WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative landfill cover

  1. Evaluation of the odour reduction potential of alternative cover materials at a commercial landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, P J; Dodd, V A; Curran, T P

    2010-02-01

    The availability of virgin soils and traditional landfill covers are not only costly and increasingly becoming scarce, but they also reduce the storage capacity of landfill. The problem can be overcome by the utilisation of certain suitable waste streams as alternative landfill covers. The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of Construction & Demolition fines (C&D), Commercial & Industrial fines (C&I) and woodchip (WC) as potential landfill cover materials in terms of odour control. Background odour analysis was conducted to determine if any residual odour was emitted from the cover types. It was deemed negligible for the three materials. The odour reduction performance of each of the materials was also examined on an area of an active landfill site. A range of intermediate cover compositions were also studied to assess their performance. Odour emissions were sampled using a Jiang hood and analysed. Results indicate that the 200 mm deep combination layer of C&D and wood chip used on-site is adequate for odour abatement. The application of daily cover was found to result in effective reduction allowing for the background odour of woodchip.

  2. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  3. Field performance of alternative landfill covers vegetated with cottonwood and eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abichou, Tarek; Musagasa, Jubily; Yuan, Lei; Chanton, Jeff; Tawfiq, Kamal; Rockwood, Donald; Licht, Louis

    2012-01-01

    A field study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill covers to control percolation into the waste. Performance of one conventional cover was compared to that of two evapotranspiration (ET) tree covers, using large (7 x 14 m) lined lysimeters at the Leon County Solid Waste management facility in Tallahassee, Florida. Additional unlined test sections were also constructed and monitored in order to compare soil water storage, soil temperature, and tree growth inside lysimeters and in unlined test sections. The unlined test sections were in direct contact with landfill gas. Surface runoff on the ET covers was a small proportion of the water balance (1% of precipitation) as compared to 13% in the conventional cover. Percolation in the ET covers averaged 17% and 24% of precipitation as compared to 33% in the conventional cover. On average, soil water storage was higher in the lined lysimeters (429 mm) compared to unlined test sections (408 mm). The average soil temperature in the lysimeters was lower than in the unlined test sections. The average tree height inside the lysimeters was not significantly lower (8.04 mfor eucalyptus and 7.11 mfor cottonwood) than outside (8.82 m for eucalyptus and 8.01 m for cottonwood). ET tree covers vegetated with cottonwood or eucalyptus are feasible for North Florida climate as an alternative to GCL covers.

  4. Evaluation of alternative landfill cover soils for attenuating hydrogen sulfide from construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Cristine; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2007-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) generated from C&D debris landfills has emerged as a major environmental concern due to odor problems and possible health impacts to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Research was performed to evaluate the performance of various cover materials as control measures for H(2)S emissions from C&D debris landfills. Twelve laboratory-scale simulated landfill columns containing gypsum drywall were operated under anaerobic conditions to promote H(2)S production. Five different cover materials were placed on top of the waste inside duplicate columns: (1) sandy soil, (2) sandy soil amended with lime, (3) clayey soil, (4) fine concrete (particle size less than 2.5 cm), and (5) coarse concrete (particle size greater than 2.5 cm). No cover was placed on two of the columns, which were used as controls. H(2)S concentrations measured from the middle of the waste layer ranged from 50,000 to 150,000 ppm. The different cover materials demonstrated varying H(2)S removal efficiencies. The sandy soil amended with lime and the fine concrete were the most effective for the control of H(2)S emissions. Both materials exhibited reduction efficiencies greater than 99%. The clayey and sandy soils exhibited lower reduction efficiencies, with average removal efficiencies of 65% and 30%, respectively. The coarse concrete was found to be the least efficient material as a result of its large particle size.

  5. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  6. Attenuation of hydrogen sulfide at construction and demolition debris landfills using alternative cover materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Reinhart, Debra

    2010-04-01

    The attenuation of H(2)S emissions by various landfill cover materials was evaluated using both laboratory and field experiments. The results demonstrated that cover materials consisting of selected waste products (compost and yard trash) and soils amended with quicklime and calcium carbonate effectively attenuated H(2)S emissions and detectable H(2)S emissions were only encountered in a testing plot using a sandy soil cover (average emission rate was 4.67x10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1)). H(2)S concentration profiles in the cover materials indicated that H(2)S was removed as it migrated through the cover materials. At the same depth in the testing area, the H(2)S concentration in the sandy soil field plot was always higher than that of other testing plots because the sand (a) demonstrated less ability to remove H(2)S and (b) exhibited a higher H(2)S concentration at the base of the cover. Laboratory experiments confirmed these observations, with a combination of physical adsorption, chemical reactions, and biological oxidation, accounting for the enhanced removal. In addition to removal, the results suggest that some of the cover materials reduced H(2)S generation by creating less favorable conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., high pH and temperature). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water balance relationships in four alternative cover designs for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Trujillo, G.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a field study to evaluate the relative hydrologic performance of various landfill capping technologies installed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Four cover designs (two Los Alamos capillary barrier designs, one modified EPA RCRA design, and one conventional design) were installed in large lysimeters instrumented to monitor the fate of natural precipitation between 01 January 1990 and 20 September 1993. After 45 months of study, results showed that the cover designs containing barrier layers were effective in reducing deep percolation as compared to a simple soil cap design. The RCRA cover, incorporating a clay hydraulic barrier, was the most effective of all cover designs in controlling percolation but was not 100% effective. Over 90% of all percolation and barrier lateral flow occurred during the months of February through May of each year, primarily as a result of snow melt, early spring rains and low evapotranspiration. Gravel mulch surface treatments (70--80% coverage) were effective in reducing runoff and erosion. The two plots receiving gravel mulch treatments exhibited equal but enhanced amounts of evapotranspiration despite the fact that one plot was planted with additional shrubs

  8. Deployment of an alternative cover and final closure of the Mixed Waste Landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); McVey, Michael David (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Borns, David James

    2003-06-01

    An alternative cover design consisting of a monolithic layer of native soil is proposed as the closure path for the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The proposed design would rely upon soil thickness and evapotranspiration to provide long-term performance and stability, and would be inexpensive to build and maintain. The proposed design is a 3-ft-thick, vegetated soil cover. The alternative cover meets the intent of RCRA Subtitle C regulations in that: (a) water migration through the cover is minimized; (b) maintenance is minimized by using a monolithic soil layer; (c) cover erosion is minimized by using erosion control measures; (d) subsidence is accommodated by using a ''soft'' design; and (e) the permeability of the cover is less than or equal to that of natural subsurface soil present. Performance of the proposed cover is integrated with natural site conditions, producing a ''system performance'' that will ensure that the cover is protective of human health and the environment. Natural site conditions that will produce a system performance include: (a) extremely low precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration; (b) negligible recharge to groundwater; (c) an extensive vadose zone; (d) groundwater approximately 500 ft below the surface; and (e) a versatile, native flora that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance.

  9. 75 FR 6597 - Determination to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... minimize infiltration and erosion. The regulation requires final cover systems to be designed and... of 18 inches of earthen material, and (3) Minimize erosion of the final cover by the use of an erosion layer that contains a minimum of 6 inches of earthen material that is capable of sustaining native...

  10. Technology Overview Using Case Studies of Alternative Landfill Technologies and Associated Regulatory Topics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... alternative landfill cover projects. The purpose of the case studies is to present examples of the flexibility used in the regulatory framework for approving alternative landfill cover designs, current research information about the use...

  11. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossu, R.; Privato, A.; Raga, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed [it

  12. 75 FR 50930 - Final Determination To Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, Montana Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... infiltration and erosion. The regulation requires final cover systems to be designed and constructed to: (1... of earthen material, and (3) Minimize erosion of the final cover by the use of an erosion layer that... infiltration layer specified in paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of 40 CFR 258.60, and (2) An erosion layer that...

  13. Performance of geotextiles in landfills covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, L.J.; Holtz, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    As part of the research into the performance of geotextiles in landfill covers, 14 test pits were excavated in five landfill covers constructed between 1988 and 1992 in Washington State. Materials used in the drainage system were examined and documented. Specimens of geotextiles (all 8 oz/yd{sup 2}, needle punched nonwovens) as well as samples of the vegetative and sand drainage soils, were obtained for laboratory analyses. Laboratory tests indicated that the geotextiles satisfactorily performed their intended filtration function. No apparent migration of fines into the drainage layer was detected. The degree of clogging was evaluated by performing permittivity tests on specimens of the exhumed geotextiles, as retrieved and after washing. Washing typically resulted in permittivity increases on the order of 30 to 90 percent.

  14. Migration barrier covers for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Manies, K.L.; Warren, R.W.; Bostick, K.V.; Trujillo, G.; Kent, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Migration barrier cover technology will likely serve as the remediation alternative of choice for most of DOE's radioactive and mixed waste landfills simply because human and ecological risks can be effectively managed without the use of more expensive alternatives. However, very little testing and evaluation has been done, either before or after installation, to monitor how effective they are in isolating waste or to develop data that can be used to evaluate model predictions of long term performance. Los Alamos National Laboratory has investigated the performance of a variety of landfill capping alternatives since 1981 using large field lysimeters to monitor the fate of precipitation falling on the cap surface. The objective of these studies is to provide the risk manager with a variety of field tested capping designs, of various complexities and costs, so that design alternatives can be matched to the need for hydrologic control at the site. Four different landfill cap designs, representing different complexities and costs, were constructed at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) in October and November, 1989. The designs were constructed in large lysimeters and instrumented to provide estimates of all components of water balance including precipitation, runoff (and soil erosion), infiltration, leachate production, evapotranspiration, and capillary/hydraulic barrier flow. The designs consisted of a typical soil cover to serve as a baseline, a modified EPA RCRA cover, and two versions of a Los Alamos design that contained erosion control measures, an improved vegetation cover to enhance evapotranspiration, and a capillary barrier to divert downward flow of soil water. A comprehensive summary of the Hill AFB demonstration will be available in October 1993, when the project is scheduled to terminate

  15. Limits and dynamics of methane oxidation in landfill cover soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to understand the limits and dynamics of methane (CH4) oxidation in landfill cover soils, we investigated CH4 oxidation in daily, intermediate, and final cover soils from two California landfills as a function of temperature, soil moisture and CO2 concentration. The results indicate a signi...

  16. Planning document for the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Bostick, K.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy and Department of Defense are faced with the closure of thousands of decommissioned radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste landfills as a part of ongoing Environmental Restoration activities. Regulations on the closure of hazardous and radioactive waste landfills require the construction of a ''low-permeability'' cover over the unit to limit the migration of liquids into the underlying waste. These landfills must be maintained and monitored for 30 years to ensure that hazardous materials are not migrating from the landfill. This test plan is intended as an initial road map for planning, designing, constructing, evaluating, and documenting the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD). It describes the goals/ objectives, scope, tasks, responsibilities, technical approach, and deliverables for the demonstration

  17. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, G.W.; Ho, A.; Kim, P.J.; Kim, Sang Yun

    2016-01-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to

  18. Characterization of H2S removal and microbial community in landfill cover soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Wei, Xiao-Meng; Su, Yao; He, Ruo

    2015-12-01

    H2S is a source of odors at landfills and poses a threat to the surrounding environment and public health. In this work, compared with a usual landfill cover soil (LCS), H2S removal and biotransformation were characterized in waste biocover soil (WBS), an alternative landfill cover material. With the input of landfill gas (LFG), the gas concentrations of CH4, CO2, O2, and H2S, microbial community and activity in landfill covers changed with time. Compared with LCS, lower CH4 and H2S concentrations were detected in the WBS. The potential sulfur-oxidizing rate and sulfate-reducing rate as well as the contents of acid-volatile sulfide, SO4(2-), and total sulfur in the WBS and LCS were all increased with the input of LFG. After exposure to LFG for 35 days, the sulfur-oxidizing rate of the bottom layer of the WBS reached 82.5 μmol g dry weight (d.w.)(-1) day(-1), which was 4.3-5.4 times of that of LCS. H2S-S was mainly deposited in the soil covers, while it escaped from landfills to the atmosphere. The adsorption, absorption, and biotransformation of H2S could lead to the decrease in the pH values of landfill covers; especially, in the LCS with low pH buffer capacity, the pH value of the bottom layer dropped to below 4. Pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene showed that the known sulfur-metabolizing bacteria Ochrobactrum, Paracoccus, Comamonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter dominated in the WBS and LCS. Among them, Comamonas and Acinetobacter might play an important role in the metabolism of H2S in the WBS. These findings are helpful to understand sulfur bioconversion process in landfill covers and to develop techniques for controlling odor pollution at landfills.

  19. Behavior and influence of desiccation cracking in loess landfill covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Lan, Ji-wu; Qiu, Qing-wen; He, Hai-jie; Li, He

    2017-11-01

    In the northwest region of China, loess was the main closure cover material of local landfills. Tests in a full-scale testing facility were conducted to investigate the behavior and influence of desiccation cracking in loess landfill covers. The desiccation cracks in the loess landfill cover intersected with T-shape, and the intersection angles were close to 90 degrees. The desiccation cracks formed as a result of drying, and would heal with the increase of moisture content of the loess. In addition, desiccation cracking in loess covers would promote the formation of preferential flow channels. As a consequence, the gas permeability of the loess cover was improved, and methane emissions increased obviously.

  20. Landfill Liners and Covers: Properties and Application to Army Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    and alternate drinking water supplies; and a complete evaluation of the site’s effects on public health . Under the regulation, EPA will, after approval...to chemical attack; i; will also act as a filter , absorbing many contaminants from the leachate. However, the relative chemical compatibility of clay...asphalt emulsions can be sprayed onto supporting fabrics. These fabrics can be woven jute, woven or nonwoven glass fiber, or nonwoven synthetic fiber

  1. On the performance of capillary barriers as landfill cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kämpf

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfills and waste heaps require an engineered surface cover upon closure. The capping system can vary from a simple soil cover to multiple layers of earth and geosynthetic materials. Conventional design features a compacted soil layer, which suffers from drying out and cracking, as well as root and animal intrusion. Capillary barriers consisting of inclined fine-over-coarse soil layers are investigated as an alternative cover system. Under unsaturated conditions, the textural contrast delays vertical drainage by capillary forces. The moisture that builds up above the contact will flow downdip along the interface of the layers. Theoretical studies of capillary barriers have identified the hydraulic properties of the layers, the inclination angle, the length of the field and the infiltration rate as the fundamental characteristics of the system. However, it is unclear how these findings can lead to design criteria for capillary barriers. To assess the uncertainty involved in such approaches, experiments have been carried out in a 8 m long flume and on large scale test sites (40 m x 15 m. In addition, the ability of a numerical model to represent the relevant flow processes in capillary barriers has been examined.

