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Sample records for alternative models modelo

  1. Um modelo alternativo para a quantificação de multiprodutos em árvores individuais Alternative model for the quantification of multiproducts in individual trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Shirlen Soares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram conduzidos testes preliminares com o objetivo de avaliar um modelo de taper, proposto a partir da adaptação dos modelos desenvolvidos por Ormerod (1973 e Turnbull (1979, caracterizados pela sua simplicidade e facilidade de ajuste. Em comparação com modelos já consagrados, observou-se que o modelo alternativo apresentou consistência nos ajustes realizados. Portanto, pode-se concluir que o modelo apresentado é recomendável para a quantificação de multiprodutos de árvores individuais.Preliminary tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating a taper model, proposed from the adaptation of the models developed by Ormerod (1973 and Turnbull (1979, characterized by the simplicity and adjustment easiness. After adjustments and comparisons with other consecrated models, it was observed that the alternative model presented consistency in the carried out adjustments. In conclusion, the presented model can be recommended for multiproduct quantification of individual trees.

  2. Bids in Brazilian E and P oil and gas sector: evaluation, challenges and alternative models; Modelo de licitacoes de blocos: evolucao, desafios e alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Renato S.B. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia (CEFET-RN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pos-graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia. Nucleo de Estudos de Tecnologia, Gestao e Logistica; Fernandes, Elton [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (TGL/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pos-graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia. Nucleo de Estudos de Tecnologia, Gestao e Logistica; Alonso, Paulo S.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); SERMAT Montagens e Instalacoes Industriais Ltda, Itaquaquecetuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents results of a survey, that among other subject matter approaches the model of farewell adopted by the National Agency of Oil Gas and Biofuels - ANP in Brazil. It is an analysis and discussion of evolution of the scenario of exploration and production of hydrocarbons in this country. In addition, it analyzes issues such as competition about farewell rounds and the reconfiguration of the upstream segment. The study is based on the methodology of the study-compared cases with focus in Brazilian and OCS-GOM-EUA auction models.The results of the study suggest that the model of granting the ANP produced: degree of concentration of business moderate to high, balancing of the reserves / production and strengthen the competitive capacity of PETROBRAS and considerable insertion of new entrants in the production chain, while political factors, Economic, social and technological developments have significantly affected the performance of rounds. Facing the new scenario of international prices, discoveries of large reserves and geopolitical issues the findings point to the need to consider possible exemptions to the model and suggests alternatives. (author)

  3. Modelos

    OpenAIRE

    Aroca Hernández-Ros, Ricardo

    2000-01-01

    Para estudiar las estructuras se recurre a modelos más o menos simplificados más manejables que la cruda realidad. Una vez formulado un modelo nunca hay que olvidar que el modelo es en sí mismo un sistema de información en el que sólo existe lo que tiene cabida en el sistema. Debe cuidarse por tanto al formularlo que no haya aspectos relevantes de la realidad no considerados ya que ello conduciría a graves discrepancias aunque todo el manejo matemático del modelo sea perfecto.

  4. Modelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Argudín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto es una reflexión en torno a la categoría de modelos, que piensa con modelos, a partir de los modelos y para los modelos; también se piensa, se interpreta, se revisa, el significado del modelo. Y esto no sólo por lo que estos exigen su lugar desde la tradición artística, sino por lo que significan para la estética, y aún para la filosofía y la ciencia, pues de lo que se trata es de un ir y venir del pensamiento entre la materialidad y el ejercicio de pensar el oficio.

  5. Modelo para avaliação econômica comparativa entre alternativas de sistemas de fixação com elementos roscados An approach model to a comparative economic assessment of alternatives for threaded fastening systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Barreto Piekarski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As demandas junto aos diferentes setores de manufatura têm crescido em termos de qualidade e prazos. Todavia, estas demandas sofrem forte impacto de etapas anteriores, mais notadamente, do estágio de desenvolvimento do produto. Nesta fase, importantes decisões são tomadas, sendo que, em muitos casos, estas são fortemente influenciadas pela experiência ou preferência das pessoas envolvidas na atividade. Outra constatação bastante evidente é a de que, na maioria das vezes, produtos dependem de processos de montagem, que podem assumir diferentes configurações (e.g., uniões fixas ou móveis; reversíveis ou irreversíveis; entre outras. Considerando, principalmente as pressões ambientais, as uniões do tipo "desmontáveis" assumem papel fundamental no desenvolvimento de produtos. Estas podem ser de diferentes tipos, sendo que sua escolha ocorre na etapa de projeto. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é apresentar o desenvolvimento de um modelo para facilitar a tomada de decisão quanto ao emprego de sistemas de fixação desmontáveis, considerando aspectos econômicos envolvidos nos processos examinados. Os dados de entrada e estruturação do modelo são representativos da realidade industrial, de parâmetros oriundos de literatura e de dados obtidos a partir de experimentos em ambiente controlado. O modelo contempla as considerações de custos nas etapas de: i aquisição e estocagem; ii manufatura; iii montagem; e iv manutenção; que são etapas principais do ciclo de vida do componente. O conjunto de equações que dá sustentação ao modelo é apresentado em anexo. Um teste preliminar do uso do modelo ilustra que este é capaz de capturar as diferenças de custos entre os sistemas de fixação considerados para determinada montagem, a partir de parâmetros definidos nas etapas iniciais de projeto.The demands for quality and delivery time have been growing in the majority of manufacturing sectors. However, these demands are

  6. Proton relativistic model; Modelo relativistico do proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de

    1996-12-31

    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author) 42 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  7. DESARROLLO DE LAS UNIVERSIDADES PÚBLICAS DE LATINOAMÉRICA: UNA VISIÓN ALTERNATIVA AL MODELO ECONOMICISTA DE RENTABILIDAD (DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN LATIN AMERICA: AN ALTERNATIVE PERSPECTIVE TO THE ECONOMICIST MODEL OF PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Gutiérrez José María

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Los modelos ideológico-económicos preponderantes en Latinoamérica en las últimas décadas han impuesto un concepto estrecho de rentabilidad económica en muchas áreas de la sociedad, incluyendo aquellas en las que se desenvuelven las universidades públicas. Ello implica una presión a estas instituciones para generar utilidades propias con base en venta de bienes y prestación remunerada de servicios, así como para enfocar el desarrollo institucional en espacios académicos que tienen un mayor impacto en la esfera económica-productiva, en perjuicio de otros campos del conocimiento. Este ensayo cuestiona esta perspectiva economicista de rentabilidad para las universidades públicas, la cual cercena la posibilidad de un desarrollo integral en las instituciones de educación superior. Se propone, como alternativa, que las universidades deben promover un balance entre rendimientos académico, social, ambiental y económico. El eje central del trabajo universitario debe ser el desarrollo académico sólido basado en el fortalecimiento de los tres pilares fundamentales sobre los que se levanta la misión solidaria y de excelencia de una universidad con orientación para beneficio público, a saber: la investigación, la docencia y la extensión. Además, los esfuerzos institucionales deben tener un fundamento ético, en el sentido de que procuren favorecer un desarrollo donde la equidad y la racionalidad ambiental sean componentes fundamentales. De esta manera, la rentabilidad económica, y los esfuerzos dirigidos a garantizarla, deben ubicarse en el contexto de una estrategia de desarrollo institucional que se fundamente en criterios y prioridades de racionalidad académica, social, económica y ambiental y no en visiones estrictamente economicistas.Abstract: The predominant neoliberal paradigm in Latin America has imposed the concept of economic profitability to all areas of society, including public universities. There is pressure

  8. Alternative Tsunami Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A.; Lyatskaya, I.

    2009-01-01

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 "Eur. J. Phys." 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 "Eur. J. Phys." 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional,…

  9. A computational model for determining the minimal cost expansion alternatives in transmission systems planning; Um modelo computacional para determinacao de alternativas de expansao de custo minimo em planejamento de sistemas de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, L M.V.G.; Pereira, M V.F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, A [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    A computational model for determining an economical transmission expansion plan, based in the decomposition techniques is presented. The algorithm was used in the Brazilian South System and was able to find an optimal solution, with a low computational resource. Some expansions of this methodology are been investigated: the probabilistic one and the expansion with financier restriction. (C.G.C.). 4 refs, 7 figs.

  10. Hacia un modelo de desempeño ocupacional : desarrollo del modelo = Towars a model of occupational performance: Model development

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    Chapparo , Christine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:Este artículo ha esbozado el proceso de construcción del modelo que ha tenido como resultado un modelo de Desempeño Ocupacional. El estímulo para el desarrollo del modelo vino de la percepción de la necesidad de un modelo conceptual de la práctica de la terapia ocupacional y las ocupaciones humanas que fuera capaz de organizar el contenido de la terapia ocupacional dentro del currículo universitario en La Universidad de Sydney. El modelo actual incorpora ocho constructos fundamentales que incluyen: desempeño ocupacional, rol ocupacional, áreas ocupacionales, componentes del desempeño ocupacional, elementos centrales del desempeño ocupacional, ambiente, espacio y tiempo. Estos constructos emergieron a través de un proceso circular de teorización que incluía una revisión del material publicado, realización de pruebas sobre el terreno, reflexión y construcción del modelo. Este proceso circular continúa y la forma actual del modelo es considerada como una fase en la evolución de futuras nociones conceptuales del desempeño ocupacional.

  11. Air Quality Dispersion Modeling - Alternative Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models, not listed in Appendix W, that can be used in regulatory applications with case-by-case justification to the Reviewing Authority as noted in Section 3.2, Use of Alternative Models, in Appendix W.

  12. Efeitos hemodinâmicos e metabólicos iniciais da perfusão hipotérmica intestinal in situ.: avaliação de um novo modelo canino de autotransplante intestinal Initial hemodynamic and metabolic effects of intestinal hypothermic perfusion in situ: an alternative model of canine intestinal autotransplantation

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    Ruy Jorge Cruz Junior

    2004-08-01

    , hemoglobina assim como na temperatura central. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de autotransplante intestinal é extremamente útil e de fácil execução, para a avaliação inicial de soluções de preservação e/ou drogas antioxidantes, comumente utilizadas no transplante de intestino.Intestinal transplantation is an acceptable therapy for children and adults with short bowel syndrome. The great majority of large animal experimental models of intestinal transplantation are complex and take a lot of time to be performed. In this study, we developed an alternative model of intestinal autotransplantation and evaluate the initial impact of isolated hypothermic intestinal perfusion with Ringer’s lactate solution on hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. METHODS: Six pentobarbital anesthetized mongrel dogs were used in this study (22,8±1,4 Kg. Systemic hemodynamic were evaluated through a Swan-Ganz and arterial catheters; while gastrointestinal tract perfusion by superior mesenteric vein blood flow (SMVBF, ultrasonic flowprobe and intestinal mucosal pCO2 (pCO2-int and pCO2-gap, gas tonometry. Initially, the proximal jejunum and distal ileum were transected; at the basis of the mesentery excepting the superior mesenteric artery and vein. The small bowel was then perfused in situ with cold (4ºC Ringer’s lactate solution for 30 minutes, with an automatic pump. The animals where observed for 120 minutes after reperfusion. Blood samples were collected from thoracic aorta for gas blood analysis. RESULTS: Hypothermic intestinal perfusion induced a partial reduction on SMVBF, only in the first 30 min of reperfusion (398±102,8 to 587±70,9 ml/min and an increase on pCO2-gap (2±2,7 to 29,8±6 mmHg. During the experimental protocol, we did not observe significant alterations on systemic hemodynamic or metabolic parameters (MAP, CO, pH, base excess and hemoglobin levels as well as on central core temperature. CONCLUSION: The model of intestinal transplantation is very useful to test different

  13. Models dated by {sup 210}Pb; Modelos de fechado por {sup 210}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert [Organismo Internacional de la Energia Atomica, Laboratorios del Medio Marino (Monaco); Ruiz-Fernandez, Ana Carolina [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The {sup 210}Pb{sub ex} present in sediments, regardless of their origin, decays following the law of radioactive decay. If the rate of sediment accumulation and flow of {sup 210}Pb are constant and there are no redistribution processes of {sup 210}Pb{sub ex} in the sediment, a profile of {sup 210}Pb{sub ex} should be perfectly exponential. Although some of these conditions are not met in all cases and observed profiles are rarely found perfect exponentials, models dated by {sup 210}Pb described in this chapter allow to obtain valid dated. Anyway, the models described should be seen as tools of interpretation and the dates obtained as estimates to be corroborated by alternative observations. It is recommended to the reader to go deeper into the topics discussed in this chapter reading references and bibliography at the end. Throughout, the closed system hypothesis must be met. For dating of sediments implies that the radionuclide used is integrated into the matrix tested unaffected by redistribution processes. No cases of mixed sediments or showing evidence of mobility by diagenesis are addressed in this chapter, although we believe that in some circumstances estimates of the accumulation rates are provided but not of the age of formation. Starting with the first published use of {sup 210}Pb as a tool dating ice cores, different authors develop model conditions adapted to the dating of sediments. In this chapter we describe the most widely used models, which are based on assumptions about the flow of {sup 210}Pb{sub ex} the sediment surface, the rate of accumulation and concentration of initial{sup 210}Pb{sub ex} in surface sediments. The models describing nomenclatures have been different and even contradictory. To facilitate reading of the chapter we propose a nomenclature based on the fundamental assumptions of each model (not in implementation) and have homogenised the nomenclature used. While the model most commonly used for dating sediments is the CF

  14. Alternatives to quintessence model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino, P.P.; Beca, L.M.G.; Pinto, P.; Carvalho, J.P.M. de; Martins, C.J.A.P.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the issue of toy model building for the dark energy component of the universe. Specifically, we consider two generic toy models recently proposed as alternatives to quintessence models, respectively known as Cardassian expansion and the Chaplygin gas. We show that the former is entirely equivalent to a class of quintessence models. We determine the observational constraints on the latter, coming from recent supernovae results and from the shape of the matter power spectrum. As expected, these restrict the model to a behavior that closely matches that of a standard cosmological constant Λ

  15. Estabilidade e estudo de penetração cutânea in vitro da rutina veiculada em uma emulsão cosmética através de um modelo de biomembrana alternativo Stability and in vitro penetration study of rutin incorporated in a cosmetic emulsion through an alternative model biomembrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rolim Baby

    2008-06-01

    employed as antioxidant and to prevent the capillary fragility and, when incorporated in cosmetic emulsions, it must target the action site. In vitro cutaneous penetration studies through human skin is the ideal situation, however, there are difficulties to obtain and to maintain this tissue viability. Among the membrane models, shed snake skin presents itself as pure stratum corneum, providing barrier function similar to human and it is obtained without the animal sacrifice. The objectives of this research were the development and stability evaluation of a cosmetic emulsion containing rutin and propylene glycol (penetration enhancer and the evaluation of rutin in vitro cutaneous penetration and retention from the emulsion, employing an alternative model biomembrane. Emulsion was developed with rutin and propylene glycol, both at 5.0% w/w. Active substance presented on the formulation was quantified by a validated spectrophotometric method at 361.0 nm. Rutin cutaneous penetration and retention was performed in vertical diffusion cells with shed snake skin of Crotalus durissus, as alternative model biomembrane, and distilled water and ethanol 99.5% (1:1, as receptor fluid. The experiment was conducted for six hours, at 37.0 ± 0.5 ºC with constant stirring of 300 rpm. Spectrophotometry at 410.0 nm, previously validated, determined the active substance after cutaneous penetration/retention. Emulsion did not promote rutin cutaneous penetration through C. durissus skin, retaining 0.931 ± 0.0391 mg rutin/mg shed snake skin. The referred formulation was chemically stable for 30 days after stored at 25.0 ± 2.0 ºC, 5.0 ± 0.5 ºC and 45.0 ± 0.5 ºC. In conclusion, it has not been verified the active cutaneous penetration through the model biomembrane, but only its retention on the Crotalus durissus stratum corneum, condition considered stable for 30 days.

  16. Endometriose: modelo experimental em ratas Endometriosis: experimental model in rats

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    Eduardo Schor

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: divulgar a metodologia da indução de endometriose experimental em animais de laboratório. Método: utilizamos ratas albinas, virgens, adultas de aproximadamente três meses de idade, que foram inicialmente anestesiadas pelo éter etílico. Aberta a cavidade abdominal, identificamos os cornos uterinos e retiramos um fragmento de aproximadamente 4 cm do corno uterino direito. Esse fragmento foi mergulhado em solução fisiológica e sob lupa estereoscópica foi separado o endométrio do miométrio e feitos retângulos de aproximadamente 4 por 5 mm. Esses foram fixados por meio de fio de sutura, sobre vasos sangüíneos visíveis a olho nu, na parede lateral do abdômen, tomando-se sempre o cuidado de manter a porção do endométrio livre voltada para a luz da cavidade abdominal. Após 21 dias os animais foram novamente operados para verificarmos o tamanho dos implantes e para retirada do endométrio ectópico para análise histológica. Resultados: macroscopicamente observamos crescimento significativo dos implantes endometriais. Ao exame microscópico pudemos observar a presença de epitélio glandular e estroma semelhantes ao do endométrio tópico. Conclusões: o modelo utilizado reproduz a doença, em ratas, sendo método auxiliar de valia para estudar esta afecção, principalmente a ação de medicamentos sobre esses implantes.Purpose: to demonstrate the experimental endometriosis induction in animals. Method: we used adult female Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g anesthetized with ethyl ether to open the abdominal cavity. After identifying the uterine horns, we removed an approximately 4 cm fragment from the right uterine horn. This fragment was placed in physiological saline and, with the aid of a stereoscopic magnifying glass, the endometrium was separated from the myometrium and cut into rectangles of approximately 4 x 5 mm. These rectangles were fastened to the lateral abdominal wall near great blood vessels, taking care

  17. New experimental model for training in videosurgery Novo modelo experimental para treinamento em videocirurgia

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    Danilo Malta Batista

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a new experimental model of lower cost for training in videosurgery. METHODS: This project was performed at the Nucleus of Experimental Surgery of the Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, based on previous models described in the literature and under the supervision of the full professor of Operative Technique and Experimental Surgery II. It was made a model cube-shaped, made of wood, with holes distributed in various locations, rubber stoppers for the holes and lined externally with carpet, and internally with laminate. RESULTS: The new experimental model is of low cost and reproduces quite faithfully several videosurgical procedures. CONCLUSION: Medical schools interested in the subject may adopt the new model for training in videosurgery without the need of high costs for making and using these models.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um novo modelo experimental de baixo custo para treinamento em videocirurgia MÉTODOS: Este projeto foi conduzido no Núcleo de Cirurgia Experimental da Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, baseado em modelos prévios descritos na literatura e sob a supervisão do professor titular de Técnica Operatória e Cirurgia Experimental II. Foi feito um modelo em formato de cubo, de madeira, com furos distribuídos em vários locais, tampas de borracha para os orifícios e forrado externamente com carpete e internamente com laminado. RESULTADOS: O novo modelo experimental desenvolvido é de baixo custo e reproduz de forma bastante fiel diversos procedimentos videocirúrgicos. CONCLUSÃO: Faculdades médicas interessadas no tema poderão adotar o novo modelo para o treinamento em videocirurgia sem que sejam necessários gastos elevados para a confecção e o uso desses modelos.

  18. Towards an alternative evolution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waesberghe, H

    1982-01-01

    Lamarck and Darwin agreed on the inconstancy of species and on the exclusive gradualism of evolution (nature does not jump). Darwinism, revived as neo-Darwinism, was almost generally accepted from about 1930 till 1960. In the sixties the evolutionary importance of selection has been called in question by the neutralists. The traditional conception of the gene is disarranged by recent molecular-biological findings. Owing to the increasing confusion about the concept of genotype, this concept is reconsidered. The idea of the genotype as a cluster of genes is replaced by a cybernetical interpretation of the genotype. As nature does jump, exclusive gradualism is dismissed. Saltatory evolution is a natural phenomenon, provided by a sudden collapse of the thresholds which resist against evolution. The fossil record and the taxonomic system call for a macromutational interpretation. As Lamarck and Darwin overlooked the resistance of evolutionary thresholds, an alternative evolution model is needed, the first to be constructed on a palaeontological and taxonomic basis.

  19. An alternative for the LF model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    1996-01-01

    An alternative for the Liljencrants-Fant (LF) glottal-pulse model is presented. This alternative is derived from the Rosenberg model, so we have caned it the Rosenberg++ model. It is described by the same set of Tor R parameters as the LF model but has the advantage over the LF model that it is

  20. Modelo geral das atividades da empresa General model of company activities

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    José Celso Contador

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O modelo evidencia que as atividades de qualquer tipo de empresa, inclusive a de serviços, podem ser organizadas em quatro grupos (produção, atendimento, apoio e planejamento e que essa organização é aplicável à empresa como um todo, a qualquer órgão (departamento, seção e a qualquer célula de trabalho, inclusive a constituída por apenas um funcionário. O modelo, por mergulhar, como nenhum outro, nas profundezas da empresa, complementa outros modelos (Tavistock, Katz & Kahn, Kast & Rosenzweig. A comparação com o modelo da Cadeia de Valores de Porter e as vantagens apontadas no texto permitem concluir que o modelo é bastante adequado para a proposição de mudanças na empresa que melhorem sua posição competitiva.The model shows that the activities of any type of company, including service companies, can be divided into four groups (production, service, support, planning and that such organization is applicable to the company as a whole, to any part of it (division, department and even to single employees. Since the model, as no other, covers nearly all sections of the company, it complements other ones (Tavistock, Katz & Kahn, Kast & Rosenzweig. The comparison with Porter’s Chain of Values and the advantages shown in the text, allow the conclusion that this model is perfectly adequate to the proposed changes in the company and to the improvement of its competitiveness.

  1. Modelos animais de aneurisma de aorta Animal models of aortic aneurysm

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    Rodrigo Argenta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os modelos experimentais em animais vêm sendo utilizados em cirurgia vascular há décadas. O desenvolvimento de novas técnicas para tratamento endovascular dos aneurismas requer a criação de bons modelos experimentais para testar esses dispositivos e estudar seu impacto sobre a progressão da doença. Este artigo tem por objetivo revisar os modelos de aneurisma arterial descritos atualmente. Entre os diversos modelos descritos, nenhum reúne todas as características de um modelo ideal de aneurisma. Os modelos em animais de grande porte são adequados para treino, estudo de alterações em parâmetros fisiológicos durante e após a liberação dos dispositivos e integração do mesmo à parede do vaso. Algumas desvantagens significantes incluem dificuldade do manejo, alto custo, difícil manutenção e regulamentações legais, dificultando a disponibilidade de diversas espécies animais. Modelos em animais menores, como os coelhos e camundongos, embora sejam menos caros e de fácil obtenção, não são adequados para estudos de técnicas endovasculares pelas pequenas dimensões de seus vasos. Nenhum modelo descrito até o momento consegue reproduzir todas as características dos aneurismas observados em humanos. Modelos disponíveis são descritos nesta revisão, e suas vantagens e desvantagens são discutidas.Experimental animal models have been used in vascular surgery for decades. The development of new interventional techniques in the endovascular treatment of aneurysms requires the creation of good experimental models to test these devices and study their impact on disease progression. The aim of this article was to review arterial aneurysm models currently available. Several distinct models have been described but none of them satisfies all the requirements of an ideal aneurysm model. Large animal models are appropriate for training, study of alterations in physiological parameters during and after device delivery, and integration

  2. Modelos alternativos para detecção de locos de características quantitativas (QTL de carcaça e crescimento nos cromossomos 4, 5 e 7 de suínos Alternative models for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL for growth and carcass traits in pigs chromosomes 4, 5 and 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio de Moraes Gonçalves

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do genoma pode auxiliar na identificação de regiões cromossômicas e, eventualmente, de genes que controlam características quantitativas (QTLs de importância econômica. Em um experimento com 1.129 suínos resultantes do cruzamento entre machos da raça Meishan e fêmeas Large White e Landrace, foram analisadas as características gordura intramuscular (GIM, em %, e ganho dos 25 aos 90 kg de peso vivo (GP, em g/dia, em 298 animais F1 e 831 F2, e espessura de toucinho (ET, em mm, em 324 F1 e 805 F2. Os animais das gerações F1 e F2 foram tipificados com 29 marcadores microsatélites. Estudou-se a ligação entre os cromossomos 4, 6 e 7 com GIM, ET e GP. Análises de QTL utilizando-se metodologia Bayesiana foram aplicadas mediante três modelos genéticos: modelo poligênico infinitesimal (MPI; modelo poligênico finito (MPF, considerando-se três locos; e MPF combinado com MPI. O número de QTLs, suas respectivas posições nos três cromossomos e o efeito fenotípico foram estimados simultaneamente. Os sumários dos parâmetros estimados foram baseados nas distribuições marginais a posteriori, obtidas por meio do uso da Cadeia de Markov, algoritmos de Monte Carlo (MCMC. Foi possível evidenciar dois QTLs relacionados a GIM nos cromossomos 4 e 6 e dois a ET nos cromossomos 4 e 7. Somente quando se ajustou o MPI, foram observados QTLs no cromossomo 4 para ET e GIM. Não foi possível detectar QTLs para a característica GP com a aplicação dessa metodologia, o que pode ter resultado do uso de marcadores não informativos ou da ausência de QTLs segregando nos cromossomos 4, 6 e 7 desta população. Foi evidenciada a vantagem de se analisar dados experimentais ajustando diferentes modelos genéticos; essas análises ilustram a utilidade e ampla aplicabilidade do método Bayesiano.Genome scans can be used to identify chromosomal regions and eventually genes that control quantitative traits (QTL of economic importance. In an

  3. Modelos de regresión para variables expresadas como una proporción continua Regression models for variables expressed as a continuous proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir algunas de las alternativas estadísticas disponibles para el estudio de proporciones continuas y comparar los distintos modelos que existen para evidenciar sus ventajas y desventajas, mediante su aplicación a un ejemplo práctico del ámbito de la salud pública. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Con base en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Reproductiva realizada en el año 2003, se modeló la proporción de cobertura individual en el programa de planificación familiar -propuesta en un estudio previo realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública en Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (2005- mediante el uso de los modelos de regresión normal, gama, beta y de quasi-verosimilitud. La variante del criterio de información de Akaike (AIC que propusieron McQuarrie y Tsai se utilizó para definir el mejor modelo. A continuación, y mediante simulación (enfoque Monte Carlo/cadenas de Markov, se generó una variable con distribución beta para evaluar el comportamiento de los cuatro modelos al variar el tamaño de la muestra desde 100 hasta 18 000 observaciones. RESULTADOS: Los resultados muestran que la mejor opción estadística para el análisis de proporciones continuas es el modelo de regresión beta, de acuerdo con sus supuestos y el valor de AIC. La simulación mostró que a medida que aumenta el tamaño de la muestra, el modelo gama y, en especial, el modelo de quasi-verosimilitud se aproximan en grado significativo al modelo beta. CONCLUSIONES: Para la modelación de proporciones continuas se recomienda emplear el enfoque paramétrico de la regresión beta y evitar el uso del modelo normal. Si se tiene un tamaño de muestra grande, el uso del enfoque de quasi-verosimilitud representa una buena alternativa.OBJECTIVE: To describe some of the statistical alternatives available for studying continuous proportions and to compare them in order to show their advantages and disadvantages by means of their application in a practical example of

  4. Un modelo interactivo para la comunicación sociopsicológica An interactive model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Roca Morales

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el proceso de comunicación a partir de un enfoque epistemológico diferente al del determinismo lineal de causa y efecto. Se parte del determinismo circular y sistémico para analizar los fenómenos sociopsicológicos. Se define el proceso comunicativo como vínculo entre sujetos, que propicia una interacción en constante movimiento. A partir de este criterio se hace un análisis de algunos modelos de la comunicación; desde el creado por Aristóteles hasta el llamado modelo clásico de la comunicación. Los autores critican estos modelos y llegan a la conclusión de que no son idóneos para comprender la comunicación con el enfoque por ellos propugnado; por lo que plantean un nuevo modelo para explicar la comunicación que se da cara a cara entre las personas en los distintos contextos donde interactúanThe article analyzed the communication process starting from a epistemological focus different from the lineal determinism of cause and effect. It is started of the circular and systemic determinism to analize the socio - psychological phenomena. The communicative process is defined as bond among fellows that propitiates an interaction in constant movement. Starting from this approach an analysis is made of some models of the communication, from the one created by Aristotle until the call classic model of the communication. The authors criticize these models and they reach the conclusion that they are not suitable to understand the communication with the focus for they advocated, for what they outline a new model to explain the communication that is given face to face among people in the different contexts where they interact

  5. The Model of Optimization of Micro Energy; HOMER: El Modelo de Optimizacin de Micro energa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-05-01

    HOMER, the model of optimization of micro energy, helps to disear systems out of the network and interconnected to the network. You can use HOMER to carry out the analysis to explore an extensive rank of questions of diseo. HOMER, el modelo de optimizacin de micro energa, le ayuda a disear sistemas fuera de la red e interconectados a la red. Usted puede usar HOMER para llevar a cabo el anlisis para explorar un amplio rango de preguntas de diseo.

  6. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  7. Construindo um modelo de sistema de cuidados Construyendo un modelo de sistema de cuidados Developing an explanatory theoretical model of system of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir um modelo teórico explicativo de Sistema de Cuidados. METODO: Estudo exploratório qualitativo apoiado nos pressupostos da Grounded Theory. Participaram do estudo 15 profissionais e os dados foram coletados por entrevista aberta. RESULTADOS: O Modelo teórico foi delimitado a partir do fenômeno Construindo o Sistema Complexo de Cuidados determinado pelas categorias: Convivendo com a dinamicidade do sistema de cuidados e Organizando o sistema de cuidados a partir de múltiplas interações. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de sistema de cuidados apresentou-se como sistema vital e dinâmico construído a partir de redes interacionais de vários saberes do agir humano expresso pelo trabalho compartilhado, multidisciplinar e em equipe.OBJETIVO: Construir un modelo teórico explicativo de Sistema de Cuidados. MÉTODO: Se trata de un estudio cualitativo exploratorio apoyado en las premisas de la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos. Participaron del estudio 15 profesionales. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de una entrevista abierta. RESULTADOS: El modelo teórico se delimitó al fenómeno Construyendo el Sistema Complejo de Cuidados determinado por las categorías: Viviendo junto con la dinamicidad del sistema de cuidados y Organizando el sistema de cuidados a partir de interacciones múltiples. CONCLUSIÓN: El modelo de sistema de cuidados se presenta como un sistema vital y dinámico construido a partir de redes de interacción de conocimientos del actuar humano expresado en el trabajo conjunto, multidisciplinario y en equipo.OBJECTIVE: To develop an explanatory theoretical model of the system of care. METHOD: Grounded theory served as the conceptual framework to conduct this qualitative exploratory study. Unstructured interviews were conducted among 15 care professionals. RESULTS: The theoretical model was delimited from the phenomenon "building complex system of care" as determined by the following categories: "dealing with a

  8. MODELOS DE SISTEMAS MRP CERRADOS INTEGRANDO INCERTIDUMBRE MODELOS DE SISTEMAS MRP FECHADOS INTEGRANDO INCERTEZA CLOSED MODELS OF MRP SYSTEMS CONSIDERING UNCERTAINTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Dario Arango

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestran cuatro modelos de los sistemas MRP cerrados con incertidumbre en los componentes de producción, como son: la capacidad necesaria de fabricación de cada producto, el tiempo de entrega y la disponibilidad del inventario. Dichos parámetros se tratan mediante la lógica difusa modelizando un sistema MRP cerrado determinista. Por tanto, se presentan inicialmente tres modelos de sistema MRP cerrado, donde cada uno considera de forma independiente la incertidumbre en capacidad, tiempo de entrega y disponibilidad de inventario. Igualmente, se presenta un cuarto modelo de sistema MRP cerrado que de forma conjunta analiza la incertidumbre en los tres parámetros mencionados. Cada uno de estos modelos es validado con información de una empresa del sector eléctrico colombiano, evaluando el costo total del plan de producción, nivel de inventarios, nivel de servicio y complejidad computacional.Neste artigo mostram-se quatro modelos dos sistemas MRP fechados com incerteza nos componentes de produção, como são: a capacidade necessária de fabricação da cada produto, o tempo de entrega e a disponibilidade do inventario. Ditos parâmetros tratam-se mediante a lógica difusa modelando um sistema MRP fechado determinista. Por tanto, apresentam-se inicialmente três modelos de sistema MRP fechado, onde a cada um considera de forma independente a incerteza em capacidade, tempo de entrega e disponibilidade de inventario. Igualmente, apresenta-se um quarto modelo de sistema MRP fechado que de forma conjunta analisa a incerteza nos três parâmetros mencionados. A cada um destes modelos é validado com informação de uma empresa do setor elétrico colombiano, avaliando o custo total do plano de produção, nível de estoques, nível de serviço e complexidade computacional.In this paper, we present four models of uncertainty in the MRP closed systems in the production components, such as: manufacturing capacity of each product

  9. Alternative model of random surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambartzumian, R.V.; Sukiasian, G.S.; Savvidy, G.K.; Savvidy, K.G.

    1992-01-01

    We analyse models of triangulated random surfaces and demand that geometrically nearby configurations of these surfaces must have close actions. The inclusion of this principle drives us to suggest a new action, which is a modified Steiner functional. General arguments, based on the Minkowski inequality, shows that the maximal distribution to the partition function comes from surfaces close to the sphere. (orig.)

  10. Soybean yield estimation by an agrometeorological model in a GIS Produtividade de soja estimada por modelo agrometeorológico num SIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Miura Sugawara Berka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrometeorological models interfaced with the Geographic Information System - GIS are an alternative to simulate and quantify the effect of weather spatial and temporal variability on crop yield. The objective of this work was to adapt and interface an agrometeorological model with a GIS to estimate soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] yield. Yield estimates were generated for 144 municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, responsible for 90% of the soybean production in the State, from 1996/1997 to 2000/2001. The model uses agronomical parameters and meteorological data to calculate maximum yield which will be penalized under drought stress. Comparative analyses between the yield estimated by the model and that reported by the Paraná State Department of Agriculture (SEAB were performed using the "t" test for paired observations. For the 1996/1997 year the model overestimated yield by 10.8%, which may be attributed to the occurrence of fungal diseases not considered by the model. For 1997/1998, 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 no differences (P > 0.05 were found between the yield estimated by the model and SEAB's data. For 2000/2001 the model underestimated yield by 10.5% and the cause for this difference needs further investigation. The model interfaced with a GIS is an useful tool to monitor soybean crop during growing season to estimate crop yield.Os modelos agrometeorológicos integrados em Sistemas de Informação Geográfica - SIG são uma alternativa para simular e quantificar o efeito da variabilidade espacial e temporal do clima sobre a produtividade agrícola. O objetivo deste trabalho foi adaptar e integrar um modelo agrometeorológico num SIG para estimar a produtividade da soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. Foram geradas estimativas de produtividade para 144 municípios do Estado do Paraná, responsáveis por 90% da produção de soja no Estado, em cinco anos-safra no período de 1996/1997 a 2000/2001. O modelo utiliza parâmetros agronômicos e

  11. Architecture's models: Integral thermal evaluation; Modelos en arquitectura: evaluacion termica integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roset, Jaume [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain); Marincic, Irene; Ochoa, J. Manuel [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    During the fist stages of a building design, considering energy conscious design, inhabitants needs and functionality, it is necessary to estimate and evaluate the buildings behavior and to know if it achieves the initial design objectives. Models are used to represent a description of objects and architectural concepts, as well as the hypothesis of its temporary and spatial behavior. The quantity and type of information needed as input of a model to be operative, has been, and still is, a controversial topic. The question is: how much useful are models that need a great quantity of inputs than other simpler ones? We consider as simple models those that habitually contain a certain quantity of empirical coefficients, which permit to reduce the number of inputs, solving the calculus as an approximation. In the other hand, in the architectural domain, information is usually presented in different type of supports (tables of numerical values, planes, physical models, ...). The information supplied in each type of support must necessary be combined, in order to maximize the information contained in the global system. In this paper, we present examples of thermal studies dealing with different ways to evaluate models, which involve variables of thermal behavior of buildings, the interaction between them and the environment and its influence on the indoor thermal comfort. As a general conclusion, we can say that a model should minimize the quantity of inputs required, which must be able to approach to the most relevant effects, that nearly represent the real behavior. The hypothesis and evaluation conditions of these effects must be understood and assumed by the user. [Spanish] Durante las etapas previas al diseno de un edificio eficiente energeticamente y coherente con las necesidades de sus usuarios y con su funcion, sera necesario estimar y evaluar su comportamiento para saber en que medida se estan logrando los objetivos de diseno planteados inicialmente. Con este

  12. Análise empírica de modelos de valuation no ambiente brasileiro: fluxo de caixa descontado versus modelo de Ohlson (RIV Empirical analysis of valuation models in the brazilian environment: discounted cash flow versus Ohlson's model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Caio Galdi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentro do contexto controverso de comparações entre modelos de valuation, o presente trabalho investiga, baseado nas projeções dos analistas de mercado de capitais para empresas brasileiras, se existem diferenças entre os valores de uma empresa estimados pelo modelo de fluxo de caixa descontado (DCF e pelo modelo de Ohlson (modelo de lucros residuais - RIV. Essa abordagem é inovadora à medida que trabalhos já realizados visando à comparação entre esses modelos consideram o valor da empresa calculado com base nas informações publicadas/divulgadas pela empresa e não com base na expectativa dos agentes de mercado (como por exemplo, o analista de mercado de capitais. Entretanto, a correta implementação dos modelos em análise deve ser realizada considerando-se as expectativas dos agentes de mercado. Adicionalmente, são realizadas regressões para verificar qual dos modelos (DCF ou OHLSON explica melhor a relação preço/valor patrimonial (P/B de uma empresa em períodos futuros. As conclusões obtidas foram: i existem diferenças estatisticamente significantes para o valor estimado das empresas pelo fluxo de caixa descontado e pelo modelo de Ohlson (RIV e ii os índices P/B, calculados a partir das estimativas dos analistas (que utilizam o DCF, apresentam maior poder explicativo dos índices P/B futuros da empresa do que as estimativas do índice P/B feitas pelo modelo de Ohlson (RIV.This paper uses equity analysts' forecasts for Brazilian firms to analyze whether there are significant differences between the results from the estimation of equity value when applying the discounted cash flow model (DCF and the residual income model (OHLSON. The approach used in this research is pioneer, considering that previous papers comparing valuation models in Brazil used researchers' assumptions, based on public information, to implement the valuation models. However, the correct implementation of these models relies on market expectations (i

  13. Long-term energy demand forecasting for the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, applying the structural decomposition model for three alternative growth sceneries of the state economy; Projecao da demanda setorial de energia do Estado de Sao Paulo no longo prazo, aplicando o modelo de desagregacao estrutural em tres cenarios alternativos de crescimento da economia do estado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado; Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Pereira, Andre Flavio Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mails: afurtado@fem.unicamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br; apereira@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Long-term demand forecasts (up to 2025) are presented in this paper for the main energy forms consumed in the residential, trade and services, rural, transport, and industrial sectors in the State of Sao Paulo. They were obtained with the help of a flexible forecasting model based on the structural decomposition of the demand, for three alternative scenarios concerning the growth of the state economy. These three state-wise scenarios are related to initially nation-wide defined scenarios, through assumptions concerning the evolution on the ratio between the state GDP and the national GDP. (author)

  14. Alternative dimensional models of personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of the many limitations of the categorical model of personality disorder classification has led to the development of quite a number of alternative proposals for a dimensional classification. The purpose of this article is to suggest that future research work toward the integration...... of these alternative proposals within a common hierarchical structure. An illustration of a potential integration is provided using the constructs assessed within existing dimensional models. Suggestions for future research that will help lead toward a common, integrative dimensional model of personality disorder...

  15. Experimental model of cultured keratinocytes Modelo experimental de cultura de queratinócitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gragnani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioengineering research is essential in the development of ideal combination of biomaterials and cultured cells to produce the permanent wound coverage. The experimental model of cultured keratinocytes presents all steps of the culture, since the isolation of the keratinocytes, preparation of the human acellular dermis, preparation of the composite skin graft and their elevation to the air-liquid interface. The research in cultured keratinocytes model advances in two main ways: 1. optimization of the methods in vitro to the skin cells culture and proliferation and 2. developing biomaterials that present similar skin properties.A pesquisa em bioengenharia é primordial no desenvolvimento da combinação ideal de biomateriais e células cultivadas para produzir a cobertura definitiva das lesões. O modelo experimental da cultura de queratinócitos apresenta toda as etapas do cultivo, desde o isolamento dos queratinócitos, preparação da derme acelular humana, do enxerto composto e da sua elevação à interface ar-líquido. A pesquisa em modelo de cultura de queratinócitos desenvolve-se em duas vias principais: 1. otimização dos métodos in vitro para cultivo e proliferação de células da pele e 2. desenvolvimento de biomateriais que mimetizem as propriedades da pele.

  16. Study of a scintillation neutron detector of {sup 1O}B+ZnS(Ag) as alternative to the {sup 3}He detectors: model MCNPX and validation; Estudio de un detector de neutrones de centelleo de {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) como alternativa a los detectores de {sup 3}He: modelo MCNPX y validacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman G, K. A.; Gallego D, E.; Lorente F, A.; Ibanez F, S. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, E.T.S. Ing. Industriales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mendez V, R. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, J. A., E-mail: karen.guzman.garcia@alumnos.upm.es [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Laboratorio de Ingenieria Nuclear, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Ciudad Universitaria, C. Profesor Aranguren 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Using Monte Carlo methods with the code MCNPX, was estimated the response of a scintillation neutron detector of Zn S(Ag) with a mixture of {sup 10}B high enrichment. The detector consists of four plates of Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and five layers of ∼0, 017 cm {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) in contact with PMMA. The naked detector response was calculated and with different thicknesses of high density polyethylene moderator, for 29 monoenergetic sources and for sources of {sup 241}AmBe and {sup 252}Cf of neutrons. In these calculations the reactions {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li and neutron fluence in the sensitive area of detector {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) were estimated. Measurements were performed in the Laboratory of Neutron Measurement to quantify detections in counts per second to a neutron source of {sup 252}Cf to 200 cm on the bench, modeling with MCNPX, these measures were compared to validate the model and the Zn S(Ag) efficiency of α detection was estimated. Calculations in the LPN-CIEMAT were realized. Starting from the validation new models were carried out with geometries that improve the detector response, trying reaching the detection of 2, 5 cps-ng of {sup 252}Cf comparable requirement for responding to the installed equipment of {sup 3}He in the radiation portal monitor. This type of detector can be considered an alternative to detectors of {sup 3}He for detecting special nuclear material. (Author)

  17. Computerized dosimetry of I-125 sources model 6711; Dosimetria computarizada de las fuentes de I-125 modelo 6711

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isturiz, J [Centre de Radiotherapie du Parc, Dijon (France)

    2001-07-01

    It tries on: physical presentation of the sources; radiation protection; mathematical model of I-125 source model 6711; data considered for the calculation program; experimental com probation of the dose distribution; exposure rate and apparent activity; techniques of the use given to the sources I-125; and the calculation planning systems. [Spanish] Trata sobre presentacion fisica de las fuentes, radioproteccion, modelo matematico de las fuentes I-125 modelo 6711, datos considerados en el programa de calculo, comprobacion experimental de la distribucion de dosis, tasa de exposicion y actividad aparente, tecnicas de utilizacion de las fuentes I-125; y los sistemas de planificacion del calculo de las dosis.

  18. Baryon density in alternative BBN models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.

    2002-10-01

    We present recent determinations of the cosmological baryon density ρ b , extracted from different kinds of observational data. The baryon density range is not very wide and is usually interpreted as an indication for consistency. It is interesting to note that all other determinations give higher baryon density than the standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model. The differences of the ρ b values from the BBN predicted one (the most precise today) may be due to the statistical and systematic errors in observations. However, they may be an indication of new physics. Hence, it is interesting to study alternative BBN models, and the possibility to resolve the discrepancies. We discuss alternative cosmological scenarios: a BBN model with decaying particles (m ∼ MeV, τ ∼ sec) and BBN with electron-sterile neutrino oscillations, which permit to relax BBN constraints on the baryon content of the Universe. (author)

  19. Knowledge management: Postgraduate Alternative Evaluation Model (MAPA in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Cristina Corrêa Igarashi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian stricto sensu postgraduate programs that include master and / or doctorate courses are evaluated by Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. The evaluation method used by CAPES is recognized in national and international context. However, several elements of the evaluation method can be improved. For example: to consider programs diversity, heterogeneity and specificities; to reduce subjectivity and to explain how indicators are grouped into different dimensions to generate a final result, which is scoring level reached by a program. This study aims to analyze the evaluation process by CAPES, presenting questions, difficulties and objections raised by researchers. From the analysis, the study proposes an alternative evaluation model for postgraduate (MAPA - Modelo de Avaliação para Pós graduação Alternativo which incorporates fuzzy logic in result analysis to minimize limitations identified. The MAPA was applied in three postgraduate programs, allowing: (1 better understanding of procedures used for the evaluation, (2 identifying elements that need regulation, (3 characterization of indicators that generate local evaluation, (4 support in medium and long term planning.

  20. Assessing alternative conceptual models of fracture flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The numerical code TOUGH2 was used to assess alternative conceptual models of fracture flow. The models that were considered included the equivalent continuum model (ECM) and the dual permeability (DK) model. A one-dimensional, layered, unsaturated domain was studied with a saturated bottom boundary and a constant infiltration at the top boundary. Two different infiltration rates were used in the studies. In addition, the connection areas between the fracture and matrix elements in the dual permeability model were varied. Results showed that the two conceptual models of fracture flow produced different saturation and velocity profiles-even under steady-state conditions. The magnitudes of the discrepancies were sensitive to two parameters that affected the flux between the fractures and matrix in the dual permeability model: (1) the fracture-matrix connection areas and (2) the capillary pressure gradients between the fracture and matrix elements

  1. An alternative to the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seungwon; Ko, Pyungwon; Park, Wan-Il

    2014-01-01

    We present an extension of the standard model to dark sector with an unbroken local dark U(1) X symmetry. Including various singlet portal interactions provided by the standard model Higgs, right-handed neutrinos and kinetic mixing, we show that the model can address most of phenomenological issues (inflation, neutrino mass and mixing, baryon number asymmetry, dark matter, direct/indirect dark matter searches, some scale scale puzzles of the standard collisionless cold dark matter, vacuum stability of the standard model Higgs potential, dark radiation) and be regarded as an alternative to the standard model. The Higgs signal strength is equal to one as in the standard model for unbroken U(1) X case with a scalar dark matter, but it could be less than one independent of decay channels if the dark matter is a dark sector fermion or if U(1) X is spontaneously broken, because of a mixing with a new neutral scalar boson in the models

  2. Modelo de requisitos para sistemas embebidos: Model of requirements for embedded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana González Palacio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un modelo de requisitos como apoyo para la construcción de sistemas embebidos. En la actualidad, las metodologías de Ingeniería de Requisitos propuestas para este dominio no establecen continuidad en su proceso de desarrollo, ya que poseen una fuerte orientación a la etapa de diseño y un énfasis más débil en la etapa de análisis. Además, dichas metodologías ofrecen pautas para tratar los requisitos luego de que han sido obtenidos, pero no proponen herramientas; como por ejemplo, un modelo de requisitos, para la obtención de estos. Este trabajo hace parte de un proyecto de investigación que tiene como objetivo proponer una metodología de Ingeniería de Requisitos (IR para el análisis de Sistemas Embebidos (SE. El modelo de requisitos propuesto y su forma de utilización se ilustran mediante un caso de aplicación consistente en la obtención de requisitos para un sistema de sensado de movimiento, embebido en un sistema de alarma para hogar.In this paper a model of requirements for supporting the construction of embedded systems is presented. Currently, the methodologies of Engineering of Requirements, in this field, do not let continuity in their development process, since they have a strong orientation to design stage and a weaker emphasis on the analysis stage. Furthermore, such methodologies provide guidelines for treating requirements after being obtained. However, they do not propose tools such as a model of requirements for obtaining them. This paper is the result of a research project which objective is to propose engineering of requirements methodology for embedded systems analysis. The model of proposed requirements and its use are illustrated through an application case consisting on obtaining requirements for a movement sensing system, embedded in a home alarm system.

  3. Alternative models for academic family practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarnall Kimberly SH

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Future of Family Medicine Report calls for a fundamental redesign of the American family physician workplace. At the same time, academic family practices are under economic pressure. Most family medicine departments do not have self-supporting practices, but seek support from specialty colleagues or hospital practice plans. Alternative models for academic family practices that are economically viable and consistent with the principles of family medicine are needed. This article presents several "experiments" to address these challenges. Methods The basis of comparison is a traditional academic family medicine center. Apart of the faculty practice plan, our center consistently operated at a deficit despite high productivity. A number of different practice types and alternative models of service delivery were therefore developed and tested. They ranged from a multi-specialty office arrangement, to a community clinic operated as part of a federally-qualified health center, to a team of providers based in and providing care for residents of an elderly public housing project. Financial comparisons using consistent accounting across models are provided. Results Academic family practices can, at least in some settings, operate without subsidy while providing continuity of care to a broad segment of the community. The prerequisites are that the clinicians must see patients efficiently, and be able to bill appropriately for their payer mix. Conclusion Experimenting within academic practice structure and organization is worthwhile, and can result in economically viable alternatives to traditional models.

  4. Single factor financial asset pricing models: an empirical test of the Capital Asset Pricing Model CAPM and the Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model D-CAPM Modelos de precificação de ativos financeiros de fator único: um teste empírico dos modelos CAPM e D-CAPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Dias Paiva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the Capital Asset Pricing Model CAPM as well as the Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model D-CAPM and evaluated the latter as an efficient alternative asset pricing model. The returns of 40 companies on the São Paulo Stock Exchange BOVESPA were studied between December 1996 and August 2002. To test the models the study used as variables the Interbank Deposit Certificate CDI as a risk free asset and the Index of São Paulo Stock Exchange IBOVESPA as a proxy of the market portfolio. The D-CAPM was shown to be more useful in explaining the return of the stock market than the CAPM.O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o capital asset pricing model (CAPM e o downside capital asset pricing model (D-CAPM, bem como avaliar se este último modelo é uma eficiente alternativa de modelo de precificação de ativos. Os dados da pesquisa referem-se a 40 retornos de companhias listadas na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo, de dezembro de 1996 a agosto de 2002. O artigo utilizou, para testar os modelos, as variáveis Certificado de Depósito Interbancário (CDI, como um ativo livre de risco, e o índice da Bolsa de Valores de Sao Paulo (Ibovespa, como proxy do portfólio de mercado. Conclui-se, então, que o D-CAPM possui uma maior capacidade explicativa dos retornos dos ativos se comparado ao CAPM.

  5. Modelo de competencias del profesor de medicina Competencies model of medical teacher

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    A. Martínez-González

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Generar el modelo de competencias del profesor para ejercer la docencia de alto nivel en Medicina. Materiales y métodos. Para generar el modelo se analizó la bibliografía, el propósito del plan de estudio por competencias y se utilizó el método Developing a Curriculum (DACUM, con la participación de 35 expertos que integraron mediante consenso el trabajo que debe realizar un docente de medicina para cumplir con éxito el propósito del plan de estudio. Resultados. Se identificaron las funciones básicas de los profesores de medicina, así como las actividades para su cumplimiento. Se conformó el modelo con seis competencias: disciplinaria, de investigación, psicopedagógica, de comunicación, académico-administrativa y humanística. Conclusiones. El modelo pretende guiar las acciones de los profesores que actualmente participan en el programa y aquellos que aspiran a formar parte del proceso educativo; elaborar programas para la formación de profesores que favorezcan el desarrollo de competencias académicas; identificar elementos que se deben considerar para la evaluación del desempeño docente; orientar el diseño de indicadores útiles para otorgar reconocimientos y estímulos a los profesores cuyo desempeño académico sea excepcional; orientar al estudiante, en la relación profesor-alumno, sobre las funciones y actividades que puede esperar del profesor.Aim. To create a competency model for the medical professor in order to exert teaching at its highest level. Materials and methods. To create such model, we analyzed current literature on teaching, the aim of the curricula for competencies and we used the DACUM method whose letters stand for Developing a Curriculum. 35 experts who participated in this project reached a consensus regarding the duties that have to be carried out by a medical professor in order to successfully fulfill the aim of the curricula. Results. We identified the basic functions of medical

  6. Hydraulic sediment remotion in physical models; Aplicacion en modelos fisicos de la remocion hidraulica de sedimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo Mogollon, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    Sediment remotion in reservoirs has received an increased attention worldwide because of the difficulty to build new dams. This paper shows the application of some flushing techniques in two hydraulic experimental models that were used in order to estimate the efficiency in sediment remotion, as well as feasible solutions to be applied in our country. [Spanish] La remocion de sedimentos que se acumulan en los embalses ha recibido recientemente una gran atencion en diversas partes del mundo debido fundamentalmente a la dificultad de construir nuevas presas. Este articulo muestra el uso de la remocion hidraulica de sedimentos en embalses aplicados a dos modelos hidraulicos experimentales que se emplearon para estimar la eficiencia de dicha remocion, ademas de posibles soluciones que se consideran factibles de utilizarse en nuestro pais.

  7. Experimental model to induce obesity in rats Modelo experimental para induzir obesidade em ratos

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    Vinicius Von Diemen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of obesity is multifactorial and is becoming a problem of public health, due to its increased prevalence and the consequent repercussion of its comorbidities on the health of the population. The great similarity and homology between the genomes of rodents and humans make these animal models a major tool to study conditions affecting humans, which can be simulated in rats. Obesity can be induced in animals by neuroendocrine, dietary or genetic changes. The most widely used models to induce obesity in rats are a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH by administering monosodium glutamate or a direct electrical lesion, ovariectomy, feeding on hypercaloric diets and genetic manipulation for obesity.A obesidade tem etiologia multifatorial e está se tornando um problema de saúde pública devido ao aumento da sua prevalência e a conseqüente repercusão das suas comorbidades na saúde da população. A grande similaridade e homologia entre os genomas dos roedores e dos humanos tornam esses modelos animais uma importante ferramenta para o estudo de condições que afetam os humanos e que podem ser simuladas em ratos. A obesidade pode ser induzida em animais com alterações neuroendócrinas, dietéticas ou genéticas. Os modelos mais utilizados para indução de obesidade em ratos são lesão do núcleo hipotalâmico venteromedial (VMH através da administração de glutamato monossódico ou lesão elétrica direta, ooforectomia, alimentação com dietas hipercalóricas e manipulação genética para obesidade.

  8. Un modelo de "coaching" en directivos escolares Modelo de "coaching" na gestão escolar A Model for Coaching School Administrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gorrochotegui-Martell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe cómo se realizó un "coaching" de liderazgo a 28 directivos escolares de cuatro escuelas municipales, durante un año, con todas las herramientas y procedimientos utilizados. Se utilizó una parte del modelo de competencias de liderazgo de Cardona y García-Lombardía (2009, el cual se adaptó para el ámbito escolar. El mismo sugiere un compendio de 19 competencias, con sus comportamientos característicos, así como un formato denominado "hoja de avance", que se utilizó para ir desarrollando las competencias en cada directivo. Las competencias más trabajadas individualmente fueron comunicación, gestión del tiempo y gestión de conflictos. La evaluación mostró que la experiencia ayudó a modificar conductas, lo cual permitió gestionar mejor el centro escolar.Descrição de um "coaching" de liderança emvinte e oito diretivos de quatro escolas-municipais durante um ano, bem como as ferramentase os procedimentos utilizados. Aplicou-se uma parte do modelo de competências de liderança de Cardona e Garcia-Lombardia(2009, adaptado para a escola. O modelo propõe 19 competições com os seus comportamentos característicos e um formato chamado Roteiro, usado para desenvolvimento de competências em cada diretivo. As competências mais reforçadas foram comunicação, gestão do tempo e gestão de conflitos. A avaliação mostrou que o ensaio ajudou a alterar comportamentos, permitindo uma melhor gestão da escola.The article offers a description of how 28 school administrators at four municipal schools were coached during a period of one year, and the tools and procedures employed to that end. A portion of the leadership skills model developed by Cardona and García-Lombardía (2009 was adapted to the school environment and applied. It suggests a set of 19 skills and their characteristic behavior, along with a form know as the "progress sheet," which was used to develop the skills of each administrator. Communication, time

  9. EL CARBÓN COLOMBIANO Y EL MODELO DE HOTELLING O CARVÃO COLOMBIANO E O MODELO DE HOTELLING COLOMBIAN COAL AND HOTELLING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Franco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available n este artículo se presenta una descripción de la relación existente entre el pensamiento económico y los recursos naturales, en especial, los no renovables. Se define el modelo de Hotelling, con su planteamiento matemático y su respectiva solución gráfica, el cual permite determinar el sendero óptimo de agotamiento de un recurso natural no renovable y una estimación de su precio de mercado. Un marco general sobre la actualidad y perspectivas del carbón térmico colombiano es la base para la aplicación de este modelo a dicho recurso energético, lo que determina, con base en las reservas probadas de carbón térmico en Colombia y su función de demanda, el tiempo de agotamiento y su precio de comercialización.Neste artigo apresenta-se uma descrição da relacão existente entre o pensamento económico e os recursos naturais, especialmente, os não renováveis. Define-se o modelo de Hotelling, com a sua proposta matemática e a sua respetiva solução gráfica, o qual permite determinar o caminho ótimo de esgotamento de um recurso natural não renovável e uma estimativa do seu preço de mercado. Um enquadramento geral sobre a atualidade e perspectivas do carvão térmico colombiano é a base para a aplicação do este modelo a dito recurso energético, o que determina, com base nas reservas provadas de carvão térmico em Colômbia e sua função de demanda, o tempo de esgotamento e o seu preço de comercialização.In this paper a description of the relationship between economic thought and natural resources, especially those non-renewable, is presented. The Hotelling model is defined, with its mathematical approach and the respective graphical solution, which determines the optimal path of depletion of a non-renewable natural resource and an estimation of its market price. A general frame for the present situation and prospects for thermal coal in Colombia is the basis for the implementation of this model to this energy resource

  10. Ética da pesquisa em modelos animais Research ethics in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de animais em experimentos científicos é descrita desde o século V a.C. Avanços científicos na área da saúde são atribuídos a modelos animais. O status moral dos animais sempre foi debatido. OBJETIVOS: Este artigo visa à revisão histórica e resumo da legislação atual, para orientar pesquisadores ao utilizar modelos animais na pesquisa em otorrinolaringologia. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Pesquisa na base de dados Medline. RESULTADOS: no Brasil, por muitos anos não havia regulamentação para o uso de animais em experimentação. Eram seguidas normas de organizações nacionais e internacionais. Recentemente, foi sancionada a lei nº 11.794/08, que estabelece procedimentos para o uso científico de animais. Na otorrinolaringologia, os estudos com laringe utilizaram coelho, porco, cachorro, cobaias (Cavia porcellus e camundongo; estudos para face coelho, rato e cachorro; rinoplastia com coelho; e orelha interna com ratos e cobaias (albinas. CONCLUSÕES: Os pesquisadores envolvidos em trabalhos científicos com animais devem conhecer os princípios da lei nº 11.794/08 e pesquisar quais animais são apropriados para cada subárea estudada seus modelos com maior aplicabilidade. Os otorrinolaringologistas, especialmente aqueles que se dedicam à pesquisa, necessitam estar sempre atentos para o respeito às regras éticas de utilização de animais em seus estudos.The use of animals in scientific experiments has beendescribed since the fifth century BC. A number of scientific advances in health are attributed to animal models. The issue of the moral status of animals has always been debated. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to review and to present a historical summary of the current laws, to guide researchers who wish to use animal models in otolaryngology research. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Research on the medline database. RESULTS: For many years there were no laws ruling the use of animals in scientific experimentation in Brazil

  11. Modelos del planeta Tierra en escolares rurales de Chile / Planet Earth models about students in rural schools from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alonqueo Boudon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los modelos del planeta Tierra en escolares mapuches y no mapuches de procedencia rural. Los participantes fueron 40 escolares distribuidos en dos grupos de edad, quienes respondieron a una tarea cognitiva que indaga la representación de la forma del planeta Tierra. En base al grado de acuerdo con la representación científica, cada participante fue categorizado en uno de cuatro modelos del planeta Tierra. El modelo 4, concordante con el conocimiento científico, no fue observado, pues la mayoría de los participantes se concentra en el modelo 3 en el que coexisten conocimientos previos con algunos elementos científicos. En los niños no mapuches se aprecia que el modelo del planeta Tierra se ajusta a los significados científicos a medida que aumenta el conocimiento escolar. Por el contrario, en los niños mapuches no se observa esta tendencia. Se discute el papel de la cultura y la enseñanza en el aprendizaje del modelo científico del planeta. ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify planet Earth models in mapuches and non mapuches students of rural origin. The participants were 40 students divided into two age groups who responded to a cognitive task which explores the representation of the shape of the planet Earth. Based on the degree of agreement with the scientific representation, each participant was categorized into one of four models of planet Earth. Model 4, consistent with the scientific knowledge was not observed because the majority of the participants were concentrated in Model 3. In non mapuche children, it is observed that the model of the planet Earth is adjusted to the scientific meaning in accordance with the increase of school knowledge. On the other hand, this trend is not observed in mapuche children. The role of culture and teaching is discussed in the learning of planet scientific model.

  12. El modelo semicuántico de Bohr en los libros de texto The Bohr's quantum model in the textbook

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    Jorge Eliécer Moreno Ramírez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La didáctica de las ciencias naturales está cuestionando la transposición de los modelos científicos en modelos didácticos. Otras investigaciones muestran que el conocimiento científico convertido en conocimiento escolar produce deformaciones de la actividad científica y la simplificación de modelos, contribuyendo con la actitud negativa de los estudiantes hacia las ciencias y al fracaso escolar reportado por algunos estudios. Se pregunta si el modelo atómico de Bohr que se muestra en los textos se corresponde histórica y epistemológicamente con las actividades científicas y cuáles son las posibles deformaciones que de ésta se hace cuando se muestra el modelo en los libros. Los resultados de la investigación muestran una clara diferencia entre la propuesta de Bohr (1913 y la transposición del modelo, lo que invita a una reflexión profunda acerca de la confiabilidad que pueden tener los textos utilizados para la enseñanza de la ciencia químicaNatural science teaching is questioning the transposition that is made of scientific models into didactic models, because research has shown that when scientific knowledge is transformed into scholarly knowledge in order to be taught it causes the deformation of the scientific activity and the simplification of the models. This contributes to the negative attitude of students towards science, and student failure shown in some studies. This research inquired if the transposition of Bohr's atomic model that is shown in textbooks corresponds historically and epistemologically to scientific activity and what the possible deformations are that, coming from this model, are made to the scientific activity that comes from the transposition. The research results show differences between what Bohr (1913 proposed and the transposition of the model in textbooks. This information will contribute to the analysis that is being done regarding the dependability of textbooks.

  13. Modelos matemáticos para la evaluación económica: los modelos dinámicos basados en ecuaciones diferenciales Mathematical models for economic evaluation: dynamic models based on differential equations

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    Roberto Pradas Velasco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La utilización conjunta de árboles de decisión y modelos epidemiológicos basados en ecuaciones diferenciales es un método apropiado para la evaluación económica de medidas profilácticas ante enfermedades infecciosas. Estos modelos permiten combinar el comportamiento dinámico de la enfermedad con el consumo de recursos sanitarios. Para ilustrar este tipo de modelos se ajusta un sistema dinámico de ecuaciones diferenciales al comportamiento epidémico de la gripe en España, con el fin de proyectar el impacto epidemiológico de la vacunación antigripal. Los resultados del modelo dinámico se implementan en un diagrama con estructura de árbol para medir el consumo de recursos sanitarios y su repercusión en términos monetarios.The joint utilization of both decision trees and epidemiological models based on differential equations is an appropriate method for the economic evaluation of preventative interventions applied to infectious diseases. These models can combine the dynamic pattern of the disease together with health resource consumption. To illustrate this type of model, we adjusted a dynamic system of differential equations to the epidemic behavior of influenza in Spain, with a view to projecting the epidemiologic impact of influenza vaccination. The results of the epidemic model are implemented in a diagram with the structure of a decision tree so that health resource consumption and the economic implications can be calculated.

  14. Alternative model of thrust-fault propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, Gloria; de Paor, Declan G.

    1987-07-01

    A widely accepted explanation for the geometry of thrust faults is that initial failures occur on deeply buried planes of weak rock and that thrust faults propagate toward the surface along a staircase trajectory. We propose an alternative model that applies Gretener's beam-failure mechanism to a multilayered sequence. Invoking compatibility conditions, which demand that a thrust propagate both upsection and downsection, we suggest that ramps form first, at shallow levels, and are subsequently connected by flat faults. This hypothesis also explains the formation of many minor structures associated with thrusts, such as backthrusts, wedge structures, pop-ups, and duplexes, and provides a unified conceptual framework in which to evaluate field observations.

