点问题进行探讨,展望这一领域的研究前景及发展趋势,为相关领域的研究人员提供新思路.%A damage caused by alternating current (AC) corrosion on buried metal pipelines can not be ignored because alternating current may not only result in corrosion on metal pipelines through stray current but also generate an alternating electric current within metal pipelines by induction, which creates alternating current interference. Moreover, risks of AC corrosion or overprotec-tion on buried metal pipelines are increasing with the increase of laying coated pipelines in proximity to AC powered rail transit systems or high voltage AC power transmission lines. Here we made a systematic review on AC corrosion researches of recent years in terms of the experimental study, theoretical analysis and corrosion mechanism, respectively. It is generally believed that a higher alternating current could lead to a higher risk of AC corrosion. The results of laboratory experiments on the influence of AC interference show that an alternating electric current can not only accelerate metal corrosion, destroy the

  15. Consumer Health: Alternative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health What's considered an alternative therapy is a moving target. Get the facts about what CAM means and ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/in-depth/alternative-medicine/art-20045267 . Mayo ...

  16. Continuous Wavelet Transform, a powerful alternative to Derivative Spectrophotometry in analysis of binary and ternary mixtures: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzanfaly, Eman S; Hassan, Said A; Salem, Maissa Y; El-Zeany, Badr A

    2015-12-05

    A comparative study was established between two signal processing techniques showing the theoretical algorithm for each method and making a comparison between them to indicate the advantages and limitations. The methods under study are Numerical Differentiation (ND) and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). These methods were studied as spectrophotometric resolution tools for simultaneous analysis of binary and ternary mixtures. To present the comparison, the two methods were applied for the resolution of Bisoprolol (BIS) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in their binary mixture and for the analysis of Amlodipine (AML), Aliskiren (ALI) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) as an example for ternary mixtures. By comparing the results in laboratory prepared mixtures, it was proven that CWT technique is more efficient and advantageous in analysis of mixtures with severe overlapped spectra than ND. The CWT was applied for quantitative determination of the drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and validated according to the ICH guidelines where accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limit.

  17. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with diabetes mellitus in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalaf, Abeer J

    2010-01-01

    CAM use is widespread, especially among patients with diabetes. The Gulf States have a high prevalence of diabetes, alongside a long tradition of CAM use. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of CAM use among patients with diabetes mellitus in Bahrain and to examine the characteristics of the CAM users.

  18. Linear, Non-Linear and Alternative Algorithms in the Correlation of IEQ Factors with Global Comfort: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fassio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environmental quality (IEQ factors usually considered in engineering studies, i.e., thermal, acoustical, visual comfort and indoor air quality are individually associated with the occupant satisfaction level on the basis of well-established relationships. On the other hand, the full understanding of how single IEQ factors contribute and interact to determine the overall occupant satisfaction (global comfort is currently an open field of research. The lack of a shared approach in treating the subject depends on many aspects: absence of established protocols for the collection of subjective and objective measurements, the amount of variables to consider and in general the complexity of the technical issues involved. This case study is aimed to perform a comparison between some of the models available, studying the results of a survey conducted with objective and subjective method on a classroom within University of Roma TRE premises. Different models are fitted on the same measured values, allowing comparison between different weighting schemes between IEQ categories obtained with different methods. The critical issues, like differences in the weighting scheme obtained with different IEQ models and the variability of the weighting scheme with respect to the time of exposure of the users in the building, identified during this small scale comfort assessment study, provide the basis for a survey activity on a larger scale, basis for the development of an improved IEQ assessment method.

  19. Mao and Gandhi: Alternative Paths to National Independence and Social Change. A Unit of Study for Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald James; Johnson, Jean Elliott

    This unit of study focuses on the historic period from 1920 to 1966 when China's Mao Zedong and India's Mohandas Gandhi constructed and applied their social and moral visions to their respective nationalist movements. These leaders developed contrasting methods to achieve social change and to establish the goals set for achieving the ideal…

  20. Solar cooking - Practice of use and disuse of alternative technology. A case-based study of users and disusers of box solar cookers in urban Gujarat, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, B.

    2000-10-01

    Solar cooking technology is generally known for its multiple benefits, but also for its slow or lack of diffusion among user groups. It is this paradox that is the theme of this thesis. Use and disuse of alternative technologies is the central issue of the study. Arational aspects as well as rational issues significantly affects practice of use and disuse of alternative technologies. In this study the limits and details of these arationalities and rationalities are investigated. The empirical part of the study was carried out in Gujarat, India, where abouth 45,000 families have a functioning box solar cooker at their homes (about 1% of urban families). These families enjoy numerous favourable conditions for solar cooking: 1) About 270 sunny days per year; 2) Staple foods like rice and dal are possible to be cooked by solar cooker; 3) Solar cookers are robust and are technically functional after several years of use; 4) Maintenance and operation of solar cookers is easy and does not pose significant constraints to the users; 5) Economic saving of abouth 30% of cooking fuel (1999 prices) on year basis is achievable by users, if the solar cooker were used for one meal on sunny days; 6) Culturally, use of sun for cooking is not seen as negative; 7) The solar cookers are locally manufactured and sold at local sale outlets at 750 Indian Rupees. The price is after 50% subsidy and is affordable for the middle class urban families. 8) Solar cooker has more than two decades of history in Gujarat. During last 20 years Gujarat State has constantly striven to introduce solar cookers to families in Gujarat. In this regard at both national and international levels, Gujarat State is not only a pioneer, but also on development, introduction and implementation of solar cookers the State is often referred to as model. The question is not how to encourage other families to buy a solar cooker, but rather why most of those who have purchased a solar cooker do not use their solar cookers

  1. Examining alternative scoring rubrics on a statewide test: The impact of different scoring methods on science and social studies performance assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Susan Dabney

    There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the

  2. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from optimized and alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China Plain: A two-year field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Ju, Xiaotang, E-mail: juxt@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Su, Fang; Meng, Qingfeng [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Oenema, Oene [Wageningen University and Research, Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Christie, Peter [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The impacts of different crop rotation systems with their corresponding management practices on grain yield, greenhouse gas emissions, and fertilizer nitrogen (N) and irrigation water use efficiencies are not well documented. This holds especially for the North China Plain which provides the staple food for hundreds of millions of people and where groundwater resources are polluted with nitrate and depleted through irrigation. Here, we report on fertilizer N and irrigation water use, grain yields, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions of conventional and optimized winter wheat–summer maize double-cropping systems, and of three alternative cropping systems, namely a winter wheat–summer maize (or soybean)–spring maize system, with three harvests in two years; and a single spring maize system with one crop per year. The results of this two-year study show that the optimized double-cropping system led to a significant increase in grain yields and a significant decrease in fertilizer N use and net greenhouse gas intensity, but the net greenhouse gas N{sub 2}O emissions plus CH{sub 4} uptake and the use of irrigation water did not decrease relative to the conventional system. Compared to the conventional system the net greenhouse gas emissions, net greenhouse gas intensity and use of fertilizer N and irrigation water decreased in the three alternative cropping systems, but at the cost of grain yields except in the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system. Net uptake of CH{sub 4} by the soil was little affected by cropping system. Average N{sub 2}O emission factors were only 0.17% for winter wheat and 0.53% for maize. In conclusion, the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system has considerable potential to decrease water and N use and decrease N{sub 2}O emissions while maintaining high grain yields and sustainable use of groundwater. - Highlights: • Yields, resource use efficiency and N{sub 2}O + CH{sub 4} emission

  3. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY ON SUB ARACHNOID BLOCK IN PRE SUBDUED CHILDREN IS A CHEAP, EFFECTIVE, SAFE ALTERNATIVE TO GENERAL ANAESTHESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Srilakshmi; Venkata Ramana

    2014-01-01

    Technically, carrying out Spinal Anaesthesia in adults, may not pose much problems, because of patient co-operation, but same is not always so in case of toddlers and children, because of inherent fear of Hospital atmosphere, detachment from parents, immaturity and other. This study aims at performing Spinal Anaesthesia, in children, if they are pre-medicated, and pre-subdued, might pave way for the comfort of both patient and Anesthesiologists. So, pre-medicated, pre-subdued ...

  4. Feasibility study for alternate fuels production: unconventional natural gas from wastewater treatment plants. Volume II, Appendix D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overly, P.; Tawiah, K.

    1981-12-01

    Data are presented from a study performed to determined the feasibility of recovering methane from sewage at a typical biological secondary wastewater treatment plant. Three tasks are involved: optimization of digester gas; digester gas scrubbing; and application to the East Bay Municipal Utility District water pollution control plant. Results indicate that excess digester gas can be used economically at the wastewater treatment plant and that distribution and scrubbing can be complex and costly. (DMC) 193 references, 93 figures, 26 tables.

  5. Efficient control of air pollution through plants, a cost-effective alternative: studies on Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, C S; Bamniya, B R; Kapoor, K

    2013-09-01

    Plants can be used as both passive biomonitors and biomitigators in urban and industrial environments to indicate the environmental quality and to ameliorate pollution level in a locality. Many studies reveal that plants are negatively affected by the ambient levels of air pollutants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of air pollution on comparative basis with reference to changes in photosynthetic pigments, plant height, leaves, as well as, biochemical parameters of plants of different sites around Udaipur city receiving varying levels of pollution load. The investigated tree species Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Family: Fabaceae) exhibited a reduction in various physiological and biochemical growth parameters that correspond with air pollution levels at different sites. The tree species growing in polluted and control areas were compared with respect to foliar dust load, leaf area, and chlorophyll and total carbohydrate and total protein concentration in the leaves. Our studies suggest that D. sissoo Roxb. can successfully be grown in an area for monitoring air pollution, where it is mild and droughts are common. It will prove as an ideal tree species to control pollution effectively beside acting as a shade tree and being a source of food for birds and animals. By plantation of D. sissoo Roxb., mitigative measure at the polluted sites to control generation of particulate matter and the air quality required can be ensured. Our results also confirm that industrial and vehicular air pollution level in Udaipur city is shifting beyond limits.

  6. Efficacy of low-dose cinacalcet on alternate days for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients: a single-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojaseni P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pongsathorn Gojaseni, Dolnapa Pattarathitinan, Anutra Chittinandana Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Directorate of Medical Services, Royal Thai Air Force, Bangkok, Thailand Introduction: Cinacalcet is effective in reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT. This study focused on testing whether a prescription of low-dose cinacalcet on alternate days could be an option for treatment of secondary HPT.Materials and methods: A retrospective clinical study was conducted on chronic maintenance hemodialysis patients. Patients with secondary HPT who received cinacalcet at a starting dose of 25 mg on alternate days were reviewed (low-dose group. Patients who were being treated with a standard dose of cinacalcet in the same period of time were selected as the control group. The primary outcome was difference in the percentage of patients achieving >30% reduction of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels at 16 weeks. The changes of serum iPTH and other biochemical data were also tested.Results: A total of 30 patients (16 low doses and 14 controls took part in the study. Baseline iPTH levels in the low-dose and control group were 1,065.9±477.7 and 1,214.1±497.6 pg/mL, respectively (p=0.413. The analysis showed that the percentage of patients who achieved the primary outcome showed little or no difference (33.3% in the low-dose group compared with 38.5% in the control group, p=1.0. Serum iPTH reduction during 16 weeks of study period in the low-dose and control group was 253.5±316.1 and 243.4±561.3 pg/mL, respectively (p=0.957. There was no difference in the adverse events between both groups.Conclusion: Among patients with secondary HPT, initial treatment with cinacalcet 25 mg on alternate days can decrease serum PTH levels. The role of low-dose cinacalcet in secondary HPT should be further determined in large-scale, randomized controlled trials. Keywords

  7. Myoinositol as a Safe and Alternative Approach in the Treatment of Infertile PCOS Women: A German Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Adolf Eduard

    2016-01-01

    The use of 2 × 2000 mg myoinositol + 2 × 200 μg folic acid per day is a safe and promising tool in the effective improvement of symptoms and infertility for patients with a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Using a questionnaire an observational study was performed under German gynecologists to collect data on ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients with infertility. In this observational study, 3602 infertile women used myoinositol and folic acid between 2 and 3 months in a dosage of 2 × 2000 mg myoinositol + 2 × 200 μg folic acid per day. In a subgroup of 32 patients, hormonal values for testosterone, free testosterone, and progesterone were analyzed before and after 12 weeks of treatment. The mean time of use was 10.2 weeks. During this time 70% of these women had a restored ovulation, and 545 pregnancies were obtained. This means a pregnancy rate of 15.1% of all the myoinositol and folic acid users. In 19 cases a concomitant medication with clomiphene or dexamethasone was used. One twin pregnancy was documented. Testosterone levels changed from 96.6 ng/ml to 43.3 ng/ml and progesterone from 2.1 ng/ml to 12.3 ng/ml (p < 0.05) after 12 weeks of treatment. No relevant side effects were present among the patients. This study could show that a new treatment option for patients with a PCOS and infertility is available. The achieved pregnancy rates are at least in an equivalent or even superior range than those reported by the use of metformin. PMID:27642297

  8. Alternative uses of a megavolt tandem accelerator for few-keV studies with ion-source SIMS monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, S. L. A.; Codeço, C. F. S.; Magnani, B. F.; Sant'Anna, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We increase the versatility of a tandem electrostatic accelerator by implementing simple modifications to the standard operation procedure. While keeping its ability to deliver MeV ion beams, we show that the experimental setup can (i) provide good quality ion beams in the few-keV energy range and (ii) be used to study ion-beam surface modification with simultaneous secondary ion mass spectrometry. This latter task is accomplished without using any chamber connected to the accelerator exit. We perform mass spectrometry of the few-keV anions produced in the ion source by measuring their neutral counterparts at the accelerator exit with energies up to 1.7 MeV. With an additional modification, a high-current few-keV regime is obtained, using the ion source as an irradiation chamber and the accelerator itself only as a mass spectrometer. As an example of application, we prepare a sample for the study of ion-beam assisted dewetting of a thin Au film on a Si substrate.

  9. An alternative medicine treatment for Parkinson's disease: results of a multicenter clinical trial. HP-200 in Parkinson's Disease Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The natural occurrence of antiparkinsonian drugs in plants--anticholinergics in Datura stramonium, levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and Vicia faba, dopamine agonist activity in Claviceps purpura, and MAO inhibitor activity in Banisteria caapi-are known. Our study examined the efficacy and tolerability of HP-200, derived from Mucuna prurient, in patients with Parkinson's disease. Sixty patients with Parkinson's disease (46 male and 14 female) with a mean (+/- SD) age of 59 +/- 9 years were treated in an open study for 12 weeks. Of these, 26 patients were taking synthetic levodopa/carbidopa formulations before treatment with HP-200, and the remaining 34 were levodopa naive. HP-200, a powder (supplied as a 7.5 g sachet), was mixed with water and given orally. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was used at baseline and periodically during the 12-week evaluation. Statistically significant reductions in Hoehn and Yahr stage and UPDRS scores were seen from baseline to the end of the 12-week treatment (p Ayurveda, was found to be an effective treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease.

  10. Final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-2, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) in Kern County, California. The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study. Additional details are provided in the Addendum (the Phase I Property Description and Fact Finding Report). The key property elements that positively affect the estimated value of NPR-2 include the following: royalty income from producing oil and gas leases, rental income from non-producing oil and gas leases, income from grazing or leasing of grazing rights, potential income from oil and gas leasing on exploratory (or nonprospective) acreage, potential value of trading surface real estate as ranch land for sheep grazing (10,044 acres), and town lots for residential or commercial development (16.7 acres). Key elements that negatively impact the estimated value include: environmental assessment costs, operating budgets, and lease sale expenses.

  11. Calomys callosus: an alternative model to study fibrosis in Schistosomiasis mansoni: the pathology of the acute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Lenzi

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Calomys callosus, Rengger, 1830 (Rodentia-Cricetidae were studied in the early stage of the acute schistosomal mansoni infection (42nd day. The same number of Swiss Webster mice were used as a comparative standard. Liver and intestinal sections, fixed in formalin-Millonig and embedded in paraffin, were stained with hematoxilin and eosin, PAS-Alcian Blue, pH = 1.0 and 2.5, Lennert's Giemsa, Picrosirius plus polarization microscopy, Periodic acid methanamine silver, Gomori's silver reticulin and resorcin-fuchsin. Immunohistological study (indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase labeled extravidin-biotin methods was done with antibodies specific to pro-collagen III, fibronectin, elastin, condroitin-sulfate, tenascin, alpha smooth muscle actin, vimentin and desmin. The hepatic granulomas were small, reaching only 27 of the volume of the hepatic Swiss Webster granuloma. They were composed mainly by large immature macrophages, often filled by schistosomal pigment, characterizing an exsudative-macrophage granuloma type. The granulomas were situated in the parenchyma and in the portal space. They were often intravascular, poor of extracellular matrix components, except fibronectin and presented, sometimes alpha smooth muscle actin and vimentin positive cells. The C. callosus intestinal granulomas were similar to Swiss Webster, showing predominance of macrophages. Therefore, the C. callosus acquire very well the Schistosoma mansoni infection, without developing strong hepatic acute granulomatous reaction, suggesting lack of histopathological signs of hypersensitivity.