  2. Large-Scale Field Study of Landfill Covers at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-09-01

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for dry environments. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing demonstration.

  3. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Culturable psychrotolerant methanotrophic bacteria in landfill cover soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallistova, A Iu; Montonen, L; Jurgens, G; Munster, U; Kevbrina, M V; Nozhevnikova, A N

    2014-01-01

    Methanotrophs closely related to psychrotolerant members of the genera Methylobacter and Methylocella were identified in cultures enriched at 10@C from landfill cover soil samples collected in the period from April to November. Mesophilic methanotrophs of the genera Methylobacter and Methylosinus were found in cultures enriched at 20 degrees C from the same cover soil samples. A thermotolerant methanotroph related to Methylocaldum gracile was identified in the culture enriched at 40 degrees C from a sample collected in May (the temperature of the cover soil was 11.5-12.5 degrees C). In addition to methanotrophs, methylobacteria of the genera Methylotenera and Methylovorus and members of the genera Verrucomicrobium, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Candidatus Protochlamydia, and Thiorhodospira were also identified in the enrichment cultures. A methanotroph closely related to the psychrotolerant species Methylobacter tundripaludum (98% sequence identity of 16S r-RNA genes with the type strain SV96(T)) was isolated in pure culture. The introduction of a mixture of the methanotrophic enrichments, grown at 15 degrees C, into the landfill cover soil resulted in a decrease in methane emission from the landfill surface in autumn (October, November). The inoculum used was demonstrated to contain methanotrophs closely related to Methylobacter tundripaludum SV96.

  5. Biodegradation of trace gases in simulated landfill soil cover systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2005-07-01

    The attenuation of methane and seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was investigated in a dynamic methane and oxygen counter gradient system simulating a landfill soil cover. The VOCs investigated were: Tetrachloromethane (TeCM), trichloromethane (TCM), dichloromethane (DCM), trichloroethylene (TCE), vinyl chloride (VC), benzene, and toluene. Soil was sampled at Skellingsted landfill, Denmark. The soil columns showed a high capacity for methane oxidation, with oxidation rates up to 184 g/m2/d corresponding to a 77% reduction of inlet methane. Maximal methane oxidation occurred at 15-20 cm depth, in the upper part of the column where there were overlapping gradients of methane and oxygen. All the chlorinated hydrocarbons were degraded in the active soil columns with removal efficiencies higher than 57%. Soil gas concentration profiles indicated that the removal of the fully chlorinated compound TeCM was because of anaerobic degradation, whereas the degradation of lower chlorinated compounds like VC and DCM was located in the upper oxic part of the column. Benzene and toluene were also removed in the active column. This study demonstrates the complexity of landfill soil cover systems and shows that both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria may play an important role in reducing the emission of trace components into the atmosphere.

  6. An Interactive Real-time Decision Support System for Leachate Irrigation on Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill disposal is still the most common and economical practice for municipal solid waste in most countries. However, heavily polluted leachate generated by excess rainwater percolating through the landfill waste is the major drawback of this practice. Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used as alternative cover systems to minimize percolation by evapotranspiration. Leachate recirculation is one of the least expensive options for leachate treatment. The combination of ET cover systems and leachate recirculation can be an economical and environment-friendly practice for landfill leachate management. An interactive real-time decision support system is being developed to better manage leachate irrigation using historical and forecasting weather data, and real time soil moisture data. The main frame of this system includes soil water modules, and plant-soil modules. An inverse simulation module is also included to calibrate certain parameters based on observed data when necessary. It would be an objectives-oriented irrigation management tool to minimize landfill operation costs and negative environmental impacts.

  7. Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian Zhang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation into the underlying waste. This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM. Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers. Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers. In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover, the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm, respectively. The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil. The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow. Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration, thus reducing percolation.

  8. Parametric analyses of evapotranspiration landfill covers in humid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural soils are more durable than almost all man-made materials. Evapotranspiration (ET covers use vegetated soil layers to store water until it is either evaporated from the soil surface or transpired through vegetation. ET covers rely on the water storage capacity of soil layer, rather than low permeability materials, to minimize percolation. While the use of ET covers in landfills increased over the last decade, they were mainly used in arid or semi-arid regions. At present, the use of ET covers has not been thoroughly investigated in humid areas. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of ET covers in humid areas where there is an annual precipitation of more than 800 mm. Numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the influences of cover thickness, soil type, vegetation level and distribution of precipitation on performance of ET covers. Performance and applicability of capillary barriers and a new-type cover were analyzed. The results show that percolation decreases with an increasing cover thickness and an increasing vegetation level, but the increasing trend becomes unclear when certain thickness or LAI (leaf area index is reached. Cover soil with a large capability of water storage is recommended to minimize percolation. ET covers are significantly influenced by distribution of precipitation and are more effective in areas where rainy season coincides with hot season. Capillary barriers are more efficient than monolithic covers. The new cover is better than the monolithic cover in performance and the final percolation is only 0.5% of the annual precipitation.

  9. Seismic stability analyses of reinforced tapered landfill cover systems considering seepage forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshand, Afshin; Fathi, Ali; Zoghi, Milad; Kamalan, Hamidreza

    2018-04-01

    One of the most common and economical methods for waste disposal is landfilling. The landfill cover system is one of the main components of landfills which prevents waste exposure to the environment by creating a barrier between the waste and the surrounding environment. The stability and integrity of the landfill cover system is a fundamental part of the design, construction, and maintenance of landfills. A reinforced tapered landfill cover system can be considered as a practical method for improving its stability; however, the simultaneous effects of seismic and seepage forces in the reinforced tapered landfill cover system have not been studied. The current paper provides a solution based on the limit equilibrium method in order to evaluate the stability of a reinforced tapered landfill cover system under seismic and seepage (both horizontal and parallel seepage force patterns) loading conditions. The proposed analytical approach is applied to different design cases through parametric study and the obtained results are compared to those derived from literature. Parametric study is performed to illustrate the sensitivity of the safety factor (FS) to the different design parameters. The obtained results reveal that parameters which describe the geometry have limited effects on the stability of the landfill cover system in comparison to the rest of the studied design parameters. Moreover, the comparisons between the derived results and available methods demonstrate good agreement between obtained findings with those reported in the literature.

  10. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, S; Andreas, L; Herrmann, I; Ecke, H; Lagerkvist, A

    2010-01-01

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  11. Landfill cover performance monitoring using time domain reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neher, E.R.; Cotten, G.B.; McElroy, D.

    1998-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) systems were installed to monitor soil moisture in two newly constructed landfill covers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Each TDR system includes four vertical arrays with each array consisting of four TDR probes located at depths of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm. The deepest probes at 60 cm were installed beneath a compacted soil layer to analyze infiltration through the compacted layer. Based on the TDR data, infiltration through the two covers between March and October, 1997 ranged from less than measurable to 1.5 cm. However, due to a prohibition on penetrating the buried waste and resulting limits on probe placement depths, deeper percolation was not evaluated. Some of the advantages found in the application of TDR for infiltration monitoring at this site are the relative low cost and rugged nature of the equipment. Also, of particular importance, the ability to collect frequent moisture measurements allows the capture and evaluation of soil moisture changes resulting from episodic precipitation events. Disadvantages include the inability to install the probes into the waste, difficulties in interpretation of infiltration during freeze/thaw periods, and some excessive noise in the data

  12. Landfill cover performance monitoring using time domain reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neher, E.R.; Cotten, G.B. [Parsons Infrastructure & Technology Group, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McElroy, D. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) systems were installed to monitor soil moisture in two newly constructed landfill covers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Each TDR system includes four vertical arrays with each array consisting of four TDR probes located at depths of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm. The deepest probes at 60 cm were installed beneath a compacted soil layer to analyze infiltration through the compacted layer. Based on the TDR data, infiltration through the two covers between March and October, 1997 ranged from less than measurable to 1.5 cm. However, due to a prohibition on penetrating the buried waste and resulting limits on probe placement depths, deeper percolation was not evaluated. Some of the advantages found in the application of TDR for infiltration monitoring at this site are the relative low cost and rugged nature of the equipment. Also, of particular importance, the ability to collect frequent moisture measurements allows the capture and evaluation of soil moisture changes resulting from episodic precipitation events. Disadvantages include the inability to install the probes into the waste, difficulties in interpretation of infiltration during freeze/thaw periods, and some excessive noise in the data.

  13. Fiscal 1998 research report on the development project of new recycling technologies. R and D on alternative covering at solid waste landfills and slope erosion control using used magazine papers; 1998 nendo zasshi koshi wo riyoshita saishu shobunjo muke fukudo daitai koho oyobi dojo ryushutsu boshi koho no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project aims at development of alternative covering at solid waste landfills and slope erosion control using used magazine papers. In fiscal 1998, the remote control unmanned sprayer was fabricated for hazardous and/or risk sites. Harmful and eluted substances were hardly detected from 15 kinds of typical used papers and their films with binders, satisfying the soil environmental quality standard on elution. Used paper fiber processed by shredding and decomposition methods showed a sufficient performance, and the emission control effect and weather resistance of the alternative covering made of such fiber satisfied the requirement of plant growth base soil for final disposal sites. The landfill simulator was developed to clarify the effect of the covering on bio-degradability, leachate property, and waste decomposition and stabilization. Numerical analysis items were also elected for moisture migration in waste layers. As the study result on growth of turf, plant growth base soil including used paper by 5% showed the better plant growth acceleration effect than that without used paper. (NEDO)

  14. Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on landfills, including laws/regulations, and technical guidance on municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, industrial, PCBs, and construction and debris landfills. To provide resources for owners and operators of landfills.

  15. Adsorption and transport of methane in landfill cover soil amended with waste-wood biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R

    2015-08-01

    The natural presence of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in landfill soils can stimulate the bio-chemical oxidation of CH4 to CO2 and H2O under suitable environmental conditions. This mechanism can be enhanced by amending the landfill cover soil with organic materials such as biochars that are recalcitrant to biological degradation and are capable of adsorbing CH4 while facilitating the growth and activity of MOB within their porous structure. Several series of batch and small-scale column tests were conducted to quantify the CH4 sorption and transport properties of landfill cover soil amended with four types of waste hardwood biochars under different levels of amendment percentages (2, 5 and 10% by weight), exposed CH4 concentrations (0-1 kPa), moisture content (dry, 25% and 75% water holding capacity), and temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C). The linear forms of the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model were used to determine the kinetics and the maximum CH4 adsorption capacity of cover materials. The maximum CH4 sorption capacity of dry biochar-amended soils ranged from 1.03 × 10(-2) to 7.97 × 10(-2) mol kg(-1) and exhibited a ten-fold increase compared to that of soil with 1.9 × 10(-3) mol kg(-1). The isosteric heat of adsorption for soil was negative and ranged from -30 to -118 kJ/mol, while that of the biochar-amended soils was positive and ranged from 24 to 440 kJ/mol. The CH4 dispersion coefficients for biochar-amended soils obtained through predictive transport modeling indicated that amending the soil with biochar enhanced the methane transport rates by two orders of magnitude, thereby increasing their potential for enhanced exchange of gases within the cover system. Overall, the use of hardwood biochars as a cover soil amendment to reduce methane emissions from landfills appears to be a promising alternative to conventional soil covers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varank, Gamze; Demir, Ahmet; Top, Selin; Sekman, Elif; Akkaya, Ebru; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Bilgili, M Sinan

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm+10 cm, k=10(-8)m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE)+compacted clay liner (10 cm+10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn)+bentonite liner (2 cm)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn)+zeolite liner (2 cm)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily

  18. Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data set defines both current and historic landfills/waste disposal storage sites for the State of Vermont. Historic landfills were identified with the...

  19. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  20. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celary, Piotr, E-mail: pcelary@is.pcz.czest.pl; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta, E-mail: jszoltysek@is.pcz.czest.pl

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  1. Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, I; Lidelöw, S; Andreas, L; Tham, G; Lagerkvist, A

    2009-04-01

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl(-), nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner.

  2. Removal of halogenated organic compounds in landfill gas by top covers containing zero-valent iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Winther, K.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Transformation of gaseous CCl3F and CCl4 by zero-valent iron was studied in systems unsaturated with water under anaerobic conditionssin an N2 gas and in a landfill gas atmosphere. The transformation was studied in batch as well as flow-through column tests. In both systems, the transformation....... During continuous aerobic conditions, the transformation of CCl3F decreased toward zero. Model calculations show that use of zero-valent iron in landfill top covers is a potential treatment technology for emission reduction of halogenated trace compounds from landfills....

  3. Identity of active methanotrophs in landfill cover soil as revealed by DNA-stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Bodrossy, Levente; Chen, Yin; Singer, Andrew C; Thompson, Ian P; Prosser, James I; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-10-01

    A considerable amount of methane produced during decomposition of landfill waste can be oxidized in landfill cover soil by methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The identity of active methanotrophs in Roscommon landfill cover soil, a slightly acidic peat soil, was assessed by DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Landfill cover soil slurries were incubated with (13)C-labelled methane and under either nutrient-rich nitrate mineral salt medium or water. The identity of active methanotrophs was revealed by analysis of (13)C-labelled DNA fractions. The diversity of functional genes (pmoA and mmoX) and 16S rRNA genes was analyzed using clone libraries, microarrays and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the cover soil was mainly dominated by Type II methanotrophs closely related to the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa and to Methylocystis species. These results were supported by analysis of mmoX genes in (13)C-DNA. Analysis of pmoA gene diversity indicated that a significant proportion of active bacteria were also closely related to the Type I methanotrophs, Methylobacter and Methylomonas species. Environmental conditions in the slightly acidic peat soil from Roscommon landfill cover allow establishment of both Type I and Type II methanotrophs.

  4. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  5. Design and construction of the multilayer cover for uranium ores landfills in Andujar (Spain) mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Santiago, J.L. de.