  15. Matrimonios mixtos intraeuropeos: un modelo empírico (Intra-European intermarriage: an empirical model

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    Alaminos Chica, Antonio Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La heterogeneidad con la que nos encontramos al estudiar las parejas interculturales o mixtas, va más allá de las diferencias de origen sociocultural; interviene factores tales como el rol que cada individuo adopta dentro de la pareja (por ejemplo, quién contribuye más económicamente, el status, el nivel educativo, etc.. En este artículo se propone un modelo empírico que muestra el efecto de un conjunto de variables, que expresan circunstancias sociales, sobre la decisión de formar un matrimonio interculturalmente mixto. También las consecuencias en la vida social del individuo.Abstract: The intercultural marriages or mixed marriages depend upon several factor. Not only the different cultural origin. Other determinants like the role of the partner (i.e. economic contribution, status, educational level, etc. or the type of the family (modern, traditional, etc. influence the outcomes. This paper contains a proposal of empirical model for study the intra-European mixed marriages.

  16. Junior empresa: un modelo empresarial diferente = Junior enterprise: a different business model

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    Javier Jiménez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen ¿Quién no está harto ya de oír cómo está el mercado laboral? Nos bombardean con un ruido de fondo incesante, como si graduarnos no fuese suficiente reto. Bueno, ¿y qué? Un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería y Diseño Industrial de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (ETSIDI-UPM nos hemos unido y hemos creado nuestra propia Junior Empresa, un modelo empresarial diferente, innovador, que nos permite revertir todos los beneficios en aprendizaje. ¿Quién ha dicho que tengamos que dejarnos vencer por un sistema laboral obsoleto? Abstract Are you tired of hearing how difficult it is to get a job? They are filling our minds with a non-stop background noise, as if getting a degree was an insufficient challenge. So what? Well, some students from the Superior Technical School of Engineering and Industrial Design from the Technical University of Madrid (ETSIDIUPM have come together and created our own Junior Enterprise, a different business model, an innovative canvas, which allows us to transform all the benefits into learning. Who said our destiny is being crushed by an obsolete labour market?

  17. O desenvolvimento de um modelo de assistência continua ao parto Desarrollo de un modelo de asistencia continua en el parto Development of a delivery continued care model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Silveira Lambert

    2010-07-01

    los cambios en las directrices filosóficas y gerenciales relacionadas con la asistencia al parto y del compromiso de los profesionales. Conclusión. Se reconocieron los diversos aspectos involucrados en la implementación del modelo de atención en el parto.Objective. To describe the obstetric nurses' experiences related with the development of a delivery care model. Methodology. Case study type research. Four obstetric nurses who developed the delivery care model proposed by the Sao Paulo university testimonies were analyzed. The obtained information was analyzed using an inductive interpretative way. Results. Four descriptive categories came up from the testimonies: a Coping with ambivalence feelings, b Work with ease and difficulties with the new model adoption, c the delivery concept changes and d the nurses recognized the model viability, but its implementation depends in the philosophical and management guidelines related with delivery care and professionals' commitment. Conclusion. The diverse aspects involved were recognized in the implementation of the delivery model.

  18. Gestão educativa gerencial: superação do modelo burocrático? Gestión educativa gerencial: ¿superación del modelo burocrático? Educational management: overcoming the bureaucratic model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suêldes de Araújo

    2011-03-01

    , eficacia y productividad. En ese nuevo paradigma gerencial, se defendía el reemplazo del modelo burocrático de gestión por un modelo descentralizado, con foco en la atención al cliente. Esas directrices tuvieron una amplia repercusión en el campo educacional y se diseminaron por todos los organismos internacionales. Los estudios dejan claro que el modelo de gestión gerencial no ha conseguido superar el modelo de gestión burocrática que existía en el interior de la escuela; lo que sí se constata es la transformación de ésta en un proceso de burocracia flexible, coherente con el nuevo modelo de producción.The study discusses the changes in public management and their impacts on the educational field from the adoption of the flexible model production. It is based on the assumption that the changes in contemporary societies were influenced by the need to reorganize the capital that, in crisis, tried to overcome the Taylor/Ford production model, by implementing a more agile, more flexible one to meet the current demands of the market. For the implementation of the new public management, the Latin American countries started to use strategies based on the business model and the criteria of efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. This new management paradigm advocated replacing the bureaucratic model of management by a decentralized model, with focus on customer service. These guidelines have a broad impact on the educational management and were disseminated by international organizations. Studies show that the management model has been unable to overcome the bureaucratic model of management that existed within the school, which is found in the transformation of a bureaucratic flexibility, consistent with the new model of production.

  19. Spectroscopic and thermal characterization of alternative model biomembranes from shed skins of Bothrops jararaca and Spilotis pullatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rolim Baby

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an interest in the use of shed snake skin as alternative model biomembrane for human stratum corneum. This research work presented as objective the qualitative characterization of alternative model biomembranes from Bothrops jararaca and Spilotis pullatus by FT-Raman, PAS-FTIR and DSC. The employed biophysical techniques permitted the characterization of the biomembranes from shed snake skin of B. jararaca and S. pullatus by the identification of vibrational frequencies and endothermic transitions that are similar to those of the human stratum corneum.Existe atualmente interesse no uso da muda de pele de cobra como modelos alternativos de biomembranas da pele humana. O presente trabalho apresentou como objetivo a caracterização qualitativa de modelos alternativos de biomembranas provenientes de mudas de pele de cobra da Bothrops jararaca e Spilotis pullatus por espectroscopia Raman (FT-Raman, espectroscopia fotoacústica no infravermelho (PAS-FTIR e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC. As técnicas biofísicas FT-Raman, PAS-FTIR e DSC permitiram caracterizar qualitativamente os modelos alternativos de biomembranas provenientes das mudas de pele de cobra da B. jararaca e S. pullatus e identificar freqüências vibracionais e transições endotérmicas similares ao estrato córneo humano.

  20. Un modelo interactivo para la comunicación sociopsicológica An interactive model

    OpenAIRE

    Fermín Roca Morales; Luisa M Serrano González; Olga Lidia Cuba Yordi

    2005-01-01

    El artículo analiza el proceso de comunicación a partir de un enfoque epistemológico diferente al del determinismo lineal de causa y efecto. Se parte del determinismo circular y sistémico para analizar los fenómenos sociopsicológicos. Se define el proceso comunicativo como vínculo entre sujetos, que propicia una interacción en constante movimiento. A partir de este criterio se hace un análisis de algunos modelos de la comunicación; desde el creado por Aristóteles hasta el llamado modelo clási...

  1. Modelo Funcional de un Gestor de Herramientas de Mecanizado Functional Model of Cutting Tool Management

    OpenAIRE

    Amparo Meseguer; Francisco González

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se propone un modelo funcional para un gestor de herramientas de mecanizado, integrado con la Planificación de Procesos Asistida por Ordenador (CAPP) y la programación de la producción. El modelo propuesto está basado en la capacidad de CAPP para generar alternativas de herramientas en las operaciones de mecanizado. El gestor resuelve las interferencias entre las herramientas, de forma que cada operación dispone de un conjunto de alternativas de herramientas compatibles con la...

  2. Alternative Middle School Models: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Stacy Kay

    2018-01-01

    A Midwestern state allocated grant funding to encourage more accessible alternative programming at the middle level. Seventeen schools were approved for this grant and used the funds to supplement the operation of a new or existing program. This study provides policymakers and educators with an overview of the various types of alternative middle…

  3. Modelo de Gerenciamento da Logística Reversa Reverse Logistics Management Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Toledo Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do número de produtos com vida útil menor, a intensificação no uso do comércio eletrônico, leis cada vez mais exigentes de responsabilidade sobre descarte dos produtos e uma crescente consciência ambiental têm gerado um elevado número de retornos, fazendo crescer a importância da Logística Reversa para as empresas e para a sociedade, de forma geral. Contudo, constatou-se na literatura que se trata de uma área ainda pouco explorada e, portanto, não existem dados concretos para se trabalhar e explorar as oportunidades de melhoria. Com o intuito de mitigar esta carência, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica acerca da relação entre a Logística Reversa e o desempenho empresarial, bem como uma pesquisa junto às empresas, procurando verificar como se dá este relacionamento. Como resultado principal, relacionado diretamente com o objetivo do trabalho, obteve-se um modelo conceitual que contribuiu para a ampliação da visão gerencial sobre o processo de Logística Reversa, modelo este que inclui indicadores de desempenho que permitem avaliar a atividade. Também é proposta do trabalho a utilização de métodos de Tomada de Decisão com Múltiplos Critérios, ferramenta esta que facilita a seleção dos indicadores segundo as estratégias das empresas.The increased number of items with a shorter useful life, the massive use of e-commerce, and increased environmental awareness with increasingly demanding laws on disposal of products, have created a large amount of returns increasing the importance of Reverse Logistics for society and companies, in general. However, according to the literature, Reverse Logistics is still a poorly explored activity, and therefore there are no concrete data to work with and to explore opportunities for improvement. With the goal of bridging this gap, a literature review on the relationship between Reverse Logistics and business performance was conducted in addition to a study carried out

  4. Modelos organizacionais e reformas da administração pública Organizational models and public management reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Secchi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo foi elaborado a partir de uma pesquisa bibliográfica em livros e artigos científicos clássicos ou recentemente publicados na literatura de administração pública na Europa e nos Estados Unidos, e faz uma comparação dos quatro modelos organizacionais e relacionais que vêm inspirando o desenho das estruturas e processos nas recentes reformas da administração pública. Os modelos analisados são o burocrático, a administração pública gerencial, o governo empreendedor e a governança pública. Recentemente, reformas administrativas vêm pregando a substituição progressiva do modelo burocrático weberiano por novos modelos de gestão e de relação do Estado com a sociedade. Este artigo mostra que os novos modelos compartilham características essenciais com o modelo tradicional burocrático e, portanto, não são modelos de ruptura. Também é argumentado que reformas da administração pública transformam-se facilmente em políticas simbólicas, e que políticos e burocratas tentam manipular a percepção do público em relação ao desempenho dos governos. Não são raros os esforços de reforma da administração pública que avançam mais em autopromoção e retórica do que em fatos concretos. Por último, são feitas sugestões para uma agenda de pesquisa àqueles interessados em temas de reformas da administração pública.This article is based on a bibliographical research both in classic and recently published textbooks and in scientific papers in the literature of public administration in Europe and the United States. Its main objective is to compare the four organizational and relational models that have been inspiring the design of structures and processes in recent public management reforms: the bureaucratic model, the new public management, the entrepreneurial government, and public governance. Recently, there has been a progressive shift from the bureaucratic model to these new organizational and

  5. Ajuste de modelos de platô de resposta via regressão isotônica Response plateau models fitting via isotonic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pires Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    . The experiments of type dosage x response are very common in the determination of levels of nutrients in optimal food balance and include the use of regression models to achieve this objective. Nevertheless, the regression analysis routine, generally, uses a priori information about a possible relationship between the response variable. The isotonic regression is a method of estimation by least squares that generates estimates which preserves data ordering. In the theory of isotonic regression this information is essential and it is expected to increase fitting efficiency. The objective of this work was to use an isotonic regression methodology, as an alternative way of analyzing data of Zn deposition in tibia of male birds of Hubbard lineage. We considered the models of plateau response of polynomial quadratic and linear exponential forms. In addition to these models, we also proposed the fitting of a logarithmic model to the data and the efficiency of the methodology was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations, considering different scenarios for the parametric values. The isotonization of the data yielded an improvement in all the fitting quality parameters evaluated. Among the models used, the logarithmic presented estimates of the parameters more consistent with the values reported in literature.

  6. Un modelo de opciones barreras para estimar las probabilidades de fracasos financieros de empresas. Barrier options model for estimate firm´s probabilities for financial distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón S. Milanesi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Asimilar el valor del patrimonio como una opción de compra sobre los activos permitió desarrollar un conjunto de modelos dinámicos para predecir fracasos financieros empresariales. No obstante, el concepto presenta una importante debilidad: la relación directa y positiva entre valor del capital (prima y el nivel de volatilidad del activo subyacente. El razonamiento anterior indica que a mayor riesgo de la firma mayor debe ser su valor, lo que conduce a una lógica inconsistente para estimar probabilidades de fracasos financieros. Las opciones denominadas “exóticas barreras” constituyen un modelo alternativo para predecir dificultades financieras y su estructura se ajusta mejor a la relación valor-volatilidad en las empresas. El trabajo propone un modelo de opción barrera “operativo”, ya que simplifica la estimación de las inobservables variables: valor y riesgo del activo. Primero, se desarrolló formalmente los modelos de opción de compra simple y opción barrera para valorar el patrimonio de la firma y la estimación de probabilidades de fracaso financiero. Con un caso hipotético, se propuso un ejercicio de sensibilidad sobre volatilidades y plazos. Similar ejercicio se aplicó a dos firmas de capitales argentinos con diferentes grados de endeudamiento, gracias al cual se confirmó la consistencia entre volatilidad-valor-probabilidad de fracasos financieros del modelo propuesto. Finalmente se exponen las principales conclusiones.     Abstract Assimilation of the capital value as a call option over firm’s assets allows to develop a group of dynamic models to predict corporate financial distress. However, the concept shows an important weakness: the direct and positive relationship between the capital value (call with the level of underlying’s volatility. This reasoning indicates that the higher the risk is, the higher the value must be for the firm, leading to a weak rationality, in particular to estimate

  7. BWR stability using a reducing dynamical model; Estabilidad de un BWR con un modelo dinamico reducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestrin Bolea, J M; Blazquez Martinez, J B

    1990-07-01

    BWR stability can be treated with reduced order dynamical models. When the parameters of the model came from dynamical models. When the parameters of the model came from experimental data, the predictions are accurate. In this work an alternative derivation for the void fraction equation is made, but remarking the physical structure of the parameters. As the poles of power/reactivity transfer function are related with the parameters, the measurement of the poles by other techniques such as noise analysis will lead to the parameters, but the system of equations is non-linear. Simple parametric calculation of decay ratio are performed, showing why BWRs become unstable when they are operated at low flow and high power. (Author)

  8. SR 97. Alternative models project. Stochastic continuum modelling of Aberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widen, H.; Walker, D.

    1999-08-01

    As part of studies into the siting of a deep repository for nuclear waste, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has commissioned the Alternative Models Project (AMP). The AMP is a comparison of three alternative modelling approaches to bedrock performance assessment for a single hypothetical repository, arbitrarily named Aberg. The Aberg repository will adopt input parameters from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in southern Sweden. The models are restricted to an explicit domain, boundary conditions and canister location to facilitate the comparison. The boundary conditions are based on the regional groundwater model provided in digital format. This study is the application of HYDRASTAR, a stochastic continuum groundwater flow and transport-modelling program. The study uses 34 realisations of 945 canister locations in the hypothetical repository to evaluate the uncertainty of the advective travel time, canister flux (Darcy velocity at a canister) and F-ratio. Several comparisons of variability are constructed between individual canister locations and individual realisations. For the ensemble of all realisations with all canister locations, the study found a median travel time of 27 years, a median canister flux of 7.1 x 10 -4 m/yr and a median F-ratio of 3.3 x 10 5 yr/m. The overall pattern of regional flow is preserved in the site-scale model, as is reflected in flow paths and exit locations. The site-scale model slightly over-predicts the boundary fluxes from the single realisation of the regional model. The explicitly prescribed domain was seen to be slightly restrictive, with 6% of the stream tubes failing to exit the upper surface of the model. Sensitivity analysis and calibration are suggested as possible extensions of the modelling study

  9. Modelling response times in multi-alternative categorization with TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blurton, Steven Paul; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    , such as trial-to-trial variation in the Poisson processing rates and an extension of the random walk to n-alternatives. In an empirical test of the model we fitted the random walk model to data of a binary and a four-alternative orientation discrimination task. In both cases, the model predictions closely...

  10. A NEW HYBRID DYNAMIC METROPOLITAN TRAIN MODEL UN NUEVO MODELO DINÁMICO HÍBRIDO DE TREN METROPOLITANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Mahla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An integral dynamic model of the metropolitan train type transport system is presented. The interactions between the trajectories of the trains in use and the passenger exchange between the cars and the platforms in the stations along the tracks are described. In contrast with the current traffic engineering models based on passenger flow, this model allows the simulation of passenger accumulation that occurs on the platforms when the train cannot transport the total number of passengers waiting for it. The dynamics of the metropolitan train is modeled with a hybrid system in which the platforms and the trains are considered as continuous modes and train arrival at the stations as discrete events.En este artículo se describe un modelo dinámico integral del sistema de transporte tipo tren metropolitano. En él se describen las interacciones entre las trayectorias de los trenes en circulación y el intercambio de pasajeros entre los coches y los andenes en las estaciones a lo largo de la vía. A diferencia de los actuales modelos de ingeniería de tráfico, basados en flujos de pasajeros, este modelo permite simular las acumulaciones que se producen en los andenes cuando el tren no logra transportar la cantidad total de pasajeros esperando en el andén. La dinámica del tren metropolitano es modelada como un sistema híbrido en el cual los andenes y los trenes son considerados modos continuos y los arribos de los trenes a las estaciones como eventos discretos.

  11. Modelo de armadilha etanólica de interceptação de voo para captura de escolitíneos (Curculionidae: Scolytinae Ethanolic model of flight interception trap to capture scolytine (Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bolson Murari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este estudo teve por objetivo desenvolver um modelo alternativo de armadilha etanólica de interceptação de insetos voadores, visando à redução dos custos relacionados aos levantamentos de insetos da subfamília Scolytinae (Curculionidae, realizados em ecossistemas florestais. O modelo de armadilha, denominado de PET-SM, foi confeccionado com materiais recicláveis: prato plástico, garrafa de polietileno (PET de dois litros, garrafa PET de 600 mL, e mangueira com álcool 96° GL empregado como atrativo. Em comparação a outros modelos utilizados para monitoramento de Scolytinae, o modelo PET-SM mostrou-se eficiente na captura, apresentando um maior número de espécies coletadas e oferecendo um menor custo de confecção.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.115

    This study aimed to develop an alternative model of trap for interception with ethanol for flying insects, in order to reduce the costs related to surveys of insects of the subfamily Scolytinae (Curculionidae, conducted in forest ecosystems. The model of trap, called PET-SM, was manufactured with recyclable materials: plastic plate, polyethylene (PET bottle of two liters, PET bottle of 600 mL, and a hose with alcohol 96 GL used as attractive. Compared to other models used to monitor Scolytinae, the PET-SM model proved to be effective for capture, presenting a greater number of species and offering a lower cost of manufacture.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.115

  12. Internationalization Models for Colombian SMEs Modelos de internacionalización para las pymes colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Botero Mesa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME´s are fundamental actors in Colombian economy, as they are in other countries. Fast paced globalization imposes challenges to these companies in terms of the new opportunities and threats arising within the current competitive environment. For the SME entrepreneur, comprehending the theories on internationalization processes –how they take place, what their drivers are, and which models could be the fittest to expand his operations in international markets–, are key questions he must answer in order to survive, grow or increase the profitability of the organization. Management skills required to pursue such task are one of the most critical success factors for SME´s, and therefore, they become a critical focus on which deeper studies and discussions shall be encouragedLas pequeñas y medianas empresas –en adelante las pyme– son actores fundamentalesde la economía colombiana, tal como ocurre en otros países. El acelerado ritmo de laglobalización impone retos para estas compañías a partir de las nuevas oportunidadesy amenazas que se gestan en el actual entorno competitivo. Para el empresario pyme,comprender las teorías sobre los procesos de internacionalización –cómo se inician,cuáles son sus motivadores y qué modelos pueden ser los más adecuados para expandirsus operaciones en mercados internacionales–, son cuestionamientos claves que deberesolver con el ánimo de sobrevivir, crecer o aumentar la rentabilidad de la organización.La capacidad gerencial para acometer este proceso es uno de los factores de éxito máscríticos para las pyme y, por ende, un foco crucial sobre el cual se debe dinamizar laprofundización de estudios y la discusión.

  13. Modelos de engajamento

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Roberval de Jesus Leone dos

    2005-01-01

    O artigo apresenta três modelos de engajamento propostos por autores fundamentais do século XX: Gramsci, Sartre e Camus. Após a revisão dos modelos, o autor desenvolve uma abordagem generalizada do fenômeno e apresenta duas conclusões principais: o engajamento tem de ser entendido em termos de grau; o engajamento é um fenômeno exclusivo de sociedades políticas ou antagônicas.The paper presents three models of engagement proposed by fundamental authors of the 20th century: Gramsci, Sartre and ...

  14. Mathematical models in ruminant nutrition Modelos matemáticos na nutrição de ruminantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Orlindo Tedeschi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models can be used to improve performance, reduce cost of production, and reduce nutrient excretion by accounting for more of the variation in predicting requirements and feed utilization in each unique production situation. Mathematical models can be classified into five or more categories based on their nature and behavior. Determining the appropriate level of aggregation of equations is a major problem in formulating models. The most critical step is to describe the purpose of the model and then to determine the appropriate mix of empirical and mechanistic representations of physiological functions, given development and evaluation dataset availability, inputs typically available and the benefits versus the risks of use associated with increased sensitivity. We discussed five major feeding systems used around the world. They share common concepts of energy and nutrient requirement and supply by feeds, but differ in structure and application of the concepts. Animal models are used for a variety of purposes, including the simple description of observations, prediction of responses to management, and explanation of biological mechanisms. Depending upon the objectives, a number of different approaches may be used, including classical algebraic equations, predictive empirical relationships, and dynamic, mechanistic models. The latter offer the best opportunity to make full use of the growing body of knowledge regarding animal biology. Continuing development of these types of models and computer technology and software for their implementation holds great promise for improvements in the effectiveness with which fundamental knowledge of animal function can be applied to improve animal agriculture and reduce its impact on the environment.Modelos matemáticos podem ser utilizados para melhorar a performance, reduzir os custos de produção, e minimizar a exceção de nutrientes através de melhores estimativas da exigência e utiliza

  15. TAFV Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Choice Model Documentation; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    A model for predicting choice of alternative fuel and among alternative vehicle technologies for light-duty motor vehicles is derived. The nested multinomial logit (NML) mathematical framework is used. Calibration of the model is based on information in the existing literature and deduction based on assuming a small number of key parameters, such as the value of time and discount rates. A spreadsheet model has been developed for calibration and preliminary testing of the model

  16. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  17. Compreensão do modelo de king sobre o paradigma do Interacionismo Simbólico Entendiendo el modelo de king en el paradigma del Interaccionismo Simbolico Understanding of king's model on the paradigm of Simbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Maria de Almeida Araújo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se refletir sobre o modelo conceitual de King, segundo a abordagem do Interacionismo Simbólico, dentro do modelo de análises de teoria de Meleis. Para alcançar o objetivo, realizamos uma leitura dos três modelos citados nos trabalho, buscando as congruências e discrepâncias entre os conceitos e correlacionando-os. O estudo permitiu concluir que as teorias concordam ao elucidar o homem como um ser que reage e busca compreender o significado das coisas ao seu redor, planejando e julgando suas ações e a dos outros. É importante a questão dos significados poderem ser modificados e gerarem a elaboração de metas em comum.Se apuntó a reflectir acerca del modelo conceptual de King, según el acercamiento de Interacionismo Simbólico, dentro del modelo de análisis de la teoría de Meleis. Para alcanzar el objetivo, nosotros logramos una lectura de los tres modelos mencionada en el trabajo, mientras buscando las consistencias y diferencias entre los conceptos y poniéndolos en correlación. El estudio permitió concluir que las teorías están de acuerdo al elucidar al hombre como un ser que reacciona e investiga para entender el significado de las cosas en suyo circuito, mientras flotando y juzgando sus acciones y el uno de los otros. Es importante el asunto de los significados podría modificarse y ellos generan la elaboración de metas en común.It was aimed to reflect on King's Theory, according to the approach of Symbolic Interaccionism, and theory analyses model of Meleis. To reach the objective, we proceeded the reading of the three models as mentioned before, looking for the consistencies and discrepancies among the concepts and correlating them. The study allowed to conclude that the theories agree when elucidating the man as a being that reacts and search to understand the meaning of things to his/her circuit, drifting and judging their actions and the one of the other ones. It is important the subject of the meanings

  18. Modeling and Measurements of Alternating Magnetic Signatures of Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Wu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The alternating electric and magnetic fields are new contributors to the global electromagnetic silencing of ships. Thus, modeling and measurements of alternating magnetic signatures should be a research priority in maritime engineering. In this paper, an alternating horizontal electric dipole is adopted to model the electromagnetic fields related with corrosion. Formulas for alternating magnetic fields generated in shallow sea by horizontal electric dipole are derived based on an air-sea-seabed three-layered model and a numerical computer is also applied. In addition, the alternating magnetic fields of a ship are measured using a tri-axis fluxgate magnetometer fixed in a swaying platform. The characteristics of these fields are analyzed. Finally, the equivalent dipole moment of the trial ship is predicted by contrasting the model results and the observed data.

  19. Computer simulation models for teaching and learning Modelos de simulación en salud : una alternativa para la docencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gonzálo Restrepo Salazar

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer programs are being used for teaching and learning of pharmacology and physiology at the University of Antioquia, in Medellín, Colombia. They should be more widely used since they offer clear advantages over traditional systems of teach.ng; they allow direct presentations of models in motion, as well as a more active, interesting and flexible way of learning; besides they can save time and cut costs. Los Modelos de Simulación por Computador son programas de aprendizaje para enseñar materias como farmacología y fisiología a los estudiantes del área de la salud y de las ciencias básicas biomédicas. Los experimentos de simulación pueden usarse como soporte para la docencia y en algunas circunstancias como alternativa en las prácticas de laboratorio. La tecnología por computador ahora disponible permite la presentación directa de modelos en movimiento y posibilita un aprendizaje menos pasivo, más eficiente e interesante. La respuesta simulada de los tejidos se genera ya sea por resultados de experimentos actuales o por modelos predictivos y se presenta en la pantalla con gráficas de alta resolución comparables con las situaciones reales. Los estudiantes pueden realizar experimentos simulados, cambiar fácilmente sus parámetros y obtener información de igual manera que si hubieran realizado el experimento en el laboratorio.

  20. La deuda pública y sus implicaciones. Un modelo The implications of public debt. a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Gustavo

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available La crisis de la deuda pública es generalmente un reflejo de una crisis fiscal, como lo muestra el modelo que se propone este artículo en el que el endeudamiento externo ha sido suscrito por el gobierno. Al interrumpirse el financiamiento externo, los gobiernos no pudieron reducir los déficits con tanta rapidez y tuvieron que recurrir a fuentes internas. El modelo muestra que si la economía no está creciendo, la financiación con deuda constituye un factor adicional de perturbación a la estabilidad macroeconómica.The crisis of the public debt generally is the reflect of a fiscal
    crisis. As in the model, where the external debt belongs to the
    government. when the external financing stops, the governments can not reduce its deficits at the same speed so they have to look out for internal financing. The model shows that if the economy is not growing, the financing with debt constítutes and additional factor of perturbation to the macroeconomic stability

  1. Modelos aplicados às atividades de educação em saúde Modelos aplicados a las actividades de educación en salud Models applied to the activities of health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Santos Figueiredo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou compreender quais os modelos educacionais têm sido aplicados às atividades de educação em saúde. Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura, sobre o tema “Modelos de Educação” e “Educação em Saúde”, utilizando como referenciais livros-textos contemporâneos de especialistas da área de educação e periódicos sobre tais temas, disponíveis nas principais bases de dados. Os resultados revelaram que o Modelo Tradicional de educação em saúde objetiva transmissão do conhecimento e experiência do educador, atribuindo uma importância suprema ao conteúdo ensinado, esperando que os educandos o absorvam sem modificações e o reproduzam fielmente. Já, o modelo dialógico compreende a educação em saúde como um processo de conscientização, mudança e transformação, caracterizada por uma filosofia emancipatória dos sujeitos.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar modelos educativos que se han aplicado a las actividades de educación en salud. Es una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema “Modelos de Educación”, “Educación para la Salud”, utilizando como referencia libros contemporáneos, revistas sobre temas tales disponible en las principales bases de datos. Resultados mostraron que Modelo Tradicional de educación para la salud tiene por objeto transferencia de experiências, conocimientos de al educador, lo que da una importancia primordial a los contenidos enseñados, con esperanza de que estudiantes absorber la misma, la reproducción fiel. Modelo basado en el diálogo entiende la educación para la salud como proceso de sensibilización, el cambio, la transformación, que se caracteriza por una filosofía del sujeto emancipatorio.This study aimed at determining which educational models have been applied to the activities health education. This is a review of literature on the topic “Models of Education” and “Health Education”, using as reference contemporary books of

  2. Un modelo explicativo de resiliencia en jovenes y adolescentes Um modelo explicativo de resiliência em jovens e adolescentes An explanatory model of resilience in youth and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Omar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La resiliencia ha sido definida como la capacidad para superar y salir fortalecido de las adversidades. Esta capacidad es evolutiva y es influenciada por factores protectivos, tanto personales como ambientales. Si bien muchos de estos factores han sido identificados, poco se sabe acerca de las complejas interacciones entre ellos y la forma que contribuyen al desarrollo de la resiliencia. Con base en la evidencia científica más reciente, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue desarrollar un modelo explicativo de la resiliencia en jóvenes y adolescentes. Cada variable introducida en el modelo asienta sus bases en la evidencia teórica o empírica publicada. Por la naturaleza de las variables incluidas (optimismo, sentido del humor, emociones positivas, bienestar, inteligencia emocional, el modelo propuesto se enmarca dentro de los lineamientos de la Psicología Positiva. Se ofrecen sugerencias teóricas, metodológicas y epistemológicas para poner a prueba el modelo..Tem-se definido resiliência como a capacidade de superar as adversidades e sair delas mais fortalecido. Esta capacidade é evolutiva e é influenciada por fatores de proteção tanto pessoal como ambiental. Embora muitos desses fatores tenham sido identificados, pouco se sabe sobre as complexas interações entre eles e a maneira como contribuem para o desenvolvimento da resiliência. O bjetivo destes trabalho foi desenvolver, com base nos últimos dados científicos, um modelo explicativo da resiliência em jovens e adolescentes. Cada variável introduzida no modelo está enraizada na prova teórica ou empírica publicada. Pela natureza das variáveis incluídas (otimismo, senso de humor, emoções positivas, bem-estar e inteligência emocional, o modelo proposto enquadra-se nas diretrizes da Psicologia Positiva. Sugestões teóricas, metodológicas e epistemológicas são oferecidas para testar o modelo.Resilience has been defined as the ability to overcome and emerge stronger

  3. Abordagem do modelo transteórico no comportamento alimentar Transtheoretical model approach in eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Toral

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do comportamento alimentar tem despertado grande interesse por se tratar de um elemento importante para o sucesso de intervenções nutricionais. Considerando-se a complexidade do tema e as inúmeras influências a que está submetido, sugere-se que o aprofundamento de pesquisas sobre os determinantes do comportamento alimentar possibilite maior impacto nas ações de promoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis. A adoção cada vez mais freqüente de uma alimentação inadequada no Brasil e no mundo leva a um questionamento sobre o impacto das intervenções nutricionais tradicionalmente utilizadas em âmbito populacional. Diversas estratégias de educação nutricional são atualmente descritas na literatura; contudo, alcançar a motivação da população para uma mudança efetiva do padrão alimentar ainda é um dos grandes desafios para a saúde pública. A aplicação do modelo transteórico parece ter um papel promissor em relação à melhor compreensão da mudança de comportamento alimentar, almejada nas intervenções nutricionais. Estratégias que envolvam o direcionamento para cada estágio de mudança de comportamento, identificado segundo essa teoria, podem ser mais eficazes quanto à motivação dos indivíduos a adotar práticas alimentares mais saudáveis.The study of eating behavior has been much interest, as this is an essential element for the success of dietary interventions. In view of the complexity of the subject and the countless influences to which it is subject, it is suggested that an in-depth exploration of eating behavior determinants enhances the impact of programs promoting healthy dietary practices. Increasingly more frequent, the adoption of inadequate diets in Brazil and elsewhere in the world leads to questions about the impact of dietary interventions traditionally applied to population groups. Many nutritional education strategies are currently described in the literature; however, motivating

  4. Experimental model for composite tissue allotransplantations Modelo experimental para alotransplantes de tecido composto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In homologous transplantation or allotranplantation of limbs, the great tissue diversity causes variability in the rejection process and, consequently, its immunology is very complex. Thus, limb transplantation is the most used prototype of compound tissue transplantation among the protocols of experimental studies. Composite tissue allotransplantation represents the experimental model to study the homologous transplantation (from an individual to another of vascularized, innervated musclecutaneous units, joints, bone or even the whole member. Groups of rats were undergone allogeneic hindlimb transplantation. The receptors were randomized and control groups were established as: Control Group A: Autograft controls (F344 rats had its limbs reimplanted and no immunosuppressive therapy. Control Group B: Allograft controls (BN rats limbs were transplanted to F344. Composite tissue homotransplantation allows the inclusion of innervated muscle-cutaneous units, joint and bone or even the hole limb, is considerably applicable in cases of congenital absence or deformity, trauma or greater resection due to malignant tumor. For many complex deformities, these transplantations would allow a more precise reconstruction than the current reconstruction techniques.Nos transplantes alógenos de membro a grande variabilidade de tecidos (pele, subcutâneo, músculo, osso, medula óssea, gânglios linfáticos, cartilagem, nervo, vasos, tendão, articulação leva a grande variação dentro do processo de rejeição e consequentemente a sua imunologia é bastante complexa. Os transplantes alógenos de tecido composto representam o modelo experimental para se estudar o transplante homólogo (de um indivíduo para outro de unidades músculo cutâneas inervadas, vascularizadas, articulações, osso ou mesmo de todo o membro. Os receptores foram randomizados e os grupos controle foram estabelecidos como: grupo controle A: transplante autógeno de membro em que ratos F344

  5. Modelo experimental de tumor de Walker Walker’s tumoral experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pedroso de Moraes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de padronizar normas técnicas para obtenção de modelo animal com tumor de Walker 256 e de estabelecer o número de células tumorais necessárias para que esse tumor tenha grande porcentagem de pega e longevidade, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de pesquisas em várias áreas da saúde, foi realizado trabalho em duas etapas. Na primeira foram utilizados 120 ratos para treinamento e definição da técnica. Na segunda etapa foram utilizados 84 ratos, sendo estes separados em 7 grupos (G de 12 animais cada. O tumor, na forma ascítica, foi inoculado no tecido celular subcutâneo do dorso dos ratos com os seguintes números de células: GI, 1 x 10(7; GII, 5 x 10(6; GIII, 2,5 x 10(6; GIV, 1 x 10(6; GV, 5 x 10(5; GVI, 3 x 10(5 e GVII, 2 x 10(5. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de pega e a longevidade nos grupos. Os animais dos GI, GII, GIII e GIV obtiveram 100% de desenvolvimento tumoral, porém baixa longevidade. Os dos GV e GVI obtiveram desenvolvimento tumoral em frequência maior que 90% e longevidade satisfatória. Os do GVII não apresentaram desenvolvimento tumoral. Concluiu-se que todos os procedimentos devem ser exaustivamente treinados e que o número de células tumorais viáveis para inoculação, em tecido celular subcutâneo de ratos, deve estar na faixa entre 5 x 10(5 e 3 x 10(5.The aim of this work was standardize technical norms to obtain a model of Walker 256 tumor in animals and get the tumorous cells number needed to increase the tumorous join percentage and longevity, it makes possible the research development in several health areas. The work was realized in two stages. In first were used 120 rats to crew’s training and technicals definitions. In second stage were used 84 rats, these separated in 7 groups (G with 12 animals each one. The tumor, in ascitic form was inoculated on subcutaneous cellular tissue on dorsal of rats with the follow number of cells : GI, 1 x 10(7; GII, 5 x 10(6; GIII, 2,5 x 10(6; GIV, 1

  6. Modelo Preditivo para Cesariana com Uso de Fatores de Risco Predictive Model using Risk Factors for Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo de Almeida Cunha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar fatores anteparto relacionados à ocorrência de cesariana. Construir modelo preditivo de cesariana. Pacientes e Métodos: Foram estudados todos os 843 partos assistidos em unidade obstétrica de nível III, no período de junho de 1993 a novembro de 1994.O delineamento do estudo foi de coorte do tipo retrospectivo. O critério de inclusão foi de recém-nascido vivo pesando 1.000 g ou mais. A variável dependente foi cesariana, dicotomizada como presente ou ausente. As variáveis independentes foram os fatores anteparto relacionados à cesariana. Para a construção do modelo foi utilizada a regressão logística. Resultados: O modelo multivariado mostrou risco de cesariana de acordo com as seguintes variáveis independentes: adolescência (idade inferior a 20 anos, odds ratio (OR = 0,396; idade materna igual ou superior a 28 anos, OR = 2,133; antecedente de parto normal, OR = 0,626; antecedente de cesariana OR = 4,576; assistência pré-natal, OR=2,346; apresentação pélvica, OR = 4,174; gemelaridade OR = 14,065; hemorragia da segunda metade da prenhez, OR = 28,189; pré-eclampsia leve, OR = 2,180; pré-eclampsia grave, OR = 16,738; hipertensão arterial crônica, OR = 4,927, e outras intercorrências maternas, OR = 2,012. O modelo matemático mostrou concordância entre a probabilidade prevista e a resposta observada em 82,3%, o que indica sua eficiência. Conclusões: Foram identificados 12 fatores anteparto relacionados à ocorrência de cesariana. Foi possível construir modelo preditivo de cesariana utilizando os fatores de risco anteparto identificados no presente estudo.Purpose: to investigate antepartum factors related to cesarean section and develop a cesarean section predictive model. Methods: the study design was a retrospective cohort which included all the cared 843 deliveries in a third level unit from June 1993 through November 1994. Children with 1,000 g birthweight and above were included. The

  7. A simple model to evaluate the impact of the thermal power plants emissions; Un modelo simple para evaluar el impacto de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodas Grapain, Arturo; Salcido, Alejandro [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Formulation and validation of a dispersion model for relative plumes are presented in this paper. This model (MOTTQUIP: Modelo de Transporte Turbulento y Quimico de Plumas) was developed to assess the environmental impact of power generation. The theoretical formulation if this model is based on the integral form of the mass balance equation. MOTTQUIP can simulate (in two dimensions) the turbulent dispersion and chemical transformation phenomena of a nitrogen oxides (Nox) non-buoyant plume in an ozone (O{sub 3}) atmosphere. The results produced by MOTTQUIP, however, can run in a personal computer consuming relatively short CPU times. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan la formulacion y la validacion de un modelo (MOTTQUIP: Modelo de Transporte Turbulento y Quimica de Plumas) para evaluar el impacto de las emisiones de contaminantes reactivos de centrales termoelectricas. Este modelo se formula a partir de la forma integral de la ecuacion de balance de masa, y no de su forma diferencial, como se procede generalmente. MOTTQUIP simula, en dos dimensiones, la dispersion turbulenta y transformacion quimica de una pluma no flotante de oxidos de nitrogeno (Nox), misma que se interna paulatinamente en un ambiente de ozono (O{sub 3}). Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con los de modelos alternos que simulan el mismo sistema reactivo, encontrandose una concordancia bastante aceptable. Una ventaja de MOTTQUIP, sin embargo, es que puede utilizarse en sistemas de computo pequenos, empleando tiempos de CPU relativamente cortos.

  8. Alternative models of DSM-5 PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Siobhan; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2018-01-01

    estimated within a confirmatory factor analytic framework using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Data were analysed from a Malaysian adolescent community sample (n=481) of which 61.7% were female, with a mean age of 17.03 years. The results indicated that all models provided satisfactory model fit...

  9. Alternative Public Service Delivery Models in Health, Water and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The literature on public service delivery alternatives has to date been highly localized, sector specific and lacking in methodological consistency. This project seeks to analyze health, water and electricity delivery models in Africa, Asia and Latin America in order to identify and document successful alternatives to ...

  10. Modelo de error en imágenes comprimidas con wavelets Error Model in Wavelet-compressed Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Puetamán G.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta la compresión de imágenes a través de la comparación entre el modelo Wavelet y el modelo Fourier, utilizando la minimización de la función de error. El problema que se estudia es específico, consiste en determinar una base {ei} que minimice la función de error entre la imagen original y la recuperada después de la compresión. Es de resaltar que existen muchas aplicaciones, por ejemplo, en medicina o astronomía, en donde no es aceptable ningún deterioro de la imagen porque toda la información contenida, incluso la que se estima como ruido, se considera imprescindible.In this paper we study image compression as a way to compare Wavelet and Fourier models, by minimizing the error function. The particular problem we consider is to determine basis {ei} minimizing the error function between the original image and the recovered one after compression. It is to be noted or remarked that there are many applications in such diverse fields as for example medicine and astronomy, where no image deteriorating is acceptable since even noise is considered essential.

  11. Modelos de predição para sobrevivência de plantas de Eucalyptus grandis Prediction models of Eucalyptus grandis plant survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telde Natel Custódio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho comparar modelos de predição de plantas sobreviventes de Eucalyptus grandis. Utilizaram-se os seguintes modelos: modelo linear misto com os dados transformados, utilizando-se as transformações angular e BOX-COX; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição binomial e funções de ligação logística, probit e complemento log-log; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica. Os dados são provenientes de um experimento em blocos ao acaso, para avaliação de progênies maternas de Eucalyptus grandis, aos 5 anos de idade, em que a variável resposta são plantas sobreviventes. Para comparação dos efeitos entre os modelos foram estimadas as correlações de Spearman e aplicado o teste de permutação de Fisher. Foi possível concluir que, o modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica se ajustou mal aos dados e que as estimativas para os efeitos fixos e predição para os efeitos aleatórios, não se diferenciaram entre os demais modelos estudados.The objective of this work was to compare models for prediction of the survival of plants of Eucalyptus grandis. The following models were used: linear mixed model with the transformed data, by utilizing the angular transformations and BOX-COX; generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution and logistic functions, probit and complement log-log links; generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and logarithmic link function. The data came from a randomized block experiment for evaluation of Eucalyptus grandis maternal progenies at five years old, in which the variable response are surviving plants. For comparison of the effects among the models the correlations of Spearman were estimated and the test of permutation of Fisher was applied. It was possible to conclude that: the generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and

  12. Modelo de Cuidado: ¿Qué es y como elaborarlo? Model of care: What is it? And how do you elaborate it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kuerten Rocha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se realiza una reflexión teórica sobre el significado del modelo de cuidado de enfermería, además de ofrecer elementos para su elaboración. Existe una diversidad de terminologías sobre lo que es modelo de cuidado y sus elementos, tales como: modelo de cuidado, marco/sistema/modelo conceptual, marco de referencia, marco teórico, metodología y método. En este estudio son presentadas las etapas que sistematizan el desarrollo de un modelo de cuidado, a saber: planeamiento, desarrollo, implementación y evaluación. Por ser dinámica, la elaboración de un modelo de cuidado necesita de la interacción directa entre el investigador y el sujeto. La lógica inductiva-deductiva-inductiva le permite al investigador un ir y venir del mundo de la práctica al mundo abstracto reflexivo. Un modelo de cuidado nos remite a la construcción de un conocimiento que favorece un cuidar diferenciado y específico, al mismo tiempo que estimula el conocimiento y el desarrollo de la Enfermería. De esa manera, los modelos de cuidado engloban un conjunto de conocimientos que califican y perfeccionan la praxis de la Enfermería.This article develops a theory about the nursing care model’s meaning and it also offers subsidies for its elaboration. There is a diversity of terminologies on what care model and their components are, like the following ones: care model, mark, system, conceptual model, referential mark, theoretical mark, methodology and method. The stages that systematize the development of a care model are the following: planning, development, implementation and evaluation. The elaboration of a care model is dynamic and it needs the direct interaction between the researcher and the subject. The inductive-deductive-inductive logic allows the researcher to move from the practice world to the reflexive abstract one. A care model implies the construction of knowledge that favors differentiated and specific care and, at the same

  13. Big bang nucleosynthesis - The standard model and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    The standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation of the big bang cosmological model is reviewed, and alternate models are discussed. The standard model is shown to agree with the light element abundances for He-4, H-2, He-3, and Li-7 that are available. Improved observational data from recent LEP collider and SLC results are discussed. The data agree with the standard model in terms of the number of neutrinos, and provide improved information regarding neutron lifetimes. Alternate models are reviewed which describe different scenarios for decaying matter or quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities. The baryonic density relative to the critical density in the alternate models is similar to that of the standard model when they are made to fit the abundances. This reinforces the conclusion that the baryonic density relative to critical density is about 0.06, and also reinforces the need for both nonbaryonic dark matter and dark baryonic matter.

  14. Adapting Evaluations of Alternative Payment Models to a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, Thomas W; Brown, Randall S

    2018-04-01

    To identify the most robust methods for evaluating alternative payment models (APMs) in the emerging health care delivery system environment. We assess the impact of widespread testing of alternative payment models on the ability to find credible comparison groups. We consider the applicability of factorial research designs for assessing the effects of these models. The widespread adoption of alternative payment models could effectively eliminate the possibility of comparing APM results with a "pure" control or comparison group unaffected by other interventions. In this new environment, factorial experiments have distinct advantages over the single-model experimental or quasi-experimental designs that have been the mainstay of recent tests of Medicare payment and delivery models. The best prospects for producing definitive evidence of the effects of payment incentives for APMs include fractional factorial experiments that systematically vary requirements and payment provisions within a payment model. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Participação popular no controle da esquistossomose através do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, em Taquaraçu de Minas, (Minas Gerais, Brasil, entre 1985-1995: construção de um modelo alternativo An alternative model for schistosomiasis control with active participation by the population through the Unified Health System (SUS in Taquaraçu de Minas (Minas Gerais, Brazil from 1985 to 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Coura-Filho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o programa de controle da esquistossomose realizado em Taquaraçu de Minas, MG, entre 1985 e 1995. A medida de controle adotada foi a participação popular nas ações de controle: tratamento seletivo, saneamento e educação popular. A equipe de saúde local foi capacitada para gerenciar o programa, conforme proposta do SUS. O fornecimento de água potável foi oferecido a 97% das residências no núcleo do Município. Em 1995, foi realizada análise para identificação dos fatores de risco responsáveis pela manutenção da transmissão da esquistossomose. A prevalência da infecção entre 1985-1995 apresentou-se sete vezes menor, passando de 30,9% para 4,3%, respectivamente. A intensidade de infecção também sofreu significativa redução, passando de 91,2 ± 6,1 para 30,7 ± 2,5 (p = 0,00 no mesmo período. A municipalização desse programa de controle da esquistossomose através do SUS, usando-se um tratamento seletivo, fornecimento de água potável intradomiciliar com participação popular nas medidas de controle, seguido de atendimento da demanda espontânea, apresentou resultados duradouros, apontando a possibilidade de uso deste modelo para outras áreas endêmicas com características semelhantes.This study evaluated the schistosomiasis control program implemented in Taquaraçu de Minas, Minas Gerais, from 1985 to 1995. In 1995, we measured the prevalence and intensity of infection for a retrospective comparison with the data from 1985. The local health team was trained to manage all the program activities. The work involved stool tests (Kato-Katz, selective specific treatment, medical care for patients spontaneously visiting the local Health Center, definition of measures to be adopted, and popular education focusing on information about the endemic disease. The safe drinking water supply covered 97% of the households in the county seat. Prevalence of infection between 1985 and 1995 was reduced 7.0 fold, from 30

  16. Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

    2011-12-01

    The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to

  17. Modelling of spray evaporation and penetration for alternative fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Azami, M. H.; Savill, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this work is on the modelling of evaporation and spray penetration for alternative fuels. The extension model approach is presented and validated for alternative fuels, namely, Kerosene (KE), Ethanol (ETH), Methanol (MTH), Microalgae biofuel (MA), Jatropha biofuel (JA), and Camelina biofuel (CA). The results for atomization and spray penetration are shown in a time variant condition. Comparisons have been made to visualize the transient behaviour of these fuels. The vapour pressu...

  18. MODELOS ONTOLÓGICOS DE SOPORTE A LA GESTIÓN DE COMPETENCIAS PROFESIONALES/ ONTOLOGICAL MODELS FOR PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Blanco-González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Desde los inicios de la década del 90 del pasado siglo, el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías asociadas a la gestión del conocimiento marcaron una nueva forma de control que permitió formalizar, capturar, organizar y reutilizar el conocimiento asociado a los escenarios en los que las competencias se ponen de manifiesto, tanto en el ámbito laboral como académico. En la presente investigación se realiza un estudio del estado del arte sobre modelos ontológicos de soporte a la gestión de competencias profesionales, con vistas a caracterizar algunos de éstos en función del aporte que realizan a los requerimientos tecnológicos de un proceso de identificación de competencias. Como resultado se identificaron un conjunto de modelos ontológicos con características y propósitos muy variados, para los cuales fue necesario definir un conjunto de parámetros para su evaluación. Del estudio se pudo concluir que ninguno de los modelos identificados satisface completamente los requerimientos del proceso de identificación de competencias objeto de estudio.

    Abstract

    Since the beginning of the 90s of the past century, the development of new technologies associated to Knowledge Management, marked a new form of control that allowed to formalize, to capture, to organize and to reuse the knowledge associated to each one of the stages in which the competences are manifested, both in the work and academic field. In this research it is carried out a study about the state of the art of ontological models for supporting the professional competences management, with the purpose of characterizing some of them in order to identify their contribution to the technological requirements of a process of competences identification. As the main result, a set of ontological models with very varied characteristics and purposes were identified, and it was necessary to define a set of parameters for its assessment. It was concluded that

  19. Desenvolvimento de um modelo para avaliar a sustentabilidade corporativa Development of a model for corporate sustainability assesment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Cristiano Zamcopé

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um modelo de avaliação da sustentabilidade corporativa, construído com base no sistema de valores, interesses e preferências dos decisores de uma indústria têxtil. Como instrumento de intervenção utilizou-se a metodologia multicritério de apoio à decisão - construtivista (MCDA-C, por essa possibilitar a identificação de um conjunto de indicadores de desempenho que caracterizam a sustentabilidade e por mensurar o grau de alcance das propriedades analisadas da organização quanto ao seu compromisso com a sustentabilidade. O modelo possibilitou aos decisores a compreensão das principais questões de sustentabilidade e ações necessárias para resolvê-las, além de proporcionar a medição de desempenho e avaliação do progresso para melhorias contínuas. Entre as ações geradas a partir do modelo, destaca-se a criação de um comitê de sustentabilidade, revisão do planejamento estratégico, fortalecimento dos canais de comunicação e programas de conscientização para os funcionários, fornecedores e demais envolvidos.This paper introduces the development of an assessment model for corporate sustainability, which was built based on the system of values, concerns and preferences of decision makers from a textile factory. The Multi-criteria for Decision Aid - Constructivist (MCDA-C methodology was used, enabling to identify a set of performance indicators that features the company's sustainability and to measure the degree of properties range considered by the organization about its commitment to sustainability. The model allowed decision makers to understand the key sustainability issues and actions needed to resolve them, and provide performance measurement and evaluation of progress toward continuous improvement. Among the actions generated by the model, there are the creation of a committee of sustainability, strategic planning review, strengthening of communication channels and

  20. An alternative model of free fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattery, Mark

    2018-03-01

    In Two World Systems (Galileo 1632/1661 Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences (New York: Prometheus)), Galileo attempted to unify terrestrial and celestial motions using the Aristotelian principle of circularity. The result was a model of free fall that correctly predicts the linear increase of the velocity of an object released from rest near the surface of the Earth. This historical episode provides an opportunity to communicate the nature of science to students.

  1. Alternative models for restructuring Ontario's electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, D.; Salaff, S.

    1996-01-01

    The future of Ontario Hydro and the provincial electrical sector was discussed. Various models proposed for restructuring Ontario's electric sector were described and views of some of the stake holders were presented, among them the views of AMPCO, MEA, the Ontario Chamber of Commerce, IPPSO, Ontario Hydro Management, Energy Probe and the Power Workers' Union. In general, most stake holders were in favour of privatization to some degree except for the Power Workers' Union which was unalterably opposed to privatization, claiming that it would lead to quantum increases in electricity rates. 2 figs

  2. Examining Pedestrian Injury Severity Using Alternative Disaggregate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the injury severity of pedestrians considering detailed road user characteristics and alternative model specification using a high-quality Danish road accident data. Such detailed and alternative modeling approach helps to assess the sensitivity of empirical inferences...... to the choice of these models. The empirical analysis reveals that detailed road user characteristics such as crime history of drivers and momentary activities of road users at the time of the accident provides an interesting insight in the injury severity analysis. Likewise, the alternative analytical...... specification of the models reveals that some of the conventionally employed fixed parameters injury severity models could underestimate the effect of some important behavioral attributes of the accidents. For instance, the standard ordered logit model underestimated the marginal effects of some...

  3. Autologistic model with an application to the citrus "sudden death" disease Modelo autologístico com aplicação para a doença "morte súbita" dos citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Teixeira Krainski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The citrus sudden death (CSD disease affects dramatically citrus trees causing a progressive plant decline and death. The disease has been identified in the late 90's in the main citrus production area of Brazil and since then there are efforts to understand the etiology as well as the mechanisms its spreading. One relevant aspect of such studies is to investigate spatial patterns of the occurrence within a field. Methods for determining whether the spatial pattern is aggregated or not has been frequently used. However it is possible to further explore and describe the data by means of adopting an explicit model to discriminate and quantify effects by attaching parameters to covariates which represent aspects of interest to be investigated. One alternative involves autologistic models, which extend a usual logistic model in order to accommodate spatial effects. In order to implement such model it is necessary to take into account the reuse of data to built spatial covariates, which requires extensions in methodology and algorithms to assess the variance of the estimates. This work presents an application of the autologistic model to data collected at 11 time points from citrus fields affected by CSD. It is shown how the autologistic model is suitable to investigate diseases of this type, as well as a description of the model and the computational aspects necessary for model fitting.A morte súbita dos citros (MSC é uma doença com efeitos dramáticos em árvores de citros causando declínio progressivo e morte. Ela foi identificada no final da década de 90 em uma das principais áreas de produção no Brasil e desde então esforços são empregados para entender a sua etiologia e os seus mecanismos de dispersão. Um aspecto relevante para estudos é a investigação do padrão espacial da incidência dentro de um campo. Métodos para determinar se o padrão espacial é agregado ou não têm sido freqüentemente utilizados. Entretanto é poss

  4. Hydraulic Model for Drinking Water Networks, Including Household Connections; Modelo hidraulico para redes de agua potable con tomas domiciliarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero Angulo, Jose Oscar [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa (Mexico); Arreguin Cortes, Felipe [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents a hydraulic simulation model for drinking water networks, including elements that are currently not considered household connections, spatially variable flowrate distribution pipelines, and tee secondary network. This model is determined by solving the equations needed for a conventional model following an indirect procedure for the solution of large equations systems. Household connection performance is considered as dependent of water pressure and the way in which users operate the taps of such intakes. This approach allows a better a acquaintance with the drinking water supply networks performance as well as solving problems that demand a more precise hydraulic simulation, such as water quality variations, leaks in networks, and the influence of home water tanks as regulating devices. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo de simulacion hidraulica para redes de agua potable en el cual se incluyen elementos que no se toman en cuenta actualmente, como las tomas domiciliarias, los tubos de distribucion con gastos espacialmente variado y la red secundaria, resolviendo el numero de ecuaciones que seria necesario plantear en un modelo convencional mediante un procedimiento indirecto para la solucion de grandes sistemas de ecuaciones. En las tomas domiciliarias se considera que su funcionamiento depende de las presiones y la forma en que los usuarios operan las llaves de las mismas. Este planteamiento permite conocer mejor el funcionamiento de las redes de abastecimiento de agua potable y solucionar problemas que requieren de una simulacion hidraulica mas precisa, como el comportamiento de la calidad del agua, las fugas en las redes y la influencia reguladora de los tinacos de las casas.

  5. MODELO ACO PARA LA RECOLECCIÓN DE RESIDUOS POR CONTENEDORES ACO MODEL APPLIED TO THE WASTE COLLECTION BY CONTAINERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Salazar Hornig

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ACO es una metaheurística inspirada en el comportamiento de las colonias de hormigas para solucionar problemas de optimización combinatoria, por medio de la utilización de agentes computacionales simples que trabajan de manera cooperativa y se comunican mediante rastros de feromona artificiales. En este trabajo se presenta un modelo para resolver el Problema de Recolección de Residuos Domiciliarios por Contenedores, el que aplica un concepto de secuencias parciales de recolección que deben ser unidas para minimizar la distancia total de recolección. El problema de unir las secuencias parciales se representa como un TSP, el que es resuelto mediante un algoritmo ACO. En base a recomendaciones de la literatura, se calibran experimentalmente los parámetros del algoritmo y se recomiendan rangos de valores que representan buenos rendimientos promedio. El modelo se aplica a un sector de recolección de la comuna de San Pedro de la Paz, Chile, obteniéndose rutas de recolección que reducen la distancia total recorrida respecto de la actual ruta utilizada y de la solución obtenida con otro modelo desarrollado previamente.ACO is a metaheuristic inspired in the behavior of natural ant colonies to solve combinatorial optimization problems, based on simple agents that work cooperatively communicating by artificial pheromone trails. In this paper a model to solve the municipal waste collection problem by containers is presented, which applies a concept of partial collection sequences that must be joined to minimize the total collection distance. The problem to join the partial collection sequences is represented as a TSP, which is solved by an ACO algorithm. Based on the literature, algorithm parameters are experimentally calibrated and range of variations that represents good average solutions are recommended. The model is applied to a waste collection sector of the San Pedro de la Paz commune in Chile, obtaining recollection routes with less total

  6. MODELO MULTIDIMENSIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Cedeño Trujillo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Data Warehousing, es una tecnología para el almacenamiento de grandes volúmenes de datos en una amplia perspectiva de tiempo para el soporte a la toma de decisiones. Debido a su orientación analítica, impone un procesamiento distinto al de los sistemas operacionales y requiere de un diseño de base de datos más cercano a la visión de los usuarios finales, permitiendo que sea más fácil la recuperación de información y la navegación. Este diseño de base de datos se conoce como modelo multidimensional, este artículo, abordará sus características principales.

  7. Alternative models of DSM-5 PTSD: Examining diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siobhan; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask; Yong Chen, Yoke; Raudzah Ghazali, Siti; Shevlin, Mark

    2018-04-01

    The factor structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated with evidence supporting the recently proposed seven-factor Hybrid model. However, despite myriad studies examining PTSD symptom structure few have assessed the diagnostic implications of these proposed models. This study aimed to generate PTSD prevalence estimates derived from the 7 alternative factor models and assess whether pre-established risk factors associated with PTSD (e.g., transportation accidents and sexual victimisation) produce consistent risk estimates. Seven alternative models were estimated within a confirmatory factor analytic framework using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Data were analysed from a Malaysian adolescent community sample (n = 481) of which 61.7% were female, with a mean age of 17.03 years. The results indicated that all models provided satisfactory model fit with statistical superiority for the Externalising Behaviours and seven-factor Hybrid models. The PTSD prevalence estimates varied substantially ranging from 21.8% for the DSM-5 model to 10.0% for the Hybrid model. Estimates of risk associated with PTSD were inconsistent across the alternative models, with substantial variation emerging for sexual victimisation. These findings have important implications for research and practice and highlight that more research attention is needed to examine the diagnostic implications emerging from the alternative models of PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelos de engajamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberval de Jesus Leone dos Santos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta três modelos de engajamento propostos por autores fundamentais do século XX: Gramsci, Sartre e Camus. Após a revisão dos modelos, o autor desenvolve uma abordagem generalizada do fenômeno e apresenta duas conclusões principais: o engajamento tem de ser entendido em termos de grau; o engajamento é um fenômeno exclusivo de sociedades políticas ou antagônicas.The paper presents three models of engagement proposed by fundamental authors of the 20th century: Gramsci, Sartre and Camus. After the revision of the models, the author develops a generalized approach of the phenomenon and it presents two main conclusions: the engagement must be understood within limits of degree; the engagement is a phenomenon exclusive of political or antagonistic societies.

  9. Um modelo para orientação familial em oligofrenias A model for familial orientation on mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo Gonçalves

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Após revisão de teorias e evidências sobre a etiologia das oligofrenias, são apresentados casos clínicos de oligofrênicos atendidos em serviço de Genética Médica, os quais servem de substrato para a proposição de um modelo de Aconselhamento Genético, que os classifica em ambiental, gênica, cromossômica, familial e idiopática.Theories and evidences on etiology of mental retardation are presented. Five cases of mental retardation from a Clinical Genetics Service are reported, as basis for an etiological model on mental retardation, quite operational in genetic counseling and familial orientation.

  10. Fisiopatología, tratamiento y modelos experimentales de artritis reumatoide Pathophysiology, treatment and experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Noa Puig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La artritis reumatoide, poliartritis inflamatoria más común del adulto, que afecta cerca del 1 % de la población mundial, predomina más en mujeres que en hombres, se presenta con mayor frecuencia entre los 30 y 50 años de edad, y conlleva a una gran discapacidad del paciente. Se caracteriza por una sinovitis erosiva simétrica, en la cual el tejido conjuntivo prolifera (pannus, invade y erosiona el cartílago y el hueso de las articulaciones y, a veces, por una afectación multisistémica. En la mayoría de los pacientes la enfermedad sigue una evolución crónica fluctuante que, si no se trata, ocasiona una progresiva destrucción, deformidad e incapacidad de las articulaciones afectadas. La enfermedad evoluciona con cifras elevadas de factor reumatoideo y /o anticuerpos anti-citrulinas. Constituyen aspectos esenciales del tratamiento óptimo de la enfermedad: el diagnóstico diferencial precoz; el tratamiento inicial con antiinflamatorios no esteroideos; el uso de fármacos modificadores del curso de la enfermedad; el uso posible de glucocorticoides, a dosis bajas por vía oral, o en inyección intraarticular; la evaluación periódica de la adecuación del tratamiento (monitorización radiológica, sérica y funcional de la progresión de la enfermedad y de la toxicidad asociada al tratamiento, y las intervenciones de educación y rehabilitación del paciente. Para evaluar nuevas terapias para el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide, los modelos más usados son: el de la artritis inducida por adyuvante en ratas y artritis inducida por colágeno en ratas y ratones. Otros modelos recientes muestran datos limitados. La eficacia de varios compuestos revela que su efecto terapéutico es más predictivo de eficacia clínica en humano cuando se estudian los modelos de artritis por adyuvante y por colágeno, que los datos de un solo modelo.The rheumatoid arthritis, is the inflammatory polyarthritis commonest in adults affecting about the 1 % of

  11. Caos determinístico em um modelo simplificado de cadeia produtiva Deterministic chaos in simplified supply chain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Bastos de Figueiredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar um modelo teórico simplificado de cadeia produtiva onde as relações entre o número de competidores, os tempos de resposta para ajustes da produção e a intensidade da resposta das empresas levam intrinsecamente ao surgimento de oscilações caóticas na oferta e na demanda. No modelo proposto, desenvolvido com o uso da metodologia de dinâmica de sistemas, as flutuações irregulares na demanda e nos preços estão intimamente relacionadas com a própria estrutura da cadeia, ou seja, com suas regras, políticas e capacidades produtivas. São feitas considerações sobre a importância do estudo de caos aplicado à economia e são discutidas técnicas para caracterização de comportamento caótico em séries econômicas.The purpose of this study was to present a simplified supply chain model where the relations between the number of competitors, the delay in production adjustments, and the intensity response of each company lead, intrinsically, to the emergence of chaotic oscillations in supply and demand. In the considered model, developed with the use of the System Dynamics methodology, the irregular fluctuations in demand and prices are closely related to the supply chain structure, that is, its rules, policies and capabilities. Discussions about the importance of the study of chaos applied to the economy are developed and specific techniques for characterization of chaotic behavior in economic time series are presented.