  12. In Silico study for diversing the molecular pathway of pigment formation: An alternative to manual coloring in cotton fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammara eAhad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of colors in flowers and fruits is largely due to anthocyanin pigments. The flavonoid/anthocyanin pathway has been most extensively studied. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR is a vibrant enzyme of the flavonoid pathway which displays major impact on the formation of anthocyanins, flavan 3-ols and flavonols. The substrate specificity of the DFR was found to play a crucial role in determination of type of anthocyanidins. Altering the flavonoid/ anthocyanin pathway through genetic engineering to develop color of our own choice is an exciting subject of future research. In the present study, comparison among four DFR genes (Gossypium hirsutum, Iris × hollandica, Ang. DFRI and DFRII, sequence alignment for homology as well as protein modeling and docking is demonstrated. Estimation of catalytic sites, prediction of substrate preference and protein docking were the key features of this article. For specific substrate uptake, a proline rich region and positions 12 plus 26 along with other positions emphasizing the 26-amino acid residue region (132-157 was tested. Results showed that proline rich region position 12, 26 and 132-157 plays an important role in selective attachment of DFRs with respective substrates. Further, ‘Expasy ProtParam tool’ results showed that Iris × hollandica DFR amino acids (Asn 9: Asp 23 favorable for reducing DHQ and DHM thus accumulating delphinidin, while Gossypium hirsutum DFR has (Asn 13: Asp 21 hypothesized to consume DHK. Protein docking data showed that amino acid residues in above mentioned positions were just involved in attachment of DFR with substrate and had no role in specific substrate uptake.Advanced bioinformatics analysis has revealed that all above mentioned positions have role in substrate attachment. For substrate specificity, other residues region is involved. It will help in color manipulations in different plant species.

  13. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcraft, J Grant C; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania's food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while maintaining

  14. A pilot study into the use of FDG-mNP as an alternative approach in neuroblastoma cell hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Mahendran; Pearce, Gillian; Guldu, Ozge; Tekin, Volkan; Miaskowski, Arkadiusz; Aras, Omer; Unak, Perihan

    2016-07-07

    Herein, we present a pilot study concerning the use of fluorodeoxy glucose conjugated magnetite nanoparticles (FDG-mNP ) as a potential agent in magnetic nanoparticle mediated neuroblastoma cancer cell hyperthermia. This approach makes use of the 'Warburg effect', utilising the fact that cancer cells have a higher metabolic rate than normal cells. FDG-mNP were synthesized, then applied to the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cancer cell line and exposed to an AC magnetic field. 3D Calorimetry was performed on the FDG-mNP compound. Simulations were performed using SEMCAD X software using Thelonious, (an anatomically correct male child model) in order to understand more about the end requirements with respect to cancer cell destruction. We investigated FDG-mNP mediated neuroblastoma cytotoxicity in conjunction with AC magnetic field exposure. Results are presented for 3D FDG-mNP SAR mnp (10.86 ± 0.99 W/g of particles) using a therapeutic dose of 0.83 mg/ mL. Human model simulations suggest that 43 W/ kg SAR Theo would be required to obtain 42 ºC within the centre of a liver tumour (Tumour size, bounding box x = 64, y = 61, z = 65 [mm]), and that the temperature distribution is inhomogeneous within the tumour. Our study suggests that this approach could potentially be used to increase the temperature within cells that would result in cancer cell death due to hyperthermia. Further development of this research will also involve using whole tumours removed from living organisms in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography.

  15. Studies on the chemical conditions and microstructure in package 1 of alternative buffer materials project (ABM) in aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muurinen, A. (VTT Technical research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-02-15

    The chemical and microstructural properties of MX-80, Asha and Deponit bentonites and of Friedland Clay in package 1 of the ABM project in Aespoe HRL were studied after over two years of experiment. The concentration distribution of chloride and sulphate in different clays as a function of distance from the heater and in the reference bentonites, not used in the experiment, were determined. The concentration distributions of chloride were quite even. In Friedland clay and Asha the chloride concentrations in the clay decreased during the experiment while in MX-80 and Deponit the concentrations increased. Sulphate accumulated towards the hot end in the samples where the initial content of sulphate was high (Friedland Clay, MX-80, Deponit), while in Asha, where the initial sulphate concentration was low, such an accumulation did not occur. The cation exchange capacity in different clays was determined at different distances from the heater using the complex of copper(II) ion with trietylenetetramine [Cu(trien)]2+ as the index cation. The CEC of MX-80 and Deponit increased slightly close to the heater. In Asha there was some indication about the decrease of CEC close to the heater while in Friedland Clay there was small decreasing trend towards the heater and the CEC was generally slightly higher than in the reference sample. The pH measurements in the clays were performed with IrOx electrodes at a distance of 8 cm from the heater. The pH values were for Friedland Clay 6.5 - 6.6, for MX-80 6.6 - 6.8, for Asha 6.9 - 7.0 and for Deponit 6.6 - 6.9. The Eh measurements were performed with Pt and Au electrodes placed in the clays at 8 cm from the heater. The final values obtained after five months of measurement with Au and Pt electrodes were for Friedland Clay 17 mV and -231 mV, for MX-80 22 mV and -48 mV, for Asha 104 mV and 40 mV and for Deponit 76 mV and 75 mV, respectively. The water content and bulk density were measured at different distances from the heater; the dry

  16. Studies on the chemical conditions and microstructure in the reference bentonites of alternative buffer materials project (ABM) in Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muurinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    The chemical and microstructural properties of some bentonites used in the ABM project in Aespoe HRL were studied in laboratory experiments. The aim was to obtain information about the materials before they were used in the field experiment and to test the research methods that will be used when the packages of the field experiment are retrieved. The bentonites of interest were MX-80, Deponit CAN, Asha 505 and Friedland Clay. The pH values in the compacted samples prepared from the clay powders and deionized water were about 8 for MX-80, 7 for Deponit and Asha, and 6.5 for Friedland clay. The Eh values in the compacted MX-80, Asha and Deponit samples varied between 100 mV and -100 mV, and in the Friedland clay from 0 mV to 200 mV. The total porosity, chloride porosity and the microstructure were studied in compacted samples prepared from MX-80, Deponit, Asha and Friedland Clay and equilibrated through filter plates with 0.1 M NaCl solution for 12.5 months in aerobic conditions. The dry densities of the samples were approximately 0.7, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.55 g/cm3. XRD and SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) were used to study the microstructure of the MX-80 and Deponit bentonites. It was obvious that the chloride porosity was lower than the water porosity in all the clays, which indicates the exclusion of anions caused by the negatively charged surfaces. In the XRD measurements on MX-80, Asha and Deponit, the measured basal spaces represented by the diffraction peaks were smaller than the theoretical one assuming a homogenous microstructure. This indicates that there was a substantial amount of water also in the pores, which were not seen by XRD. The SAXS data modelling which considered single discs and stacks of discs proposed that a large fraction of the clay should be considered as single platelets. The fraction of the single discs decreased with the increasing density of the sample. The number of layers in the stacks varied from 4 to 8. By combining the information

  17. Studies toward the unique pederin family member psymberin: full structure elucidation, two alternative total syntheses, and analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Jiang, Xin; De Brabander, Jef K

    2012-10-17

    Two synthetic approaches to psymberin have been accomplished. A highly convergent first generation synthesis led to the complete stereochemical assignment and demonstrated that psymberin and irciniastatin A are identical compounds. This synthesis featured a diastereoselective aldol coupling between the aryl fragment and a central tetrahydropyran core and a novel one-pot procedure to convert an amide, via intermediacy of a sensitive methyl imidate, to the N-acyl aminal reminiscent of psymberin. The highlights of the second generation synthesis include an efficient iridium-catalyzed enantioselective bisallylation of neopentyl glycol and a stepwise Sonogashira coupling/cycloisomerization/reduction sequence to construct the dihydroisocoumarin unit. The two synthetic avenues were achieved in 17-18 steps (longest linear sequence, ~14-15 isolations) from 3 fragments prepared in 7-8 (first generation) and 3-8 (second generation) steps each. This convergent approach allowed for the preparation of sufficient amounts of psymberin (~ 0.5 g) for follow-up biological studies. Meanwhile, our highly flexible strategy enabled the design and synthesis of multiple analogs, including a psymberin-pederin hybrid, termed psympederin, that proved crucial to a comprehensive understanding of the chemical biology of psymberin and related compounds that will be described in a subsequent manuscript.

  18. Expression of Drosophila mushroom body mutations in alternative genetic backgrounds: a case study of the mushroom body miniature gene (mbm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belle, J S; Heisenberg, M

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in 12 genes regulating Drosophila melanogaster mushroom body (MB) development were each studied in two genetic backgrounds. In all cases, brain structure was qualitatively or quantitatively different after replacement of the "original" genetic background with that of the Canton Special wild-type strain. The mushroom body miniature gene (mbm) was investigated in detail. mbm supports the maintenance of MB Kenyon cell fibers in third instar larvae and their regrowth during metamorphosis. Adult mbm1 mutant females are lacking many or most Kenyon cell fibers and are impaired in MB-mediated associative odor learning. We show here that structural defects in mbm1 are apparent only in combination with an X-linked, dosage-dependent modifier (or modifiers). In the Canton Special genetic background, the mbm1 anatomical phenotype is suppressed, and MBs develop to a normal size. However, the olfactory learning phenotype is not fully restored, suggesting that submicroscopic defects persist in the MBs. Mutant mbm1 flies with full-sized MBs have normal retention but show a specific acquisition deficit that cannot be attributed to reductions in odor avoidance, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. We propose that polymorphic gene interactions (in addition to ontogenetic factors) determine MB size and, concomitantly, the ability to recognize and learn odors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8790424

  19. A focus Group Study of Medical Students’ Views of an Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Curriculum: Students Teaching Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Lie, M.D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Student views of new curricula can shape training outcomes. This qualitative study elicited student opinions of CAM instruction to examine and distill best strategies.Methods: 49 second, third and fourth year students participated in focus groups using a predefined question route. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed.Results: Students successfully differentiated CAM curricula from other academic content and were supportive of a longitudinal integrated approach. They had positive disposition toward CAM use for themselves but this did not necessarily translate into patient recommendations. They agreed that goals of the CAM curriculum should center on awareness of patient use and evidence and information relevant to clinical practice. They advocated a case-based, hands-on, experiential strategy vs lectures. Students proposed greater institutional commitment to strengthen curricular effectiveness. The majority did not intend to practice CAM modalities but valued skills to assess them. Patient-centeredness was recognized. As training progressed, students exhibited a growing tendency to evaluate CAM efficacy, and therefore value, exclusively according to evidence.Conclusions: In-depth student input allowed examination of the effectiveness of a CAM curriculum,permitting improvement and assessment of program effectiveness.

  20. Financial viability study using a heat pump as an alternative to support solar collector for water heating in Southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Roberts Vinicius de Melo; Oliveira, Raphael Nunes; Machado, Luiz; Koury, Ricardo Nassau N. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mails: robertsreis@ufmg.br, luizm@demec.ufmg.br, koury@ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Along with related greenhouse effect environmental issues, constant problems changes in oil prices,make the use of solar energy an important renewable energy source. Brazil is a country which is privilege, considering the high rates of solar irradiation present throughout most of the entire national territory. Nevertheless, during certain times of the year, a solar energy deficit, leads solar systems to require electrical resistance support. The use of electrical resistance represents 23.5% of electric energy consumption and it presents a low residential energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is conducting a study of Brazilian States in the Southeastern region regarding the financial viability of replacing a resistive system combined with the use of solar collector and a heat pump. One such heat pump has been designed, constructed and tested experimentally. The average performance coefficient is equal to 2.10, a low value due to the use of a hermetic reciprocating compressor. Despite this low-moderate price coefficient of acquisition and installation of a heat pump, a return on investment in from 2.1 to 2.7 years can be expected. Whereas the equipment has a useful life of about 20 years, this period of return on investment is interesting. (author)

  1. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  2. Blood Vessel Matrix Seeded with Cells: A Better Alternative for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction—A Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Nowacki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to present abdominal wall reconstruction using a porcine vascular graft seeded with MSC (mesenchymal stem cells on rat model. Material and Methods. Abdominal wall defect was prepared in 21 Wistar rats. Acellular porcine-vascular grafts taken from aorta and prepared with Triton X were used. 14 aortic grafts were implanted in place, of which 7 grafts were seeded with rat MSC cells (Group I, and 7 were acellular grafts (Group II. As a control, 7 standard polypropylene meshes were used for defect augmentation (Group III. The assessment method was performed by HE and CD31 staining after 6 months. The mechanical properties have been investigated by Zwick&Roell Z0.5. Results. The strongest angiogenesis and lowest inflammatory response were observed in Group I. Average capillaries density was 2.75, 0.75, and 1.53 and inflammatory effect was 0.29, 1.39, and 2.72 for Groups I, II, and III, respectively. The means of mechanical properties were 12.74±1.48, 7.27±1.56, and 14.4±3.7 N/cm in Groups I and II and control, respectively. Conclusions. Cell-seeded grafts have better mechanical properties than acellular grafts but worse than polypropylene mesh. Cells improved mechanical and physiological properties of decellularized natural scaffolds.

  3. Expression of Drosophila mushroom body mutations in alternative genetic backgrounds: a case study of the mushroom body miniature gene (mbm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belle, J S; Heisenberg, M

    1996-09-03

    Mutations in 12 genes regulating Drosophila melanogaster mushroom body (MB) development were each studied in two genetic backgrounds. In all cases, brain structure was qualitatively or quantitatively different after replacement of the "original" genetic background with that of the Canton Special wild-type strain. The mushroom body miniature gene (mbm) was investigated in detail. mbm supports the maintenance of MB Kenyon cell fibers in third instar larvae and their regrowth during metamorphosis. Adult mbm1 mutant females are lacking many or most Kenyon cell fibers and are impaired in MB-mediated associative odor learning. We show here that structural defects in mbm1 are apparent only in combination with an X-linked, dosage-dependent modifier (or modifiers). In the Canton Special genetic background, the mbm1 anatomical phenotype is suppressed, and MBs develop to a normal size. However, the olfactory learning phenotype is not fully restored, suggesting that submicroscopic defects persist in the MBs. Mutant mbm1 flies with full-sized MBs have normal retention but show a specific acquisition deficit that cannot be attributed to reductions in odor avoidance, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. We propose that polymorphic gene interactions (in addition to ontogenetic factors) determine MB size and, concomitantly, the ability to recognize and learn odors.

  4. Is "Active Surveillance" an Acceptable Alternative?: A Qualitative Study of Couples' Decision Making about Early-Stage, Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Chi L; McFall, Stephanie L; Byrd, Theresa L; Volk, Robert J; Cantor, Scott B; Kuban, Deborah A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe decision making by men and their partners regarding active surveillance (AS) or treatment for early-stage, localized prostate cancer. Fifteen couples were recruited from a cancer center multispecialty clinic, which gave full information about all options, including AS. Data were collected via individual, semi-structured telephone interviews. Most patients were white, non-Hispanic, had private insurance, had completed at least some college, and were aged 49-72 years. Ten chose AS. All partners were female, and couples reported strong marital satisfaction and cohesion. All couples described similar sequences of a highly emotional initial reaction and desire to be rid of the cancer, information seeking, and decision making. The choice of AS was built on a nuanced evaluation of the man's condition in which the couple differentiated prostate cancer from other cancers and early stage from later stages, wanted to avoid/delay side effects, and trusted the AS protocol to identify negative changes in time for successful treatment. Treated couples continued to want immediate treatment to remove the cancer. We concluded that having a partner's support for AS may help a man feel more comfortable with choosing and adhering to AS. Using decision aids that address both a man's and his partner's concerns regarding AS may increase its acceptability. Our research shows that some patients want to and do involve their partners in the decision-making process. Ethical issues are related to the tension between desire for partner involvement and the importance of the patient as autonomous decision-maker. The extended period of decision making, particularly for AS, is also an ethical issue that requires additional support for patients and couples in the making of fully informed choices that includes AS.

  5. The use of alternative pollutant metrics in time-series studies of ambient air pollution and respiratory emergency department visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Klein, Mitchel; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Mulholland, James A; Strickland, Matthew J; Sarnat, Stefanie E; Russell, Armistead G; Tolbert, Paige E

    2011-01-01

    Various temporal metrics of daily pollution levels have been used to examine the relationships between air pollutants and acute health outcomes. However, daily metrics of the same pollutant have rarely been systematically compared within a study. In this analysis, we describe the variability of effect estimates attributable to the use of different temporal metrics of daily pollution levels. We obtained hourly measurements of ambient particulate matter (PM₂.₅), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and ozone (O₃) from air monitoring networks in 20-county Atlanta for the time period 1993-2004. For each pollutant, we created (1) a daily 1-h maximum; (2) a 24-h average; (3) a commute average; (4) a daytime average; (5) a nighttime average; and (6) a daily 8-h maximum (only for O₃). Using Poisson generalized linear models, we examined associations between daily counts of respiratory emergency department visits and the previous day's pollutant metrics. Variability was greatest across O₃ metrics, with the 8-h maximum, 1-h maximum, and daytime metrics yielding strong positive associations and the nighttime O₃ metric yielding a negative association (likely reflecting confounding by air pollutants oxidized by O₃). With the exception of daytime metric, all of the CO and NO₂ metrics were positively associated with respiratory emergency department visits. Differences in observed associations with respiratory emergency room visits among temporal metrics of the same pollutant were influenced by the diurnal patterns of the pollutant, spatial representativeness of the metrics, and correlation between each metric and copollutant concentrations. Overall, the use of metrics based on the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (for example, the use of a daily 8-h maximum O₃ as opposed to a 24-h average metric) was supported by this analysis. Comparative analysis of temporal metrics also provided insight into underlying relationships between specific air

  6. Carbon/PEEK composite materials as an alternative for stainless steel/titanium hip prosthesis: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farshid; Hassani, Kamran; Solhjoei, Nosratollah; Karimi, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Total hip replacement (THR) has been ranked within the most typical surgical processes in the world. The durability of the prosthesis and loosening of prosthesis are the main concerns that mostly reported after THR surgeries. In THR, the femoral prosthesis can be fixed by either cement or cementless methods in the patient's bones. In both procedures, the stability of the prosthesis in the hosted bone has a key asset in its long-term durability and performance. This study aimed to execute a comparative finite element simulation to assess the load transfer between the prosthesis, which is made of carbon/PEEK composite and stainless steel/titanium, and the femur bone. The mechanical behavior of the cortical bone was assumed as a linear transverse isotropic while the spongy bone was modeled like a linear isotropic material. The implants were made of stainless steel (316L) and titanium alloy as they are common materials for implants. The results showed that the carbon/PEEK composites provide a flatter load transfer from the upper body to the leg compared to the stainless steel/titanium prosthesis. Furthermore, the results showed that the von Mises stress, principal stress, and the strain in the carbon/PEEK composites prosthesis were significantly lower than that made of the stainless steel/titanium. The results also imply that the carbon/PEEK composites can be applied to introduce a new optimum design for femoral prosthesis with adjustable stiffness, which can decrease the stress shielding and interface stress. These findings will help clinicians and biomedical experts to increase their knowledge about the hip replacement.