    1994-01-01

    This report shows the design and construction of multilayer cover for the landfill of sterile uranium ores in Andujar Mining (Spain). The main chapters are: 1.- Decommissioning project of Uranium Mining in Andujar (Spain) 2.- Elements and design of cover. 3.- Characteristic material

  6. Two-year performance by evapotranspiration covers for municipal solid waste landfills in northwest Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnswell, Kristopher D; Dwyer, Daryl F

    2012-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) covers have gained interest as an alternative to conventional covers for the closure of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills because they are less costly to construct and are expected to have a longer service life. Whereas ET covers have gained acceptance in arid and semi-arid regions (defined by a precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio less than 0.75) by meeting performance standards (e.g. rate of percolation), it remains unclear whether they are suitable for humid regions (P:PET greater than 0.75). The goal of this project is to extend their application to northwest Ohio (P:PET equals 1.29) by designing covers that produce a rate of percolation less than 32 cm yr(-1), the maximum acceptable rate by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). Test ET covers were constructed in drainage lysimeters (1.52 m diameter, 1.52 m depth) using dredged sediment amended with organic material and consisted of immature (I, plants seeded onto soil) or mature (M, plants transferred from a restored tall-grass prairie) plant mixtures. The water balance for the ET covers was monitored from June 2009 to June 2011, which included measured precipitation and percolation, and estimated soil water storage and evapotranspiration. Precipitation was applied at a rate of 94 cm yr(-1) in the first year and at rate of 69 cm yr(-1) in the second year. During the first year, covers with the M plant mixture produced noticeably less percolation (4 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (17 cm). However, during the second year, covers with the M plant mixture produced considerably more percolation (10 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (3 cm). This is likely due to a decrease in the aboveground biomass for the M plant mixture from year 1 (1008 g m(-2)) to year 2 (794 g m(-2)) and an increase for the I plant mixture from year 1 (644 g m(-2)) to year 2 (1314 gm(-2)). Over the 2-year period, the mean annual rates of percolation for the covers

  7. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gil Won; Ho, Adrian; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-09-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to mitigate CH4 emissions, as well as to prevent water infiltration using vegetation on landfill cover soils. In our previous studies, bottom ash from coal-fired power plants was selected among several industrial residues (blast furnace slag, bottom ash, construction waste, steel manufacture slag, stone powder sludge, and waste gypsum) as the best additive for ET cover systems, with the highest mechanical performance achieved for a 35% (wtwt(-1)) bottom ash content in soil. In this study, to evaluate the field applicability of bottom ash mixed soil as ET cover, four sets of lysimeters (height 1.2m×width 2m×length 6m) were constructed in 2007, and four different treatments were installed: (i) soil+bottom ash (35% wtwt(-1)) (SB); (ii) soil+compost (2% wtwt(-1), approximately corresponding to 40Mgha(-1) in arable field scale) (SC); (iii) soil+bottom ash+compost (SBC); and (iv) soil only as the control (S). The effects of bottom ash mixing in ET cover soil on CH4 oxidation potential and vegetation growth were evaluated in a pilot ET cover system in the 5th year after installation by pilot experiments using the treatments. Our results showed that soil properties were significantly improved by bottom ash mixing, resulting in higher plant growth. Bottom ash addition significantly increased the CH4 oxidation potential of the ET cover soil, mainly due to improved organic matter and available copper concentration, enhancing methanotrophic abundances in soil amended with bottom ash. Conclusively, bottom ash could be a good alternative as a soil additive in the ET cover system to improve vegetation growth and mitigate CH4 emission impact in the waste landfill system. Copyright © 2016

  8. Impact of different plants on the gas profile of a landfill cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Watzinger, Andrea; Riesing, Johann; Gerzabek, Martin H.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Plants influence gas profile and methane oxidation in landfill covers. → Plants regulate water content and increase the availability of oxygen for methane oxidation. → Plant species with deep roots like alfalfa showed more stimulation of methane oxidation than plants with shallow root systems like grasses. - Abstract: Methane is an important greenhouse gas emitted from landfill sites and old waste dumps. Biological methane oxidation in landfill covers can help to reduce methane emissions. To determine the influence of different plant covers on this oxidation in a compost layer, we conducted a lysimeter study. We compared the effect of four different plant covers (grass, alfalfa + grass, miscanthus and black poplar) and of bare soil on the concentration of methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen in lysimeters filled with compost. Plants were essential for a sustainable reduction in methane concentrations, whereas in bare soil, methane oxidation declined already after 6 weeks. Enhanced microbial activity - expected in lysimeters with plants that were exposed to landfill gas - was supported by the increased temperature of the gas in the substrate and the higher methane oxidation potential. At the end of the first experimental year and from mid-April of the second experimental year, the methane concentration was most strongly reduced in the lysimeters containing alfalfa + grass, followed by poplar, miscanthus and grass. The observed differences probably reflect the different root morphology of the investigated plants, which influences oxygen transport to deeper compost layers and regulates the water content.

  9. [Experiment and numerical simulation of percolation control using evapotranspirative landfill cover system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-shun; Zhao, Hui; Luo, Ji-wu

    2009-01-01

    An Evapotranspirative Landfill Cover (ET Landfill Cover) is a simple and economical percolation control system that involves a monolithic soil layer with a vegetative cover.Percolation control in an ET cover system relies on the storage of moisture within the cover soils during precipitation events and subsequently returns it to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Percolation control experiments of a bare soil cover and 5 different ET covers were implemented in comprehensive experimental station of water environment of Wuhan University and the water balance calculation of each cover system was conducted, the results shown that the ET cover of 60 cm loamy soil layer with shrub was the most effective among the 6 experimental disposals. However, the experiments demonstrated 60 cm thick of soil layer was not enough to prevent percolation during rainy season and keep the shrub alive during drought season without irrigation. So the Hydrus 2D was selected to simulate the soil water movement in ET covers with different cover thicknesses, the simulations shown that the optimal ET cover in Wuhan area should be 120-140 cm loamy soil layer with shrub.

  10. Effects of biochar amendment on geotechnical properties of landfill cover soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Yaghoubi, Poupak; Yukselen-Aksoy, Yeliz

    2015-06-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich product obtained when plant-based biomass is heated in a closed container with little or no available oxygen. Biochar-amended soil has the potential to serve as a landfill cover material that can oxidise methane emissions for two reasons: biochar amendment can increase the methane retention time and also enhance the biological activity that can promote the methanotrophic oxidation of methane. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength are the most important geotechnical properties that are required for the design of effective and stable landfill cover systems, but no studies have been reported on these properties for biochar-amended landfill cover soils. This article presents physicochemical and geotechnical properties of a biochar, a landfill cover soil and biochar-amended soils. Specifically, the effects of amending 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (of different particle sizes as produced, size-20 and size-40) to soil on its physicochemical properties, such as moisture content, organic content, specific gravity and pH, as well as geotechnical properties, such as hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength, were determined from laboratory testing. Soil or biochar samples were prepared by mixing them with 20% deionised water based on dry weight. Samples of soil amended with 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (w/w) as-is or of different select sizes, were also prepared at 20% initial moisture content. The results show that the hydraulic conductivity of the soil increases, compressibility of the soil decreases and shear strength of the soil increases with an increase in the biochar amendment, and with a decrease in biochar particle size. Overall, the study revealed that biochar-amended soils can possess excellent geotechnical properties to serve as stable landfill cover materials. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Gas breakthrough and emission through unsaturated compacted clay in landfill final cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.W.W.; Chen, Z.K.; Coo, J.L.; Chen, R.; Zhou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Explore feasibility of unsaturated clay as a gas barrier in landfill cover. • Gas breakthrough pressure increases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • Gas emission rate decreases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • A 0.6 m-thick clay layer may be sufficient to meet gas emission rate limit. - Abstract: Determination of gas transport parameters in compacted clay plays a vital role for evaluating the effectiveness of soil barriers. The gas breakthrough pressure has been widely studied for saturated swelling clay buffer commonly used in high-level radioactive waste disposal facility where the generated gas pressure is very high (in the order of MPa). However, compacted clay in landfill cover is usually unsaturated and the generated landfill gas pressure is normally low (typically less than 10 kPa). Furthermore, effects of clay thickness and degree of saturation on gas breakthrough and emission rate in the context of unsaturated landfill cover has not been quantitatively investigated in previous studies. The feasibility of using unsaturated compacted clay as gas barrier in landfill covers is thus worthwhile to be explored over a wide range of landfill gas pressures under various degrees of saturation and clay thicknesses. In this study, to evaluate the effectiveness of unsaturated compacted clay to minimize gas emission, one-dimensional soil column tests were carried out on unsaturated compacted clay to determine gas breakthrough pressures at ultimate limit state (high pressure range) and gas emission rates at serviceability limit state (low pressure range). Various degrees of saturation and thicknesses of unsaturated clay sample were considered. Moreover, numerical simulations were carried out using a coupled gas–water flow finite element program (CODE-BRIGHT) to better understand the experimental results by extending the clay thickness and varying the degree of saturation to a broader range that is typical at different

  12. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

    2010-09-30

    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  13. Effects of biochar and wood pellets amendments added to landfill cover soil on microbial methane oxidation: A laboratory column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yargicoglu, Erin N; Reddy, Krishna R

    2017-05-15

    Alternate landfill covers designed to enhance microbial methane (CH 4 ) oxidation and reduce the negative impacts of landfill gas emissions on global climate have recently been proposed and investigated. In this study, the use of biochar as a soil amendment is examined in order to assess the feasibility and effectiveness for enhanced CH 4 removal in landfill covers when incorporated under high compaction conditions and relatively low soil moisture. Four different cover configurations were tested in large soil columns for ∼510 days and potential CH 4 oxidation rates were determined following long-term incubation in small batch assays. Cover designs tested include: a thin biochar layer at 15-18 cm; 2% mixed soil-biochar layer at 20-40 cm; 2% mixed soil-uncharred wood pellets at 20-40 cm; and soil obtained from intermediate cover at an active landfill site. The placement of a thin biochar layer in the cover significantly impacted moisture distribution and infiltration, which in turn affected CH 4 oxidation potential with depth. An increase in CH 4 removal rates was observed among all columns over the 500 day incubation period, with steady-state CH 4 removal efficiencies ranging from ∼60 to 90% in the final stages of incubation (inlet load ∼80 g CH 4  m -2  d -1 ). The thin biochar layer had the lowest average removal efficiency as a result of reduced moisture availability below the biochar layer. The addition of 2% biochar to soil yielded similar CH 4 oxidation rates in terminal assays as the 2% uncharred wood pellet amendment. CH 4 oxidation rates in terminal assays were positively correlated with soil moisture, which was affected by the materials' water holding capacity. The high water holding capacity of biochar led to higher oxidation rates within the thin biochar layer, supporting the initial hypothesis that biochar may confer more favorable physical conditions for methanotrophy. Ultimate performance was apparently affected by soil type and CH 4

  14. Methane oxidation in a landfill cover soil reactor: Changing of kinetic parameters and microorganism community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhi L; Zhao, Tian T; Gao, Yan H; Yang, Xu; Liu, Shuai; Peng, Xu Y

    2017-02-23

    Changing of CH 4 oxidation potential and biological characteristics with CH 4 concentration was studied in a landfill cover soil reactor (LCSR). The maximum rate of CH 4 oxidation reached 32.40 mol d -1 m -2 by providing sufficient O 2 in the LCSR. The kinetic parameters of methane oxidation in landfill cover soil were obtained by fitting substrate diffusion and consumption model based on the concentration profile of CH 4 and O 2 . The values of [Formula: see text] (0.93-2.29%) and [Formula: see text] (140-524 nmol kg soil-DW -1 ·s -1 ) increased with CH 4 concentration (9.25-20.30%), while the values of [Formula: see text] (312.9-2.6%) and [Formula: see text] (1.3 × 10 -5 to 9.0 × 10 -3 nmol mL -1 h -1 ) were just the opposite. MiSeq pyrosequencing data revealed that Methylobacter (the relative abundance was decreased with height of LCSR) and Methylococcales_unclassified (the relative abundance was increased expect in H 80) became the key players after incubation with increasing CH 4 concentration. These findings provide information for assessing CH 4 oxidation potential and changing of biological characteristics in landfill cover soil.

  15. Optimization of diagnostic microarray for application in analysing landfill methanotroph communities under different plant covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Sessitsch, Angela; Weilharter, Alexandra; Reichenauer, Thomas; Riesing, Johann; Csontos, József; Murrell, J Colin; Bodrossy, Levente

    2004-04-01

    Landfill sites are responsible for 6-12% of global methane emission. Methanotrophs play a very important role in decreasing landfill site methane emissions. We investigated the methane oxidation capacity and methanotroph diversity in lysimeters simulating landfill sites with different plant vegetations. Methane oxidation rates were 35 g methane m-2 day-1 or higher for planted lysimeters and 18 g methane m-2 day-1 or less for bare soil controls. Best methane oxidation, as displayed by gas depth profiles, was found under a vegetation of grass and alfalfa. Methanotroph communities were analysed at high throughput and resolution using a microbial diagnostic microarray targeting the particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene of methanotrophs and functionally related bacteria. Members of the genera Methylocystis and Methylocaldum were found to be the dominant members in landfill site simulating lysimeters. Soil bacterial communities in biogas free control lysimeters, which were less abundant in methanotrophs, were dominated by Methylocaldum. Type Ia methanotrophs were found only in the top layers of bare soil lysimeters with relatively high oxygen and low methane concentrations. A competetive advantage of type II methanotrophs over type Ia methanotrophs was indicated under all plant covers investigated. Analysis of average and individual results from parallel samples was used to identify general trends and variations in methanotroph community structures in relation to depth, methane supply and plant cover. The applicability of the technology for the detection of environmental perturbations was proven by an erroneous result, where an unexpected community composition detected with the microarray indicated a potential gas leakage in the lysimeter being investigated.