  12. Modelo simulador para entrenamiento en neuroendoscopia y neuroanatomía Simulating model for training in neuroendoscopy and neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Jongh Cobo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un modelo simulador auxiliar, para finalidades docentes, idóneo para el adiestramiento en el laboratorio en las técnicas de neuroendoscopía (en el caso de residentes y especialistas jóvenes en Neurocirugía y también para el estudio de la anatomía del sistema ventrículo-cisternal encefálico (para estudiantes de Medicina y otras áreas de la salud. Se confecciona con cerebros de cadáveres previamente preparados en formol y envueltos en bolsas de nylon, que simulan la duramadre. Luego se instalan en los cráneos, cortados aproximadamente 3 cm sobre el nasión y hasta 3 cm sobre la protuberancia occipital externa. El endoscopio se introduce por las vías habituales y se pueden realizar observaciones anatómicas o simular operaciones. Los modelos pueden ser preparados por los propios usuarios y presentan un ambiente muy similar al de las operaciones realesAn auxiliary simulating model for teaching ends is presented. It is ideal for the training of neuroendoscopic techniques in the laboratory (in the case of residents and young specialists in Neurosurgery and also for studying the anatomy of the ventriculocisternal encephalic system (for medical students and other health areas. It is made of brains from corpses previously prepared with formol and wrapped up in nylon bags that simulate the dura mater. Then, they are installed in the crania, cut approximately 3 cm over the nasion and up to 3 cm above the external occipital protuberance. The endoscopy is introduced by the habitual routes and anatomical observations can be made, or operations can be simulated. The models may be prepared by the own users and they present an environment very similar to that of the real operations

  13. Modelo de programación asíncrona para Web transaccionales en un ambiente distribuido Asynchronous programming model for transactional Web in a distributed environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Marco Cáceres Alvarez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo define y detalla un modelo de programación asíncrono para sistemas de información Web transaccionales orientado a servicios en un ambiente distribuido uniendo las ventajas de las técnicas de programación Web asíncronas (AJAX, patrones de diseño orientados a objetos y servicios Web, para la obtención de aplicativos caracterizados por ser tolerantes a fallos, distribuidos, eficientes y usables. Principalmente se puntualizan los problemas encontrados en el modelo para uso de servicios Web clásicos, por ende se define, documenta y desarrolla un modelo de programación que solucione y mejore los servicios Web clásicos y se valide la solución a través del desarrollo de un prototipo basado en el modelo de programación definido.The present work defines and details an asynchronous programming model for transactional web information systems in distributed environment, joining the advantages of web asynchronous programming techniques (AJAX, object oriented design patterns and web services, to obtain fail tolerant, distributed, efficient and usable applications. The problems found in the classical Web services model are pointed out and a new model to solve and improve most common web services is defined, documented and developed. Also, a prototype is developed to validate the given solution using the defined model.

  14. Modelo de redes simultâneas para avaliação competitiva de redes de empresas Concurrent networks model for the evaluation of company network competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paulo Alves Fusco

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A formação e desenvolvimento das redes e da teoria das Cadeias de Fornecimento têm ganhado maior relevância recentemente. Ao longo do tempo, a Administração de Operações tem evoluído sob uma perspectiva holística, abrangendo também questões como rede de fornecimentos, governança, relações de confiança e outras. No mesmo raciocínio, muito tem sido feito pelos pesquisadores, primordialmente com relação a aspectos de competitividade, produzindo uma grande variedade de modelos e tipologia de avaliação. Contudo, o propósito geral tem sido explicar a dinâmica de um negócio e como as diretrizes competitivas de firmas devem ser mudadas a fim de obterem sucesso. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma abordagem metodológica alternativa, baseada em três principais dimensões de redes simultâneas, ou seja, rede física, de valor e de negócios, para subsidiar a avaliação da competitividade de redes e cadeias de fornecimentos de maneira geral. O artigo apresenta comentários e algumas conclusões preliminares, obtidas em um projeto de pesquisa, ainda em andamento, que envolve a utilização do modelo aqui proposto no setor de papel e celulose.Network formation and development and the SCM theory have gained ground in recent years. Over time, Operations Management has evolved to embrace a more holistic perspective, and today encompasses issues such as supply networks, governance, relationships of trust, and others. Along the same lines, researchers have contributed much, primarily insofar as aspects of competitiveness are concerned, producing a wide variety of assessment models and typologies. However, the general purpose has been to explain the dynamics of a business and how a company's competitive guidelines must change to ensure success. This paper proposes an alternative methodological approach based on three main dimensions of concurrent networks, i.e., the physical, value and business network, to underpin the overall

  15. Publishing and Alternative Licensing Model of Africa (PALM Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa depends on learning materials published elsewhere, and has serious difficulty acquiring, producing and distributing them. In order to facilitate citizen access to these materials, the publishing sector in Africa needs to explore new business models and technologies. Publishing and Alternative Licensing Model of Africa ...

  16. Teacher Preferences for Alternative School Site Administrative Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul M.; Denny, George S.; Pijanowski, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Public school teachers with high leadership potential who stated that they had no interest in being school principals were surveyed on their attitudes about six alternative school site administrative organizational models. Of the 391 teachers surveyed, 53% identified the Co-Principal model as the preferred school site administrative structure. In…

  17. An alternative approach to KP hierarchy in matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, L.; Xiong, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    We show that there exists an alternative procedure in order to extract differential hierarchies, such as the KdV hierarchy, from one-matrix models, without taking a continuum limit. To prove this we introduce the Toda lattice and reformulate it in operator form. We then consider the reduction to the systems appropriate for a one-matrix model. (orig.)

  18. Energy scenarios and greenhouse effect gases emissions model for Mexico; Modelo de escenarios energeticos y de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia; Rodriguez Viqueira, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the bases for the Model of Energy and Greenhouse Emission Scenarios (MEEEM) developed by the Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico`s Engineering Institute). This model was built with the objective of analyzing the different technological options for the mitigation of the greenhouse gases effect on Mexico. The MEEEM is a model for the end uses that simulate in a simple way the energy demand, transformation and supply and calculates the differential leveled costs among a basic scenario and several mitigation scenarios of the greenhouse emissions. The article also presents some of the results in evaluating three technologies of renewable energy sources. Although the model is perfectible, its development shows its usefulness in this type of models in the decision taking for the energy and environmental planning of the country. [Espanol] Este articulo presenta las bases del Modelo de Escenarios Energeticos y de Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero para Mexico (MEEEM), desarrollado por el Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Este modelo fue construido con el objetivo de analizar las diversas opciones tecnologicas de mitigacion de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico. El MEEEM es un modelo de usos finales que simula de una manera sencilla, la demanda, transformacion y oferta de la energia y calcula la diferencia de costos nivelados entre un escenario base y diversos escenarios de mitigacion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. El articulo presenta tambien algunos resultados obtenidos al evaluar tres tecnologias de fuentes renovables de energia. Aun cuando el modelo es perfectible, su desarrollo demuestra la utilidad de este tipo de modelos en la toma de decisiones para planeacion energetica y ambiental del pais.

  19. Energy scenarios and greenhouse effect gases emissions model for Mexico; Modelo de escenarios energeticos y de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia; Rodriguez Viqueira, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This paper presents the bases for the Model of Energy and Greenhouse Emission Scenarios (MEEEM) developed by the Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico`s Engineering Institute). This model was built with the objective of analyzing the different technological options for the mitigation of the greenhouse gases effect on Mexico. The MEEEM is a model for the end uses that simulate in a simple way the energy demand, transformation and supply and calculates the differential leveled costs among a basic scenario and several mitigation scenarios of the greenhouse emissions. The article also presents some of the results in evaluating three technologies of renewable energy sources. Although the model is perfectible, its development shows its usefulness in this type of models in the decision taking for the energy and environmental planning of the country. [Espanol] Este articulo presenta las bases del Modelo de Escenarios Energeticos y de Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero para Mexico (MEEEM), desarrollado por el Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Este modelo fue construido con el objetivo de analizar las diversas opciones tecnologicas de mitigacion de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico. El MEEEM es un modelo de usos finales que simula de una manera sencilla, la demanda, transformacion y oferta de la energia y calcula la diferencia de costos nivelados entre un escenario base y diversos escenarios de mitigacion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. El articulo presenta tambien algunos resultados obtenidos al evaluar tres tecnologias de fuentes renovables de energia. Aun cuando el modelo es perfectible, su desarrollo demuestra la utilidad de este tipo de modelos en la toma de decisiones para planeacion energetica y ambiental del pais.

  20. Cuidado e tecnologia: aproximações através do Modelo de Cuidado Cuidado y tecnología: aproximaciones a través de el Modelo de Cuidado Care and technology: approaches through the Care Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kuerten Rocha

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Refletir o cuidado na perspectiva da tecnologia nos leva a repensar a inerente capacidade do ser humano em buscar inovações. Historicamente a relação entre o cuidado de enfermagem e a tecnologia é permeada pela busca do conhecimento científico. Assim, a Enfermagem estruturou seu corpo de conhecimento, segundo seu grau de abstração, tendo como um dos seus componentes o modelo de cuidado. Utilizamos principalmente Mehry (2002 como referencial para associarmos a aproximação da tecnologia e do cuidado no modelo de cuidado. Pois, a aplicação e a implementação deste, nos reporta a uma tecnologia leve-dura e leve, podendo produzir novas tecnologias, sejam estas leves, leve-duras ou duras.Reflexionar sobre el cuidado en la perspectiva de la tecnología, nos lleva a repensar sobre la capacidad inherente al ser humano de buscar innovaciones. Históricamente, la relación entre el cuidado de la enfermería y la tecnología ha sido acompañada por la búsqueda del conocimiento científico. Así, la Enfermería ha estructurado su cuerpo del conocimiento, según su grado de abstracción, teniendo como uno de sus componentes al modelo del cuidado. Utilizamos principalmente a Mehry (2002 como una referencia para asociarnos a la aproximación de la tecnología y del cuidado en el modelo del cuidado. Pues, la aplicación e implementación de éste, nos lleva a una tecnología leve-dura y leve, pudiendo producir nuevas tecnologías, sean éstas leves, leves-duras o duras.To reflect about care in the perspective of the technology makes us rethink the human being's inherent capacity in looking for innovations. Historically, the relationship between the nursing care and the technology is permeated by the search of the scientific knowledge. Thus, the Nursing structured its knowledge body according to its abstraction degree and also having as one of its components the care model. We used mainly Mehry (2002 as referential for us to associate the approach

  1. ÉTICA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN MODELOS ANIMALES DE ENFERMEDADES HUMANAS ÉTICA DA PESQUISA EM MODELOS ANIMAIS DE ENFERMIDADES HUMANAS ETHICS OF RESEARCH WITH ANIMAL MODELS FOR HUMAN DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Yunta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo reflexiona sobre las implicaciones éticas de usar modelos animales para el desarrollo de la medicina en seres humanos. Entre las posturas extremas de condenar toda investigación con animales considerándola irrelevante y la de exagerar y promocionar el importante papel de la investigación con animales como modelo para enfermedades humanas, se adopta la postura intermedia de considerar el uso de animales en investigación como necesario en el estado actual de la ciencia para ajustarse al imperativo moral de curar y prevenir enfermedades humanas, pero buscando formas de reemplazar y reducir el número de animales y de disminuir su sufrimientoO presente artigo reflete sobre as implicações ética de usar modelos animais para o desenvolvimento da medicina em sereres humanos. Entre as posturas extremas, uma é a de condenar todas as pesquisas com animais, considerando-a irrelevante e a outra postura, é a de exagerar e promover o importante papel da pesquisa com animais como modelo para enfermidades humanas. Adota-se uma postura intermediária de considerarar o uso de animais em pesquisa, como necessária para o estado atual da ciência para se ajustarao imperativo moral de curar e prevenir enfermidades humanas, porém buscando formas de substituir e reduzir o número de animais e de diminuir seu sofrimentoThis paper argues about the ethical implications of using animals as models for human medicine development. This reflection adopts an intermediate stand between the extreme positions of condemning all research with animals, considering it irrelevant, and that of exaggerating and promoting research with animals as models for human diseases. Our stand considers that in the current scientific state, research with animals is necessary for adjusting to the moral imperative of curing and preventing human diseases, but methods for replacing and reducing the number of animals as well as diminishing their suffering must be sought

  2. Experimental model of traumatic ulcer in the cheek mucosa of rats Modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyléia Meneses Cavalcante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish an experimental model of traumatic ulcer in rat cheek mucosa for utilization in future alternative therapy studies. METHODS: A total of 60 adult male rats (250 - 300g were used. Ulceration of the left cheek mucosa was provoked by abrasion using a nº 15 scalpel blade. The animals were observed for 10 days, during which they were weighed and their ulcers were measured. The histological characteristics were analyzed and scored according to the ulcer phase. In the statistical analysis, a value of pOBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos para utilização em futuros testes de terapias alternativas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 60 ratos, adultos, machos, pesando entre 250 a 300g. A ulceração na mucosa jugal esquerda foi provocada por meio da abrasão desta com uma lâmina de bisturi número 15. Os animais foram observados por um período de 10 dias, sendo estes pesados e suas escoriações mensuradas. As características histológicas foram analisadas e descritas adotando escores para comparação dos estágios da fase da úlcera. Na análise estatística um valor de p<0,01 foi considerado uma resposta estatisticamente significante em todos os casos. RESULTADOS: Durante os cinco primeiros dias os animais perderam peso ("t" Student - p<0,01. A área da úlcera regrediu linearmente com o tempo, estando quase que completamente cicatrizada ao final de dez dias (ANOVA, pós-teste de Tendência - p<0,0001. Os grupos do 1º, 2º e 3º dias tiveram comportamento semelhante havendo uma diminuição dos escores a partir do 4º dia. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de úlcera na mucosa jugal de ratos proposto pode ser considerado eficaz, apresentando reprodutibilidade confiável e baixo custo.

  3. Experimentally induced intravaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection in a mouse model Infecção experimental intravaginal com Tritricho-monas foetus em modelo camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Soto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest to develop research on the host-parasite relationship in bovine tritrichomonosis has accomplished the use of experimental models alternative to cattle. The BALB/c mouse became the most appropriate species susceptible to vaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection requiring previous estrogenization. For the need of an experimental model without persistent estrogenization and with normal estrous cycles, the establishment and persistence of vaginal infection on BALB/c mouse with different concentrations of T. foetus in two experimental groups was evaluated. Group A was treated with 5mg of b-estradiol 3-benzoate to synchronize the estrous, 48 hours before the T. foetus vaginal inoculation, and Group B was inoculated in natural estrus. At 5-7 days after treatment, estrogenic effect decreased allowing all animals to cycle regularly during the experiment. From the first week post-infection, samples of vaginal mucus were taken from all animals during 34 weeks, in order to evaluate the course of infection and the stage of the estrus cycle. Group A showed 93.6% of infected animals, and Group B showed 38%. Different doses of T. foetus were assayed to establish the vaginal infection, with a persistence of 34 weeks. Although different behavior was observed in each subgroup belonging to either Group A or Group B, there were no significant differences among the infecting doses used. The b-estradiol 3-benzoate treatment had a favorable effect on the establishment of the infection (PA necessidade de esclarecer a relação agente-hospedeiro na tricomoníase bovina deu motivo para o uso de modelos experimentais alternativos ao bovino. O camundongo BALB/c resultou como espécie mais adequada para a infeção vaginal com Tritrichomonas foetus, requerendo uma estrogenização prévia. Visando a necessidade de um modelo experimental sem estrogenização persistente e com ciclos estrais normais, foi avaliada a instalação e persistência da infeção vaginal

  4. Um modelo de decisão sobre a consignação de material estrangeiro em cadeias de suprimentos A decision model for the consignation of imported material in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Morini

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A globalização dos negócios internacionais, o reduzido número de rotas de transporte internacional para o Brasil e a própria burocracia aduaneira pressionam as empresas industriais operando no Brasil a buscarem alternativas para reduzirem os tempos de resposta (atendimento aos seus clientes, sem prejuízos aos custos envolvidos. Nesse sentido, este trabalho propõe um modelo de decisão voltado à gestão da consignação de materiais estrangeiros em cadeias de suprimento. Para tal, a pesquisa aplicada apresenta estudos de caso. Um elemento-chave no modelo proposto é a definição do seu conjunto de variáveis de decisão. Assim, na primeira etapa de sua construção, o conjunto de variáveis, inicialmente proposto, foi testado e ajustado com base na realidade de algumas empresas importadoras que utilizam regimes aduaneiros especiais. Posteriormente, o modelo proposto foi testado em duas empresas da região de Campinas. Os dados obtidos mostraram ser viáveis a utilização do modelo em determinadas cadeias e para determinadas características de mercadorias, aproveitando-se da legislação aduaneira nacional como oportunidade de ganho de competitividade na gestão de cadeias de suprimentos com âmbito global.The globalization of international business, the paucity of international transportation routes to Brazil and the country's customs bureaucracy exert increasing pressure on manufacturers operating in Brazil to find alternatives to reduce the response time to customers without affecting costs. This article therefore presents a decision model for managing the consignation of imported materials in supply chains, whose development was based on several research methods, including the exploratory, the documental and case studies. A key factor in the proposed model is the definition of its set of decision variables. As the first step in the construction of this model, the initial set of proposed variables was tested and reviewed based on the

  5. Análise do impacto nos custos de transporte de um modelo de seleção de fornecedores baseado em variáveis socioambientais e de competitividade Suppliers selection model and its transportation cost impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Barros Telles do Carmo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Observa-se uma demanda mundial crescente por energias ditas renováveis. Dentre essas energias, encontra-se o biodiesel, derivado de biomassa renovável. Porém, para que essa cadeia seja competitiva, deve satisfazer alguns critérios de competitividade. Existe também a possibilidade de exportação desse combustível, porém é necessário seguirem-se algumas diretrizes que estão sendo elaboradas para certificação da cadeia de valor dos biocombustíveis, baseada em critérios de sustentabilidade. Assim, o presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar um modelo de seleção de fornecedores para as usinas de biodiesel, levando em consideração os critérios de certificação e competitividade identificados na cadeia. Foi utilizada a metodologia Smarter para a realização desse modelo. Ele foi agregado em conjunto com um modelo de otimização de transporte para a minimização dos custos envolvidos. Observou-se que o modelo apresenta aumento no custo de transporte, se forem levadas em consideração as imposições de selo social do governo federal.Nowadays, there is a world demand for renewable energies. These kinds of energy must be sustainable to be considered renewable. The consumption of diesel has increased and so has the emission of greenhouse gases. Bio-diesel is an alternative to reduce this kind of emission. But, when the matter is bio-diesel, there are some challenges to be overcome. This first one is that this chain must be competitive. There are some criteria to evaluate the competitiveness of chains. Also, it is known that Brazil has a big potential to export this kind of fuel. However, some countries are developing norms to evaluate whether this fuel is sustainable and whether it has positive impacts in society. The present work creates a model to evaluate bio-diesel chain suppliers using competitiveness and certification criteria identified in this chain. Smarter methodology was used in order to do so. This model was put

  6. From the Osterwalder canvas to an alternative business model representation

    OpenAIRE

    Verrue, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The Osterwalder business model canvas (BMC) is used by many entrepreneurs, managers, consultants and business schools. In our research we have investigated whether the canvas is a valid instrument for gaining an in-depth, accurate insight into business models. Therefore we have performed initial multiple case study research which concluded that the canvas does not generate valid business model (BM) representations. In our second multiple case study, we have constructed an alternative BM frame...

  7. Analysis of the models of the metal oxide lightning; Analisis de los modelos de apartarrayos de oxidos metalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Angel Hernandez, Alberto

    1999-12-01

    A criterion to judge the reliability of an electrical power system, is the frequency and duration of the interruption of the electrical energy supply to the consumers. Due to the importance of maintaining the continuity of the electrical energy supply, is necessary to study the protection devices against overvoltage, since in adverse meteorological conditions, as well as in configuration change in the network conditions, there can be presented overvoltage that can damage to the electrical equipment of the power system. The surge arresters are devices which function is to protect equipment of an electrical power system against overvoltage by means of energy absorption through grounding system. In the protection of Electrical Power Systems (EPS) against overvoltage surge arrester of silicon carbide were usually employed, offering a small margin of protection. In the last years, new technologies that have revolutionized the isolation coordination have been development. An example of these technologies is the application of the metal oxide surge arrester (MOSA), which increase the margin of protection considerably. In this work, the limitations and real potentials of the existing models of metal oxide surge arrester (ZnO) are evaluated as well as the proposed model, with the great help of the digital simulations in the electromagnetic transients program (EMTP), when the surge arresters are subject to transient by switching as well as to transients due to atmospherical discharges. All the simulations of this work were accomplished with the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP), that is a widely used tool and recommended for the analysis of electromagnetic transient events. The modeling of the metal oxide surge arresters in the EMTP is complicated because the non-linear behavior of their elements and is required a great precision and care to implement them into the program. A test model was also proposed for the simulation with this scientific software. [Spanish] Un

  8. Modelo de previsão de value at risk utilizando volatilidade de longo prazo = Value at Risk prediction model using long term volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mothé Maia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista a importância do Value at Risk (VaR como medida de risco para instituições financeiras e agências de risco, o presente estudo avaliou se o modelo ARLS é mais preciso no cálculo do VaR de longo prazo que os modelos tradicionais, dada sua maior adequação para a previsão da volatilidade. Considerando a utilização do VaR pelos agentes de mercado como medida de risco para o gerenciamento de portfólios é importante sua adequada mensuração. A partir de dados diários dos mercados de ações e cambial dos BRICS (Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China e África do Sul foram calculadas as volatilidades futuras para 15 dias, 1 mês e 3 meses. Em seguida, calculou-se as medidas tradicionais de avaliação da precisão do VaR. Os resultados sugerem a superioridade do modelo ARLS para a previsão da volatilidade cambial, capaz de prever corretamente o número de violações em 33% dos casos, enquanto os modelos tradicionais não obtiveram um bom desempenho. Com relação ao mercado acionário, os modelos GARCH e ARLS apresentaram desempenho similar. O modelo GARCH é superior considerando a perda média quadrática. Esses resultados apontam para a escolha do modelo ARLS no cálculo do VaR de portfólios cambiais devido a maior precisão alcançada. Ajuda assim os agentes de mercado a melhor gerirem o risco de suas carteiras. Em relação ao mercado acionário, em função do desempenho similar dos modelos GARCH e ARLS, o modelo GARCH é o mais indicado devido a sua maior simplicidade e fácil implementação computacional. Having in mind the importance of Value at Risk (VaR as a risk measure for financial institutions and rating agencies, this study evaluated whether the ARLS model is more accurate in the calculation of the long term VaR than the traditional models, considering it is more appropriate for predicting the long-term volatility. Due to the fact that VaR s being used for market players as a measure of risk for the portfolio

  9. An Alternative Approach to the Extended Drude Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantzler, N. J.; Dordevic, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    The original Drude model, proposed over a hundred years ago, is still used today for the analysis of optical properties of solids. Within this model, both the plasma frequency and quasiparticle scattering rate are constant, which makes the model rather inflexible. In order to circumvent this problem, the so-called extended Drude model was proposed, which allowed for the frequency dependence of both the quasiparticle scattering rate and the effective mass. In this work we will explore an alternative approach to the extended Drude model. Here, one also assumes that the quasiparticle scattering rate is frequency dependent; however, instead of the effective mass, the plasma frequency becomes frequency-dependent. This alternative model is applied to the high Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) with Tc = 92 K, and the results are compared and contrasted with the ones obtained from the conventional extended Drude model. The results point to several advantages of this alternative approach to the extended Drude model.

  10. Risco no Modelo de Internacionalização de Uppsala Risk in the Uppsala Internationalization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Chiavegatti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio revisita a evolução do modelo comportamental de internacionalização de Uppsala desde os anos setenta e insere neste contexto a proposição gráfica de Lemos, Johanson e Vahlne (2010, onde o risco desempenha um papel central. A falta de conhecimento sobre o mercado representa a restrição mais crítica para as dificuldades envolvidas no processo de internacionalização (Lemos, Johanson e Vahlne, 2010 e está na origem do modelo comportamental que explica a internacionalização em estágios seqüenciais de aquisição de conhecimento. Na versão original, é relevante a liability of foreignness. Verifica-se uma revisão do modelo de Uppsala, em que esta perspectiva do processo de internacionalização foi revisitada em especial pela complexidade do mercado, propondo que tal movimentação não seria uma sequência de passos e etapas planejados e deliberados por uma análise racional. Na nova versão, é relevante a idéia de liability of outsidership, que se refere às redes existentes. A nova proposta da Escola de Uppsala passa a considerar a rede de relacionamentos (networks como elemento central da entrada nos mercados estrangeiros.

    This paper revisits the evolution of the Uppsala behavioral model of internationalization since the 1970s and inserts Lemos, Johanson and Vahlne’s graphic proposal in this context, where it plays a central role. The lack of knowledge about the market is the most critical restriction to the difficulties involved in the internationalization process (LEMOS; JOHANSON; VAHLNE, 2010

    and is in the origin of the behavioral model that explains internationalization in sequential stages of knowledge acquisition.

    Liability of foreignness is relevant in

  11. Application of a hydrodynamic model to a coastal zone; Aplicacion de un modelo hidrodinamico en una zona costera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon-Villalobos, J. Rodolfo; Vicente-Vidal, Francisco; Vicente-Vidal, Victor M [Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-09-01

    This study describes the results of a numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of cooling water discharged into the sea from the Tuxpan Power Plant under two different meteorological and oceanographic conditions: case 1, southwesterly variable winds with an average velocity of 3 m s{sup -}1 and case II, northwesterly variable winds with an average velocity of 11.1 m s{sup -}1. The numerical simulations were made using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of coastal circulation and heat exchange. The southerly winds induce a sea surface circulation towards the north, which moves the discharged warm water away from the intake. The northerly winds, however, drive the hydrothermal effluent towards the intake. Comparisons between the numerical simulation results and field data show that the model correctly predicts the surface diffusion and dispersion of the hydrothermal effluents measured August 18 to 21, 1992 (case I) and November 24 to 27, 1992 (case II). The model predicts the extent of the areas impacted with cooling water with a precision of {+-}11%. For all the cases analyzed, the real size of the impacted areas that might have adverse effects on the marine ecosystems was not greater than 100 m{sup 2}. Thus, these possible adverse effects are considered to be of local significance only. The simulated vertical profiles of temperature show that the discharged cooling water remains mostly on the surface of the receiving water mass and reaches a maximum depth of 3.5 m. [Spanish] Este estudio describe los resultados de la simulacion numerica de comportamiento hidrodinamico de la descarga al mar del agua de enfriamiento de la Central de Potencia Tuxpan, bajo dos distintas condiciones ambientales meteorologicas y oceanograficas: caso I, viento variable de direccion del suroeste con intensidad promedio de 3 m s-1, y caso II, viento variable del noroeste con intensidad promedio de 11.1 m s-1. Las simulaciones numericas se realizaron mediante un modelo

  12. Validity Examination of EFQM’s Results by DEA Models = Examen de la validez de los resultados de EFQM mediante modelos DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mustafa, Adli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Validity Examination of EFQM’s Results by DEA Models = Examen de la validez de los resultados de EFQM mediante modelos DEAAbstract: The European Foundation Quality Management is one of the models which deal with the assessment of function of an organization using a self-assessment for measuring the concepts some of which are more and more qualitative. Consequently, complete understanding and correct usage of this model in an organization depend on the comprehensive recognition of that model and different strategies of self-assessment. The process of self-assessment on the basis of this model in an organization needs to use the experienced auditors. This leads to reduce the wrong privilege making to the criteria and to subcriteria probable way. In this paper, first some of the weaknesses of the EFQM model are studied, then with the usage of structure of input-output governing of the model and using of Data Envelopment Analysis, a method is offered to recognize the lack of the proportion between Enablers and the results of organization which may occur due to problems and obstacles hidden in the heart of organization. = La Fundación Europea de Gestión de la Calidad (EFQM significa uno de los modelos para la evaluación de las funciones de las organizaciones, utilizando la autoevaluación para medir aspectos que, algunos de los cuales, son cada vez más cualitativos. Consecuentemente, la comprensión completa y el uso correcto de este modelo en una organización dependen del conocimiento profundo del modelo y de las diferentes estrategias de autoevaluación. El proceso de autoevaluación en la base de este modelo, en cualquier organización, necesita la intervención de auditores experimentados. Esto es precisamente lo que lleva a reducir el uso incorrecto de los criterios y de los subcriterios. En este artículo, primero se estudian algunas de las debilidades del modelo EFQM y después, mediante la utilización de estructura de control de

  13. Estresse ocupacional e saúde: contribuições do Modelo Demanda-Controle Occupational stress and health: contributions of the Demand-Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria de Araújo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos registra-se marcado esforço de construção de modelos teórico-metodológicos para avaliar características do trabalho e efeitos à saúde dos trabalhadores. Dentre os modelos propostos, o Modelo Demanda-Controle tem alcançado destaque. Esse modelo recorta duas dimensões no ambiente laboral: as demandas psicológicas e o controle do trabalhador sobre o próprio trabalho. O Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ é o instrumento proposto para medir essas dimensões do trabalho. Este estudo objetiva apresentar as bases teóricas e metodológicas do modelo demanda-controle, e discutir sua capacidade para identificar diferentes situações de trabalho no contexto brasileiro, a partir do uso do JCQ. Achados preliminares de dois estudos epidemiológicos, de corte transversal, são apresentados e discutidos. Os estudos avaliaram aspectos psicossociais do trabalho, utilizando o JCQ, e a saúde mental dos trabalhadores, usando o SRQ-20. Os resultados apontaram boa capacidade do modelo demanda-controle para identificar diferentes situações de risco à saúde mental dos trabalhadores. Aspectos relacionados à demanda psicológica do trabalho estavam mais fortemente associados a elevadas prevalências de distúrbios psíquicos menores do que os aspectos referentes ao controle.In the last years, strong efforts have been made to construct theoretical and methodological models that evaluate work characteristics and health effects in occupational groups. Among the proposed models, the Demand-Control Model has had a worldwide use. This model identifies two job dimensions in the work situation: psychological job demand and job control. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ has been proposed as an instrument for measuring these work dimensions. This study aim to present the theoretical and methodological bases of the Demand-Control Model and to discuss this model capability to identify different work situations in the Brazilian context, using the JCQ

  14. An Alternative Theoretical Model for Economic Reforms in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper offers an alternative model for economic reforms in Africa. It proposes that Africa can still get on the pathway of sustained economic growth if economic reforms can focus on a key variable, namely, the price of non-tradables. Prices of non-tradables are generally less in Africa than in advanced economies, and the ...

  15. Rethinking borders in a mobile world: An alternative model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    national borders. The second section elaborates the fundamentals of an alternative model that is not reliant, as is classical spatial analysis, on points, lines and surfaces to represent movement. The article then presents three types of limits: the confines, the threshold and the horizon, which result...

  16. Rethinking borders in a mobile world: An alternative model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Retaillé, Denis

    national borders. The second section elaborates the fundamentals of an alternative model that is not reliant, as is classical spatial analysis, on points, lines and surfaces to represent movement. The article then presents three types of limits: the confines, the threshold and the horizon, which result...

  17. UNDER GRADUATE RESEARCH An alternative model of doing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. UNDER GRADUATE RESEARCH An alternative model of doing science. The main work force is undergraduate students. Using research as a tool in education. Advantages : High risk tolerance. Infinite energy. Uninhibited lateral thinking. Problems: Japanese ...

  18. Alternative Public Service Delivery Models in Health, Water and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to analyze health, water and electricity delivery models in Africa, Asia and Latin America in order to identify and document successful alternatives to commercialization. Researchers will draw up a set of ... Documents. Environmental and water management law in post-apartheid South Africa. Documents.

  19. Alternative Public Service Delivery Models in Health, Water and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to analyze health, water and electricity delivery models in Africa, Asia and Latin America in order to identify and document successful alternatives to commercialization. ... Contradictions in municipal transformation from apartheid to democracy : the battle over local water privatization in South Africa.

  20. Probability model for analyzing fire management alternatives: theory and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Bratten

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical probability model has been developed for analyzing program alternatives in fire management. It includes submodels or modules for predicting probabilities of fire behavior, fire occurrence, fire suppression, effects of fire on land resources, and financial effects of fire. Generalized "fire management situations" are used to represent actual fire...

  1. Desempenho de bovinos simulado pelo modelo Pampa Corte e obtido por experimentação Animal performance simulated by Pampa Corte model with experimental records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naíme de Barcellos Trevisan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a confiabilidade do Modelo Pampa Corte na predição de desempenho de bovinos de corte, em sistemas de pastejo. Para tanto, foram confrontados os valores preditos pelo modelo com dados disponíveis na literatura. Foram verificados coeficientes de correlação acima de 90% entre os dados reais e os simulados em todas as alternativas testadas. O banco de dados do Modelo precisa ser ampliado em termos de alternativas de produtividade das forrageiras, em diferentes condições climáticas. Os parâmetros qualitativos degradabilidade da proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro da consorciação aveia preta e azevém necessitam ainda ser pesquisados, assim como o desempenho de animais em pastagens singulares de aveia ou azevém.This study had the objective to evaluate Pampa Corte Model’s reliability in predicting beef cattle performance in grazing systems. For this purpose, model’s predicted values were compared to available data base of published papers. Correlation coefficients above 90 % were obtained between simulated and real data in all tested alternatives. Model’s data base should be enlarged by forage productivity data in different climatic conditions. Mixtures of Italian ryegrass and oat need more studies to obtain qualitative parameters (crude protein degradability and neutral detergent fiber, as well, animal performance in the single pastures of oat or Italian ryegrass.

  2. Conhecendo alguns modelos mentais infantis sobre Filariose Linfática Exploring some mental models of children about Bancroftian filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Barbosa da Motta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Filariose linfática é uma parasitose endêmica em Pernambuco desde 1918, com focos persistentes e em expansão na Região Metropolitana do Recife, tornando-se um desafio premente a ser encarado tanto pelas autoridades de saúde pública, como pela população e escolas de áreas de risco. Como subsídio para o planejamento de estratégias pedagógicas que estimulem os alunos a vivenciarem medidas preventivas para controle da doença, identificamos modelos mentais de cinqüenta alunos (nove-dez anos, residentes em áreas endêmicas da região metropolitana. Os resultados indicaram que as crianças: (a acreditam que a filariose é evitável, tratável, causada por fator externo, e que o cumprimento das recomendações médicas é fundamental para o sucesso do tratamento; (b têm dificuldades em identificar os sintomas e as etapas do processo de adoecimento; (c apóiam seus modelos no que podem observar, o que possibilita a estruturação de ações pedagógicas que simulem, na escola, situações reais vividas pelas crianças em sua comunidade.Bancroftian filariasis has been an endemic parasite in Pernambuco since 1918 expanding into the metropolitan region of Recife, and becoming a permanent challenge to be faced by the public health authorities as well as by the population and schools in the risk areas. As support in creating pedagogic strategies that stimulate pupils to put into practice preventative measures against the disease, we identified the mental models of 50 pupils aged from 9 to 10, living at endemic areas of the Recife Metropolitan Region. The results indicated that the children: (a believe that the filariasis can be avoided and treated, that it is caused by external factors and that the observance of medical recommendations is fundamental to the success of the treatment; (b have difficulties in identifying the symptoms and phases of the disease; (c they based their models on features they can see. This makes it possible to build

  3. Conjugalidade e profissão de modelo: projetos conflitantes ou complementares Marriage and model profession: conflicting or complementary projects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Pereira Farias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa um grupo de pré-adolescentes pobres do interior mineiro que frequentaram um Curso de Modelo. Face ao apelo erótico que envolve, na mídia, a imagem dessa profissão, parece paradoxal que os pais - que associam esta carreira à prostituição - matriculem as filhas em tal curso, em aparente conflito com sua moral familiar e religiosa. O curso permite a aquisição de habilidades e o domínio de códigos que não pertencem a sua condição de classe. Além disso, participar do curso e desfilar em ambientes frequentados pela elite se tornam estratégias de apresentar a filha à sociedade, ampliando o capital social familiar.This paper analyses a group of poor pre-adolescents in a modeling course in Minas Gerais. Facing the erotic image of the profession, presented by the media, it seems paradoxical that the parents - who associate this career with prostitution - register the daughters in such a course, in apparent conflict with the family's religious morals. The course allows the acquisition of abilities and codes which do not belong to the family' class condition. However, to participate in it and to model in events attended by the elite become a strategy to present the daughters to the society, enlarging the family's social capital.

  4. Los poderes probatorios del juez y el modelo de proceso | Evidential Powers of the Judges and the Procedural Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Ferrer Beltrán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El artículo ofrece un replanteamiento del debate sobre la conveniencia de atribuir poderes probatorios al juez. Para ello, se sostiene, por un lado, que la respuesta para ese debate debe vincularse necesariamente al modelo de proceso y de juez que se pretenda implementar, así como a la necesidad de sostener el objetivo de averiguación de la verdad en el proceso judicial. Por otro lado, una respuesta adecuada al problema planteado requiere un análisis cuidadoso de los distintos poderes probatorios y del reparto de los mismos entre el juez y las partes. Abstract: The paper analyzes the debate on the convenience of attributing evidential powers to the judge. Ii is argued, on the one hand, that any response for this debate depends necessarily upon 1 the features of two models to be implemented: the model of the judicial process and that of the judge; as well as upon 2 the need to assume the search for truth as the aim in every judicial process. On the other hand, a correct answer to the problem needs a careful analysis of the different -and differently distributed- evidential powers the judge and the parties have.

  5. Qualitative Analysis of the Goodwin Model of the Growth Cycle || Análisis cualitativo del modelo de Goodwin de ciclos de crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebriakov, Vladimir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Goodwin's model is a set of ordinary differential equations and is a well-known model of the growth cycle. However, its four constants require an extensive numerical study of its two differential equations to identify all possible unsteady state behaviors, i.e. phase portraits, which corresponds to infinitely many combinations of numerical values of the constants. Qualitative interpretation of Goodwin's model solves these problems by replacing all numerical constants and all derivatives by trends (increasing, constant and decreasing. The model has two variables - the employment rate V, and the labour share U. A solution of the qualitative Goodwin's model is a scenario. An example of a Goodwin's scenario is - V is increasing more and more rapidly, U is decreasing and the decrease is slowing down. The complete set of all possible 41 Goodwin's scenarios and 168 time transitions among them are given. This result qualitatively represents all possible unsteady state Goodwin's behaviours. It is therefore possible to predict all possible future behaviours if a current behaviour is known/chosen. A prediction example is presented in details. No prior knowledge of qualitative model theory is required. || El modelo de Goodwin es un conjunto de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias y resulta un modelo bien conocido para ciclos de crecimiento. Sin embargo, sus cuatro constantes requieren de un extenso estudio numérico de sus dos ecuaciones diferenciales para identificar todos los posibles comportamientos de estado no estacionario, i.e. retratos de fase, que corresponden a infinitamente muchas combinaciones de valores numéricos de las constantes. La interpretación cualitativa del modelo de Goodwin resuelve estos problemas reemplazando todas las constantes numéricas y todas las derivadas por tendencias (creciente, constante y decreciente. El modelo consiste en dos variables: la tasa de empleabilidad V y la repartición del valor agregado U. Una solución del

  6. Negotiation model in gas industry; Modelos de negociacao na industria de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    It is presented two negotiation models (Bilateral and Poolco) that are being used by natural gas industry at the present time. The main differences are characterized between these models. Basically, these differences can be found in the nature of the transactions and in the way as they are coordinated by the gas market and also by the transport market. The Bilateral model is based on decentralized bilateral transactions, by other hand in the Poolco model the transactions are coordinated by just one entity. So, in this model all transactions are centralized.

  7. OPTIMIZACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS Y DE VALORES DE INICIO PARA EL MODELO DE HOLT BASADO EN SEÑALES DE RASTREO OTIMIZAÇÃO DE PARÂMETROS E DE VALORES DE INÍCIO PARA O MODELO DE HOLT BASEADO EM SINAIS DE RASTREIO PARAMETER AND INITIAL VALUES OPTIMIZATION FOR HOLT MODEL BASED ON TRACKING SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Castro

    2010-12-01

    comportamento melhor de modelo.Time series models are quantitative techniques commonly used to forecast the behavior of variables. These models include the exponential smoothing with trend or Holt model that requires the definition of the smoothing constants α and β and the initialization values, both required for the model upgrade. This paper proposes a different way to obtain the parameter values and initial conditions of the Holts model, optimizing the tracking signal range (TSR, in order to achieve a more robust model from the viewpoint of accuracy of the results and historical performance. Some comparisons between the proposed approach and the traditional methods based on the mean absolute deviation (MAD and the mean square error (MSE are provided. These are the measures traditionally used to determine the degree of accuracy of a model, and a better model performance is obtained.

  8. BASES PARA CREAR UN MODELO DE MADUREZ PARA ARQUITECTURAS ORIENTADAS A SERVICIOS / BASES FOR CREATING A MATURITY MODEL FOR SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo César Arias-Orizondo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La adopción por las organizaciones de Arquitecturas Orientadas a Servicios (SOA, por sus siglas en inglés, muestra altas tasas de fracaso. Las principales causas apuntan al modo en que es adoptado este paradigma. La complejidad de este proceso debe ser abordada empleando el enfoque evolutivo que ofrecen los modelos de madurez de SOA; sin embargo, la diversidad de estos dificulta la selección y aplicación de alguno. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo consistió en realizar un análisis comparativo entre los modelos de madurez más representativos y determinar si son suficientes para evaluar y planificar con efectividad la adopción de SOA. Las insuficiencias detectadas, valoradas integralmente, limitan las capacidades de evaluación y planificación que ofrecen los modelos. Con el propósito de superarlas y empleando la experiencia internacional acumulada en esta materia, fueron definidos los constructos (principios, elementos y estructura que sustentan un modelo de madurez más integral.AbstractThe adoption of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA by the companies shows high failure rates, mainly because of the way this paradigm is adopted. Thus, the complexity of this process should be addressed by using the evolutionary approach that maturity models offer. However, the diversity of maturity models makes difficult the selection and implementation of most of them. Taking this into account, the objective of this paper is to carry out a comparative analysis between the most representative maturity models and to determine whether they are sufficient in order to evaluating and planning the adoption of SOA with effectiveness. The inadequacies detected after a comprehensive assessment, restrict the evaluation and planning capacities that these models offer. In order to overcome them and using the international experience gained in this field, it were defined the constructs (principles, elements and structure that support a more integral

  9. Gaussian plume model for the SO{sub 2} in a thermoelectric power plant; Modelo de pluma gaussiano para el SO{sub 2} en una central termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes L, C; Munoz Ledo, C R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The Gaussian Plume Model is an analytical extension to simulate the dispersion of the SO{sub 2} concentration at ground level as a function of the emission changes in the spot sources, as well as the pollutant dispersion in the Wind Rose, when the necessary parameters are fed. The model was elaborated in a personal computer and the results produced are generated in text form. [Espanol] El modelo de pluma gaussiano es una extension analitica para simular la dispersion de las concentraciones de SO{sub 2} a nivel del piso en funcion de los cambios de las emisiones en las fuentes puntuales, asi como, la dispersion del contaminante en la rosa de los vientos cuando se le alimentan los parametros necesarios. El modelo fue elaborado en una computadora personal y los resultados que proporciona los genera en modo texto.

  10. Gaussian plume model for the SO{sub 2} in a thermoelectric power plant; Modelo de pluma gaussiano para el SO{sub 2} en una central termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes L, C.; Munoz Ledo, C. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The Gaussian Plume Model is an analytical extension to simulate the dispersion of the SO{sub 2} concentration at ground level as a function of the emission changes in the spot sources, as well as the pollutant dispersion in the Wind Rose, when the necessary parameters are fed. The model was elaborated in a personal computer and the results produced are generated in text form. [Espanol] El modelo de pluma gaussiano es una extension analitica para simular la dispersion de las concentraciones de SO{sub 2} a nivel del piso en funcion de los cambios de las emisiones en las fuentes puntuales, asi como, la dispersion del contaminante en la rosa de los vientos cuando se le alimentan los parametros necesarios. El modelo fue elaborado en una computadora personal y los resultados que proporciona los genera en modo texto.

  11. Technology Learning Ratios in Global Energy Models; Ratios de Aprendizaje Tecnologico en Modelos Energeticos Globales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M.

    2001-07-01

    The process of introduction of a new technology supposes that while its production and utilisation increases, also its operation improves and its investment costs and production decreases. The accumulation of experience and learning of a new technology increase in parallel with the increase of its market share. This process is represented by the technological learning curves and the energy sector is not detached from this process of substitution of old technologies by new ones. The present paper carries out a brief revision of the main energy models that include the technology dynamics (learning). The energy scenarios, developed by global energy models, assume that the characteristics of the technologies are variables with time. But this tend is incorporated in a exogenous way in these energy models, that is to say, it is only a time function. This practice is applied to the cost indicators of the technology such as the specific investment costs or to the efficiency of the energy technologies. In the last years, the new concept of endogenous technological learning has been integrated within these global energy models. This paper examines the concept of technological learning in global energy models. It also analyses the technological dynamics of the energy systems including the endogenous modelling of the process of technological progress. Finally, it makes a comparison of several of the most used global energy models (MARKAL, MESSAGE and ERIS) and, more concretely, about the use these models make of the concept of technological learning. (Author) 17 refs.

  12. Modelos para ajuste da produção de gases em silagens de girassol e milho Models for fit of gas production in sunflower and corn silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renius Mello

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar entre os modelos Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, France, Logístico, Logístico modificado e Logístico bicompartimental, aquele que apresenta maior qualidade de ajuste à curva de produção cumulativa de gases em silagens de girassol e milho. Os critérios adotados foram: coeficiente de determinação, quadrado médio do resíduo, análise gráfica das curvas observadas e estimadas, análise gráfica de dispersão dos resíduos estudentizados, erro percentual médio, eficiência relativa e número de iterações para atingir a convergência. Os modelos Brody, France e Logístico bicompartimental apresentaram os maiores valores de coeficiente de determinação em ambos os substratos, e a diferença entre eles pode ser considerada desprezível. Estes modelos apresentaram, também, os menores valores de quadrado médio do resíduo em silagens de girassol, e a diferença entre eles foi considerada desprezível. Os modelos Brody e France apresentaram menor quadrado médio do resíduo em silagens de milho. Todos os modelos apresentaram dispersão positiva dos resíduos em ambos os substratos após 144 horas de incubação. O modelo Brody apresentou menor erro percentual médio e número de iterações em ambos os substratos. Os modelos Logístico bicompartimental e France apresentaram maior eficiência relativa, respectivamente, em silagens de girassol e milho. Assim, o modelo Logístico bicompartimental apresenta maior qualidade de ajuste à curva de produção de gases em silagens de girassol e milho.The aim of this work was to identify among the Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, France, Logistic, Modified logistic and Dual-pool logistic models, the one that presents the highest quality of fit for cumulative gas production curve in sunflower and corn silages. The quality of fit was evaluated by coefficient of determination, residual mean square, graphic analysis of the observed and estimated curves

  13. Modelos contínuos do solvente: fundamentos Continuum solvation models: fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefredo R. Pliego Jr

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuum solvation models are nowadays widely used in the modeling of solvent effects and the range of applications goes from the calculation of partition coefficients to chemical reactions in solution. The present work presents a detailed explanation of the physical foundations of continuum models. We discuss the polarization of a dielectric and its representation through the volume and surface polarization charges. The Poisson equation for a dielectric was obtained and we have also derived and discuss the apparent surface charge method and its application for free energy of solvation calculations.

  14. An unit commitment model for hydrothermal systems; Um modelo de unit commitment para sistemas hidrotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Thiago de Paula; Luciano, Edson Jose Rezende; Nepomuceno, Leonardo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: ra611191@feb.unesp.br, edson.joserl@uol.com.br, leo@feb.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    A model of Unit Commitment to hydrothermal systems that includes the costs of start/stop of generators is proposed. These costs has been neglected in a good part of the programming models for operation of hydrothermal systems (pre-dispatch). The impact of the representation of costs in total production costs is evaluated. The proposed model is solved by a hybrid methodology, which involves the use of genetic algorithms (to solve the entire part of the problem) and sequential quadratic programming methods. This methodology is applied to the solution of an IEEE test system. The results emphasize the importance of representation of the start/stop in the generation schedule.

  15. Energetic models: a proposal of integrated planning; Modelos energeticos: uma proposta de planejamento integrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Araujo, Mauro Almeida [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mails: amaro.pereira@epe.gov.br; jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br; mauro.almeida@epe.gov.br; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Estrategico]. E-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br; Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social (BNDES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rcco@bndes.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    Top-down, bottom-up and hybrid models for representing energy system are often used in energy planning. However, in developing countries some of their assumptions do not apply: markets are not developed and not competitive; informal economies are representative; there are huge social inequalities; regulatory changes are not completed; there exist constraints to capital flow; etc. All theses problems need to be well represented in order to have energy analysis more consistent. In this work, it is proposed a multi-sector dynamic recursive model that incorporates consumer behaviors, energy policies, technical progress and factors of production substitution. The static result feeds detailed energy models that provide updated values for the next step equilibrium. This approach takes advantages not only in terms of computation but also in terms of the consistence between economy and energy modeling. (author)

  16. Plant balance model for RELAP/SCDAPSIM; Modelo de balance de planta para RELAP/SCDAPSIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza M, R. [Consultor independiente, Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Filio L, C. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Araiza M, E.; Ortiz V, J., E-mail: rafael_mendozam_esfm@live.com.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Touca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    In this work we developed an integral model for a nuclear power plant and have a more general picture of what happens in both the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) and the Balance of Plant (Bop) system during abnormal events that are presented in operation. RELAP/SCDAPSIM (RSS) is a computation code of the type of best estimate that can simulate the transient and accident behavior of a nuclear installation. The development of a Bop model for RSS can result in the simulation of transients such as turbine trip due to loss of vacuum in the main steam condenser. This work shows the development of models of the Bop main components for the RSS code, such as the set of high and low pressure turbines, as well as their steam extractions to the feed water heaters, the main steam condenser, a feed water heater and the condensate and water feed pumps. This new model of the Plant Balance system was then coupled to the NSSS model that is already in RSS. First, results of the steady state with this new integral model are show, to later show results of the transients simulation: 1) turbine trip due to loss of vacuum in the main steam condenser; 2) loss of condensate pumps; and 3) failure of the feed water heater. (Author)

  17. Alternative methods of modeling wind generation using production costing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.R.; Pang, C.K.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines the methods of incorporating wind generation in two production costing models: one is a load duration curve (LDC) based model and the other is a chronological-based model. These two models were used to evaluate the impacts of wind generation on two utility systems using actual collected wind data at two locations with high potential for wind generation. The results are sensitive to the selected wind data and the level of benefits of wind generation is sensitive to the load forecast. The total production cost over a year obtained by the chronological approach does not differ significantly from that of the LDC approach, though the chronological commitment of units is more realistic and more accurate. Chronological models provide the capability of answering important questions about wind resources which are difficult or impossible to address with LDC models

  18. O modelo escolar paulistano na revista Escola municipal (1968-1985 - The São Paulo school model by Municipal School magazine (1968-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pianelli Godoy, Brasil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  O artigo pretende documentar um modelo escolar que foi implantado na cidade de São Paulo no processo de institucionalização do seu ensino municipal durante a ditadura militar por meio da revista Escola Municipal (1968-1985, principal veículo de divulgação e circulação desse modelo. Na primeira parte aborda o debate teórico e metodológico de modo a configurar um modelo escolar paulistano na transição entre uma sociedade disciplinar e uma sociedade de controle. A segunda parte procura desvendar os caminhos da produção e circulação da materialidade do impresso em suas diferentes fases, mostrando as características e fragilidades de tal modelo. A última parte procura estabelecer as relações entre o modelo escolar paulistano e o tipo de leitor desejado pela publicação e nas políticas municipais de educação do período.Palavras-chave: impresso escolar, modelo escolar, São Paulo, ditadura militar, sociedades disciplinares e de controle. The São Paulo school model by Municipal School magazine (1968-1985 AbstractThe article aims to document a school model which was implemented in the city of Sao Paulo in the process of institutionalization of their Municipal teaching during the military dictatorship through the magazine Municipal School (1968-1985, the main vehicle for dissemination and circulation of this model. The first part discusses the theoretical and methodological debates in order to set up a "São Paulo school model" in the transition between a disciplinary society and a society of control. The second part seeks to uncover the ways of production and circulation of the materiality of print in its various stages, showing the features and weaknesses of a such model. The last part seeks to establish relations between the São Paulo school model and the publication desirable readers type and the municipal education policies of the period.Key-words: printed school, school model, Sao Paulo, military dictatorship

  19. SCIENCE AND HUMAN KNOWLEDGE AS MODEL CONSTRUCTION A CIÊNCIA E O CONHECIMENTO HUMANO COMO CONSTRUÇÃO DE MODELOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique de Araújo Dutra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I try to argue that both science, as a specific kind of knowledge, and human knowledge in general are activities of constructing models. In the first part, I present my conception according to which scientific models are abstract entities, and that scientific theories may be interpreted as classes of models as abstract replicas of real settings, in which certain laws apply. In the second part, I try to extend that same conception to ordinary human knowledge, particularly to the case of the cognitive activity of classifying objects of experience.Neste artigo, vamos procurar argumentar que tanto a ciência, enquanto um tipo específico de conhecimento, quanto o conhecimento humano em geral são atividades de construção de modelos. Na primeira parte, apresentamos nossa concepção segundo a qual os modelos científicos são entidades abstratas, e as teorias científicas podem ser interpretadas como classes de modelos enquanto réplicas abstratas de situações reais, nas quais valem determinadas leis. Na segunda parte, procuramos estender essa mesma concepção ao conhecimento humano ordinário, em particular, ao caso da atividade cognitiva de classificar os objetos da experiência.

  20. Why the dimension matters in ecological models? ¿Por qué importa la dimensión en modelos ecológicos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos-Jiliberto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss the ecological and mathematical significance of system's dimension in continuous-time population dynamics models. We show how the system's dimension reflects the ecological assumptions and affects both the spectrum of dynamic output and mathematical tractability of the models. We stress that the model dimension is not always the same as the number of state-variables, and we also present conditions under which the system's dimension is alteredEn este trabajo discutimos la significación ecológica y matemática de la dimensión del sistema en modelos de dinámica poblacional en tiempo continuo. Mostramos cómo la dimensión del sistema refleja los supuestos ecológicos y afecta el espectro de resultados dinámicos así como la tratabilidad matemática de los modelos. Acentuamos que la dimensión de un modelo no es siempre equivalente al número de variables de estado, y presentamos condiciones bajo las cuales la dimensión del sistema es alterada.

  1. Principales modelos de liderazgo: su significación en el ámbito universitario Main leadership models: its importance in university field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lorena Figueroa Soledispa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene entre sus propósitos valorar los modelos y teorías que han tenido una influencia determinante en el proceso de superación en liderazgo docente, y cómo ello influye en la labor que desarrollan los docentes universitarios para el logro de un rol transformador en su actividad. A través de la historia en este campo son muchos los modelos que han surgido, que han sido utilizados y puestos de moda en algunos momentos por diversas razones. Ante la variedad de los mismos vienen preguntas ineludibles acerca de cuál es el modelo más adecuado o más utilizado cuando de liderazgo docente se trata.The main purpose of this article is to briefly assess the models and theories that have had a determining influence on the bettering process in teaching leadership, and the way it influences the job developed by university teaching personnel, specifically designed to achieve a transformer role of their activity. Through history, there have been many models that have come up, have been used, and have come back into fashion in different moments and for several reasons in this field. In view of their variety, unavoidable questions have come up, about the most suitable or used model when dealing with teaching leadership.

  2. Uso combinado de modelos de estresse no trabalho e a saúde auto-referida na enfermagem Uso combinado de modelos de estrés en el trabajo y la salud auto referida en la enfermería Combined use of job stress models and self-rated health in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Härter Griep

    2011-02-01

    multidimensional que incluyó dos escalas de estrés en el trabajo (modelo demanda-control y desequilibrio esfuerzo-recompensa en 2006. Se consideraron el modelo demando y control parcial y completo (incluye apoyo social en el trabajo, así como el esfuerzo y recompensa parcial y completo (incluye exceso de compromiso con el trabajo. Se utilizaron modelos estadísticos múltiples para estimar razones de probabilidades ajustadas y sus respectivos intervalos con 95% de confianza. RESULTADOS: Las dimensiones de ambos modelos estuvieron independientemente asociadas con la salud autoreferida, con odds ratios entre 1,70 y 3,37. El modelo parcial demanda-control se mostró menos asociado a la salud (OR=1,79; IC 95% 1,26;2,53 al compararlo con el desequilibrio esfuerzo-recompensa (OR=2,27; IC 95% 1,57;3,30. La incorporación del apoyo social y del exceso de compromiso con el trabajo aumentó la fuerza de asociación de los modelos demanda-control y desequilibrio esfuerzo-recompensa, respectivamente. Se observó aumento en la fuerza de asociación al combinarse los dos modelos parciales. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados indican mejor desempeño del modelo desequilibrio esfuerzo-recompensa para este grupo específico y para el resultado evaluado y ventaja en el uso de modelos completos o del uso combinado en modelos parciales.OBJECTIVE: To identify combinations of two models of psychosocial stress at work among nursing teams and their associations with self-rated health. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study among workers at three public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil (N = 1307. In 2006, a multidimensional questionnaire including two scales for measuring stress at work (demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models was administered. Partial and complete (including social support at work demand-control models were considered, along with partial and complete (including excessive commitment to work effort-reward models. Multiple logistic regression

  3. Modelo OLAM (ocean-land-atmosphere-model: descrição, aplicações, e perspectivas Ocean-land-atmosphere model (OLAM: description, applications, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O modelo OLAM foi desenvolvido com objetivo de estender a capacidade de representar os fenômenos de escala global e regional simultaneamente. Este modelo apresenta inovações quanto aos processos dinâmicos, configuração de grade, estrutura de memória e técnicas de solução numérica das equações prognósticas. As equações de Navier-Stokes são resolvidas através da técnica de volumes finitos que conservam massa, momento e energia. No presente trabalho, apresenta-se uma descrição sucinta do OLAM e alguns resultados de sua aplicação em simulações climáticas da precipitação mensal para a região norte da América do Sul, bem como em rodadas para previsão numérica de tempo regional. Os resultados mostram que o modelo consegue representar bem os aspectos meteorológicos de grande escala. Em geral, seu desempenho melhora quando são adotadas grades de maior resolução espacial, nas quais se verificam melhorias significativas tanto na estimativa da precipitação mensal regional, quanto na previsão numérica de tempo.The OLAM model was developed to extend the capability to represent the global and regional scale phenomena simultaneously. The model presents innovations regarding to the dynamic processes, grid configuration, memory structure, and numerical technique solutions for the prognostics equations. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the finite volume technique that conserves mass, momentum, and energy. In this study the OLAM model is described, and results are presented for its application on the climate mode to simulate the monthly prediction of precipitation for South America and numerical weather prediction. The results show that the model is able to represent reasonable the large scale meteorological processes. In general, its performance improves when grids of greater resolution is adopted, for which significant improvements are observed for the monthly precipitation simulation estimates as for the

  4. Model of global evaluation for energetic resources; Modelo de avaliacao global de recursos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: ricardo_fujii@pea.usp.br; daeta@pea.usp.br; lcgalvao@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The traditional energy planning usually takes into account the technical economical costs, considered alongside environmental and a few political restraints; however, there is a lack of methods to evenly assess environmental, economical, social and political costs. This work tries to change such scenario by elaborating a model to characterize an energy resource in all four dimensions - environmental, political, social and economical - in an integrated view. The model aims at two objectives: provide a method to assess the global cost of the energy resource and estimate its potential considering the limitations provided by these dimensions. To minimize the complexity of the integration process, the model strongly recommends the use of the Full Cost Accounting - FCA - method to assess the costs and benefits from any given resource. The FCA allows considering quantitative and qualitative costs, reducing the need of quantitative data, which are limited in some cases. The model has been applied in the characterization of the region of Aracatuba, located in the west part of the state of Sao Paulo - Brazil. The results showed that the potential of renewable sources are promising, especially when the global costs are considered. Some resources, in spite of being economically attractive, don't provide an acceptable global cost. It became clear that the model is a valuable tool when the conventional tools fail to address many issues, especially the need of an integrated view on the planning process; the results from this model can be applied in a portfolio selection method to evaluate the best options for a power system expansion. It has to be noticed that the usefulness of this model can be increased when adopted with a method to analyze demand side management measures, thus offering a complete set of possible choices of energy options for the decision maker. (author)

  5. Alternative conceptions, memory, & mental models in physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoungho; Shin, Jongho; Park, Jiyeon; Song, Sangho; Kim, Yeounsoo; Bao, Lei

    2005-09-01

    There are two somewhat independent research traditions, which converge to suggest a form of students' knowledge: alternative conceptions and mental models. However we have little literature that explains what they are different from each other and from memory. This study tried to describe these issues with some thoughts about how cognitive psychology and science education approaches can be best synthesized in order to approach these questions.

  6. An alternative bifurcation analysis of the Rose-Hindmarsh model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an alternative study of the bifurcation behavior of the Rose-Hindmarsh model using Lyapunov-Andronov's theory. This is done on the basis of the obtained analytical formula expressing the first Lyapunov's value (this is not Lyapunov exponent) at the boundary of stability. From the obtained results the following new conclusions are made: Transition to chaos and the occurrence of chaotic oscillations in the Rose-Hindmarsh system take place under hard stability loss

  7. Crescimento econômico num modelo micro-macrodinâmico de simulação Economic growth in a micro-macrodynamic simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luiz Possas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as propriedades macrodinâmicas da tendência de crescimento a longo prazo e respectivos fatores determinantes, inclusive no nível microeconômico, que o modelo de simulação utilizado permite explorar. O modelo procura integrar a macrodinâmica centrada na demanda efetiva com as características estruturais e setoriais que podem gerar propriedades emergentes, com foco sobre a relação entre as trajetórias geradas e o progresso tecnológico. Os resultados de simulação apresentados indicam o comportamento da tendência de crescimento a longo prazo e seus determinantes. A tendência é em geral irregular e sem padrão predeterminado, obedecendo aos componentes autônomos de demanda agregada - investimento e consumo autônomos, gasto público e saldo das exportações -, como na tradição de modelos de crescimento baseados nas propriedades dinâmicas da demanda efetiva, e não a impulsos ou choques de oferta como nos modelos mainstream. Uma característica importante do modelo proposto é que a maioria desses componentes é parcial ou totalmente endogeneizada. Isso permite que cada um deles seja testado separadamente, ressaltando a influência decisiva do seu peso relativo no PIB para a trajetória de tendência deste.This paper discusses macrodynamic properties concerning of economic growth trend and its determinants, including microeconomic factors that can be explored within the simulation model proposed. The model tries to integrate the effective demand-based macrodynamics with structural and sectoral features that may generate emergent properties, focusing on the link between macroeconomic paths and technological progress. The simulation results presented in the paper give an idea of the trend path behavior generated by the model and its determinants. The main result is an irregular long run growth trend essentially determined by the autonomous components of the aggregate demand - investment, consumption, public

  8. Mathematical Model to Compare Egg Production C Modelo Matemático para Comparar Curvas de Produção de Ovos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FB Fialho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A segmented polynomial model was used on several egg production curves in an attempt to analyze the differences between the curves in a more descriptive manner. Production curves from different commercial and experimental genetic lines of layers were used. The parameters of the model include the age and level of peak production, rate of decrease in production after the peak and time between start and peak of production. These and other derived variables were compared between the curves using contrasts. The methodology used allowed an easier interpretation of the curves, and the detection of differences in sexual maturity, uniformity and peak of production. This work validates the segmented polynomial model for use in future research dealing with analysis of egg production curves.Um modelo polinomial segmentado foi usado em diversas curvas de produção de ovos, numa tentativa de analisar as diferenças entre as curvas de um modo mais descritivo. Foram usadas curvas de produção de diferentes linhagens comerciais e experimentais de poedeiras. Os parâmetros do modelo incluem a idade e nível do pico de produção, a taxa de decréscimo na produção após o pico e o tempo entre o início e o pico de produção. Essas e outras variáveis derivadas pelo modelo foram comparadas entre as curvas usando contrastes. A metodologia usada facilitou a interpretação das curvas e a detecção de diferenças na maturidade sexual, uniformidade e pico de produção. Esse trabalho valida o modelo de polinômios segmentados para uso em pesquisas futuras que tratem de análise de curvas de produção de ovos.

  9. Valuation model of exploratory blocks; Modelo de valoracao de blocos exploratorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Thiago Neves de; Sartori, Vanderlei [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Last year completed 10 years of the promulgations of the Brazilian Petroleum Act. This act has regulated the of the sector of exploration and production of oil and natural gas in Brazil, enabling these activities were granted to private or state companies, preceded by a bidding round. Since 1998, ANP have been doing these bids, using in the judgment of offers the following criteria: Minimum Exploration Program, Local Content and Bonuses of Signature. The objective of this article is to present a model of valuation of the blocks on offer, showing a model of estimation of the monetary value of the block. (author)

  10. Um modelo evolucionário Norte-Sul A North-South evolutionary model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work expands the classical Nelson and Winter model of Schumpeterian competition by including two sectors and a North-South dynamics, with a view to analyzing how different institutions and technological regimes affect the processes of convergence and divergence in the international economy. The results suggest that convergence may emerge out of the efforts for imitation in the South when the technological regime is cumulative. But when the regime is science-based, imitation is not enough for a successful catching-up. In this case convergence requires the South to invest in innovation as well. The work also analyses the robustness of the model results using Montecarlo techniques.