  7. Alternative ways of using field-based estimates to calibrate ecosystem models and their implications for carbon cycle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yujie; Zhuang, Qianlai; McGuire, David; Liu, Yaling; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Model-data fusion is a process in which field observations are used to constrain model parameters. How observations are used to constrain parameters has a direct impact on the carbon cycle dynamics simulated by ecosystem models. In this study, we present an evaluation of several options for the use of observations in modeling regional carbon dynamics and explore the implications of those options. We calibrated the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model on a hierarchy of three vegetation classification levels for the Alaskan boreal forest: species level, plant-functional-type level (PFT level), and biome level, and we examined the differences in simulated carbon dynamics. Species-specific field-based estimates were directly used to parameterize the model for species-level simulations, while weighted averages based on species percent cover were used to generate estimates for PFT- and biome-level model parameterization. We found that calibrated key ecosystem process parameters differed substantially among species and overlapped for species that are categorized into different PFTs. Our analysis of parameter sets suggests that the PFT-level parameterizations primarily reflected the dominant species and that functional information of some species were lost from the PFT-level parameterizations. The biome-level parameterization was primarily representative of the needleleaf PFT and lost information on broadleaf species or PFT function. Our results indicate that PFT-level simulations may be potentially representative of the performance of species-level simulations while biome-level simulations may result in biased estimates. Improved theoretical and empirical justifications for grouping species into PFTs or biomes are needed to adequately represent the dynamics of ecosystem functioning and structure.

  8. Evaluation of Fastrach Laryngeal Mask Airway as an Alternative to Fiberoptic Bronchoscope to Manage Difficult Airway: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Radhey; Sachan, Pushplata; Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Singh, Gyan Prakash; Bhatia, Vinod Kumar; Chandra, Girish; Singh, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Awake intubation via Fiberoptic Bronchoscope (FB) is the gold standard for management of difficult airway but patients had to face problems like oxygen desaturation, tachycardia, hypertension and anxiety due to awake state. This study was conducted to assess feasibility of Fastrach Laryngeal Mask Airway (FLMA) to manage difficult airway as a conduit for intubation as well as for ventilation. Materials and Methods After ethical approval and informed consent, 60 patients with difficult airway were randomly enrolled in FB group and FLMA group. In FB group, patients were sedated with midazolam/fentanyl. Airway anaesthetization of oropharynx was done with xylocaine spray and viscous and larynx and trachea by superior laryngeal nerve block and transtracheal block respectively. In FLMA group, initially patients were induced with propofol for FLMA insertion then succinylcholine was given for Tracheal Intubation (TI). The first TI attempt was done blindly via the FLMA and all subsequent attempts were performed with fiberoptic guidance. Haemodynamic monitoring was done during induction, intubation, immediately post insertion and there after at five minutes interval for 30 minutes. Results All patients in the FLMA group were successfully ventilated (100%). In both the groups 28 (93.33%) patients were successfully intubated. However, first/second/third attempt intubation rate in FLMA vs FB group was 15 (50%) vs 13 (43.3%), 8 (26.66%) vs 10 (33.33%) and 5 (16.66%) in both groups respectively. Patients in the FLMA group were more satisfied with their method of TI and had lesser complications (pmanagement of patients with difficult airways.

  9. Using sequence data to identify alternative routes and risk of infection: a case-study of campylobacter in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessell Paul R

    2012-04-01

    rapidly increasing capacity to conduct genetic typing of pathogens makes such traced epidemiological analysis more accessible and has the potential to substantially enhance epidemiological risk factor studies.

  10. Feasibility study of the zebrafish assay as an alternative method to screen for developmental toxicity and embryotoxicity using a training set of 27 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selderslaghs, Ingrid W T; Blust, Ronny; Witters, Hilda E

    2012-04-01

    To anticipate to increased testing needs for reproductive toxicity and 3R approaches, we studied zebrafish embryo/larva as an alternative for animal testing for developmental toxicity and embryotoxicity and evaluated a training set of 27 compounds with a standardized protocol. The classification of compounds in the zebrafish embryo/larva assay, based on a prediction model using a TI (teratogenic index) cut-off value of 2, was compared to available animal and human data. When comparing the classification of compounds in the zebrafish embryo/larva assay to available animal classification, a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 100% were obtained. The predictive values obtained in comparison to a limited set of human data were 50, 60% respectively for teratogens, non-teratogens. Overall, we demonstrated that the zebrafish embryo/larva assay, may be used as screening tool for prioritization of compounds and could contribute to reduction of animal experiments in the field of developmental toxicology.

  11. Seeking an Alternative Modality to the Management of Nigeria's Fertilizer Subsidy Scheme-An Empirical Approach to the Case Study of Ondo State (1976-1996

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    Victor O. Asekunowo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of Nigeria’s fertilizer subsidy scheme was to make inorganic fertilizers readily available to farmers at affordable prices in order to boost food production in the country. Shortly into the scheme, farmers complained that fertilizers were not received at the time of need and in sufficient quantities. Approach: Using Ondo State, Nigeria as a case study, to determine; inter alia, if the farmers’ complaints were founded and if so, to design alternative ways of administering the scheme such that the lofty goals for which it was established could be realized. Methodology: Primary data were collected from 596 farmers randomly selected from the state. Secondary data were collected from purposively selected NAFCON, AISC, ADP, FPDD (now FFD and a published book source. The primary data were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics such as percentages and means. The secondary data were analyzed with the use of OLS and TLS regression methods. Results: The descriptive analyses showed that farmers in Ondo State did not receive their fertilizer supplies in sufficient quantities and at the time of need, despite the fact that supply surpassed adoption (demand for most years of the study period. The inferential analyses showed that a subsidy introduced into NAFCON and other producing firms’ production processes would engender increased output and induce fertilizer prices to fall in Ondo State. Conclusion: These results showed that farmers in Ondo State did not receive their fertilizer supplies at the time of need and in sufficient quantities due to leakages and diversion of the substance from the vast bureaucratic distribution channels. As an alternative, if subsidy was administered through the producing firms’ production processes, output of fertilizers would have increased making the market supply curve of fertilizers to shift to the right. This would have also caused the price of fertilizer to

  12. Modeling the influence of alternative forest management scenarios on wood production and carbon storage: A case study in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottalico, Francesca; Pesola, Lucia; Vizzarri, Matteo; Antonello, Leonardo; Barbati, Anna; Chirici, Gherardo; Corona, Piermaria; Cullotta, Sebastiano; Garfì, Vittorio; Giannico, Vincenzo; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco; Nocentini, Susanna; Riccioli, Francesco; Travaglini, Davide; Sallustio, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are fundamental for the terrestrial biosphere as they deliver multiple essential ecosystem services (ES). In environmental management, understanding ES distribution and interactions and assessing the economic value of forest ES represent future challenges. In this study, we developed a spatially explicit method based on a multi-scale approach (MiMoSe-Multiscale Mapping of ecoSystem services) to assess the current and future potential of a given forest area to provide ES. To do this we modified and improved the InVEST model in order to adapt input data and simulations to the context of Mediterranean forest ecosystems. Specifically, we integrated a GIS-based model, scenario model, and economic valuation to investigate two ES (wood production and carbon sequestration) and their trade-offs in a test area located in Molise region (Central Italy). Spatial information and trade-off analyses were used to assess the influence of alternative forest management scenarios on investigated services. Scenario A was designed to describe the current Business as Usual approach. Two alternative scenarios were designed to describe management approaches oriented towards nature protection (scenario B) or wood production (scenario C) and compared to scenario A. Management scenarios were simulated at the scale of forest management units over a 20-year time period. Our results show that forest management influenced ES provision and associated benefits at the regional scale. In the test area, the Total Ecosystem Services Value of the investigated ES increases 85% in scenario B and decreases 82% in scenario C, when compared to scenario A. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate about trade-offs and synergies between carbon sequestration and wood production benefits associated with socio-ecological systems. The MiMoSe approach can be replicated in other contexts with similar characteristics, thus providing a useful basis for the projection of benefits from forest

  13. Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

  14. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  15. On an Alternative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, A

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  16. Brandmodstandsbidrag for alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  17. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Meurk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  18. Compatibility study of a low-calorie cocoa butter alternative%一种低热代可可脂的相容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志华; 黄健花; 韩璐; 金青哲; 王兴国

    2015-01-01

    采用等温曲线和ΔSFC 曲线分析法,研究了自制短长碳链低热代可可脂(LCSL)与市售可可脂(CB)、非月桂酸类代可可脂(CBR)、月桂酸类代可可脂(CBS)、类可可脂(CBE)产品的相容性,结果表明:LCSL 与市售产品在低温下的相容性较好,其中与 CBS 的相容性最好,温度低于20℃时 LCSL 与 CBS 可任何比例相容;LCSL 适合完全取代 CB 用于生产糖果或巧克力制品,且在配方中需控制 CB 含量低于5%。%The compatibility of the blends of a low–calorie cocoa butter alternative(LCSL)prepared in laboratory and commercially cocoa butter(CB),non–lauric cocoa butter replacers(CBR), lauric cocoa butter substitute(CBS)and cocoa butter equivalents(CBE)were studied. The solid fat isothermal curve and solid fat difference(ΔSFC)curve indicated the good compatibility of LCSL with CB or CB alternatives at lower temperature. The mixture of LCSL and CBS was the best one. Any proportion of compatibility between LCSL and CBS was detected when the temperature was lower than 20 ℃ . LCSL was suitable for replacing CB completely in chocolate,chocolate coating and other confectionery products,and the content of CB should be lower than 5%.

  19. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurk, Carla; Ford, Pauline; Sharma, Ratika; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-23

    Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  20. Study of the effects of salicylic acid on soybean mitochondrial lipids and respiratory properties using the alternative oxidase as a stress-reporter protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Ana Rita; Mendes, Ana Teresa; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Arrabaça, João Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses can lead to modifications in the lipid composition of cell membranes. Although mitochondria appear to be implicated in stress responses, little is known about the membrane lipid changes that occur in these organelles in plants. Besides cytochrome c oxidase, plant mitochondria have an alternative oxidase (AOX) that accepts electrons directly from ubiquinol, dissipating energy as heat. AOX upregulation occurs under a variety of stresses and its induction by salicylic acid (SA) has been observed in different plant species. AOX was also suggested to be used as a functional marker for cell reprogramming under stress. In the present study, we have used etiolated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Cresir) seedlings to study the effects of SA treatment on the lipid composition and the respiratory properties of hypocotyl mitochondria. AOX expression was studied in detail, as a reporter protein, to evaluate whether modifications in mitochondrial energy metabolism were occurring. In mitochondria extracted from SA-treated seedlings, AOX capacity and protein contents increased. Both AOX1 and AOX2b transcripts accumulated in response to SA, but with different kinetics. A reduction in external NADH oxidation capacity was observed, whereas succinate respiration remained unchanged. The phospholipid composition of mitochondria remained similar in control and SA-treated plants, but a reduction in the relative amount of linolenic acid was observed in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin. The possible causes of the fatty acid modifications observed, and the implications for mitochondrial metabolism are discussed.

  1. Study of Chemical Intermediates by Means of ATR-IR Spectroscopy and Hybrid Hard- and Soft-Modelling Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiu; Qi, Juan; Gao, Xinyu; Yan, Chunhua; Zhang, Tianlong; Tang, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) became a significant energetic materials intermediate, and the study of its reaction mechanism has fundamental significance in chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of online attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy combined with the novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-modelling multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR) analysis to monitor and detect changes in structural properties of compound during 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) synthesis processes. The subspace comparison method (SCM) was used to obtain the principal components number, and then the pure IR spectra of each substance were obtained by independent component analysis (ICA) and HS-MCR. The extent of rotation ambiguity was estimated from the band boundaries of feasible solutions calculated using the MCR-BANDS procedure. There were five principal components including two intermediates in the process in the results. The reaction rate constants of DAT formation reaction were also obtained by HS-MCR. HS-MCR was used to analyze spectroscopy data in chemical synthesis process, which not only increase the information domain but also reduce the ambiguities of the obtained results. This study provides the theoretical basis for the optimization of synthesis process and technology of energetic materials and provides a strong technical support of research and development of energy material with extraordinary damage effects. PMID:28386512

  2. A Preliminary Study on the Conceptual Design of Thorium/Uranium Mixed Nuclear Fuel for the Alternative of Burnable Poison in Commercial Pressurized Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Thorium has higher neutron absorption cross section than that of U-238. Thus, the thorium mixed uranium oxide nuclear fuel can reduce the initial excessive reactivity and the long-live radio-wastes with increasing the fuel utilization efficiency. In this study, a preliminary study on the application of the thorium/uranium mixed fuel is performed for the alternative of the PLUS7 fuel assembly which includes burnable poison. A conceptual design without geometrical change is proposed and the reactor characteristics are analyzed. In this study, a fuel assembly using the uranium/thorium mixed fuel was designed to substitute the assembly which includes burnable poison. The reactor characteristics, which are k{sub inf}, power distribution and plutonium production rate, were evaluated and the results are compared with the E1 assembly which is used in the OPR1000 reactor. The results show that the proposed design can efficiently reduce the excessive reactivity, peak power, and plutonium production with increasing the fuel utilization period.

  3. Study of Chemical Intermediates by Means of ATR-IR Spectroscopy and Hybrid Hard- and Soft-Modelling Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiu; Qi, Juan; Gao, Xinyu; Yan, Chunhua; Zhang, Tianlong; Tang, Hongsheng; Li, Hua

    2017-01-01

    3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) became a significant energetic materials intermediate, and the study of its reaction mechanism has fundamental significance in chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of online attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy combined with the novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-modelling multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR) analysis to monitor and detect changes in structural properties of compound during 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) synthesis processes. The subspace comparison method (SCM) was used to obtain the principal components number, and then the pure IR spectra of each substance were obtained by independent component analysis (ICA) and HS-MCR. The extent of rotation ambiguity was estimated from the band boundaries of feasible solutions calculated using the MCR-BANDS procedure. There were five principal components including two intermediates in the process in the results. The reaction rate constants of DAT formation reaction were also obtained by HS-MCR. HS-MCR was used to analyze spectroscopy data in chemical synthesis process, which not only increase the information domain but also reduce the ambiguities of the obtained results. This study provides the theoretical basis for the optimization of synthesis process and technology of energetic materials and provides a strong technical support of research and development of energy material with extraordinary damage effects.

  4. Study of Chemical Intermediates by Means of ATR-IR Spectroscopy and Hybrid Hard- and Soft-Modelling Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiu Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT became a significant energetic materials intermediate, and the study of its reaction mechanism has fundamental significance in chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of online attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR spectroscopy combined with the novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-modelling multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR analysis to monitor and detect changes in structural properties of compound during 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT synthesis processes. The subspace comparison method (SCM was used to obtain the principal components number, and then the pure IR spectra of each substance were obtained by independent component analysis (ICA and HS-MCR. The extent of rotation ambiguity was estimated from the band boundaries of feasible solutions calculated using the MCR-BANDS procedure. There were five principal components including two intermediates in the process in the results. The reaction rate constants of DAT formation reaction were also obtained by HS-MCR. HS-MCR was used to analyze spectroscopy data in chemical synthesis process, which not only increase the information domain but also reduce the ambiguities of the obtained results. This study provides the theoretical basis for the optimization of synthesis process and technology of energetic materials and provides a strong technical support of research and development of energy material with extraordinary damage effects.

  5. Evaluating manta ray mucus as an alternative DNA source for population genetics study: underwater-sampling, dry-storage and PCR success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kashiwagi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sharks and rays are increasingly being identified as high-risk species for extinction, prompting urgent assessments of their local or regional populations. Advanced genetic analyses can contribute relevant information on effective population size and connectivity among populations although acquiring sufficient regional sample sizes can be challenging. DNA is typically amplified from tissue samples which are collected by hand spears with modified biopsy punch tips. This technique is not always popular due mainly to a perception that invasive sampling might harm the rays, change their behaviour, or have a negative impact on tourism. To explore alternative methods, we evaluated the yields and PCR success of DNA template prepared from the manta ray mucus collected underwater and captured and stored on a Whatman FTA™ Elute card. The pilot study demonstrated that mucus can be effectively collected underwater using toothbrush. DNA stored on cards was found to be reliable for PCR-based population genetics studies. We successfully amplified mtDNA ND5, nuclear DNA RAG1, and microsatellite loci for all samples and confirmed sequences and genotypes being those of target species. As the yields of DNA with the tested method were low, further improvements are desirable for assays that may require larger amounts of DNA, such as population genomic studies using emerging next-gen sequencing.