  16. Above- and below-ground methane fluxes and methanotrophic activity in a landfill-cover soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, M H; Eugster, W; Gómez, K E; Gonzalez-Gil, G; Niklaus, P A; Oester, P

    2012-05-01

    Landfills are a major anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH(4)). However, much of the CH(4) produced during the anaerobic degradation of organic waste is consumed by methanotrophic microorganisms during passage through the landfill-cover soil. On a section of a closed landfill near Liestal, Switzerland, we performed experiments to compare CH(4) fluxes obtained by different methods at or above the cover-soil surface with below-ground fluxes, and to link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH(4) ingress (loading) from the waste body at selected locations. Fluxes of CH(4) into or out of the cover soil were quantified by eddy-covariance and static flux-chamber measurements. In addition, CH(4) concentrations at the soil surface were monitored using a field-portable FID detector. Near-surface CH(4) fluxes and CH(4) loading were estimated from soil-gas concentration profiles in conjunction with radon measurements, and gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) were performed to quantify rates of microbial CH(4) oxidation. Eddy-covariance measurements yielded by far the largest and probably most representative estimates of overall CH(4) emissions from the test section (daily mean up to ∼91,500μmolm(-2)d(-1)), whereas flux-chamber measurements and CH(4) concentration profiles indicated that at the majority of locations the cover soil was a net sink for atmospheric CH(4) (uptake up to -380μmolm(-2)d(-1)) during the experimental period. Methane concentration profiles also indicated strong variability in CH(4) loading over short distances in the cover soil, while potential methanotrophic activity derived from GPPTs was high (v(max)∼13mmolL(-1)(soil air)h(-1)) at a location with substantial CH(4) loading. Our results provide a basis to assess spatial and temporal variability of CH(4) dynamics in the complex terrain of a landfill-cover soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial variability of soil gas concentration and methane oxidation capacity in landfill covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röwer, Inga Ute; Geck, Christoph; Gebert, Julia; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2011-05-01

    In order to devise design criteria for biocovers intended to enhance the microbial oxidation of landfill methane it is critical to understand the factors influencing gas migration and methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. On an old municipal solid waste landfill in north-western Germany soil gas concentrations (10, 40, 90 cm depth), topsoil methane oxidation capacity and soil properties were surveyed at 40 locations along a 16 m grid. As soil properties determine gas flow patterns it was hypothesized that the variability in soil gas composition and the subsequent methanotrophic activity would correspond to the variability of soil properties. Methanotrophic activity was found to be subject to high spatial variability, with values ranging between 0.17 and 9.80 g CH(4)m(-2)h(-1)(.) Considering the current gas production rate of 0.03 g CH(4)m(-2)h(-1), the oxidation capacity at all sampled locations clearly exceeded the flux to the cover, and can be regarded as an effective instrument for mitigating methane fluxes. The methane concentration in the cover showed a high spatial heterogeneity with values between 0.01 and 0.32 vol.% (10 cm depth), 22.52 vol.% (40 cm), and 36.85 vol.% (90 cm). The exposure to methane raised the oxidation capacity, suggested by a statistical correlation to an increase in methane concentration at 90 cm depth. Methane oxidation capacity was further affected by the methanotroph bacteria pH optimum and nutrient availability, and increased with decreasing pH towards neutrality, and increased with soluble ion concentration). Soil methane and carbon dioxide concentration increased with lower flow resistance of the cover, as represented by the soil properties of a reduced bulk density, increase in air capacity and in relative ground level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the performance of a cold region evapotranspiration landfill cover using lysimetry and electrical resistivity tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, William E; Munk, Jens; Abichou, Tarek; Barnes, David; Lee, William; Pape, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the efficacy ofa cold-region evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover against a conventional compacted clay (CCL) landfill cover, two pilot scale covers were constructed in side-by-side basin lysimeters (20m x 10m x 2m) at a site in Anchorage, Alaska. The primary basis of comparison between the two lysimeters was the percolation of moisture from the bottom of each lysimeter. Between 30 April 2005 and 16 May 2006, 51.5 mm of water percolated from the ET lysimeter, compared to 50.6 mm for the the CCL lysimeter. This difference was not found to be significant at the 95% confidence level. As part of the project, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was utilized to measure and map soil moisture in ET lysimeter cross sections. The ERT-generated cross sections were found to accurately predict the onset and duration of lysimeter percolation. Moreover, ERT-generated soil moisture values demonstrated a strong linear relationship to lysimeter percolation rates (R-Squared = 0.92). Consequently, ERT is proposed as a reliable tool for assessing the function of field scale ET covers in the absence of drainage measurement devices.

  19. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  20. Spatial and temporal diversity of methanotrophs in a landfill cover soil are differentially related to soil abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, Deepak; Abell, Guy C J; Bodrossy, Levente; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Murrell, J Colin

    2009-10-01

    Methanotrophs present in landfill cover soil can limit methane emissions from landfill sites by oxidizing methane produced in landfill. Understanding the spatial and temporal distribution of populations of methanotrophs and the factors influencing their activity and diversity in landfill cover soil is critical to devise better landfill cover soil management strategies. pmoA-based microarray analyses of methanotroph community structure revealed a temporal shift in methanotroph populations across different seasons. Type II methanotrophs (particularly Methylocystis sp.) were found to be present across all seasons. Minor shifts in type I methanotroph populations were observed. In the case of spatial distribution, only minor differences in methanotroph community structure were observed with no recognizable patterns (both vertical and horizontal) at a 5 m scale. Correlation analysis between soil abiotic parameters (total C, N, NH4 (+) , NO3 (-) and water content) and distribution of methanotrophs revealed a lack of conclusive evidence for any distinct correlation pattern between measured abiotic parameters and methanotroph community structure, suggesting that complex interactions of several physico-chemical parameters shape methanotroph diversity and activity in landfill cover soils. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Effects of substrate induced respiration on the stability of bottom ash in landfill cover environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, A; Lovat, E; Persson, K M

    2014-12-01

    The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is being increasingly used to construct landfill covers in Sweden. In post-closure, owing to increased cover infiltration, the percolating water can add external organic matter to bottom ash. The addition and subsequent degradation of this external organic matter can affect metal mobility through complexation and change in redox conditions. However, the impacts of such external organic matter addition on bottom ash stability have not been fully evaluated yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of external organic matter on bottom ash respiration and metal leaching. The samples of weathered bottom ash were mixed with oven dried and digested wastewater sludge (1%-5% by weight). The aerobic respiration activity (AT4), as well as the leaching of metals, was tested with the help of respiration and batch leaching tests. The respiration and heavy metal leaching increased linearly with the external organic matter addition. Based on the results, it was concluded that the external organic matter addition would negatively affect the quality of landfill cover drainage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of green waste as an alternative for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in landfills (In Spanish)

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizabal Zuluaga, BH; Vanegas C., E; Mariscal Moreno, JP; Camargo-Valero, MA

    2015-01-01

    Landfilling is the main disposal technology for municipal solid wastes (MSW) in Colombia. Currently, about 50% of the landfill systems are close to the end of their useful life. It is necessary to evaluate alternative of disposal and treatment for MSW. Municipal solid wastes generated in Colombia contain a high proportion of organic material, which contributes to the generation of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in landfills. In this regard, anaerobic digestion is an alternative technology for...

  3. Methane oxidation and attenuation of sulphur compounds in landfill top cover systems: Lab-scale tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Pivato, Alberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Megido, Laura; Cossu, Raffaello

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a top cover system is investigated as a control for emissions during the aftercare of new landfills and for old landfills where biogas energy production might not be profitable. Different materials were studied as landfill cover system in lab-scale columns: mechanical-biological pretreated municipal solid waste (MBP); mechanical-biological pretreated biowaste (PB); fine (PBS f ) and coarse (PBS c ) mechanical-biological pretreated mixtures of biowaste and sewage sludge, and natural soil (NS). The effectiveness of these materials in removing methane and sulphur compounds from a gas stream was tested, even coupled with activated carbon membranes. Concentrations of CO 2 , CH 4 , O 2 , N 2 , H 2 S and mercaptans were analysed at different depths along the columns. Methane degradation was assessed using mass balance and the results were expressed in terms of methane oxidation rate (MOR). The highest maximum and mean MOR were observed for MBP (17.2gCH 4 /m 2 /hr and 10.3gCH 4 /m 2 /hr, respectively). Similar values were obtained with PB and PBS c . The lowest values of MOR were obtained for NS (6.7gCH 4 /m 2 /hr) and PBS f (3.6gCH 4 /m 2 /hr), which may be due to their low organic content and void index, respectively. Activated membranes with high load capacity did not seem to have an influence on the methane oxidation process: MBP coupled with 220g/m 2 and 360g/m 2 membranes gave maximum MOR of 16.5gCH 4 /m 2 /hr and 17.4gCH 4 /m 2 /hr, respectively. Activated carbon membranes proved to be very effective on H 2 S adsorption. Furthermore, carbonyl sulphide, ethyl mercaptan and isopropyl mercaptan seemed to be easily absorbed by the filling materials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A Water Balance Study of Four Landfill Cover Designs at Material Disposal Area B in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David D. Breshears; Fairley J. Barnes; John W. Nyhan; Johnny A. Salazar

    1998-09-01

    The goal of disposing of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose an unacceptable hazard. In order to achieve this, the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Program is comparing the performance of several different surface covers at Material Disposal Area (MDA) B in Los Alamos. Two conventional landfill were compared with an improved cover designed to minimize plant and animal intrusion and to minimize water infiltration into the underlying wastes. The conventional covers varied in depth and both conventional and improved designs had different combinations of vegetation (grass verses shrub) and gravel mulch (no mulch verses mulch). These treatments were applied to each of 12 plots and water balance parameters were measured from March1987 through June 1995. Adding a gravel mulch significantly influenced the plant covered field plots receiving no gravel mulch averaged 21.2% shrub cover, while plots with gravel had a 20% larger percent cover of shrubs. However, the influence of gravel mulch on the grass cover was even larger than the influence on shrub cover, average grass cover on the plots with no gravel was 16.3%, compared with a 42% increase in grass cover due to gravel mulch. These cover relationships are important to reduce runoff on the landfill cover, as shown by a regression model that predicts that as ground cover is increased from 30 to 90%,annual runoff is reduced from 8.8 to 0.98 cm-a nine-fold increase. We also found that decreasing the slope of the landfill cover from 6 to 2% reduced runoff from the landfill cover by 2.7-fold. To minimize the risk of hazardous waste from landfills to humans, runoff and seepage need to be minimized and evapotranspiration maximized on the landfill cover. This has to be accomplished for dry and wet years at MDA B. Seepage consisted of 1.9% and 6.2% of the precipitation in the average and

  5. Prediction of long-term erosion from landfill covers in the southwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Erosion is a primary stressor of landfill covers, especially for climates with high intensity storms and low native plant density. Rills and gullies formed by discrete events can damage barrier layers and induce failure. Geomorphologic, empirical and physical modeling procedures are available to provide estimates of surface erosion, but numerical modeling requires accurate representation of the severe rainfall events that generate erosion. The National Weather Service precipitation frequency data and estimates of 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60-minute intensity can be statistically combined in a numerical model to obtain long-term erosion estimates. Physically based numerical models using the KINEROS and AHYMO programs have been utilized to predict the erosion from a southwestern landfill or waste containment site with 0.03, 0.05 and 0.08 meter per meter surface slopes. Results of AHYMO modeling were within 15 percent of average annual values computed with the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation. However, the estimation of rill and gully formation that primarily degrades cover systems requires quantifying single events. For Southwestern conditions, a single 10-year storm can produce erosion quantifies equal to three times the average annual erosion and a 100-year storm can produce five times the average annual erosion

  6. Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, Igor; Andreas, Lale; Kumpiene, Jurate; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (SCM), fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) sewage sludge, compost and its changes over time. Column tests, physical simulation models and a full scale field test were conducted. While the laboratory tests showed a clear trend for all studied constituents towards reduced concentrations over time, the concentrations in the field fluctuated considerably. The primary contaminants in the drainage water were Cl(-), N, dissolved organic matter and Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn with initial concentrations one to three orders of magnitude above the discharge values to the local recipient. Using a sludge/FA mixture in the protection layer resulted in less contaminated drainage water compared to a sludge/BA mixture. If the leaching conditions in the landfill cover change from reduced to oxidized, the release of trace elements from ashes is expected to last about one decade longer while the release of N and organic matter from the sludge can be shortened with about two-three decades. The observed concentration levels and their expected development over time require drainage water treatment for at least three to four decades before the water can be discharged directly to the recipient. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of bio-cover equipped with a novel passive air diffusion system on methane emission reduciton from landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, W.J.; Mou, Zishen

    2011-01-01

    Based on the aerothermodynamic principles, a kind of breathing bio-cover system was designed to enhance oxygen (O2) supply efficiency and methane (CH4) oxidation capacity. The research showed that O2 concentration (v/v) considerably increased throughout whole profiles of the microcosm (1m) equipped...... with passive air diffusion system (MPADS). When the simulated landfill gas SLFG flow was 771 and 1028 gm−3 d−1, the O2 concentration in MPADS increased gradually and tended to be stable at the atmospheric level after 10 days. The CH4 oxidation rate was 100% when the SLFG flow rate was no more than 1285 gm−3 d......−1, which also was confirmed by the mass balance calculations. The breathing bio-cover system with in situ self-oxygen supply can address the problem of O2 insufficient in conventional landfill bio-cover. The proposed system presents high potential for improving CH4 emission reduction in landfills....

  8. Capping as an alternative for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes some of the regulatory and technical issues concerning the use of capping as a containment strategy for radioactive and hazardous waste. Capping alternatives for closure of landfills is not just an engineering problem, but rather involves complex physical, biological, and chemical processes requiring a multidisciplinary approach to develop designs that will work over the long haul and are cost-effective. Much of the information has been distilled from regulatory and guidance documents and a compilation of research activities on waste disposal, contaminant transport processes, and technology development for landfills that has been conducted over the last 21 years

  9. Hydraulic conductivity of fly ash-sewage sludge mixes for use in landfill cover liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Inga; Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger; Kumpiene, Jurate; Maurice, Christian; Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2009-08-01

    Secondary materials could help meeting the increasing demand of landfill cover liner materials. In this study, the effect of compaction energy, water content, ash ratio, freezing, drying and biological activity on the hydraulic conductivity of two fly ash-sewage sludge mixes was investigated using a 2(7-1) fractional factorial design. The aim was to identify the factors that influence hydraulic conductivity, to quantify their effects and to assess how a sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity can be achieved. The factors compaction energy and drying, as well as the factor interactions material x ash ratio and ash ratio x compaction energy affected hydraulic conductivity significantly (alpha=0.05). Freezing on five freeze-thaw cycles did not affect hydraulic conductivity. Water content affected hydraulic conductivity only initially. The hydraulic conductivity data were modelled using multiple linear regression. The derived models were reliable as indicated by R(adjusted)(2) values between 0.75 and 0.86. Independent on the ash ratio and the material, hydraulic conductivity was predicted to be between 1.7 x 10(-11)m s(-1) and 8.9 x 10(-10)m s(-1) if the compaction energy was 2.4 J cm(-3), the ash ratio between 20% and 75% and drying did not occur. Thus, the investigated materials met the limit value for non-hazardous waste landfills of 10(-9)m s(-1).