  11. Energy from biomass: an econometric model for production; Energia de biomassa: um modelo econometrico de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, L A.Z. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Brandt, S A [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil); Moro, S; Wong, S [MAPAG, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Almeida, J M.C. de [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    The study specify a dynamic model of production adjustment for charcoal and fuel-wood energy. This model is then transformed in two equations being its reduced forms. Annual series data (1954-80) covering the county as a whole are used. Desired or equilibrium energy output is expressed as a function of general economic activity and cost of factors of production. The reduced form equations are fitted by OLS. The results are promising and implications for biomass energy management and government incentive policy are developed. 11 refs.

  12. Modified crop model estimation of depleted and potential soybean yield=Modelo modificado de estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Manfron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of soybeans in Brazil, there have been few applications of soybean crop modeling on Brazilian conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to use modified crop models to estimate the depleted and potential soybean crop yield in Brazil. The climatic variable data used in the modified simulation of the soybean crop models were temperature, insolation and rainfall. The data set was taken from 33 counties (28 Sao Paulo state counties, and 5 counties from other states that neighbor São Paulo. Among the models, modifications in the estimation of the leaf area of the soybean crop, which includes corrections for the temperature, shading, senescence, CO2, and biomass partition were proposed; also, the methods of input for the model’s simulation of the climatic variables were reconsidered. The depleted yields were estimated through a water balance, from which the depletion coefficient was estimated. It can be concluded that the adaptation soybean growth crop model might be used to predict the results of the depleted and potential yield of soybeans, and it can also be used to indicate better locations and periods of tillage.Aplicações de modelos de previsão de produtividade na cultura da soja são muito raros. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar a estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da cultura de soja, usando modelos de previsão modificados. Os dados climáticos utilizados nos modelos de simulação foram a temperatura, precipitação e insolação. Os dados foram proveniente de 33 municípios (28 do estado de São Paulo, e cinco municípios de estados vizinhos. Dentre os modelos propostos modificados está a estimação da área foliar da soja, com correções para temperatura, sombreamento, senescência, CO2, partição de biomassa, bem como os métodos de simulação das variávies climáticas do “input” para o modelo. As produções deplecionadas foram estimadas através do balan

  13. Modelo para estimar la capacidad de aporte de nitrógeno del suelo Soil Nitrogen supply capacity: an estimation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Benintende

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las incubaciones aeróbicas de largo plazo permiten estimar el potencial de mineralización de N del suelo (N0, pero requiere largos tiempos para su determinación. El N mineralizado en incubaciones anaeróbicas (N-IA es una alternativa de corto tiempo que también permite predecir la capacidad de mineralización del nutriente. Los objetivos fueron: a establecer el grado de asociación y la relación entre N0 y N-IA en algunos suelos de Entre Ríos, Argentina, y b realizar una comprobación del modelo generado sobre otro grupo de datos, con el fin de establecer la posibilidad de utilizarlo como estimador del potencial de mineralización en suelos. Se encontró una correlación positiva entre N0 y N-IA (r = 0,86* *. El modelo lineal ajustado para estimar N0 a partir del N mineralizado en incubaciones anaeróbicas (PMN-IA fue 1,131 N-IA + 55,28 (R²= 0,74. Las diferencias entre N0 y PMN-IA fueron de 10%. Para el N mineralizable en condiciones de temperatura y humedad a campo durante el ciclo de un cultivo, estas diferencias representaron entre 4 y 10 kg de N ha-1 Se concluye que el N-IA permitió apreciar diferencias entre suelos y manejos diferentes y su empleo es factible de utilizar como técnica rápida y sencilla para estimar N0.Long term aerobic incubations allow estimation of nitrogen mineralization potential of soils (N0, but is a time consuming technique. Anaerobic incubation (N-AI is a short time consumer alternative, which also allows predicting the nitrogen nutrient mineralization capacity. The objectives were: a to establish the association degree and the relationship between N0 and N-AI obtained from some soils of Entre Ríos, Argentina, and b to check the generated model using a different group of data to establish the possibility to use the model as an estimator of the potential mineralization capacity. We found a positive correlation between N0 and N-AI (r = 0.86 **. The lineal model adjusted to estimate N0 from N mineralized in

  14. Value-Added Modeling of Teacher Effectiveness: An Exploration of Stability across Models and Contexts Modelos de Valor Añadido de la eficacia docente Modelos de Valor Agregado da Eficácia Docente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia A. Newton

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent policy interest in tying student learning to teacher evaluation has led to growing use of value-added methods for assessing student learning gains linked to individual teachers. VAM analyses rely on complex assumptions about the roles of schools, multiple teachers, student aptitudes and efforts, homes and families in producing measured student learning gains. This article reports on analyses that examine the stability of high school teacher effectiveness rankings across differing conditions. We find that judgments of teacher effectiveness for a given teacher can vary substantially across statistical models, classes taught, and years. Furthermore, student characteristics can impact teacher rankings, sometimes dramatically, even when such characteristics have been previously controlled statistically in the value-added model. A teacher who teaches less advantaged students in a given course or year typically receives lower effectiveness ratings than the same teacher teaching more advantaged students in a different course or year. Models that fail to take student demographics into account further disadvantage teachers serving large numbers of low-income, limited English proficient, or lower-tracked students. We examine a number of potential reasons for these findings, and we conclude that caution should be exercised in using student achievement gains and value-added methods to assess teachers’ effectiveness, especially when the stakes are high. El reciente interés para relacionar los resultados de los aprendizajes de los estudiantes con las evaluaciones docentes ha provocado un uso creciente de Métodos de Valor Añadido (MVA para evaluar incrementos en los aprendizajes de los alumnos.  Los análisis MVA se basan en hipótesis complejas acerca del papel que desempeñan las escuelas, los profesores

  15. Building Better Ecological Machines: Complexity Theory and Alternative Economic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess Bier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer models of the economy are regularly used to predict economic phenomena and set financial policy. However, the conventional macroeconomic models are currently being reimagined after they failed to foresee the current economic crisis, the outlines of which began to be understood only in 2007-2008. In this article we analyze the most prominent of this reimagining: Agent-Based models (ABMs. ABMs are an influential alternative to standard economic models, and they are one focus of complexity theory, a discipline that is a more open successor to the conventional chaos and fractal modeling of the 1990s. The modelers who create ABMs claim that their models depict markets as ecologies, and that they are more responsive than conventional models that depict markets as machines. We challenge this presentation, arguing instead that recent modeling efforts amount to the creation of models as ecological machines. Our paper aims to contribute to an understanding of the organizing metaphors of macroeconomic models, which we argue is relevant conceptually and politically, e.g., when models are used for regulatory purposes.

  16. Coupling between solute transport and chemical reactions models. Acoplamiento de modelos de transporte de solutos y de modelos de reacciones quimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, J.; Ajora, C. (Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC, Barcerlona (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    During subsurface transport, reactive solutes are subject to a variety of hydrodynamic and chemical processes. The major hydrodynamic processes include advection and convection, dispersion and diffusion. The key chemical processes are complexation including hydrolysis and acid-base reactions, dissolution-precipitation, reduction-oxidation, adsorption and ion exchange. The combined effects of all these processes on solute transport must satisfy the principle of conservation of mass. The statement of conservation of mass for N mobile species leads to N partial differential equations. Traditional solute transport models often incorporate the effects of hydrodynamic processes rigorously but oversimplify chemical interactions among aqueous species. Sophisticated chemical equilibrium models, on the other hand, incorporate a variety of chemical processes but generally assume no-flow systems. In the past decade, coupled models accounting for complex hydrological and chemical processes, with varying degrees of sophistication, have been developed. The existing models of reactive transport employ two basic sets of equations. The transport of solutes is described by a set of partial differential equations, and the chemical processes, under the assumption of equilibrium, are described by a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. An important consideration in any approach is the choice of primary dependent variables. Most existing models cannot account for the complete set of chemical processes, cannot be easily extended to include mixed chemical equilibria and kinetics, and cannot handle practical two and three dimensional problems. The difficulties arise mainly from improper selection of the primary variables in the transport equations. (Author) 38 refs.

  17. Modelo de referência para estruturar o Seis Sigma nas organizações Reference model to structure the Six Sigma in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Barbosa Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o modelo de referência para estruturar o Seis Sigma, o qual é resultante da incorporação de teorias que contribuem para aumentar o potencial estratégico do Seis Sigma no sentido de incrementar o desempenho organizacional. Em sua proposta, o modelo de referência engloba um direcionamento sobre certos requisitos primordiais para o sucesso do programa Seis Sigma. A base teórica de sustentação do modelo de referência foi construída a partir de estudos sobre a influência dos seguintes fatores: orientação estratégica e alinhamento estratégico; medição e gerenciamento do desempenho organizacional; uso de estatística (pensamento estatístico; capacitação/especialização de pessoas; implementação e gerenciamento de projetos; e uso de tecnologia de informação. Complementando a proposição do modelo, o artigo traz evidências empíricas acerca da contribuição dos fatores identificados na formulação do modelo de referência, expondo resultados decorrentes de estudos de caso realizados em quatro subsidiárias brasileiras de multinacionais de grande porte. A análise dos dados forneceu evidências positivas de que os fatores mencionados influenciam de forma efetiva o sucesso e a consolidação do Seis Sigma nas empresas estudadas.This paper introduces the reference model to structure Six Sigma. This model is a result of theory incorporation that contributes to increase the strategic power of Six Sigma for improving businesses performance. Reference model proposal points out certain primordial requirements for de Six Sigma program success. The theoretical basis to sustain the reference model was supported in studies about the influence of critical factors such as: strategic orientation and strategic alignment; business performance measurement; statistical approach (statistical thinking; people training; project implementation; and information technology use. Complementing the model proposition, this paper

  18. Modelos de determinação não-destrutiva da área foliar em girassol Models for estimating leaf area in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Carlos Maldaner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram obter e testar modelos matemáticos de estimativa da área do limbo foliar em função das suas dimensões lineares para o girassol. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos na área experimental do departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. As plantas de girassol foram coletadas a partir dos 27 dias após emergência (DAE. A área foliar (AF foi determinada pelo método dos discos. Ajustaram-se modelos lineares, quadráticos, cúbicos e potenciais entre área foliar e comprimento ou largura e seus produtos (comprimento*largura, sendo eliminados os que apresentaram coeficiente de determinação menor do que 0,90. A estatística utilizada para avaliar o desempenho dos modelos foi a raiz do quadrado médio do erro (RQME. Os modelos que melhor se ajustaram aos dados foram: potência, quadrático e cúbico, considerando a largura como variável independente. A área foliar de girassol pode ser estimada com o modelo potência, por ser o mais preciso, e a largura da folha.The objective of this study was to obtain and to numerical models to estimate the leaf area in function leaves linear dimension in sunflower. Two experiments were conducted at the experimental area of the Plant Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Plants of sunflower were collected starting 27 days after emergency (DAE. The disks method was used to determine the leaf area (LA. Leaves were dried in oven at 65°C until constant weight. Linear, quadratic, cubic and power models between leaf area and length or width, and the product (length * width, were fitted. Models that apresented coefficient of determination lower than 0.90 were not selected. The statistic used to evaluate the performance of the models was the root mean square error (RQME. Models that had the best fit were power, quadratic and cubic using blade width as the independent variable. Leaf area in sunflower can be

  19. Conformational analysis of lignin models; Analise conformacional de modelos de lignina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio F. dos [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: helius@quimica.ufjf.br

    2001-08-01

    The conformational equilibrium for two 5,5' biphenyl lignin models have been analyzed using a quantum mechanical semiempirical method. The gas phase and solution structures are discussed based on the NMR and X-ray experimental data. The results obtained showed that the observed conformations are solvent-dependent, being the geometries and the thermodynamic properties correlated with the experimental information. This study shows how a systematic theoretical conformational analysis can help to understand chemical processes at a molecular level. (author)

  20. Simulation model of a micro turbine; Modelo para simulacao de uma microturbina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Felipe Samuel de; Ruppert Filho, Ernesto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao

    2004-07-01

    The introduction of distributed generation (DG) units in the electric power system has been surrounded by many promises and uncertainnesses. Hence, new simulation tools are needed in order to assess the issues and the benefits related to the connection of DG in the electric power system. In this paper will be presented and simulated a model of a micro turbine, a new and emerging distributed generation technology. (author)

  1. Production of new vector bosons from alternative models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, P.; Fiandrino, A.; Taxil, P.

    1992-01-01

    Some effective alternative models are considered, introduced on the basis of compositeness, which are based on SU(2) WI weak isospin symmetry broken down explicitly to U(1) em via the mixing of the photon with the mental member W (3) of on SU(2) WI triplet of vector bosons. Besides W + ,W - and Z isoscalar neutral vectors, Y(Y L ) can be added which couple to the fuel hypercharge current or only to its left-handed part. Both Y and Y L models are tested. (K.A.) 9 refs., 4 figs

  2. MODELOS DE PREVENCIÓN EN LA LUCHA CONTRA EL VIH/SIDA MODELOS DE PREVENÇÃO NA LUTA CONTRA O VIH/AIDS PREVENTION MODELS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harold Estrada M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe tres modelos teóricos utilizados para afrontar la prevención de la transmisión del VIH en estos años. Estos se han desarrollado de manera secuencial, responden a distintas ópticas de la prevención, representa cada uno un mayor nivel de inclusión con relación al anterior y son utilizados en ocasiones de manera ecléctica, sin responder a las necesidades particulares de las poblaciones sujeto de las acciones. Finalmente, el documento analiza algunas lecciones aprendidasEste artigo descrebe três modelos teóricos utilizados para enfrentar a prevenção da transmissão do HIV nestes anos. Estes se desenvolveram de maneira sequencial, respondendo a distintas óticas de prevenção e representam cada um um nível maior de inclusão com relação ao anterior. São utilizados em ocasiões de maneira eclética, sem responder às necessidades particulares das populações, sujeito das ações. Finalmente, o documento analisa algumas lições aprendidasThis article describes three theoretical models to face HIV prevention of transmission in these years. These have been developed sequentially, answering to different prevention views, each one representing a greater inclusion level with respect to the previous one and they are used occasionally in an eclectic way without responding to the particular subject population needs. Finally, the document analyzes some lessons learned

  3. Validation process of simulation model; Proceso de validacion de modelos de simulacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Isidro Pindado, M J

    1998-12-31

    It is presented a methodology on empirical about any detailed simulation model. This kind of validation it is always related with an experimental case. The empirical validation has a residual sense, because the conclusions are based on comparison between simulated outputs and experimental measurements. This methodology will guide us to detect the fails of the simulation model. Furthermore, it can be used a guide in the design of posteriori experiments. Three steps can be well differentiated: - Sensitivity analysis. It can be made with a DSA, differential sensitivity analysis, and with a MCSA, Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. - Looking the optimal domains of the input parameters. It has been developed a procedure based on the Monte-Carlo methods and Cluster techniques, to find the optimal domains of these parameters. - Residual analysis. This analysis has been made on the time domain on the frequency domain, it has been used the correlation analysis and spectral analysis. As application of this methodology, it is presented the validation carried out on a thermal simulation model on buildings, ESP studying the behavior of building components on a Test Cell of LECE of CIEMAT. (Author)

  4. Validation process of simulation model; Proceso de validacion de modelos de simulacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Isidro Pindado, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    It is presented a methodology on empirical about any detailed simulation model. This kind of validation it is always related with an experimental case. The empirical validation has a residual sense, because the conclusions are based on comparison between simulated outputs and experimental measurements. This methodology will guide us to detect the fails of the simulation model. Furthermore, it can be used a guide in the design of posteriori experiments. Three steps can be well differentiated: - Sensitivity analysis. It can be made with a DSA, differential sensitivity analysis, and with a MCSA, Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. - Looking the optimal domains of the input parameters. It has been developed a procedure based on the Monte-Carlo methods and Cluster techniques, to find the optimal domains of these parameters. - Residual analysis. This analysis has been made on the time domain on the frequency domain, it has been used the correlation analysis and spectral analysis. As application of this methodology, it is presented the validation carried out on a thermal simulation model on buildings, ESP studying the behavior of building components on a Test Cell of LECE of CIEMAT. (Author)

  5. Parametric sensitivity of two axis models for turbo-generators; Sensibilidad parametrica de modelos de dos ejes para turbogeneradores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Castorena, Armando

    2003-06-15

    also believed that some insights into the electromagnetic phenomena of the machine can be achieved from these studies, because of the mathematical representation that the fitness functions do of the physics of the machine. A set of five equivalent circuits on the d axis and four on the q axis were studied. The difference between circuits is the number of damper windings that are modeled. These windings represent the damper effects of the rotor during transient states of the machine. When modeling rotor damping effects, the more number of damper windings is included the better is the fitness of the circuit frequency response to the one of the machine, also leading to better results during dynamic simulations. [Spanish] En esta tesis se presentan los resultados de un estudio de sensibilidad parametrica realizado a circuitos equivalentes de dos ejes de turbogeneradores. Los circuitos estan formados por elementos inductivos y resistivos, cuya conectividad representa el acoplamiento magnetico y electrico al interior de la maquina, y las perdidas energeticas en la misma. Se tienen dos circuitos equivalentes, uno para el eje directo (d) y otro para el eje de cuadratura (q), debido a que el turbogenerador es modelado en el marco de referencia del rotor con la transformacion de Park. Las magnitudes de los parametros de los circuitos han sido determinados previamente a partir de pruebas de respuesta a la frecuencia en reposo. La respuesta a la frecuencia fue determinada haciendo uso de un modelo de elementos finitos de un turbogenerador. La tecnica de determinacion de la magnitud de los parametros consiste en un proceso de optimizacion basado en un algoritmo hibrido (combinacion de algoritmo genetico y algoritmo deterministico), cuyo indice de optimizacion esta formado por el cuadrado de las diferencias de las magnitudes y los angulos de fase entre las respuestas a la frecuencia del circuito y de la maquina. Se tiene entonces que las magnitudes de los parametros de los circuitos

  6. Modelo para o dimensionamento e a locação de sistemas de terraceamento em nível Model to design level terracing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nori P. Griebeler

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A erosão hídrica é um dos principais causadores da degradação das terras agrícolas, provocando expressivos prejuízos à sociedade. Em virtude desses danos, torna-se fundamental o desenvolvimento de técnicas que permitam o aumento da eficiência das práticas para a conservação do solo. Com esse objetivo, desenvolveu-se um modelo para o dimensionamento e a locação de sistemas de terraceamento em nível, utilizando modelos digitais de elevação do terreno gerados em sistemas de informações geográficas (SIG. A fim de possibilitar a aplicação do modelo desenvolvido, elaborou-se um software que permite a realização das interações necessárias para o dimensionamento do sistema. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o modelo oferece a vantagem de permitir o dimensionamento de cada terraço, considerando as condições existentes na área específica que irá contribuir com o escoamento superficial para o mesmo. A outra vantagem do modelo desenvolvido está na possibilidade de realização de simulações, permitindo a observação e o acompanhamento, de maneira fácil e objetiva, das mudanças provocadas no sistema de terraceamento, em função da alteração nas características de uso e manejo do solo.Water erosion is one of the main problems of agricultural lands degradation, causing largess damages to the society. Because of these damages, it becomes necessary the development of techniques that allow the increase of the efficiency of soil conservation practices. With this objective, a model was developed for design and location of level terracing systems using digital models of elevation of the land generated in geographic information systems (GIS. In order to facilitate the application of the developed model, it was elaborated a software. The results show that the model offers as the principal advantage the design of each terrace considering the existent conditions in the specific area that will contribute with the runoff to

  7. Propriedades termofísicas de soluções-modelo similares a sucos: parte II Thermophysical properties of model solutions similar to juice: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Sobottka Rolim de Moura

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades termofísicas, densidade e viscosidade de soluções-modelo similares a sucos foram determinadas experimentalmente. Os resultados foram comparados aos preditos por modelos matemáticos (STATISTICA 6.0 e obtidos da literatura em função da sua composição química. Para definição das soluções-modelo, foi realizado um planejamento estrela, mantendo-se fixa a quanti-dade de ácido (1,5% e variando-se a água (82-98,5%, o carboidrato (0-15% e a gordura (0-1,5%. A densidade foi determinada em picnômetro. A viscosidade foi determinada em viscosímetro Brookfield modelo LVF. A condutividade térmica foi calculada com o conhecimento das propriedades difusividade térmica e calor específico (apresentados na Parte I deste trabalho MOURA [7] e da densidade. Os resultados de cada propriedade foram analisados através de superfícies de respostas. Foram encontrados resultados significativos para as propriedades, mostrando que os modelos encontrados representam as mudanças das propriedades térmicas e físicas dos sucos, com alterações na composição e na temperatura.Thermophysical properties, density and viscosity of model solutions similar to juices were experimentally determined. The results were compared to those predicted by mathematical models (STATISTIC 6.0 and to values mentioned in the literature, according to the chemical composition. A star planning was adopted to define model solutions composition; fixing the acid amount in 1.5% and varying water (82-98.5%, carbohydrate (0-15% and fat (0-1.5%. The density was determined by picnometer. The viscosity was determined by Brookfield LVF model viscosimeter. The thermal conductivity was calculated based on thermal diffusivity and specific heat values (presented at the 1st . Part of this paper - MOURA [7] and density. The results of each property were analyzed by the response surface method. The found results were significant, indicating that the models represent the changes of

  8. EGARCH: un modelo asimétrico para estimar la volatilidad de series financieras EGARCH: a model to estimate the asymmetric volatility of financial series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Fernández Castaño

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la modelación de las volatilidades con cambios súbitos, es imperativo usar modelos que permitan describir y analizar el dinamismo de la volatilidad, ya que los inversionistas, entre otras cosas, pueden estar interesados en estimar la tasa de retorno y la volatilidad de un instrumento financiero u otros derivados, sólo durante el período de tenencia. En este artículo, que constituye la primera de dos entregas, se hace una evaluación del modelo asimétrico EGARCH que resulta ser muy útil para estudiar la dinámica del Índice General de la Bolsa de valores de Colombia (IGBC y de su volatilidad, pues inicia haciendo una breve revisión del modelo GARCH, resaltando su importancia en la modelación de series de tiempo financieras, e identificando sus debilidades en cuanto a su propiedad de simetría para las distribuciones de colas gruesas y que pueden generar errores de pronóstico. Luego se muestra la importancia del modelo EGARCH para la modelación de algunos hechos que no se logran capturar con los modelos GARCHIn the modeling of volatility with rapid changes, it is imperative to use models to describe and analyze the dynamics of volatility, as investors, among other things, may be interested in estimating the rate of return and volatility of an instrument financial or other derivatives, only during the holding period. This article contains an evaluation of asymmetric EGARCH model that proves to be very useful to study the dynamics of the General Index of the Stock Exchange of Colombia (IGBC and its volatility, since, as will be shown, the results suggest they could be more useful for capture the stylized facts of the Colombian market behavior. It is really significant to evidence the importance of asymmetric models to estimate the volatility of financial series is intended here as a model for identifying, in the best way to estimate the volatility of daily returns of the IGBC.

  9. Uncertain hybrid model for the response calculation of an alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczkowiak, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The complex structural dynamic behavior of alternator must be well understood in order to insure their reliable and safe operation. The numerical model is however difficult to construct mainly due to the presence of a high level of uncertainty. The objective of this work is to provide decision support tools in order to assess the vibratory levels in operation before to restart the alternator. Based on info-gap theory, a first decision support tool is proposed: the objective here is to assess the robustness of the dynamical response to the uncertain modal model. Based on real data, the calibration of an info-gap model of uncertainty is also proposed in order to enhance its fidelity to reality. Then, the extended constitutive relation error is used to expand identified mode shapes which are used to assess the vibratory levels. The robust expansion process is proposed in order to obtain robust expanded mode shapes to parametric uncertainties. In presence of lack-of knowledge, the trade-off between fidelity-to-data and robustness-to-uncertainties which expresses that robustness improves as fidelity deteriorates is emphasized on an industrial structure by using both reduced order model and surrogate model techniques. (author)

  10. Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

  11. Development models, unification and deterritorialization; Modelos de desarrollo, unificacion y desterritorializacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo Perez, I.

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to provide an overview of the development models and territorial organization from the perspective of the relationship between the urban environment, rururban and rural, in Spain. Therefore, once know and appreciate the conceptual and thematic approach, urban growth is studied in our country in recent decades, analyzing in detail the importance acquired and charges the legislative implementation of laws, plans and policies, both in the own urban growth and housing demand in the Spanish cities and, similarly, linking both to the price of housing, relating to the issue of rurbanization and rural. (Author)

  12. Model of the electromagnetic waves processing in ultrasound; Modelo de procesamiento de ondas electromagneticas en ultrasonido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrego L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Siles A, S. [CICATA, IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cruz O, A. [CINVESTAV, IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, a model to process the electromagnetic waves in ultrasonic equipment is proposed and it is experimentally demonstrated that, the origin of the ultrasound is electronic and non mechanic. The above mentioned, it has been demonstrated when making in an electronic equipment a spectral analysis the one that indicated an unfolding of the original ultrasonic pulses of 17 K Hz., to 88 K Hz., and of 5 MHz., to 23 GHz. Also, it was obtained the degradation with ultrasound of particles of Hematite and of Galena, as well as the fading of the methylene blue and the generation of an electric current exciting with ultrasound. (Author)

  13. Electric market models, competitive model and alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnedillo, O.

    2007-01-01

    Almost ten years after the liberalization of the Spanish electric system, its market design has remained basically unchanged. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider whether the current model continues to be adequate or whether it should be changed. However, although the current model is far from the absolute optimum, it is suited to the current state of the Spanish system. Only some improvements, such as the reform of the capacity guarantee payment can be undertaken immediately. It will only be possible to undertake other improvements as distribution companies cover all of their electricity needs in forward contracts acquired through a competitive process. (Author)

  14. Un modelo explicativo de la conducta hacia la enfermedad mental An explanatory model of behavior towards mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah García-Sílberman

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Probar un modelo teórico diseñado para explicar las actitudes en relación con la enfermedad mental, a partir del conocimiento de las principales variables relacionadas con dicho constructo. Material y métodos. En 1996 se efectuó una encuesta estratificada por nivel socioeconómico, edad y género en una muestra de 800 sujetos de la población general de la Ciudad de México, en relación con las creencias, actitudes e intenciones conductuales respecto de los trastornos mentales. Se construyó y validó un instrumento de medición, específico para el estudio, integrado por 120 reactivos tipo Likert, con cinco opciones de respuesta. Los datos se codificaron y analizaron estadísticamente con el paquete SPSS. La consistencia interna de las escalas utilizadas se midió por medio del Alpha de Cronbach y la validez del constructo, mediante análisis factoriales. Se efectuaron pruebas de t de student y anova, para comparar los grupos de los diferentes estratos de la muestra. Resultados. Los datos obtenidos confirman la capacidad predictiva del modelo en cuanto a la cadena causal que conecta creencias, actitudes e intenciones conductuales; sin embargo, las demás variables investigadas no contribuyeron a explicarlo y la conducta resultó poco influenciada por las intenciones, dependiendo más bien de la necesidad experimentada. Conclusiones. Los resultados constituyen una base para comprender las actitudes de temor y vergüenza en relación con las enfermedades mentales, planear acciones eficaces para su modificación y diseñar programas de promoción de la salud mental.Objective. To evaluate a theoretical model designed to explain behaviors toward mental illness, considering some variables related to the construct. Material and Methods. A survey was conducted in 1996 on mental disorder beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. The sample population was stratified by socioeconomic status, age, and gender. Study subjects were 800

  15. Models in the estimate of the diffuse solar radiation; Modelos de estimativa da radiacao solar difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Ferruzzi, Yuri; Silva, Suedemio de Lima [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Agricola; Quallio, Silvana [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Biologia; Batista, Vitor Roberto Lourenco [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica

    2004-07-01

    In this work we evaluate, by means of polynomial regression analysis, several models that relate the diffuse fraction of the global radiation (K{sub d}) with the clearness index (K{sub t}). The experiment was conducted in the Solar Radiometry Station of Cascavel/PR from the first of January to the 31st of December, in the year of 2001. The solar radiation components were monitored by the following manufactured instruments: pyranometer (KIPP and ZONEN CM3) and pirheliometer (EPPLEY NIP) connected in a sun tracker (ST-1 model). A datalogger CR10X from the CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC was used in the data acquisition. This datalogger was programmed in the frequency of 1 Hz storing an average of 5 minutes of collected data. Among the equations the best values of RMSE an MBE were find in the fourth and third degrees, respectively. We also find that the fourth degree polynomial equation (K{sub d}=1,172-1,001K{sub t}+3,992K{sub t}{sup 2}-11,742K{sub t}{sup 3}+7,698K{sub t}{sup 4}) generalizes the utilization of equations for diffuse solar radiation estimation. This means that this equation probably can be applied for any place and climatic conditions. (author)

  16. Vivenciando a experiência da parturição em um modelo assistencial humanizado Viviendo la experiencia de la parturición en un modelo asistencial humanizado Living the birth process in a humanized assistance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mandarano da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tratou-se de um estudo qualitativo baseado na abordagem fenomenológica com o objetivo de compreender as experiências de puérperas que vivenciaram o trabalho de parto e o parto em um modelo assistencial humanizado. Os dados foram coletados em um hospital localizado na cidade de São Paulo, onde foram entrevistadas oito puérperas. Da análise dos dados surgiram os temas: Suportando o trabalho de parto e Tendo a oportunidade de resgatar a autonomia, e o fenômeno desvelado foi "Vivendo a ambiguidade da parturição em um modelo assistencial humanizado". Os relatos evidenciaram sentimentos como dor, medo e ansiedade, porém, possibilitou a participação e resgate da autonomia. Embora o estudo tenha sido realizado em um modelo assistencial considerado humanizado, as experiências das puérperas revelam que ainda se distanciam de uma efetiva humanização, conforme seus princípios. Este estudo pode ser utilizado para nortear ações educativas voltadas à humanização e gerar mudanças assistenciaisEste es un estudio cualitativo con abordaje fenomenológica con la finalidad de comprender las experiencias de puerperas que vivieron el trabajo de parto y el parto en la asistencia humanizada. La colecta de los dados ocurrio en un hospital en la ciudad de São Paulo, donde fuera entrevistadas ocho mujeres en el periodo post-partum. De la analisis de los dados surgieron los temas: Soportando el trabajo de parto y Tiendo la oportunidad de rescatar la autonomía, siendo desvelado lo fenómeno "Viviendo la ambigüedad de la parturición en un modelo asistencial humanizado". Los relatos evidenciaron sentimientos relacionados a dolor, miedo y ansiedad, pero, posibilitou la participación y rescate de la autonomía. Aunque el estudio tener sido realizad en la asistencia humanizada, las experiencias de las puérperas fueram distantes de los principios de la asistencia humanizada. El actual estudio puede nortear aciones educativas al parto direccionadas para

  17. Adolescentes modelos de passarela: como é o consumo alimentar deste grupo? Adolescent runway models: how is the food intake of this group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Magna Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adequação da ingestão de energia, macro e micronutrientes em adolescentes modelos de passarela. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 33 adolescentes modelos e 33 não modelos, de 15 a 18 anos, pareadas por idade e índice de massa corpórea (IMC. A ingestão alimentar foi avaliada por meio de registro alimentar de três dias, sendo calculados os valores médios de energia, em kcal, os valores proporcionais dos macronutrientes em relação ao valor calórico total da dieta consumida, bem como os valores médios/medianos dos seguintes micronutrientes: cálcio, ferro, zinco, fósforo, magnésio, folato, vitamina D, vitamina C, vitamina A e vitamina E. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que 24% das adolescentes do estudo apresentaram IMC abaixo dos valores mínimos para a idade. A média de ingestão de energia foi menor entre as modelos, em comparação às adolescentes não modelos (1.480,93±582,95 versus 1.973,00±557,63 kcal (p0,05. O consumo inadequado de micronutrientes como o cálcio, ferro, zinco, magnésio, fósforo, vitaminas lipossolúveis, folato e ácido ascórbico ocorreu em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: A baixa ingestão energética (kcal entre as modelos e a ingestão insuficiente de minerais e vitaminas alertam para que as agências de modelos comprometam-se com a saúde dessas adolescentes, garantindo um acompanhamento médico e nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adequacy of energy, macro and micronutrients intake in adolescent runway models. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 33 models and 33 non-models, with ages ranging from 15 to 18 years, paired by age and body mass index (BMI. Food intake was evaluated by a three-day food record. The average energy values were estimated in kcal, the proportional values of macronutrients as to the total caloric value of the consumed diet were also calculated, as well as the mean/medium values of the following micronutrients: calcium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium

  18. Perceived game realism: a test of three alternative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbens, Wannes

    2013-01-01

    Perceived realism is considered a key concept in explaining the mental processing of media messages and the societal impact of media. Despite its importance, little is known about its conceptualization and dimensional structure, especially with regard to digital games. The aim of this study was to test a six-factor model of perceived game realism comprised of simulational realism, freedom of choice, perceptual pervasiveness, social realism, authenticity, and character involvement and to assess it against an alternative single- and five-factor model. Data were collected from 380 male digital game users who judged the realism of the first-person shooter Half-Life 2 based upon their previous experience with the game. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to investigate which model fits the data best. The results support the six-factor model over the single- and five-factor solutions. The study contributes to our knowledge of perceived game realism by further developing its conceptualization and measurement.

  19. Comparison of Regression and Neural Networks Models to Estimate Solar Radiation Comparación de Regresión y Modelos de Redes Neuronales para Estimar la Radiación Solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bocco

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The incident solar radiation on soil is an important variable used in agricultural applications; it is also relevant in hydrology, meteorology and soil physics, among others. To estimate this variable, empirical models have been developed using several parameters and, recently, prognostic and prediction models based on artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks. The aim of this work was to develop linear models and neural networks, multilayer perceptron, to estimate daily global solar radiation and compare their efficiency in its application to a region of the Province of Salta, Argentina. Relative sunshine duration, maximum and minimum temperature, rainfall, binary rainfall and extraterrestrial solar radiation data for the period 1996-2002, were used. All data were supplied by Experimental Station Salta, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA, Argentina. For both, neural networks models and linear regressions, three alternative combinations of meteorological parameters were considered. Good results with both prediction methods were obtained, with root mean square error (RMSE values between 1.99 and 1.66 MJ m-2 d-1 for linear regressions and neural networks, and coefficients of correlation (r² between 0.88 and 0.92, respectively. Even though neural networks and linear regression models can be used to predict the daily global solar radiation appropriately, neural networks produced better estimates.La radiación solar incidente en el suelo es una variable importante usada en aplicaciones agronómicas, además es relevante en hidrología, meteorología y física del suelo, entre otros. Para estimarla se han desarrollado modelos empíricos que utilizan distintos parámetros meteorológicos y, recientemente, modelos de pronóstico y predicción basados en técnicas de inteligencia artificial tales como redes neuronales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar modelos lineales y de redes neuronales, del tipo perceptr

  20. Modelos de determinação social das doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis Models of social determination of chronic non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomar Almeida-Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio revisa criticamente marcos referenciais e modelos teóricos de determinação social das chamadas Doenças Crônicas Não-Transmissíveis. A sociologia funcionalista gerou modelos socioculturais de saúde que influenciaram o campo de investigação epidemiológica da chamada "nova morbidade" (basicamente enfermidades crônicas e degenerativas, posteriormente agrupados sob o rótulo genérico de Teoria do Estresse. Analisam-se abordagens neodurkheimianas das desigualdades sociais, baseadas no conceito de capital social, criticando especialmente os usos quase-teóricos da noção de "estilo de vida" no campo da saúde. Discutem-se ainda alguns modelos derivados do materialismo dialético que se tornaram bastante influentes na epidemiologia social latino-americana, com base nos conceitos de trabalho e classe social. Finalmente, considerando lacunas teóricas e conceituais dessas teorias parciais no que diz respeito ao espaço simbólico da vida social, apresentam-se as bases conceituais de um enfoque teórico alternativo - a "teoria do modo de vida e saúde". Tomada como síntese possível dos modelos objeto desta revisão crítica, considera-se esta teoria como especialmente indicada para a elaboração de modelos epidemiológicos de determinação social de doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis.This essay critically revises theoretical frameworks and models of social determination of chronic non-communicable diseases. Functionalist sociology generated sociocultural models of health that influenced the field of epidemiologic investigation of so-called "new morbidity" (basically chronic and degenerative illnesses, later contained under the generic label of stress theory. Neo-durkheimian approaches of social inequalities, based on the social capital concept, are analyzed and theoretical uses of the lifestyle notion in the health field are criticized. Models derived from the dialectical materialism, grounded on the concepts of labor and

  1. Revisión de los principales modelos para aplicar técnicas de Minería de Procesos (Review of models for applying process mining techniques

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    Arturo Orellana García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spanish abstract La minería de procesos constituye una alternativa novedosa para mejorar los procesos en una variedad de dominios de aplicación. Tiene como objetivo extraer información a partir de los datos almacenados en los registros de trazas de los sistemas de información, en busca de errores, inconsistencias, vulnerabilidades y variabilidad en los procesos que se ejecutan. Las técnicas de minería de procesos se utilizan en múltiples sectores, como la industria, los servicios web, la inteligencia de negocios y la salud. Sin embargo, para aplicar estas técnicas existen varios modelos a seguir y poca información sobre cual aplicar, al no contar con un análisis comparativo entre estos. La investigación se centró en recopilar información sobre los principales modelos propuestos por autores de referencia mundial en el tema de minería de procesos para aplicar técnicas en el descubrimiento, chequeo de conformidad y mejoramiento de los procesos. Se realiza un análisis de los mismos en función de seleccionar los elementos y características útiles para su aplicación en el entorno hospitalario. La actual investigación contribuye al desarrollo de un modelo para la detección y análisis de variabilidad en procesos hospitalarios utilizando técnicas de minería de procesos. Permite a los investigadores tener de forma centralizada, los criterios para decidir qué modelo utilizar, o qué fases emplear de uno o más modelos. English abstract Process mining is a novel alternative to improve processes in a variety of application domains. It aims to extract information from data stored in records of traces from information systems, looking for errors, inconsistencies, vulnerabilities and variability in processes that are executing. The process mining techniques are used in multiple sectors such as industry, web services, business intelligence and health. However, to apply these techniques there are several models and little information on

  2. A Bayesian alternative for multi-objective ecohydrological model specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yating; Marshall, Lucy; Sharma, Ashish; Ajami, Hoori

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have identified the importance of vegetation processes in terrestrial hydrologic systems. Process-based ecohydrological models combine hydrological, physical, biochemical and ecological processes of the catchments, and as such are generally more complex and parametric than conceptual hydrological models. Thus, appropriate calibration objectives and model uncertainty analysis are essential for ecohydrological modeling. In recent years, Bayesian inference has become one of the most popular tools for quantifying the uncertainties in hydrological modeling with the development of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. The Bayesian approach offers an appealing alternative to traditional multi-objective hydrologic model calibrations by defining proper prior distributions that can be considered analogous to the ad-hoc weighting often prescribed in multi-objective calibration. Our study aims to develop appropriate prior distributions and likelihood functions that minimize the model uncertainties and bias within a Bayesian ecohydrological modeling framework based on a traditional Pareto-based model calibration technique. In our study, a Pareto-based multi-objective optimization and a formal Bayesian framework are implemented in a conceptual ecohydrological model that combines a hydrological model (HYMOD) and a modified Bucket Grassland Model (BGM). Simulations focused on one objective (streamflow/LAI) and multiple objectives (streamflow and LAI) with different emphasis defined via the prior distribution of the model error parameters. Results show more reliable outputs for both predicted streamflow and LAI using Bayesian multi-objective calibration with specified prior distributions for error parameters based on results from the Pareto front in the ecohydrological modeling. The methodology implemented here provides insight into the usefulness of multiobjective Bayesian calibration for ecohydrologic systems and the importance of appropriate prior

  3. Efeitos do ultrassom terapêutico em modelo experimental de ciatalgia Therapeutic ultrasound effects in a sciatica experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Policam Ciena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A ciática possui grande prevalência geral e seu tratamento tende a resolver as causas de compressão nervosa. A fisioterapia objetiva reduzir os sintomas causados pela compressão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia do ultrassom terapêutico sobre a dor, em animais submetidos a modelo experimental de ciatalgia. Foram usados 18 ratos neste estudo, divididos em três grupos: GS (n = 4, submetido a modelo de ciatalgia e tratados com ultrassom desligado; GUP (n = 7, submetido à ciatalgia e tratados com ultrassom pulsado 2W/cm² (SATP; 0,4 - SATA; e grupo GUC (n = 7, submetido à ciática e ultrassom contínuo (0,4W/cm². O nervo ciático do membro posterior direito foi exposto à compressão com fio categute em quatro pontos. No 3º dia pós-operatório (PO, iniciou-se tratamento indireto por quatro dias. No 9º dia PO, o tratamento direto começou sobre a área do procedimento cirúrgico, por cinco dias consecutivos. O tempo de elevação da pata, durante a marcha, foi avaliado antes e após a ciatalgia, no 3º, 6º, 9º e 13º PO. Os resultados demonstraram que a aplicação do ultrassom reduziu a dor com ambos os tratamentos efetivos e tendeu a ser mais eficaz na forma pulsada.The sciatica possesses great general population prevalence, and its treatment tends to solve the nervous compression causes. Physiotherapy aims to reduce the symptoms caused by compression. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic ultrasound on pain in animals subjected to sciatica experimental model. Eighteen rats were used and they were divided in 3 groups: group SG (n=4 submitted to the sciatica and treated with the ultrasound off, group PUG (n=7 submitted to the sciatica and treated with pulsed ultrasound 2 W/cm² (SATP; 0,4 - SATA and group CUG (n=7 submitted to the sciatica and treated with continuous ultrasound (0,4 W/cm². The sciatic nerve of the posterior right limb was exposed to the compression with Catgut wire in 4

  4. Los modelos de simulación de eventos discretos en la evaluación económica de tecnologías y productos sanitarios Discrete-event simulation models in the economic evaluation of health technologies and health products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Rodríguez Barrios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El uso de modelos matemáticos como instrumentos de evaluación de alternativas está teniendo una importancia cada vez mayor en el terreno de la evaluación económica de servicios y tecnologías sanitarias, con un papel cada vez más relevante como ayuda en la toma de decisiones en la gestión sanitaria. Hasta ahora se han usado fundamentalmente 2 tipos de modelos, en parte en función de la enfermedad estudiada. De esta forma, los árboles de decisión han sido muy utilizados para las enfermedades de carácter agudo y los modelos de Markov han sido usados en enfermedades crónicas o que presentan estados de salud recurrentes. Sin embargo, tanto unos como otros presentan importantes limitaciones a la hora de modelar de forma realista ciertos procesos o enfermedades, y por ello está creciendo el interés y el uso de los modelos de simulación de eventos discretos. El objetivo del presente artículo es describir las principales características que presentan los modelos de simulación de eventos discretos, describir las últimas novedades, así como presentar qué ventajas aportan con respecto a los otros tipos de modelos en economía de la salud y, especialmente, en la evaluación económica de tecnologías y productos sanitarios.The use of mathematical models to assess therapeutic alternatives is increasing in the economic evaluation of health technologies and services and these models are becoming an increasingly important aid to decision making in health care. Until now, 2 types of model have been used, depending to some extent on the disease to be studied: decision trees have been used for acute diseases and Markov models in chronic or recurrent diseases. However, both models present major limitations when addressing complex processes or diseases. Consequently, interest in, and the use of, discrete-event simulation is growing. The present article aims to describe the main characteristics of discrete-event simulation, the state of the art

  5. O Modelo de Thirlwall com variações nas elasticidades Thirlwall's Model with elasticities changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Nakabashi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluxo de capitais é um importante elemento no crescimento econômico por diversos motivos. Um deles é porque ele alivia a restrição no balanço de pagamentos de acordo com a Lei de Thirlwall. A explicação é que pelo fato de ocorrer uma elevação no nível de importações quando há um crescimento da renda de uma determinada economia deverá ocorrer uma entrada de recursos via exportações ou fluxo de capitais para que seja possível o fechamento do balanço de pagamentos (BP. O foco do presente trabalho está na avaliação de como o fluxo de capitais afetou o crescimento da economia brasileira no período 1947-2000, considerando que as elasticidades-renda das importações mudam ao longo do tempo.Capital flows are expected to be important in the process of economic growth for several reasons. One of them is their importance in relaxing the balance of payments constraints as envisaged by Thirlwall’s law, which states that when economic growth takes place, the level of imports also grows. Consequently, there is an increase in the export level or in the volume of capital inflows as imposed by the balance of payment constraints. The goal of the present paper is to investigate how capital flows have stimulated the Brazilian economy by means of Thirlwall’s model in the 1947-2000 period of time, taking into consideration that income elasticity of imports changes over time.

  6. Cultura e gestão da segurança no trabalho: uma proposta de modelo Culture e safety management: the proposal of a model

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    Anastacio Pinto Gonçalves Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo apresentado neste artigo tem por objetivo desenvolver um modelo para identificar o estágio de maturidade da cultura de segurança de uma organização. Muitos pesquisadores consideram que a cultura de segurança pode evoluir na organização passando por diferentes estágios. Uma cultura de segurança em estágio avançado é um fator importante para a prevenção de acidentes e doenças ocupacionais. O trabalho apresenta uma revisão de literatura sobre o tema, abordando conceitos, fatores essenciais e modelos de estágio de maturidade de cultura de segurança. O resultado deste estudo é um modelo que poderá ser utilizado pelas organizações para identificar o estágio de maturidade de sua cultura de segurança. O modelo é uma importante ferramenta gerencial, pois, identificando qual o seu estágio de cultura de segurança, a organização pode adotar medidas para melhorá-la. O modelo proposto define os seguintes estágios de uma cultura de segurança numa organização: patológico, reativo, burocrático, proativo e melhoria contínua. O estágio é definido pelo modo como a organização trata os seguintes fatores, considerados como essenciais para a cultura de segurança: informação, aprendizagem organizacional, envolvimento, comunicação e comprometimento.This present study investigates/examines the safety culture maturity in organizations. The objective is to propose a model to identify the stage or level of safety culture maturity in organizations. The model is particularly important in management since once the safety culture maturity level is identified the stakeholders can make decisions to improve it. Many researchers agree that safety culture develops through different levels. A high level of safety culture is important for workplace accident prevention. The result of this study is a model that can be used by organizations to identify their safety culture maturity stage. The stages of safety culture maturity

  7. Clinical implications of alternative TCP models for nonuniform dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, J. O.

    1995-01-01

    Several tumor control probability (TCP) models for nonuniform dose distributions were compared, including: (a) a logistic/inter-patient-heterogeneity model, (b) a probit/inter-patient-heterogeneity model, (c) a Poisson/radioresistant-strain/identical-patients model, (d) a Poisson/inter-patient-heterogeneity model and (e) a Poisson/intra-tumor- and inter-patient-heterogeneity model. The models were analyzed in terms of the probability of controlling a single tumor voxel (the voxel control probability, or VCP), as a function of voxel volume and dose. Alternatively, the VCP surface can be thought of as the effect of a small cold spot. The models based on the Poisson equation which include inter-patient heterogeneity ((d) and (e)) have VCP surfaces (VCP as a function of dose and volume) which have a threshold 'waterfall' shape: below the waterfall (in dose), VCP is nearly zero. The threshold dose decreases with decreasing voxel volume. However, models (a), (b), and (c) all show a high probability of controlling a voxel (VCP>50%) with very low dose (e.g., 1 Gy) if the voxel is small (smaller than about 10 -3 of the tumor volume). Model (c) does not have the waterfall shape at low volumes due to the assumption of patient uniformity and a neglect of the effect of the clonogens which are more radiosensitive (and more numerous). Models (a) and (b) deviate from the waterfall shape at low volumes due to numerical differences between the functions used and the Poisson function. Hence, the Possion models which include inter-patient heterogeneities ((d) and (e)) are more sensitive to the effects of small cold spots than the other models considered

  8. Neutron Star Models in Alternative Theories of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolidis, Dimitrios

    We study the structure of neutron stars in a broad class of alternative theories of gravity. In particular, we focus on Scalar-Tensor theories and f(R) theories of gravity. We construct static and slowly rotating numerical star models for a set of equations of state, including a polytropic model and more realistic equations of state motivated by nuclear physics. Observable quantities such as masses, radii, etc are calculated for a set of parameters of the theories. Specifically for Scalar-Tensor theories, we also calculate the sensitivities of the mass and moment of inertia of the models to variations in the asymptotic value of the scalar field at infinity. These quantities enter post-Newtonian equations of motion and gravitational waveforms of two body systems that are used for gravitational-wave parameter estimation, in order to test these theories against observations. The construction of numerical models of neutron stars in f(R) theories of gravity has been difficult in the past. Using a new formalism by Jaime, Patino and Salgado we were able to construct models with high interior pressure, namely pc > rho c/3, both for constant density models and models with a polytropic equation of state. Thus, we have shown that earlier objections to f(R) theories on the basis of the inability to construct viable neutron star models are unfounded.

  9. Percecao da cultura organizacional em instituicoes publicas de saude com diferentes modelos de gestao Percepcion de la cultura organizacional en las instituciones de salud publica con diferentes modelos de gestion Perception of organizational culture in public health facilities with different management models

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    Sofia Gaspar Cruz

    2012-03-01

    las instituciones de salud parece ser importante para quienes las dirigen, principalmente ante los procesos de cambio, como lo es la implementacion de nuevos modelos de gestion. Objetivo: identificar el tipo de cultura organizacional que predomina en las instituciones de salud publica con diferentes modelos de gestion. Metodo: estudio de tipo cuantitativo y transversal, realizado en una muestra de 671 empleados de diez instituciones de salud con diferentes modelos de gestion: Modelo del Sector Publico Administrativo (SPA, Modelo Entidad Publica Empresarial (EPE y Modelo de Unidad de Salud Familiar (USF. Para identificar la percepcion de la cultura organizacional se utilizo el Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, que tradujimos, adaptamos y validamos. Resultados: en los modelos SPA y EPE se observa un predominio de la cultura jerarquica, mientras que en el modelo USF sobresale la cultura de clan. Conclusion: la cultura organizacional que prevalece en las instituciones de salud, sobre todo al nivel hospitalario (cultura jerarquica, no parece ser la mas adecuada a la filosofia subyacente a los nuevos modelos de gestion y a su funcionamiento. Se considera pertinente ampliar el estudio de la percepcion de la cultura organizacional en cada modelo de gestion de las instituciones de salud y relacionarlos con las variables de contexto.Context: the Portuguese Health System has been subject to constant reforms that have been achieved without the expected results. Considering organizational culture as a variable which can dictate the success of a particular change / reform, and starting from the assumption that it is manageable, knowing about the organizational culture that is prevalent in health facilities seems to be important for those who manage them, primarily during the course of processes of change, such as the implementation of new management models. Objective: to identify the type of organizational culture that prevails in public health facilities with

  10. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  11. Modelos organizacionais para parcerias público-privadas na irrigação pública no Brasil Modelos organizacionales para asociaciones público-privadas en proyectos de irrigación pública en Brasil Organizational models for public-private partnerships in public irrigation in Brazil

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    Luciano Thomé e Castro

    2013-06-01

    ública.This paper aims to evaluate existing and proposed organizational models for public irrigation perimeters (PPI in Brazil's semi-arid region. In a period of change in agriculture and the remodeling of public investment with the employment of mechanisms for public private partnerships, alternatives to the organizational architecture and PPIs begin to emerge. The study uses the new institutional economics and its variations of transaction cost economics and institutional environments as a basis for analysis. Interviews with selected potential investors reveal that the contractual model of PPI tends to be the most feasible, both from the conceptual point of view and from the perspectives gleaned from the private sector. However, exceptions are made in the contractual arrangements between agents as a way of ensuring the development of the perimeters and questions about the limits of public action.

  12. Implementación de modelos de control de los SVC en el programa PSX; Implementation of SVC models in programs PSX

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    Grettel Quintana de Basterra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los dispositivos de compensación estática de reactivo (SVC han adquirido auge en las aplicaciones a los Sistemas Eléctricos de Potencia (SEP. El SVC, también conocido como compensador estático de reactivo, es un equipamiento eléctrico usado para brindar una compensación de energía reactiva de rápida acción en redes de transmisión de electricidad de alto voltaje. Estos dispositivos brindan soluciones a problemas de estabilidad y control de la tensión de forma rápida y eficiente además son una alternativa para superar situaciones de transporte de energía eléctrica y calidad de suministro. Muchos de los software desarrollados a nivel mundial para el análisis de la operación de los SEP´s incluyen en sus estudios la modelación de los compensadores estáticos para evaluar su comportamiento ante averías o para realizar estudios de diseño y ubicación. En este artículo se describen los modelos implementados en el Paquete de programas PSX, usado por el Despacho Nacional de Cargas (DNC. The devices of static compensation of reactive (SVC have acquired prosperity in the applications to Electric Power Systems (SEP. The SVC, also known as reactive power static compensator, is used for offering a compensation of reactive power of fast action in high-voltage transmission grids. These devices offer solutions to problems of stability and control of the tension of fast and efficient form, and they are an alternative to surpass transmission situations of electric power and supplying quality between another one. Many of them software developed worldwide for the analysis of the operation of the SEPs include in his studies the modelation of the static compensators to evaluate your behavior in front of contingences or to accomplish designing studies and position. In this work the models implemented in the programs PSX themselves, used for Loads National Center (DNC.

  13. Modelo para determinar as exigências de proteína para poedeiras Modelling protein utilization in laying hens

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    Nilva Kazue Sakomura

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi elaborar um modelo para estimar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB para poedeiras leves, usando o método fatorial. Para determinar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB para manutenção foi utilizada a técnica do balanço de nitrogênio. A exigência de proteína bruta para o ganho de peso foi determinada em função do conteúdo de nitrogênio na carcaça e a eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio da dieta. A exigência de PB, para produção de ovos, foi determinada considerando o teor de PB determinado nos ovos e a eficiência de deposição do nitrogênio no ovo. A partir dos valores das exigências para manutenção, para o ganho e produção foi elaborada uma equação para predizer as exigências diárias de PB (g/ ave/ dia para poedeiras: PB = 1,94. P0,75 + 0,48.G + 0,301.O, em que P = peso corporal (kg, G = ganho de peso diário (g/dia e O = massa de ovos produzida (g/ave/dia.The objective of this study was to determine a model for crude protein requirements (CP for laying hen by the factorial method. The protein maintenance requirement was determine by the nitrogen balance technique . The crude protein requirement for weight gain was determined based on body nitrogen content and nitrogen efficiency for body deposition. The crude protein requirement for egg production was determined based on the nitrogen content of eggs and nitrogen efficiency for egg deposition. Considering the requirements for maintenance, egg production and weight gain, it was elaborated a protein requirement model for laying hen: PB = 1.94xW.75 + 0.480xG + 0,301x E, where PB = requirement (g/bird/day, W = body weight (kg, G = daily weight gain (g/day and E = egg mass (g/bird/day.

  14. MODELO DE COMUNICACIÓN NO VERBAL EN DEPORTE Y BALLET NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION MODELS IN SPORTS AND BALLET

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    Gloria Vallejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza el modelo de comunicación que se genera en los entrenadores de fútbol y de gimnasia artística a nivel profesional, y en los instructores de ballet en modalidad folklórica, tomando como referente el lenguaje corporal dinámico propio de la comunicación especializada de deportistas y bailarines, en la que se evidencia lenguaje no verbal. Este último se estudió tanto en prácticas psicomotrices como sociomotrices, para identificar y caracterizar relaciones entre diferentes conceptos y su correspondiente representación gestual. Los resultados indican que el lenguaje no verbal de los entrenadores e instructores toma ocasionalmente el lugar del lenguaje verbal, cuando este último resulta insuficiente o inapropiado para describir una acción motriz de gran precisión, debido a las condiciones de distancia o de interferencias acústicas. En los instructores de ballet se encontró una forma generalizada de dirigir los ensayos utilizando conteos rítmicos con las palmas o los pies. De igual forma, se destacan los componentes paralingüísticos de los diversos actos de habla, especialmente, en lo que se refiere a entonación, duración e intensidad.This study analyzes the communication model generated among professional soccer trainers, artistic gymnastics trainers, and folkloric ballet instructors, on the basis of the dynamic body language typical of specialized communication among sportspeople and dancers, which includes a high percentage of non-verbal language. Non-verbal language was observed in both psychomotor and sociomotor practices in order to identify and characterize relations between different concepts and their corresponding gestural representation. This made it possible to generate a communication model that takes into account the non-verbal aspects of specialized communicative contexts. The results indicate that the non-verbal language of trainers and instructors occasionally replaces verbal language when the

  15. An alternative method for centrifugal compressor loading factor modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerkin, Y.; Drozdov, A.; Rekstin, A.; Soldatova, K.

    2017-08-01

    The loading factor at design point is calculated by one or other empirical formula in classical design methods. Performance modelling as a whole is out of consideration. Test data of compressor stages demonstrates that loading factor versus flow coefficient at the impeller exit has a linear character independent of compressibility. Known Universal Modelling Method exploits this fact. Two points define the function - loading factor at design point and at zero flow rate. The proper formulae include empirical coefficients. A good modelling result is possible if the choice of coefficients is based on experience and close analogs. Earlier Y. Galerkin and K. Soldatova had proposed to define loading factor performance by the angle of its inclination to the ordinate axis and by the loading factor at zero flow rate. Simple and definite equations with four geometry parameters were proposed for loading factor performance calculated for inviscid flow. The authors of this publication have studied the test performance of thirteen stages of different types. The equations are proposed with universal empirical coefficients. The calculation error lies in the range of plus to minus 1,5%. The alternative model of a loading factor performance modelling is included in new versions of the Universal Modelling Method.

  16. The Compound DGL/Erlang Distribution in the Collective Risk Model || La distribución compuesta DGL/Erlang en el modelo de riesgo colectivo

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    Gómez Déniz, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of the collective risk model assuming Erlang loss, when the claim frequency follows the discrete generalized Lindley distribution, is considered. After providing some new results of this discrete model, analytical expressions for the aggregate claim size distribution in general insurance in the case that the discrete generalized Lindley distribution is assumed as the primary distribution while claim size, the secondary distribution, is modeled using an Erlang(r distribution (r = 1; 2. Comparisons with the compound Poisson and compound negative binomial are developed to explain the viability of the new compound model in two examples in automobile insurance. || En este artículo se analiza el modelo de riesgo colectivo asumiendo que la cantidad individual reclamada sigue una función de densidad Erlang y el número de reclamaciones es una variable aleatoria cuya función masa de probabilidad es la generalizada discreta Lindley. En la primera parte de este trabajo se presentan nuevas propiedades de esta distribución discreta; seguidamente, se calculan expresiones analíticas para la cantidad total reclamada en seguros generales cuando la distribución primaria es la generalizada discreta Lindley, asumiendo la densidad Erlang(r (r = 1; 2 como distribución secundaria. En la ilustración numérica, el nuevo modelo expuesto en este artículo se compara con los modelos compuestos Poisson y Binomial Negativa en dos ejemplos, en el contexto de seguros de automóviles, para mostrar su efectividad.

  17. Modelo de gestão municipal baseado na utilização estratégica de recursos da tecnologia da informação para a gestão governamental: formatação do modelo e avaliação em um município Municipal management based on the strategic use of information technology resources for government management: formatting and assessing the model in a city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Oliveira Leite

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available São desafios constantes da gestão efetiva dos municípios a estruturação e disponibilização de informações confiáveis, oportunas e personalizadas para apoiar as decisões da administração pública municipal e para elaborar e controlar o planejamento estratégico municipal alinhado aos anseios dos cidadãos. A adaptação de modelos de gestão da iniciativa privada para o ambiente público é uma alternativa para enfrentar esses desafios. Este artigo propõe e avalia um modelo para a gestão governamental. O modelo é baseado na utilização estratégica da tecnologia da informação, que proporcione ao gestor público monitoração e controle da execução estratégica, informações executivas para a tomada de decisão, gestão dos relacionamentos com os cidadãos e o domínio sobre os processos da gestão municipal. A metodologia da pesquisa enfatizou o estudo de caso no município de Curitiba, utilizando um protocolo de pesquisa elaborado a partir da pesquisa bibliográfica exploratória. A seguir, são analisados diferenças, similaridades e resultados da aplicação de elementos que compõem o modelo proposto no município estudado. A conclusão evidencia que a utilização e adaptação do modelo proposto nas gestões municipais podem contribuir significativamente na evolução de seus modelos de gestão.There are challenges in the effective management of municipalities, the structuring and provision of reliable, timely and customized information, to support the decisions of the municipal government and to prepare and monitor the municipal strategic planning aligned with the citizens requirements. The adaptation of management models and concepts from the private sector to the public environment is one alternative for facing theses challenges. This article proposes and evaluates a government management model based on the strategic use of information technology, so as to offer to the public administrator monitoring and control of

  18. Experimental model of gastroesophageal reflux in rats Modelo experimental de refluxo gastroesofágico em ratos

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    Edmilson Vieira Gaia Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of gastroesophageal reflux in rats. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats underwent surgery and were assigned to one of the three groups of twenty animals each. The animals in group A underwent total esophageal myectomy and, in group (B, underwent partial myectomy. The third group was the control group (C. A contrast radiographic study of the esophagus was performed to evaluate gastroesophageal reflux. The anatomopathological study of the esophagus was used to evaluate esophagitis. RESULTS: During the 30-day postoperative follow-up, 14 animals in group A presented with reflux of barium in the esophagus. The presence of barium in the esophagus was observed in 7 animals in group B and in 2 animals in the control group. The result of the histopathology examination was controversial. A marked weight loss in the rats undergoing total myectomy was observed, however there was no significant statistical difference. CONCLUSION: Total myectomy in the lower third of the esophagus caused gastroesophageal reflux in the majority of the animals.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo experimental de refluxo gastroesofágico em ratos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos, Wistar, foram operados e distribuídos em três grupos de vinte animais. Os animais foram submetidos a miectomia total do esôfago em um grupo(A, e em outro grupo foram submetidos a miectomia parcial(B. O terceiro grupo foi o grupo controle(C. Para avaliar o refluxo gastroesofágico realizou-se o estudo radiológico contrastado do esôfago. O estudo anátomo-patológico do esôfago foi utilizado para avaliar esofagite. RESULTADOS: Durante os 30 dias de pós-operatório, 14 animais do grupo A apresentaram refluxo de Bário no esôfago. Em 07 animais do grupo B e em 02 do grupo controle, foram observados a presença de Bário no esôfago. O resultado do histopatológico foi controverso. Observou-se perda ponderal importante nos ratos submetidos a miectomia total, porém não existiu

  19. Modelo de Cinco Fatores de Risco: precificando carteiras setoriais no mercado acionário brasileiro = Five risk factors model: pricing sectoral portfolios in the Brazilian stock market

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    Matheus Duarte Valente Vieira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available O prêmio de risco dos ativos é a variável central dos modelos de finanças que buscam estimar o custo do capital das empresas, custo esse empregado, por exemplo, na avaliação do preço das ações. São diversos os modelos empregados para o cálculo do prêmio de risco. Os modelos de Fama e French são amplamente conhecidos e difundidos. Em 2015, Fama e French apresentaram um novo modelo com a introdução de dois novos prêmios de risco. Devido à relevância do tema e à possibilidade de conseguir novas informações a partir desse novo modelo, o objetivo do trabalho é realizar um estudo no mercado de ações brasileiro a partir de uma amostra composta por empresas listadas na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BMF&Bovespa, testando a capacidade de precificação setorial dos fatores de risco presentes no recente modelo de 5-fatores, proposto por Fama e French (2015a. Para a realização da pesquisa foram utilizadas as empresas listadas na Bovespa entre o período de janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2015. Os resultados apontam para uma importância maior do prêmio de risco atrelado aos investimentos, estatisticamente significativo em três dos cinco setores da economia estudados. The assets risk premium is the central variable of the finance models that seek to estimate the cost of capital of the companies, the cost of this employee, for example, in the evaluation of the stock price. There are several models used to calculate the risk premium, with Fama and French models being widely known and widely disseminated. In 2015, Fama and French introduced a new model with the introduction of two new risk premiums. Due to the relevance of the theme and the possibility of obtaining new information from this new model, the objective of this paper is to conduct a study in the Brazilian stock market from a sample composed of companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BMF&Bovespa, testing the ability of sectoral pricing in the risk factors

  20. Spatial analysis of the dairy yield using a conditional autoregressive model / Análise espacial da produção leiteira usando um modelo autoregressivo condicional

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    João Domingos Scalon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The dairy yield is one of the most important activities for the Brazilian economy and the use of statistical models may improve the decision making in this productive sector. The aim of this paper was to compare the performance of both the traditional linear regression model and the spatial regression model called conditional autoregressive (CAR to explain how some covariates may contribute for the dairy yield. This work used a database on dairy yield supplied by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE and another database on geographical information of the state of Minas Gerais provided by the Integrated Program of Technological Use of Geographical Information (GEOMINAS. The results showed the superiority of the CAR model over the traditional linear regression model to explain the dairy yield. The CAR model allowed the identification of two different spatial clusters of counties related to the dairy yield in the state of Minas Gerais. The first cluster represents the region where one observes the biggest levels of dairy yield. It is formed by the counties of the Triângulo Mineiro. The second cluster is formed by the northern counties of the state that present the lesser levels of dairy yield. A produção de leite é uma das atividades mais importantes para a economia brasileira e o uso de modelos estatísticos pode auxiliar a tomada de decisão neste setor produtivo. O objetivo deste artigo foi comparar o desempenho do modelo de regressão linear tradicional e do modelo de regressão espacial, denominado de autoregressivo condicional (CAR, para explicar como algumas variáveis preditoras contribuem para a quantidade de leite produzido. Este trabalho usou uma base de dados sobre a produção de leite fornecida pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE e outra base de dados sobre informações geográficas do estado de Minas Gerais, fornecida pelo Programa Integrado de Uso da Tecnologia de Geoprocessamento

  1. Propuesta de un modelo de gestión de mantenimiento y sus principales herramientas de apoyo Proposal of a maintenance management model and its main support tools

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    Pablo Viveros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo para la gestión integral del mantenimiento, teniendo en consideración la característica de mejora continua en el tiempo. A modo de introducción y contextualización, se explica la importancia que tiene la alineación de objetivos a todo nivel organizacional para lograr la integración y correcta gestión de la unidad de mantenimiento. El modelo a presentar se compone de siete principales etapas, las cuales deben desarrollarse progresivamente según el escenario actual de la organización, haciendo énfasis en la gestión y optimización sostenida en el tiempo de procesos asociados a la planificación, programación y ejecución del mantenimiento. Adicionalmente, el modelo presentado complementa herramientas de apoyo para el desarrollo e implementación de las etapas, y características operacionales reales, las cuales podrían afectar el desempeño de la unidad de mantenimiento. Finalmente, se presentan algunas consideraciones generales y respectivas conclusiones.This paper presents a model for the integrated management of maintenance, taking into account features of continuous improvement over time. As an introduction and contextualization, it explains the importance of aligning organizational goals at all levels in order to achieve proper integration and management of the maintenance unit. The present model consists of seven main stages, which must be progressively implemented depending on the current scenario of the organization, focusing on management and sustained over time optimization of processes related to planning, programming and maintenance execution. Additionally, the model presented is supported by tools to develop and implement the stages, and provides a real operational context of the industrial maintenance management; which may affect performance. Finally, we present some general considerations and conclusions.