  6. Alternative Schools, Mainstream Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Jan; Conner, Evguenia

    2007-01-01

    Alternative education has its own history. Having emerged in the sixties as a response to the social crisis, its goal was primarily to fight increasing bureaucracy and the depersonalization of public education by giving students more freedom and minimal adult supervision. In the eighties, the understanding of "alternative education" narrowed to…

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  8. Acquisition of Voicing Alternations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie

    2004-01-01

    "Morpho-phonological alternations are central to phonological theory, but little is known about how they are acquired. Acquiring alternations amounts to dealing with variation in a morpheme’s shape depending on its morphological context. It is generally assumed that children start with an initial st

  9. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  10. Blood spots as an alternative to whole blood collection and the effect of a small monetary incentive to increase participation in genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringer Danny

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collection of buccal cells from saliva for DNA extraction offers a less invasive and convenient alternative to venipuncture blood collection that may increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies. However, dried blood spot collection, which is also a convenient method, offers a means of collecting peripheral blood samples from which analytes in addition to DNA can be obtained. Methods To determine if offering blood spot collection would increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies, we conducted a study of collecting dried blood spot cards by mail from a sample of female cancer cases (n = 134 and controls (n = 256 who were previously selected for a breast cancer genetics study and declined to provide a venipuncture blood sample. Participants were also randomized to receive either a $2.00 bill or no incentive with the blood spot collection kits. Results The average time between the venipuncture sample refusal and recruitment for the blood spot collection was 4.4 years. Thirty-seven percent of cases and 28% of controls provided a dried blood spot card. While the incentive was not associated with participation among controls (29% for $2.00 incentive vs. 26% for no incentive, p = 0.6, it was significantly associated with participation among the breast cancer cases (48% vs. 27%, respectively, p = 0.01. There did not appear to be any bias in response since no differences between cases and controls and incentive groups were observed when examining several demographic, work history and radiation exposure variables. Conclusion This study demonstrates that collection of dried blood spot cards in addition to venipuncture blood samples may be a feasible method to increase participation in genetic case-control studies.

  11. Alternative splicing interference by xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharieva, Emanuela; Chipman, J Kevin; Soller, Matthias

    2012-06-14

    The protein coding sequence of most eukaryotic genes (exons) is interrupted by non-coding parts (introns), which are excised in a process termed splicing. To generate a mature messenger RNA (mRNA) hundreds of combinatorial protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions are required to splice out often very large introns with high fidelity and accuracy. Inherent to splicing is the use of alternative splice sites generating immense proteomic diversity from a limited number of genes. In humans, alternative splicing is a major mode of regulating gene expression, occurs in over 90% of genes and is particularly abundant in the brain. Only recently, it has been recognized that the complexity of the splicing process makes it susceptible to interference by various xenobiotics. These compounds include antineoplastic substances, commonly used drugs and food supplements and cause a spectrum of effects ranging from deleterious inhibition of general splicing to highly specific modifications of alternative splicing affecting only certain genes. Alterations in splicing have been implicated in numerous diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. Splicing regulation plays an important role in the execution of programmed cell death. The switch between anti- and pro-apoptotic isoforms by alternative splice site selection and misregulation of a number of splicing factors impacts on cell survival and disease. Here, our current knowledge is summarized on compounds interfering with general and alternative splicing and of the current methodology to study changes in these processes relevant to the field of toxicology and future risk assessments.

  12. Optical studies of carriers’ vertical transport in the alternately-strained ZnS{sub 0.4}Se{sub 0.6}/CdSe superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evropeytsev, E. A., E-mail: evropeitsev@beam.ioffe.ru; Sorokin, S. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Klimko, G. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Toropov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    We present the results of theoretical modelling and experimental optical studies of the alternatively-strained CdSe/ZnS{sub y}Se{sub 1−y} (y = 0.4) superlattice (SL) with effective band-gap E{sub g}{sup eff} ∼ 2.580 eV and a thickness of ∼300 nm, which was grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a GaAs substrate. The thicknesses and composition of the layers of the superlattice are determined on the basis of the SL minibands parameters calculated implying both full lattice matching of the SL as a whole to a GaAs substrate and high efficiency of photoexcited carriers transport along the growth axis. Photoluminescence studies of the transport properties of the structure (including a superlattice with one enlarged quantum well) show that the characteristic time of the diffusion of charge carriers at 300 K is shorter than the times defined by recombination processes. Such superlattices seem to be promising for the formation of a wide-gap photoactive region in a multijunction solar cell, which includes both III–V and II–VI compounds.

  13. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  14. Review of complementary and alternative medicine and selected nutraceuticals: background for a pilot study on nutrigenomic intervention in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varker, Kimberly A; Ansel, Adam; Aukerman, Glen; Carson, William E

    2012-01-01

    As commonly defined, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a broad category that includes biologically based practices, mind-body medicine, manipulative and bodybased practices, and energy medicine as well as complete medical systems such as naturopathy, homeopathy, Ayurvedic medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. Several CAM methodologies show promise for the treatment of chronic conditions such as depression and pain disorders or have demonstrated effects upon the immune response in experimental studies. There is growing interest in the use of integrative medicine the combination of CAM methodologies with a conventional medical approach-for the optimization of treatment of various cancers. The Ohio State University Center for Integrative Medicine has developed a specialized nutrigenomic protocol for integrative cancer care. The center uses a comprehensive nutritional and medical evaluation, including a panel of proinflammatory molecules and physiologic parameters, to guide a program of individualized dietary interventions. Dietary supplementation is a current focus of study, including: (1) Omega-3 fatty acids and B vitamins, which are thought to play important roles in immunomodulation; (2) Magnesium oxide, which has been shown to decrease inflammation and improve insulin resistance and lipid profiles; and (3) Cinnamon extract, which reportedly decreases serum glucose levels. This article presents a brief overview of CAM and integrative medicine and a discussion of the relevant nutraceuticals.

  15. A parametric study on the emissions from an HCCI alternative combustion engine resulting from the auto-ignition of primary reference fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon; Amouroux, Jacques [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The homogeneous charge compression ignition is an alternative combustion technology that can reduce automobile pollution, provided that the exhaust emission can be controlled. A parametric study can be useful in order to gain more understanding in the emission reduction possibilities via this new combustion technology. For this purpose, the inlet temperature, the equivalence ratio and the compression ratio are changed, respectively, from 30 to 70{sup o}C, 0.28 to 0.41 and 6 to 14. Also the diluting, thermal and chemical effects of exhaust gas recirculation were studied. The emission of CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and hydrocarbons has been measured using primary reference fuels. It appears that an increase in the inlet temperature, the EGR temperature, the equivalence ratio and the compression ratio results into a decrease of the emissions of CO and the hydrocarbons of up to 75%. The emission of CO{sub 2} increased, however, by 50%. The chemical parameters showed more complicated effects, resulting into a decrease or increase of the emissions, depending on whether the overall reactivity increased or not. If the reactivity increased, generally, the emissions of CO and hydrocarbons increased, while that of CO{sub 2} increased. The increase of CO{sub 2} emissions could be compensated by altering the compression ratio and the EGR parameters, making it possible to control the emission of the HCCI engine. (author)

  16. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  17. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... and represents a supplement and alternative to animal testing, bypassing the animal to human extrapolation. Placentas are readily obtainable from most births upon informed consent from the mothers and are considered a promising tissue alternative/supplement to animal experiments. The system is validated...

  18. Public opinion regarding alternative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammond

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Fairly widespread disillusionment in medicine since the 1950s (when many wonder drugs proved themselves either ineffective or harmful - or both, and when disease was found to be as prevalent as ever, even if in degenerative and stress-related guises, seems to have coincided with considerable public interest in alternative forms of healing. Some authors have given sympathetic attention to alternatives like homeopathy, chiropractic, herbalism and so on, but most of the literature still deals with these healers in a patronising if not blatantly biased manner. The abundance of emotive, highly critical reporting in the popular press, coupled with the relative lack of detailed, up-to-date studies and the persistence of ideas put forward by those in positions of power and status has caused a situation where most common knowledge about alternatives is nothing short of mythical.

  19. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  20. Traditional Assessment versus Alternative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Dana

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a teacher can use one type of assessment to evaluate students' abilities fairly. The question is whether or not alternative assessment strategies are necessary to meet students' individual needs. The research, conducted with 28 fifth-grade students, compared their traditional and alternative…

  1. Human aquaporin 4 gating dynamics under and after nanosecond-scale static and alternating electric-field impulses: a molecular dynamics study of field effects and relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Riccardo; English, Niall J; Garate, José-Antonio; Marracino, Paolo; Liberti, Micaela; Apollonio, Francesca

    2013-11-28

    Water self-diffusion and the dipolar response of the selectivity filter within human aquaporin 4 have been studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the absence and presence of pulses of external static and alternating electric fields. The pulses were approximately 50 and 100 ns in duration and 0.0065 V/Å in (r.m.s.) intensity and were either static or else 2.45 or 100 GHz in frequency and applied both along and perpendicular to the channels. In addition, the relaxation of the aquaporin, water self-diffusion and gating dynamics following cessation of the impulses was studied. In previous work it was determined that switches in the dihedral angle of the selectivity filter led to boosting of water permeation events within the channels, in the presence of identical external static and alternating electric fields, although applied continuously. Here the application of field impulses (and subsequently, upon removal) has shown that it is the dipolar orientation of the histidine-201 residue in the selectivity filter which governs the dihedral angle, and hence influences water self-diffusion; this constitutes an appropriate order parameter. The dipolar response of this residue to the applied field leads to the adoption of four distinct states, which we modelled as time-homogeneous Markov jump processes, and may be distinguished in the potential of mean force (PMF) as a function of the dipolar orientation of histidine-201. The observations of enhanced "dipolar flipping" of H201 serve to explain increased levels of water self-diffusion within aquaporin channels during, and immediately following, field impulses, although the level of statistical certainty here is lower. Given the appreciable size of the energy barriers evident in PMFs computed directly from deterministic MD (whether in the absence or presence of external fields), metadynamics calculations were undertaken to explore the free-energy landscape of histidine-201 orientation with greater accuracy and

  2. Alternative Compression Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

  3. Continuous versus intermittent tamoxifen versus intermittent/alternated tamoxifen and medroxyprogesterone acetate as first line endocrine treatment in advanced breast cancer : An EORTC phase III study (10863)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beex, L.; Rose, C.; Mouridsen, H.; Jassem, J.; Nooij, M.; Estape, J.; Paridaens, R.; Piccart, M.; Gorlia, T.; Lardenoije, S.; Baila, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Continuous ligand depletion of endocrine responsive tumours may enhance resistance to therapy. Intermittent treatment with tamoxifen (T) was considered to mimic (incomplete) ligand depletion and reintroduction. Furthermore it was postulated that alternating tamoxifen with a non-cross res

  4. Continuous versus intermittent tamoxifen versus intermittent/alternated tamoxifen and medroxyprogesterone acetate as first line endocrine treatment in advanced breast cancer: an EORTC phase III study (10863).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beex, L.V.A.M.; Rose, C.; Mouridsen, H.; Jassem, J.; Nooij, M.; Estape, J.; Paridaens, R.; Piccart, M.; Gorlia, T.; Lardenoije, S.; Baila, L.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous ligand depletion of endocrine responsive tumours may enhance resistance to therapy. Intermittent treatment with tamoxifen (T) was considered to mimic (incomplete) ligand depletion and reintroduction. Furthermore it was postulated that alternating tamoxifen with a non-cross res

  5. HL-LHC alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; White, S

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC parameters assume unexplored regimes for hadron colliders in various aspects of accelerator beam dynamics and technology. This paper reviews three alternatives that could potentially improve the LHC performance: (i) the alternative filling scheme 8b+4e, (ii) the use of a 200 MHz RF system in the LHC and (iii) the use of proton cooling methods to reduce the beam emittance (at top energy and at injection). The alternatives are assessed in terms of feasibility, pros and cons, risks versus benefits and the impact on beam availability.

  6. Cogeneration alternatives in sugar and alcohol industries. Case of study; Alternativas de cogeracao na industria sucro-alcooleira. Estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Prieto, Mario Gabriel

    2003-07-01

    In the present work, a cogeneration system of sugar-alcohol cane mill is evaluated. Using the Exergetic Cost Theory, a thermo economic analysis is made for the crop corresponding to the year 2000. Previously a detailed energetic analysis was made in order to determine of the first law efficiency for steam boilers and the fuel consumption involved. The first and second law equipment's efficiencies were calculated as well as some performance criteria of the overall system. The fundamental aim of the evaluation was to obtain the cost of the principal fluxes of the system, considering a discount rate of 15 % and a capital recovery period of fifteen years for the energetic equipment in the sugar mill for the monetary cost calculations. In the analysis, was included the sugar mill juice extraction system as a control volume in order to determine the variation in the bagasse cost and its influence in the cost of other fluxes. A Thermodynamic analysis is also made, in which the increase of thermodynamic parameters is studied as a way of improving the fuel economy in Sugar Mill Factories focusing the electric energy obtained in the different alternatives. Diverse strategies are discussed, and as a result, the thermodynamic evaluations of two Proposals of Steam Cogeneration Systems are accomplished as well as the calculations of the exergetic cost. (author)

  7. Antiretrovirals and the use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine by HIV patients in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Preez, Natalie Friend-du; Ramlagan, Shandir; Fomundam, Henry; Anderson, Jane; Chanetsa, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study (20 months) was to assess HIV patients' use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TCAM) and its effect on ARV adherence at three public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Seven hundred and thirty-five (29.8% male and 70.2% female) patients who consecutively attended three HIV clinics completed assessments prior to ARV initiation, 519 after 6 months, 557 after 12 and 499 after 20 months on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Results indicate that following initiation of ARV therapy the use of herbal therapies for HIV declined significantly from 36.6% prior to ARV therapy to 8.0% after 6 months, 4.1% after 12 months and 0.6% after 20 months on ARVs. Faith healing methods (including spiritual practices and prayer) declined from 35.8% to 22.1%, 20.8% and 15.5%, respectively. In contrast, the use of micronutrients (vitamins, etc.) significantly increased from 42.6% to 78.2%. The major herbal remedies that were used prior to ART were unnamed traditional medicine, followed by imbiza (Scilla natalensis planch), canova (immune booster), izifozonke (essential vitamins mixed with herbs), African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea), stametta (aloe mixed with vitamins and herbs) and ingwe (tonic). Herbal remedies were mainly used for pain relief, as immune booster and for stopping diarrhea. As herbal treatment for HIV was associated with reduced ARV adherence, patient's use of TCAM should be considered in ARV adherence management.

  8. Structural studies of alternative oxidase (AOX) from moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao: a membrane-associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.F.; Prado, P.F.V.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Dias, S.M.G.; Ambrosio, A.L.B. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Thomazella, D.P.T.; Teixeira, P.J.P.L.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)

  9. A study on synthesis of energy fuel from waste plastic and assessment of its potential as an alternative fuel for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Viswanath K; Vijayabalan, P

    2016-05-01

    The demand for plastic is ever increasing and has produced a huge amount of plastic waste. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste plastic. This paper assesses the potential of using Waste Plastic Oil (WPO), synthesized using pyrolysis of waste plastic, as an alternative for diesel fuel. In this research work, the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with WPO and its blends with diesel are studied. In addition to neat plastic oil, three blends (PO25, PO50 and PO75) were prepared on a volumetric basis and the engine was able to run on neat plastic oil. Brake thermal efficiency of blends was lower compared to diesel, but PO25 showed similar performance to that of diesel. The emissions were reduced considerably while using blends when compared to neat plastic oil. The smoke and NOX were reduced by 22% and 17.8% respectively for PO25 than that of plastic oil.

  10. Density functional theory study of the potassium complexation of an unsymmetrical 1,3-alternate calix[4]-crown-5-N-azacrown-5 bearing two different crown rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xueye; Shen, Keqi; Miao, Yuan; Ouyang, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Theoretical studies of an unsymmetrical calix[4]-crown-5-N-azacrown-5 (1) in a fixed 1,3-alternate conformation and the complexes 1·K(+)(a), 1·K(+)(b), 1·K(+)(c) and 1·K(+)K(+) were performed using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G level. The fully optimized geometric structures of the free macroligand and its 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, as obtained from DFT calculations, were used to perform natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The two main types of driving force metal-ligand and cation-π interactions were investigated. NBO analysis indicated that the stabilization interaction energies (E (2)) for O…K(+) and N…K(+) are larger than the other intermolecular interactions in each complex. The significant increase in electron density in the RY or LP orbitals of K(+) results in strong host-guest interactions. In addition, the intermolecular interaction thermal energies (ΔE, ΔH, ΔG) were calculated by frequency analysis at the B3LYP/6-31G level. For all structures, the most pronounced changes in the geometric parameters upon interaction are observed in the calix[4]arene molecule. The results indicate that both the intermolecular electrostatic interactions and the cation-π interactions between the metal ion and π orbitals of the two pairs that face the inverted benzene rings play a significant role.