  10. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, Nurul; Syafrudin

    2018-02-01

    Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste of plastic. Hence, this paper aims review at utilizing of plastic as an alternative fuel.

  11. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayah Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste of plastic. Hence, this paper aims review at utilizing of plastic as an alternative fuel.

  12. Feasibility study of a new unsaturated three-layer landfill cover system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coo Jason Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As an improvement of the two-layer cover with capillary barrier effect (CCBE (i.e. fine-grained soil overlying a coarse-grained soil, a new three-layer landfill cover system is proposed and investigated for humid climate. This new system is to add a fine-grained soil (i.e., clay underneath a two-layer CCBE (i.e., a silt overlying a gravelly sand layer. The feasibility of this proposed cover system was investigated by conducting a one-dimensional water infiltration test. In addition, transient seepage simulations were carried out to back-analyse the test results and investigate the importance of hydraulic properties of the CCBE on the proposed cover. Based on the infiltration experiment and numerical back-analysis, it is found that no percolation was observed after 48 hours of ponding, which is equivalent to a rainfall return period of greater than 1000 years. However, the upper two-layer CCBE is only effective for a rainfall return period of about 35 years. This implies that the proposed bottom clay layer is needed for humid climate. Numerical parametric simulations reveal that increasing the saturated permeability of the upper fine-grained soil by two orders of magnitude (1.4x10-6 m/s to 2.1x10-4 m/s, the wetting front is still within the clay layer after 12 hours of constant water ponding (>1000 year rainfall and no percolation occurred.

  13. Numerical modelling of methane oxidation efficiency and coupled water-gas-heat reactive transfer in a sloping landfill cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S; Ng, C W W; Leung, A K; Liu, H W

    2017-10-01

    Microbial aerobic methane oxidation in unsaturated landfill cover involves coupled water, gas and heat reactive transfer. The coupled process is complex and its influence on methane oxidation efficiency is not clear, especially in steep covers where spatial variations of water, gas and heat are significant. In this study, two-dimensional finite element numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the performance of unsaturated sloping cover. The numerical model was calibrated using a set of flume model test data, and was then subsequently used for parametric study. A new method that considers transient changes of methane concentration during the estimation of the methane oxidation efficiency was proposed and compared against existing methods. It was found that a steeper cover had a lower oxidation efficiency due to enhanced downslope water flow, during which desaturation of soil promoted gas transport and hence landfill gas emission. This effect was magnified as the cover angle and landfill gas generation rate at the bottom of the cover increased. Assuming the steady-state methane concentration in a cover would result in a non-conservative overestimation of oxidation efficiency, especially when a steep cover was subjected to rainfall infiltration. By considering the transient methane concentration, the newly-modified method can give a more accurate oxidation efficiency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: Daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    We quantified the seasonal variability of CH4, CO2, and N2O emissions from fresh refuse and daily, intermediate, and final cover materials at two California landfills. Fresh refuse fluxes (g m-2 d-1) averaged CH4 0.053[+/-0.03], CO2 135[+/-117], and N2O 0.063[+/-0.059]. Average CH4 emissions across ...

  15. Design of top covers supporting aerobic in situ stabilization of old landfills – An experimental simulation in lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion; Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tested engineered covers as surrogate to gas extraction during and after in situ aeration. ► Examined how covers influence gas emissions, water balance and leachate generation. ► Investigated effect of top covers on air-distribution in waste mass during aeration. ► We suggest criteria and cover design to meet the demands during and after aeration. ► Such cover systems may offer greenhouse gas emission reduction also after active aeration. - Abstract: Landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection is a promising tool to reduce long term emissions from organic waste fractions through accelerated biological stabilization. Top covers that enhance methane oxidation could provide a simple and economic way to mitigate residual greenhouse gas emissions from in situ aerated landfills, and may replace off-gas extraction and treatment, particularly at smaller and older sites. In this respect the installation of a landfill cover system adjusted to the forced-aerated landfill body is of great significance. Investigations into large scale lysimeters (2 × 2 × 3 m) under field conditions have been carried out using different top covers including compost materials and natural soils as a surrogate to gas extraction during active low pressure aeration. In the present study, the emission behaviour as well as the water balance performance of the lysimeters has been investigated, both prior to and during the first months of in situ aeration. Results reveal that mature sewage sludge compost (SSC) placed in one lysimeter exhibits in principle optimal ambient conditions for methanotrophic bacteria to enhance methane oxidation. Under laboratory conditions the mature compost mitigated CH 4 loadings up to 300 l CH 4 /m 2 d. In addition, the compost material provided high air permeability even at 100% water holding capacity (WHC). In contrast, the more cohesive, mineral soil cover was expected to cause a notably uniform distribution of the injected air

  16. Temperatures In Compost Landfill Covers As Result Of Methane Oxidation And Compost Respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Merono, A. R.; Pedersen, Rasmus Broen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the temperature on methane (CH4) oxidation and respiration in compost sampled at a full scale biocover implemented at Klintholm landfill exhibiting high temperatures. Compost material was collected at Klintholm landfill and incubated with and without CH4...

  17. Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AGUILAR,RICHARD; DWYER,STEPHEN F.; REAVIS,BRUCE A.; NEWMAN,GRETCHEN CARR; LOFTIN,SAMUEL R.

    2000-02-01

    biomass production in the irrigated control plots over that produced in the non-irrigated control plots. This surprising result was probably due to the cumulative effects of other factors that influenced the initial establishment and production of plants in the plots (e.g., plant species competition, seed germination delay times, differences in nutrient release and availability). Variation within individual plots, and among the three replicate plots associated with each treatment, rendered many of the recorded differences in vegetation establishment and production statistically insignificant. However, after two complete growing seasons the highest total plant foliar cover and the greatest biomass production and plant species diversity occurred in the cobble-mulched plots. These results suggest that cobble-mulch may be the desired amendment in re-vegetated arid landfill covers if the principal objectives are to quickly establish vegetation cover, stabilize the site from erosion, and increase water usage by plants, thereby reducing the potential for leaching and contaminant movement from the landfill's waste-bearing zone.

  18. Characterization of methane oxidation in a simulated landfill cover system by comparing molecular and stable isotope mass balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marcel; Jochmann, Maik A; Gehrke, Tobias; Thom, Andrea; Ricken, Tim; Denecke, Martin; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-11-01

    Biological methane oxidation may be regarded as a method of aftercare treatment for landfills to reduce climate relevant methane emissions. It is of social and economic interest to estimate the behavior of bacterial methane oxidation in aged landfill covers due to an adequate long-term treatment of the gas emissions. Different approaches assessing methane oxidation in laboratory column studies have been investigated by other authors recently. However, this work represents the first study in which three independent approaches, ((i) mass balance, (ii) stable isotope analysis, and (iii) stoichiometric balance of product (CO 2 ) and reactant (CH 4 ) by CO 2 /CH 4 -ratio) have been compared for the estimation of the biodegradation by a robust statistical validation on a rectangular, wide soil column. Additionally, an evaluation by thermal imaging as a potential technique for the localization of the active zone of bacterial methane oxidation has been addressed in connection with stable isotope analysis and CO 2 /CH 4 -ratios. Although landfills can be considered as open systems the results for stable isotope analysis based on a closed system correlated better with the mass balance than calculations based on an open system. CO 2 /CH 4 -ratios were also in good agreement with mass balance. In general, highest values for biodegradation were determined from mass balance, followed by CO 2 /CH 4 -ratio, and stable isotope analysis. The investigated topsoil proved to be very suitable as a potential cover layer by removing up to 99% of methane for CH 4 loads of 35-65gm -2 d -1 that are typical in the aftercare phase of landfills. Finally, data from stable isotope analysis and the CO 2 /CH 4 -ratios were used to trace microbial activity within the reactor system. It was shown that methane consumption and temperature increase, as a cause of high microbial activity, correlated very well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methane oxidation and degradation of organic compounds in landfill soil covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    High rates of methane oxidation and degradation of the lowed halogenated methanes (TCM and DCM) and HCFCs (HCFC-21 and HCFC-22) were found in an investigation of the oxidation of methane and halogenated organic compunds (HOCs) in landfill gas affected soil. The degradation followed zero-order kin......High rates of methane oxidation and degradation of the lowed halogenated methanes (TCM and DCM) and HCFCs (HCFC-21 and HCFC-22) were found in an investigation of the oxidation of methane and halogenated organic compunds (HOCs) in landfill gas affected soil. The degradation followed zero...

  20. Transport and reaction processes affecting the attenuation of landfill gas in cover soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K.U.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    to the atmosphere. Oxygen supply into the soil column is driven exclusively by diffusion, whereas advection outward offsets part of the diffusive contribution. In the reaction zone, methane consumption reduces the pressure gradient, further decreasing the significance of advection near the top of the column....... Simulations suggest that production of water or accumulation of exopolymeric substances due to microbially mediated methane oxidation can significantly reduce diffusive fluxes. Assuming a constant rate of methane production within a landfill, reduction of the diffusive transport properties, primarily due...

  1. Liquid clay emulsion--alternate daily cover and erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martell, L. [L/M Chemical Service, Ancona, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Formula 480 Biodegradable Clay Based Product, developed in 1985, is a non-toxic liquid bentonite clay product that comes in concentrate form for dilution with water and/or leachate. The concentrate allows this product y to be used for erosion and dust control, grass seeding, as well as a daily or intermediate cover for landfills. It inhibits the activities of birds and vectors, while controlling dust, erosion, odor, and blowing debris. By varying the dilution of Formula 480, the product can be set up from porous and flexible, to durable and waterproof. Having a clay base, high cation exchange capacity offers nutrient stabilization for grass seeding. When using leachate for product dilution, it will percolate, waterproof, and be recycled back into the surface as a solid. The product is economical at $.03 to $.08/sq.ft., depending on thickness of application, smoothness of surface or compaction ratio. Application is done with a self-contained sprayer developed specifically for Formula 480. It can be sprayed with a high volume handgun or an economical and efficient spray boom. This product is cleared for use in over 15 states and is currently being used on hazardous and non-hazardous fills throughout the U.S. and Germany. Ease of application, economy, and effectiveness warrants people to look at this product for many uses.

  2. Using pilot test data to refine an alternative cover design in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Richards, James H; Wright, Shannon; Israel, Tim; Goodrich, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Two instrumented test sections were constructed in summer 1999 at the Kiefer Landfill near Sacramento, California to test the hydraulic performance of two proposed alternative final covers. Both test sections simulated monolithic evapotranspiration (ET) designs that differed primarily in thickness. Both were seeded with a mix of two perennial and one annual grass species. Oleander seedlings were also planted in the thicker test section. Detailed hydrologic performance monitoring of the covers was conducted from 1999 through 2005, The thicker test section met the performance criterion (average percolation of percolation (average of 55 mm/y). Both test sections were decommissioned in summer 2005 to investigate changes in soil hydraulic properties, geomorphology, and vegetation and to collect data to support a revised design. Field data from hydrologic monitoring and the decommissioning study were subsequently included in a hydrologic modeling study to estimate the performance of an optimized cover system for full-scale application. The decommissioning study showed that properties of the soils changed over the monitoring period (saturated hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity increased, density decreased) and that the perennial grasses and shrubs intended for the cover were out-competed by annual species with shallower roots and lesser capacity for water uptake. Of these changes, reduced ET from the shallow-rooted annual vegetation is believed to be the primary cause for the high percolation rate from the thinner test section. Hydrologic modeling suggests that the target hydraulic performance can be achieved using an ET cover with similar thickness to the thin test section if perennial vegetation species observed in surrounding grasslands can be established. This finding underscores the importance of establishing and maintaining the appropriate vegetation on ET covers in this climate.

  3. A comparison of CH4, N2O and CO2emissions from three different cover types in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, Mingsheng; Lin, Xiangyu; Xu, Ying; Ye, Xin; Kao, Chih Ming; Chen, Shaohua

    2017-04-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes are commonly used as a cover component in sanitary landfills, although only limited evaluations of its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been completed. In this study, field GHG emission were investigated at the Dongbu landfill, using three different cover systems: HDPE covering; no covering, on the working face; and a novel material-Oreezyme Waste Cover (OWC) material as a trial material. Results showed that the HDPE membrane achieved a high CH 4 retention, 99.8% (CH 4 mean flux of 12 mg C m -2 h -1 ) compared with the air-permeable OWC surface (CH4 mean flux of 5933 mg C m -2 h -1 ) of the same landfill age. Fresh waste at the working face emitted a large fraction of N 2 O, with average fluxes of 10 mg N m -2 h -2 , while N 2 O emissions were small at both the HDPE and the OWC sections. At the OWC section, CH 4 emissions were elevated under high air temperatures but decreased as landfill age increased. N 2 O emissions from the working face had a significant negative correlation with air temperature, with peak values in winter. A massive presence of CO 2 was observed at both the working face and the OWC sections. Most importantly, the annual GHG emissions were 4.9 Gg yr -1 in CO 2 equivalents for the landfill site, of which the OWC-covered section contributed the most CH 4 (41.9%), while the working face contributed the most N 2 O (97.2%). HDPE membrane is therefore, a recommended cover material for GHG control. Monitoring of GHG emissions at three different cover types in a municipal solid waste landfill during a 1-year period showed that the working face was a hotspot of N 2 O, which should draw attention. High CH 4 fluxes occurred on the permeable surface covering a 1- to 2-year-old landfill. In contrast, the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) membrane achieved high CH 4 retention, and therefore is a recommended cover material for GHG control.