  2. Evolución de los modelos constitutivos de respuesta pasiva para paredes arteriales//Evolution of constitutive models for passive response of the arterial walls

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    Guillermo Fernández‐Collazo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta mecánica de las paredes arteriales se modifica como consecuencia del envejecimiento y el desarrollo de enfermedades. Estos cambios se ven reflejados en modificaciones en su estructura, composición, resistencia y forma. La predicción de su comportamiento en dependencia de su estado fisiológico usando modelos biomecánicos se muestra como una potente herramienta en el tratamiento y diagnóstico de aneurismas, ateroesclerosis, hipertensión arterial entre otras. Realizando un profundo análisis de la literatura consultada se presenta un estudio bibliográfico de los modelos constitutivos de paredes arteriales en su respuesta pasiva, clasificándolos y destacando sus principales ventajas, desventajas y la evolución de estos desde los puramente fenomenológicos hasta los más complejos.Palabras claves: modelos, arterias, respuesta pasiva, biomecánica._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe mechanical response of arterial walls is modified as a result of aging and disease development. These changes are reflected in changes in its composition, strength, shape and structure. The prediction of their behavior, depending on their physiological state used biomechanical models is shown as a powerful tool in the treatment and diagnosis of aneurysms, atherosclerosis, hypertensionand others. It´s presented in its passive response, a profound analysis of the literature and the bibliographic review of the constitutive models of arterial walls, classifying and highlighting their main advantages, disadvantages and the  volution from purely phenomenological to the most complex response.Key words: models, artery, passive response, biomechanics.

  3. INTEGRACIÓN DE TECNOLOGÍAS EN UNA PLATAFORMA J2EE DIRIGIDA POR MODELOS TECHNOLOGIES INTEGRATION IN A MODEL DRIVEN J2EE PLATFORM

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    David Colque C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta una propuesta de cómo integrar adecuadamente diversas tecnologías de persistencia, de negocios y web en una plataforma J2EE. Esto involucra una arquitectura de múltiples capas, que considera para cada capa el uso de soluciones prácticas efectivas en el desarrollo de software, también se considera el uso del paradigma de desarrollo dirigido por modelos (MDA para facilitar su integración, implementado en el Framework Open Source AndroMDA, y el proceso de desarrollo propuesto por Larman. De este modo se pretende fortalecer el desarrollo orientado a objetos al incorporar una herramienta MDA que genera código a partir de los modelos de cada plataforma específica e incentivar el uso de modelos en el proceso de desarrollo del software, mejorando así la calidad del software, la portabilidad, la interoperabilidad y la reusabilidad, como también la independencia de las tecnologías usadas en cada capa.This work presents a proposal for integrating properly diverse technologies of persistence of business and Web in a J2EE platform. This involves an architecture of diverse layers, which considers the use of effective practical solutions for each layer in the development of the software. Also are considered the use of the Model Driven Architecture Paradigm, for facilitating integration performed in the Open Source AndroMDA Framework, and the development process proposed by Larman. This process is aimed at strengthening the development oriented to objects, when incorporating a MDA tool, which generates codes from the models of every specific platform; encouraging the use of models in the process of software development, improving the quality, the portability, the interoperability, as well as reusing the software, and also the self sufficiency of the technologies used in every layer.

  4. Enfoques da teoria institucional nos modelos de avaliação institucional brasileiros Focus of the institutional theory on the Brazilian institutional evaluation models

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    Raphael Schlickmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar quais enfoques da perspectiva institucional foram predominantes nos modelos de avaliação institucional propostos pelos governos às universidades brasileiras. Quanto à abordagem, podemos caracterizar o estudo como qualitativo; a verificação dos enfoques foi realizada tomando-se por base a revisão teórica acerca dos diferentes enfoques da teoria institucional, do histórico da avaliação institucional no Brasil, bem como a caracterização de cada modelo avaliativo proposto pelos governos, a partir da década de 1970. O estudo evidenciou que os modelos de avaliação institucional ao longo dos governos apresentaram diferentes enfoques institucionais, sendo que houve uma predominância dos enfoques regulador e normativo, embora o cognitivo seja o que permeia o atual sistema de avaliação institucional brasileiro.This article has the purpose of verifying which approaches of the institutional perspective were predominant in the models of institutional evaluation proposed by the governments to the Brazilian universities. This study can be characterized as qualitative, in which the focal points were verified through theoretical revision of the different aspects of the institutional theory, of the history of Brazilian institutional evaluation, as well as the characterization of each evaluative model proposed by the governments since the 1970s. The study made evident that the institutional evaluation models during different governments presented a different institutional focus, with the predominance of the regulatory and normative focuses, although the cognitive is the one that permeates Brazil's present institutional evaluation system.

  5. Um modelo semântico de publicações eletrônicas | A semantic model for electronic publishing

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    Carlos Henrique Marcondes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Publicações eletrônicas, apesar dos avanços das Tecnologias da Informação, são ainda calcados no modelo impresso. O formato textual impede que programas possam ser usados para o processamento “semântico” desses conteúdos. È porposto um modelo “semântico” de publicações cientificas eletrônicas, no qual as conclusões contidas no texto do artigo fornecidas por autores e representadas em formato “inteligível” por programas, permitindo recuperação semântica, identificação de indícios de novas descobertas científicas e de incoerências sobre este conhecimento. O modelo se baseia nos conceitos de estrutura profunda, ou semântica, da linguagem (CHOMSKY, 1975, de microestrutura, macroestrutura e superestrutura, (KINTSH, VAN DIJK, 1972, na estrutura retórica de artigos científicos (HUTCHINS, 1977, (GROSS, 1990 e nos elementos de metodologia cientifica, como problema, questão, objetivo, hipótese, experimento e conclusão. Resulta da análise de 89 artigos biomédicos. Foi desenvolvido um protótipo de sistema que implementa parcialmente o modelo. Questionários foram usados com autores para embasar o desenvolvimento do protótipo. O protótipo foi testando com pesquisadores-autores. Foram identificados quatro padrões de raciocínio e encadeamento dos elementos semânticos em artigos científicos. O modelo de conteúdo foi implementado como uma ontologia computacional. Foi desenvolvido e avaliado um protótipo de uma interface web de submissão artigos pelos autores a um sistema eletrônico de publicação de periódicos que implementa o modelo. Palavras-chave publicações eletrônicas; metodológica científica; comunicação científica; representação do conhecimento; ontologias; processamento semântico de conteúdos; e-Ciência Abstract Electronic publishing, although Information Technologies advancements, are still based in the print text model. The textual format prevents programs to semantic process

  6. Modelo de análise de investimentos para fabricação de produtos ecologicamente corretos Investment analysis model for green manufacturing

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    Geysler Rogis Flor Bertolini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As pressões da sociedade, consumidores, governo e outras organizações no cuidado com o meio ambiente levam algumas empresas a adotar medidas sobre seus impactos ambientais. A decisão de cuidar das questões ambientais precede a escolha da forma de agir, podendo ser desde a seleção de insumos adequados até a certificação da ISO 14001. Para cada possibilidade de cuidados com o meio ambiente, a empresa necessita de recursos financeiros para viabilizar o projeto. O objetivo deste artigo é de apresentar um modelo de análise de viabilidade na fabricação de produtos com alguma preocupação ambiental. Considerando que nos modelos já existentes não é realizada uma mensuração do valor para os consumidores para dar suporte às decisões de investimentos sobre a variável ambiental nas organizações, este estudo busca preencher esta lacuna. O modelo proposto é composto por seis etapas. Espera-se que este modelo genérico possa servir de apoio para as organizações definirem o volume de investimentos necessários para uma equilibrada gestão ambiental.Demands of society, consumers, government, and other organizations for care of the environment, have led some companies to adopt environmental impact measures. The decision about caring for the environment precedes the choice of measures to be taken, which include from the selection of appropriate inputs to the ISO 14001 certification. Funds are necessary for every potential environmental care project. The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility analysis model for environmentally conscious manufacturing. Considering the fact that there is no measurement of value for consumers in the existing models to support investment decisions on environment variables in organizations, this study seeks to bridge this gap. The proposed model consists of six steps. It is expected that this generic model can help organizations define the volume of investments required for a balanced environmental

  7. Modelos para estimativa da área foliar de Curcuma alismatifolia e Vurcuma zedoaria Leaf area prediction models for Curcuma alismatifolia and Curcuma zedoaria

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    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo determina modelos para estimativa da área foliar de Curcuma alismatifolia e de Curcuma zedoaria. Para utilização destas espécies como ornamentais, é necessário o estabelecimento de técnicas de produção adequadas. Assim, a determinação da área foliar é importante, pois é usada para avaliar a resposta da planta a fatores ambientais e técnicas culturais. O uso de modelos para estimar a área foliar é um método simples, de boa precisão e não destrutivo. No estádio de floração foram coletadas cem folhas de C.alismatifolia ('Pink' e 'White' e de C.zedoaria. Determinaram-se o comprimento (C e a largura (L máximos e a área foliar real (AFR, com auxílio de integrador de área foliar (LI-3100. Estudaram-se as relações entre a AFR e o C, L e CL (produto do comprimento pela largura da folha, por meio de modelos de regressão linear. Os modelos AFR = 0,59048 CL (C.alismatifolia 'Pink', AFR = 6,08410 + 0,52162 CL (C.alismatifolia 'White' e AFR = 0,70233 CL (C.zedoaria são estatisticamente adequados para estimar a área foliar real.The present work establishes regression models to estimate leaf area of Curcuma alismatifolia and Curcuma zedoaria. To use these of species as ornamental plants is necessary to establish adequate cultivation techniques. Thus, the determination of leaf area is very important, once it is used to evaluate plant response to environmental factors and crop techniques. The use of prediction models to estimate leaf area is a simple, accurate and nondestructive method. At the stage of flowering, a hundred leaves of C.alismatifolia ('Pink' and 'White' and C.zedoaria were collected for each species and cultivar. Maximum length (L, maximum width (W and real leaf area (RLA were measured with a leaf area meter (LI-3100. The relation between RLA and the L, W and the product of length by width (LW, was studied through linear regression models. The models RLA = 0.59048 LW (C.alismatifolia 'Pink', RLA = 6

  8. Jogo da Minoria: um modelo baseado em agentes aplicado ao mercado financeiro Minority Game: an agent-based model applied to financial market

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    Antonio Fernando Crepaldi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos houve uma contribuição significativa dos físicos para a construção de um tipo de modelo baseado em agentes que busca reproduzir, em simulação computacional, o comportamento do mercado financeiro. Esse modelo, chamado Jogo da Minoria consiste de um grupo de agentes que vão ao mercado comprar ou vender ativos. Eles tomam decisões com base em estratégias e, por meio delas, os agentes estabelecem um intrincado jogo de competição e coordenação pela distribuição da riqueza. O modelo tem demonstrado resultados bastante ricos e surpreendentes, tanto na dinâmica do sistema como na capacidade de reproduzir características estatísticas e comportamentais do mercado financeiro. Neste artigo, são apresentadas a estrutura e a dinâmica do Jogo da Minoria, bem como as contribuições recentes relacionadas ao Jogo da Minoria denominado de Grande Canônico, que é um modelo mais bem ajustado às características do mercado financeiro e reproduz as regularidades estatísticas do preço dos ativos chamadas fatos estilizados.Over the past ten years physicists have made a significant contribution to the building of an agent-based model to reproduce the behavior of financial markets using computer simulation. This model, called the Minority Game, consists of a group of agents that buy or sell assets. They make decisions based on strategies, and through them the agents establish an intricate game of competition and coordination resulting in the distribution of wealth. The model has shown outstanding surprising results concerning both the dynamics of the system and the ability to reproduce statistical and behavior characteristics of the financial market. In this study, the structure and dynamics of the Minority Game and the recent contributions related to the Grand Canonical Minority game, a model which is better adapted to the characteristics of the financial market and reproduce the statistical regularities of asset prices (called

  9. Tecnología, diversificación productiva y crecimiento: un modelo estructuralista Technology, productive diversification and growth: structuralist model

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    Gabriel Porcile

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta um modelo Norte-Sul no qual a taxa de crescimento de longo prazo do Sul depende do aprendizado tecnológico e da mudança estrutural. Adota-se como ponto de partida o modelo de crescimento com restrição no Balanço de pagamentos, que permite identificar as condições necessárias para a convergência sustentável. Mostra-se que essa convergência requer que o cociente entre as elasticidades renda das exportações e das importações seja maior do que a unidade. Por sua vez, essas elasticidades são função do padrão de especialização. O modelo permite estudar como a interação entre a dinâmica do hiato tecnológico e da estrutura produtiva definem a taxa relativa de crescimento Norte-Sul e os salários relativos. Também são discutidos os efeitos da política e das instituições através de variações em alguns dos parâmetros mais importantes do modelo.The paper presents a North-South model in which the long run rate of growth of the South depends on technological learning and structural change. It takes as a point of departure the Balance-of-Payments-constrained growth model, which provides useful insights on the necessary conditions for sustained convergence. It is suggested that this requires that the ratio between the income elasticity of the demand for exports and imports to be higher than the unity. In turn, income elasticities are a function of the technology gap and of the patterns of specialization of the economy. The model allows for discussing how the interplay between the productive structure of the South and the dynamics of the technology gap shapes North-South relative rates of growth (and hence convergence or divergence and relative wages in the long run. The paper also addresses the influence of policy and institutional variables by allowing key parameters in the model to vary.

  10. A Critical Evaluation of Herman and Chomsky’s Propaganda Model /Evaluación crítica del modelo de propaganda de Herman y Chomsky

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    Lic. Joan Pedro; joan.pedro@estumail.ucm.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the five elements (filters which compose the Propaganda Model and evaluates its relevance and validity twenty years after its original elaboration by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky. The article also analyzes the applicability of the model to other contexts which were not originally contemplated and reflects on other elements which also have the effect of filtering the information and, therefore, should be taken into account by the model. Finally, it considers the possibility of adding two new filters proposed by other authors. The article concludes that the Propaganda Model is even more valid today than it was twenty years ago. It is a very adequate research tool for the analysis of the mass media, but, since it promotes an analysis which is contrary to the interests of the élites, it tends to be institutionally marginalized.Este artículo repasa los cinco elementos (filtros que componen el Modelo de Propaganda y evalúa su relevancia y validez veinte años después de su elaboración original por Edward S. Herman y Noam Chomsky. El artículo analiza después la aplicabilidad del modelo a otros contextos que no fueron originalmente contemplados y reflexiona sobre otros elementos que también tienen el efecto de filtrar la información y que, por tanto, deben tenerse en cuenta por el modelo. Por último, considera la posibilidad de añadir dos nuevos filtros propuestos por otros autores. El artículo concluye que el Modelo de Propaganda es hoy aún más válido que hace veinte años. Es una herramienta de investigación muy adecuada para el análisis de los medios de comunicación de masas, pero que, al promover un análisis contrario a los intereses de las élites, tiende a ser marginado institucionalmente.

  11. Modelo para avaliação da gestão de recursos humanos em saúde Evaluation model for human resource management in health

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    Sirlesia Vigarani Scalco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de avaliação da gestão de recursos humanos na saúde. Trata-se de uma pesquisa metodológica, estruturada por meio de indicadores testados a partir de pesquisa avaliativa. Utilizou-se como base a Norma Operacional Básica de Recursos Humanos (NOB/RH-SUS, estabelecendo-se como dimensões: Gestão do Trabalho, Desenvolvimento do Trabalhador, Saúde do Trabalhador e Controle Social. O modelo foi discutido e aperfeiçoado em oficinas de consenso com especialistas em avaliação e gestão de recursos humanos, configurando uma matriz de avaliação com 12 indicadores. A aplicabilidade da proposta foi testada em 15 municípios da macrorregião da Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. O modelo demonstrou viabilidade em municípios de diferentes portes populacionais e estruturas administrativas. Os dados foram obtidos nos sistemas locais de informação e em documentos oficiais das Secretarias de Saúde. A validade do modelo pode ser inferida pelos resultados da aplicação que foram compatíveis com a literatura.This paper presents an assessment model for human resource management in health. This methodological research was structured through indicators tested in evaluative research. The Basic Operational Standard for Human Resources in the Unified National Health System (NOB/RH-SUS was used as the baseline, and the following dimensions were analyzed: work management, workers' development, workers' health, and social control. The model was discussed and refined during a consensus workshop involving experts in human resources evaluation and management, by defining an assessment matrix with 12 indicators. The model was applied to 15 municipalities in Greater Metropolitan Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and proved applicable to municipalities with different population sizes and administrative structures. Data were obtained from local information systems and official documents from the municipal

  12. Propriedades termofísicas de soluções modelo similares a sucos - Parte I Thermophysical properties of model solutions similar to juice - Part I

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    Silvia Cristina Sobottka Rolim de Moura

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades termofísicas, difusividade térmica e calor específico, de soluções modelo similares a sucos, foram determinadas experimentalmente e ajustadas a modelos matemáticos (STATISTICA 6.0, em função da sua composição química. Para definição das soluções modelo foi realizado um planejamento estrela mantendo-se fixa a quantidade de ácido (1,5% e variando-se a água (82-98,5%, o carboidrato (0-15% e a gordura (0-1,5%. A determinação do calor específico foi realizada através do método de Hwang & Hayakawa e a difusividade térmica com base no método de Dickerson. Os resultados de cada propriedade foram analisados através de superfícies de respostas. Foram encontrados resultados significativos para as propriedades, mostrando que os modelos encontrados representam significativamente as mudanças das propriedades térmicas dos sucos, com alterações na composição e na temperatura.Thermophysical properties, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of model solutions similar to juices were experimentally determined and the values obtained compared to those predicted by mathematical models (STATISTIC 6.0 and to values mentioned in the literature, according to the chemical composition. It was adopted a star planning to define the composition of the model solutions fixing the acid amount in 1.5% and varying water (82-98.5%, carboydrate (0-15% and fat (0-1.5%. The specific heat was determined by Hwang & Hayakawa method and the thermal diffusivity was determined by Dickerson method. The results of each property were analysed by the response surface method. The results were significative, indicating that the models represented considerably the changes of thermal properties of juices according to their composition and temperature variations.

  13. Estudos traducionais de neuropsiquiatria e esquizofrenia: modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento Translational neuropsychiatry of genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia

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    Michael G. Gottschalk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintomas psiquiátricos são subjetivos por natureza e tendem a se sobrepor entre diferentes desordens. Sendo assim, a criação de modelos de uma desordem neuropsiquiátrica encontra desafios pela falta de conhecimento dos fundamentos da fisiopatologia e diagnósticos precisos. Modelos animais são usados para testar hipóteses de etiologia e para representar a condição humana tão próximo quanto possível para aumentar nosso entendimento da doença e avaliar novos alvos para a descoberta de drogas. Nesta revisão, modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento de esquizofrenia são discutidos com respeito a achados comportamentais e neurofisiológicos e sua associação com a condição clínica. Somente modelos animais específicos de esquizofrenia podem, em último caso, levar a novas abordagens diagnósticas e descoberta de drogas. Argumentamos que biomarcadores moleculares são importantes para aumentar a tradução de animais a humanos, já que faltam a especificidade e a fidelidade necessárias às leituras comportamentais para avaliar sintomas psiquiátricos humanos.Psychiatric symptoms are subjective by nature and tend to overlap between different disorders. The modelling of a neuropsychiatric disorder therefore faces challenges because of missing knowledge of the fundamental pathophysiology and a lack of accurate diagnostics. Animal models are used to test hypotheses of aetiology and to represent the human condition as close as possible to increase our understanding of the disease and to evaluate new targets for drug discovery. In this review, genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia are discussed with respect to behavioural and neurophysiological findings and their association with the clinical condition. Only specific animal models of schizophrenia may ultimately lead to novel diagnostic approaches and drug discovery. We argue that molecular biomarkers are important to improve animal to human

  14. Estudos traducionais de neuropsiquiatria e esquizofrenia: modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento Translational neuropsychiatry of genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia

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    Michael G Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintomas psiquiátricos são subjetivos por natureza e tendem a se sobrepor entre diferentes desordens. Sendo assim, a criação de modelos de uma desordem neuropsiquiátrica encontra desafios pela falta de conhecimento dos fundamentos da fisiopatologia e diagnósticos precisos. Modelos animais são usados para testar hipóteses de etiologia e para representar a condição humana tão próximo quanto possível para aumentar nosso entendimento da doença e avaliar novos alvos para a descoberta de drogas. Nesta revisão, modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento de esquizofrenia são discutidos com respeito a achados comportamentais e neurofisiológicos e sua associação com a condição clínica. Somente modelos animais específicos de esquizofrenia podem, em último caso, levar a novas abordagens diagnósticas e descoberta de drogas. Argumentamos que biomarcadores moleculares são importantes para aumentar a tradução de animais a humanos, já que faltam a especificidade e a fidelidade necessárias às leituras comportamentais para avaliar sintomas psiquiátricos humanos.Psychiatric symptoms are subjective by nature and tend to overlap between different disorders. The modelling of a neuropsychiatric disorder therefore faces challenges because of missing knowledge of the fundamental pathophysiology and a lack of accurate diagnostics. Animal models are used to test hypotheses of aetiology and to represent the human condition as close as possible to increase our understanding of the disease and to evaluate new targets for drug discovery. In this review, genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia are discussed with respect to behavioural and neurophysiological findings and their association with the clinical condition. Only specific animal models of schizophrenia may ultimately lead to novel diagnostic approaches and drug discovery. We argue that molecular biomarkers are important to improve animal to human

  15. DISABILITY AND INCLUSION IN THE HIGH COLLEGE EDUCATION FIELD FROM THE SOCIAL MODEL OF DISABILITY / DISCAPACIDAD E INCLUSIÓN EN EL ÁMBITO DE LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR UNIVERSITARIA A PARTIR DEL MODELO SOCIAL DE LA DISCAPACIDAD

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    Julieta Susana Arroyo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches from the recognition of social representations, the identification, in educational speeches, of two models about disability, the Medical Model and the Social Model. Nowadays, although the Social Model has been established as the current paradigm, which overcomes the Medical Model, introducing as one of the main features, the recognition of the inclusion and the need to put forward the interrelation of social setting factors, coexists with the Medical Models in the way they understand disability. The Medical Model, which mainly understands the disability, as an individual problem, of the person who has it. In this context is presented the analysis of interviews done to people who work as teachers in the college field. In the teacher's speeches, social representations were analysed in terms of proximity to the Medical Model or to the Social Model. As a methodology, two differenciated strategies were used, content analysis and lexicometric analysis. The results were convergents and the speeches show features of both models. Resumen: El artículo aborda desde el reconocimiento de las representaciones sociales, la identificación, en los discursos de los docentes, de dos modelos sobre la discapacidad, el Modelo Médico y el Modelo Social. En la actualidad, si bien el Modelo Social, se constituye como el paradigma actual, superador al modelo Médico, presentando como una de los rasgos centrales, el reconocimiento de la inclusión y la necesidad del planteo de interrelación de factores del entorno social, conviven en las formas de comprender la discapacidad, el Modelo Médico, que ubica principalmente a la discapacidad, como un problema individual, de la persona que presenta una discapacidad. En este marco se presenta el análisis de entrevistas realizadas a sujetos, que se desempeñan como docentes en el ámbito universitario. En el discurso de los docentes se analizaron las Representaciones Sociales, en cuanto a proximidades

  16. Nursing research and bibliographic citation models La investigación en enfermería y los modelos de citación bibliográfica Pesquisa de enfermagem e modelos de citação bibliográfica

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    Jordi Piqué Angordans

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the analysis of how nursing journals publish their papers. Basically, two models are analyzed, Vancouver, by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, and APA by the American Psychological Association. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. In view of how research papers are currently published and how research is judged, the authors propose that nursing journals adopt their own model, irrespective of how medical professionals publish.Esta investigación se centra en el análisis de la forma de publicar de las revistas de enfermería. Se analizan básicamente dos modelos, el modelo Vancouver, promovido por el Comité Internacional de Editores de Revistas Médicas, y el modelo APA, de la Asociación Norteamericana de Psicología. Se discuten sus ventajas e inconvenientes. A la vista de cómo se publica en la actualidad y de cómo se juzga la investigación, se propone que las revistas de enfermería adopten su propio modelo, independientemente de cómo publican los profesionales de la medicina.Esta pesquisa concentra-se na análise de como os jornais de enfermagem publicam os seus artigos. Basicamente, dois modelos são analisados, o Vancouver, promovido pelo Comitê Internacional dos Editores de Revistas Médicas, e APA, pela Associação Psicológica Americana. As suas vantagens e desvantagens são aqui discutidas. Diante da maneira que os artigos de pesquisa estão sendo publicados, atualmente, e como a pesquisa está sendo julgada, os autores propõem um modelo próprio para a enfermagem, independentemente de como publicam os profissionais médicos.

  17. Modelos analíticos para avaliação de sistemas flexíveis de manufatura Analytical models to evaluation of flexible manufacturing systems

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    Carlos Alberto dos Santos Passos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, a indústria de manufatura tem sido marcada profundamente pela introdução de novas tecnologias, as quais têm modificado os conceitos de produção. Aumento dos índices de produtividade, acompanhado por alta qualidade, são fatores que mostram a importância destas tecnologias na indústria atual. Os sistemas flexíveis da manufatura - FMS - são exemplos destas novas tecnologias. A complexidade destes sistemas cria a necessidade de se ter ferramentas que permitam a avaliação do seu desempenho. Neste artigo são discutidos aspectos relacionados a medidas de desempenho de sistemas FMS, para ajudar a tomada de decisão. Atenção especial é dada à utilização de modelos analíticos, na forma de redes de filas fechadas. Aspectos da implementação de um modelo simples de um FMS, usando modelos de redes de fila, são apresentados e os resultados das medidas de avaliação são discutidos.In the last decades, the manufacturing industry has been a deep transformation due the introduction of new technologies into the production system. Better improvement in the productivity and quality aspect show the importance of these technologies in modern industry. The FMS is a good example of this. The complexity of these systems creates the necessity for tools that permit to evaluate their performance. In this paper, aspects concerned to performance of the FMS systems to help a decision-maker are discussed. Special attention is given to queuing network model to evaluate design and operation of FMS. Aspects concerned to implementation of a simple model of FMS system are discussed and some results of the evaluation performance of the system using a queuing network are presented.

  18. APLICACIÓN DE MODELOS DE PRONÓSTICOS EN PRODUCTOS DE CONSUMO MASIVO APLICAÇÃO DE MODELOS DE PROGNÓSTICO EM PRODUTOS DE CONSUMO APPLICATION OF FORECAST MODELS IN PRODUCTS OF MASSIVE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO ALBERTO PÉREZ

    2012-12-01

    étodo de Winters mais adequado para cada elemento e para cada uma das categorias considerando como o fator decisivo o que teve o menor coeficiente de variação. O inquérito revelou que, devido às peculiaridades no comportamento de rotação e heterogênea da demanda para os produtos em cada local de distribuição, é conveniente classificar cada ponto e definir modelos de previsão individualmente.The common inventory problem eventually arises: excessive quantities of product that do not circulate and a few of them that circulate that, along with the great variety of references and points of purchase, make difficult the application of forecasting models and the generation of inventory policies. The historic behavior of the mass consumption product demand in a supply chain with a warehouse and multiple points of purchase (One Warehouse N Retailer Problem was evaluated. Starting from the analysis of the existing classification system of items a new proposal was made with a greater amount of decision-making elements based on the previous aspect and through simulation. The most appropriate forecasting method was also chosen (Moving average, simple exponential smoothing, the Croston method, the Winters method for each element and for each one of the categories, considering as a decision factor the one that obtained the smallest variation of coefficient. The research allows to concluding that, due to the particularities in the product rotation and the heterogeneous behavior of the product demand in each place of distribution, it is convenient to carry out a classification for each point and to define forecasting models individually.

  19. El modelo del partenariado aplicado a la lucha contra el cambio climático (Public private partnership (PPP as a model to work on climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Senosiain Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focused on how the model of Public Private Partnership (PPP fits into the work against climate change and to promote sustainable development. Even If our main idea to study the importance of this model as a tool to protect the environment, is necessary to approach to the problem of climate change first; the proper characteristics of the problem will determinate its suitability. We will follow analyzing the special character of this model and some international good practices, to finish with the conclusions of the present studyEl presente estudio tiene como objeto la posible adecuación del modelo del partenariado público privado a la lucha contra el cambio climático y al desarrollo sostenible. Dado que nos centraremos en la aplicación de esta figura de colaboración en la protección del medio ambiente, entendemos necesario realizar una sucinta aproximación a la problemática del cambio climático, al ser sus propias características las que determinen la idoneidad o no del modelo del partenariado en este campo. Posteriormente analizaremos la especial naturaleza del partenariado en el ámbito medioambiental, para proseguir analizando sendos ejemplos de buenas prácticas internacionales, y concluir valorando los resultados del presente estudio.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2009396

  20. Forecasting of time series with trend and seasonal cycle using the airline model and artificial neural networks Pronóstico de series de tiempo con tendencia y ciclo estacional usando el modelo airline y redes neuronales artificiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J D Velásquez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many time series with trend and seasonal pattern are successfully modeled and forecasted by the airline model of Box and Jenkins; however, this model neglects the presence of nonlinearity on data. In this paper, we propose a new nonlinear version of the airline model; for this, we replace the moving average linear component by a multilayer perceptron neural network. The proposedmodel is used for forecasting two benchmark time series; we found that theproposed model is able to forecast the time series with more accuracy that other traditional approaches.Muchas series de tiempo con tendencia y ciclos estacionales son exitosamente modeladas y pronosticadas usando el modelo airline de Box y Jenkins; sin embargo, la presencia de no linealidades en los datos son despreciadas por este modelo. En este artículo, se propone una nueva versión no lineal del modelo airline; para esto, se reemplaza la componente lineal de promedios móviles por un perceptrón multicapa. El modelo propuesto es usado para pronosticar dos series de tiempo benchmark; se encontró que el modelo propuesto es capaz de pronosticar las series de tiempo con mayor precisión que otras aproximaciones tradicionales.

  1. Building alternate protein structures using the elastic network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingyi; Sharp, Kim A

    2009-02-15

    We describe a method for efficiently generating ensembles of alternate, all-atom protein structures that (a) differ significantly from the starting structure, (b) have good stereochemistry (bonded geometry), and (c) have good steric properties (absence of atomic overlap). The method uses reconstruction from a series of backbone framework structures that are obtained from a modified elastic network model (ENM) by perturbation along low-frequency normal modes. To ensure good quality backbone frameworks, the single force parameter ENM is modified by introducing two more force parameters to characterize the interaction between the consecutive carbon alphas and those within the same secondary structure domain. The relative stiffness of the three parameters is parameterized to reproduce B-factors, while maintaining good bonded geometry. After parameterization, violations of experimental Calpha-Calpha distances and Calpha-Calpha-Calpha pseudo angles along the backbone are reduced to less than 1%. Simultaneously, the average B-factor correlation coefficient improves to R = 0.77. Two applications illustrate the potential of the approach. (1) 102,051 protein backbones spanning a conformational space of 15 A root mean square deviation were generated from 148 nonredundant proteins in the PDB database, and all-atom models with minimal bonded and nonbonded violations were produced from this ensemble of backbone structures using the SCWRL side chain building program. (2) Improved backbone templates for homology modeling. Fifteen query sequences were each modeled on two targets. For each of the 30 target frameworks, dozens of improved templates could be produced In all cases, improved full atom homology models resulted, of which 50% could be identified blind using the D-Fire statistical potential. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Software library of meteorological routines for air quality models; Libreria de software de procedimientos meteorologicos para modelos de dispersion de contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo Garcia, Ivan Francisco

    1999-04-01

    Air quality models are an essential tool for most air pollution studies. The models require, however, certain meteorological information about the model domain. Some of the required meteorological parameters can be measured directly, but others must be estimated from available measured data. Therefore, a set of procedures, routines and computational programs to obtain all the meteorological and micrometeorological input data is required. The objective in this study is the identification and implementation of several relationships and methods for the determination of all the meteorological parameters required as input data by US-EPA recommended air pollution models. To accomplish this, a study about air pollution models was conducted, focusing, particularly, on the model meteorological input data. Also, the meteorological stations from the Servicio Meteorologico Nacional (SMN) were analyzed. The type and quality of the meteorological data produced was obtained. The routines and methods developed were based, particularly, on the data produced by SMN stations. Routines were organized in a software library, which allows one to build the specific meteorological processor needed, independently of the model used. Methods were validated against data obtained from an advanced meteorological station owned and operated by the Electrical Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)). The results from the validation show that the estimation of the parameters required by air pollution models from routinely available data from Mexico meteorological stations is feasible and therefore let us take full advantage of the use of air pollution models. As an application example of the software library developed, the building of a meteorological processor for a specific air pollution model (CALPUFF) is described. The big advantage the library represents is evident from this example. [Espanol] Los modelos de dispersion de contaminantes constituyen una herramienta

  3. Eficacia educativa: avances de un modelo para la educación superior (Educational Efficacy: Advances of a Higher Education Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Hernández-González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe analizó un modelo de eficacia educativa que permite al controlar el factor socioeconómico, determinar el valor agregado que las instituciones del Subsistema de Universidades Tecnológicas proporcionan a sus estudiantes. Es un estudio multinivel, longitudinal con resultados de 8,522 estudiantes de 38 universidades en 19 estados que sustentaron el examen nacional de ingreso a la educación superior (EXANI-II y el examen para el egreso de técnico superior universitario-Sistemas Informáticos (EGETSU-SI del Centro Nacional de Evaluación para la Educación Superior [CENEVAL] durante 2000-2006. El modelo identifica la eficacia de las instituciones y facilita la construcción de indicadores de calidad educativa.AbstractThis study analyzed a model for educational effectiveness, which after controlling for socioeconomic factors, determined the benefit that institutions of the subsystem of Technological Universities provide their students. This is a longitudinal multilevel study with a sample of 8,522 students from 38 universities in 19 states who took the national admissions exam for higher education (EXANI-II and the exam for technical higher education (CENEVAL during 2000-2006. The model identifies the efficacy of the institutions and facilitates the construction of educational quality indicators.ResumoAnalisa-se um modelo de eficácia educativa que controlando o fator socioeconômico, determina o valor agregado que as instituições do Subsistema de Universidades Tecnológicas proporcionam a seus estudantes. É um estudo multi-nível, longitudinal com resultados de 8,522 estudantes de 38 universidades em 19 estados que sustentaram o exame nacional de ingresso à educação superior (EXANI-II e o exame geral para Técnico Superior Universitário em Sistemas Informáticos (EGETSU-SI do Centro Nacional de Avaliação para a Educação Superior (CENEVAL período 2000-2006. O Modelo identifica a eficácia das instituições e facilita a

  4. Growth models fitted to Dipturus chilensis length-at-age-data support a two phase growth Modelos de crecimiento ajustados a datos de largo a la edad de Dipturus chilensis confirman un crecimiento en dos fases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA I AVERSA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth for the beaked skate was estimated from bands in the vertebral centra of 689 individuals obtained from incidental catches of the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi fishery. Age bias plots and indices of precision indicated that ageing method was precise and unbiased (% CV = 3 % PA = 82.09 %. Edge and marginal increment analysis of the vertebrae support the hypothesis of annual band pair deposition. Three growth models were fitted to length-at-age and the two-phase growth model produced the best fit. This feature has never been described before for D. chilensis and can be related to changes in energy allocation and the shift from juvenile to adult phase. The unrealistic biological estimates of the von Bertalanffy growth model illustrates the importance of fitting alternative models to the data. Female beaked skates reached greater size in length (L∝ as well as in disc width (L∝ = 138.2 cm; DW∝ = 92.46 cm and have lower growth rate (k = 0.08 yr-1 than males (L∝ = 106.7 cm; DW∝ = 74.52 cm; k = 0.121 yr-1. This study provides basic information on age and growth for the beaked skate, D. chilensis, which were previously not available for its south Atlantic range of distribution.La edad y el crecimiento de la raya picuda fue estimado a partir de las bandas en los cuerpos vertebrales de 689 individuos obtenidos de las capturas incidentales de la pesquería de merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi. Gráficos de sesgos y el análisis de precisión indicaron que el método utilizado para la determinación de la edad es preciso y no sesgado (% CV = 3 % PA = 82.09 %. El análisis del tipo de borde e incremento marginal vertebral confirmó la hipótesis del depósito anual de un par de bandas. Se ajustaron tres modelos de crecimiento a los datos de largo a la edad y el modelo de dos fases produjo el mejor ajuste. Esta característica nunca antes fue descripta para Dipturus chilensis y podría relacionarse con un cambio en la cuota de

  5. Modelos matemáticos en un problema de epidemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de conceptos matemáticos a través del desarrollo y estudio de modelos ha sido tratado en numerosos trabajos. La introducción de los modelos suele hacerse básicamente desde el discurso del professor y el trabajo del alumno suele reducirse a la experimentación con el modelo dado. La aproximación a un problema mediante modelos IBM (Individual Based Model resulta más comprensible para el alumno, permite justificar y complementar otras aproximaciones a la solución (modelos diferenciales continuos y/o modelos discretos. En este trabajo se presenta una experiencia docente basada en afrontar un mismo problema mediante enfoques complementarios en base a modelos continuos, discretos e IBM. Finalmente se presenta una propuesta metodológica para ponerla en práctica utilizando el Aprendizaje Cooperativo y el Problem/Project Based Learning.

  6. Modelo de classificação de risco de crédito de empresas A model for the classification of companies credit risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Antonio Silva Brito

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O processo de gerenciamento de risco de crédito em instituições financeiras vem passando por uma revisão ao longo dos últimos anos. Nesse contexto, diversas novas técnicas de mensuração de risco de crédito e tomadores têm sido desenvolvidas e implementadas por grandes Bancos. O objetivo desta pesquisa é desenvolver um modelo de classificação de risco para avaliar o risco de crédito de empresas no mercado brasileiro. O modelo foi construído com base em uma amostra de empresas de capital aberto classificadas como solventes ou insolventes no período entre 1994 e 2004. A técnica estatística utilizada no desenvolvimento do modelo foi a regressão logística. As variáveis independentes são índices financeiros calculados a partir das demonstrações contábeis e utilizados para representar a situação econômico-financeira das empresas. A validação do modelo foi efetuada utilizando o método Jackknife e uma Curva ROC. Os resultados do estudo indicam que o modelo de classificação de risco desenvolvido prevê eventos de default com um ano de antecedência com bom nível de acurácia. Os resultados, também, indicam que as demonstrações contábeis contêm informações que possibilitam a classificação das empresas como prováveis solventes ou prováveis insolventes.The process of credit risk management in financial institutions has been revised in recent years. In this context, large banks have developed and implemented several new techniques for measuring borrowers credit risk. This research aims to develop a risk classification model to assess the credit risk of companies in the Brazilian market. The model was built based on a sample of publicly traded companies classified as solvent or insolvent during the period from 1994 to 2004. Logistic regression was used to develop the model. The independent variables of the model are financial ratios, calculated from the financial statements and used as proxies of companies economic

  7. Analysis and adaptation of a mathematical model for the prediction of solar radiation; Analisis y adaptacion de un modelo matematico de prediccion de radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, Lorenzo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    There is an abundant, reliable, free, source of energy whose use can be planned and besides, practicably inexhaustible: the solar energy. In Mexico it constitutes an important resource, because of its geographical position; for this reason it is fundamental to know it well, either by means of measurements conducted for several years or by mathematical models. These last ones predict with meteorological variables, the values of the solar radiation with acceptable precision. At the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) a model is studied for the prediction of the solar radiation to be adapted to the local conditions of Mexico. It is used in simulation studies of the solar plants functioning and other solar systems. [Espanol] Existe una fuente de energia abundante, confiable, gratuita, cuyo uso puede planearse y, ademas, es practicamente inagotable: la solar. En Mexico constituye un recurso importante, por la posicion geografica del pais; por eso es fundamental conocerlo bien, ya mediante mediciones realizadas durante algunos anos, ya mediante modelos matematicos. Estos ultimos predicen, con datos de variables meteorologicas, los valores de la radiacion solar con precision aceptable. En el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) se estudia un modelo de prediccion de radiacion solar para adaptarlo a las condiciones locales de Mexico. Se usa en estudios de simulacion del funcionamiento de plantas helioelectricas y otros sistemas solares.

  8. The psychological synthesis evaluated by the interactive model A síntese psicológica avaliada pelo modelo interativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Tamayo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to elaborate a model to evaluate the synthesis process resulting from the interaction which is established between opposing constructs, like gender schemas. In social psychology, the existence of opposites is possible to be detecting in contemporary theories, such as individualism versus collectivism and masculinity versus femininity. In all these themes, opposites assume both an oppositional and complementary attitude, but little relevance has been given to the process of synthesis. The Interactive Model was elaborated in an attempt to mathematically express the synthesis process and open up the possibility of studying human personality from a new perspective - the Psychological Synthesis.O propósito deste estudo foi elaborar um modelo para avaliar o processo de síntese resultante da interação que se estabelece entre constructos com naturezas opostas, como os esquemas de gênero. Em psicologia social, a existência dos opostos pode ser detectada em teorias contemporâneas, tais como: individualismo versus coletivismo e masculinidade versus feminilidade. Em todos estes temas, os opostos assumem tanto uma postura de oposição quanto uma postura complementar, mas pouca relevância tem sido dada ao processo de síntese. O Modelo Interativo foi elaborado na tentativa de expressar matematicamente este processo de síntese, e abre a possibilidade de se estudar a personalidade a partir de uma nova perspectiva - a Síntese Psicológica.

  9. Ceremonias, mujer y jerarquía social en el modelo religioso barroco = Ceremonies, woman and social hierarchy in the baroque religious model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Valencia Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El imaginario o modelo religioso barroco representaba un universo mental capaz de ofrecer una concepción global del mundo y de la sociedad, de contornos bien definidos. Entre sus elementos recurrentes figuran los tres aquí estudiados: primero, la importancia concedida al ceremonial, en favor de una religiosidad externa y ritualizada que reafirmaba el papel indispensable de los sacerdotes; segundo, la visión negativa que el catolicismo emite sobre la mujer, conceptuada como un ser inferior; finalmente, la relación entre el discurso eclesiástico y el sistema jerárquico de la sociedad, al que el modelo religioso contribuye a legitimar. Tales mensajes se analizan a través de cinco obras de la época.Abstract: The imaginary or Baroque religious model represented a mental universe capable to offer a global conception of the world and the society with well-defined outlines. Among its recurrent elements are the three treated here; first: the importance given to the ceremonial in favour of an external and ritualized religiosity that reaffirmed the essential role of priests; second: the negative view of Catholicism about the woman, seen as a lower human being; finally, the relationship between the ecclesiastical speech and the hierarchical system of the society, that the religious model contributes to legitimize. Such messages are analyzed through five works of the period.

  10. Analysis and adaptation of a mathematical model for the prediction of solar radiation; Analisis y adaptacion de un modelo matematico de prediccion de radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, Lorenzo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    There is an abundant, reliable, free, source of energy whose use can be planned and besides, practicably inexhaustible: the solar energy. In Mexico it constitutes an important resource, because of its geographical position; for this reason it is fundamental to know it well, either by means of measurements conducted for several years or by mathematical models. These last ones predict with meteorological variables, the values of the solar radiation with acceptable precision. At the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) a model is studied for the prediction of the solar radiation to be adapted to the local conditions of Mexico. It is used in simulation studies of the solar plants functioning and other solar systems. [Espanol] Existe una fuente de energia abundante, confiable, gratuita, cuyo uso puede planearse y, ademas, es practicamente inagotable: la solar. En Mexico constituye un recurso importante, por la posicion geografica del pais; por eso es fundamental conocerlo bien, ya mediante mediciones realizadas durante algunos anos, ya mediante modelos matematicos. Estos ultimos predicen, con datos de variables meteorologicas, los valores de la radiacion solar con precision aceptable. En el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) se estudia un modelo de prediccion de radiacion solar para adaptarlo a las condiciones locales de Mexico. Se usa en estudios de simulacion del funcionamiento de plantas helioelectricas y otros sistemas solares.

  11. La política fiscal en el modelo de sustitución de importaciones Fiscal policy in the import substitution model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Giraldo César

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de sustitución de importaciones, el manejo de las finanzas públicas, que buscaba redistribuir el ingreso y fomentar la producción nacional, contribuyó al proceso de industrialización y modernización de América Latina. Las funciones fiscales se alejaron de su orientación inicial porque cambiaron las condiciones económicas que dieron origen al modelo, y porque los controles impuestos para racionalizar el manejo de las divisas y fomentar la producción se convirtieron en privilegios que promovían una economía rentista que desestimuló una inversión productiva, generó una alta concentración del ingreso y limitó la expansión del mercado interno.In the import substitution model the management of public finance, which attempts to redistribute in comeand promote national production, contributed to the process of industrialization and modernization in latin America. The fiscal functions moved away from their initial orientation because the economic conditions from which the model originated had changed and because the controls put in force to rationalize the handling of foreign currency and promote productionturned into privileges which promoted a rentier economy, which discouraged productive investment, generated a high concentration of income, and limited the expansion of the internal market.

  12. Alternative Reimbursement Models: Bundled Payment and Beyond: AOA Critical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, A Seth; Bassano, Amy; Wiggins, Stephen; Froimson, Mark I

    2016-06-01

    The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative was begun in January 2013 by the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) through its Innovation Center authority, which was created by the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). The BPCI program seeks to improve health-care delivery and to ultimately reduce costs by allowing providers to enter into prenegotiated payment arrangements that include financial and performance accountability for a clinical episode in which a risk-and-reward calculus must be determined. BPCI is a contemporary 3-year experiment designed to test the applicability of episode-based payment models as a viable strategy to transform the CMS payment methodology while improving health outcomes. A summary of the 4 models being evaluated in the BPCI initiative is presented in addition to the awardee types and the number of awardees in each model. Data from one of the BPCI-designated pilot sites demonstrate that strategies do exist for successful implementation of an alternative payment model by keeping patients first while simultaneously improving coordination, alignment of care, and quality and reducing cost. Providers will need to embrace change and their areas of opportunity to gain a competitive advantage. Health-care providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, health-care professionals at post-acute care institutions, and product suppliers, all have a role in determining the strategies for success. Open dialogue between CMS and awardees should be encouraged to arrive at a solution that provides opportunity for gainsharing, as this program continues to gain traction and to evolve. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  13. An alternative ionospheric correction model for global navigation satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. M.; Jakowski, N.

    2015-04-01

    The ionosphere is recognized as a major error source for single-frequency operations of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). To enhance single-frequency operations the global positioning system (GPS) uses an ionospheric correction algorithm (ICA) driven by 8 coefficients broadcasted in the navigation message every 24 h. Similarly, the global navigation satellite system Galileo uses the electron density NeQuick model for ionospheric correction. The Galileo satellite vehicles (SVs) transmit 3 ionospheric correction coefficients as driver parameters of the NeQuick model. In the present work, we propose an alternative ionospheric correction algorithm called Neustrelitz TEC broadcast model NTCM-BC that is also applicable for global satellite navigation systems. Like the GPS ICA or Galileo NeQuick, the NTCM-BC can be optimized on a daily basis by utilizing GNSS data obtained at the previous day at monitor stations. To drive the NTCM-BC, 9 ionospheric correction coefficients need to be uploaded to the SVs for broadcasting in the navigation message. Our investigation using GPS data of about 200 worldwide ground stations shows that the 24-h-ahead prediction performance of the NTCM-BC is better than the GPS ICA and comparable to the Galileo NeQuick model. We have found that the 95 percentiles of the prediction error are about 16.1, 16.1 and 13.4 TECU for the GPS ICA, Galileo NeQuick and NTCM-BC, respectively, during a selected quiet ionospheric period, whereas the corresponding numbers are found about 40.5, 28.2 and 26.5 TECU during a selected geomagnetic perturbed period. However, in terms of complexity the NTCM-BC is easier to handle than the Galileo NeQuick and in this respect comparable to the GPS ICA.

  14. Alternative face models for 3D face registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Albert Ali; Alyüz, Neşe; Akarun, Lale

    2007-01-01

    3D has become an important modality for face biometrics. The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a one-to-all registration approach, which means each new facial surface is registered to all faces in the gallery, at a great computational cost. We explore the approach of registering the new facial surface to an average face model (AFM), which automatically establishes correspondence to the pre-registered gallery faces. Going one step further, we propose that using a couple of well-selected AFMs can trade-off computation time with accuracy. Drawing on cognitive justifications, we propose to employ category-specific alternative average face models for registration, which is shown to increase the accuracy of the subsequent recognition. We inspect thin-plate spline (TPS) and iterative closest point (ICP) based registration schemes under realistic assumptions on manual or automatic landmark detection prior to registration. We evaluate several approaches for the coarse initialization of ICP. We propose a new algorithm for constructing an AFM, and show that it works better than a recent approach. Finally, we perform simulations with multiple AFMs that correspond to different clusters in the face shape space and compare these with gender and morphology based groupings. We report our results on the FRGC 3D face database.

  15. Modelos geo-espaciales para la vigilancia local de la salud Geospatial models for local health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elba De Pietri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Generar un modelo geo-espacial para evaluar la exposición a plomo de escolares de 6 a 8 años, residentes de San Antonio Oeste, en la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, localidad contaminada por una fundición en el casco de la ciudad y la acumulación a cielo abierto de sus residuos. MÉTODOS: El análisis espacial llevado a cabo de octubre a abril de 2006 incluyó la interpretación satelital y el georreferenciamiento de los datos para la espacialización de la información. Se tomó en cuenta la localización de las residencias sobre calles de tierra y la proximidad, desde el domicilio y/o la escuela de los niños bajo estudio, a los sitios-fuente como puntos de exposición. RESULTADOS: Las muestras de sangre tomadas a los niños en las escuelas en el área de influencia de alguna fuente, mostraron mayor abundancia de plombemias elevadas que las localizadas en otras áreas. Dichas plombemias se asociaron con la cercanía a alguna fuente y/o la ubicación de las residencias sobre calles de tierra. Los valores más altos de plomo en sangre correspondieron a mayores rangos de plomo ambiental. CONCLUSIONES: El análisis espacial constituyó una metodología complementaria útil para el análisis y la gestión de riesgo del sitio contaminado, al indicar una asociación positiva entre plombemias elevadas y la proximidad a la fuente, y/o el hecho de vivir en calles de tierra, que no se había hecho evidente mediante los análisis epidemiológicos tradicionales. Los resultados aportaron la evidencia científica necesaria para indicar la implementación de medidas de intervención directas sobre las fuentes de exposición y de educación, orientadas a fomentar hábitos dietéticos higiénicos en la población.OBJECTIVES: To produce a geospatial model to evaluate lead exposure among school children from 6-8 years of age, in San Antonio Oeste, Rio Negro province, Argentina, an area contaminated by a foundry in the city center whose toxins

  16. Modelo de contexto y de dominio para la ingeniería de requisitos de sistemas ubicuos Context model and domain model for requirements engineering ubiquitous systems

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    Liliana González Palacio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los modelos de contexto y de dominio de un ambiente ubicuo genérico, como instrumento para facilitar la transición del conocimiento de la fase de definición a la fase de análisis y servir de base para la obtención de los requisitos. El aporte es derivado de una investigación en metodologías para construcción de ambientes ubicuos, enmarcada dentro del macroproyecto para la construcción de una plataforma de cocreación de productos y servicios innovadores en el área de telecomunicaciones. Esta iniciativa hace parte del Centro de Excelencia ARTICAIn this paper, the context and domain models, as an instrument to facilitate the knowledge transition between the definition phase and the analysis phase, and to serve as a basis to the requirements obtainment is presented. This contribution was obtained from a research project of building methodologies ubiquitous environments, within the macro project of construction of a platform for the co-creation of products and innovation services in telecommunications area. This initiative is part of the ARTICA excellence center.

  17. A Simulation Model of Mesophytic Perennial Grasslands Un Modelo de Simulación de Pradera Perenne Mesofítica

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    Giorgio Castellaro G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands are complex ecosystems and their processes are affected by soil, meteorological, and management variables. In this context, dynamic simulation models are useful to understand these processes and to design grassland use strategies. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simulation model of perennial pasture growth based on soil and climate variables. A first approach considered that soil fertility levels were adequate; therefore, soil water availability and phytomass level were the main variables affecting pasture growth. The subroutines considered were water balance, pasture growth, and root biomass dynamics. The hypotheses regarding the functioning of the system were formulated as a group of equations which were solved numerically with a program written in Visual Basic®. Model validation was performed by statistical comparison between simulated DM and DM obtained from experiments conducted in Valdivia (39°47' S., 73°15' W; 9 m a.s.l.. In these experiments we measured DM accumulation on naturalized grassland and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.-white clover (Trifolium repens L. pastures under frequent defoliation. Soil data, temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall were obtained from a meteorological station located in Valdivia. The coefficient of determination between simulated values and those measured in the experiments were higher in the DM accumulation (R² = 98% simulations. When pasture was subjected to frequent defoliation, the degree of fit of the model was lower (R² = 60%; however, the model was able to predict the trend in the data.Los pastizales son ecosistemas complejos y sus procesos se ven afectados por variables edáficas, meteorológicas y de manejo. En este contexto, los modelos dinámicos de simulación son utiles para la comprensión de estos procesos y disenar estrategias de utilización de las praderas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue elaborar y validar un modelo de simulación de crecimiento de

  18. 3CV+2: modelo de calidad para la construcción de la vivienda 3CV+2: quality model for dwelling construction

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    Salvador García Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el modelo y los resultados que, desde Junio de 2005, se han alcanzado en el desarrollo del Programa Nacional de Certificación de los Procesos Constructivos de la Vivienda en base al Modelo 3cv+2. El programa se ha desarrollado con base a un convenio entre el Tecnológico de Monterrey y la Cámara Nacional de la Industria de Desarrollo y Promoción de Vivienda. Actualmente se encuentran voluntariamente en el programa 52 empresas inmobiliarias de diferentes estados de la República Mexicana. El modelo de calidad 3cv+2 es una metodología que busca establecer en los niveles operativos de la construcción criterios que permitan reducir la variabilidad del proceso de construcción, y además permita de manera sistemática, y en un proceso de mejora continua, evaluar el desempeño de calidad en proyectos de construcción de vivienda. El modelo 3cv+2 define en su nombre el alcance del mismo, 3 criterios de calidad para la vivienda (insumos, proceso y producto, apoyado por 2 auditorías (+2, la auditoría interna de la propia empresa, mas la auditoría externa hecha por el Tecnológico de Monterrey. El modelo 3cv+2 busca garantizar que los insumos utilizados en la construcción de las viviendas sean de calidad superior, y que los procesos de ejecución posean características de calidad, productividad, eficiencia, racionalización, y estandarización; de tal manera que insumos y productos sean de alto valor agregado, y garanticen la calidad especificada en las etapas parciales y en la vivienda terminada.This paper presents the model and the results that have been achieved during the development of the National Quality Certification Program based on the model 3cv +2 from June 2005. This program has been developed based on an agreement between the Monterrey Tech and the National Chamber of Housing Industry. Nowadays, the program has 52 voluntary real estate companies from different states of Mexico. The 3cv+2 quality model is a

  19. MODELO PEDAGÓGICO PARA EL DESARROLLO DE COMPETENCIAS EN EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR (TEACHING MODEL FOR DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

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    Carrera Hernández Celia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente artículo es resultado de una investigación que tuvo como propósito conocer el impacto de un modelo pedagógico para el desarrollo de competencias en educación superior (DECOES en el logro de la competencia para intervenir en grupos sociales vulnerables a partir de la solución de problemas. El modelo DECOES se diseñó a partir de la reflexión crítica de profesores y alumnos al identificar problemas y sugerir soluciones. Dicho modelo consta de fundamentos psicopedagógicos y socio filosóficos; además incluye aspectos sobre cómo establecer la relación y la práctica pedagógica. Se aplicó a los alumnos del segundo semestre de la Licenciatura en Intervención Educativa en una universidad pública del norte de México con un diseño cuasiexperimental. Para ello se utilizó un grupo experimental y uno control. En el experimental se utilizó una guía didáctica en la que se concretó el modelo. En el grupo control se desarrolló la práctica pedagógica tal como el profesor del grupo la tenía planeada en la que los alumnos solo exponían proyectos de intervención ya diseñados y aplicados por diversas instituciones. La competencia se evaluó mediante un esquema de pretest - postest. Se encontró que no existen diferencias significativas entre el grupo control y el experimental en el pretest; mientras que en el postest sí existen diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos. Se infiere que el modelo pedagógico DECOES tuvo efectos en el grupo experimental al favorecer el logro de la competencia.Abstract: This article is the result of a research which was aimed to ascertain the impact of a pedagogical model for developing skills in higher education (DECOES in achieving the power to intervene in vulnerable social groups from the solution of problems. DECOES model was designed from the critical reflection of teachers and students to identify problems and suggest solutions. This model consists of educational psychology

  20. Abordaje de los trabajadores con trastornos físicos y psíquicos en salud laboral: un modelo Approach of workers with physical and mentaldisorders in occupational health: a model

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    Fernando Mansilla Izquierdo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone un modelo de abordaje en salud laboral de los trabajadores con trastornos físicos o psíquicos, utilizando la entrevista motivacional y el apoyo social como ejes del modelo. La atención se realiza en tres fases: contención, valoración y orientación. Este modelo puede favorecer la disminución de los problemas o dificultades en el contexto laboral, adaptando o cambiando su puesto de trabajo.This article proposes a model approach to occupational health of workers with physical or mental disorders, using motivational interviewing and social support model axis. Attention is done in three phases: containment, assessment and guidance. This model may help to decrease the problems or difficulties in the employment context, adapting or changing their jobs.

  1. Modelo dinámico para lámparas de descarga de alta intensidad en alta frecuencia; Dynamic model for high intensity discharge lamps in high frequency

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    Leonardo Cedeño Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se desarrolla el modelado dinámico de lámparas de descarga de alta intensidad (HID en inglés, de manera que pueda contribuir al desarrollo posterior de un sistema de control avanzado sobre la etapa de potencia de un balasto electrónico, que permita operar este tipo de lámparas en alta frecuencia. El modelo tiene en cuenta la presencia del fenómeno de la resonancia acústica (RA, que usualmente se presenta en las lámparas HID a frecuencias elevadas. Para el modelado se emplean técnicas híbridas, teniendo como punto de partida las ecuaciones de balance de energía en el interior de la lámpara, en tanto para la parametrización, se aplica identificación de sistemas y optimización mediante algoritmos genéticos. La implementación del modelo se realiza con el software Matlab R2011a. Como resultado se obtiene un modelo dinámico para lámparas HID en alta frecuencia, validado para lámparas de alta presión de sodio.In this paper the dynamic modeling of high intensity discharge lamps (HID is developed. This will contribute to the further development of an advanced control system on the power stage of an electronic ballast, which allows these lamps operate at high frequency. The model must take into account the presence of the acoustic resonance’s phenomenon (AR, which usually occurs when HID lamps operates at high frequency. Hybrid modeling techniques were employed, the balance equations and the empirical expressions were obtained and the model was parameterized by identification techniques and optimization based on genetic algorithms. The implementation of the model has performed using Simulink tool of Matlab R2011a software. As a result, a dynamic model for HID lamps in high frequency has achieved and validated for high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS.

  2. Marco histórico y estado del arte de los modelos de evolución del paisaje y de erosión Historical framework and state of art of landscape evolution and erosion models

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    Juan José Montoya Monsalve

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis del marco histórico de modelos de evolución del paisaje y de erosión, además se expone el estado del arte de cuyo análisis se derivan los aspectos fundamentales que deben ser tenidos en cuenta en la formulación de un modelo de erosión a escala de cuenca. Se introduce el tema con un breve recuento de la evolución del conocimiento de modelos geomorfológicos, los cuales constituyen el marco general de los modelos de erosión. De dicho análisis surgen las preguntas básicas que debe abordar un modelo de erosión. Posteriormente se efectúa un análisis del desarrollo histórico de modelos de erosión, se reseñan las características principales de los modelos de erosión actuales y se enumeran las potencialidades y limitaciones de estos. Este artículo corresponde a una revisión bibliográfica tendente a la definición del marco teórico del proyecto de investigación titulado "Desarrollo de un modelo conceptual de producción, transporte y depósito de sedimentos".This articles presents an analysis of the historical framework of landscape evolution models, specifically erosion models: it also refers to the current state of the art from which critical analysis derive the fundamental aspects which should be taken into account in the formulation of an erosion model in catchment scale. The theme is introduced with a brief review of the evolution of knowledge of landscape evolution models, which provide the overall framework of erosion models. From this analysis, basic questions to be addressed by an erosion model arise. Later, analysis of the historical development of erosion models is made; It also summarizes the main characteristics of the current erosion models and lists potentialities and limitations of erosion models. This paper corresponds to a literature review aimed at defining the theoretical framework of a research project entitled "Development of an Erosion, Transport and Sedimentation Conceptual Model."