  11. A more robust predictor of ideomotor dyspraxia: study on an alternative scoring method of the Bergès-Lézine's Imitation of Gestures test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, L

    2002-01-01

    Use of the traditional Bergès-Lézine standardization [Test d'imitation de gestes (1963).] allowed us to confirm praxic disorders in children who are encountering obvious motor difficulties. However, in comparison to other neuropsychological assessments carried out on these children, it does not enable us to precociously pinpoint disorders in praxic organization. By means of a newly evaluated method (1997) developed on the basis of the Bergès-Lézine Imitation of Gestures test (1963), we retroactively assessed a group of children (N=10) who had been observed in a longitudinal study at the age of 3-5 years and at 7-8 years and assessed with the Bergès-Lézine version (1963) of the Imitation of Gestures test. Our revised test (1997) takes into account the quantitative factor of success, as well as the qualitative factor of movement planning. It facilitates the early detection of motor organization disorders, in correlation with other neuropsychological assessments carried out on these children. Comparative clinical findings with the same group of children tested using the Bergès-Lézine version and ours indicate that our version detects, more robustly, children encountering difficulties resulting from ideomotor dyspraxia, not identified by the Bergès-Lézine test (1963). Our alternative scoring method of Bergès-Lézine's test contributes largely to early detection of instrumental difficulties in children. Additionally, its predictive capacity makes it possible to apprehend disorders in distal and digital neuromotor functions.

  12. Alternative Certification Pathways: Filling a Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Carlyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the proliferation of alternative certification pathways through an analysis of the role and history of teacher certification and supply followed by a synthesis of national, regional, and state research studies on alternative routes to certification programs and a review of studies conducted on well-known…

  13. Alternatives to prison sentences : Experiences and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger-Tas, J.

    1994-01-01

    This study presents an overview of experiences with alternative sanctions in other countries with a view to the future development of the Dutch sanctioning system. The principal objective of the study was to examine the use of alternatives to prison with respect to their effectiveness and efficiency

  14. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  15. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  16. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  17. Breast Reconstruction Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Reconstruction Alternatives Some women who have had a ... chest. What if I choose not to get breast reconstruction? Some women decide not to have any ...

  18. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative treatments for vaginal dryness ... Question: Is there a drug-free treatment for vaginal dryness? Answer: There are many causes of vaginal dryness . It may be caused by reduced estrogen level, infection, medicines, and ...

  19. Residential Building Envelope Alternatives with Equivalent Cost

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the optimum envelope alternative in buildings is one of the most important factors in ensuring thermal comfort. This study calculated the heating costs, construction and lifecycle costs for a residential building in Istanbul with different envelope alternatives created by changing the type and thickness of the body and insulation materials used in the walls and roof, which are the structural components forming the building envelope. Envelope alternatives with equivalent costs were d...

  20. The Effective Research of Implementing Talents' Training Mode with Work-study Alternation%工学交替人才培养模式实施的有效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史金虎

    2012-01-01

    Talents' training mode with work-study alternation is one talents' training mode to complement alternation of study and work practice.Higher vocational education in five years can make full use of the characteristics of educational system,effectively driving the practice of work-study alternation,which plays an important role in cultivating eligible applicable talents.%工学交替人才培养模式是学习和工作实践交替进行的一种人才培养模式。五年制高职教育可充分利用学制特点,有效推动工学交替的实践,对培养合格的实用型人才具有重要的意义。

  1. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival.

  2. BOLD signal effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in the alpha range: A concurrent tACS-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosskuhl, Johannes; Huster, René J; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2016-10-15

    Many studies have proven transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to manipulate brain activity. Until now it is not known, however, how these manipulations in brain activity are represented in brain metabolism or how spatially specific these changes are. Alpha-tACS has been shown to enhance the amplitude of the individual alpha frequency (IAF) and a negative correlation between alpha amplitude and occipital BOLD signal was reported in numerous EEG/fMRI experiments. Thus, alpha-tACS was chosen to test the effects of tACS on the BOLD signal. A reduction thereof was expected during alpha-tACS which shows the spatial extent of tACS effects beyond modeling studies. Three groups of subjects were measured in an MRI scanner, receiving tACS at either their IAF (N=11), 1Hz (control; N=12) or sham (i.e., no stimulation - a second control; N=11) while responding to a visual vigilance task. Stimulation was administered in an interleaved pattern of tACS-on runs and tACS-free baseline periods. The BOLD signal was analyzed in response to tACS-onset during resting state and in response to seldom target stimuli. Alpha-tACS at 1.0mA reduced the task-related BOLD response to visual targets in the occipital cortex as compared to tACS-free baseline periods. The deactivation was strongest in an area where the BOLD signal was shown to correlate negatively with alpha amplitude. A direct effect of tACS on resting state BOLD signal levels could not be shown. Our findings suggest that tACS-related changes in BOLD activity occur only as a modulation of an existing BOLD response.

  3. Artificial nests as an alternative to studies of arboreal small mammal populations: a five-year study in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Loretto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great diversity of Brazilian Atlantic forest small mammals, natural history of most species is unknown due to their cryptic and nocturnal habits, but also due to the inadequacy of methods to capture some species, especially those of arboreal habits. A new technique, based on the use of artificial nests (AN to record arboreal marsupials, is presented. Artificial nests were combined with traditional live traps to study the population ecology of four didelphid marsupial species. After 62 months of monitoring, 119 individuals were recorded 243 times (total success = 5.2%. Only 26 individuals (22% were recorded by both AN and live trap methods, and two of the four species were never captured by live traps, only by AN. Live traps alone would have provided biased data of the structure of small mammal assemblages, creating artificial tendencies in population dynamics of many species. Detectability estimates based on mark-recapture data could correct bias resulting from the use only live traps, but these estimates require that at least some individuals of each age class or stage are captured. Only the combination of AN and live traps can produce more accurate data on population dynamics and assemblage structure. This study demonstrates that artificial nests represent a new method that should be combined with live traps in studies of small mammal assemblages and populations.

  4. Alcoholism and alternative splicing of candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabe, Toshikazu; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2010-04-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports suggest that aberrant expression of splice variants affects alcohol sensitivities, and alcohol consumption also regulates alternative splicing. Thus, investigations of alternative splicing are essential for understanding the molecular events underlying the development of alcoholism.

  5. Diverse alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing landscape of circular RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ou; Dong, Rui; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Lin; Luo, Zheng; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Ling-Ling; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) derived from back-spliced exons have been widely identified as being co-expressed with their linear counterparts. A single gene locus can produce multiple circRNAs through alternative back-splice site selection and/or alternative splice site selection; however, a detailed map of alternative back-splicing/splicing in circRNAs is lacking. Here, with the upgraded CIRCexplorer2 pipeline, we systematically annotated different types of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing events in circRNAs from various cell lines. Compared with their linear cognate RNAs, circRNAs exhibited distinct patterns of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing. Alternative back-splice site selection was correlated with the competition of putative RNA pairs across introns that bracket alternative back-splice sites. In addition, all four basic types of alternative splicing that have been identified in the (linear) mRNA process were found within circRNAs, and many exons were predominantly spliced in circRNAs. Unexpectedly, thousands of previously unannotated exons were detected in circRNAs from the examined cell lines. Although these novel exons had similar splice site strength, they were much less conserved than known exons in sequences. Finally, both alternative back-splicing and circRNA-predominant alternative splicing were highly diverse among the examined cell lines. All of the identified alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing in circRNAs are available in the CIRCpedia database (http://www.picb.ac.cn/rnomics/circpedia). Collectively, the annotation of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing in circRNAs provides a valuable resource for depicting the complexity of circRNA biogenesis and for studying the potential functions of circRNAs in different cells. PMID:27365365

  6. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  7. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Raiko, H.; Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Salo, J.P. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.).

  8. Wood ash amendment to biogas reactors as an alternative to landfilling? A preliminary study on changes in process chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podmirseg, Sabine M; Seewald, Martin S A; Knapp, Brigitte A; Bouzid, Ourdia; Biderre-Petit, Corinne; Peyret, Pierre; Insam, Heribert

    2013-08-01

    Wood ash addition to biogas plants represents an alternative to commonly used landfilling by improving the reactor performance, raising the pH and alleviating potential limits of trace elements. This study is the first on the effects of wood ash on reactor conditions and microbial communities in cattle slurry-based biogas reactors. General process parameters [temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, ammonia, volatile fatty acids, carbon/nitrogen (C/N), total solids (TS), volatile solids, and gas quantity and quality] were monitored along with molecular analyses of methanogens by polymerase chain reaction- denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and modern microarrays (archaea and bacteria). A prompt pH rise was observed, as was an increase in C/N ratio and volatile fatty acids. Biogas production was inhibited, but recovered to even higher production rates and methane concentration after single amendment. High sulphur levels in the wood ash generated hydrogen sulphide and potentially hampered methanogenesis. Methanosarcina was the most dominant methanogen in all reactors; however, diversity was higher in ash-amended reactors. Bacterial groups like Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were favoured, which could improve the hydrolytic efficiency of the reactors. We recommend constant monitoring of the chemical composition of the used wood ash and suggest that ash amendment is adequate if added to the substrate at a rate low enough to allow adaptation of the microbiota (e.g. 0.25 g g(-1) TS). It could further help to enrich digestate with important nutrients, for example phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, but further experiments are required for the evaluation of wood ash concentrations that are tolerable for anaerobic digestion.

  9. An Alternative Starting Point for Fraction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, José Luis; Višnovská, Jana; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the results of a study conducted for the purpose of assessing the viability of an alternative starting point for teaching fractions. The alternative is based on Freudenthal's insights about fraction as comparison. It involves portraying the entities that unit fractions quantify as always being apart from the reference unit, instead of…

  10. Characteristics of users and implications for the use of complementary and alternative medicine in Ghanaian cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy: a cross- sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarney Joel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is widespread use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM in Ghana, driven by cultural consideration and paradigm to disease causation. Whether there is concurrent use of conventional medicine and CAM in cancer patients is unknown. This study investigates the prevalence, pattern and predictors of CAM use in cancer patients. Overlapping toxicity, sources of information, and whether users inform their doctor about CAM use is examined. Method Cross-sectional study using a questionnaire administered to cancer patients, who were receiving radiotherapy and or chemotherapy or had recently completed treatment at a single institution was used. Results Ninety eight patients participated in the study with a mean age of 55.5 (18–89, made up of 51% females. Married individuals formed 56% of the respondents, whilst 49% had either secondary or tertiary education. Head and neck cancer patients were 15.3%, breast (21.4%, abdomen/pelvic cancers constituted (52%.Seventy seven (78.6% patients received radiotherapy only, 16.3% received radiation and chemotherapy and 5.3% had chemotherapy only. Ninety five patients were diagnosed of cancer within the past 24 months,73.5% were CAM users as follows; massage(66.3%, herbal(59.2%, mega vitamins(55.1%, Chinese medicine(53.1%,and prayer(42.9%. Sixty eight percent were treated with curative intent. Overlapping toxicity was reported. Majority (83.3% of users had not informed their doctor about CAM use. On univariate analysis, female (p=0.004 and palliative patients, p=0.032 were more likely to be CAM users. Multivariate analysis identified female (p Friends and Media are the main sources of information on CAM. There was increase in CAM use after the diagnosis of cancer mainly for Chinese Medicine and vitamins. Conclusion There is high CAM usage among Cancer patients, comparable to use in the general population, there is concurrent use of CAM and conventional medicine with reported

  11. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  12. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-09-25

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

  13. [Alternative scaffold proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskaia, L E; Shingarova, L N; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2011-01-01

    Review is devoted to the challenging direction in modem molecular biology and bioengineering - the properties of alternative scaffold proteins (ASP) and methods for obtaining ASP binding molecules. ASP molecules incorporate conservative protein core and hypervariable regions, providing for the binding function. Structural classification of ASP includes several types which differ also in their molecular targets and potential applications. Construction of artificial binding proteins on the ASP basis implies a combinatorial library design with subsequent selection of specific binders with the use of phage display or the modem cell-free systems. Alternative binding proteins on non-immunoglobulin scaffolds find broad applications in different fields ofbiotechnology and molecular medicine.

  14. Study on American Alternative CTE of Teachers’ Induction Training Program%美国CTE选择性证书教师入职培训研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马妍

    2013-01-01

    美国生涯与技术教育的教师一直匮乏,备选证书(alternative certificate)的制定为教师队伍的壮大贡献了力量,但是备选教师(alternative teacher)在初次教学时遇到了很多阻碍,因此,美国南区教育委员会实施了美国 CTE 选择性证书教师入职培训。针对此项入职培训介绍其背景、培训概况以及培训的效果。%There has been a shortage in the number of career and technical education teachers in American. Alternative certificate has contributed to the growth of the teachers. But alternative teachers, when teaching for the first time, might meet with many obstacles. Therefore, the United States for the southern district education commission adopted the teacher induction model of CTE selective certificate. This paper has introduced its background, training, induction and training result.

  15. Alternating treatment with didanosine and zidovudine versus either drug alone for the treatment of advanced HIV infection. The Alter Study. Nordic HIV Therapy Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, J; Melander, H; Bruun, J N;

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of an alternating regime with zidovudine and didanosine versus treatment with either drug alone were investigated in a randomized, open, controlled trial, 552 patients with advanced HIV infection, 47% of whom had received prior treatment with zidovudine, were enrolled...

  16. Cohabitainos as alternative to marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Papa Olesya Mikhaylovna

    2012-01-01

    This article is devoted consideration of some features to creation of "alternative" forms of a family and marriage, namely, to studying of such phenomenon as, co-habitation which conducts to loss of values of traditional forms of marriage, and also growth of process of illegitimate birth rate and other consequences. Now in a modern society "civil marriage" has got the certain legitimacy, with the given relations already to surprise nobody, and many justify its existence. In Russia "civil marr...

  17. Renewal, resurgence, and alternative reinforcement context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-07-01

    Resurgence, relapse induced by the removal of alternative reinforcement, and renewal, relapse induced by a change in contextual stimuli, are typically studied separately in operant conditioning paradigms. In analogous treatments of operant problem behavior, aspects of both relapse phenomena can operate simultaneously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine a novel method for studying resurgence and renewal in the same experimental preparation. An alternative source of reinforcement was available during extinction for one group of rats (a typical resurgence preparation). Another group experienced an operant renewal preparation in which the extinction context was distinguished via olfactory and visual stimuli. A third group experienced alternative reinforcement delivery in the new context, a novel combination of typical resurgence and renewal preparations. Removal of alternative reinforcement and/or a change in context induced relapse relative to an extinction-only control group. When alternative reinforcement was delivered in a novel context, the alternative response was less persistent relative to when extinction of the alternative response took place in the context in which it was trained. This methodology might be used to illustrate shared (or distinct) mechanisms of resurgence and renewal, and to determine how delivering alternative reinforcement in another context may affect persistence and relapse.

  18. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  19. Alternate dispute resolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Paul F.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to save taxpayer dollars and ease an overburdened administrative and judicial court system, this report presents evidence to encourage the use of alternate dispute resolution (ADR) in construction contracting within the Naval Facilities Engineering Command. Information is presented detailing the primary factors that contribute to this expensive and overburdened system, including: costs associated with litigation, contractual document formation, experience level ...

  20. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  1. Environment and Alternative Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Rajni

    Stressing the global dimension to the adversary relationship between economic development and environmental conservation, this monograph examines the philosophical, historical, cultural, and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology. In addition, the monograph spells out policy implications of an alternative concept of development and…

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the practitioner to ask about the risks and benefits of treatment — the same kinds of things you'd do if you were interviewing a new doctor. You may have already used a complementary or alternative practice, like yoga or massage, and not even thought about it! ...