  4. 20 years of long-term water balance measurements of a landfill cover system with components constructed from pre-treated dredged material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, K.; Groengroeft, A.; Gebert, J.; Harms, C.; Eschenbach, A.

    2017-01-01

    The cover system of the mono-landfill Hamburg-Francop for disposal of dredged
    material comprises a mineral liner of pre-treated fine-grained dredged material (‘METHAmaterial’) and an overlying drainage layer of pre-treated sandy dredged material (‘METHAsand’). Water balance and effectiveness of

  5. Coupled Environmental Processes and Long-term Performance of Landfill Covers in the northern Mojave Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shafer; Michael Young; Stephen Zitzer; Eric McDonald; Todd Caldwell

    2004-05-12

    Evapotransiration (ET) covers have gained widespread acceptance as a closure feature for waste disposal sites, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern U.S. But as landforms, ET covers are subject to change over time because of processes such as pedogenesis, hydrologic processes, vegetation establishment and change, and biological processes. To better understand the effects of coupled process changes to ET covers, a series of four primary analog sites in Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site, along with measurements and observations from other locations in the Mojave Desert, were selected to evaluate changes in ET covers over time. The analog sites, of varying ages, were selected to address changes in the early post-institutional control period, the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and the 10,000-year compliance period for transuranic waste sites.

  6. Coupled Environmental Processes and Long-term Performance of Landfill Covers in the northern Mojave Desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Shafer; Michael Young; Stephen Zitzer; Eric McDonald; Todd Caldwell

    2004-01-01

    Evapotransiration (ET) covers have gained widespread acceptance as a closure feature for waste disposal sites, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern U.S. But as landforms, ET covers are subject to change over time because of processes such as pedogenesis, hydrologic processes, vegetation establishment and change, and biological processes. To better understand the effects of coupled process changes to ET covers, a series of four primary analog sites in Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site, along with measurements and observations from other locations in the Mojave Desert, were selected to evaluate changes in ET covers over time. The analog sites, of varying ages, were selected to address changes in the early post-institutional control period, the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and the 10,000-year compliance period for transuranic waste sites

  7. Monitoring the performance of an alternative cover using caisson lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Smith, G.M.; Mushovic, P.S.

    2004-02-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, collaborated on a series of field lysimeter studies to design and monitor the performance of an alternative cover for a uranium mill tailings disposal cell at the Monticello, Utah, Superfund Site. Because groundwater recharge is naturally limited at Monticello in areas with thick loess soils, DOE and EPA chose to design a cover for Monticello using local soils and a native plant community to mimic this natural soilwater balance. Two large drainage lysimeters fabricated of corrugated steel culvert lined with high-density polyethylene were installed to evaluate the hydrological and ecological performance of an alternative cover design constructed in 2000 on the disposal cell. Unlike conventional, lowpermeability designs, this cover relies on (1) the water storage capacity of a 163-cm soil “sponge” layer overlying a sand-and-gravel capillary barrier to retain precipitation while plants are dormant and (2) native vegetation to remove precipitation during the growing season. The sponge layer consists of a clay loam subsoil compacted to 1.65 g/cm2 in one lysimeter and a loam topsoil compacted to 1.45 g/cm2 in the other lysimeter, representing the range of as-built conditions constructed in the nearby disposal cell cover. About 0.1 mm of drainage occurred in both lysimeters during an average precipitation year and before they were planted, an amount well below the EPA target of <3.0 mm/yr. However, the cover with less compacted loam topsoil sponge had a 40% greater water storage capacity than the cover with overly compacted clay loam subsoil sponge. The difference is attributable in part to higher green leaf area and water extraction by plants in the loam topsoil. The lesson learned is that seemingly subtle differences in soil types, sources, and compaction can result in salient differences in performance. Diverse, seeded communities of

  8. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayah Nurul; Syafrudin

    2018-01-01

    Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on...

  9. Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Alternatives for Extending the Life of Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-03

    leachate treatment. Leachate recirculation produced a more consistent effluent from the landfill. During the early years of leachate treatment, municipal...municipal wastewater treatment plant. The leachate effluent that flows through this system would have a lower pathogen count than the effluent leaving a...A Organic Chemicals: Phenols, volatile acids, tannins , lignins, ether soluble, methylene blue acitve substances, and chlorinated

  10. Complex group algebras of the double covers of the symmetric and alternating group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Nguyen, Hung Ngoc; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2015-01-01

    We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras......We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras...

  11. Estudos sobre a oxidação aeróbia do metano na cobertura de três aterros sanitários no Brasil Studies on the aerobic methane oxidation at three sanitary landfills covers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Echevenguá Teixeira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A oxidação biológica e aeróbia do metano em materiais de cobertura de aterros de resíduos sólidos urbanos é uma das alternativas para se minimizarem as emissões dos gases de efeito estufa. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar a oxidação biológica do metano em material de cobertura de três aterros brasileiros (dois municipais e uma célula experimental. O trabalho consistiu na coleta de amostras dos solos, as quais foram caracterizadas através de ensaios geotécnicos e microbiológicos. Em laboratório, avaliou-se o consumo de metano de uma amostra de cada aterro. Os resultados revelaram a presença de bactérias metanotróficas e consumo de metano em laboratório, o que sugere que exista uma relação inversa entre o grau de saturação no momento da coleta e o número de bactérias metanotróficas.The biological and aerobic oxidation of methane within the soil cover of municipal solid waste landfills is one an alternative to minimize emissions of greenhouse effect gases. This study aims at assess the biological oxidation of methane within the final cover of three landfills in Brazil (two municipal ones and one experimental cell. The soil samples obtained from the landfill cover were characterized by geotechnical and microbiological tests. In the laboratory the consumption of methane from each sample were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of methanotrophic bacteria and consumption of methane in the laboratory was observed, which also suggest that there is an inverse relation between the degree of saturation at the time of sampling and the number of methanotrophic bacteria.

  12. Theoretical analysis of coupled effects of microbe and root architecture on methane oxidation in vegetated landfill covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S; Leung, A K; Ng, C W W; Liu, H W

    2017-12-01

    Reduction of soil moisture by plant root-water uptake could improve soil aeration for microbial aerobic methane oxidation (MAMO) in a landfill cover, but excessive soil moisture removal could suppress microbial activity due to water shortage. Existing models ignore the coupled microbe-vegetation interaction. It is thus not known whether the presence of plants is beneficial or adverse to MAMO. This study proposes a newly-improved theoretical model that couples the effects of root-water uptake and microbial activity for capturing water-gas flow and MAMO in unsaturated soils. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of root characteristics and transpiration rate on MAMO efficiency. Uniform, parabolic, exponential and triangular root architectures are considered. Ignoring the effects of water shortage on microbe over-predicts the MAMO efficiency significantly, especially for plants with traits that give high root-water uptake ability (i.e., uniformly-rooted and long root length). The effects of plants on MAMO efficiency depends on the initial soil moisture strongly. If the soil is too dry (i.e., close to the permanent wilting point), plant-water uptake, with any root architecture considered, would reduce MAMO efficiency as further soil water removal by plants suppresses microbial activity. Plants with exponential or triangular root architectures could preserve 10% higher MAMO than the other two cases. These two architectures are more capable of minimizing the adverse effects of root-water uptake due to microbial water shortage. This implies that high-water-demand plants such as those with long root length and with uniform or parabolic root architectures require more frequent irrigation to prevent from excessive reduction of MAMO efficiency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Alternatives to Conventional Construction Materials on Landfills. A Guide; Alternativa konstruktionsmaterial paa deponier. Vaegledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rihm, Thomas; Rogbeck, Yvonne; Svedberg, Bo; Eriksson, Maria

    2009-03-15

    Before a landfill can be sited, an application for a permit from the authorities is required. Already in the application process the consequences concerning impact on human health and on the environment must be described, including descriptions of e.g. bottom liners and capping constructions. Since there is a long period of time between when the permit is given and when the capping will be carried out, it is common practice, either to postpone decisions concerning capping details, or to delegate the decisions to the supervisory authorities to be made at a later stage. All constructions must however be approved by the authorities before they can be carried out. A construction must fulfil the demands for its function. For the capping this means that the percolation through it must be low, even in a long time perspective. A construction may not in itself cause adverse environmental effects, e.g. leaching of hazardous substances from the construction material. Thus, there are functional as well as environmental demands. Beside the functional demands given in the Swedish legislation, notably in the ordinance on landfilling, the construction must be physically stable, also in a long time perspective. The materials in the construction must have sufficient strength, and may not change over time, e.g. due to degradation, which could lead to malfunction. Demands on environmental behaviour can be divided into two parts. Humans and animals must be kept from direct contact with dangerous substances including dermal contact, inhalation of dust or gases and oral intake of soil, plants or berries. Secondly, dangerous substances may not be spread with surface or ground water to an extent that could lead to adverse effects on human health or on the environment. The impact on the environment is not only depending of the materials being used, but also on the construction design, where in the landfill the construction is situated and, not least, how the landfill is located. It is

  14. Methane oxidation at low temperatures in soil exposed to landfill gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Linderød, L.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2000-01-01

    soil moisture regimes, At 2 degreesC the methane oxidation rates were 0.005 to 0.17 mu mol g(-1) h(-1), and calculations showed that it was possible to oxidize all the produced methane at older landfills, even during the winter. Therefore, methane oxidation in top covers of landfills is an alternative...

  15. Alternative solutions for the bio-denitrification of landfill leachates using pine bark and compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trois, Cristina; Pisano, Giulia; Oxarango, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Nitrified leachate may still require an additional bio-denitrification step, which occurs with the addition of often-expensive chemicals as carbon source. This study explores the applicability of low-cost carbon sources such as garden refuse compost and pine bark for the denitrification of high strength landfill leachates. The overall objective is to assess efficiency, kinetics and performance of the substrates in the removal of high nitrate concentrations. Garden refuse and pine bark are currently disposed of in general waste landfills in South Africa, separated from the main waste stream. A secondary objective is to assess the feasibility of re-using green waste as by-product of an integrated waste management system. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests and leaching columns packed with immature compost and pine bark. Biologically treated leachate from a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) with nitrate concentrations of 350, 700 and 1100 mgN/l were used for the trials. Preliminary results suggest that, passed the acclimatization step (40 days for both substrates), full denitrification is achieved in 10-20 days for the pine bark and 30-40 days for the compost.

  16. Alternatives to estimate statewide changes in aspen cover type volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2015-01-01

    For Minnesota, the only data available to conduct regional or state-wide level assessments across all ownerships is the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA). Some of the many alternatives available to estimate regional changes in standing volume are referred to here as 1.) FIA alternative, 2.) a commonly applied growth and yield system referred to as Walters and...

  17. Real-time monitoring of methane oxidation in a simulated landfill cover soil and MiSeq pyrosequencing analysis of the related bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhilin; Zhao, Tiantao; Gao, Yanhui; He, Zhi; Zhang, Lijie; Peng, Xuya; Song, Liyan

    2017-10-01

    Real-time CH 4 oxidation in a landfill cover soil was studied using automated gas sampling that determined biogas (CH 4 and CO 2 ) and O 2 concentrations at various depths in a simulated landfill cover soil (SLCS) column reactor. The real-time monitoring system obtained more than 10,000 biogas (CH 4 and CO 2 ) and O 2 data points covering 32 steady states of CH 4 oxidation with 32 different CH 4 fluxes (0.2-125mol·m -2 ·d -1 ). The kinetics of CH 4 oxidation at different depths (0-20cm, 20-40cm, and 40-60cm) of SLCS were well fit by a CH 4 -O 2 dual-substrate model based on 32 values (averaged, n=5-15) of equilibrated CH 4 concentrations. The quality of the fit (R 2 ranged from 0.90 to 0.96) was higher than those reported in previous studies, which suggests that real time monitoring is beneficial for CH 4 oxidation simulations. MiSeq pyrosequencing indicated that CH 4 flux events changed the bacterial community structure (e.g., increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Methanotrophs) and resulted in a relative increase in the amount of type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter and Methylococcales) and a decrease in the amount of type II methanotrophs (Methylocystis). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impermeable layers in landfill design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanac Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are complex systems which could potentially contaminate the environment. It should be prevented by providing impermeability during the landfill design. In that aim related regulations should be followed and adequate materials that provide impermeability should be used. The first part of the paper presents review of the current regulations, interpretations, and recommendations from U.S., EU and Republic of Serbia. Knowing that the Serbian regulation should fully follow related European Directive, in analyses some inadequate formulations and terms were observed related to the Directive Annex I, 3.2. Request of the Regulation that deals with the bottom of the landfill leakage is formulated differently than in Directive as well. Mentioned problems enable some design solutions which are not among the best available techniques. In the second part the paper presents comparative analysis of possible alternatives in impermeable layer design, both for the bottom and landfill cover. Some materials like clay, CCL, GCL might not be able to satisfy prescribed requirements. The longest lifetime and the lowest coefficient of permeability, as well as excellent mechanical, chemical and thermal stability, show the mixture of sand, bentonite and polymers (PEBSM. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  19. Leaky Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Provides background information on landfills and describes an activity where students learn how a modern landfill is constructed and develop an understanding of the reasons for several regulations regarding modern landfill construction. Students design and construct working models of three types of landfills. (PR)

  20. Identification of active methanotrophs in a landfill cover soil through detection of expression of 16S rRNA and functional genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Dumont, Marc G; Cébron, Aurélie; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-11-01

    Active methanotrophs in a landfill soil were revealed by detecting the 16S rRNA of methanotrophs and the mRNA transcripts of key genes involved in methane oxidation. New 16S rRNA primers targeting type I and type II methanotrophs were designed and optimized for analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Direct extraction of RNA from soil enabled the analysis of the expression of the functional genes: mmoX, pmoA and mxaF, which encode subunits of soluble methane monooxygenase, particulate methane monooxygenase and methanol dehydrogenase respectively. The 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for type I methanotrophs detected Methylomonas, Methylosarcina and Methylobacter sequences from both soil DNA and cDNA which was generated from RNA extracted directly from the landfill cover soil. The 16S rRNA primers for type II methanotrophs detected primarily Methylocella and some Methylocystis 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of mRNA recovered from the soil indicated that Methylobacter, Methylosarcina, Methylomonas, Methylocystis and Methylocella were actively expressing genes involved in methane and methanol oxidation. Transcripts of pmoA but not mmoX were readily detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), indicating that particulate methane monooxygenase may be largely responsible for methane oxidation in situ.