  3. Modelagem hidrológica em microbacia hidrográfica parte I: aprimoramento do modelo HidroBacia Hydrologic modeling in a small watershed part I: improvement of the HidroBacia model

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    Sidney S. Zanetti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Testes preliminares realizados com o modelo hidrológico HidroBacia, indicaram desequilíbrio no seu balanço de massa, despertando a necessidade de estudos visando ao seu aperfeiçoamento; assim, o presente trabalho consistiu no aprimoramento do modelo HidroBacia a partir da localização e correção de falhas no código-fonte do seu programa computacional, essas falhas foram identificadas através da depuração do modelo durante simulações do hidrograma de escoamento superficial, utilizando-se dados de uma microbacia hidrográfica experimental. A principal causa relacionada com o desequilíbrio do balanço de massa do modelo, tinha referência com a solução das equações do modelo de ondas cinemáticas usado na propagação dos hidrogramas de escoamento superficial, cujo problema foi contornado pela substituição do algoritmo linear utilizado, Bras (1990, pelo algoritmo não-linear apresentado por Li et al. (1975. A partir desta modificação, considerada principal, e outras modificações implementadas, o balanço de massa do modelo HidroBacia foi ajustado e suas simulações passaram a gerar estimativas coerentes. Em virtude das alterações efetuadas, o HidroBacia evoluiu da versão 1.0 para a versão 1.1.In previous tests conducted by the HidroBacia hydrologic model, desequilibria in its mass balance was detected, thus showing the need for further studies for its improvement. This work consisted of improvement of the HidroBacia model by means of identification and correction of mistakes in its software source code. The mistakes were identified through adjustment during runoff hydrograph simulations using an experimental watershed data bank. The main factor, related to the mass balance desequilibria in the model, was correlated with the solution of the equations for the kinematic wave model used for propagation of the runoff hydrographs. This problem was corrected by the substitution of the linear algorithm used (Bras, 1990, by the

  4. Development of an electro-thermal model for ZnO surge arrester under contamination; Desarrollo de un modelo electro-termico para apartarrayos de ZnO bajo contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardado Zavala, J.L.; Moreno Barraza, M.; Zazueta Pena, H.; Venegas Rebollar, V.; Melgoza Vazquez, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: lguarda@prodigy.net.mx; hzazuetapea@yahoo.com; vvenegas@yahoo.com; emelgoza@iimorelia.edu.mx

    2010-01-15

    An electro-thermal model for a Zinc Oxide (ZnO) surge arrester under contamination test is presented. The model is based in three sub-models: electrical, thermal and contamination, which interact in order to obtain the surge arrester performance under contamination tests. The electrical model is obtained from measurements and is based on a capacitance and a non-linear resistor. The thermal model takes into account the heat generated and dissipated by the column of varistors and its surroundings. The contamination is represented by dynamic impedance obtained from measurements in the arrester column during contamination tests. The full model is validated by calculating the temperature increase during contamination tests carried out in a two units ZnO surge arrester, class 190 kV. Finally, the results of the effect of several design and construction parameters in the voltage and temperature distribution in the arrester column during contamination tests are presented. [Spanish] Se presenta el modelo electro-termico para un apartarrayos de Oxido de Zinc (ZnO) durante pruebas de contaminacion. El modelo esta compuesto de tres sub-modelos: electrico, termico y de contaminacion, los cuales interactuan armonicamente para obtener el comportamiento del apartarrayos durante pruebas de contaminacion. El modelo electrico se obtiene de mediciones y esta compuesto de una capacitancia y una resistencia no-lineal. El modelo termico considera el calor generado y disipado en la columna de varistores y su entorno. La contaminacion se representa como una impedancia dinamica, cuyos valores se obtienen de mediciones en la columna del apartarrayos durante pruebas de contaminacion. El modelo se valida determinando el incremento de temperatura durante pruebas de contaminacion en un apartarrayos de ZnO de dos unidades clase 1990 kV. Finalmente, se presentan los resultados del impacto de diversos parametros de diseno y construccion en la distribucion de voltaje y temperatura en el apartarrayos

  5. Modelo de un muelle de ballestas considerando la fricción entre hojas. // Laminated spring model considering the friction between leaves.

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    J. Rodríguez Matienzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda un modelo de una ballesta por el MEF incluyendo el contacto y la fricción. El problema se convierte en no linealy se resuelve por el método de Newton-Raphson como un problema de optimización con restricciones. Se hace un análisisde las condiciones iniciales y de contorno para alcanzar la solución en un tiempo razonable, dando una estrategia paracalcular el valor del penalty. Se logra una buena correspondencia en tre los valores de desplazamiento reales y teóricos.Finalmente se hace el análisis modal del modelo.Palabras claves: Ballestas, contacto, vibraciones, MEF._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract:A finite element model of a real laminated spring under bending should include the phenomena of contact and frictionbetween leaves, in order to obtain values of displacements, stresses, gap, etc. close to reality. Considering contact and friction leadsto a non-linear problem, which must be solved using numerical methods (Newton-Raphson, resulting in a classic optimizationproblem with constraints. The success of solution depends strongly on boundary conditions and initial values. A strategy fordetermining penalty values in the case of a multi leaf bending problem is presented, allowing a good correspondence with realdisplacements. The non-linear behavior of the leaf spring suspension referred to spring rate is shown. The modal analysis also gavefirsts natural frequencies in the usual span for trucks and semi-trailers.Key words: Laminated spring, contact, vibration.

  6. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the

  7. Cuidado transpessoal em enfermagem: uma análise pautada em modelo conceitual Cuidado transpersonal en enfermería: un análisis pautado en modelo conceptual Transpersonal caring in nursing: an analysis grounded in a conceptual model

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    Luciane Favero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo teórico que objetivou analisar os atributos, antecedentes e consequências do conceito cuidado transpessoal, mediante utilização do Modelo de Análise de Conceito. Para isso, elencaram-se livros publicados pela teórica Jean Watson, em português e em inglês, no período de 1979 a 2012. Cumpridos os critérios de inclusão, permaneceram seis obras literárias. Os antecedentes mais citados foram o momento de cuidado e a intenção em estar na relação. Os atributos mais presentes foram a intersubjetividade e as relações entre os envolvidos no processo. Com relação às consequências, o fato de o cuidado transpessoal propiciar restauração/reconstituição (healing foi o elemento mais presente. O estudo possibilitou constatar ínfimas alterações na definição do conceito com o passar dos anos e das publicações da teórica. Assim, analisar os atributos, os antecedentes e as consequências do conceito propiciou melhor entendimento deste e compreensão da sua importância na Teoria do Cuidado Humano proposta pela teórica americana.Estudio teórico objetivando analizar los atributos, antecedentes y consecuencias del concepto de cuidado transpersonal, utilizando el Modelo de Análisis de Concepto. Se seleccionaron libros de la teórica Jean Watson, en portugués e inglés, escritos entre 1979 y 2012. Cumplidos los criterios de inclusión, se trabajó con 6 obras literarias. Los antecedentes más citados fueron el momento de cuidado y la intención de relacionarse. Los atributos más presentes fueron la inter-subjetividad y las relaciones involucradas en el proceso. Respecto a consecuencias, el hecho de que el cuidado transpersonal favorezca la restauración/reconstitución (healing fue el elemento más expresado. Fue posible constatar ínfimas alteraciones en la definición del concepto al pasar de los años según las publicaciones de la teórica. En conclusión, analizar los atributos, antecedentes y consecuencias del concepto

  8. Ideas de Negocios y Modelos Mentales: un estudio exploratorio cuantitativoIdeias de Negócios e Modelos Mentais: um estudo exploratório quantitativoBusiness Ideas and Mental Models: an exploratory qualitative study

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    CAMPOS, Héctor Montiel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEn el proceso empresarial, la etapa que corresponde a la generación de ideas de negocio es importante, sin embargo, no se tiene el suficiente conocimiento de ella. En consecuencia, el objetivo de esta comunicación es el de explorar cómo la estructura de conocimiento que tienen las personas, influye en la concepción de ideas de negocio. Dado el objetivo que se persigue, la perspectiva teórica del estudio viene desde los modelos mentales, que a través de un estudio cuantitativo, ayuda a identificar cómo se relacionan algunas variables y de qué forma influyen al generar una idea de negocio. Los resultados indican que no hay una variable que influya considerablemente para formar una idea de negocio, al menos en la muestra del estudio. La variable que muestra un comportamiento interesante, porque se relaciona con otras variables independientes, es la de recompensa e incentivos. No obstante, conviene que en futuros estudios, se analice en mayor profundidad esta variable al convertirla en la nueva variable de estudio.RESUMONo processo empresarial, é importante a etapa correspondente à geração de ideias de negócios, porém, não se tem conhecimento suficiente sobre ela. Consequentemente, esta comunicação tem por objetivo analisar de que forma a estrutura do conhecimento das pessoas influi na concepção de ideias de negócios. Em razão do objetivo que se persegue, a perspectiva teórica do estudo provem dos modelos mentais, que através de um estudo quantitativo, ajuda a identificar a forma como algumas variáveis se relacionam e qual a sua influência na geração de ideias de negócios. Os resultados indicam que não existe uma variável capaz de ter influencia significativa na formação de ideias de negócios, pelo menos na amostra do estudio. A variável que mostra um comportamento interessante é a de recompensa e incentivos, porque se relaciona com outras variáveis independentes. Porém, é aconselhável que em estudos

  9. Mãe adolescente vivenciando o cuidado do filho: um modelo teórico Madre adolescente y la experiencia de cuidar del hijo: un modelo teórico Adolescent mother experiencing child care: a theoretic model

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    Paula Rosemberg de Andrade

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou compreender o significado que tem, para a mãe adolescente, vivenciar o cuidado de seu filho. Participaram do mesmo, oito mães adolescentes entre 15 e 19 anos de idade. As estratégias utilizadas para a coleta de dados foram: a observação participante e a entrevista semi-estruturada. O Interacionismo Simbólico foi usado como referencial teórico e a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados como referencial metodológico. A análise comparativa dos dados permitiu construir o modelo teórico Superando dificuldades impulsionada pela força do amor revelando que a experiência de cuidar do filho para a mãe adolescente é impulsionada pela vivência de sentimentos que fazem com que desenvolva estratégias de ação e interação, buscando recursos para cuidar de seu filho da melhor maneira possível.Este estudio tiene por objeto comprender el significado que tiene para la madre adolescente vivenciar el cuidado de su hijo. Participaron del mismo, ocho madres adolescentes entre 15 y 19 años de edad. Las estrategias utilizadas para la recolección de datos fueron: la observación participante y la entrevista semi-estructurada. El Interacionismo Simbólico fue usado como referencial teórico y la Teoría fue Fundamentada en los Datos como referencial metodológica. El análisis comparativo de los datos permitió construir el modelo teórico Superando dificultades impulsada por la fuerza del amor revelando que, para la madre adolescente la experiencia de cuidar del hijo es impulsada por la vivencia de sentimientos que hacen con que desarrolle estrategias de acción e interacción buscando recursos para cuidar de su hijo de la mejor manera posible.The study aimed to comprehend the meaning for the adolescent mother of experiencing care with her child and the construction of a theoretic model that is representative of this experience. The strategies employed were participant observations and a semi-structured interview. Eight adolescent

  10. Simplified Modeling of Tropospheric Ozone Formation Considering Alternative Fuels Using

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    Leonardo Aragão Ferreira da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian cities have been constantly exposed to air quality episodes of high ozone concentrations (O3 . Known for not be emitted directly into the environment, O3 is a result of several chemical reactions of other pollutants emitted to atmosphere. The growth of vehicle fleet and government incentives for using alternative fuels like ethanol and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG are changing the Brazilian Metropolitan Areas in terms of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde emissions, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's present in the atmosphere and known to act on the kinetics of ozone. Driven by high concentrations of tropospheric ozone in urban/industry centers and its implications for environment and population health, the target of this work is understand the kinetics of ozone formation through the creation of a mathematical model in FORTRAN 90, describing a system of coupled ordinary differential equations able to represent a simplified mechanism of photochemical reactions in the Brazilian Metropolitan Area. Evaluating the concentration results of each pollutant were possible to observe the precursor’s influence on tropospheric ozone formation, which seasons were more conducive to this one and which are the influences of weather conditions on formation of photochemical smog.

  11. Big bang nucleosynthesis: The standard model and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis provides (with the microwave background radiation) one of the two quantitative experimental tests of the big bang cosmological model. This paper reviews the standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation and shows how it fits the light element abundances ranging from He-4 at 24% by mass through H-2 and He-3 at parts in 10(exp 5) down to Li-7 at parts in 10(exp 10). Furthermore, the recent large electron positron (LEP) (and the stanford linear collider (SLC)) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. Alternate scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conlusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, omega(sub b) remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the conclusion that omega(sub b) approximately equals 0.06. This latter point is the driving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming omega(sub total) = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since omega(sub visible) is less than omega(sub b).

  12. Big bang nucleosynthesis: The standard model and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1991-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis provides (with the microwave background radiation) one of the two quantitative experimental tests of the big bang cosmological model. This paper reviews the standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation and shows how it fits the light element abundances ranging from 4 He at 24% by mass through 2 H and 3 He at parts in 10 5 down to 7 Li at parts in 10 10 . Furthermore, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. Alternate scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, Ω b , remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the conclusion that Ω b ≅0.06. This latter point is the driving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming Ω total =1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since Ω visible b . (orig.)

  13. Atenção domiciliar como mudança do modelo tecnoassistencial Atención domiciliar como cambio del modelo tecnoasistencial Home care as change of the technical-assistance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Lara Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar práticas de atenção domiciliar de serviços ambulatoriais e hospitalares e sua constituição como rede substitutiva de cuidado em saúde. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudo qualitativo que analisou, com base na metodologia de caso traçador, quatro serviços ambulatoriais de atenção domiciliar da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde e um serviço de um hospital filantrópico do município de Belo Horizonte, MG, entre 2005 e 2007. Foram realizadas entrevistas com gestores e equipes dos serviços de atenção domiciliar, análise de documentos e acompanhamento de casos com entrevistas a pacientes e cuidadores. A análise foi orientada pelas categorias analíticas integração da atenção domiciliar na rede de saúde e modelo tecnoassistencial. ANÁLISE DOS RESULTADOS: A implantação da atenção domiciliar foi precedida por decisão político-institucional tanto com orientação racionalizadora, buscando a diminuição de custos, quanto com vistas à reordenação tecnoassistencial das redes de cuidados. Essas duas orientações encontram-se em disputa e constituem dificuldades para conciliação dos interesses dos diversos atores envolvidos na rede e na criação de espaços compartilhados de gestão. Pôde-se identificar a inovação tecnológica e a autonomia das famílias na implementação dos projetos de cuidado. As equipes mostraram-se coesas, construindo no cotidiano do trabalho novas formas de integrar os diferentes olhares para transformação das práticas em saúde. Foram observados desafios na proposta de integrar os diferentes serviços de caráter substitutivo do cuidado ao limitar a capacidade da atenção domiciliar de mudar o modelo tecnoassistencial. CONCLUSÕES: A atenção domiciliar possui potencial para constituição de uma rede substitutiva ao produzir novos modos de cuidar que atravessam os projetos dos usuários, dos familiares, da rede social e dos trabalhadores da atenção domiciliar. A aten

  14. Electromagnetic model of a three phase induction motor using finite elements; Modelo electromagnetico de un motor de induccion trifasico usando elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvalcaba Marquez, Carlos

    2003-02-15

    This thesis shows a non-linear electromagnetic analysis of a three-phase induction machine using the two-dimensional finite element method (2D FEM). It is necessary to solve the diffusion equation to obtain the average magnetic vector potential of the FE machine model. The solution of this equation gives the induced eddy currents locally or globally inside the FE machine model. The induction machine is rated at 2.2 kw, 220 V, 60 Hz, and it can handle two different speeds, 1750/1150 rpm with a current consumption of 9.6/11.0 A, respectively. This machine is at the Laboratorio de Propulsion of the Instituto Tecnologico de la Laguna. The eddy currents induced in the conducting material appear because the FE model of the machine model is supplied by a sinusoidal current; finally, the depth penetration factor is considered on the FE mesh to achieve a better skin effect representation. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se realiza un analisis electromagnetico no lineal de un motor de induccion trifasico empleando el metodo del elemento finito en dos dimensiones. De manera especifica, se calcula el potencial magnetico vectorial promedio del modelo de elemento finito del motor mediante la solucion de la ecuacion de difusion. Al resolver la ecuacion de difusion se obtiene la densidad de corrientes de eddy que se inducen ya sea en sentido local o global en el modelo del motor. El motor de induccion analizado esta disenado para operar a dos velocidades, 1750/1150 rpm, tiene una capacidad de 2.2 kW, 220 V, 9.6/11.0 A, 60 Hz, y se encuentra instalado en el Laboratorio de Propulsion del Instituto Tecnologico de la Laguna. Debido a que el modelo electromagnetico del motor de induccion es alimentado por una fuente de corriente senoidal, se tiene una induccion de corrientes de eddy en el material conductor. En el diseno de la malla se considero el factor de penetracion para lograr una mejor representacion del efecto piel.

  15. Modelo de dirección estratégica para el departamento de Medicina General Integral Model of strategical management for the Department of General Comprehensive Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Abad Ochoa Alonso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La creciente complejidad del proceso organizacional del Departamento de Medicina General Integral, de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Mariana Grajales Coello” de Holguín, evidenció la necesidad de una intervención de carácter estratégico, capaz de guiar la gestión del cambio y de facilitar la sostenibilidad de las estrategias en curso en el departamento. Valiéndose de métodos de investigación científica, como son, el dialéctico, la modelación y la triangulación, y otros propios de las ciencias de la administración, se construyó un modelo de dirección estratégica específico para este departamento. El proyecto de intervención concebido es producto del análisis crítico de los modelos de dirección estratégica estudiados, y de la introducción de momentos, procedimientos y técnicas adecuados a las condiciones del departamento. Los enfoques rectores del proceso, aplicados en el modelo construido, permiten una mayor integración entre los niveles estratégico, táctico y operativo, con el consiguiente impacto esperado sobre la eficacia y la eficiencia en el alcance de los objetivos.The increasing complexity of the organizational process of the Department of General Comprehensive Medicine of “Mariana Grajales Coello” Faculty of Medical Sciences, in Holguin , evidenced the need of an intervention of strategical character capable of guiding the change management and of facilitating the sustainability of the strategies under way in the department. By using methods of scientific research, such as the dialectic methods, modeling, triangulation and others characteristic of the management science, it was constructed a specific model of strategical management for this department.The intervention project created is the result of the critical analysis of studied strategic management models, and of the introduction of moments, procedures and techniques adjusted to the conditions of the department. The ruling approaches of the

  16. Influencia del grado de inmersión de modelos de compuertas sobre sus frecuencias propias. // Influence of inmersion gate models on their natural frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cabrera Gómez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos para las frecuencias propias en dependencia del grado de inmersión de modelos decompuertas con sus respectivos sistemas de suspensión e izaje pertenecientes a una presa en construcción, los cuales por suconfiguración son sistemas simples pero con un contorno de trabajo complejo que puede ocasionar variaciones delcomportamiento dinámico.Palabras claves: Vibraciones mecánicas, comportamiento dinámico, frecuencias propias, modelacióndinámica, ensayos de impacto._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.Results obtained for natural frequencies depending on the submergence level in gate models and their respective supportingand raising systems are presented. Attending to its configuration, a gate is a simple system, but with a very complexworking contour that is able to change its dynamic behaviour.Key words: Mechanical vibrations, dynamic behavior, natural frequencies, dynamic modeling, impacttesting.

  17. O uso do modelo hipercubo na solução de problemas de localização probabilísticos The use of the hypercube model in the solution of probabilistic location problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chiyoshi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O modelo hipercubo é revisitado tendo em vista sua utilização em métodos de solução para problemas de localização probabilísticos. Este uso do modelo é de bastante relevância em situações em que a aleatoriedade na disponibilidade dos servidores é um fator importante a ser considerado; em algumas circunstâncias esta aleatoriedade só pode ser representada pela modelagem de filas espacialmente distribuídas.O modelo é apresentado com o auxílio de um exemplo ilustrativo, para o qual são derivadas as equações de equilíbrio; medidas de desempenho do modelo são também definidas. Isto é seguido pela descrição de um método exato e de outro aproximado para o cálculo destas medidas. Diversos modelos de localização probabilísticos são então estudados, o que é seguido pela análise de métodos de solução disponíveis para esses modelos, com ênfase especial nos métodos que incluem o uso do modelo hipercubo. Embora atualmente de uso incipiente em problemas de localização probabilísticos, o modelo tem grande potencial nesse contexto, por exemplo se integrado a metaheurísticas tais como simulated annealing e busca tabu.The hypercube model is revisited regarding its use in solution methods for probabilistic location problems. This use of the model is relevant in situations in which the randomness in the availability of servers is an important factor to be considered; in some circumstances this randomness can be represented by spatially distributed queues. The model is presented through an illustrative example, for which the equilibrium equations are derived; some measures of performance are also defined. This is followed by the description of an exact and an approximate method for the calculation of these measures. Several probabilistic location models are then studied, which is followed by the analysis of solution methods for these models, with special emphasis given to methods that embed the hypercube model. Although

  18. El empoderamiento del alumnado desde el modelo sMOOC//Student’s empowerment from the sMOOC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martínez Pérez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Los MOOC han traído consigo multitud de oportunidades que aportar a un panorama educativo que se encuentra a falta de nuevos estímulos para fomentar una educación de calidad. Los sMOOC en particular, favorecen un mayor protagonismo del alumnado, tanto en el modelo comunicativo que desarrollan como en el pedagógico. Las redes sociales contribuyen a esta labor desempeñando un papel prioritario en el proceso de aprendizaje, al conectar a todos los agentes que participan, y brindarles oportunidades que les posibiliten ser escuchados y transformar la capa social. El empoderamiento del alumnado es clave en este proceso de evolución educativa, y desde el Proyecto ECO se ha potenciado esta propuesta, ofreciendo la posibilidad de crear tu propio sMOOC, en los que se hace patente el empoderamiento ciudadano invirtiendo el aula donde el alumnado pasa a ser eteacher.

  19. Modelo experimental para o estudo da hérnia do disco intervertebral Experimental model to study intervertebral disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz de Souza Grava

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um modelo experimental de hérnia de disco e sua validação para estudo da hiperalgesia mecânica e térmica produzidas pelo contato do núcleo pulposo (NP com as estruturas nervosas envolvidas nessa afecção. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, sendo o NP autólogo retirado da região sacrococcígea e depositado sobre a dura-máter, raiz nervosa ou gânglios das raízes dorsais L4, L5 ou L6. Os experimentos foram divididos em quatro etapas: 1ª determinação da estrutura nervosa mais sensível ao contato com o NP; 2ª identificação do melhor nível lombar para a indução da hiperalgesia; 3ª determinação da ausência de lesão motora; e 4ª determinação da influência do procedimento cirúrgico no desenvolvimento do processo inflamatório. A hiperalgesia foi avaliada nos testes de von Frey eletrônico e de Hargreaves e a função motora, pelo teste de rota-rod. RESULTADOS: O NP induziu hiperalgesia de maior intensidade na pata quando em contato com o gânglio da raiz dorsal (GRD do que em contato com a dura-máter ou a raiz nervosa. Quando em contato com o GRD-L5, o NP induziu hiperalgesia ainda maior que a induzida pelo contato com os GRDs L4 e L6. Não foram observadas lesão motora e influência do processo inflamatório cirúrgico sobre a hiperalgesia. CONCLUSÃO: O GRD é a estrutura mais sensível aos componentes do NP para a produção da hiperalgesia, sendo o quinto nível lombar o que apresentou maior alteração nas sensibilidades mecânica e térmica avaliadas na pata dos animais, de acordo com os métodos utilizados.OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to present an experimental model of disc herniation and to validate such model to study mechanic and thermal hyperalgesia produced by the contact of the nucleus pulposus (NP with nerve structures involved in this condition. METHODS: The authors used Wistar rats, the autologous NP being removed from the sacrococcygeal region and deposited on the

  20. Modelo de mudanças climáticas com gastos públicos Climate change models with public spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Erik Arruda Carneiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discuto, principalmente, a inserção dos gastos públicos em modelos de mudança climática. Considero a análise de Kemfert, Lise e Tol (2004 como exemplo de modelo formal que agrega as questões econômicas e climáticas, e amplio a discussão com o estudo da inserção dos gastos públicos com gestão ambiental e da matriz energética. Mostro que as estruturas econômicas e físicas dos países estabelecem diferentes gastos públicos, com diferentes impactos ambientais e conseqüências para outras nações e isto afeta sobremaneira os resultados de qualquer modelo econômico. Em termos dos gastos públicos com meio ambiente, observo especificamente o caso brasileiro, verificando os gastos públicos federais com Gestão Ambiental no Brasil de 2000 a 2006. Defendo a importância de se considerar as diversas possibilidades de despesas públicas com gestão ambiental, para o tratamento das questões relativas à mudança climática.In this paper, I, mainly, analyzed the inclusion of environmental budget in climate change models. Considering Kemfert, Lise and Tol (2004's approach to show a formal model that puts together economic and climate issues, I analyzed the inclusion of environmental public spending and energy. I tried to show that countries' economic and physical structures establish different public spending, with different environmental impacts and consequences to another nations and that has strong influence on economic models. In relation to public spending, I considered, specifically, the Brazilian federal budget to Environmental Management from 2000 to 2006. In this article, I argue in defense of considering budget for environmental management in the discussion on climate change.

  1. El modelo experimental en la enseñanza de la medicina en el v semestre The Experimental Teaching Model in the 5th Semester of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena de la Uz Herrera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis de los resultados del proceso docente-educativo en la asignatura Propedéutica Clínica y Semiología Médica del V Semestre de la Carrera de Medicina en los estudiantes del Modelo Experimental de Enseñanza, en el actual curso académico. La muestra estuvo constituida por los estudiantes que integran el grupo experimental de enseñanza, insertados en el Proyecto Policlínico Universitario (PPU. Los resultados académicos fueron satisfactorios, con un comportamiento similar a los restantes modelos de enseñanza. La valoración del proceso docente educativo fue considerada de Buena por la mayoría de los estudiantes (60,5 y el 92.1 %de ellos evaluaron positivamenteel papel desempeñado por los profesores integrales (tutores durante este proceso. Se plantearon dificultades con la calidad de algunos medios de enseñanza (Tele clases, así como falta de tiempo para la auto- preparación de los profesores integrales. No obstante, la aplicación de este nuevo modelo revoluciona la enseñanza actual por la introducción de nuevas Formas de Organización de la Enseñanza (FOE, la enseñanza tutorial y el uso de Tecnologías de la Información Científico Técnica (TIC´s, prometiendo un futuro esperanzador hacia la excelencia en la formación médica y profesional que demanda la sociedad contemporánea.The results of the teaching - educative process of Clinical Propedeutics and Medical Semiology in the 5th Semester of Medicine in students of the Teaching Experimental Model in the present academic year were analyzed, the academic results were similarly satisfactory to those of the other teaching models. The assessment of the educative teaching process was considered good by most of the students (60,5 and 92,5% of them evaluated positively the role played by the Comprehensive Professors (Tutors during this process. The difficulties found with the quality of some teaching aids (classes by TV as well as the short time for the

  2. Modelos analíticos do crescimento populacional de Sitophilus zeamais em trigo armazenado Analytical models for population growth of Sitophilus zeamais in stored wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arienilmar A. L. da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Para se atingir os objetivos propostos neste trabalho, desenvolveram-se modelos analíticos do crescimento populacional de S. zeamais em grãos de trigo armazenados com teor de umidade de 11,1%. O crescimento populacional foi avaliado durante 90 dias de armazenagem, nas temperaturas de 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 e 36 ºC, partindo-se de infestações iniciais que variaram de 1,3 a 9,3 insetos por kg de trigo. Os modelos explicaram de 93,9 a 98,9% da variação na densidade populacional. O crescimento populacional foi afetado pelo tamanho da população que iniciou a infestação, ou seja, quanto maior foi a infestação inicial maior também foi o crescimento populacional ao longo do tempo de armazenagem, que ocorreu na temperatura de 28 ºC e diminuiu drasticamente abaixo e acima desta. Na temperatura de 36 ºC, todas as populações foram extintas entre 15 e 45 dias de armazenagem, mas nenhuma população se extinguiu a 16 ºC. Os modelos apresentaram excelentes ajustes, estando em conformidade com os princípios gerais da dinâmica de populações de insetos em um sistema de grãos armazenados e descrevem muito bem o crescimento populacional de S. zeamais em relação ao efeito da temperatura e da densidade populacional inicial.Analytical models of population growth were developed for Sitophilus zeamais, in grain wheat stored at 11.1% of moisture content. Population growth was monitored for 90 days at the temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 ºC and initial adult population densities varying between 1.3 and 9.3 insects per kg. The models obtained explained between 93.9 and 98.99% of the variation in density of adult insects. The population growth was affected by initial population density of infestation and increased proportionately with degree of infestation. The highest population growth occurred at 28 ºC and drastically decreased for lower and higher temperatures. Population extinction took place between 15 and 45 days of storage for all

  3. Cadeia de valor da saúde: um modelo para o sistema de saúde brasileiro Healthcare value chain: a model for the Brazilian healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caldeira Pedroso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de cadeia de valor da saúde que representa, de maneira esquemática, o sistema de saúde do Brasil. O modelo proposto tem como intuito apresentar uma adequação à realidade brasileira, bem como abrangência e flexibilidade para utilização em atividades acadêmicas e análises do setor de saúde do Brasil. O modelo coloca ênfase em três componentes: principais atividades dessa cadeia, agrupadas em elos verticais e horizontais; missão de cada um desses elos; e principais fluxos da cadeia. A cadeia proposta é formada por seis elos verticais e três horizontais, perfazendo um total de nove: desenvolvimento de conhecimento em saúde; fornecimento de produtos e tecnologias; serviços de saúde; intermediação financeira; financiamento da saúde; consumo de saúde; regulação; distribuição de produtos de saúde; e serviços de apoio e complementares. A análise da cadeia proposta pode ser realizada por meio de quatro fluxos: inovação e conhecimento; produtos e serviços; financeiro; e de informação.This article presents a model of the healthcare value chain which consists of a schematic representation of the Brazilian healthcare system. The proposed model is adapted for the Brazilian reality and has the scope and flexibility for use in academic activities and analysis of the healthcare sector in Brazil. It places emphasis on three components: the main activities of the value chain, grouped in vertical and horizontal links; the mission of each link and the main value chain flows. The proposed model consists of six vertical and three horizontal links, amounting to nine. These are: knowledge development; supply of products and technologies; healthcare services; financial intermediation; healthcare financing; healthcare consumption; regulation; distribution of healthcare products; and complementary and support services. Four flows can be used to analyze the value chain: knowledge and innovation; products and

  4. Business model of the Internet newspaper company: The case of Prisa / Modelo de negocio de la empresa periodística en Internet: El caso de Prisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. María Nereida Cea Esteruelas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Newspaper companies are expanding their editorial business on the Internet, responding to the growth of this new market for providing news. It is for this reason that within the large media groups a unit or business area has been created, aimed at integrating the emerging digital market in a coordinated way. The aim of this article is to outline some of the characteristics defining these newspaper companies, based on a study of the digital unit of the group Prisa, that is, Prisacom. The case study, combined with a review of the relevant literature, will help to define a reference model. In order to do this, firstly, the historical aspects on its origins will be reviewed. Then, the editorial structure and the characteristics of their production model will be described. Finally, based on the data collected, the business model of Prisacom will be taken into account, with a special focus on the revenue structure.Resumen: Las empresas periodísticas extienden su negocio editorial en internet, dando respuesta al crecimiento que experimenta este nuevo mercado informativo. Por ello, dentro de los grandes grupos de comunicación se ha creado una unidad o área de negocio, que persigue explotar de manera coordinada el emergente mercado digital. El artículo tiene por finalidad proponer algunas características que definen a estas empresas periodísticas, a partir del estudio de la unidad digital del grupo Prisa, esto es, Prisacom. El estudio del caso, combinado con la revisión de la literatura pertinente, permitirá sugerir la definición de un modelo de referencia. Para ello se revisarán, en primer lugar, aspectos históricos sobre su génesis. A continuación, se describirá la estructura redaccional y las características de su modelo de producción. Por último, se dará cuenta, a partir de los datos recabados, del modelo de negocio de Prisacom, con especial atención a su estructura de ingresos.

  5. Incorporation of a wind generator model into a dynamic power flow analysis; Incorporacion de un modelo de generador eolico al analisis de flujos dinamicos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles Camacho, C.; Banuelos Ruedas, F. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: cangelesc@iingen.unam.mx; fbanuelosr@iingen.unam.mx

    2011-07-15

    Wind energy is nowadays one of the most cost-effective and practical options for electric generation from renewable resources. However, increased penetration of wind generation causes the power networks to be more depend on, and vulnerable to, the varying wind speed. Modeling is a tool which can provide valuable information about the interaction between wind farms and the power network to which they are connected. This paper develops a realistic characterization of a wind generator. The wind generator model is incorporated into an algorithm to investigate its contribution to the stability of the power network in the time domain. The tool obtained is termed dynamic power flow. The wind generator model takes on account the wind speed and the reactive power consumption by induction generators. Dynamic power flow analysis is carried-out using real wind data at 10-minute time intervals collected for one meteorological station. The generation injected at one point into the network provides active power locally and is found to reduce global power losses. However, the power supplied is time-varying and causes fluctuations in voltage magnitude and power flows in transmission lines. [Spanish] La energia eolica es hoy en dia una de las opciones mas efectivas y practicas para la generacion de electricidad a partir de energias renovables. Sin embargo, el incremento de la penetracion de energia eolica provoca que los sistemas de potencia se vuelvan mas dependientes y vulnerables a las variaciones de la velocidad del viento. El modelado es una herramienta que provee informacion valiosa de la interaccion dinamica entre las turbinas eolicas y las redes de potencia a las que se conectan. El presente articulo desarrolla una caracterizacion realista de un modelo de la turbina eolica. El modelo de la turbina eolica se incorpora a un algoritmo para el analisis de su contribucion a la estabilidad de una red electrica en el dominio del tiempo. La herramienta obtenida se conoce como flujos

  6. Desenvolvimento de um modelo fractal para a estimativa da condutividade hidráulica de solos não saturados A fractal model to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fuentes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Baseado nos conceitos da geometria fractal e nas leis de Laplace e de Poiseuille, foi criado um modelo geral para estimar a condutividade hidráulica de solos não saturados, utilizando a curva de retenção da água no solo, conforme representada por um modelo em potência. Considerando o fato de que este novo modelo da condutividade hidráulica introduz um parâmetro de interpolação ainda desconhecido, e que, por sua vez, depende das propriedades dos solos, a validação do modelo foi realizada, utilizando dois valores-limite fisicamente representativos. Para a aplicação do modelo, os parâmetros de forma da curva de retenção da água no solo foram escolhidos de maneira a se obter o modelo de van Genuchten. Com a finalidade de obter fórmulas algébricas da condutividade hidráulica, foram impostas relações entre seus parâmetros de forma. A comparação dos resultados obtidos com o modelo da condutividade e a curva experimental da condutividade dos dois solos, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo e Argissolo Amarelo, permitiu concluir que o modelo proposto é simples em sua utilização e é capaz de predizer satisfatoriamente a condutividade hidráulica dos solos não saturados.From a conceptual model based on fractal geometry and Laplace's and Poiseuille's laws, a versatile and general fractal model for the hydraulic conductivity to be used in the soils was developed. The soil-moisture retention curve is derived from a power model. Due to the fact that the proposed model of hydraulic conductivity introduces a still unknown interpolation parameter, which in turn is a function of soil properties, its limiting values were considered for the analysis. To apply the model in the soil, the form parameters of the soil-moisture retention curve were chosen so as to reproduce van Genuchten's equation. In order to obtain a closed-form equation for the hydraulic conductivity, relationships between the form parameters were imposed. The comparison between

  7. New models for alternatives to detention in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Bremer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While there is growing recognition of the value of community-based alternatives to detention in the US, shortfalls in funding and political will are hindering implementation of improved services and best practice.

  8. Revisiting the advection-dispersion model - Testing an alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    2001-01-01

    Some of the basic assumptions of the Advection-Dispersion model, AD-model, are revisited. That model assumes a continuous mixing along the flowpath similar to Fickian diffusion. This implies that there is a constant dispersion length irrespective of observation distance. This is contrary to most field observations. The properties of an alternative model based on the assumption that individual water packages can retain their identity over long distances are investigated. The latter model is called the Multi-Channel model, MChM. Inherent in the latter model is that if the waters in the different pathways are collected and mixed, the 'dispersion length' is proportional to observation distance. Using diffusion theory it is investigated over which distances or contact times, adjacent water packages will keep their identity. It is found that for a contact time of 10 hours, two streams, each wider than 6 mm, that flow side by side, will not have lost their identity. For 1000 hours contact time the minimum width is 6 cm. The MChM and AD-models were found to have very similar Residence Time Distributions, RTD, for Peclet numbers larger than 3. A generalised relation between flowrate and residence time is developed, including the so-called cubic law and constant aperture assumptions. Using the generalised relation, surprisingly it is found that for a system that has the same average flow volume and average flowrate the form of the RTD curves are the same irrespective of the form of the relation. Both models are also compared for a system where there is strong interaction of the solute with the rock matrix. In this case it is assumed that the solute can diffuse into and out of the fracture walls and also to sorb on the micro-fractures of the matrix. The so-called Flow Wetted Surface, FWS, between the flowing water in the fracture and the rock is a key entity in such systems. It is found that the AD-model predicts much later arrivals and lower concentrations than does the MCh-model

  9. Validation of the ovine fetus as an experimental model for the human myelomeningocele defect Validação do feto de ovino como modelo experimental de meningomielocele

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    Denise Araújo Lapa Pedreira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To produce a myelomeningocele-like human defect in the ovine fetus and validate this experimental model in our population. METHODS: A prospective study on 12 pregnant sheep of a crossed Hampshire/Down breed where a spinal defect was surgically created between Day 75 and Day 77 after conception. The technique consisted of a hysterotomy with exposure of fetal hind limbs and tail up to the mid spine. Fetal skin, paravertebral muscles, and 4 posterior spinal arches were excised, exposing the spinal cord. Duramater was opened and the medulla was incised until the medullar canal. Animals were euthanized at 139 days of gestation for fetal evaluation. The central nervous system was submitted to post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and the spine was submitted to pathological examination. RESULTS: The defect was created in 13 fetuses and 5 survived. Mean gestational age at necropsy was 121.6 days (varying from 93 to 145 days. Macroscopically, the defect was present in 4 cases. Microscopy revealed a flattened medulla with disappearance of the medullar canal and disruption of normal medullar architecture with neuronal apoptosis and/or fusion of the piamater and duramater. The MRI showed herniation of the cerebellum into the cervical canal and syringomyelia. CONCLUSIONS: The surgically produced defect mimics the defect found in the human fetus, including the Arnold-Chiari malformation. Post-mortem MRI was used for the first time in our study and proved an excellent alternative for demonstrating the cerebellar herniation. We standardized the technique for creating the defect in our population.OBJETIVO: Produzir um defeito semelhante a meningomielocele humana em feto de ovinos, validando este modelo experimental, em nosso meio. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com 12 ovelhas de cruzamento das raças Hampshire e Down, onde um defeito na coluna foi criado cirurgicamente com 75 a 77 dias de gestação. A técnica consistiu em histerotomia com exposi

  10. CALIBRACIÓN E IMPLEMENTACIÓN DEL MODELO MG PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DE CAUDALES MÁXIMOS EN COLOMBIA CALIBRAÇÃO E IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DO MODELO MG PARA A ESTIMATIVA DE CAUDAIS MÁXIMOS NA COLÔMBIA CALIBRATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MG MODEL FOR ESTIMATING PEAK FLOWS IN COLOMBIA

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    Andrés Felipe Duque

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es calibrar un modelo para la estimación de caudales máximos que se adapte a las características hidrológicas, geomorfológicas y de cobertura vegetal de las cuencas colombianas. Por esta razón, se calibraron los parámetros del modelo probabilístico MG para todo el territorio colombiano, sus principales regiones geográficas y subregiones hidrológicamente homogéneas. Para la obtención de las ecuaciones analíticas del modelo MG se utilizaron los registros históricos de caudales máximos de 277 estaciones limnigráficas distribuidas a lo largo del territorio colombiano. Los resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo MG calibrado y otros métodos comúnmente utilizados con el mismo propósito fueron comparados entre sí y se encontraron valores muy semejantes. El modelo MG calibrado en este trabajo se muestra como una opción viable para la estimación de caudales máximos en cuencas con información escasa en Colombia.O propósito deste trabalho é calibrar um modelo para a estimativa de caudais máximos que se adapte às características hidrológicas, geomorfológicas e de cobertura vegetal das bacias colombianas. Por esta razão, se calibraram os parâmetros do modelo probabilístico MG para todo o território colombiano, suas principais regiões geográficas e sub-regiões hidrologicamente homogêneas. Para a obtenção das equações analíticas do modelo MG se utilizaram os registros históricos de caudais máximos de 277 estações limnigráficas distribuídas ao longo do território colombiano. Os resultados obtidos aplicando o MG calibrado e outros métodos comumente utilizados com o mesmo propósito foram comparados entre si e se encontraram valores muito semelhantes. O modelo MG calibrado neste trabalho se amostra como uma opção viável para a estimativa de caudais máximos em bacias com informação escassa na Colômbia.The purpose of this paper is calibrate a model for estimating peak flows

  11. Parameter sensitivity of high-order equivalent circuit models of turbine generator; Sensibilidad parametrica de modelos de circuitos equivalentes de orden superior de turbogeneradores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Garcia, I.; Escalera Perez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco (Mexico)]. E-mail: irvinlopez@yahoo.com; r.escalera@ieee.org; Niewierowicz Swiecicka, T. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos (Mexico)]. E-mail: tniewi@ipn.mx; Campero Littlewood, E.[Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco (Mexico)]. E-mail: ecl@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2010-01-15

    This work shows the results of a parametric sensitivity analysis applied to a state-space representation of high-order two-axis equivalent circuits (Ecs) of a turbo generator (150 MVA, 120 MW, 13.8 kV y 50 Hz). The main purpose of this study is to evaluate each parameter impact on the transient response of the analyzed two axis models -d axis Ecs with one to five damper branches and q axis Ecs from one to four damper branches-. The parametric sensitivity concept is formulated in a general context and the sensibility function is established from the generator response to a short circuit condition. Results ponder the importance played by each parameter in the model behavior. The algorithms were design within MATLAB environment. The study gives way to conclusion on electromagnetic aspects of solid rotor synchronous generators that have not been previously studied. The methodology presented here can be applied to any other physical system. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del analisis de sensibilidad parametrica realizado a modelos de circuitos equivalentes de orden superior de un turbogenerador (150 MVA, 120 MW, 13.8 kV y 50 Hz). La representacion del generador sincrono se hace en el espacio de estados, utilizando la teoria de dos ejes (d y a). El objetivo del estudio de sensibilidad es evaluar el impacto que tiene cada uno de los parametros en la respuesta transitoria de los modelos analizados -circuitos equivalentes desde una hasta cinco ramas de amortiguamiento en el eje d y de una a cuatro ramas en el eje q-. En este trabajo el concepto de sensibilidad parametrica se formula en terminos generales, planteando la funcion de sensibilidad a partir de condiciones de cortocircuito en las terminales del generador. Los resultados se presentan senalando el nivel de importancia de cada parametro en el comportamiento del modelo. Los algoritmos utilizados fueron disenados en MATLAB. Asi, este estudio permite inferir aspectos electromagneticos de los

  12. Análise bayesiana do modelo de herança monogênica no melhoramento vegetal: um exemplo com abobrinha Bayesian analisys of monogenic inheritance model in plant breeding: a case study with zucchini

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    Maria Imaculada de Sousa Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma estratégia comum em programas de melhoramento é conduzir estudos básicos de herança para investigar a hipótese de controle do caráter por um ou poucos genes de efeito principal, associados ou não a genes modificadores de pequeno efeito. Neste trabalho, foi utilizada a inferência bayesiana para ajustar modelos de herança genética aditiva-dominante a experimentos de genética vegetal com várias gerações. Densidades normais com médias associadas aos efeitos genéticos das gerações foram consideradas em um modelo linear em que a matriz de delineamento dos efeitos genéticos tinha coeficientes indeterminados (precisando ser estimada para cada indivíduo. A metodologia foi ilustrada com um conjunto de dados de um estudo de herança da partenocarpia em abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L. Tal ajuste permitiu explicitar a distribuição a posteriori das probabilidades genotípicas. . A análise corrobora resultados anteriores da literatura, porém foi mais eficiente que alternativas prévias que supunham a matriz de delineamento conhecida para as gerações. Conclui-se que a partenocarpia em abobrinha é governada por um gene principal com dominância parcial.A common breeding strategy is to carry out basic studies to investigate the hypothesis of a single gene controlling the trait (major gene with or without polygenes of minor effect. In this study we used Bayesian inference to fit genetic additive-dominance models of inheritance to plant breeding experiments with multiple generations. Normal densities with different means, according to the major gene genotype, were considered in a linear model in which the design matrix of the genetic effects had unknown coefficients (which were estimated in individual basis. An actual data set from an inheritance study of partenocarpy in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. was used for illustration. Model fitting included posterior probabilities for all individual genotypes. Analysis agrees with results in the

  13. Modelos de infiltración y funciones de pedotransferencia aplicados a suelos de distinta textura Infiltration models and pedotransfer functions applied to soils with different texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Landini

    2007-12-01

    las hipótesis del modelo.The knowledge of the process of water infiltration in soil is important in the design of irrigation systems and in the prediction of the vulnerability to the contamination of soil and groundwater. Moreover, it is important to evaluate the efficiency of the hydrological models that predict the movement of water in soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate and to compare the goodness of fitting of Kostiakov-Lewis (K-L and Philip (Ph infiltration models to experimental data obtained from three soils: two of them at the Province of Buenos Aires, and the third one at the School of Agronomy's campus of the Buenos Aires University, (Argentina. Efficiency of Saxton and Rawls (SyR pedotransfer functions (FPT on the determination of the Green and Ampt (GA model input hydraulic parameters and the prediction of the soil-moisture release curve were analyzed too. K-L and Ph models fitted data with R² coefficient greater than 0.6. Then it was concluded that these models accurately describe the infiltration process of the studied soils. The highest basic infiltration rate (fo was 0.42 cm min-1 and corresponded to a silty clay soil with organic amendment, and for the other two soils (silt loam and clay loam were 0.03 and 0.07 cm min-1 respectively. For two of the studied soils, GA model obtained from input parameters determined with the FPT, predicted the infiltration process with an efficiency coefficient (CE greater than 0.8. However, at some cases, the fitting was not so good for dephts greater than 20 cm. For the silt loam soil, the FPT predicted the soil-moisture release curve with an CE close to 0.9. It might be suggested to carry out a preliminary few number of infiltration tests on any soil under study, and analyze the FPT and the GA model goodness of fit. In this way, the convenience of using these models could be evaluated.

  14. Importação de tecnologia gerencial para gestão do fornecimento de serviços de TI: um estudo sobre a aplicabilidade do modelo eSourcing Capability Model ao contexto institucional brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Hebbertt de Farias Soares

    2008-01-01

    A governança do fornecimento (sourcing) de serviços de tecnologia da informação (TI) é uma questão que abrange aspectos gerenciais, econômicos e sociais. Atualmente parte significativas das recomendações de mercado orientam para a adoção de modelos padronizados cujas recomendações são consideradas melhores práticas. Dentre as existentes, o modelo eSourcing Capability Model (eSCM), desenvolvido pelo Information Technology Services Qualification Center da Universidade Carnegie Mellon, destina-s...

  15. Modelo de conocimiento conceptual como apoyo a la Ingeniería del Conocimiento Conceptual knowledge modeling as support in knowledge engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Henao-Calad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una propuesta del uso de modelos de conocimientos para apoyar los procesos de Ingeniería del Conocimiento. El modelo de conocimiento propuesto permite representar el conocimiento declarativo de un dominio de una manera estructurada, a través de la técnica de representación de conocimiento de mapas conceptuales. La Ingeniería del Conocimiento se ha relacionado con el desarrollo de sistemas basados en el conocimiento en el cual el conocimiento y el razonamiento juegan un papel primordial. Como disciplina, dirige la tarea de construir sistemas inteligentes proporcionando herramientas y métodos que soportan el desarrollo de estos sistemas, involucrando: obtención de conocimiento, familiarización con el dominio, análisis y el diseño de la solución, y validación del conocimiento. Todo esto integra los procesos de la Ingeniería del Conocimiento: adquisición, representación y manipulación / validación del conocimiento. En este artículo se muestra cómo un modelo de conocimientos basado en mapas conceptuales apoya la realización de cada uno de esos procesos, permitiendo que los conceptos del dominio sean fácilmente identificados y jerarquizados, logrando generar una visión global del dominio y una homologación de sus conceptos. Adicionalmente, se presenta el caso de un modelo de conocimiento desarrollado por el grupo de la Gerencia en Colombia de la Universidad EAFIT3 como parte del proyecto "Petroleum Geology of Colombia" que se realizó en el Departamento de Geología de esta universidad y patrocinado por la Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos - ANH4 de Colombia, en el que se representó el conocimiento de geólogos e ingenieros expertos en cuencas petrolíferas colombianas.This article introduces a proposal for knowledge models use to support knowledge engineering processes. The proposed knowledge model allows the presentation on a structured way of a domain's declarative knowledge, through the knowledge

  16. Modelo estructural predictor de la salud mental y física en mujeres A structural equation model for predictors of mental and physical health in women

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    Mónica Teresa González Ramírez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Valorar la capacidad predictora del estrés, el apoyo social y la autoestima respecto de la salud mental y física del individuo mediante ecuaciones estructurales, integrando modelos parciales estimados anteriormente, lo que permite simplificar los efectos entre las variables. MÉTODOS: La muestra estudiada abarcó 283 mujeres con hijos. Todas las participantes residían en el municipio de General Escobedo, estado de Nuevo León, México. Las encuestas se realizaron en el segundo semestre de 2003, en los domicilios, utilizando cuestionarios de autoevaluación para valorar cada una de las variables incluidas en el modelo. Cada participante respondió a los cuestionarios en una sola sesión. Los resultados se analizaron con el programa AMOS 5.0, empleando el método de máxima verosimilitud, comúnmente utilizado en los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales. RESULTADOS: Los resultados obtenidos indican un ajuste aceptable en el modelo propuesto (ji2/gl = 3,03, GFI (índice de bondad del ajuste = 0,894, AGFI (índice de bondad del ajuste corregido = 0,848, RMSEA (error de aproximación cuadrático medio = 0,08, IFI (índice de ajuste incremental = 0,910. La varianza explicada es del 31,9% respecto del estrés, del 27,4% respecto de la salud física y del 72,1% respecto de la salud mental. CONCLUSIONES: El apoyo social y la autoestima son predictores del estrés; la edad y el estrés, predictores de la salud física; y el estrés, la autoestima y la salud física, predictores de la salud mental.OBJECTIVE: To measure the extent to which stress, social support, and self-esteem are predictors of an individual's mental and physical health. Structural equations were integrated with previously-estimated partial models, which simplify the relationships among variables. METHODS: The study sample included 283 women with children. All of the participants resided in the municipality of General Escobedo, state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The surveys were

  17. Contextos e processos de mudança dos professores: uma proposta de modelo Contexts and processes of the teacher's change: a conceptual model

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    Ana Margarida Veiga Simão

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresenta-se uma proposta de um modelo para a compreensão e análise da mudança do professor com base em resultados de três estudos empíricos realizados em Portugal. Partindo da perspectiva da complexidade, a mudança é encarada como um processo que implica simultaneamente factores contextuais, que podem ou não ser sustentados por estruturas formativas, e factores pessoais associados à aprendizagem e ao desenvolvimento profissional no local de trabalho.This article draws a proposal of a model for the understanding and analysis of the teachers' change based on results of the empirical studies carried out in Portugal. Considering the perspective of complexity, the change is viewed as a process that implies simultaneously contextual factors, which may or not be sustained by educational structures, and personal factors associated with learning and professional development in the work place.

  18. Subsídios para mudanças do modelo de assistência psiquiátrica Elements for changing a prevailing psychiatric care model

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    Fernando Ferreira Pinto de Freitas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da investigação realizada no Centro Psiquiátrico Pedro II (CPPII, durante o ano de 1995, como parte do convênio Uerj/CPPII. A investigação engloba uma construção do perfil da clientela hospitalizada, segundo os dados clínicos e sócio-econômicos que constam nos prontuários; uma avaliação das capacidades interativas da clientela no Pronto-Socorro Psiquiátrico, de acordo com critérios recomendados pela OMS; e, finalmente, uma análise crítica do modelo de assistência em uso no CPPII. Com a reforma psiquiátrica que vem sendo objeto de luta de significativos setores da nossa sociedade, pretende-se não apenas responder à irracionalidade econômico-administrativa gerada pelo 'hospitalocentrismo', mas, sobretudo, atender às necessidades da clientela, dos profissionais de saúde e da sociedade em geral. Tais necessidades equivalem substancialmente a desinstitucionalizar a saúde mental do modelo de assistência dominado por quadros de referência da psiquiatria. Os resultados da investigação aqui descritos e explicados criticam os indicadores construídos segundo o modelo de cura e abrem perspectivas para um modelo de assistência comprometido com a reabilitação psicossocial da clientela. A análise crítica efetuada com base nos dados da investigação feita no CPPII é muito provavelmente extensiva aos outros hospitais psiquiátricos da nossa rede pública e privada.This study presents the results of research done at the Pedro II Psychiatric Center in 1995, as part of a partnership between the Center and the Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Research includes the development of a profile for inpatients based on clinical and socioeconomic data from patient files, emergency ward assessment of the group's interactive abilities based on WHO parameters, and a critical analysis of the psychiatric care model employed in the Psychiatric Center. With the psychiatric reform pursued by major

  19. Modelo de oposições múltiplas modificado: abordagem baseada em traços distintivos Modified multiple oppositions' model: approach based on distinctive features

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    Karina Carlesso Pagliarin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor uma abordagem com enfoque em traços distintivos para o Modelo de Oposições Múltiplas e testar sua aplicação em um sujeito falante do Português Brasileiro. O Modelo foi aplicado em um sujeito do sexo masculino, com desvio fonológico moderado-severo e idade de seis anos e meio. Após avaliação fonológica, procedeu-se à seleção dos sons-alvo. Considerou-se o sistema fonológico inicial, bem como os traços distintivos alterados ([+voz], [+soante], [+aproximante], [coronal/±anterior], [-contínuo]. Os traços com maior número de alterações eram [+voz, +soante, +aproximante], justificando a escolha dos seguintes sons-alvo para tratamento: /r/ x /l/ x // x // x /z/, em onset medial.Tendo como base a aplicação desse modelo em falantes do inglês, percebeu-se a necessidade de introduzir alguns procedimentos, como: a escolha dos sons-alvo a partir dos traços distintivos alterados e a estrutura da sessão terapêutica. Ao final, o sujeito foi reavaliado a fim de verificar as aquisições no sistema fonológico. Após dez sessões de fonoterapia,o sujeito adquiriu os fonemas /l, , , z/, generalizando-os para outras posições na palavra (/Z/ e /l/ em onset inicial. Verificou-se, também, a ocorrência de generalização para a mesma classe e para outras classes de sons (/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/. No entanto, o fonema /r/ não foi adquirido. Esta proposta mostrou-se efetiva, pois o sujeito apresentou melhora em seu sistema fonológico com poucas sessões terapêuticas. Pôde-se observar que o Modelo de Oposições Múltiplas, utilizando a abordagem com base em traços distintivos é eficaz, pois favoreceu diversas mudanças fonológicas.The aim of this study was to propose an approach based on distinctive features for the Multiple Oppositions Model, and to test its application on a Brazilian Portuguese speaker. The model was used with a male subject with moderate-severe phonological disorder and six years

  20. Salários e tecnologia num modelo de crescimento com restrição externa Wages and technology in a growth model with external constraints

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    Marcus Dutra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O modelo proposto formaliza uma preocupação que se encontra cada vez com mais freqüência na literatura, a saber, a de que trabalhadores que não têm acesso a condições adequadas de capacitação, saúde e motivação tendem a aprender menos, reduzindo a velocidade de inovação em produtos e processos na firma. Na medida em que a competitividade internacional repousa crescentemente na inovação e/ou na imitação rápida de tecnologia, um nível baixo de desenvolvimento humano implicará oportunidades de crescimento perdidas. Assim, o modelo assume que, até certo valor crítico do salário real, aumentos de salário real produzem aumentos de competitividade e da taxa de crescimento com equilíbrio externo, tornando compatíveis o crescimento econômico e a distribuição da renda, inclusive num contexto de abertura e de intensa concorrência internacional.The model formalizes a topic that the economic literature addresses with increasing frequency, namely that workers who have no access to adequate levels of education, health and motivation tend to learn more slowly and this in turn reduces the rate of innovation in products and processes in the firm. To the extent that international competitiveness increasingly relies on innovation and imitation of technology, a low level of human development will render lost opportunities for growth. Thus, the model assumes that - up to a certain critical level of the real wage - increases in real wages lead to a higher rate of growth consistent with balance-of-payments equilibrium, which makes compatible growth and income distribution even in contexts of external openness and intense international competition.

  1. Segurança e produção: um modelo para o planejamento e controle integrado Safety and production: an integrated planning and control model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio A. Saurin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de planejamento e controle da segurança no trabalho (PCS integrado ao processo de planejamento e controle da produção (PCP. O modelo foi desenvolvido por meio de dois estudos empíricos em obras industriais, adotando-se a pesquisa ação como estratégia de pesquisa. Os requisitos de segurança são integrados ao PCP em três níveis hierárquicos deste processo. No nível de longo prazo, o planejamento da segurança é configurado pelo desenvolvimento de análises preliminares de risco dos processos construtivos. A atualização e detalhamento da implantação destes planos é então feita por meio de sua integração aos níveis de médio e curto prazo do PCP.This paper presents a safety planning and control model (SPC that has been integrated to the production planning and control process. The model was developed through two action research empirical studies in industrial construction projects. Safety requirements are integrated into three hierarchical levels of planning and control process. At the long-term level, safety planning is featured by preliminary hazard analysis of construction processes. These plans are updated and detailed through its integration into both medium-term and short-term planning levels.

  2. Modelo de avaliação de desempenho global para instituição de ensino superior Evaluation Model of Global Performance for Higher Education Institutions

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    Henrique Martins Galvão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a model to evaluate overall performance for Higher Education Institutions. It is unquestionable the importance of organizations from the education sector for knowledge development and dissemination of information, necessary for the progress of a city, region or country. However, it is necessary to develop tools for planning and management control to monitor organizational performance. In this case, one of the most important tasks is related to the types of information that managers need to monitor and tune the performance of the organization. The proposed evaluation model helps to improve the organizational performance of education institutions, creating higher value in the services offered.Este estudo propõe um modelo de avaliação de desempenho global para instituições de ensino superior. É indiscutível a importância das organizações do setor da educação, decisivas para o progresso de uma cidade, região ou país, por serem indutoras do desenvolvimento do conhecimento e da disseminação da informação. Por isso, torna-se necessário desenvolver, para essas instituições educacionais, instrumentos gerenciais de planejamento e de controle que monitorem o desempenho organizacional. Neste caso, uma das tarefas mais relevantes relaciona-se aos tipos de informações que os gerentes necessitam para monitorar e ajustar o desempenho da organização. O modelo de avaliação proposto contribui para melhorar o desempenho organizacional das instituições de ensino, criando valor superior nos serviços oferecidos.

  3. A teoria triangular do amor de Sternberg e o modelo dos cinco grandes fatores Sternberg's triangular theory of love and the big five factor model

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    Bruna Gomes Mônego

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a influência dos traços de personalidade de acordo com o modelo dos Cinco Grandes Fatores (CGF e do amor segundo a Teoria Triangular do Amor de Sternberg na satisfação conjugal. A amostra foi composta por 192 universitários que vivenciavam um relacionamento amoroso classificado como ficante, namoro/noivado ou casamento. Os participantes responderam coletivamente à Escala Fatorial de Satisfação em Relacionamento de Casal, à Escala Triangular do Amor de Sternberg e à Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade. Os resultados indicaram padrões diferentes de correlação para cada tipo de relacionamento e o modelo de Regressão Linear Múltipla foi significativo (F=23,19, gl=10, pThis present study investigated the influence of personality traits according to the Big Five Factors (CGF model and to love according to Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in marital satisfaction. Sample was composed by 192 undergraduate students who experienced a loving relationship classified as an informal relationship, dating/engagement or wedding. Participants answered the "Escala Fatorial de Satisfação em Relacionamento de Casal", the Sternberg's Triangular Love Scale and the "Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade". Data showed different patterns of correlation for each type of relationship and multiple linear regression model was significant (F=23.19, df=10, p<0.001 and explained 58% of the variance. The intimacy, passion and conscientiousness constructs contributed positively to the satisfaction, while neuroticism had a negative influence. The commitment component and the other personality traits did not reach statistical significance.

  4. Bärbel Inhelder procura falsear o modelo piagetiano; antes da teoria de Popper (? Bärbel Inhelder tries to falsify the piagetian model; prior to Popper's theory (?

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    Zelia Ramozzi-Chiarottino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, buscamos trazer à luz um dos aspectos desconhecidos do trabalho de uma das maiores psicólogas do século XX: Bärbel Inhelder. Até hoje apenas reconhecida como a maior colaboradora de Piaget, tem sido ignorada como a criadora de um método científico capaz de refutar (em vez de confirmar um modelo hipotético-dedutivo na área da Psicologia, antes ou simultaneamente à idéia de Popper. Partiu do modelo matemático de Piaget, o agrupamento, e realizou seu estudo com oligofrênicos. Demonstra que quanto mais severo o comprometimento cerebral menor a presença de esboços dos agrupamentos subjacentes às ações e ao discurso das crianças e vice-versa.In this article we search to bring to light one of the unknown aspects of the work of one of the 20th century's greatest psychologists: Bärbel Inhelder. Thus far recognized only as the most remarkable Piaget collaborators, she has been ignored as the creator of a scientific method apt to refute (instead of corroborating a hypothetical-deductive model in the realm of Psychology, prior or simultaneously to Popper's idea. Based on Piaget's mathematical model, the grouping, she did her study on oligophrenics. She demonstrates that the more severe the brain lesions, the lesser the presence of the groupings' structural sketches underlying the children's actions and speech, and vice-versa.

  5. Avaliação crítica de serviços educacionais: o emprego do modelo SERVQUAL Evaluation of educational using the SERVQUAL model

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    César Tureta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende apresentar uma aplicação do modelo SERVQUAL à avaliação educacional. Seu emprego ocorreu junto aos discentes de cursos de pós-graduação lato sensu de uma instituição paranaense, cuja estratégia para captação de alunos baseia-se na flexibilização da grade curricular, do horário das aulas e das formas de pagamento. A relevância deste trabalho deve-se ao fato de que o aperfeiçoamento de qualquer sistema educacional depende, necessariamente, de avaliações, e estas carecem de modelos adequados e abrangentes que forneçam parâmetros comparáveis, confiáveis e relevantes para a tomada de decisões gerenciais e pedagógicas. Em seus resultados, o trabalho destaca, de modo geral, que a instituição atende às expectativas dos respondentes. Porém, alguns pontos críticos, passíveis de melhoria, foram notados e serviram de base para a discussão sobre a qualidade do ensino nas escolas de Administração.The SERVQUAL model was used for an educational evaluation with students of a post-graduate course lato sensu at an institution in Parana state. There the strategy for attracting students is based on the flexibility of courses offered, class schedules and options for payment. Relevance of this work is related to the fact that improvement of an educational system depends upon evaluations and that these lack adequate and comprehensive models to provide comparable, dependable and relevant parameters for managerial and pedagogical decisions. Results stress that the institution generally meets expectations. However, some critical aspects, subject to improvement, were noted and utilized to discuss the quality of education in business administration schools.

  6. Contribuição dos modelos de qualidade e maturidade na melhoria dos processos de software Contribution of quality and maturity models to software process improvement

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    Antonio Carlos Tonini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Grande parte das empresas desenvolvedoras de software criou seu próprio processo de trabalho. Devido à rápida expansão do mercado de software, a concorrência ocorre muito mais em custo do que em diferenciação. Para obter vantagem competitiva, as empresas devem atualizar-se continuamente na tecnologia, buscar a maturidade nos processos e eliminar a ineficiência operacional. Isso requer um envolvimento das pessoas, dos processos e da organização como um todo. O artigo discute a implementação de melhorias nos processos de software segundo os principais modelos de qualidade e de maturidade. Com base em um Estudo de Casos Múltiplos, verifica-se que a melhoria dos processos de software requer que a melhoria ocorra primeiramente entre cada um dos desenvolvedores e, a seguir, envolva os grupos de desenvolvimento e por fim, a organização como um todo. A pesquisa conclui que os modelos de qualidade e maturidade servem como orientadores do processo de melhoria.Many software development companies have developed their own work method. Due to the fast software market growth, the competition focuses more on cost than on differentiation. To achieve competitive advantage, software developer organizations must continually update their technology, reach high level process maturity and eliminate all the operational inefficiency. These procedures involve people, processes and the whole organization. The aim of the paper is to discuss software process improvement implementation according to the most important quality and maturity models. Based on a Multiple Case Study, it is verified that the software process improvement needs firstly individual improvement and, later, it involves the developer teams and the whole organization. The research concludes that the quality and maturity models must be used as improvement process drivers.