  3. Detailed electrochemical studies of the tetraruthenium polyoxometalate water oxidation catalyst in acidic media: identification of an extended oxidation series using Fourier transformed alternating current voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong-Yong; Guo, Si-Xuan; Murphy, Aidan F; McCormac, Timothy; Zhang, Jie; Bond, Alan M; Zhu, Guibo; Hill, Craig L; Geletii, Yurii V

    2012-11-05

    The electrochemistry of the water oxidation catalyst, Rb(8)K(2)[{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(γ-SiW(10)O(36))(2)] (Rb(8)K(2)-1(0)) has been studied in the presence and absence of potassium cations in both hydrochloric and sulfuric acid solutions by transient direct current (dc) cyclic voltammetry, a steady state dc method in the rotating disk configuration and the kinetically sensitive technique of Fourier transformed large-amplitude alternating current (ac) voltammetry. In acidic media, the presence of potassium ions affects the kinetics (apparent rate of electron transfer) and thermodynamics (reversible potentials) of the eight processes (A'/A to H/H') that are readily detected under dc voltammetric conditions. The six most positive processes (A'/A to F/F'), each involve a one electron ruthenium based charge transfer step (A'/A, B'/B are Ru(IV/V) oxidation and C/C' to F/F' are Ru(IV/III) reduction). The apparent rate of electron transfer of the ruthenium centers in sulfuric acid is higher than in hydrochloric acid. The addition of potassium cations increases the apparent rates and gives rise to a small shift of reversible potential. Simulations of the Fourier transformed ac voltammetry method show that the B'/B, E/E', and F/F' processes are quasi-reversible, while the others are close to reversible. A third Ru(IV/V) oxidation process is observed just prior to the positive potential limit via dc methods. Importantly, the ability of the higher harmonic components of the ac method to discriminate against the irreversible background solvent process allows this (process I) as well as an additional fourth reversible ruthenium based process (J) to be readily identified. The steady-state rotating disk electrode (RDE) method confirmed that all four Ru-centers in Rb(8)K(2)-1(0) are in oxidation state IV. The dc and ac data indicate that reversible potentials of the four ruthenium centers are evenly spaced, which may be relevant to understanding of the water oxidation

  4. Spectroscopic studies of the binding of Cu(II) complexes of oxicam NSAIDs to alternating G-C and homopolymeric G-C sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sreeja; Bose, Madhuparna; Sarkar, Munna

    2014-03-25

    Drugs belonging to the Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) group are not only used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic agents, but also show anti-cancer effects. Complexing them with a bioactive metal like copper, show an enhancement in their anti-cancer effects compared to the bare drugs, whose exact mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. For the first time, it was shown by our group that Cu(II)-NSAIDs can directly bind to the DNA backbone. The ability of the copper complexes of NSAIDs namely meloxicam and piroxicam to bind to the DNA backbone could be a possible molecular mechanism behind their enhanced anticancer effects. Elucidating base sequence specific interaction of Cu(II)-NSAIDs to the DNA will provide information on their possible binding sites in the genome sequence. In this work, we present how these complexes respond to differences in structure and hydration pattern of GC rich sequences. For this, binding studies of Cu(II) complexes of piroxicam [Cu(II)-(Px)2 (L)2] and meloxicam [Cu(II)-(Mx)2 (L)] with alternating GC (polydG-dC) and homopolymeric GC (polydG-polydC) sequences were carried out using a combination of spectroscopic techniques that include UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The Cu(II)-NSAIDs show strong binding affinity to both polydG-dC and polydG-polydC. The role reversal of Cu(II)-meloxicam from a strong binder of polydG-dC (Kb=11.5×10(3) M(-1)) to a weak binder of polydG-polydC (Kb=5.02×10(3) M(-1)), while Cu(II)-piroxicam changes from a strong binder of polydG-polydC (Kb=8.18×10(3) M(-1)) to a weak one of polydG-dC (Kb=2.18×10(3) M(-1)), point to the sensitivity of these complexes to changes in the backbone structures/hydration. Changes in the profiles of UV absorption band and CD difference spectra, upon complex binding to polynucleotides and the results of competitive binding assay using ethidium bromide (EtBr) fluorescence indicate different binding modes in each

  5. Spectroscopic studies of the binding of Cu(II) complexes of oxicam NSAIDs to alternating G-C and homopolymeric G-C sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sreeja; Bose, Madhuparna; Sarkar, Munna

    2014-03-01

    Drugs belonging to the Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) group are not only used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic agents, but also show anti-cancer effects. Complexing them with a bioactive metal like copper, show an enhancement in their anti-cancer effects compared to the bare drugs, whose exact mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. For the first time, it was shown by our group that Cu(II)-NSAIDs can directly bind to the DNA backbone. The ability of the copper complexes of NSAIDs namely meloxicam and piroxicam to bind to the DNA backbone could be a possible molecular mechanism behind their enhanced anticancer effects. Elucidating base sequence specific interaction of Cu(II)-NSAIDs to the DNA will provide information on their possible binding sites in the genome sequence. In this work, we present how these complexes respond to differences in structure and hydration pattern of GC rich sequences. For this, binding studies of Cu(II) complexes of piroxicam [Cu(II)-(Px)2 (L)2] and meloxicam [Cu(II)-(Mx)2 (L)] with alternating GC (polydG-dC) and homopolymeric GC (polydG-polydC) sequences were carried out using a combination of spectroscopic techniques that include UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The Cu(II)-NSAIDs show strong binding affinity to both polydG-dC and polydG-polydC. The role reversal of Cu(II)-meloxicam from a strong binder of polydG-dC (Kb = 11.5 × 103 M-1) to a weak binder of polydG-polydC (Kb = 5.02 × 103 M-1), while Cu(II)-piroxicam changes from a strong binder of polydG-polydC (Kb = 8.18 × 103 M-1) to a weak one of polydG-dC (Kb = 2.18 × 103 M-1), point to the sensitivity of these complexes to changes in the backbone structures/hydration. Changes in the profiles of UV absorption band and CD difference spectra, upon complex binding to polynucleotides and the results of competitive binding assay using ethidium bromide (EtBr) fluorescence indicate different binding modes in each

  6. A structural bridge between alternant and non-alternant hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Francis Langler

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple set of trimethylene-substituted even, fully-pi-bonded, non-alternant monocycles is shown to have several key features in common with acyclic, even alternant polyenes at the Hückel level. These non-alternant molecules provide a bridge between alternant and non-alternant hydrocarbons. This topic might serve as a useful addition to Hückel theory courses targeted at senior undergraduate students.

  7. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles. A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes, Gustavo [Renergh Consulting and Department of Commerce, State of Washington, 2001 6th Ave, Suite 2600, Seattle, WA 98121 (United States); Melaina, Marc W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. (author)

  8. The feasibility study on the alternative refrigerant with low GWP%低GWP的HCFCs替代制冷剂的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜; 祁影霞

    2013-01-01

    This article discussed the situation of the HCFCs substitute,alternative refrigerants and technical program. Some potential pure refrigerants of R32, R161, R1234yf and R1234ze were introduced. The author also analyzed the development of alternative refrigerants for the future and thought that mixed refrigerants are the first choice for refrigerant application.%阐述了目前HCFCs替代的形势、替代制冷剂和替代技术路线.从各个方面介绍了几种有潜力的单一替代制冷剂R32、R161、R1234yf和R1234ze等.并对将来替代制冷剂的发展进行分析,认为混合制冷剂是大势所趋.

  9. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles: A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo.collantes@commerce.wa.go [Renergh Consulting and Department of Commerce, State of Washington, 2001 6th Ave, Suite 2600, Seattle, WA 98121 (United States); Melaina, Marc W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. - Research Highlights: {yields}The broad scale adoption of CNG for transportation in Argentina was initiated by a market demand for an effective fuel that was priced at a significantly lower level compared to the mainstream alternatives. {yields}The Argentine played a marginal role in the development of refueling infrastructure. {yields}The role of the government focused on sending clear signals to the marketplace and developing effective codes and standards. {yields}Consumers willingness to switch to CNG increases as state of the economy deteriorates and disposable incomes decrease.

  10. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  11. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow...... analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  12. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  13. Taiwanese Students' Alternative Conceptions of Animal Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored and documented Taiwanese students' alternative conceptions of animal classification. We examined the understanding of the "animal", "vertebrate" and "invertebrate", "fish", "amphibian", "reptile", "bird", and "mammal" concepts among elementary,…

  14. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  15. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  16. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  17. How Do States Define Alternative Education? REL 2014-038

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porowski, Allan; O'Conner, Rosemarie; Luo, Jia Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an overview of similarities and differences in how states and state education agencies define alternative education, as well as which states have alternative education standards and what those standards entail. The study reviewed information on alternative education definitions and programs from state and federal websites and…

  18. Widespread evolutionary conservation of alternatively spliced exons in caenorhabditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob L; Penny, David

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to increased transcriptome and proteome diversity in various eukaryotic lineages. Previous studies showed low levels of conservation of alternatively spliced (cassette) exons within mammals and within dipterans. We report a strikingly different pattern...

  19. The Case for Alternative Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Gehl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available What are “alternative social media”? How can we distinguish alternative social media from mainstream social media? Why are social media alternatives important? How do they work? Why do people make them? What do they tell us about contemporary corporate social media and its related phenomena: surveillance, privacy, power, self-expression, and sociality? This essay answers these questions by theorizing alternative social media. The empirical data for this alternative social media theory are drawn from previous work on alternative sites such as Diaspora, rstat.us, Twister, GNU social, and the Dark Web Social Network. These cases are used to build a generalized conceptual framework. However, this article does not solely theorize from these examples, but rather seeks to contextualize and historicize alternative social media theory within larger bodies of work. In addition to generalization from examples, the theory is informed by two threads. The first thread is the work of alternative media scholars such as Nick Couldry, Chris Atton, and Clemencia Rodriguez, who have done the historical and theoretical work to define alternative media. The second thread is a synthesis of works exploring the technical side of contemporary media, coming from new fields such as software studies. The threads and empirical analyses of sites such as Diaspora, Quitter, and rstat.us are combined into a theoretical matrix that can account for the processes and technical infrastructures that comprise social media alternatives and explain why they are distinct from sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google, as well as why they are important.

  20. Advancing practice relating to SEA alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Ainhoa, E-mail: agonzal@tcd.ie [School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Thérivel, Riki, E-mail: levett-therivel@phonecoop.coop [Levett-Therivel Sustainability Consultants (United Kingdom); Fry, John, E-mail: john.fry@ucd.ie [School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Foley, Walter, E-mail: walterfoley@gmail.com [School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    Developing and assessing alternatives is a key and central stage to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). However, research has repeatedly reported this stage as one of the most poorly undertaken aspects of the SEA process. Current practice limitations include belated consideration of reasonable alternatives, narrow scope of alternatives that often include unrealistic or retrofitted options, limited stakeholder and public involvement in their identification, assessment and selection, lack of systematic approaches to their assessment and comparison, and inadequate reporting of the ‘storyline’ on how they were identified, what the potential impacts are and why the preferred alternative was selected. These issues have resulted in objections and judicial reviews. On the positive side, a number of good practice case studies enable extraction of key lessons and formulation of a set of general recommendations to advance practice in SEA alternatives. In this paper, practical guidance on the identification and development of alternatives, their assessment and comparison, selection of the preferred option, and documentation of the process and the reasons for selection is provided and discussed to frame good practice approaches. - Highlights: • Alternatives are one of the most poorly completed aspects of Strategic Environmental Assessment. • Current practice limitations need to be addressed to enhance SEA effectiveness. • A set of recommendations are extracted from good practice case studies. • These recommendations can be applied across jurisdictions and sectors and tailored as necessary.

  1. Quality Practices of Alternative Education Learning Environments as Represented in Virginia's Individual Student Alternative Education Plan (ISAEP) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltman, Doris R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze a prominent alternative education practice in the Commonwealth of Virginia through an analysis of the Virginia Department of Education's Individual Student Alternative Education Plan (ISAEP) program and the alternative education environment it provides. This was a descriptive study using non-experimental…

  2. Alternative therapies for postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroff, Leon

    2005-01-01

    Alternative therapies are being used by postmenopausal women in attempts to treat all of the complaints and medical conditions of the menopause. One-fifth of those who take prescription drugs for these indications also take herbal remedies and/or high-dose vitamins, most often without disclosing the fact to the physician. Although studies of alternative therapies are short-term and rarely focused on safety--let alone efficacy--in the long-term, there are many studies spread over the large number of substances involved. More than 130 studies, including meta-analyses, are reviewed in this article under the headings of phytoestrogens, especially from soy; therapies for hot flushes; and preventives for cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and breast cancer. Special attention is given to the recently recognized daidzein metabolite equol, and for the sake of completeness there are reviews of the unconventional, but not botanical, treatments estriol, transdermal progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. The total picture produced by conscientious review of the studies is bleak overall, but there seems to be good reason to pursue the possibilities inherent in soy protein with phytoestrogens in populations of women who endogenously produce equol.

  3. Rapidly alternating combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in split course for Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer: results of a Phase I-II study by the GOTHA group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, P.; Mermillod, B. [Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R.O.; Leyvraz, S.; Nagy-Mignotte, H.; Bolla, M.; Wellmann, D.; Moro, D.; Brambilla, E. [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-08-01

    The prognosis of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). In this study, the GOTHA group evaluated the feasibility, tolerance, tumour response, pattern of failure and effect on survival of a combination alternating accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) RT and CT in patients with tumour stage III NSCLC. Toxic effects were leucopenia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, diarrhoea, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy. Alternating CT and AHRT, as used in this study, were well tolerated and allowed full dose delivery within less than 12 weeks. Initial response was not predictive of survival. The survival curve is encouraging and the 5 year survival is superior to the 5% generally observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. (author).

  4. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  5. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  6. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  7. Titanium alloys as alternative material for the supercontainer shell in the KBS-3H concept. A preliminary Ti-clay interaction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, Paul (Gruner Ltd (Switzerland)); Grolimund, Daniel (Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)); Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Kiviranta, Leena (BandTech Oy (Finland)); Brendle, Jocelyne (University of Mulhouse (France)); Snellman, Margit (Saanio and Riekkola Oy (Finland))

    2010-12-15

    Ti alloys have been proposed as alternative materials to steel for the supercontainer shell surrounding the bentonite buffer in the KBS-3H disposal concept. Ti-based materials display high strength and are known to behave chemically inert under a variety of conditions. This preliminary study addresses the suitability of titanium as supercontainer material with regard to the performance of the clay buffer. Thus, possible titanium-bentonite interactions which may adversely affect the buffer's safety functions are evaluated by means of a literature and a preliminary experimental assessment. Titanium metals display very low corrosion rates (< 1 nm/a) over a large range of pH and Eh conditions. The corrosion behaviour is governed by the low solubility of tetravalent TiO{sub 2} which forms a passive surface corrosion layer under both oxic and reducing conditions. The interactions between titanium and clay have been barely studied so far. Preliminary long-term data obtained by Prof. Olefjord and co-workers from Chalmers (S) in the 1980s (as part of SKB's canister program) suggests similar corrosion rates in compacted bentonite compared to those measured in water, i.e. <1 nm/a. So far, no work on reaction products from this interaction process has been carried out. Even the speciation of Ti in natural clays is uncertain. In principle, four possible reaction products resulting from Ti-clay interactions are possible: (i) Ti sorbed to the clay surface via cation exchange or specific adsorption, (ii) Ti incorporated in the octahedral or tetrahedral clay structure, (iii) Ti precipitated as separate TiO{sub 2} or mixed (Fe, Ti) oxide, (iv) Ti precipitated as separate silicate phase and (v) polymerized as cross-linked TiO{sub 2} units in the interlayer (Ti pillared clay). The latter two transformation products would have the strongest impact on the buffer, but are improbable on the basis of current knowledge. A preliminary batch-type investigation has been carried out

  8. Titanium alloys as alternative material for the supercontainer shell in the KBS-3H concept. A preliminary Ti-clay interaction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, Paul (Gruner Ltd (Switzerland)); Grolimund, Daniel (Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)); Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Kiviranta, Leena (BandTech Oy (Finland)); Brendle, Jocelyne (University of Mulhouse (France)); Snellman, Margit (Saanio and Riekkola Oy (Finland))

    2010-12-15

    Ti alloys have been proposed as alternative materials to steel for the supercontainer shell surrounding the bentonite buffer in the KBS-3H disposal concept. Ti-based materials display high strength and are known to behave chemically inert under a variety of conditions. This preliminary study addresses the suitability of titanium as supercontainer material with regard to the performance of the clay buffer. Thus, possible titanium-bentonite interactions which may adversely affect the buffer's safety functions are evaluated by means of a literature and a preliminary experimental assessment. Titanium metals display very low corrosion rates (< 1 nm/a) over a large range of pH and Eh conditions. The corrosion behaviour is governed by the low solubility of tetravalent TiO{sub 2} which forms a passive surface corrosion layer under both oxic and reducing conditions. The interactions between titanium and clay have been barely studied so far. Preliminary long-term data obtained by Prof. Olefjord and co-workers from Chalmers (S) in the 1980s (as part of SKB's canister program) suggests similar corrosion rates in compacted bentonite compared to those measured in water, i.e. <1 nm/a. So far, no work on reaction products from this interaction process has been carried out. Even the speciation of Ti in natural clays is uncertain. In principle, four possible reaction products resulting from Ti-clay interactions are possible: (i) Ti sorbed to the clay surface via cation exchange or specific adsorption, (ii) Ti incorporated in the octahedral or tetrahedral clay structure, (iii) Ti precipitated as separate TiO{sub 2} or mixed (Fe, Ti) oxide, (iv) Ti precipitated as separate silicate phase and (v) polymerized as cross-linked TiO{sub 2} units in the interlayer (Ti pillared clay). The latter two transformation products would have the strongest impact on the buffer, but are improbable on the basis of current knowledge. A preliminary batch-type investigation has been carried out

  9. Titanium alloys as alternative material for the supercontainer shell in the KBS-3H concept: A preliminary Ti-clay interaction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, P. [Gruner Ltd, Basel (Switzerland); Grolimund, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland); Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L. [B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Brendle, J. [Mulhouse Univ. (France); Snellman, M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-12-15

    Ti alloys have been proposed as alternative materials to steel for the supercontainer shell surrounding the bentonite buffer in the KBS-3H disposal concept. Ti-based materials display high strength and are known to behave chemically inert under a variety of conditions. This preliminary study addresses the suitability of titanium as supercontainer material with regard to the performance of the clay buffer. Thus, possible titanium-bentonite interactions which may adversely affect the buffer's safety functions are evaluated by means of a literature and a preliminary experimental assessment. Titanium metals display very low corrosion rates (< 1 nm/a) over a large range of pH and Eh conditions. The corrosion behaviour is governed by the low solubility of tetravalent TiO{sub 2} which forms a passive surface corrosion layer under both oxic and reducing conditions. The interactions between titanium and clay have been barely studied so far. Preliminary long-term data obtained by Prof. Olefjord and co-workers from Chalmers (S) in the 1980ies (as part of SKB's canister program) suggests similar corrosion rates in compacted bentonite compared to those measured in water, i.e. 1 nm/a. So far, no work on reaction products from this interaction process has been carried out. Even the speciation of Ti in natural clays is uncertain. In principle, four possible reaction products resulting from Ti-clay interactions are possible: (i) Ti sorbed to the clay surface via cation exchange or specific adsorption, (ii) Ti incorporated in the octahedral or tetrahedral clay structure, (iii) Ti precipitated as separate TiO{sub 2} or mixed (Fe, Ti) oxide, (iv) Ti precipitated as separate silicate phase and (v) polymerized as cross-linked TiO{sub 2} units in the interlayer (Ti pillared clay). The latter two transformation products would have the strongest impact on the buffer, but are improbable on the basis of current knowledge. A preliminary batch-type investigation has been carried out