  1. Landfill gas from environment to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendebien, A.; Pauwels, M.; Constant, M.; Ledrut-Damanet, M.J.; Nyns, E.J.; Fabry, R.; Ferrero, G.L.; Willumsen, H.C.; Butson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Landfill gas is an alternative source of energy which can be commercially exploited wherever municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills. In this context, it was decided to launch a comprehensive study on the subject of energy valorization of landfill gas. The main topics dealt with in the study, which is supported by a comprehensive literature survey and six detailed case-studies, include; (i) the environmental impact of landfill gas, (ii) the process of landfill gas genesis and the technology of landfill gas control by its exploitation, (iii) the monitoring of landfill gas emissions, (iv) the policies and legal aspects of landfill gas in the European Community and in the world, (v) the estimation of landfill gas potentials and economics of landfill gas control and exploitation, (vi) the status of landfill gas exploitation in the European Community and in the world. (authors). refs., figs., tabs

  2. Assessing methods to estimate emissions of non-methane organic compounds from landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquing, Jovita M; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Scheutz, Charlotte; Blake, Don R; Imhoff, Paul T

    2014-11-01

    The non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emission rate is used to assess compliance with landfill gas emission regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). A recent USEPA Report (EPA/600/R-11/033) employed a ratio method to estimate speciated NMOC emissions (i.e., individual NMOC emissions): speciated NMOC emissions=measured methane (CH4) emission multiplied by the ratio of individual NMOCs concentration relative to CH4 concentration (C(NMOCs)/C(CH4)) in the landfill header gas. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy of the ratio method in estimating speciated NMOC flux from landfills; (2) determine for what types of landfills the ratio method may be in error and why, using recent field data to quantify the spatial variation of (C(NMOCs)/C(CH4)) in landfills; and (3) formulate alternative models for estimating NMOC emissions from landfills for cases in which the ratio method results in biased estimates. This study focuses on emissions through landfill covers measured with flux chambers and evaluates the utility of the ratio method for estimating NMOC emission through this pathway. Evaluation of the ratio method was performed using CH4 and speciated NMOC concentration and flux data from 2012/2013 field sampling of four landfills, an unpublished landfill study, and literature data from three landfills. The ratio method worked well for landfills with thin covers (landfill covers measured with flux chambers, results indicate the current USEPA approach for estimating NMOC emissions may overestimate speciated NMOC emission ⩾10× for many compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    under specific circumstances. Initially a general water balance equation is defined for a typical landfill, and the different parts of the water balance are discussed. A separate section discusses water flow and the hydrogeology of landfilled wastes and considers the impact of water short......Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...

  4. Evaluation of respiration in compost landfill biocovers intended for methane oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedicone, Alessio; Pedersen, Gitte Bukh

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost alternative approach to reduce landfill gas (LFG) emissions is to integrate compost into the landfill cover design in order to establish a biocover that is optimized for biological oxidation of methane (CH4). A laboratory and field investigation was performed to quantify respiration...... in an experimental compost biocover in terms of oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and emission rates. O2 consumption and CO2 production rates were measured in batch and column experiments containing compost sampled from a landfill biowindow at Fakse landfill in Denmark. Column gas...... the compost layer, and CO2 concentrations exceeded 20% at a depth of 40cm below the surface of the biowindow. Overall, the results showed that respiration of compost material placed in biowindows might generate significant CO2 emissions. In landfill compost covers, methanotrophs carrying out CH4 oxidation...

  5. Assessment of methane emission and oxidation at Air Hitam Landfill site cover soil in wet tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Elfithri, Rahmah

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH₄) emissions and oxidation were measured at the Air Hitam sanitary landfill in Malaysia and were modeled using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change waste model to estimate the CH₄ generation rate constant, k. The emissions were measured at several locations using a fabricated static flux chamber. A combination of gas concentrations in soil profiles and surface CH₄ and carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions at four monitoring locations were used to estimate the CH₄ oxidation capacity. The temporal variations in CH₄ and CO₂ emissions were also investigated in this study. Geospatial means using point kriging and inverse distance weight (IDW), as well as arithmetic and geometric means, were used to estimate total CH₄ emissions. The point kriging, IDW, and arithmetic means were almost identical and were two times higher than the geometric mean. The CH₄ emission geospatial means estimated using the kriging and IDW methods were 30.81 and 30.49 gm(−2) day(−1), respectively. The total CH₄ emissions from the studied area were 53.8 kg day(−1). The mean of the CH₄ oxidation capacity was 27.5 %. The estimated value of k is 0.138 year(−1). Special consideration must be given to the CH₄ oxidation in the wet tropical climate for enhancing CH₄ emission reduction.

  6. Bioenergy and bioproducts from municipal organic waste as alternative to landfilling: a comparative life cycle assessment with prospective application to Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Alvarado, Carlos; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa

    2017-11-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a four-stage biorefinery concept, coined H-M-Z-S, that converts 1 t of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into bioenergy and bioproducts was performed in order to determine whether it could be an alternative to common disposal of OFMSW in landfills in the Mexican reality. The OFMSW is first fermented for hydrogen production, then the fermentates are distributed 40 % to the methane production, 40 % to enzyme production, and 20 % to the saccharification stage. From hydrogen and methane, up to 267 MJ and 204 kWh of gross heat and electricity were produced. The biorefinery proved to be self-sustainable in terms of power (95 kWh net power), but it presented a deficit of energy for heating services (-155 MJ), which was partially alleviated by digesting the wastes from the bioproducts stages (-84 MJ). Compared to landfill, biorefinery showed lower environmental impacts in global warming (down to -128 kg CO 2 -eq), ozone layer depletion (2.96 × 10 -6  kg CFC 11 -eq), and photochemical oxidation potentials (0.011 kg C 2 H 4 -eq). The landfarming of the digestates increased significantly the eutrophication impacts, up to 20 % below the eutrophication from landfilling (1.425 kg PO 4 -eq). These results suggest that H-M-Z-S biorefinery could be an attractive alternative compared to conventional landfilling for the management of municipal solid wastes, although new alternatives and uses of co-products and wastes should be explored and tested. Moreover, the biorefinery system would benefit from the integration into the market chain of the bioproducts, i.e., enzymes and hydrolysates among others.

  7. Decision support system to select cover systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, K.V.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this technology is to provide risk managers with a defensible, objective way to select capping alternatives for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills. The process of selecting containment cover technologies for mixed waste landfills requires consideration of many complex and interrelated technical, regulatory, and economic issues. A Decision Support System (DSS) is needed to integrate the knowledge of experts from scientific, engineering, and management disciplines to help in selecting the best capping practice for the site

  8. Landfill Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill methane (CH4) accounts for approximately 1.3% (0.6 Gt) of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions relative to total emissions from all sectors of about 49 Gt CO2-eq yr-1. For countries with a history of controlled landfilling, landfills can be one of the larger national sources of ant...

  9. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial-temporal development of the mangrove vegetation cover on a hydraulic landfill (Via Expressa Sul, Florianópolis, SC: mapping and interpretation of digital aerophotographs, and quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Tavares de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a hydraulic landfill along the southern expressway (Via Expressa Sul, in the central-south region of Santa Catarina Island, started in 1995 and was completed in 1997. The landfill provided the mangrove vegetation a new environment to colonize, which has developed rapidly during this short period of time. This study mapped the vegetation cover of this region using aerial photographs from five years (1994, 1997, 2002, 2004 and 2007, which demonstrated the spatial-temporal evolution of the vegetation since the year before the implementation of the landfill (1994 to its recent state (2007. The data from this study allowed changes in the surface of three bands of vegetation, a band of trees (Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana, a band of the seagrass praturá (Spartina alterniflora and a transition band (companions of mangrove species and restinga plants, to be quantified.

  11. Landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, Gaynor

    2000-01-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned

  12. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are

  13. Assessment of Performance for Alternative Cover Systems on a Waste Rock Storage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argunhan, C.; Yazicigil, H.

    2015-12-01

    A cover is usually applied to the top of the mining wastes to prevent exposure of sulphide minerals in the waste to water and oxygen ingress in order to mitigate the unwanted consequences such as acid rock drainage. Hence, the selection and design of the appropriate cover system by considering the climatic conditions, local unsaturated and saturated properties and the availability of the cover materials become an important issue. This study aims to investigate the performance of various cover systems and designs for the North Waste Rock Storage Area in Kışladağ Gold Mine located in Uşak in Western Turkey. SEEP/W and VADOSE/W softwares are used to model the flow in unsaturated and saturated zones and to assess the performance of various cover systems. The soil water characteristics and parameters used in the model for saturated and unsaturated conditions were taken from field tests and literature. Accuracy of input data is checked during calibration for steady state conditions with SEEP/W. Then, bedrock, waste rock and cover alternatives are modeled under transient conditions for 20 years using daily climatic data. The effectiveness of the various cover systems for minimizing the ingress of water and air that cause acid rock drainage is evaluated and recommendations are made so that the impacts to groundwater from the waste rock storage areas during closure period are minimized.

  14. Hydro-mechanical improvement of the cap cover of a surface landfill for low and intermediate level radioactive waste short life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstaevel, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    This study related to the Manche storage center (CSM), one of the first landfill in the world dedicated to low and intermediate radioactive waste short-live time. The researches considered in this thesis supported by industrial companies, focus on the hydraulic study of cap cover materials of the site, and their hydro-mechanical improvement. The aim is to improve their impermeability in order to be substituted to the geo-membrane as cap cover liner. A specification imposed by Andra was to consider a solution of the re-use of the in situ material by adding of additive. The initial material is a sandy silt, a material with a significant proportion of fines. In the literature there are many studies on the mechanical improvement of fine materials (applications to road infrastructure) and the treatment of sandy materials by adding a fine fraction (constitution of waterproof barriers). On the other hand there are very few studies on the impermeability improvement of fine soils. A physical tests campaign on treated materials with bentonite was carried out at various treatment rates. The results showed that the addition of additive induces a decrease in optimum dry unit weight for a normal Proctor compaction energy and increases their optimum water content. In addition, the susceptibility to erosion, internal or external, observed during oedo-permeameter test was assessed from various stability criteria available in the literature. Unlike the treatment of soil for road embankments, the increase of the material stiffness is not wanted and flexibility is preferred what is observed with the treatment tested. The comparative hydraulic conductivity of the untreated and treated materials were measured. In this study different devices (oedo-permeameter, permeameters, triaxial device) were used. The influence of the treatment rate of the material on the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity was observed. Four large scale experimentations were designed; they should be monitored

  15. The experience of recovery the sanitary landfills by vegetable cover: the Chile application; Experiencias de reinsercion de vertederos mediante la implantacion de una cubierta vegetal: caso Chileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaeta, J. A.; Espinace, R.; Szanto, M.; Palma, J.

    1999-08-01

    On the topic of the recovery of impacted areas for pouring of solid residuals, it doesn`t exist worldwide level an only solution, but rather they exist varied technological tendencies, levels of development of the knowledge and criterions in order to face the topic. It is possible to define several alternatives of reintegration and different uses that one could give to a vegetable cover. Between them, one could mention: entertaining users or floors of foundation of construction, forests and possible uses and agricultural uses. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of methane oxidation activity in waste biocover soil during landfill stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Wang, Jing; Xia, Fang-Fang; Mao, Li-Juan; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Biocover soil has been demonstrated to have high CH(4) oxidation capacity and is considered as a good alternative cover material to mitigate CH(4) emission from landfills, yet the response of CH(4) oxidation activity of biocover soils to the variation of CH(4) loading during landfill stabilization is poorly understood. Compared with a landfill cover soil (LCS) collected from Hangzhou Tianziling landfill cell, the development of CH(4) oxidation activity of waste biocover soil (WBS) was investigated using simulated landfill systems in this study. Although a fluctuation of influent CH(4) flux occurred during landfill stabilization, the WBS covers showed a high CH(4) removal efficiency of 94-96% during the entire experiment. In the LCS covers, the CH(4) removal efficiencies varied with the fluctuation of CH(4) influent flux, even negative ones occurred due to the storage of CH(4) in the soil porosities after the high CH(4) influent flux of ~137 gm(-2) d(-1). The lower concentrations of O(2) and CH(4) as well as the higher concentration of CO(2) were observed in the WBS covers than those in the LCS covers. The highest CH(4) oxidation rates of the two types of soil covers both occurred in the bottom layer (20-30 cm). Compared to the LCS, the WBS showed higher CH(4) oxidation activity and methane monooxygenase activity over the course of the experiment. Overall, this study indicated the WBS worked well for the fluctuation of CH(4) influent flux during landfill stabilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Results from a full scale application of ashes and other residuals in the final cover construction of the Tveta landfill; Utvaerdering av fullskaleanvaendning av askor och andra restprodukter vid sluttaeckning av Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, Gustav (Telge AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden)); Andreas, Lale (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    In 2000 Telge Aatervinning - a waste management and recycling company - started investigating ashes from incineration of industrial and biowaste waste. The company was given a permit from the Swedish Environmental Court to cover four hectares of the house hold waste landfill area. In 2006 the company received an unlimited permit to cover the remaining part of the landfill when the works end some thirty years later. Ashes were used the first time in 1966 for testing. Literature studies indicated the ashes can have a low hydraulic conductivity under certain conditions. In 1999 collaboration started with the Division of Waste Science and Technology at Luleaa University of Technology. Residuals from household and industrial waste were subject to investigation. Initially, biowaste incineration products were subject to testing and were later extended to other waste products, e.g. sludge, contaminated soils, foundry, and compost material. Several different sub-fractions of ashes were included in the investigation e.g. bottom and fly ash, various slag products after up-grading including dewatering, separation and sifting. Subsequently, a complete covering system of a landfill consists of residuals. Six test areas were outlined in order to give a good representation for cover construction in flat and steep areas with different compositions of liner material. The results show that in all areas the hydraulic conductivity construction yields less then 50 liters per square meters and years and can be less the than 5 liters in a repository for hazardous waste if required. In accordance with literature data the field observations show the liner material constructed only by ash material under certain conditions can form a monolithic structure due to very slow processes thus indicating small pore volumes that unable water air to interact with other media. The concept of using ash can be related to natural analogues of volcanic ashes and has been used in old defence walls and other

  18. Landfill gas-fired power plant pays cost of operating landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on recovery of energy from refuse that has become increasingly attractive in the past decade. The continuing urbanization of our society has created major challenges in the disposal of our waste products. Because of public concern over the potential presence of toxins, and for other environmental reasons, management and regulation of active and inactive landfills have become much more stringent and costly. Palos Verdes landfill, owned jointly by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts and Los Angeles County, is located about three miles from the Pacific Ocean in the city of Rolling Hills Estates, Calif. The landfill was closed in 1980. The garbage was covered with six to eight feet of soil, and the area was landscaped. Part of this area has already been developed as the South Coast Botanical Gardens and Ernie Howlett Park. The remainder is scheduled to become a golf course. As refuse decays within a landfill, the natural anaerobic biological reaction generates a low-Btu methane gas along with carbon dioxide, known as landfill gas (LFG). The gas also contains other less desirable trace components generated by the decomposing garbage. Uncontrolled, these gases migrate to the surface and escape into the atmosphere where they generate environmental problems, including objectionable odors. The Sanitation Districts have installed a matrix of gas wells and a gas collection system to enable incineration of the gas in flares. This approach reduced aesthetic, environmental and safety concerns. However, emissions from the flares were still a problem. The Sanitation Districts then looked at alternatives to flaring the gas, one of which was electrical generation. Since the Sanitation Districts have no on-site use for thermal energy, power generation for use in the utility grid was deemed the most feasible alternative

  19. Release and attenuation of fluorocarbons in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    . The residual blowing agent remaining after the six-week period may be very slowly released if the integrity of the foam particles with respect to diffusional properties is kept after disposal of the foam waste in landfills. Laboratory experiments simulating attenuation processes in the landfilled waste...... and the landfill soil cover showed a substantial degradation of CFC-11 and to a lesser extent of HCFC- 141b which may lead to significant emission reduction of the blowing agents. HFC-134a and HFC-245fa were not degraded in the landfilled waste or the cover soil within the time frame of the experiments (210 days)....