  7. Testing multi-alternative decision models with non-stationary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Usher, Marius; McClelland, James L

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has investigated the process of integrating perceptual evidence toward a decision, converging on a number of sequential sampling choice models, such as variants of race and diffusion models and the non-linear leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model. Here we study extensions of these models to multi-alternative choice, considering how well they can account for data from a psychophysical experiment in which the evidence supporting each of the alternatives changes dynamically during the trial, in a way that creates temporal correlations. We find that participants exhibit a tendency to choose an alternative whose evidence profile is temporally anti-correlated with (or dissimilar from) that of other alternatives. This advantage of the anti-correlated alternative is well accounted for in the LCA, and provides constraints that challenge several other models of multi-alternative choice.

  8. Ajuste de modelos estocásticos lineares e não-lineares para a descrição do perfil longitudinal de árvores Fitting linear and nonlinear stochastic models to describe longitudinal tree profile

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    Leonardo Machado Pires

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Os modelos polinomiais são mais difundidos no meio florestal brasileiro na descrição do perfil de árvores devido à sua facilidade de ajuste e precisão. O mesmo não ocorre com os modelos não-lineares, os quais possuem maior dificuldade de ajuste. Dentre os modelos não-lineares clássicos, na descrição do perfil, podem-se citar o de Gompertz, o Logístico e o de Weibull. Portanto, este estudo visou comparar os modelos lineares e não lineares para a descrição do perfil de árvores. As medidas de comparação foram o coeficiente de determinação (R², o erro-padrão residual (s yx, o coeficiente de determinação corrigido (R²ajustado, o gráfico dos resíduos e a facilidade de ajuste. Os resultados ressaltaram que, dentre os modelos não-lineares, o que obteve melhor desempenho, de forma geral, foi o modelo Logístico, apesar de o modelo de Gompertz ser melhor em termos de erro-padrão residual. Nos modelos lineares, o polinômio proposto por Pires & Calegario foi superior aos demais. Ao comparar os modelos não-lineares com os lineares, o modelo Logístico foi melhor em razão, principalmente, do fato de o comportamento dos dados ser não-linear, à baixa correlação entre os parâmetros e à fácil interpretação deles, facilitando a convergência e o ajuste.Polynomial models are most commonly used in Brazilian forestry for taper modeling due to its straightforwardly fitting and precision. The use of nonlinear regression classic models, like Gompertz, Logistic and Weibull, is not very common in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to verify the best nonlinear and linear models, and among these the best model to describe the longitudinal tree profile. The comparison measures were: R², syx, R²adjusted, residual graphics and fitting convergence. The results pointed out that among the non-linear models the best behavior, in general, was given by the Logistic model, although the Gompertz model was superior compared with the Weibull

  9. An alternative mass model for galactic dark coronae

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    Ninković S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A spherically symmetric mass distribution with two scale parameters for the dark corona of a (spiral galaxy as an alternative to the usually applied quasi-isothermal sphere is considered. Examinations of the rotation curve produced by this distribution over a limited interval of the distance to the rotation axis show that it can be a successful alternative to the usual approximation of the quasiisothermal sphere. This is important taking into account that the potential formula considered in the present paper can be easily generalized towards axial symmetry.

  10. Modelo predictivo de "score" de calcio alto en pacientes con factores de riesgo cardiovascular Predictive model of high calcium score in patients with cardiovascular risk factors

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    Gloria Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: a través de múltiples estudios, se ha encontrado que el "score" de calcio coronario es un buen predictor de enfermedad coronaria, en individuos asintomáticos con uno o más factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Por ello sería ideal realizar esta prueba para estratificar su riesgo, pero esto no es posible en la mayoría de los casos por motivos de índole económica. El modelo que se presenta permite predecir la probabilidad de que un paciente tenga un score de calcio coronario alto, a partir de sus factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Lo novedoso del modelo es que también involucra factores "protectores" que disminuyen dicha probabilidad. Métodos: estudio de casos y controles, en pacientes asintomáticos con factores de riesgo cardiovascular, a quienes se les realizó un PCC. Los casos son pacientes con score de calcio coronario por encima del percentil 75 para su edad y género; la relación control:caso es 2:1. Resultados: las edades oscilaron entre 35 y 75 años; el 14,4% eran de género femenino, el 44,4% tenían historia familiar de CHD, el 34,4% eran hipertensos, el 38,9% colesterol total elevado, el 24,4% colesterol HDL por debajo de 40 mg/dL, el 33,3% colesterol LDL por encima de 160 mg/dL, el 25,6% fumaban, el 23,3% eran sedentarios, el 13,3% consumían licor periódicamente, el 15,6% eran obesos (IMC>30, el 18,9% realizaban ejercicio de manera periódica y 34,4% tomaba estatinas. Los factores de riesgo cardiovascular que se correlacionaron con el score de calcio coronario alto, se consignan en la tabla 1. En el modelo de regresión logística se incluyen los factores que tienen un valor de p tabla 2. La expresión para el modelo sería: Los valores de ci son 1, si el factor está presente y 0 si no lo está. Conclusiones: el anterior modelo no pretende reemplazar la estratificación con el modelo de Framingham, al contrario, es un complemento que permite orientar al médico tratante sobre si es recomendable realizar la

  11. Comparación de los modelos formativo, reflexivo y de antecedentes de evaluación estudiantil del servicio de docencia || Comparison of Formative, Reflective, and Antecedents Models of Students Evaluation of Teaching Service

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    Valdivieso Taborga, Carlos Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha llevado a cabo un análisis comparativo entre un modelo con enfoque de medición formativo, otro reflexivo y un tercero de antecedentes, de las dimensiones de la calidad de servicio de docencia. Previamente se diseñaron instrumentos válidos y fiables para la medición de la calidad de servicio y sus constructos relacionados, a través de un estudio exploratorio para obtener validez de contenido. Además, se llevaron a cabo un análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE y otro confirmatorio (AFC, para obtener la estructura dimensional adecuada e ítems relevantes. Usando modelos de estructuras de covarianza (MEC se comprobó que el modelo de antecedentes, aunque presenta igual poder predictivo, tiene mejores índices de ajuste que los modelos reflexivo y formativo. || A comparative analysis between three measurement models (with formative, reflective, and antecedents approach has been conducted to measure the dimensions of the teaching service quality. Previously valid and reliable instruments have been designed to measure the service quality and related constructs. An exploratory study has been performed to obtain content validity. Additionally, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA, respectively have been conducted to obtain the appropriate dimensional structure and relevant items. Using structural equations modeling (MEC has been found that the antecedent model, although it has the same predictive power, has better fit indices than reflective and formative models.

  12. Biophysical and economic models for assessing impacts of change on grazingland ecosystems Modelos biofísicos e econômicos para avaliar impactos de mudanças no ecossistema pastagem nativa

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    José de Souza Neto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available PHYGROW, a hydrologic-based forage simulation model, was parameterized to represent a typical South Texas ranch engaged in the production of cattle and meat goats with an indigenous population of white-tailed deer. Forage production and associated stocking rates for two cattle:goat ratios were simulated with POPMIX for 20 years. Two ten-year weather scenarios, one representing normal conditions (30% drought years and one representing dryer weather conditions (50% drought years were analyzed. Management decision rules (ASPC were developed for the region to produce estimates of annual animal production and operating costs for the enterprises on each of the four scenarios. These performance and cost data were then used as input into FLIPSIM, a firm level income and policy simulator, along with relevant product and input price data for the region. Integration of modeled results produced useful information showing the socioeconomic consequences for a typical South Texas firm impacted by alternative climatic conditions and management strategies.Um modelo de simulação de produção de forragem (PHYGROW, foi parametrizado para representar uma fazenda típica no Sul do Texas envolvida com a produção de bovinos, caprinos e de animais silvestres (cervo. A produção de forragem e as taxas de lotação associadas a bovinos e caprinos foram simuladas com POPMIX para o período de 20 anos. Dois períodos de dez anos, um representando condições normais de tempo (30% da série de anos secos e outro representando condições de tempo mais secos (50% foram analisados. Foram desenvolvidas regras de decisão de manejo (ASPC para a região visando estimar a produção anual dos animais e custo operacional para as atividades em cada um dos quatro cenários. Os dados de performance animal e de custo foram então usados como input no FLIPSIM, um simulador de renda e de estratégias de manejo a nível de fazenda, juntamente com dados relevantes de produtos e pre

  13. Freshly isolated hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats Transplante de hepatócitos recém-isolados em um modelo de hepatotoxicidade induzida por acetaminofeno em ratos

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    Daniela Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive therapeutic modality for liver disease as an alternative for orthotopic liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of freshly isolated rat hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats and transplanted 24 hours after acetaminophen administration in female recipients. Female rats received either 1x10(7 hepatocytes or phosphate buffered saline through the portal vein or into the spleen and were sacrificed after 48 hours. RESULTS: Alanine aminotransferase levels measured within the experiment did not differ between groups at any time point. Molecular analysis and histology showed presence of hepatocytes in liver of transplanted animals injected either through portal vein or spleen. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of hepatocyte transplantation in the liver or spleen in a mild acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model.CONTEXTO: O transplante de hepatócitos é uma modalidade terapêutica atrativa para doenças hepáticas como alternativa ao transplante hepático ortotópico. OBJETIVO: Investigar a factibilidade do uso de hepatócitos frescos isolados de ratos em um modelo de hepatotoxicidade induzida por paracetamol. MÉTODOS: Hepatócitos foram isolados de ratos Wistar machos e transplantados 24 horas após a administração de paracetamol em receptores fêmeas. As ratas receberam 1x10(7 hepatócitos ou tampão salina fosfato pela veia porta ou no baço e foram sacrificadas após 48 horas. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de alanina aminotransferase medidos durante o experimento não diferiram entre os grupos em nenhum momento. Análises moleculares e histológicas demonstraram a presença de hepatócitos no fígado dos animais transplantados pelo baço ou pela veia porta. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados indicam a factibilidade e eficácia do

  14. MODELOS GEOPOLÍTICOS: UMA INTERPRETAÇÃO DE MUNDO/Geopolitic Models: a world interpretation

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    Wendell Teles de Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As teorias de interpretação da realidade geográfica do mundo contemporâneo, diante de uma perspectiva geopolítica, em sua grande maioria, são restritas a um modelo baseado no regionalismo tradicional francês, em princípio, baseado no quadro teórico interpretativo da escola francesa, no século XIX, nesse sentido, é necessário que a busca intelectual seja feita para superar este paradigma, para a interpretação dos fenômenos geográficos e geopolíticos, em função da nova realidade mundial, na perspectiva dos novos centros de poder. Portanto, a construção ainda em curso de um mundo multipolar rebate na emergência dos novos centros. Na superação desse fato, tem-se as teorias neoeurasianas e meridionalistas, buscou-se compreender essas duas teorias e em seguida uma alternativa ainda inicial proposta pela teórica das escalas geopolíticas geográficas multifunções. Os caminhos trilhados para esse objetivo foram: a organização do pensamento através da metodologia interpretativa das duas teorias, logo depois, uma interpretação de uma nova possibilidade, interpretativa de proposição geopolítica.

  15. Visual reconciliation of alternative similarity spaces in climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Poco; A Dasgupta; Y Wei; William Hargrove; C.R. Schwalm; D.N. Huntzinger; R Cook; E Bertini; C.T. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Visual data analysis often requires grouping of data objects based on their similarity. In many application domains researchers use algorithms and techniques like clustering and multidimensional scaling to extract groupings from data. While extracting these groups using a single similarity criteria is relatively straightforward, comparing alternative criteria poses...

  16. Modelo geoespacial automatizado para la regionalización operativa en planeación de redes de servicios de salud Automated geospatial model for health services strategic planning

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    Juan Eugenio Hernández-Ávila

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Desarrollar un modelo automatizado de regionalización operativa para la planeación de las redes de servicios de salud propuestas en el Modelo Integrador de Atención a la Salud (MIDAS. Material y métodos. Con información disponible para México en 2005 y 2007 se realizó un modelo geoespacial para estimar el área potencial de influencia alrededor de cada unidad de atención médica, con base en el menor tiempo de viaje. Los resultados se compararon con un Estudio de Regionalización Operativa (ERO para Oaxaca llevado a cabo en 2005. Resultados. Comparado con el modelo geoespacial, el ERO asignó 48% de las localidades a centros de salud más lejanos y 23% de los centros de salud a hospitales más lejanos. Conclusiones. El modelo calculado en este estudio generó una regionalización más eficiente que el ERO de Oaxaca, minimizando el tiempo de viaje para el acceso a los servicios de salud. Este modelo ha sido adoptado por la Dirección General de Planeación y Desarrollo en Salud para la instrumentación del Plan Maestro Sectorial de Recursos para la Atención de la Salud.Objective. To develop an automated model for the operational regionalization needed in the planning of the health service networks proposed by the new Mexican health care model (Modelo Integrador de Servicios de Salud MIDAS. Material and Methods. Using available data for México during 2005 and 2007, a geospatial model was developed to estimate potential catchment areas around health facilities based on access travel time. The results were compared with an operational regionalization (ERO study manually carried out in Oaxaca with 2005 data. Results. The ERO assigned 48% of villages to health care centers further away than those assigned by the geospatial model, and 23% of these health centers referred patients to more distant hospitals. Conclusions. The model calculated by this study generated a more efficient regionalization than the ERO model, minimizing travel

  17. Dimethylhydrazine model is not appropriate for evaluating effect of ethanol on colorectal cancer El modelo de la dimetilhidrazina no sirve para evaluar el efecto del etanol sobre el cáncer colorrectal

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    M. Perše

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH rat model has been proven to be a valuable animal model of colorectal cancer. Because of its morphological similarity to human colorectal cancer, DMH rat model was used to produce information in histology and biochemistry of tumours development as well as on factors that retard or enhance tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, it has been shown that DMH model has limitations, which raise the question, whether experiments evaluating effect of ethanol on DMH model are ethically justified. In this paper authors summarize experimental results evaluating effect of ethanol consumption on DMH rat model with aim to prevent unnecessary duplication of animal experimentation or execution of ethically unjustified animal experiments in the future and to warn scientists that results from studies evaluating ethanol on DMH rat model can not be generalized to humans.Se ha observado que el modelo de la 1,2-dimetilhidrazina (DMH en la rata es un valioso modelo animal de cáncer colorrectal. Debido a su parecido morfológico con el cáncer colorrectal humano, el modelo de la DMH en la rata se ha empleado para conseguir información acerca de la histología y la bioquímica del desarrollo tumoral, además de sobre los factores que retrasan o potencian la tumorigénesis. No obstante, se ha visto que el modelo de la DMH tiene sus limitaciones, lo que lleva a preguntarse si están justificados, desde el punto de vista ético, los experimentos que evalúan el efecto del etanol sobre este modelo. En este documento, los autores resumen los resultados experimentales que evalúan el efecto del consumo de etanol sobre el modelo de la DMH en la rata con el fin de evitar la duplicación innecesaria de la experimentación animal o la ejecución de experimentos con animales sin justificación ética en el futuro, además de avisar a los científicos de que los resultados obtenidos de los estudios que han evaluado el etanol con el modelo de la DMH en la rata no

  18. Sensitivity of APSIM/ORYZA model due to estimation errors in solar radiation Análise de sensibilidade do modelo APSIM/ORYZA na estimava de erros na radiação solar

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    Alexandre Bryan Heinemann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop models are ideally suited to quantify existing climatic risks. However, they require historic climate data as input. While daily temperature and rainfall data are often available, the lack of observed solar radiation (Rs data severely limits site-specific crop modelling. The objective of this study was to estimate Rs based on air temperature solar radiation models and to quantify the propagation of errors in simulated radiation on several APSIM/ORYZA crop model seasonal outputs, yield, biomass, leaf area (LAI and total accumulated solar radiation (SRA during the crop cycle. The accuracy of the 5 models for estimated daily solar radiation was similar, and it was not substantially different among sites. For water limited environments (no irrigation, crop model outputs yield, biomass and LAI was not sensitive for the uncertainties in radiation models studied here.Modelos de simulação de culturas são importantes para quantificar riscos climáticos. Esses modelos necessitam de dados climáticos como dados de entrada. Entretanto, dados diários de precipitação pluvial e temperatura são facilmente encontrados, enquanto dados de radiação solar (Rs limitam-se à aplicação de modelos de simulação de culturas. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a Rs utilizando cinco modelos de estimativa de radiação solar com base na temperatura do ar e quantificar a propagação de erros na radiação simulada na produtividade, biomassa, área foliar e radiação solar acumulada durante o ciclo da cultura do arroz de terras altas simulados pelo modelo de simulação ORYZA/APSIM. A acurácia dos cinco modelos de estimativa da radiação solar foi similar e não foi diferente entre os diferentes locais. Para ambientes que ocorre estresse hídrico, as saídas do modelo ORYZA/APSIM produtividade, biomassa e índice de área foliar não foram sensíveis às incertezas provenientes da radiação solar estimadas neste estudo.

  19. Um modelo de referência para o processo de desenvolvimento de produtos de empresas do setor moageiro de trigo A reference model for the products development process for companies in the sector of milling wheat

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    Samanta Ullmann de Campos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de referência para o processo de desenvolvimento de produtos (PDP no setor moageiro de trigo. O modelo objetiva facilitar os projetos de novos produtos, avaliando necessidades, requisitos e limitações. Ele pode contribuir para a integração e comunicação entre as áreas funcionais, reduzindo o tempo de desenvolvimento. A estrutura operacional do modelo é composta por três macrofases e oito fases. No término de cada fase, as informações são compiladas em forma de um documento, que deve passar pela avaliação da direção (gate. A aplicação do modelo foi realizada a partir de um plano para sistematizar o PDP de uma empresa. A intervenção para ajustar o modelo à empresa contemplou: análise da situação atual do PDP, proposição de melhorias e aplicação do modelo. Entre os resultados, destaca-se a facilidade de enquadrar as soluções propostas para melhorar o PDP ao modelo referencial, mostrando a exequibilidade do mesmo.This paper presents a reference model for the milling wheat product development process (PDP. The model targets to facilitate the project of new products, evaluating necessities, requirements and limitations. It contributes to integrate and create communication among the functional areas, reducing development times. The operational structure of the model is composed of three macro-phases and eight phases. At the end of each phase, the main information is compiled in document type-form, which must pass by a top management evaluation gate. The application of the reference model was tested from a plan to systematize the PDP of a company. The intervention to adjust the reference model to the company analyzes the actual PDP status, proposition of improvements, and the conduction of such application. Among the results, the facility to apply the proposed solutions to improve the company's PDP using the reference model stand out, showing the practical adequacy of the proposed model.

  20. The multitrace matrix model: An alternative to Connes NCG and IKKT model in 2 dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydri, Badis, E-mail: ydri@stp.dias.ie

    2016-12-10

    We present a new multitrace matrix model, which is a generalization of the real quartic one matrix model, exhibiting dynamical emergence of a fuzzy two-sphere and its non-commutative gauge theory. This provides a novel and a much simpler alternative to Connes non-commutative geometry and to the IKKT matrix model for emergent geometry in two dimensions. However, in higher dimensions this mechanism is not known to exist and the systematic frameworks of NCG and IKKT are expected to hold sway.

  1. Proposta de classificação hierarquizada dos modelos de solução para o problema de job shop scheduling A proposition of hierarchical classification for solution models in the job shop scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferrari Pacheco

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma classificação hierarquizada dos modelos utilizados na solução do problema de programação da produção intermitente do tipo job shop, incluindo tanto os que fornecem solução ótima, quanto os modelos heurísticos mais recentes baseados em métodos de busca estendida. Por meio dessa classificação obteve-se um painel amplo dos modelos existentes, evidenciando as diferentes abordagens do problema e suas soluções, com o objetivo de proporcionar uma orientação preliminar na escolha do modelo de job shop scheduling mais adequado.This paper proposes a hierarchical model classification used in the job shop scheduling problem, including those that provide an optimal solution and the more recent ones based on heuristics, called extended search methods. A panel with the existing models is obtained by this classification, and solutions and approach differences are highlighted with the aim of a preliminary orientation on the choice of a more adequate job shop scheduling model.

  2. Desenvolvimento moral pró-social: Semelhanças e diferenças entre os modelos teóricos de Eisenberg e Kohlberg Prosocial moral development: similarities and differences between Eisenberg's and Kohlberg's theoretical models

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    Sílvia Helena Koller

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo consiste em uma revisão crítica da literatura na área do desenvolvimento moral pró-social. O modelo teórico do desenvolvimento pró-social de Eisenberg é apresentado e discutido em comparação com o modelo teórico de julgamento moral de Kohlberg. Esses modelos apresentam enfoques complementares no estudo da moralidade. Enquanto Kohlberg estudava o julgamento moral a partir de transgressão, Eisenberg investiga a moralidade em funções de ações pró-sociais como comportamentos de ajuda. Os fatores psicológicos que podem ser concebidos como determinantes da pró-sociabilidade são também apresentados e discutidos. Finalmente, a pesquisa recente crítica ou corroboradora de ambos os modelos é sumarizada.This paper presents a critical review of the literature on pro-social moral development. Eisenberg's pro-social development model is presented and discussed in contrast to Kohlberg's theory. These models focus on complementary views in the study of morality. Whereas Kohlberg studied moral judgment using dilemmas involving transgressions, Eisenberg looks at pro-social actions, such as helping behavior. Psychological factors that might determine pro-social reasoning are also presented and discussed. Finally, recent research criticizing or corroborating either model is summarized.

  3. Modelo hipermedia creador (HC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Armenteros Gallardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone las bases creativas del modelo Hipermedia Creador (HC, un modelo basado en la filosofía de los llamados tutores inteligentes. Tiene como objetivo la creación de una herramienta hipermedia que permita y facilite la producción creativa de proyectos hipermedias educativos con parámetros comunes a los usados en la fórmula del videojuego (entretenimiento. Se describe su estructura, y se analiza y explica la disposición creativa de sus elementos, entre los cuales sobresale las posibilidades pedagógicas del movimiento expresivo de la imagen.

  4. Predicción de quiebras empresariales en economías emergentes: uso de un modelo logístico mixto || Bankruptcy Prediction in Emerging Economies: Use of a Mixed Logistic Model

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    Caro, Norma Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo replica y adapta el modelo de Jones y Hensher (2004 a los datos de una economía emergente con el propósito de evaluar su validez externa. Se compara el desempeño del modelo logístico estándar en relación con el modelo logístico mixto para predecir el riesgo de crisis en el periodo 1993-2000, utilizando estados contables de empresas argentinas y ratios definidos en estudios de Altman y Jones y Hensher. Como en estudios anteriores, rentabilidad, rotación, endeudamiento y flujo de fondos operativos explican la probabilidad de crisis financiera. La contribución de esta nueva metodología reduce la tasa de error del tipo I a un 9 %. Se demuestra que el modelo logístico mixto, que tiene en cuenta la heterogeneidad no observada, supera ampliamente el desempeño del modelo logístico estándar. || This study is a replication and adaptation of Jones and Hensher (2004 model in an emerging economy with the purpose of testing its eternal validity. It compares the logistic standard model's performance with the logistic mixed model to predict bankruptcy risk of Argentinean companies between 1993-2000 by using financial statements and ratios defined in previous studies by Altman and Jones and Hensher. Similar to previous studies, profitability, asset turnover, debt and cash flow from operations explain financial distress' probability. The main contribution of this new methodology is the important reduction of error type I to the 9 %. This study asserts that the logistic mixed model, that considers the effect of non-observed heterogeneity, significantly improves the performance of the logistic standard model.

  5. Linking linear programming and spatial simulation models to predict landscape effects of forest management alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; L. Jay Roberts; Larry A. Leefers

    2006-01-01

    Forest management planners require analytical tools to assess the effects of alternative strategies on the sometimes disparate benefits from forests such as timber production and wildlife habitat. We assessed the spatial patterns of alternative management strategies by linking two models that were developed for different purposes. We used a linear programming model (...

  6. The imperative for emergency medicine to create its own alternative payment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford-Davis, Laura N

    2017-06-01

    Seven years after the Affordable Care Act legislated Alternative Payment Models, it is time for Emergency Medicine to find its place within this value-based trend by developing its own Alternative Payment Model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A dor na criança com câncer: modelos de avaliação El dolor en niños con cáncer: modelos de evaluación Pain in children with cancer: evaluation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Torritesi

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O controle e o alívio da dor na assistência à criança com câncer tem sido objeto de preocupação da enfermagem na busca de intervenções que possam minimizar ou evitar problemas de ordem físico-emocional para estas crianças. A literatura da área médica, da psicologia e da enfermagem descrevem a dor através de aspectos fisiológicos, emocionais, comportamentais e ambientais, sendo divulgados vários modelos de escalas de avaliação e de controle da dor. Este estudo descreve alguns modelos de avaliação da dor em crianças e apresenta a adaptação do Modelo de Escala Analógica Visual de Faces de McGrath (1990, como instrumento a ser utilizado na assistência de enfermagem à criança com câncer. Embora a literatura utilizada neste estudo enfatize a avaliação e o controle da dor na criança com câncer, verificamos a viabilidade da aplicação deste modelo pela enfermagem em outras situações de dor.El control y alivio del dolor en la asistencia a niños con cáncer ha sido objeto de inquietud de la enfermería en busca de intervenciones que puedan minimizar o evitar problemas de orden físico-emocional para estos niños. La literatura de las áreas médica, psicología y enfermería describen el dolor a través de aspectos fisiológicos, emocionales, comportamentales y ambientales, siendo divulgados vários modelos de escalas de evaluación y control del dolor. Este estudio describe algunos modelos de evaluación del dolor en niños y presenta la adaptación del Modelo de Escala Analógica Visual de Facetas de McGrath (1990, como instrumento a ser utilizado en la asistencia de enfermería a niños con cáncer. Sin embargo la literatura utilizada en este estudio enfatice la avaluación y el control de el dolor en el niño con cáncer, verificamos la viabilidad de la aplicación de este modelo por el profesional de enfermería en otras situaciones del dolor.Control and alleviation of pain in the care to children with cancer are

  8. Modelos explicativos e de intervenção na promoção da saúde do trabalhador Modelos explicativos de intervención en la promoción de la salud del trabajador Explanative and intervention models in workers' health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Palucci Marziale

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Buscar evidências científicas, na literatura, de modelos explicativos e de intervenção para promoção da saúde do trabalhador e prevenção de acidentes de trabalho com material biológico. MÉTODOS: Revisão integrativa da literatura. RESULTADOS: Onze artigos atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos, 36,4% usaram modelos explicativos centrados no comportamento individual ou possibilitaram a interação entre os indivíduos e prestadores de serviço, 63,6% usaram modelos de intervenção para a promoção da saúde de trabalhadores expostos a riscos biológicos. CONCLUSÃO: Os modelos de intervenção são os mais relevantes na área de saúde do trabalhador, pois direcionam para um modo de dispor os meios técnicos e científicos para intervir sobre riscos e danos à saúde, incorporando uma lógica que orienta as intervenções técnicas sobre os problemas e necessidades dos trabalhadores.OBJETIVO: Buscar evidencias científicas, en la literatura, de modelos explicativos y de intervención para la promoción de la salud del trabajador y prevención de accidentes de trabajo con material biológico. MÉTODOS: Revisión integrada de la literatura. RESULTADOS: Once artículos atendieron a los criterios establecidos, 36,4% usaron modelos explicativos centrados en el comportamiento individual o posibilitaron la interacción entre los individuos y prestadores de servicio, 63,6% usaron modelos de intervención para la promoción de la salud de trabajadores expuestos a riesgos biológicos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los modelos de intervención son los más relevantes en el área de salud del trabajador, pues orientan hacia un modo de disponer los medios técnicos y científicos para intervenir sobre los riesgos y daños a la salud, incorporando una lógica que orienta las intervenciones técnicas sobre los problemas y necesidades de los trabajadores.OBJECTIVE: To search for scientific evidence in literature of explanative and intervention models to

  9. Historical evolution of the concept environment proposed in the Roy adaptation model Evolución histórica del concepto entorno propuesto en el modelo de la adaptación de Roy Evolução histórica do conceito ambiente proposto no modelo da adaptação de Roy

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    Marcos Venícios de Oliveira Lopes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The concern for the development of concepts becomes even more important when we report to its use in Nursing theories, in which some concepts are considered central, such as person, environment, health and nursing. This study aims to discuss the historical evolution of the environment concept used in the Roy Adaptation Model. The method of analysis the study was based on is the evolutionary conceptual analysis of the concept Environment of the Roy Adaptation Model. According to the research results, Environment is introduced as the second major concept in the Roy Adaptation Model. In this theorist's interpretation of the environment, we notice her interest in surpassing the mechanistic point of view upon which the first version of the model was based. The approach of the concept of interaction between people and groups seems to represent an improvement, influenced by the current thoughts that are preeminent in nursing.La preocupación con el desarrollo de conceptos se vuelve más importante cuando nos reportamos para su uso en teorías de Enfermería. En ellas, algunos conceptos son considerados centrales, tales como persona, ambiente, salud y enfermería. Este artículo visa examinar la evolución histórica del concepto de ambiente utilizado en el Modelo de Adaptación de Roy. El método de análisis en que el estudio fue basado es el análisis conceptual evolucionario del concepto Ambiente del Modelo de Adaptación de Roy. De acuerdo con los resultados del estudio, Ambiente es introducido como el segundo concepto más importante en el Modelo de Adaptación de Roy. En la interpretación que la teórica hace del ambiente, notamos su interés en ultrapasar el punto de vista mecanicista en que la primera versión del modelo era basada. La propuesta de interacción del concepto ambiente con personas y grupos parece representar una mejoría, influenciada por los pensamientos corrientes que son predominantes en la enfermería.A preocupação com o

  10. Da pesquisa à prática de enfermagem aplicando o modelo de adaptação de Roy De la investigación a la práctica de enfermería mediante la aplicación del modelo de adaptación de Roy From research to nursing practice applying the Roy adaptation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Margarida Santos Coelho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os modelos e as teorias de enfermagem contribuem para o desenvolvimento do conhecimento em enfermagem, guiando as investigações no sentido do desenvolvimento da disciplina e, consequentemente, da prática. De acordo como o Modelo de Adaptação de Roy, a pessoa é vista como um ser adaptável com mecanismos que permitem a adaptação de comportamentos em resposta aos estímulos ambientais. De fato, a pessoa é o enfoque central dos cuidados de enfermagem, visando-se sempre a melhoria dos cuidados prestados baseados em investigação. A metodologia do Modelo de Adaptação de Roy baseia-se na aplicabilidade do processo de enfermagem, facilitando aos enfermeiros a coleta de dados, estabelecimento de objetivos e diagnósticos de enfermagem, a determinação de intervenções de enfermagem e a posterior avaliação do processo. Assim o objetivo desta pesquisa é realizar uma revisão crítica da aplicação do Modelo Adaptação de Roy aplicado à prática e à pesquisa em Enfermagem.Los modelos y teorías de enfermería contribuyen para el desarrollo del conocimiento en Enfermería, guiando las investigaciones para el desarrollo de la disciplina y, consecuentemente, de la práctica. De acuerdo con el Modelo de Adaptación de Roy se ve la persona como un mecanismo de adaptación que permite el ajuste del comportamiento en respuesta a estímulos ambientales. De hecho, la persona es el foco central de la atención de enfermería, buscando siempre el mejoramiento de la atención basada en la investigación. La metodología del Modelo de Adaptación de Roy se basa en la aplicación del proceso de enfermería, lo que facilita a las enfermeras para recopilar datos, establecer metas y diagnósticos de enfermería, la determinación de las intervenciones de enfermería y el proceso de evaluación posterior. Así, el objetivo de esta investigación es una revisión crítica de la aplicación del Modelo de Adaptación de Roy empleado para la práctica y la

  11. Prevenção de doenças em idosos: os equívocos dos atuais modelos Disease prevention in the elderly: misconceptions in current models

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    Renato Peixoto Veras

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A população brasileira está envelhecendo de forma significativa, num contexto de melhora gradual dos índices sociais e econômicos do país. O aumento da longevidade acarreta maior uso dos serviços de saúde, pressionando os sistemas de saúde pública e previdência, gerando mais custos e ameaçando a sustentabilidade do sistema. A alternativa para evitar a sobrecarga desse sistema é investir em políticas de prevenção de doenças, estabilização das enfermidades crônicas e manutenção da capacidade funcional. Este artigo visa a analisar as dificuldades de implantação de programas de prevenção e as razões do fracasso de diversos programas de promoção da saúde, prevenção e gerenciamento de doenças crônicas no grupo etário dos idosos. Não há saída possível para a crise de financiamento e reestruturação do setor sem a implantação da lógica preventiva. O conhecimento científico já identificou corretamente os fatores de risco para a população idosa, mas isso não basta. Precisamos saber utilizar esse conhecimento para efetuar a necessária transição do modelo assistencial para o modelo de prevenção.The Brazilian population is aging significantly within a context of gradual improvement in the country's social and economic indicators. Increased longevity leads to increased use of health services, pressuring the public and social welfare health services, generating higher costs, and jeopardizing the system's sustainability. The alternative to avoid overburdening the system is to invest in policies for disease prevention, stabilization of chronic diseases, and maintenance of functional capacity. The current article aims to analyze the difficulties in implementing preventive programs and the reasons for the failure of various programs in health promotion, prevention, and management of chronic diseases in the elderly. There can be no solution to the crisis in financing and restructuring the health sector without

  12. Modelo para a gestão da cultura de segurança do trabalho em organizações industriais Model for safety culture management in industrial organizations

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    Anastácio Pinto Gonçalves Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa apresentada neste artigo teve o objetivo de desenvolver e validar um modelo para identificar o estágio de maturidade da cultura de segurança do trabalho em organizações industriais. Com a finalidade de validá-lo, o modelo desenvolvido foi aplicado em 23 empresas químicas e petroquímicas do Polo Industrial de Camaçari, Bahia, Brasil. Foram utilizados os seguintes métodos para validação do modelo desenvolvido: 1 entrevistas individuais, 2 evidências documentais, 3 entrevistas com grupo de gerentes e 4 aplicação do modelo em outro ramo de atividade diferente do ramo químico e petroquímico. O principal resultado obtido foi que o modelo desenvolvido foi validado e pode ser utilizado para identificar o estágio de maturidade da cultura de segurança em organizações industriais.The research presented in this article had the objective to develop and validate a model to identify safety culture maturity in industrial organizations. In order to validate it, the developed model was applied in 23 chemical and petrochemical companies in Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil. The following methods were used: 1. individual interviews; 2. interview with groups of safety managers; 3. documental evidence and 4. application of the model in another industrial activity. Results demonstrated that the developed model was validated and it is suitable to identify safety culture maturity in industrial organizations.

  13. IMPROVING MODEL OF CHANNEL AIRBORN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM OF ALTERNATING CURRENT

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    Yu. P. Artemenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to math modeling of channel of alternating current airborne electrical power-supply system. Mathematical modeling of generator, voltage regulator, constant speed drive is considered.

  14. La aplicación del modelo espacial de la ideología al sistema de partidos alemán durante la reunificación (1983-1998 (Testing the spatial ideology model: Germany 1983-1998

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    Antonio Alaminos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl Modelo Espacial Ideológico especificado por Hinich and Munger (1994, se ofrece como un desarrollo dentro de la Teoría Espacial del Voto que permite simplificar el análisis multidimensional del comportamiento electoral. Empleamos aquí el modelo espacial de la ideología como instrumento de medición de la percepción del sistema de partidos de los ciudadanos alemanes. El modelo estadístico empleado parte de las concepciones teóricas de Almond y Verba (1970 y demuestra sensibilidad a las diferencias de cultura política en la sociedad alemana. El modelo permite estimar empiricamente una aproximación al concepto de elasticidad del espacio ideológico (Sartori, 1976.AbstractThe Spacial Model of Ideology posed by Hinich and Munger (1994 is a special development of the Spatial Vote Theory. The model allows to simplify the multidimensional analysis of electoral behaviour. This research shows how the ideological perceptions of political parties change during the political reunification of Germany.

  15. Podemos prever a taxa de cambio brasileira? Evidência empírica utilizando inteligência computacional e modelos econométricos Can we forecast Brazilian exchange rates? Empirical evidences using computational intelligence and econometric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro dos Santos Coelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As abordagens de inteligência computacional, tais como sistemas nebulosos e redes neurais artificiais, têm-se gradualmente estabelecido como ferramentas robustas para a tarefa de aproximação de sistemas não-lineares complexos e previsão de séries temporais. Em aplicações envolvendo a área de Finanças, evidências empíricas anteriores indicam que modelos de inteligência computacional são mais precisos, dada sua maior capacidade em capturar não-linearidades e outros fatos estilizados presentes em séries financeiras. Nesse sentido, este artigo investiga a hipótese de que os modelos matemáticos de redes neurais perceptron multicamadas, redes neurais função de base radial e o sistema nebuloso Takagi-Sugeno (TAKAGI; SUGENO, 1985 são capazes de fornecer uma previsão fora-da-amostra mais acurada que os modelos auto-regressivos de médias móveis (ARMA e auto-regressivo de médias móveis supondo heterocedasticidade condicional auto-regressiva (ARMA-GARCH. O desempenho de previsão um-passo-à-frente dos modelos foi comparado utilizando-se séries de retorno da taxa de câmbio real/dólar (R$/US$ com freqüências de 15 minutos, 60 minutos, 120 minutos, diária e semanal. Resultados indicam que o desempenho dos modelos está diretamente relacionado à freqüência observada das séries. Além disso, os modelos de redes neurais obtiveram um desempenho superior em relação aos demais modelos considerados. A avaliação da estratégia de negociação estabelecida com base nas previsões geradas pelos modelos indicou que estratégias baseadas em modelos de redes neurais forneceram retornos superiores em relação àquelas baseadas em modelos ARMA e ARMA-GARCH e também em relação à estratégia buy-and-hold.Computational intelligence approaches, such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy systems, have become popular tools in approximating complicated nonlinear systems and time series forecasting. In Finance applications, there is

  16. Dos contextos da prática à (coconstrução do modelo de cuidados de enfermagem de família De los contextos de la práctica a la (coconstrucción del modelo de cuidados de enfermería de la familia From practice contexts towards the (coconstruction of family nursing care models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Henriqueta de Jesus Silva Figueiredo

    2009-09-01

    través de la definición de las áreas de atención e intervención. La (coconstrucción del modelo a partir de las necesidades identificadas por los enfermeros, legitimado por las tomas de decisión de los mismos, se constituye en la base de discusión, en el contexto de la enfermería de familia.As nurses face challenges in the development of care focused on the family as a context and unit of intervention, this research aimed to identify family intervention processes in the context of Primary Healthcare. This qualitative-based study adopted the investigation-action approach on a study plan's five-step path. By means of the comparative analysis of family care practices and conceptual models, the diagnosis results brought forth the need for change triggered by training processes. Having the Systemic Model, the Calgary Family Assessment Model, and the Calgary Family Intervention Model as references, the family nursing care model was (reconstructed and operationalized through the definition of attention and intervention areas. The (re construction of the model from the needs identified by nurses and legitimated by their decision-making processes is the basis for family nursing focused discussions.

  17. Proposta de um modelo referencial de gestão de indicadores de qualidade na instituição universitária Propuesta de un modelo de referencia para la gestión de indicadores de calidad en la universidad A reference model proposal for management of the quality indicators at universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Maria Guarda Canterle

    2008-09-01

    écnicas utilizadas como un conjunto de procedimientos prácticos de la pesquisa, la búsqueda bibliográfica y documental. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de fuentes secundarias, y la búsqueda se centró en el estudio de doce modelos de calidad en la universidad relatados en la literatura en que se buscó a las similitudes entre una serie de universidades, si bien se trató de comprender sus singularidades. El proceso de recopilación y análisis de datos ha identificado la ocurrencia de sucesos relacionados con la calidad en las instituciones encuestadas, y obtener una descripción de los principales indicadores para diseñar un modelo de gestión universitaria más cercana a la realidad. El modelo desarrollado se ve impulsado por los elementos característicos de la calidad y, se acordó en el diálogo, potencia enlace en la evaluación y retroalimentación para la seguridad y la mejora de la calidad. Con un formato simple el modelo proporciona una forma eficaz de actuar en calidad.This article seeks to develop a management role model that captures the determinants of quality in universities, since they have increasingly been challenged to demonstrate quality in their performance. In the problems point of view, the research is characterized as predominantly qualitative and in terms of its goals as exploratory and descriptive. From a line of reasoning, the procedure was to create a model in which the bibliographic and documental research techniques were used as practical procedures. Data were obtained from secondary sources, and the research was focused on the study of twelve models of quality in universities reported in the literature, which sought out similarities in a group of universities, while attempts were made to understand their singularities. The data collecting and analyses process has allowed us to identify some events related to quality in the institutions surveyed, and also to get a description of the essential indicators to design an university management model

  18. Uso del modelo “Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System” (brams) en el análisis del huaico de Chosica en Lima Perú

    OpenAIRE

    García Villanueva, Jerónimo; Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 - La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Sutizal sánchez, Bremilda Andrea; Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú (SENAMHI), Lima, Perú.

    2017-01-01

    En la actualidad existen modelos numéricos que permiten disponer de informaciones para las investigaciones y análisis en lugares con escasez de datos meteorológicos observados. El modelo regional BRAMS cuenta con datos de pronóstico, procedentes del modelo global del CPTEC, que deberían usarse para el proceso de downscaling dinámico cuyos resultados son útiles en el análisis de las condiciones del tiempo pronosticado en zonas de eventos climáticos de alto riesgo para prevenir sus efectos nega...

  19. EMPRESA VERDE: DIAGNOSTICO DE LA NECESIDAD DE UN MODELO // GREEN COMPANY BREAKDOWN OF NECESSITY OF A MODEL // REPARTIÇÃO DA EMPRESA VERDE DA NECESSIDADE DE UM MODELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfonso Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo diagnosticar la necesidad de un modelo de código de ética sostenible o de empresa verde y sensibilizar a los empresarios de las Pymes de la importancia que tiene el integrar en el modelo empresarial al medio ambiente y al desarrollo social en los procesos de negocios y proporcionar herramientas necesarias para que se implemente este enfoque sostenible en las pequeñas y medianas empresa de América Latina. Se desarrolló un trabajo de fuentes primarias de investigación aplicando un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra representativa de los Directivos y Dueños de las Agencias de Viajes de la Asociación Mexicana de Agencias de Viajes (AMAV durante el segundo semestre del 2013, para conocer el alcance del Código de ética bajo un marco de la sostenibilidad y la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE del día a día de las empresas afiliadas a la AMAV. Los resultados mostraron la urgencia e importancia de implementar el Código de Ética Empresarial para ser más transparentes entre los socios y el desarrollar programas de RSE, lo más pronto posible para poder contribuir con la sociedad y el medio ambiente desde la unidad de todas las empresas afiliadas a la asociación.

  20. Modelagem hidrológica em microbacia hidrográfica parte II: teste do modelo HidroBacia Hydrologic modeling of a small watershed part II: HidroBacia model test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney S. Zanetti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu na modelagem hidrológica de uma microbacia hidrográfica utilizando-se o modelo HidroBacia, no qual o processo de infiltração da água no solo é representado por meio da equação de Green-Ampt modificada por Mein e Larson. Obtiveram-se, dentre os parâmetros desta equação, o potencial matricial na frente de umedecimento, a condutividade hidráulica e a umidade do solo na zona de transmissão, através de diversos métodos apresentados na literatura; desta forma, foram preparadas e testadas 36 combinações de dados de entrada, visando identificar as que apresentam melhor desempenho nas simulações do hidrograma de escoamento superficial com o modelo e se selecionaram, dentre os eventos de chuva-vazão registrados na microbacia, os 14 mais relevantes para realização das simulações. Das 36 combinações de dados de entrada testadas, seis apresentaram melhor desempenho na estimação dos hidrogramas. O modelo HidroBacia ainda necessita de aprimoramentos, juntamente com análises de sensibilidade, com vista a identificar possíveis incompatibilidades entre os dados de entrada e os respectivos resultados das simulações, uma vez que o modelo apresentou resultados incoerentes em determinadas situações.This work consisted of the hydrologic modeling of a small watershed using the HidroBacia model. The soil water infiltration process is represented by means of the Green-Ampt equation, modified by Mein and Larson, in this model. Among the equation parameters, matric potential in the wetting front, hydraulic conductivity and soil moisture in the "field saturation" were obtained using different methods based on previous scientific literature. Thirty six input data combinations were tested in order to identify those that showed better performance on the runoff hydrograph simulations with the model. Between the rainfall-runoff events registered on watershed, the most relevant (14 of them were selected to perform the

  1. On an Estimation Method for an Alternative Fractionally Cointegrated Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlini, Federico; Łasak, Katarzyna

    In this paper we consider the Fractional Vector Error Correction model proposed in Avarucci (2007), which is characterized by a richer lag structure than models proposed in Granger (1986) and Johansen (2008, 2009). We discuss the identification issues of the model of Avarucci (2007), following th...

  2. The Money-Creation Model: An Alternative Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Mark; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents a teaching model that is consistent with the traditional approach to demonstrating the expansion and contraction of the money supply. Suggests that the model provides a simple and convenient visual image of changes in the monetary system. Describes the model as juxtaposing the behavior of the moneyholding public with that of the…

  3. An alternative model of the formation of political coalitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Rijt, J.W.

    Most models of the formation of political coalitions use either Euclidean spaces or rely purely on game theory. This limits their applicability. In this article, a single model is presented which is more broadly applicable. In principle any kind of set can be used as a policy space. The model is

  4. Proposta de calibração de modelos hidrodinâmicos aplicados a unidades de contato utilizando uma função de distribuição de tempos de residência A proposal of calibration of hydrodynamic models of contact units using a residence time distribution function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Costa Teixeira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho de unidades de contato que operam em regime de fluxo contínuo depende, entre outros, do padrão de escoamento que se desenvolve no seu interior. Já o levantamento de dados experimentais, como a elevação da superfície d'água e do campo de velocidades, não é uma tarefa fácil. Por tais razões, o uso de modelos numéricos na obtenção de padrões de escoamento em unidades de contato tem se tornado uma boa alternativa. A falta de dados hidrodinâmicos para a calibração e verificação de modelos numéricos tem sido um dos principais fatores que vem limitando o uso mais extensivo dessa ferramenta. O presente trabalho propõe uma nova técnica de calibração de modelo numérico, baseada no ajuste de curvas de passagem obtidas pelo modelo numérico e as obtidas experimentalmente ao longo das unidades de contato. A metodologia proposta é parcialmente avaliada e os resultados indicam ser essa uma técnica bastante promissora.The performance of continuous flow contact units relies, among other factors, on the flow pattern inside them, and that the measurement of flow patterns in this type of unit is not an easy task. For this reason, the use of numerical models to obtain flow patterns in contact units has become a good alternative. However, the lack of hydrodynamic data to calibrate the models has been one of the main factors limiting a more extensive use of numerical models for this purpose. This work proposes a new calibration technique for numerical models which is based on the best fitting of measured and simulated flow through curves throughout the unit. The proposed methodology is partially evaluated and the results indicate it to be very promising.

  5. PERTURBACIONES EN MODELOS COSMOLOGICOS INFLACIONARIOS

    OpenAIRE

    CID MUÑOZ; MARIA ANTONELLA; CID MUÑOZ; MARIA ANTONELLA

    2010-01-01

    Mostramos el desarrollo de la teoría de Relatividad General y el surgimiento a partir de ella del primer modelo cosmológico parcialmente exitoso en describir el universo observado, el modelo cosmológico estándar. Exponemos los problemas de este modelo al intentar describir el universo temprano y cómo éstos encuentran solución en el contexto de los modelos inflacionarios. Mostramos cómo los modelos inflacionarios son capaces de proveer una explicación razonable para el origen de las estruct...

  6. What tomorrow brings? examining a model of antecedents of career expectations / Como será amanhã? examinando um modelo de antecedentes de expectativas de carreira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Carvalho de Vasconcellos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analyze if the perceptions about policies and practices on human resources management (HRM, well-being at work and expectations of organizational future act as antecedents of career expectations in the organization. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: The question “What will my future be in this organization?” is a relevant part of working life. Thus, it is important to assess which variables influence future career expectations. Based on theoretical contributions and previous surveys about career, well-being and HRM, the model tested coordinates variables that are analyzed in isolate by literature. Key methodological aspects: In this quantitative survey, 305 professionals from a government agency completed an e-questionnaire with scales validated in Brazil. Data were analyzed through structural equations models. Summary of key results: The effects of well-being at work and expected future in the organization on the career expectations were positive and moderate, in the first case, and strong in the second case. The effect of perceptions of HR policies and practices on career expectations was completely mediated by well-being at work and expectations of organizational future. Key considerations/conclusions: Results support the relations theoretically conceived or found in previous qualitative surveys. In practical terms, data suggest that improving HR policies and practices can increase well-being at work and expectations of organizational future and, finally, foster positive career expectations in the organization. Considering that the research was limited to one organization, future investigations should analyze the model in other organizations. Objetivo: avaliar se percepções de políticas/práticas de recursos humanos (RH, bem-estar no trabalho e expectativas de futuro organizacional atuam como antecedentes de expectativas de carreira na organização. Originalidade/Lacuna/Relevância/Implicações: a questão “Como ser

  7. Animal model of chronic abdominal hernia in rabbit Modelo animal de hérnia abdominal crônica em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To create a feasible animal model of hernia that should be reliable to test the different types of mesh and/or surgical technique. METHODS: Thirty six male New Zealand albino rabbits were submitted to surgical procedure to provoke a standard hole in the abdominal wall. A metallic frame measuring 3 cm length and 1 cm width was allocated longitudinally on the umbilicus scar and the comprehensive three squared centimeters area was resected. A continuous 4.0 polyamide was performed to closure the subcutaneous and skin. RESULTS: During three weeks a score of signals/symptoms was performed to evaluate the wound and clinical conditions. No death or severe complications occurred. In the 3rd week the hernia ring and visceral adhesions were evaluated. Soft omental adherences were present in the hernial sac in all animals. The area of hernia ring ranged from 32.1±5.5 to 35.6±3.1 squared centimeter and the maximum was 39 cm² and the minimum was 30 cm². The model results in protrusion which was similar to a human incisional hernia with hernia sac, visceral adhesions and fibrous healing ring. CONCLUSION: The model was more reliable to test further techniques or mesh on hernia repair.OBJETIVO: Criação de um modelo animal de hérnia que seja confiável para testar as diferentes técnicas e tipos de telas. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis coelhos foram submetidos a procedimento operatório que provocou uma falha na parede abdominal. Uma moldura metálica com 3 cm de comprimento e 1 cm de largura foi colocada longitudinalmente sobre a cicatriz umbilical e ressecada uma área de 3cm². Uma sutura contínua de poliamida 4.0 fechou a tela subcutânea e pele. RESULTADOS: durante três semanas o escore de sinais e sintomas foi coletado para avaliar as condições clínicas e da ferida operatória. Não ocorreram óbitos ou complicações graves. Na terceira semana o anel herniário e aderências peritoneais foram avaliadas. Aderências frouxas estavam presentes

  8. Models to estimate phytomass accumulation of hydroponic lettuce Modelos para estimar o acúmulo de fitomassa de alface em hidroponia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The protected and hydroponics cultivation are increasing in Brazil, demanding a better knowledge of crop performance in this environment. Plant dry matter accumulation as a function of solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity and other weather parameters in greenhouse is different when compared with field cultivation. With the purpose of proposing models to characterize the temporal variation of leaf and total dry matter production of hydroponics-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and to determine the flowering period and the maximum dry matter accumulation rate as a function of plant relative development (relative degree-days, solar radiation and effective thermal index, two experiments (Spring and Autumn were carried out in the greenhouse, at Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Growth and development models are useful in obtaining basic information on the plant ´ environment interactions, maximizing the use of resources in greenhouse, as well as, to define the best form of crop management. The cultivar Vera was chosen as function of its earliness. Models were proposed to estimate the temporal variation of dry matter accumulation, where the best results for relative development were obtained using effective degree-days, characterizing the importance of the air temperature for the vegetative phase and the solar radiation for the reproductive. The yield and quality of the lettuce seeds evidenced a high potential of hydroponics technique.O cultivo protegido e o cultivo hidropônico de plantas estão sendo cada vez mais utilizados no Brasil, exigindo maior conhecimento sobre as respostas das plantas nesses ambientes. O acúmulo de massa seca de plantas em cultivo protegido é função da radiação solar, temperatura, umidade e outros elementos climáticos, e é diferente quando comparado com o cultivo a campo. Com o objetivo de propor modelos para caracterizar a variação temporal na massa seca de folhas e total da cultura de

  9. Los linfocitos: modelo de estudio en las enfermedades de Alzheimer y Parkinson Lymphocytes as a cell model to study Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vélez Pardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Enfermedades de Alzheimer Familiar (EAF y de Parkinson familiar (EPF son dos entidades neurodegenerativas progresivas que afectan a un grupo numeroso de individuos en el departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Hasta el presente no existe un tratamiento eficaz y definitivo que reduzca o detenga el deterioro clinicopatológico que padecen los pacientes de estas enfermedades. Por estas razones, los procesos bioquímicos comprometidos en la pérdida neuronal han sido esencialmente estudiados en modelos biológicos. Los autores de este artículo, basados en su propia experiencia y en la de otros investigadores, postulan a los linfocitos como modelo celular de estudio para dilucidar las señales moleculares intracelulares activadas por el estrés oxidativo (EO en las enfermedades de Alzheimer y Parkinson. Sorprendentemente, los linfocitos poseen una similitud celular y bioquímica con las células nerviosas. De hecho, los linfocitos expresan por lo menos seis sistemas biológicos, considerados como pertenecientes únicamente a las neuronas, tales como los sistemas catecolaminérgico, serotonérgico, acetilcolinérgico, glutamaérgico, noradrenérgico, gabaérgico. Debido a que los linfocitos son células con ciclo celular en la etapa Go, y presentan los sistemas metabólicos de síntesis, transporte y procesamiento de las proteínas precursora del beta-amiloide (APP, presenilinas y parkina, estas células constituyen un modelo celular ideal que permitirá una mejor comprensión de la señalización patológica de los procesos neurodegenerativos, y además permitirá realizar un enfoque racional de los diseños terapéuticos que detengan las causas de deterioro neuronal en los pacientes que padecen estas enfermedades. Alzheimer’s disease (Ad and Parkinson’s disease (PD are two common progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect a large group of individuals in Antioquia, Colombia. Up till now, there is not an effective and definitive

  10. Uma sistemática para construção e escolha de modelos de previsão de risco de crédito Methodology for the construction and choice of credit risk prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Priscila Roldão Selau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento recente nos volumes de créditos a pessoas físicas e, por consequência, nos índices de inadimplência, as empresas estão buscando melhorar sua análise de crédito incorporando critérios objetivos. Técnicas multivariadas têm sido utilizadas para construir modelos de previsão de crédito que, baseados em informações cadastrais dos clientes, levam à criação de um padrão de comportamento em relação à inadimplência. O objetivo deste artigo é propor uma sistemática para construção de modelos de previsão de risco de crédito e avaliar seu desempenho usando três modelos específicos: análise discriminante, regressão logística e redes neurais. O método proposto (denominado Modelo PRC é composto de seis etapas: (i delimitação da população; (ii seleção da amostra; (iii análise preliminar; (iv construção do modelo; (v escolha do modelo; e (vi passos para implantação. O Modelo PRC foi aplicado em uma amostra de 17.005 clientes de uma rede de farmácias com crediário próprio. Os resultados para este banco de dados específico apontam uma pequena superioridade do modelo de redes neurais em relação aos outros modelos, que pode ser atribuída a sua não linearidade em relação à combinação de variáveis.Due to the growing consumer credit market and, therefore, insolvency indices, companies are seeking to improve their credit analysis by incorporating objective judgments. Multivariate techniques have been used to construct credit models. These models, based on consumer registration information, allow the identification of behavior standards concerning insolvency. The objective of this work is to propose a methodology for the construction of credit risk models and to evaluate prediction performance using three specific models: discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and neural networks. The proposed method (entitled PRC Model embraces six steps: (i population definition, (ii sampling, (iii

  11. Confirmación de un modelo explicativo del estrés y de los síntomas psicosomáticos mediante ecuaciones estructurales Confirmation of a descriptive model of stress and psychosomatic symptoms using structural equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Teresa González Ramírez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar mediante ecuaciones estructurales un modelo del estrés que integra la explicación de los síntomas psicosomáticos y la teoría transaccional del estrés. MÉTODOS: Se seleccionó una muestra representativa, aleatoria y estratificada de estudiantes de la Facultad de Psicología de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México. Los sujetos se seleccionaron a partir del listado de alumnos proporcionado por la facultad. Se utilizaron cuestionarios de autoevaluación con adecuadas propiedades psicométricas para valorar cada una de las variables incluidas en el modelo. Los resultados se analizaron con el programa AMOS 5.0, empleando el método de máxima verosimilitud. Asimismo, se compararon el modelo estructural con variables observables y un modelo con variables latentes endógenas. RESULTADOS:Los resultados obtenidos confirman parcialmente el modelo presentado y corroboran los efectos del estrés y el cansancio emocional sobre los síntomas psicosomáticos, y de la autoestima, la autoeficacia y el apoyo social sobre el estrés. El modelo con variables observables (c²/gl = 2,87; GFI (índice de bondad del ajuste = 0,985; AGFI (índice de bondad de ajuste corregido = 0,946; RMSEA (error de aproximación cuadrático medio = 0,072; IFI (índice de ajuste incremental = 0,982 tiene mejor ajuste que el modelo con variables latentes (c²/gl = 3,74; GFI = 0,924; AGFI = 0,876; RMSEA = 0,09, IFI = 0,927. En ambos casos, el ajuste es adecuado. CONCLUSIONES:El modelo presentado constituye el principal aporte de este trabajo. Se trata de un modelo explicativo de síntomas psicosomáticos, con buen ajuste, que explica el 24,3% de la varianza al utilizar variables observables y el 39,4% al utilizar variables latentes.OBJECTIVES:To evaluate a descriptive model of stress that integrates an explanation of psychosomatic symptoms with the transactional theory of stress. METHODS:A random and stratified representative sample was selected from

  12. Alternative Functional In Vitro Models of Human Intestinal Epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Kauffman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically relevant sources of absorptive intestinal epithelial cells are crucial for human drug transport studies. Human adenocarcinoma-derived intestinal cell lines, such as Caco-2, offer conveniences of easy culture maintenance and scalability, but do not fully recapitulate in vivo intestinal phenotypes. Additional sources of renewable physiologically relevant human intestinal cells would provide a much needed tool for drug discovery and intestinal physiology. We sought to evaluate and compare two alternative sources of human intestinal cells, commercially available primary human intestinal epithelial cells (hInEpCs and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived intestinal cells to Caco-2, for use in in vitro transwell monolayer intestinal transport assays. To achieve this for iPSC-derived cells, our previously described 3-dimensional intestinal organogenesis method was adapted to transwell differentiation. Intestinal cells were assessed by marker expression through immunocytochemical and mRNA expression analyses, monolayer integrity through Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER measurements and molecule permeability, and functionality by taking advantage the well-characterized intestinal transport mechanisms. In most cases, marker expression for primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells appeared to be as good as or better than Caco-2. Furthermore, transwell monolayers exhibited high TEER with low permeability. Primary hInEpCs showed molecule efflux indicative of P-glycoprotein transport. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells also showed neonatal Fc receptor-dependent binding of immunoglobulin G variants. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived intestinal cells exhibit expected marker expression and demonstrate basic functional monolayer formation, similar to or better than Caco-2. These cells could offer an alternative source of human intestinal cells for understanding normal intestinal epithelial physiology and drug transport.

  13. Surface water coagulation-flocculation models. Modelos para el proceso de coagulacion-floculacion de aguas superficiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez Rosell, S.; Marin Llanes, L.; Marquez Canosa, E.

    1994-01-01

    Modelling of water treatment processes have been studied ultimately. In the present work, three of the models that are used generally to represent the physical-chemical phenomenum that occur during the coagulation-flocculation process, are compared. The best result are obtained with Freundlich model although the new model gives adequate results too. (Author) 4 refs.

  14. Cuatro Modelos para Disenar Actividades de Capacitacion de Docentes (Four Models to Design In-Service Teacher Training Activities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Victor M.

    In designing inservice teacher training activities, it is necessary to apply educational principles and teaching and learning techniques which are suitable for adult education programs. Four models for designing inservice teacher training programs are the Malcom Knowles Model, the Leonard Nadler Model, the Cyril O. Houle Model, and the William R.…

  15. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Mansmann, Ulrich; Toschke, André M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs), quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). We analyzed data of 4967 childre...

  16. Hybrid Models of Alternative Current Filter for Hvdc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a hybrid simulation concept of HVDC, the developed hybrid AC filter models, providing the sufficiently full and adequate modeling of all single continuous spectrum of quasi-steady-state and transient processes in the filter, are presented. The obtained results suggest that usage of the hybrid simulation approach is carried out a methodically accurate with guaranteed instrumental error solution of differential equation systems of mathematical models of HVDC.

  17. Can the Stephani model be an alternative to FRW accelerating models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlowski, Wlodzimierz; Stelmach, Jerzy; Szydlowski, Marek

    2004-01-01

    A class of Stephani cosmological models as a prototype of a non-homogeneous universe is considered. The non-homogeneity can lead to accelerated evolution, which is now observed from the SNe Ia data. Three samples of type Ia supernovae obtained by Perlmutter et al, Tonry et al and Knop et al are taken into account. Different statistical methods (best fits as well as maximum likelihood method) to obtain estimation for the model parameters are used. The Stephani model is considered as an alternative to the ΛCDM model in the explanation of the present acceleration of the universe. The model explains the acceleration of the universe at the same level of accuracy as the ΛCDM model (χ 2 statistics are comparable). From the best fit analysis it follows that the Stephani model is characterized by a higher value of density parameter Ω m0 than the ΛCDM model. It is also shown that the model is consistent with the location of CMB peaks

  18. Dimensionamento de recursos humanos: desenvolvimento de um modelo conceitual e sua aplicação Dimensioning human resources: development and application of a conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete de Lourdes Marinho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinar o número de ocupantes dos vários cargos e funções em uma empresa não é tarefa fácil. Com freqüência, essa tarefa é realizada com base na percepção dos chefes, negociações com a administração da empresa e tentativas sucessivas com base em erros e acertos. Qualquer dessas alternativas apresenta resultados muito questionáveis, seja do ponto de vista da empresa, seja sob a ótica dos empregados. A Empresa Municipal de Habitação (EMH é uma empresa municipal voltada para a solução de problemas de moradia das classes de baixa renda, que vem se destacando pelo uso de técnicas modernas de gerenciamento. No sentido de melhor quantificar suas necessidades de recursos humanos, a empresa, que tem investido nos últimos anos em treinamento de recursos humanos e na modernização de seus processos gerenciais, realizou um estudo com base em um modelo conceitual que possibilitou um avanço nos processos tradicionais de dimensionamento. Este trabalho inicia com uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema, seguida de uma breve descrição da empresa. A seguir, um modelo conceitual é apresentado e aplicado à realidade da EMH. Recomendações e conclusões sobre o método usado encerram o texto.Definition of positions and functions in a company is complex and frequently based on manager perceptions and administrative negotiations as well as trial and error. These approaches are questionable from both the company and employee perspectives. EMF is a municipal company focused on resolving low income housing problems. The company has invested in training of personnel and modernizing management. Now it has studied and adopted a conceptual model to improve traditional dimensioning for human resource staffing. A review of pertinent literature was made, followed by a description of EMF and the experience with the model. In conclusion recommendations and conclusions are made on the subject.