  10. Titanium alloys as alternative material for the supercontainer shell in the KBS-3H concept: A preliminary Ti-clay interaction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, P. [Gruner Ltd, Basel (Switzerland); Grolimund, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland); Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L. [B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Brendle, J. [Mulhouse Univ. (France); Snellman, M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-12-15

    Ti alloys have been proposed as alternative materials to steel for the supercontainer shell surrounding the bentonite buffer in the KBS-3H disposal concept. Ti-based materials display high strength and are known to behave chemically inert under a variety of conditions. This preliminary study addresses the suitability of titanium as supercontainer material with regard to the performance of the clay buffer. Thus, possible titanium-bentonite interactions which may adversely affect the buffer's safety functions are evaluated by means of a literature and a preliminary experimental assessment. Titanium metals display very low corrosion rates (< 1 nm/a) over a large range of pH and Eh conditions. The corrosion behaviour is governed by the low solubility of tetravalent TiO{sub 2} which forms a passive surface corrosion layer under both oxic and reducing conditions. The interactions between titanium and clay have been barely studied so far. Preliminary long-term data obtained by Prof. Olefjord and co-workers from Chalmers (S) in the 1980ies (as part of SKB's canister program) suggests similar corrosion rates in compacted bentonite compared to those measured in water, i.e. 1 nm/a. So far, no work on reaction products from this interaction process has been carried out. Even the speciation of Ti in natural clays is uncertain. In principle, four possible reaction products resulting from Ti-clay interactions are possible: (i) Ti sorbed to the clay surface via cation exchange or specific adsorption, (ii) Ti incorporated in the octahedral or tetrahedral clay structure, (iii) Ti precipitated as separate TiO{sub 2} or mixed (Fe, Ti) oxide, (iv) Ti precipitated as separate silicate phase and (v) polymerized as cross-linked TiO{sub 2} units in the interlayer (Ti pillared clay). The latter two transformation products would have the strongest impact on the buffer, but are improbable on the basis of current knowledge. A preliminary batch-type investigation has been carried out

  11. Alternative Therapies for PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Spécola MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenylalanine (PHE-restricted diet has improved in quality and diversity over time and has proven to be effective in all patients. Nevertheless, this treatment imposes a heavy social and economic burden to patient and family and impacts quality of life. Sustained adherence to PHE restriction is difficult to maintain. Moreover, even patients with phenylketonuria (PKU with normal intelligence quotient (IQ have lower IQ than matched individuals without PKU and can have deficits in multiple other aspects of neuropsychological function, including cognitive and executive function, working memory. They can also have behavior problems, depression, and low self-esteem. In recent years, alternative treatments for PKU have been developed and their use has been indicated for some patients who are candidates for options besides traditional treatment. Sapropterindihydrochloride, large neutral amino acids, and glycomacropeptide are alternative treatment options in use for selected patients. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of these new approaches to PKU treatment.

  12. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  13. Study of complexation between two 1,3-alternate calix[4]crown derivatives and alkali metal ions by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Allahyari, Leila; Fasihi, Javad; Taherpour, Avat (Arman); Asfari, Zuhair; Valinejad, Azizollah

    2016-03-01

    Complexation of two 1,3-alternate calix[4]crown ligands with alkali metals (K+, Rb+ and Cs+) has been investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and density functional theory calculations. The binding selectivities of the ligands and the binding constants of their complexes in solution have been determined using the obtained mass spectra. Also the percentage of each formed complex species in the mixture of each ligand and alkali metal has been experimentally evaluated. For both calix[4]crown-5 and calix[4]crown-6 ligands the experimental and theoretical selectivity of their alkali metal complexes found to follow the trend K+ > Rb+ > Cs+. The structures of ligands were optimized by DFT-B3LYP/6-31G method and the structures of complexes were obtained by QM-SCF-MO/PM6 method and discussed in the text.

  14. Study of the underlying electrochemistry of polycrystalline gold electrodes in aqueous solution and electrocatalysis by large amplitude fourier transformed alternating current voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertanantawong, Benchaporn; O'Mullane, Anthony P; Surareungchai, Werasak; Somasundrum, Mithran; Declan Burke, L; Bond, Alan M

    2008-03-18

    Polycrystalline gold electrodes of the kind that are routinely used in analysis and catalysis in aqueous media are often regarded as exhibiting relatively simple double-layer charging/discharging and monolayer oxide formation/removal in the positive potential region. Application of the large amplitude Fourier transformed alternating current (FT-ac) voltammetric technique that allows the faradaic current contribution of fast electron-transfer processes to be emphasized in the higher harmonic components has revealed the presence of well-defined faradaic (premonolayer oxidation) processes at positive potentials in the double-layer region in acidic and basic media which are enhanced by electrochemical activation. These underlying quasi-reversible interfacial electron-transfer processes may mediate the course of electrocatalytic oxidation reactions of hydrazine, ethylene glycol, and glucose on gold electrodes in aqueous media. The observed responses support key assumptions associated with the incipient hydrous oxide adatom mediator (IHOAM) model of electrocatalysis.

  15. Medical Pluralism and Traditional/Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Older People: a Cross-Sectional Study in a Rural Mountainous Village in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuta; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Given current concerns about the rapidly aging population in Japan, we investigated medical pluralism and health-seeking behaviors among individuals aged 50 years or older living in a rural mountain village in Japan. In total, 76 participants were interviewed about the methods they used to treat 11 common medical conditions. We found that all the respondents used at least two types of treatment for their medical conditions and nearly 90% used four or five types of treatment. The factors affecting health-seeking behaviors were age, education, car use, and the characteristics of the medical condition. Our results show that the older individuals in this community used both formal and traditional/complementary and alternative medicine (TM/CAM) treatments and did not view issues related to medical care as involving a dualistic choice between formal healthcare services and TM/CAM; however, the relationship between different types of TM/CAM and conventional healthcare varied.

  16. Hypnosis and Local Anesthesia for Dental Pain Relief-Alternative or Adjunct Therapy?-A Randomized, Clinical-Experimental Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas Gerhard; Wolf, Dominik; Callaway, Angelika; Below, Dagna; d'Hoedt, Bernd; Willershausen, Brita; Daubländer, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized clinical crossover trial was designed to compare hypnosis and local anesthesia for experimental dental pain relief. Pain thresholds of the dental pulp were determined. A targeted standardized pain stimulus was applied and rated on the Visual Analogue Scale (0-10). The pain threshold was lower under hypnosis (58.3 ± 17.3, p local anesthesia. The pain stimulus was scored higher under hypnosis (3.9 ± 3.8) than with local anesthesia (0.0, p Local anesthesia was superior to hypnosis and is a safe and effective method for pain relief in dentistry. Hypnosis seems to produce similar effects observed under sedation. It can be used in addition to local anesthesia and in individual cases as an alternative for pain control in dentistry.

  17. Pharmacological study of cefoxitin as an alternative antibiotic therapy to carbapenems in treatment of urinary tract infections due to extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guet-Revillet, H; Emirian, A; Groh, M; Nebbad-Lechani, B; Weiss, E; Join-Lambert, O; Bille, E; Jullien, V; Zahar, J R

    2014-08-01

    Cefoxitin could be an alternative to carbapenems in extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) infections. However, pharmacological and clinical data regarding cefoxitin are limited. Using a recent pharmacological model and the MICs of ESBL-EC collected from pyelonephritis, we determined the probabilities to reach four pharmacological targets: free cefoxitin concentrations above the MIC during 50% and 100% of the administration interval (T>MIC = 50% and T>MIC = 100%, respectively) and free cefoxitin concentrations above 4× MIC during 50% and 100% of the administration interval (T>4MIC = 50% and T>4MIC = 100%, respectively). Cefoxitin could be used to treat ESBL-EC pyelonephritis, but administration modalities should be optimized according to MICs in order to reach pharmacological targets.

  18. The DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders from the perspective of adult attachment: a study in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Somma, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    To assess how the maladaptive personality domains and facets that were included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Alternative Model of Personality Disorders relate to adult attachment styles, 480 Italian nonclinical adults were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). To evaluate the uniqueness of the associations between the PID-5 scales and the ASQ scales, the participants were also administered the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Multiple regression analyses showed that the ASQ scales significantly predicted both PID-5 domain scales and BFI scales; however, the relationships were different both qualitatively and quantitatively. With the exception of the PID-5 risk taking scale (adjusted R(2) = 0.02), all other PID-5 trait scales were significantly predicted by the ASQ scales, median adjusted R(2) value = 0.25, all ps Disorders show meaningful associations with adult attachment styles.

  19. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine A ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  20. The Role of Alternating Bilateral Stimulation in Establishing Positive Cognition in EMDR Therapy: A Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tamaki; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) is a standard method for treating post-traumatic stress disorder. EMDR treatment consists of desensitisation and resource development and installation (RDI) stages. Both protocols provide a positive alternating bilateral stimulation (BLS). The effect of desensitisation with BLS has been elucidated. However, a role for BLS in RDI remains unknown. Therefore, it is important to measure feelings as subjective data and physiological indicators as objective data to clarify the role of BLS in RDI. RDI was administered to 15 healthy volunteer subjects who experienced pleasant memories. Their oxygenated haemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]), a sensitive index of brain activity, was measured from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the temporal cortex using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy during recall of a pleasant memory with or without BLS. The BLS used was alternating bilateral tactile stimulation with a vibration machine. The psychological evaluation suggested that RDI was successful. The results showed that, compared with non-BLS conditions, accessibility was increased and subjects were more relaxed under BLS conditions. A significant increase in [oxy-Hb] was detected in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS), and a decrease in the wide bilateral areas of the PFC was observed in response to BLS. The significant BLS-induced activation observed in the right STS, which is closely related to memory representation, suggests that BLS may help the recall of more representative pleasant memories. Furthermore, the significant reduction in the PFC, which is related to emotion regulation, suggests that BLS induces relaxation and comfortable feelings. These results indicate an important neural mechanism of RDI that emotional processing occurred rather than higher cognitive processing during this stage. Considering the neuroscientific evidence to date, BLS in RDI may enhance comfortable feelings about pleasant memories

  1. Bayesian Alternation During Tactile Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Mathias Goeke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition, rotation only (native condition, and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition. Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants’ responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND. Then we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67 than the Bayesian integration model (χred2= 4.34. Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all model (χred2= 1.64, which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2= 1.09 utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  2. Building Supportive School Environments for Alternative Education Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar-Smith, Susan; Palmer, Ruth Baugher

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study of an alternative educational program for at-risk secondary students, comparing student perceptions of their public school environment, measured upon intake in the alternative school, with their perceptions of the alternative school environment after four and eight months of attendance in the program.…

  3. Innovations in Arizona's Accountability Policies and Frameworks for Alternative Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessman, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This study presents Arizona's innovations in academic accountability policy and academic accountability frameworks for alternative schools. A timeline of statutes and regulations including the State Board of Education approved alternative school definition provides Arizona's context for alternative school accountability policy and frameworks.…

  4. Children's Rights, School Exclusion and Alternative Educational Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines findings from a recent study in Wales of school exclusion and alternative educational provision. Many, but not all, children in alternative provision have been excluded from school. The most recent statistics reveal that nearly 90% of pupils in alternative provision have special educational needs, nearly 70% are entitled to…

  5. Altern als Widerstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.

  6. Alternatives to neoliberalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen;

    This paper will discuss the consequences of neoliberal governance in Danish day care centres, the social educators’ response, and the possible development of alternatives based on collective participation of social educators and union representatives. We will show how important and unnoticed...... professional competencies come under pressure, and how collective interest representation is challenged. We will discuss how concepts of “gestural knowledge”, “coherence” and “rhythm” open for a new understanding of professional competence. And we will conclude that the social educators and their unions have...... the possibility to contribute to the development of a new welfare paradigm. The paper is based on material from two research projects (Ahrenkiel et al. 2009, 2011) involving social educators and union representatives in day care institutions. We have observed everyday work activities in day care centres...

  7. Multimedia communications: architectural alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarty, Terrence P.; Treves, S. T.

    1992-03-01

    Multimedia communications systems are a combination of human interfaces and end users interacting with multimedia data bases and highly disparate but interconnected communications networks. This paper discusses several architectural alternatives and system requirements that will assist in the design and development of MMCS in actual environments. The approaches taken in this paper are based upon the development of such systems in both medical and printing and publishing environments. This paper develops several key concepts as how best to define and structure data in a multimedia environment, how best to integrate the communications elements, and how best to permit the maximum flexibility to the end user to utilize the system's capabilities in the context of a fully conversational environment.

  8. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Sasabe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports suggest that aberrant expression of splice variants affects alcohol sensitivities, and alcohol consumption also regulates alternative splicing. Thus, investigations of alternative splicing are essential for understanding the molecular events underlying the development of alcoholism.

  9. Conserved and species-specific alternative splicing in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favorov Alexander V

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing has been shown to be one of the major evolutionary mechanisms for protein diversification and proteome expansion, since a considerable fraction of alternative splicing events appears to be species- or lineage-specific. However, most studies were restricted to the analysis of cassette exons in pairs of genomes and did not analyze functionality of the alternative variants. Results We analyzed conservation of human alternative splice sites and cassette exons in the mouse and dog genomes. Alternative exons, especially minor-isofom ones, were shown to be less conserved than constitutive exons. Frame-shifting alternatives in the protein-coding regions are less conserved than frame-preserving ones. Similarly, the conservation of alternative sites is highest for evenly used alternatives, and higher when the distance between the sites is divisible by three. The rate of alternative-exon and site loss in mouse is slightly higher than in dog, consistent with faster evolution of the former. The evolutionary dynamics of alternative sites was shown to be consistent with the model of random activation of cryptic sites. Conclusion Consistent with other studies, our results show that minor cassette exons are less conserved than major-alternative and constitutive exons. However, our study provides evidence that this is caused not only by exon birth, but also lineage-specific loss of alternative exons and sites, and it depends on exon functionality.

  10. Wind energy as an alternative source to alleviate the shortage of electricity that prevails during the dry season: a case study of Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainkwa, R.R. [Dar es Salaam Univ., Physics Dept., Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)

    1999-10-01

    Currently, hydroelectric power supply systems in Tanzania are faced with drought, site and water management problems hindering efficient and reliable power supply from this source. Thermal power systems that were intended to alleviate the shortage of hydroelectricity that arise during the dry season are themselves expensive due to high operational and running costs as a result of the increasing prices of petroleum and spare parts. Wind speed data from two prospective sites indicate that during the dry season, wind speed is sufficiently high and steady to generate electricity. The wind speed at these sites from August to October is well above 7.0 m/s as measured at a height of 10 m above ground level. A combined hydro-generator and wind-turbine system is suggested as a possible alternative to electric power supply in Tanzania. The use of wind energy in generating electricity will reduce the large dependence on fossil fuel sources that are expensive and also harmful to our environment. (Author)

  11. Microcrystalline cellulose, a useful alternative for sucrose as a matrix former during freeze-drying of drug nanosuspensions - a case study with itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Vercruysse, Sofie; Martens, Johan A; Vermant, Jan; Froyen, Ludo; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    Itraconazole nanosuspensions, stabilized with 10% TPGS (relative to the weight of itraconazole), were transformed into nanoparticulate powders by freeze-drying. The crystalline itraconazole nanoparticles showed peak broadening in the X-ray powder diffraction spectra and a lower melting point as inferred from differential scanning calorimetry. As it was found that freeze-drying compromised dissolution behavior, sucrose was added as a matrix, former (50,100 and 200%, relative to the weight of itraconazole). Higher amounts of sucrose unexpectedly resulted in a decrease in the dissolution rate. After thorough evaluation of the powders, it was found that whereas higher sucrose content showed a cryoprotective effect, agglomeration during the final phase of the subsequent drying step tended to increase with higher amounts of sucrose. Therefore, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was evaluated as an alternative matrix former. The inclusion of MCC resulted in fast dissolution that increased with increasing amounts of MCC [for powders containing 50%,100% and 200% MCC, (relative to the weight of itraconazole), the times required for 63.2% release were 10.5+/-0.7, 6.4+/-1.2 and 3.1+/-0.5min, respectively]. The dissolution profiles showed an initial phase of burst dissolution, followed by a phase of slower release. As the fraction showing burst dissolution increased with higher MCC content, the system holds promise to maintain the dissolution enhancing properties of nanoparticles in the dry form.