  19. Hacia un modelo dinámico para la isla de calor urbana de Madrid = Towards a Dynamic Model for the Urban Heat Island of Madrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Núñez Peiró

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se enmarca dentro del proyecto MODIFICA (modelo predictivo - Edificios - Isla de Calor Urbano, financiado por el Programa de I + D + i Orientada a los Retos de la sociedad 'Retos Investigación' de 2013. Está dirigido a desarrollar un modelo predictivo de eficiencia energética para viviendas, bajo el efecto de isla de calor urbano (AUS con el fin de ponerla en práctica en la evaluación de la demanda de energía real y el consumo en las viviendas. A pesar de los grandes avances que se han logrado durante los últimos años en el rendimiento energético de edificios, los archivos de tiempo utilizados en la construcción de simulaciones de energía se derivan generalmente de estaciones meteorológicas situadas en las afueras de la ciudad. Por lo tanto, el efecto de la Isla de Calor Urbano (ICU no se considera en estos cálculos, lo que implica una importante falta de precisión. Centrado en explorar cómo incluir los fenómenos ICU, el presente trabajo recopila y analiza la dinámica por hora de la temperatura en diferentes lugares dentro de la ciudad de Madrid. Abstract This research is framed within the project MODIFICA (Predictive model - Buildings - Urban Heat Island, funded by Programa de I+D+i orientada a los retos de la sociedad 'Retos Investigación' 2013. It is aimed at developing a predictive model for dwelling energy performance under the Urban Heat Island (UHI effect in order to implement it in the evaluation of real energy demand and consumption in dwellings. Despite great advances on building energy performance have been achieved during the last years, weather files used in building energy simulations are usually derived from weather stations placed in the outskirts of the city. Hence, Urban Heat Island (UHI effect is not considered in this calculations, which implies an important lack of accuracy. Focused on exploring how to include the UHI phenomena, the present paper compiles and analyses the hourly dynamics

  20. Modelo de gerenciamento da manutenção de equipamentos de radiologia convencional Maintenance management model for conventional radiology equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Fraga do Couto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi elaborado um modelo de gerenciamento da manutenção dos equipamentos convencionais de raios X no Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho. O modelo foi implementado em várias etapas, que incluíram visitas a centros hospitalares que gerenciam seus equipamentos, linha de colaboração com a Fundação Oswaldo Cruz para realização de cursos e treinamento de técnicos de eletrônica do hospital, montagem de uma esquemateca dos equipamentos em uso, criação de um programa de gerenciamento utilizando um banco de dados na plataforma Microsoft Windows 98-Access, levantamento operacional e condições de funcionamento dos equipamentos. A criação de uma nova rotina nas manutenções vai ao encontro das necessidades de reduzir o tempo de atendimento, custos, e de melhoria na qualidade da imagem em um serviço de radiodiagnóstico, atendendo também às exigências da Portaria 453/98 do Ministério da Saúde.We developed a management model for maintenance of hospital radiological X-ray equipment. The model was implemented in several steps including visits to other hospitals where equipment management is also done, collaboration work with "Fundação Oswaldo Cruz" for the realization of courses and a training program for the hospital electronic technicians, organization of a small library with the schemes of the radiological equipment in use at "Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho", Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, development of a management software using a database from Access (Microsoft Windows and evaluation of the performance of the radiological equipment. The implementation of a new routine for equipment maintenance fulfils the need for reducing repair delay and costs, improving image quality in radiodiagnosis services, and complying with resolution 453/98 of the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

  1. Análise dos modelos de tomada decisão sob o enfoque cognitivo ANALYSIS OF MODELS OF DECISION MAKING IN THE COGNITIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The rationality has been defined from the Greeks as one of the main characteristic that distinguishes man from the other animals. The Greeks ‘influence like Plato and Aristotle and the philosophers empiricist /rationalist,as Descartes and Thomas Hobbes, were remarkable for the formation of models of decision making in organizations proposed by Simon, Allison and Lindblon. This study aims to identify the mainly decision making models and check how the cognitive aspects can affect the behavior of the agents involved in the process. The results show that there is no way to overlook the subjective factors, the different cognitive styles in the decision, there is a system of relations between the elements of nature objective and subjective elements,whichever is the predominant influence of the values of decision makers involved, which is seen as a motivator for the decision.A racionalidade vem sendo definida a partir dos gregos como uma das principais características que distingue o homem dos outros animais. A influência dos gregos, como Platão e Aristóteles, e dos filósofos empiristas/racionalistas, como Descartes e Thomas Hobbes, foram marcantes para a formação dos modelos de tomadas de decisão nas organizações propostas por Simon, Allison e Lindblon. Assim, este trabalho tem o objetivo de identificar os principais modelos de tomada de decisão e verificar como os aspectos cognitivos podem afetar o comportamento dos agentes envolvidos no processo. Os resultados demonstram que não há como negligenciar os fatores subjetivos e os diferentes estilos cognitivos na decisão, pois há um sistema de relações entre os elementos de natureza objetiva e os elementos de natureza subjetiva, prevalecendo o predomínio da influência dos valores dos decisores envolvidos, o que é visto como elemento motivador da decisão.

  2. Propuesta de modelo e instructivo para historia clínica de endodoncia A proposal of a model and instructive document for clinical charts in Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyvis Coro Montanet

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Se confeccionó un Modelo de Historia Clínica de Endodoncia con el objetivo de fortalecer la aplicación del método clínico por parte de los estudiantes de Tercer Año de Operatoria Dental I, en aquellos pacientes que requieren de este tipo de tratamiento. A su vez se elaboró un documento instructivo para facilitar el manejo y llenado del modelo por parte de los estudiantes.

  3. Hydrologic-agronomic-economic model for the optimal operation of the Yaqui river reservoir system using genetic algorithms; Modelo hidrologico-agronomico-economico para la operacion optima del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui, usando algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minjares-Lugo, Jose Luis; Salmon-Castelo, Roberto Fernando; Oroz-Ramos, Lucas Antonio [Comision Nacional del Agua (Mexico); Cruz-Medina, Isidro Roberto [Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study is to develop an integrated hydrologic-agronomic-economic annual model for the optimal operation of the Yaqui River reservoir system to support irrigation and urban water supply in the watershed. The model solves for each year's water allocations by crop, maximizing annual agricultural income for a specified risk of reservoir shortages and spills. It accounts for adjustments in water supply arising from changes in precipitation and runoff uncertainty and from changes in water demand arising from variations in crop prices and production costs. Model predictions for the agricultural year 2000-2001 are compared with observed results to test the model's predictive ability. Results demonstrate that the model can be used to optimize and analyze reservoir system operation and for water resources management in the Irrigation District No. 041, providing a framework for improving the operation of a reservoir system, selecting an optimal cropping pattern according to its maximum economic benefits, and in the optimal monthly water releases from the reservoir system. The model considers the simultaneous operation of three dams and it is applied to the Irrigation District No. 041, Rio Yaqui. [Spanish] El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar un modelo integral de optimizacion anual para definir la operacion del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui y la asignacion del volumen mensual de agua para la irrigacion de diferentes cultivos, asi como para satisfacer los requerimientos de uso urbano basado en las condiciones hidrologicas, agronomicas y economicas en la cuenca. El modelo maximiza los beneficios anuales netos del sector agricola, minimizando el riesgo de deficit o derrames en el sistema de presas; incluye cambios en el suministro de agua debido a la incertidumbre de las precipitaciones y del escurrimiento del rio y cambios en la demanda de agua provocados por la incertidumbre de los precios y costos de los cultivos. Se utilizaron datos del

  4. Modelos de perfil de velocidad para evaluación de consistencia del trazado en carreteras de la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba Speed profile models for evaluation of design consistency in road of the province of Villa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René A. García Depestre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre los aspectos relativos a la carretera que influyen en la accidentalidad, tiene un gran peso el diseño geométrico, internacionalmente el método más empleado para la evaluación del diseño es a partir de la consistencia del trazado con modelos de perfil de velocidades de operación. Cuba no cuenta con modelos propios que consideren las características de las carreteras y los conductores, por lo que es necesario desarrollar modelos de predicción de velocidades para la evaluación de la consistencia del trazado. El desarrollo de modelos de predicción del perfil de velocidades de operación para diferentes condiciones de alineación en carreteras rurales de dos carriles en el contexto de Cuba, se efectúa a partir de características geométricas y velocidades puntuales, con análisis estadístico de las principales variables que relacionan la velocidad con el diseño. Una vez desarrollados los modelos, se aplican a un tramo de carretera declarado como tramo de concentración de accidentes (TCA de la provincia de Villa Clara localizada en la región central de Cuba, los resultados obtenidos confirman la validez de los modelos desarrollados para determinar los perfiles de velocidad de operación y de esta forma, evaluar la consistencia del trazado, con el objetivo de detectar los lugares de mayores dificultades con relación al trazado.Among the aspects that influence road accidents, geometric design is the most relevant. The most used method for evaluating the design all over the world is based on the design consistency with speed profile models of operation. Cuba does not have proprietary models that consider the characteristics of the roads and drivers, so it is necessary to develop predictive models for the evaluation of design consistency. The development of operating speed profile prediction models for different alignment conditions on rural roads with two lanes in the context of Cuba is made from the geometric characteristics and

  5. Alternative host models for Testing Anti-Protozoal or Antifungal Compounds and fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia; Xander, Patricia; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; Batista, Wagner Luiz

    2018-04-12

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are caused by several parasites, fungi, bacteria and viruses and affect more than one billion people in the world. The control and prevention against NTDs need implementation of alternative methods for testing new compounds against these diseases. For the implementation of alternative methods, it is necessary to apply the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement (the 3Rs) for the use of laboratory animals. Accordingly, the present review addressed a variety of alternative models to study the infections caused by protozoa and fungi. Overall, vertebrate and invertebrate models of fungal infection have been used to elucidate hostpathogen interactions. However, until now the insect model has not been used in protozoal studies as an alternative method, but there is interest in the scientific community to try new tools to screen alternative drugs to control and prevent protozoal infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapsomaniki, E.; White, I.R.; Wood, A.M.; Thompson, S.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit)

  7. An Alternative Macro-economic Model for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bryan

    1976-01-01

    Presents Michal Kalecki's macro-economic model and two-sector version of the model by Robinson and Eatwell as circular flow diagrams. Advantages of using this approach in first-year undergraduate economics programs are discussed. Available from: General Secretary, Economics Association, Room 340, Hamilton House, Mabledon Place, London WC1H 9BH,…

  8. Rational Approximations to Rational Models: Alternative Algorithms for Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Adam N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Rational models of cognition typically consider the abstract computational problems posed by the environment, assuming that people are capable of optimally solving those problems. This differs from more traditional formal models of cognition, which focus on the psychological processes responsible for behavior. A basic challenge for rational models…

  9. Evaluating Alternate Biokinetic Models for Trace Pollutant Cometabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Binning, Philip John; Smets, Barth F.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models of cometabolic biodegradation kinetics can improve our understanding of the relevant microbial reactions and allow us to design in situ or in-reactor applications of cometabolic bioremediation. A variety of models are available, but their ability to describe experimental data...

  10. Evaluating to Solve Educational Problems: An Alternative Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Myles I.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    1979-01-01

    A 19-step general evaluation model is described through its four stages: identifying problems, prescribing program solutions, evaluating the operation of the program, and evaluating the effectiveness of the model. The role of the evaluator in decision making is also explored. (RAO)

  11. Relativistic nuclear matter with alternative derivative coupling models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, A.; Coelho, C.T.; Malheiro, M.

    1994-01-01

    Effective Lagrangians involving nucleons coupled to scalar and vector fields are investigated within the framework of relativistic mean-field theory. The study presents the traditional Walecka model and different kinds of scalar derivative coupling suggested by Zimanyi and Moszkowski. The incompressibility (presented in an analytical form), scalar potential, and vector potential at the saturation point of nuclear matter are compared for these models. The real optical potential for the models are calculated and one of the models fits well the experimental curve from-50 to 400 MeV while also gives a soft equation of state. By varying the coupling constants and keeping the saturation point of nuclear matter approximately fixed, only the Walecka model presents a first order phase transition of finite temperature at zero density. (author)

  12. Um modelo de projeto de layout para ambientes job shop com alta variedade de peças baseado nos conceitos da produção enxuta A layout design model for job shop environments with high variety of parts based on lean production concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Lucas da Silva

    2012-01-01

    , the study of layout concepts and the development of a layout design that aims at optimizing production are of crucial importance for production system improvement. Thus, this study presents a new layout design model of job shop environments with a high variety of parts. The model was developed as part of a PhD research project and was applied in some companies in the metal-mechanic sector. The results obtained showed the efficiency of the model developed. The purpose of the model is to lead the project team to develop layout alternatives that are consistent with the principles and concepts of lean production. It is worth mentioning again that the model was developed for environments with high variety of parts, and due to the difficulty in designing the layout in these environments, companies end up adopting the functional layout, a concept that presents serious problems such as excessive transport, high levels of in-process inventories, etc.

  13. A catedral, o bazar e o condomínio: um ensaio sobre o modelo de negócio do software livre The cathedral, the bazaar and the condominium: an essay on a business model of free open source software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Finkelfarb Lichand

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem como objetivo apresentar o software livre como objeto viável de estratégia de comercialização no mercado de software. A partir da análise de seus efeitos sobre as receitas e o market share das firmas dominantes, o F/LOSS (Free/Libre Open Source Software emerge como alternativa de modelo de negócio nos segmentos em que o software livre apresenta vantagens competitivas sobre o software proprietário. Descrevemos as potencialidades e limitações, os aspectos tecnológicos, econômicos e sociológicos da organização da produção de empresas que comercializam produtos ou serviços relacionados ao F/LOSS. Utilizando-se a perspectiva da Economia dos Custos de Transação e da Economia da Informação, apresenta-se o modelo híbrido de desenvolvimento do F/LOSS nos mesmos moldes de um condomínio - em que a administração central coordena a ação coletiva, enquanto a comunidade, ao mesmo tempo em que integra o processo, monitora as ações da direção centralizada -, como estratégia competitiva alternativa aos modelos de desenvolvimento aberto (Bazar e proprietário (Catedral.Free Open Source Software is described as viable software for commercialization. Considering the revenues and market shares of the dominant suppliers, this software emerges as an alternative business model for segments in which open source software presents competitive advantages over the traditional model. Potentials, limitations and technological, economic and sociological aspects of organizational structures of companies that produce products and services related to Free Open Source Software are described. From the transaction cost and information economy perspectives, a hybrid model to develop Free Open Source Software is presented which is structured according to the concept of a condominium. That is, a central administration coordinates collective action, while the community works and monitors the action of the central direction. This model may

  14. Analytical model to describe the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in roofs; Modelo analitico que describe el comportamiento termico de un sistema de descarga de calor en techos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Gomez, V.H.; Contreras-Espinosa, J.J.; Gonzalez-Ortiz, G.; Morillon-Galvez, D.; Fernandez-Zayas, J.L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: vichugo@servidor.unam.mx; jjuancon2000@yahoo.com.mx; gilberto_gonzalez25@hotmail.com; damg@pumas.iingen.unam.mx; JFernandezZ@iingen.unam.mx

    2012-01-15

    The present study proposes an analytical model which describes the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in roof, when the surfaces that constitute it are not translucent. Such a model derives from a thermal balance carried out to a heat discharge system in roofs. To validate it, an experimental prototype that allows simulating the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in wall and roof was used, and the results were compared to those obtained with the proposed analytical model. It was found that the thermal behavior of the analytical model is similar to the thermal behavior of the experimental prototype; a worthless variation was detected among their respective outcome (The difference of temperatures can be caused by the heat transfer coefficient, of which no studies defining its behavior accurately have been found). Therefore, it can be considered that the proposed analytical model can be employed to simulate the thermal behavior of a heat discharge system in roofs when the surfaces that constitute it are opaque. [Spanish] En el presente estudio se propone un modelo analitico que describe el comportamiento termico de un sistema de descarga de calor en techo, cuando las superficies que lo componen no son translucidos. Dicho modelo surge a partir de un balance termico realizado a un sistema de descarga de calor en techos. Para validarlo, se realizaron dos corridas experimentales en un prototipo que permite simular el comportamiento termico de un sistema de descarga de calor en techo y se compararon los resultados medidos con los calculados por el modelo analitico propuesto. Se encontro que, el comportamiento termico del modelo analitico es similar al comportamiento termico del prototipo experimental, se detecto una variacion despreciable entre los valores arrojados por ambos modelos (la diferencia de temperaturas puede estar ocasionada por la obtencion del coeficiente convectivo de transferencia de calor, del cual no se han encontrado estudios que

  15. A high temperature interparticle potential for an alternative gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    A thermal Wilson loop for a model with two gauge fields associated with the same gauge group is discussed. Deconfinement appears at high temperature. It is not possible however specify the colour of the deconfined matter. (Author) [pt

  16. Model for dose-response with alternative change of sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovets, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    A new mathematical model of dose-response relationships is proposed, suitable for calculating stochastic effects of low level exposure. The corresponding differential equations are presented as well as their solution. (A.K.)

  17. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    OpenAIRE

    Rapsomaniki, E.; White, I.R.; Wood, A.M.; Thompson, S.G.; Ford, I.

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measure...

  18. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansmann Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs, quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS. We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. Results GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. Conclusion GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  19. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Mansmann, Ulrich; Toschke, André M

    2008-09-08

    Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs), quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  20. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M; Thompson, Simon G

    2012-01-30

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk reduction interventions. We extend previous work in this area by quantifying net benefits in life years, thus linking prognostic performance to health economic measures; by taking full account of the occurrence of events over time; and by considering estimation and cross-validation in a multiple-study setting. The method is illustrated in the context of cardiovascular disease risk prediction using an individual participant data meta-analysis. We estimate the number of cardiovascular-disease-free life years gained when statin treatment is allocated based on a risk prediction model with five established risk factors instead of a model with just age, gender and region. We explore methodological issues associated with the multistudy design and show that cost-effectiveness comparisons based on the proposed methodology are robust against a range of modelling assumptions, including adjusting for competing risks. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Statistical model for suspension transport in porous media; Modelo estatistico para o transporte de suspensoes em meios porosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adriano dos; Barros, Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    An analytical model for transport of particulate suspensions in porous medium is discussed. The model takes microscopic rock characteristics into account and considers that size exclusion is the dominant particle retention mechanism. Analytical solutions for suspended and retained particle concentrations are obtained and the inverse problem is solved, allowing the filtration coefficients determination from experiments. The filtration coefficients for the proposed and the classical deep bed filtration models are calculated from experimental data available in the literature and the results are compared. Finally, it is shown that the proposed model tends to the classical deep bed filtration model when the particle retention probability tends to zero. (author)

  2. An emission model as an alternative to O-D matrix in urban goods transport modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús González-Feliu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un método alternativo a la matriz O-D par a estimar los impactos del transporte de mercancías urbano. La originalidad del modelo está en tres elementos principales. La primera es qu e la unidad utilizada es la entrega. La segunda es que se sigue un enfoque inductivo, partiendo de una base de datos rica para definir las diferentes funciones generadoras sin utilizar a priori un marc o matemático definido. La tercera es que el modelo es de emisión, es decir, se genera el número de entregas que envían los diferentes estab lecimientos urbanos, y no las que ellos reciben. En primer lugar, se realiz a una revisión de la literatura para posicionar la investigació n. A continuación, se presentan los principales elementos metodológicos usados, pr incipalmente el procedimiento de generación de la entrega y mét odo de definición de ruta. Finalmente, los resultados de validación pa ra las dos partes del modelo se presentan y discuten críticamente.

  3. Models comparative study for heat storage in fixed beds; Estudo comparativo de modelos para armazenamento de calor em leitos fixos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuginski, Junior, Rubens

    1991-07-01

    This work presents comparative results of a numerical investigation of four possible models for the prediction of thermal performance of fixed bed storage units and their thermal design. These models includes Schumann's model, the radial dispersion model, a model that include both axial heat conduction in the fluid phase and admits thermal gradient in the solids particles and finally a two dimensional single phase model. For each of these models a computer code was written and tested to evaluate the computing time of same data and analyze any other computational problems. The tests of thermal performance included particle size, porosity, particle material, flow rate, inlet temperature and heat losses form tank walls and extremities. Dynamics behaviour of the storage units due to transient variation in either flow rate or inlet temperature was also investigated. The results presented include temperature gradients, pressure drop and heat storage. The results obtained are very useful for analysis and design of fixed bed storage units. (author)

  4. Un nuevo modelo urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Urge un nuevo modelo de ciudad para para resolver la integración, abordando temas sustantivos como: el agua, las cuencas, la inversión, los servicios públicos, y la movilidad, además de la vocación de los entes territoriales y de la ciudad región como elementos clave para decidir sobre la asignación de las funciones metropolitanas y usos del suelo en el Eje Perera-Manizales

  5. Modelo interrelacionado de decisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Haramoto Nishikimoto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Propone la implementación de un sistema interrelacionado de decisiones que permita superar los problemas que enfrentan los agentes que participan en las áreas de trabajo involucradas en la acción habitacional. Para estos describe cuatro modelos (habitacional, de decisión, de información y de alternativas habitacionales que permiten ordenar, relacionar, agrupar y jerarquizar todos los componentes del proceso habitacional

  6. Experimental model of ultrasound thermotherapy in rats inoculated with Walker-236 tumor Modelo experimental de termoterapia ultrassônica em ratos inoculados com tumor de Walker-236

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Carlos Otaviano David Morano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a model to evaluate the effects of focal pulsed ultrasound (US waves as a source of heat for treatment of murine subcutaneous implanted Walker tumor. METHODS: An experimental, controlled, comparative study was conducted. Twenty male Wistar rats (160-300 g randomized in 2 equal groups (G-1: Control and G-2: Hyperthermia were inoculated with Walker-256 carcinosarcoma tumor. After 5 days G-2 rats were submitted to 45ºC hyperthermia. Heat was delivered directly to the tumor by an ultrasound (US equipment (3 MHz frequency, 1,5W/cm³. Tumor temperature reached 45º C in 3 minutes and was maintained at this level for 5 minutes. Tumor volume was measured on days 5, 8, 11, 14 e 17 post inoculation in both groups. Unpaired t-test was used for comparison. POBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo para avaliar os efeitos do ultra-som focal pulsado como fonte de calor para o tratamento de tumores de Walker subcutâneos implantados em ratos. MÉTODOS: Um estudo experimental, controlado, comparativo foi realizado. Vinte ratos Wistar machos (160-300 g divididos em dois grupos (G-1: Controle e G-2: hipertermia foram inoculados com tumor de Walker carcinossarcoma-256. Após cinco dias os ratos do grupo G-2 ratos foram submetidos a hipertermia (45ºC. O calor foi aplicado diretamente no tumor por um equipamento de ultrassonografia (3 MHz, 1,5 W/cm³. A temperatura no tumor atingiu 45ºC em 3 minutos e foi mantida nesse nível por 5 minutos. O volume do tumor foi medido nos dias 5, 8, 11, 14 e 17 após a inoculação, em ambos os grupos. Teste t não pareado foi utilizado para comparação. P <0,05 foi considerado significante. RESULTADOS: O volume do tumor foi significativamente maior no 5º dia e diminuiu nos dias 11, 14 e 17 nos ratos tratados. Animais submetidos à hipertermia sobreviveram mais tempo que os animais do grupo controle. No 29º dia após a inoculação do tumor, 40% dos ratos do grupo controle e 77,78% dos ratos tratados com

  7. Remodelación ósea a través del Modelo de Stanford // Bone remodeling through the Stanford´s Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Figueredo-Losada

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El material óseo es radicalmente distinto a cualquier otro material tratado por la mecánica clásica,su estructura es heterogénea y anisótropa, y sus propiedades mecánicas varían no solo entredistintos individuos, sino también, para un mismo hueso. En los tratamientos e intervencionesquirúrgicas donde está presente la readaptación, el crecimiento inducido del hueso puede sermodelado mediante el empleo de los criterios de remodelación ósea interna propuesto por algunosautores (Cowin y R. Huiskes, R. Carter, Doblare y García, Jacob y Beaupré y otros.En este trabajo se toma el modelo de remodelación ósea propuesto por Jacob (1994 y seimplementa con la utilización del programa Abaqus 6.4 utilizando una subrutina de usuario (UMAT,se aplico a un modelo 2D de hueso genérico con un sistema de cargas para comprobar los efectosde la remodelación y las variaciones de los valores de densidad. Como parte del trabajo fueroncreados dos programas para el procesamiento de los datos, para un análisis de resultados fuera delvisualizador del Abaqus, logrando una apreciación cualitativamente y cuantitativamente de losresultados.Palabras claves: remodelación ósea, elementos finitos, biomecánica._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe bone material is radically different to any other material tried by the classic mechanics, itsstructure is heterogeneous and anisótropic, and its mechanical properties not vary alone amongdifferent individuals, but also, for oneself bone. In the medical treatments and surgicalinterventions where it is present the readaptation, the induced growth of the bone can be modeledby means of the employment of the approaches of remodeling bone intern proposed by someauthors (Cowin and R. Huiskes, R. Crankcase, I will Doblare & García, Jacob & Beaupré and other.In this work it takes the pattern of bone remodelling proposed by Jacob (1994 and it isimplemented with the use of

  8. Application of an air quality model of second-generation to the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico; Aplicacion de un modelo de calidad del aire de segunda generacion a la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Alberto [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mail: mendoza.alberto@itesm.mx; Garcia, Marisa R. [Centro de Calidad Ambiental, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2009-05-15

    The Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (GMA) continuously registers periods of unhealthy levels of air quality. One of the most powerful tools available to describe the dynamics of air pollutants in urban areas are three-dimensional mathematical models that describe the transportation and chemical transformation of these. In this work, we present a first application of one of such models, the California/ Carneige Institute of Technology (CIT), to the GMA. The modeling period selected goes from the 16th to the 18th of May, 2001; the modeling domain covers an area of 25,600 km{sup 2} and is centered in the GMA. The statistical model performance evaluation indicates that the CIT behaved better during the last two days of the simulation. In this period, regarding O{sub 3}, the normalized bias was less than 23.5 %, the normalized error less than 36.5 %, and the daily index of agreement was above 0.8. Further more, the model was capable of reproducing the O{sub 3} peak with an error of less than 18 %. These values, compared to established guidelines on model evaluation, indicate an acceptable performance of the model for the simulated period. However, the performance of CO was not as good, and poor with respect to SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, indicating that additional work is needed to improve the overall performance of the model. Spatially, the model tended to represent better the dynamics of pollutants in the west region of the GMA, and temporally areas of improvement were detected in the simulation of nighttime periods. [Spanish] La Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara (ZMG) registra continuamente periodos con niveles insalubres de calidad del aire. Una de las herramientas mas poderosas para describir la dinamica de contaminantes atmosfericos en zonas urbanas son los modelos matematicos tridimensionales que describen el transporte y transformacion quimica de los mismos. En este trabajo se presenta una primera aplicacion de uno de dichos modelos, del California/Carneige Institute

  9. Evaluation and comparison of alternative fleet-level selective maintenance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Kellie; Richard Cassady, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fleet-level selective maintenance refers to the process of identifying the subset of maintenance actions to perform on a fleet of repairable systems when the maintenance resources allocated to the fleet are insufficient for performing all desirable maintenance actions. The original fleet-level selective maintenance model is designed to maximize the probability that all missions in a future set are completed successfully. We extend this model in several ways. First, we consider a cost-based optimization model and show that a special case of this model maximizes the expected value of the number of successful missions in the future set. We also consider the situation in which one or more of the future missions may be canceled. These models and the original fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models are nonlinear. Therefore, we also consider an alternative model in which the objective function can be linearized. We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models. - Highlights: • Investigate nonlinear fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models. • A cost based model is used to maximize the expected number of successful missions. • Another model is allowed to cancel missions if reliability is sufficiently low. • An alternative model has an objective function that can be linearized. • We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models

  10. Proposição de um modelo baseado em Customer Lifetime Value para a análise de melhorias no sistema produtivo Proposition of a Customer Lifetime Value model to evaluate production system improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Riehs Camargo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe um modelo para analisar melhorias no sistema produtivo à luz do valor do cliente para a empresa. Para isso, apresenta um modelo que agrega variáveis advindas do processo produtivo, do mercado consumidor e de métricas do marketing. Os três pilares de sustentação do modelo são os clientes, com suas necessidades e percepções em relação aos produtos e serviços; as características atribuídas pela produção; e as regras para análise do impacto da adoção de diferentes melhorias no sistema produtivo sobre o valor vitalício dos clientes atuais (CLV. Além disso, um modelo de escolha discreta (logit é proposto como o integrador entre a produção e o marketing. O método de pesquisa utilizado foi composto de quatro etapas: levantamento de referencial; construção do modelo conceitual; aplicação em um caso; análise e discussão. Como resultados, observa-se que, havendo disponibilidade de informações e tempo para sua condução, o modelo contribui para a identificação de melhorias que contemplem simultaneamente a visão de produção e a de sustentabilidade financeira.This paper aims to propose a model to investigate the effect of improvements on the productive system on the organization considering customer value. The model proposed combine variables representing the productive process, market, and marketing metrics. It consists of three fundamental elements: consumers and their needs and perceptions of products and services; characteristics of the productive system; and rules to analyze the impact of adoption of different improvements on the productive system. Customer lifetime value (CLV was measured and a discrete choice model (logit is proposed as an integrator between production and marketing perspectives. The research methodology consisted of four steps: referential research, conceptual modeling, application in a particular case, and results analysis. As a result, it is observed that upon availability

  11. The wind power in Brazil: Proinfa and the new model of the electric sector; A energia eolica no Brasil: Proinfa e o novo modelo do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Proinfa - Programa de Incentivo as Fontes Alternativas de Energia (Energy Alternative Sources Improvement Program), its maturation period, the first stage results and the difficulties and the conflicts generated by the New Model of Electric Sector for the development of the aeolian energy in the Brazilian electric matrix.

  12. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit......) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk...... reduction interventions. We extend previous work in this area by quantifying net benefits in life years, thus linking prognostic performance to health economic measures; by taking full account of the occurrence of events over time; and by considering estimation and cross-validation in a multiple...

  13. Modelo de carcinogênese gástrica utilizando piloroplastia de Finney: estudo experimental em ratos Gastric carcinogenesis model using Finney pyloroplasty: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Marco Ferreira Kaminski

    2011-12-01

    estudados. CONCLUSÃO: 1 A piloroplastia à Finney é modelo experimental adequado de carcinogênese gástrica; 2 ela induziu refluxo duodenogástrico; 3 o refluxo duodenogástrico atuou como carcinógeno para o estômago; 4 não houve relação entre o pH gástrico e o desenvolvimento de carcinoma; 5 o nitrito de sódio não atuou como carcinógeno para o estômago dos ratos.BACKGROUND: The duodenogastric reflux has been implicated as a potential carcinogen for the stomach and esophagus and is one of the factors that may explain the development of gastric stump cancer. Experimental models of carcinogenesis in the stomach stump or in the duodenogastric anastomosis are well defined. AIM: To develop an experimental model of gastric carcinogenesis through the Finney pyloroplasty, evaluate the influence of ingestion of sodium nitrite in this model, analyze the concentrations of bile acids and the pH of the stomach. METHODS: A hundred and ten Wistar rats were operated and divided into four groups: Group I (15 rats underwent laparotomy (Sham group; Group II (15 rats underwent laparotomy (Sham and ingestion of sodium nitrite in drinking water; Group III (40 rats submitted to the Finney pyloroplasty and Group IV (40 rats submitted to the Finney pyloroplasty and ingestion of sodium nitrite in drinking water. After 50 weeks of surgery, the rats were sacrificed and samples collected for analysis of gastric pH, dosing of bile acids and histological analysis. RESULTS: The immediate postoperative mortality was 9%, and during the experiment, 10 rats died. The control group (I did not show gastric lesions; the control group with sodium nitrite (II developed papillomas in the pre-stomach in 16.6%; the operated groups with pyloroplasty had adenomas in 10.3% in Group III and 14.2 % in Group IV, and adenocarcinoma in 55.1% in group III and 14.2% in Group IV. The implementation of glands into the submucosa and muscle in the area of anastomosis (mucosa deployment was not sufficient criterion for

  14. MODELO BORROSO PARA EVALUAR LOS FACTORES QUE AFECTAN LA PRODUCTIVIDAD EN LA PYMES // FUZZY MODEL TO ASSESS FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY IN PYME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Martínez Sánchez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PYME contribuyen considerablemente a la actividad económica y son un gran generador de empleo. Este trabajo plantea el desarrollo de un modelo borroso que permita evaluar los factores de producción que afectan la productividad, con el fin de estimar su impacto y minimizarlos para que de esta manera la empresa no pierda su nivel del aprovechamiento de los recursos. La importancia del mismo radica en la utilización de la lógica borrosa para la evaluación del efecto de factores como costo de producción, producto y satisfacción del cliente en la productividad de las PYME.// Abstract: In Venezuela, small- and medium sized companies PYME contribute considerably to economic activity and are a great employment generator. This article state a fuzzy model development which permit to evaluate the production factors that affect productivity, in order to estimate and minimize their impact and, in this way the company dosen‘t loose the use or resource level. The importance of this development lies in the use of fuzzy logic to evaluate the effect of factors like production and client satisfaction in PYME‘s productivity.

  15. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La cultura organizacional se configura a partir de la interrelación de los procesos de apropiación de la filosofía, la pertenencia, la adaptación, la satisfacción y el liderazgo compartidos por un grupo. Este conjunto de categorías puede ser reconocido mediante el uso de una matriz que incluye en su estructura subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o Teoría Fundamentada que nos permita comprender el desarrollo cultural de las organizaciones. El estudio de caso se realizó en una compañía líder en Europa del sector de la distribución.AbstractThe organizational culture is set from the interplay of the processes of appropriation of philosophy, membership, adaptation, satisfaction and leadership shared by a group. This set of categories can be recognized by using a matrix that includes in its structure or sub-concepts and a set of observable properties in the workforce. This article aims to describe a study model built from the Grounded Theory that allows us to understand the cultural development of organizations. The case study was conducted in a European leader in the distribution sector.

  16. LOS PRINCIPIOS COOPERATIVOS FACILITADORES DE LA INNOVACIÓN: UN MODELO TEÓRICO/COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES FACILITATORS OF INNOVATION: A THEORETICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen MARCUELLO SERVÓS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer un modelo teórico que permita poner de relieve cómo la profundización en los principios cooperativos puede ser un instrumento para lograr la supervivencia y la competitividad de la empresa cooperativa. Para ello, desde el ámbito de la dirección estratégica, vinculamos los principios cooperativos con las aportaciones que proporcionan la teoría del capital social. Consideramos que el cumplimiento de dichos principios genera capital social que es un activo intangible facilitador y activador de la capacidad de absorción del conocimiento por parte de la organización, y por tanto de la innovación./The aim of this study is to propose a theoretical model that allows to highlight how the deepening of the cooperative principles can be an instrument for achieving the survival and competitiveness of the cooperative enterprise. To do so, since the area of strategic direction, we link these principles with interesting contributions that provide the theory of social capital. We believe that compliance with the cooperative principles that generates social capital is an intangible asset facilitator and enabler of absorptive capacity of knowledge on the part of the organization, and therefore innovation.

  17. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of

  18. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2013-01-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO 4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC 10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of

  19. Tumor hepático experimental (VX-2 em coelho: implantação do modelo no Brasil Experimental liver tumor (VX-2 in rabbits: implantation of the model in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad Hossne

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos para a investigação de novas modalidades terapêuticas em biologia tumoral, deveriam passar por estudos experimentais prévios. Neste sentido dispõem-se hoje de uma grande variedade de modelos tumorais experimentais; em determinadas investigações faz-se necessária a adequação do modelo tumoral às necessidades biológicas, patológicas e experimentais dos estudos. Desta forma, em nosso serviço, buscávamos um modelo tumoral hepático para estudos experimentais que se adequasse às seguintes características: fácil manipulação, crescimento controlável, evolução e agressividade semelhantes aos seres humanos. Os dados da literatura nos levaram a busca do tumor hepático VX-2, em coelhos. Neste artigo discutimos as vantagens da utilização deste modelo experimental e a sua introdução em nosso país.Studies for investigation of new therapeutic modalities in tumoral biology should be based on previous experimental studies. Then, there are a great variety of tumoral experimental models today. Some investigations have been done necessary an adaptation of the tumoral model to the needing of the studies biological and pathological. So, in our laboratory, we looked for a tumoral hepatic model for experimental studies with the following characteristics: easy manipulation, control of growing, evolution and aggressiveness like to humans. Data of the literature took us the search of the hepatic tumor VX-2, in rabbits. In this article we discussed the advantages of use this experimental model and its introduction in our country. Experimental hepatic tumor (VX-2 in rabbit. Implantation of the model in Brazil.

  20. Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  1. Identifying developmental vascular disruptor compounds using a predictive signature and alternative toxicity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying Developmental Vascular Disruptor Compounds Using a Predictive Signature and Alternative Toxicity Models Presenting Author: Tamara Tal Affiliation: U.S. EPA/ORD/ISTD, RTP, NC, USA Chemically induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development can result in a wide...

  2. Testing In College Admissions: An Alternative to the Traditional Predictive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunneborg, Clifford E.

    1982-01-01

    A decision-making or utility theory model (which deals effectively with affirmative action goals and allows standardized tests to be placed in the service of those goals) is discussed as an alternative to traditional predictive admissions. (Author/PN)

  3. Alternative business models for forest - dependent communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dominant mode of business practice in the African forest sector – especially in the high forest cover regions – comes in the form of concessionaires operating on publicly held lands. Increasingly, however, the concession - based model is being challenged. Is it socially and environmentally sustainable? Does it lead to ...

  4. Mentoring Triad: An Alternative Mentoring Model for Preservice Teacher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosetti, Angelina; Dekkers, John; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2017-01-01

    Within many preservice teacher education programs in Australia, mentoring is used as the overarching methodology for the professional placement. The professional placement is considered to be a key component of learning to teach, and typically a dyad mentoring model is utilized. However, it is reported that many preservice teachers experience a…

  5. Workshop IV – Cosmology-theoretical models/alternative scenarios ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Maharaj presented a talk entitled 'Some Einstein–Maxwell models with spherical sym- ... ber of spatial dimensions in the universe may be a variable and considered a ... the probability density of the de Sitter minisuperspace in 3-space as ...

  6. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  7. CONSTRUCCIÓN DE MODELOS SEMIFÍSICOS DE BASE FENOMENOLÓGICA: CASO PROCESO DE FERMENTACIÓN BUILDING PHENOMENOLOGICAL BASED SEMI-PHYSICAL MODELS: FERMENTATION PROCESS CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR AUGUSTO GÓMEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un método para la construcción de Modelos Semifisicos de Base Fenomenológica (MSBF. El método se basa en los fenómenos de transporte, tránsito, transmisión o transferencia, y en el principio de conservación. Se da una descripción detallada de los pasos del método propuesto. Luego se aplica el método en la construcción de un modelo que describe el comportamiento de cinco dinámicas (volumen, biomasa, sustrato, producto y temperatura en un proceso de fermentación en continuo. La simulación muestra que el modelo obtenido puede predecir de forma adecuada el comportamiento dinámico de dicho bioproceso.This work presents a method for building Phenomenological Based Semiphysical Models (PBSM. The method is based on transport, transfer, transmission or transit phenomena and conservation principle. A detailed description of proposed method steps is given. Next, the method is applied to attaining a model for describing the behavior of five dynamics (volume, biomass, substrate, product and temperature of a continuous fermentation process. Model simulation shows that obtained model can predict dynamic performance of real process adequately.

  8. Models for power transformers monitoring in the intelligent electrical network: humidity and temperature of bubble generation; Modelos para el monitoreo de transformadores de potencia en la red electrica inteligente: humedad y temperatura de generacion de burbujas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan Garcia, Roberto; Ponce Noyola, David; Guzman Lopez, Arali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Betancourt Ramirez, Enrique; Tamez Torres, Gerardo [PROLEC GE, (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the development of two experimental models in order to ensure reliable operation of power transformers under emergency overload conditions. The first model estimates the moisture distribution in the transformer windings, while the second model estimates the safe operating temperature and time before steam bubbles generation presents. Additionally, an electronic device was designed and built, using the models developed, in order to monitor in real time both parameters. This device allows a more reliable operation of the transmission network, considering the transformers condition. [Spanish] Este documento presenta el desarrollo de dos modelos experimentales para asegurar la operacion confiable de transformadores de potencia bajo condiciones de sobrecarga de emergencia. El primer modelo estima la temperatura de operacion segura y el tiempo antes de que ocurra la generacion de burbujas de vapor. Ademas, se diseno y construyo un dispositivo electronico, usando los modelos desarrollados, con el fin de monitorear en tiempo real ambos parametros. Este dispositivo permite una operacion mas confiable de la red de transmision, considerando la condicion de los transformadores.

  9. Modelos lineares e não lineares inteiros para problemas da mochila bidimensional restrita a 2 estágios Linear and nonlinear integer models for constrained two-stage two-dimensional knapsack problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Hideki Yanasse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho revemos alguns modelos lineares e não lineares inteiros para gerar padrões de corte bidimensionais guilhotinados de 2 estágios, incluindo os casos exato e não exato e restrito e irrestrito. Esses problemas são casos particulares do problema da mochila bidimensional. Apresentamos também novos modelos para gerar esses padrões de corte, baseados em adaptações ou extensões de modelos para gerar padrões de corte bidimensionais restritos 1-grupo. Padrões 2 estágios aparecem em diferentes processos de corte, como, por exemplo, em indústrias de móveis e de chapas de madeira. Os modelos são úteis para a pesquisa e o desenvolvimento de métodos de solução mais eficientes, explorando estruturas particulares, a decomposição do modelo, relaxações do modelo etc. Eles também são úteis para a avaliação do desempenho de heurísticas, já que permitem (pelo menos para problemas de tamanho moderado uma estimativa do gap de otimalidade de soluções obtidas por heurísticas. Para ilustrar a aplicação dos modelos, analisamos os resultados de alguns experimentos computacionais com exemplos da literatura e outros gerados aleatoriamente. Os resultados foram produzidos usando um software comercial conhecido e mostram que o esforço computacional necessário para resolver os modelos pode ser bastante diferente.In this work we review some linear and nonlinear integer models to generate two stage two-dimensional guillotine cutting patterns, including the constrained, non constrained, exact and non exact cases. These problems are particular cases of the two dimensional knapsack problems. We also present new models to generate these cutting patterns, based on adaptations and extensions of models that generate one-group constrained two dimensional cutting patterns. Two stage patterns arise in different cutting processes like, for instance, in the furniture industry and wooden hardboards. The models are useful for the research and

  10. Análise genética de escores de avaliação visual de bovinos com modelos bayesianos de limiar e linear Genetic analysis for visual scores of bovines with the linear and threshold bayesian models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ubirajara de Faria

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar as estimativas de parâmetros genéticos obtidas em análises bayesianas uni-característica e bi-característica, em modelo animal linear e de limiar, considerando-se as características categóricas morfológicas de bovinos da raça Nelore. Os dados de musculosidade, estrutura física e conformação foram obtidos entre 2000 e 2005, em 3.864 animais de 13 fazendas participantes do Programa Nelore Brasil. Foram realizadas análises bayesianas uni e bi-características, em modelos de limiar e linear. De modo geral, os modelos de limiar e linear foram eficientes na estimação dos parâmetros genéticos para escores visuais em análises bayesianas uni-características. Nas análises bi-características, observou-se que: com utilização de dados contínuos e categóricos, o modelo de limiar proporcionou estimativas de correlação genética de maior magnitude do que aquelas do modelo linear; e com o uso de dados categóricos, as estimativas de herdabilidade foram semelhantes. A vantagem do modelo linear foi o menor tempo gasto no processamento das análises. Na avaliação genética de animais para escores visuais, o uso do modelo de limiar ou linear não influenciou a classificação dos animais, quanto aos valores genéticos preditos, o que indica que ambos os modelos podem ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento genético.The objective of this work was to compare the estimates of genetic parameters obtained in single-trait and two-trait bayesian analyses, under linear and threshold animal models, considering categorical morphological traits of bovines of the Nelore breed. Data of musculature, physical structure and conformation were obtained between years 2000 and 2005, from 3,864 bovines of the Nelore breed from 13 participant farms of the Nelore Brazil Program. Single-trait and two-trait bayesian analyses were performed under linear and threshold animal models. In general, the linear and threshold

  11. A response-modeling alternative to surrogate models for support in computational analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Often, the objectives in a computational analysis involve characterization of system performance based on some function of the computed response. In general, this characterization includes (at least) an estimate or prediction for some performance measure and an estimate of the associated uncertainty. Surrogate models can be used to approximate the response in regions where simulations were not performed. For most surrogate modeling approaches, however (1) estimates are based on smoothing of available data and (2) uncertainty in the response is specified in a point-wise (in the input space) fashion. These aspects of the surrogate model construction might limit their capabilities. One alternative is to construct a probability measure, G(r), for the computer response, r, based on available data. This 'response-modeling' approach will permit probability estimation for an arbitrary event, E(r), based on the computer response. In this general setting, event probabilities can be computed: prob(E)=∫ r I(E(r))dG(r) where I is the indicator function. Furthermore, one can use G(r) to calculate an induced distribution on a performance measure, pm. For prediction problems where the performance measure is a scalar, its distribution F pm is determined by: F pm (z)=∫ r I(pm(r)≤z)dG(r). We introduce response models for scalar computer output and then generalize the approach to more complicated responses that utilize multiple response models

  12. Basic model of quality and good practices in neonatal radiography; Modelo basico de qualidade e boas praticas em radiografia neonatal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Janine H.; Goulart, Juliana M.; Lykawka, Rochelle; Bacelar, Alexandre [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal chest radiographs were evaluated and 3 variables were analyzed: collimation, positioning and presence of artifacts. This study is a pilot for develop a model of good practices in radiology, which is in development phase. The index of analyzed radiographs considered inadequate is expressive and it shows the need for a model that may be part of an optimization program to medical exposures. (author)

  13. Probabilistic model for primary distribution networks performance evaluation; Modelo probabilistico para avaliacao do desempenho de redes de distribuicao primaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Andre Luiz de Carvalho

    1997-07-01

    A method for performance evaluation of primary feeders with respect to voltage drop, loss and level of reliability to use, specially in studies of investment planning is focused. The probabilistic model is the chronological minimum length tree. The work consists of: analysis of model; proposition of modifications in model necessary to brazilian electrical sector reality, introducing parameter representing the load density; model adaptation to reliability studies, with evaluation of principal indicators in use in the country; development of software for microcomputer; the simulation of some cases with the software; based in the results, attainment of laws to facilitate the use of model. Eventually, the conclusions are made with considerations about possible applications of the method and research topics for further developments are settled. (author)

  14. Calibrating water supply network models: a management strategy; Calibracion de los modelos de redes de abastecimiento de agua: una estrategia de gestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Jimenez, A.; Martinez Solano, F. J.; Lopez Ptano, G.; Iglesias Rey, P. L. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. Valencia (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The efficient water supply management has become today, not only a necessity, but a society requirement. The efficiency improvement can be become a new source for the system and it should be considered as an alternative investment and management philosophy. To achieve an adequate management, we need a calibrated model, in order than it becomes a reality reflect. In this article, we will defined the need to calibrate the models as a management tool, and some validation strategies will be depicted. (Author)

  15. Modelos de Beaver, Ohlson y Altman: ¿Son realmente capaces de predecir la bancarrota en el sector empresarial costarricense? (Models of Beaver, Ohlson and Altman: are really able to predict the bankruptcy in the Costa Rican business sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Vargas Charpentier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la aplicación de mo- delos para la prevención de bancarrotas empresariales en el sector empresarial costarricense. Se aplicaron los modelos a un grupo de empresas que se acogieron al proceso de intervención financiera, o quiebra, en el Juzgado Concursal de los Tribunales de Justicia de San José, con el fin de determinar si estos modelos fueron capaces de predecir la bancarrota. Dentro de los hallazgos principales están que el Modelo de Altman calificó a cuatro de las cinco empresas anali- zadas como zona roja el año en que se declararon en quiebra, el Modelo de Ohlson, con su ecuación O1 u O3, calificó en quiebra las cinco empresas el año en que se dio, y el modelo de Beaver calificó como el año con peores indicadores al último en tres oca- siones, a diferencia de los otros modelos, los cuales no indicaron que el año de quiebra tuviera los peores indicadores.   Abstract    This article analyzes the models for company bankruptcy prevention used by the Costa Rican business sector. The author applied the studies models to the selected group of companies that had started the judicial intervention or bankruptcy process within the Bankruptcy Court of the Justice Court of San Jose. The objective was to determine if the selected models were capable to prevent the bankruptcy before it initialized. The primary fin- ding was an EM Score 4:5 analyzed companies in the red zone that had filed for bankruptcy within that year. The use of the O1 and O3 equations of the Ohlson method was to predict the bankruptcy of the five companies in the year that had filed to have a bankruptcy case. However, in the Beaver method the companies scored a three as the worst indicators of the year to file for bankruptcy yet the remaining company’s worst year was not the ability to file for bankruptcy within the time.

  16. [Alternatives to the drug research and development model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Germán

    2015-03-01

    One-third of the global population lacks access to medications; the situation is worse in poor countries, where up to 50% of the population lacks access. The failure of current incentive systems based in intellectual property to offer the necessary pharmaceutical products, especially in the global south, is a call to action. Problems related to drug access cannot be solved solely through improvements or modifications in the existing incentive models. The intellectual property system model does not offer sufficient innovation for developing countries; new mechanisms that effectively promote innovation and drug access simultaneously are needed. A binding international agreement on research and development, negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization, could provide an adequate framework for guaranteeing priority-setting, coordination, and sustainable financing of drugs at reasonable prices for developing countries.

  17. Development of multicriteria models to classify energy efficiency alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Luis Pires; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Dias, Luis Candido; Martins, Antonio Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at describing a novel constructive approach to develop decision support models to classify energy efficiency initiatives, including traditional Demand-Side Management and Market Transformation initiatives, overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of Cost-Benefit Analysis. A multicriteria approach based on the ELECTRE-TRI method is used, focusing on four perspectives: - an independent Agency with the aim of promoting energy efficiency; - Distribution-only utilities under a regulated framework; - the Regulator; - Supply companies in a competitive liberalized market. These perspectives were chosen after a system analysis of the decision situation regarding the implementation of energy efficiency initiatives, looking for the main roles and power relations, with the purpose of structuring the decision problem by identifying the actors, the decision makers, the decision paradigm, and the relevant criteria. The multicriteria models developed allow considering different kinds of impacts, but avoiding difficult measurements and unit conversions due to the nature of the multicriteria method chosen. The decision is then based on all the significant effects of the initiative, both positive and negative ones, including ancillary effects often forgotten in cost-benefit analysis. The ELECTRE-TRI, as most multicriteria methods, provides to the Decision Maker the ability of controlling the relevance each impact can have on the final decision. The decision support process encompasses a robustness analysis, which, together with a good documentation of the parameters supplied into the model, should support sound decisions. The models were tested with a set of real-world initiatives and compared with possible decisions based on Cost-Benefit analysis

  18. Alternative approach to the surface-excitation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Although the development of the surface-excitation model of sputtered-ion emission involved a detailed description of the ionization process, one can arrive at the same result by assuming an equilibrium treatment, e.g. the Saha-Langmuir equation, with the temperature falling as the collision casade develops. This suggests that, even if situations are found where the surface-excitation model is successful, it does not follow that the original detailed description of the ionization process is correct. Nevertheless, the surface-excitation model does contain an interesting new idea which should not be overlooked, i.e. that atoms sputtered during the early stages of a collision cascade will be relatively energetic, and to the extent that the Saha-Langmuir equation has some applicability, will have a probability of positive ionization which will be low for atoms of low ionization potential (I phi), relative to lower-energy atoms emitted during the later stages of the collision cascade. The extended abstract will discuss recent experimental results

  19. SR 97 - Alternative models project. Discrete fracture network modelling for performance assessment of Aberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, B.; Eiben, T.; Follin, S.; Andersson, Johan

    1999-08-01

    As part of studies into the siting of a deep repository for nuclear waste, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has commissioned the Alternative Models Project (AMP). The AMP is a comparison of three alternative modeling approaches for geosphere performance assessment for a single hypothetical site. The hypothetical site, arbitrarily named Aberg is based on parameters from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in southern Sweden. The Aberg model domain, boundary conditions and canister locations are defined as a common reference case to facilitate comparisons between approaches. This report presents the results of a discrete fracture pathways analysis of the Aberg site, within the context of the SR 97 performance assessment exercise. The Aberg discrete fracture network (DFN) site model is based on consensus Aberg parameters related to the Aespoe HRL site. Discrete fracture pathways are identified from canister locations in a prototype repository design to the surface of the island or to the sea bottom. The discrete fracture pathways analysis presented in this report is used to provide the following parameters for SKB's performance assessment transport codes FARF31 and COMP23: * F-factor: Flow wetted surface normalized with regards to flow rate (yields an appreciation of the contact area available for diffusion and sorption processes) [TL -1 ]. * Travel Time: Advective transport time from a canister location to the environmental discharge [T]. * Canister Flux: Darcy flux (flow rate per unit area) past a representative canister location [LT -1 ]. In addition to the above, the discrete fracture pathways analysis in this report also provides information about: additional pathway parameters such as pathway length, pathway width, transport aperture, reactive surface area and transmissivity, percentage of canister locations with pathways to the surface discharge, spatial pattern of pathways and pathway discharges, visualization of pathways, and statistical

  20. SR 97 - Alternative models project. Discrete fracture network modelling for performance assessment of Aberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dershowitz, B.; Eiben, T. [Golder Associates Inc., Seattle (United States); Follin, S.; Andersson, Johan [Golder Grundteknik KB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-08-01

    As part of studies into the siting of a deep repository for nuclear waste, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has commissioned the Alternative Models Project (AMP). The AMP is a comparison of three alternative modeling approaches for geosphere performance assessment for a single hypothetical site. The hypothetical site, arbitrarily named Aberg is based on parameters from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in southern Sweden. The Aberg model domain, boundary conditions and canister locations are defined as a common reference case to facilitate comparisons between approaches. This report presents the results of a discrete fracture pathways analysis of the Aberg site, within the context of the SR 97 performance assessment exercise. The Aberg discrete fracture network (DFN) site model is based on consensus Aberg parameters related to the Aespoe HRL site. Discrete fracture pathways are identified from canister locations in a prototype repository design to the surface of the island or to the sea bottom. The discrete fracture pathways analysis presented in this report is used to provide the following parameters for SKB's performance assessment transport codes FARF31 and COMP23: * F-factor: Flow wetted surface normalized with regards to flow rate (yields an appreciation of the contact area available for diffusion and sorption processes) [TL{sup -1}]. * Travel Time: Advective transport time from a canister location to the environmental discharge [T]. * Canister Flux: Darcy flux (flow rate per unit area) past a representative canister location [LT{sup -1}]. In addition to the above, the discrete fracture pathways analysis in this report also provides information about: additional pathway parameters such as pathway length, pathway width, transport aperture, reactive surface area and transmissivity, percentage of canister locations with pathways to the surface discharge, spatial pattern of pathways and pathway discharges, visualization of pathways, and

  1. Modelos de madurez y su idoneidad para aplicar en pequeñas y medianas empresas / Maturity models and the suitability of its application in small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pérez-Mergarejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, existen metodologías, estándares, modelos de madurez y guías que pueden ayudar a una organización a mejorar su modo de operar. Los modelos de madurez constituyen una evolución de las metodologías para gestionar la calidad de la organización. Fueron concebidos inicialmente para la industria del software, pero actualmente su área de aplicación es muy diversa. La implementación de los modelos de madurez en las pequeñas y medianas empresas (Pymes, se dificulta por ser organizaciones que en general están poco estructuradas y en la mayoría de los casos no cuentan con personal calificado y certificado. El objetivo del trabajo es realizar recomendaciones que puedan servir de referencia para su aplicación en las Pymes, a partir de una revisión de reconocidos modelos de madurez. ABSTRACT Nowadays there are methodologies, standards, maturity models and guides that can help an organization to improve the way it operates. Maturity models are evolving methodologies to manage the quality of the organization. They were initially designed for the software industry, but currently its application area is very diverse. The implementation of maturity models in small and medium enterprises (SMEs is difficult, since these organizations are wrongly structured in general and in most cases they do not have qualified and certified personnel. The main purpose of this paper is to perform recommendations that may be applied by SMEs, starting from a review of recognized maturity models.

  2. DISEÑO Y MANIPULACIÓN DE MODELOS OCULTOS DE MARKOV, UTILIZANDO HERRAMIENTAS HTK: UNA TUTORÍA DESIGN AND MANIPULATION OF HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS USING HTK TOOLS: A TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carrillo Aguilar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo da a conocer el sistema de desarrollo de software para el diseño y manipulación de modelos ocultos de Markov, denominado HTK. Actualmente, la técnica de modelos ocultos de Markov es la herramienta más efectiva para implementar sistemas reconocedores del habla. HTK está orientado principalmente a ese aspecto. Su arquitectura es robusta y autosuficiente. Permite: la entrada lógica y natural desde un micrófono, dispone de módulos para la conversión A/D, preprocesado y parametrización de la información, posee herramientas para definir y manipular modelos ocultos de Markov, tiene librerías para entrenamiento y manipulación de los modelos ocultos de Markov ya definidos, considera funciones para definir la gramática, y además: Una serie de herramientas adicionales permiten lograr el objetivo final de obtener una hipotética transcripción del habla (conversión voz - texto.This paper presents HTK, a software development platform for the design and management of Hidden Markov Models. Nowadays, the Hidden Markov Models technique is the more effective one to implement voice recognition systems. HTK is mainly oriented to this application. Its architecture is robust and self-sufficient. It allows a natural input from a microphone, it has modules for A/D conversion, it allows pre-processing and parameterization of information, it possesses tools to define and manage the Hidden Markov Models, libraries for training and use the already defined Hidden Markov Models. It has functions to define the grammar and it has additional tools to reach the final objective, to obtain an hypothetical transcription of the talking (voice to text translation.

  3. Análise de um modelo para a formação de professores e suas aplicações Analysis of teachers' formation model with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Querido de Oliveira Chamon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é aplicar um modelo de análise aos processos de formação docente. Este modelo é construído a partir de três polos - o conhecimento, a situação e o sujeito -, que definem três lógicas de formação: epistêmica, socioprofissional e psicológica. O modelo foi aplicado em dois estudos, uma formação continuada e uma formação inicial. Para o primeiro estudo, 189 professores da rede estadual de ensino do Estado de São Paulo avaliaram a formação que cursavam. Para o segundo estudo, 964 alunos do curso de Pedagogia de uma instituição do Estado do Pará responderam a um questionário sobre a formação recebida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que: 1 a formação ofertada no primeiro estudo relaciona-se fundamentalmente ao polo socioprofissional do modelo; 2 a formação do segundo estudo relaciona-se aos polos socioprofissional e epistêmico.This paper proposes an analytical model to the teacher education process. The theoretical framework supporting our analysis is based on an analytical model, composed by conceptual, psychological, and professional elements, which guides the education design. This model was applied to two study cases. In the first one, 189 teachers from Sao Paulo State evaluated a continuing education program. In the second study, an education undergraduate course was evaluated by 964 students. Results showed that: 1 for the first case, the education program was mainly related to the professional axis of the model; 2 for the second case, the undergraduate course was related to both axes, professional and conceptual.

  4. Análisis y reflexión sobre modelos teóricos del proceso salud-enfermedad Analysis and reflection on theoretical models of the health-disease process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arredondo

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo parte de la necesidad de hacer una revisión y análisis de los diferentes modelos teóricos sobre los determinantes y condicionantes del proceso salud-enfermedad como herramienta relevante de los programas educativos en la formación de recursos humanos. Determinando para cada modelo la hipótesis propuesta, las variables de estudio, ventajas, desventajas, época y representantes, se plantea como objeto de análisis el carácter científico y/ó metodológico de los modelos: mágico-religioso, sanitarista, unicausal, multicausal, epidemiológico, ecológico, social, histórico-social, geográfico, económico e interdisciplinario. La discusión y conclusiones se centran en la necesidad de discutir hasta que punto la metodología, los planteamientos y aportes fundamentales de cada modelo son compatibles, complementarios, contradictorios, científicamente sólidos, tendenciosos, conservadores, críticos y reflexivos, así como su relevancia en la formación de recursos humanos en salud.The present paper does a review and analyses the models which have been developed for the analysis of determinants and explanatory factors of the health-disease process as an elementary input for designing educational programs in the training of health manpower. Establishing the hypothesis, variables, advantages, disadvantages, time and authors of each model, the object of the analysis includes the models' methodological and/or scientific aspects: magic-religious, sanitary, unicausal, multicausal, epidemiological, ecological, social, social-historical, geographical, economic and interdisciplinary. The discussion and conclusions focus on the critical and reflexive characteristics of the models, contradictions and compatibilities among them, and their relevance for the training of human resources in health.

  5. Atmospheric dispersion models help to improve air quality; Los modelos de dispersion atmosferica ayudan a mejorar la calidad del aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.

    2013-07-01

    One of the main challenges of the atmospheric sciences is to reproduce as well as possible the phenomena and processes of pollutants in the atmosphere. To do it, mathematical models based in this case on fluid dynamics and mass and energy conservation equations, equations that govern the atmospheric chemistry, etc., adapted to the spatial scales to be simulated, are developed. The dispersion models simulate the processes of transport, dispersion, chemical transformation and elimination by deposition that air pollutants undergo once they are emitted. Atmospheric dispersion models with their multiple applications have become essential tools for the air quality management. (Author)

  6. Alternative DFN model based on initial site investigations at Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. [Itasca Consultants, Ecully (France); Davy, S.A.P.; Bour, O.; Dreuzy, J.R. de [Geosciences, Rennes (France)

    2004-12-01

    In this report, we provide a first-order analysis of the fracture network at the Simpevarp site. The first order model is the fracture distribution function, noted, fdf, which provides the number of fractures having a given orientation and length, and belonging to a given volume of observation. The first-order distribution model does not describe higher-order correlation between fracture parameters, such as a possible dependency of fracture length distribution with orientations. We also check that most of the information is contained in this 1st-order distribution model, and that dividing the fracture networks into different sets do not bring a better statistical description. The fracture distribution function contains 3 main distributions: the probability distribution of fracture orientations, the dependency on the size of the sampling domain that may exhibit non-trivial scaling in case of fractal correlations, and the fracture-length density distribution, which appears to be well fitted by a power law. The main scaling parameters are the fractal dimension and the power-law exponent of the fracture length distribution. The former was found to be about equal to the embedding dimension, meaning that fractal correlations are weak and can be neglected in the DFN model. The latter depends on geology, that is either lithology or grain size, with values that ranges from 3.2 for granite-like outcrops to 4 for diorite or monzodiorite outcrops, as well as for the large-scale lineament maps. When analyzing the consistency of the different datasets (boreholes, outcrops, lineament maps), we found that two different DFNs can be described: the first one is derived from the fdf of the outcrop with fine-grained size lithology, and is valid across all scales investigated in this study, from the highly-fractured cores to large-scale maps; the second one is derived from the fdf of the outcrops with coarse-grained size lithology, and is found consistent with cores that present the

  7. Estrategia para el diseño paramétrico basado en modelos. // Strategy for model-based parametric design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Marrero Osorio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone una manera de diseñar paramétricamente utilizando los programas de computadora (CAD,CAE, PMS difundidos entre los diseñadores durante los últimos 20 años. La propuesta se basa en modelos matemáticosque consideran el conocimiento sobre la ingeniería del objeto de diseño y lo relacionado con la confección de su modelovirtual tridimensional, planos y otro aspectos; utilizando el Método de los Grafos Dicromáticos para resolver los problemascomputacionales que se presentan en el diseño paramétrico. Se analizan los puntos de vista de diferentes autores en relacióncon el proceso general de diseño y es ubicado dentro del mismo el diseño paramétrico, realizándose una explicación formalque permite arribar a conclusiones interesantes.Palabras claves: Diseño paramétrico, diseño asistido por computadoras (CAD, ingeniería asistida porcomputadoras (CAE, software para el modelado paramétrico (PMS, resolución de problemas._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract:The present article exposes a way to design parametrically applying programs (CAD, CAE, PMS accepted by designers along thelast 20 years. The proposal is based on mathematical models that ponder the knowledge on the engineering of the design object andthe building of its three-dimensional virtual models, blueprints and another aspects; using the dichromatic graph method to solvecomputational problems in parametric design. The points of view of different authors are analyzed in connection with the generalprocess of design, locating parametric design inside it, carrying out a formal explanation which arrives to interesting conclusions.Key words: Parametric design, computer aided design (CAD, computer aided engineering (CAE,parametric modeling software (PMS, problem solving.

  8. Development and Validation of Linear Alternator Models for the Advanced Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metscher, Jonathan F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Two models of the linear alternator of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) have been developed using the Sage 1-D modeling software package. The first model relates the piston motion to electric current by means of a motor constant. The second uses electromagnetic model components to model the magnetic circuit of the alternator. The models are tuned and validated using test data and also compared against each other. Results show both models can be tuned to achieve results within 7 of ASC test data under normal operating conditions. Using Sage enables the creation of a complete ASC model to be developed and simulations completed quickly compared to more complex multi-dimensional models. These models allow for better insight into overall Stirling convertor performance, aid with Stirling power system modeling, and in the future support NASA mission planning for Stirling-based power systems.

  9. Modelos da distribuição temporal de chuvas intensas em Piracicaba, SP Time distribution models of intense rainfall in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio E. Crucia