  12. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  13. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  14. Quantification of strontium in human serum by ICP-MS using alternate analyte-free matrix and its application to a pilot bioequivalence study of two strontium ranelate oral formulations in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Man; Zhang, Lina; Deng, Ming; Liu, Huichen

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and accurate ICP-MS method using alternate analyte-free matrix for calibration standards preparation and a rapid direct dilution procedure for sample preparation was developed and validated for the quantification of exogenous strontium (Sr) from the drug in human serum. Serum was prepared by direct dilution (1:29, v/v) in an acidic solution consisting of nitric acid (0.1%) and germanium (Ge) added as internal standard (IS), to obtain simple and high-throughput preparation procedure with minimized matrix effect, and good repeatability. ICP-MS analysis was performed using collision cell technology (CCT) mode. Alternate matrix method by using distilled water as an alternate analyte-free matrix for the preparation of calibration standards (CS) was used to avoid the influence of endogenous Sr in serum on the quantification. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, carry-over, matrix effects, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), linearity, precision and accuracy, and stability. Instrumental linearity was verified in the range of 1.00-500ng/mL, corresponding to a concentration range of 0.0300-15.0μg/mL in 50μL sample of serum matrix and alternate matrix. Intra- and inter-day precision as relative standard deviation (RSD) were less than 8.0% and accuracy as relative error (RE) was within ±3.0%. The method allowed a high sample throughput, and was sensitive and accurate enough for a pilot bioequivalence study in healthy male Chinese subjects following single oral administration of two strontium ranelate formulations containing 2g strontium ranelate.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Alternative Administration Routes of Melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D; Andersen, L P H; Rosenberg, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melatonin is traditionally administered orally but has a poor and variable bioavailability. This study aims to present an overview of studies investigating the pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed...... and included experimental or clinical studies, investigating pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin in vivo. Alternative administration routes were defined as all administration routes except oral and intravenous. RESULTS: 10 studies were included in the review. Intranasal...... administration exhibited a quick absorption rate and high bioavailability. Transdermal administration displayed a variable absorption rate and possible deposition of melatonin in the skin. Oral transmucosal administration of melatonin exhibited a high plasma concentration compared to oral administration...

  16. 78 FR 10184 - National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center For Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Studies of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date: March 14, 2013. Time:...

  17. Detecting alternative graph clusterings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Supreet; Kumara, Soundar; Yao, Tao

    2012-07-01

    The problem of graph clustering or community detection has enjoyed a lot of attention in complex networks literature. A quality function, modularity, quantifies the strength of clustering and on maximization yields sensible partitions. However, in most real world networks, there are an exponentially large number of near-optimal partitions with some being very different from each other. Therefore, picking an optimal clustering among the alternatives does not provide complete information about network topology. To tackle this problem, we propose a graph perturbation scheme which can be used to identify an ensemble of near-optimal and diverse clusterings. We establish analytical properties of modularity function under the perturbation which ensures diversity. Our approach is algorithm independent and therefore can leverage any of the existing modularity maximizing algorithms. We numerically show that our methodology can systematically identify very different partitions on several existing data sets. The knowledge of diverse partitions sheds more light into the topological organization and helps gain a more complete understanding of the underlying complex network.

  18. Alternative nuclear technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, E.

    1981-10-01

    The lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization are compared. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. A conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems were used in estimates of the steps required and the times involved in developing each technology. The impact of the inevitable exhaustion of the low- or reasonable-cost uranium reserves in the United States on the desirability of completing the breeder reactor program, with its favorable long-term result on fission fuel supplies, is discussed. The long times projected to bring the most advanced alternative converter reactor technologies the heavy water reactor and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor into commercial deployment when compared to the time projected to bring the breeder reactor into equivalent status suggest that the country's best choice is to develop the breeder. The perceived diversion-proliferation problems with the uranium plutonium fuel cycle have workable solutions that can be developed which will enable the use of those materials at substantially reduced levels of diversion risk.

  19. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Sujay; Mikati, Mohamad A; Vigevano, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a very rare disease characterized by recurrent attacks of loss of muscular tone resulting in hypomobility of one side of the body. The etiology of the disease due to ATP1A3 gene mutations in the majority of patients. Few familial cases have been described. AHC has an onset in the first few months of life. Hemiplegic episodes are often accompanied by other paroxysmal manifestations, such as lateral eyes and head deviation toward the hemiplegic side and a very peculiar monocular nystagmus. As the attack progresses, hemiplegia can shift to the other side of the body. Sometimes the attack can provoke bilateral paralysis, and these patients may have severe clinical impairment, with difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Hemiplegic attacks may be triggered by different stimuli, like bath in warm water, motor activity, or emotion. The frequency of attacks is high, usually several in a month or in a week. The duration is variable from a few minutes to several hours or even days. Sleep can stop the attack. Movement disorders such as dystonia and abnormal movements are frequent. Cognitive delay of variable degree is a common feature. Epilepsy has been reported in 50% of the cases, but seizure onset is usually during the third or fourth year of life. Many drugs have been used in AHC with very few results. Flunarizine has the most supportive anecdotal evidence regarding efficacy.

  20. Alternative HTS coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, R. D.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Chen, J.; Padmanabhan, R.

    2002-10-01

    The availability of Bi-2223 high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, with acceptable performance for long lengths, has provided the ability to construct a wide range of HTS electric power components. As a result, there are major worldwide projects in developing HTS electric power components for demonstration in a utility environment. Utility acceptance for superconducting power equipment will depend on several key factors: improved system performance, lower life-cycle costs, higher efficiency versus conventional technology, reliability and maintenance comparable to conventional power equipment, and a competitive installed cost. The latter is impacted by the current high cost of HTS conductors, which must be lowered to costs comparable to conventional Nb-Ti wire, i.e., $2-5/kAm. The present performance and cost of state-of-the-art Bi-2223 HTS tape, although acceptable for prototype construction, is viewed as a major deterrent that may compromise eventual commercialization for most of these electric power devices. The so-called second-generation coated conductor development, with emphasis on conductors employing HTS YBCO films, is viewed as the solution to this performance and cost issue. The potential for the Tl, Hg, and Bi-oxide superconductors for producing an HTS tape as alternatives to Bi-2223 PIT (and YBCO) will be discussed with some recent results on Bi-2212 “coated conductor” development.

  1. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  2. [Complementary and alternative medicine in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, J

    2013-06-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine are frequently used by cancer patients. The main benefit of complementary medicine is that it gives patients the chance to become active. Complementary therapy can reduce the side effects of conventional therapy. However, we have to give due consideration to side effects and interactions: the latter being able to reduce the effectiveness of cancer therapy and so to jeopardise the success of therapy. Therefore, complementary therapy should be managed by the oncologist. It is based on a common concept of cancerogenesis with conventional therapy. Complement therapy can be assessed in studies. Alternative medicine in contrast rejects common rules of evidence-based medicine. It starts from its own concepts of cancerogenesis, which is often in line with the thinking of lay persons. Alternative medicine is offered as either "alternative" to recommended cancer treatment or is used at the same time but without due regard for the interactions. Alternative medicine is a high risk to patients. In the following two parts of the article, the most important complementary and alternative therapies cancer patients use nowadays are presented and assessed according to published evidence.

  3. Spinal 5-HT7 receptors are critical for alternating activity during locomotion: in vitro neonatal and in vivo adult studies using 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Akay, Turgay; Hedlund, Peter B; Pearson, Keir G; Jordan, Larry M

    2009-07-01

    5-HT7 receptors have been implicated in the control of locomotion. Here we use 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice to rigorously test whether 5-HT acts at the 5-HT7 receptor to control locomotor-like activity in the neonatal mouse spinal cord in vitro and voluntary locomotion in adult mice. We found that 5-HT applied onto in vitro spinal cords of 5-HT7+/+ mice produced locomotor-like activity that was disrupted and subsequently blocked by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970. In spinal cords isolated from 5-HT7-/- mice, 5-HT produced either uncoordinated rhythmic activity or resulted in synchronous discharges of the ventral roots. SB-269970 had no effect on 5-HT-induced rhythmic activity in the 5-HT7-/- mice. In adult in vivo experiments, SB-269970 applied directly to the spinal cord consistently disrupted locomotion and produced prolonged-extension of the hindlimbs in 5-HT7+/+ but not 5-HT7-/- mice. Disrupted EMG activity produced by SB-269970 in vivo was similar to the uncoordinated rhythmic activity produced by the drug in vitro. Moreover, 5-HT7-/- mice displayed greater maximal extension at the hip and ankle joints than 5-HT7+/+ animals during voluntary locomotion. These results suggest that spinal 5-HT7 receptors are required for the production and coordination of 5-HT-induced locomotor-like activity in the neonatal mouse and are important for the coordination of voluntary locomotion in adult mice. We conclude that spinal 5-HT7 receptors are critical for alternating activity during locomotion.

  4. The relationship between therapeutic alliance and service user satisfaction in mental health inpatient wards and crisis house alternatives: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sweeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor service user experiences are often reported on mental health inpatient wards. Crisis houses are an alternative, but evidence is limited. This paper investigates therapeutic alliances in acute wards and crisis houses, exploring how far stronger therapeutic alliance may underlie greater client satisfaction in crisis houses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mixed methods were used. In the quantitative component, 108 crisis house and 247 acute ward service users responded to measures of satisfaction, therapeutic relationships, informal peer support, recovery and negative events experienced during the admission. Linear regressions were conducted to estimate the association between service setting and measures, and to model the factors associated with satisfaction. Qualitative interviews exploring therapeutic alliances were conducted with service users and staff in each setting and analysed thematically. RESULTS: We found that therapeutic alliances, service user satisfaction and informal peer support were greater in crisis houses than on acute wards, whilst self-rated recovery and numbers of negative events were lower. Adjusted multivariable analyses suggest that therapeutic relationships, informal peer support and negative experiences related to staff may be important factors in accounting for greater satisfaction in crisis houses. Qualitative results suggest factors that influence therapeutic alliances include service user perceptions of basic human qualities such as kindness and empathy in staff and, at service level, the extent of loss of liberty and autonomy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We found that service users experience better therapeutic relationships and higher satisfaction in crisis houses compared to acute wards, although we cannot exclude the possibility that differences in service user characteristics contribute to this. This finding provides some support for the expansion of crisis house provision. Further research is needed

  5. 折射率正负梯度交替表面的研究∗%Study of p ositive and negative gradient refractive index alternant surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓波; 刘明黎; 陈建忠; 施宏宇; 陈博; 蒋延生; 徐卓; 张安学

    2015-01-01

    利用不均匀材料提出了一种折射率正负梯度交替表面,并利用几何光学法和电磁场数值仿真方法对其机理进行了研究与验证,发现其可以操控电磁波的传播:在一定的参数下,其可以将空间中的入射电磁波一直束缚在介质中,或在介质中传播一定距离后再实现电磁波的释放;同时该结构具有宽带、极化无关等特性。利用该结构可引导能流,减小后向散射截面,可用作隐身表面。%In this paper, we design a kind of positive and negative gradient refractive index alternating surface and discuss its physical mechanism by the geometrical optics method and the numerical simulation of electromagnetic field. This structure can control the propagation of electromagnetic waves by adjusting some parameters such as refractive gradient. Under certain parameters, electromagnetic waves from space can be confined mainly in the media all the time, or are released into the space after propagating a certain distance in the media. This structure is polarization-independent and wide-band. It means that this structure can be used as a stealth surface by reducing the scattering cross section. Finally, the characteristics of the structure are verified by the numerical simulation.

  6. Recent advances in alternative therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziment, I

    2000-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming more popular, and CAM remedies are used instead of, or integrated with, orthodox allopathic therapies by many patients with asthma. Although most CAM remedies may have no discernible effects when analyzed by conventional medical techniques, some double-blind controlled studies do suggest that a meaningful benefit can be obtained with acupunture and homeopathic management in asthma. Herbal medicine is more popular, despite little evidence that the vast majority of herbs for asthma have any useful effects other than a nonspecific expectorant action. Dietary adjustment may benefit a small percentage of patients with asthma, but extreme measures are very rarely indicated. Formal pyschologic approaches can help some patients by reducing anxiety. Although most CAM approaches are harmless, the lack of benefit of many remedies and the potential harm from some of them must be recognized.

  7. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  8. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  9. The ‘Alternating Osteotome Technique’: a surgical approach for combined ridge expansion and sinus floor elevation. A multicentre prospective study with a three-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Malchiodi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a surgical approach based on a novel osteotome technique, in order to obtain both alveolar ridge expansion and sinus floor elevation. Partially edentulous patients requiring an implant-prosthetic rehabilitation with a fixed prosthesis in the posterior maxilla were included in this study according to pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. All implants were placed after site preparation with the ‘Alternating Osteotome Technique’, which consists of the use of alternating concave and convex osteotomes. After a 4 to 6-month healing period, all implants were restored with a definitive fixed prosthesis. Clinical and radiographic examinations were scheduled over a 36-month follow-up of functional loading according to a well-established protocol. Statistical analysis was used to detect any significant differences or correlations (P = 0.05. Seventy-six patients were consecutively treated with a total of 120 implants in three different centres. The mean ridge expansion and sinus floor elevation were 1.8 ± 0.3 and 2.5 ± 0.7, respectively. After three years of functioning, the implant success rate was 99.1% since one implant had failed and the mean marginal bone loss was 0.6 ± 0.3 mm. No complications occurred during the intraoperative and postoperative periods. All parameters analysed were stable and steady throughout the three-year follow-up. The ‘Alternating Osteotome Technique’ enables the dental surgeon to achieve an adequate implant osteotomy with limited ridge expansion and sinus floor elevation, increasing modestly the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the alveolar crest but reducing significantly the risk of surgical complications.

  10. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 1: Bottoming cycles and materials of construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Solomon, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Energy conversion subsystems and components were evaluated in terms of advanced energy conversion systems. Results of the bottoming cycles and materials of construction studies are presented and discussed.

  11. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  12. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A M; DeWitt, B A; Lukes, A L

    2000-07-01

    Potential and documented interactions between alternative therapy agents and warfarin are discussed. An estimated one third of adults in the United States use alternative therapies, including herbs. A major safety concern is potential interactions of alternative medicine products with prescription medications. This issue is especially important with respect to drugs with narrow therapeutic indexes, such as warfarin. Herbal products that may potentially increase the risk of bleeding or potentiate the effects of warfarin therapy include angelica root, arnica flower, anise, asafoetida, bogbean, borage seed oil, bromelain, capsicum, celery, chamomile, clove, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger ginkgo, horse chestnut, licorice root, lovage root, meadowsweet, onion, parsley, passionflower herb, poplar, quassia, red clover, rue, sweet clover, turmeric, and willow bark. Products that have been associated with documented reports of potential interactions with warfarin include coenzyme Q10, danshen, devil's claw, dong quai, ginseng, green tea, papain, and vitamin E. Interpretation of the available information on herb-warfarin interactions is difficult because nearly all of it is based on in vitro data, animal studies, or individual case reports. More study is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions. There is evidence that a wide range of alternative therapy products have the potential to interact with warfarin. Pharmacists and other health care professionals should question all patients about use of alternative therapies and report documented interactions to FDA's MedWatch program.

  13. Alternative Treatment for Asthma: Case Study of Success of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment of Children from Urban Areas with Different Levels of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment in Dutch children with asthma in areas with differing air pollution. The study results indicate that TCM treatment of children living in more polluted urban area is less successful then that of children living in cleaner air area. PMID:23724242

  14. Alternative calcination development status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

  15. An Alternative Model to Determine the Financing Structure of PPP-Based Young Graduate Apartments in China: A Case Study of Hangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPP can be employed to provide public rental housing for young graduates, which has been urgent to achieve social sustainability in China. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the financing structure of PPPs, particularly the ratio of private investment, which is important in initiating a PPP project. This study develops a robust model to determine the financing structure through considering the uncertainties in operation. A case study in Hangzhou demonstrates the process of the model. The relevant findings provide private investors and the local government with effective references for negotiating the financing structure of a PPP project.

  16. Fall transport - A study to compare smolt-to-adult return rates (SARs) of Snake River fall Chinook salmon under alternative transport and dam operational strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)-funded study that began in 2005 compares the SARs of PIT tagged juvenile hatchery Snake River fall Chinook that are split...

  17. A review of mammalian carcinogenicity study design and potential effects of alternate test procedures on the safety evaluation of food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A W; Dayan, A D; Hall, W C; Kodell, R L; Williams, G M; Waddell, W D; Slesinski, R S; Kruger, C L

    2011-06-01

    Extensive experience in conducting long term cancer bioassays has been gained over the past 50 years of animal testing on drugs, pesticides, industrial chemicals, food additives and consumer products. Testing protocols for the conduct of carcinogenicity studies in rodents have been developed in Guidelines promulgated by regulatory agencies, including the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration), the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) for the EU member states and the MAFF (Ministries of Agriculture, Forestries and Fisheries) and MHW (Ministry of Health and Welfare) in Japan. The basis of critical elements of the study design that lead to an accepted identification of the carcinogenic hazard of substances in food and beverages is the focus of this review. The approaches used by entities well-known for carcinogenicity testing and/or guideline development are discussed. Particular focus is placed on comparison of testing programs used by the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) and advocated in OECD guidelines to the testing programs of the European Ramazzini Foundation (ERF), an organization with numerous published carcinogenicity studies. This focus allows for a good comparison of differences in approaches to carcinogenicity testing and allows for a critical consideration of elements important to appropriate carcinogenicity study designs and practices. OECD protocols serve as good standard models for carcinogenicity testing protocol design. Additionally, the detailed design of any protocol should include attention to the rationale for inclusion of particular elements, including the impact of those elements on study interpretations. Appropriate interpretation of study results is dependent on rigorous evaluation of the study design and conduct, including differences from standard practices. Important considerations are differences in the strain of animal used, diet and housing practices, rigorousness

  18. Alternative Genres of IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Crowston, Kevin;

    2012-01-01

    The potential value of alternative genres in IS research is the core question that drives this panel discussion. The term “Alternative Genres” refers to unconventional forms of thinking, doing, and communicating scholarship and practice. It relates to innovation with respect to epistemological pe...

  19. Object alternation in alcohol dependent patients without amnesic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brokate, B.; Bernsdorff, K.; Braamhorst, W.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hildebrandt, H.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies indicate that the frontal cortex is sensitive to the toxic effects of alcohol. Recent studies of our group revealed all impairment of alcohol dependent subjects in object alternation. One major problem of these studies is that they all used object alternation embedded in a spatial pr

  20. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.