  20. Analysis of biogas in sanitary landfill Caieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovano Candiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biogas in the Sanitary Landfill Caieiras is qualitatively evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the geomembrana and cover system of vertical drains in the vicinity to capture the landfill. It was possible to detect an increase in the percentage of methane and oxygen reduction, aiming at the commercialization of carbon credits and electricity production.

  1. [Landfill gas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, E; Hempel-Jørgensen, I; Lassen, E

    1995-11-20

    In a landfill mixture of gases, consisting principally of methane and carbon dioxide, may be produced by microbial degradation of organic waste under anaerobic conditions. Methane is explosive at concentrations between 5 and 15% by volume. Other gases, for instance hydrogensulphide, mercury and ethane, may be emitted at low concentrations, but usually do not represent a health hazard following normal atmospheric dilution. Indoor climate may be affected, though, in cases of accumulation in closed spaces. A case is presented where two persons died following an explosion caused by lighting a cigarette in their house which was surrounded on three sides by a landfill. The explosion occurred after heavy precipitation on a day with low atmospheric pressure. Methane measurements showed values consistent with risk of explosion.

  2. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.Y.; Wu, C.

    2002-01-01

    The use of landfills as an in situ biological treatment system represents an alternative for source area remediation with a significant cost saving. The specific objective of this research is to investigate the intrinsic bioattenuation capacity of the landfill ecosystem for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). The research was conducted in two complementary systems: simulated landfill bioreactors and batch degradation experiment in serum bottles. Refuse samples excavated from a landfill were tested in laboratory bioreactors designed and operated to facilitate refuse decomposition under landfilling conditions. Each bioreactor was operated with leachate recirculation and gas collection. Target CAHs, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), were added to selected reactors and maintained at 20 μM each in leachate to simulate the effect of long-term exposure of refuse microorganisms to CAHs on the degradation potential of these chemicals in landfills. At two different stages of refuse decomposition, active refuse decomposition representing young landfills and maturation phase representing aged landfills, anaerobic microbial cultures were derived from selected bioreactors and tested in serum bottles for their abilities to biodegrade target CAHs. Results of this study suggest that landfills have an intrinsic reductive dechlorination capacity for PCE and TCE. The decomposition of refuse, a source of complex organics, enhances reductive dechlorination by the refuse cultures tested in this study. In addition, the test results suggest that it may be possible to develop engineering strategies to promote both CAHs degradation and refuse decomposition in landfills. (author)

  3. Capacitated set-covering model considering the distance objective and dependency of alternative facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayan Suletra, I.; Priyandari, Yusuf; Jauhari, Wakhid A.

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new model of facility location to solve a kind of problem that belong to a class of set-covering problem using an integer programming formulation. Our model contains a single objective function, but it represents two goals. The first is to minimize the number of facilities, and the other is to minimize the total distance of customers to facilities. The first goal is a mandatory goal, and the second is an improvement goal that is very useful when alternate optimum solutions for the first goal exist. We use a big number as a weight on the first goal to force the solution algorithm to give first priority to the first goal. Besides considering capacity constraints, our model accommodates a kind of either-or constraints representing facilities dependency. The either-or constraints will prevent the solution algorithm to select two or more facilities from the same set of facility with mutually exclusive properties. A real location selection problem to locate a set of wastewater treatment facility (IPAL) in Surakarta city, Indonesia, will describe the implementation of our model. A numerical example is given using the data of that real problem.

  4. Methane emissions from MBT landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, K-U; Hupe, K; Stegmann, R

    2013-09-01

    Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency ("Umweltbundesamt"), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18-24 m(3)CH(4)/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH(4)/(m(2)h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000-135,000 t CO(2-eq.)/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied

  5. Comparing alternative tree canopy cover estimates derived from digital aerial photography and field-based assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey S. Frescino; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2012-01-01

    A spatially-explicit representation of live tree canopy cover, such as the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) percent tree canopy cover layer, is a valuable tool for many applications, such as defining forest land, delineating wildlife habitat, estimating carbon, and modeling fire risk and behavior. These layers are generated by predictive models wherein their accuracy...

  6. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    to air, soil and water caused by the processes stabilizing the waste in the landfill. The main factors controlling the actual environmental impacts from the landfilling are: the nature and amount of the waste landfilled, the geological and hydrological setting of the landfill, the landfill technology......, the extent and quality of the technical environmental protection measures introduced, the daily operation and the timescale. This chapter describes the main potential environmental impacts from landfills. The modern landfill is able to avoid most of these impacts. However, in the planning and design...... of landfills it is important to understand the potential environmental impacts, which must be avoided. The emissions of landfill gas and leachate causing most of the environmental risks are described in detail in the chapters addressing specific landfill types: Chapter 10.5 (mineral waste landfill), Chapter 10...

  7. Cleaner Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Osmotek, Inc. developed the Direct Osmosis treatment system through SBIR funding from Ames Research Center. Using technology originally developed for flight aboard the Space Station, the company brought it to their commercial water purification treatment system, Direct Osmosis. This water purification system uses a direct osmosis process followed by a reverse osmosis treatment. Because the product extracts water from a waste product, Osmotek is marketing the unit for use in landfills. The system can treat leachate (toxic chemicals leached into a water source), by filtering the water and leaving behind the leahcate. The leachate then becomes solidified into substance that can not seep into water.

  8. Wood ash amendment to biogas reactors as an alternative to landfilling? A preliminary study on changes in process chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podmirseg, Sabine M; Seewald, Martin S A; Knapp, Brigitte A; Bouzid, Ourdia; Biderre-Petit, Corinne; Peyret, Pierre; Insam, Heribert

    2013-08-01

    Wood ash addition to biogas plants represents an alternative to commonly used landfilling by improving the reactor performance, raising the pH and alleviating potential limits of trace elements. This study is the first on the effects of wood ash on reactor conditions and microbial communities in cattle slurry-based biogas reactors. General process parameters [temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, ammonia, volatile fatty acids, carbon/nitrogen (C/N), total solids (TS), volatile solids, and gas quantity and quality] were monitored along with molecular analyses of methanogens by polymerase chain reaction- denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and modern microarrays (archaea and bacteria). A prompt pH rise was observed, as was an increase in C/N ratio and volatile fatty acids. Biogas production was inhibited, but recovered to even higher production rates and methane concentration after single amendment. High sulphur levels in the wood ash generated hydrogen sulphide and potentially hampered methanogenesis. Methanosarcina was the most dominant methanogen in all reactors; however, diversity was higher in ash-amended reactors. Bacterial groups like Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were favoured, which could improve the hydrolytic efficiency of the reactors. We recommend constant monitoring of the chemical composition of the used wood ash and suggest that ash amendment is adequate if added to the substrate at a rate low enough to allow adaptation of the microbiota (e.g. 0.25 g g(-1) TS). It could further help to enrich digestate with important nutrients, for example phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, but further experiments are required for the evaluation of wood ash concentrations that are tolerable for anaerobic digestion.

  9. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  10. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

    2002-02-26

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  11. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Assessing alternative measures of tree canopy cover: Photo-interpreted NAIP and ground-based estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Toney; Greg Liknes; Andy Lister; Dacia Meneguzzo

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for the development of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 tree canopy cover layer, a pilot project for research and method development was completed in 2010 by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC).This paper explores one of several topics investigated during the NLCD...

  13. Alternative method to validate the seasonal land cover regions of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliang Zhu; Donald O. Ohlen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Robert E. Burgan

    1996-01-01

    An accuracy assessment method involving double sampling and the multivariate composite estimator has been used to validate the prototype seasonal land cover characteristics database of the conterminous United States. The database consists of 159 land cover classes, classified using time series of 1990 1-km satellite data and augmented with ancillary data including...

  14. Effect of nutrient and selective inhibitor amendments on methane oxidation, nitrous oxide production, and key gene presence and expression in landfill cover soils: characterization of the role of methanotrophs, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Im, Jeongdae; Dispirito, Alan A; Bodrossy, Levente; Barcelona, Michael J; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2009-11-01

    Methane and nitrous oxide are both potent greenhouse gasses, with global warming potentials approximately 25 and 298 times that of carbon dioxide. A matrix of soil microcosms was constructed with landfill cover soils collected from the King Highway Landfill in Kalamazoo, Michigan and exposed to geochemical parameters known to affect methane consumption by methanotrophs while also examining their impact on biogenic nitrous oxide production. It was found that relatively dry soils (5% moisture content) along with 15 mg NH (4) (+) (kg soil)(-1) and 0.1 mg phenylacetylene(kg soil)(-1) provided the greatest stimulation of methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Microarray analyses of pmoA showed that the methanotrophic community structure was dominated by Type II organisms, but Type I genera were more evident with the addition of ammonia. When phenylacetylene was added in conjunction with ammonia, the methanotrophic community structure was more similar to that observed in the presence of no amendments. PCR analyses showed the presence of amoA from both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea, and that the presence of key genes associated with these cells was reduced with the addition of phenylacetylene. Messenger RNA analyses found transcripts of pmoA, but not of mmoX, nirK, norB, or amoA from either ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea. Pure culture analyses showed that methanotrophs could produce significant amounts of nitrous oxide, particularly when expressing the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Collectively, these data suggest that methanotrophs expressing pMMO played a role in nitrous oxide production in these microcosms.

  15. Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, T. L.; Philipson, W. R.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, T.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the value of existing aerial photographs for waste management, including landfill monitoring. The value of historic aerial photographs for documenting landfill boundaries is shown in a graph in which the expansion of an active landfill is traced over a 40-year period. Historic aerial photographs can also be analyzed to obtain general or detailed land-use and land-cover information. In addition, the photographs provide information regarding other elements of the physical environment, including geology, soils, and surface and subsurface drainage. The value of historic photos is discussed, taking into account applications for inventory, assessing contamination/health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, developing inactive landfills, and research concerning improved land-filling operations.

  16. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  17. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. GlobeLand30 as an alternative fine-scale global land cover map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Tayyebi, A.; Vaz, E.

    2016-01-01

    Global land cover maps are a vital source for mapping our globe into a set of thematic types. They have been extensively used as a basis layer for a large number of applications including ecosystem services, environmental planning, climate change, hydrological processes and policy making. While...... regional land cover maps for some areas such as Europe and North America has been greatly developed and very few temporal datasets exist, lack of such data for some regions specifically developing countries is evident. Although it seems global land cover maps such as MODIS could be a solution for mapping...... these regions, their coarse spatial resolution e.g., 500 m as well as their accuracy are very challenging. Recently, GlobeLand30 a global land cover with a relatively fine resolution at 30 m extracted from Landsat images has been released, which seems to be a potential dataset for mapping areas with limited...

  19. Heat management strategies for MSW landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşiller, Nazli; Hanson, James L; Kopp, Kevin B; Yee, Emma H

    2016-10-01

    Heat is a primary byproduct of landfilling of municipal solid waste. Long-term elevated temperatures have been reported for MSW landfills under different operational conditions and climatic regions around the world. A conceptual framework is presented for management of the heat generated in MSW landfills. Three main strategies are outlined: extraction, regulation, and supplementation. Heat extraction allows for beneficial use of the excess landfill heat as an alternative energy source. Two approaches are provided for the extraction strategy: extracting all of the excess heat above baseline equilibrium conditions in a landfill and extracting only a part of the excess heat above equilibrium conditions to obtain target optimum waste temperatures for maximum gas generation. Heat regulation allows for controlling the waste temperatures to achieve uniform distribution at target levels at a landfill facility. Two approaches are provided for the regulation strategy: redistributing the excess heat across a landfill to obtain uniform target optimum waste temperatures for maximum gas generation and redistributing the excess heat across a landfill to obtain specific target temperatures. Heat supplementation allows for controlling heat generation using external thermal energy sources to achieve target waste temperatures. Two approaches are provided for the supplementation strategy: adding heat to the waste mass using an external energy source to increase waste temperatures and cooling the waste mass using an external energy source to decrease waste temperatures. For all strategies, available landfill heat energy is determined based on the difference between the waste temperatures and the target temperatures. Example analyses using data from landfill facilities with relatively low and high heat generation indicated thermal energy in the range of -48.4 to 72.4MJ/m(3) available for heat management. Further modeling and experimental analyses are needed to verify the effectiveness

  20. Learning from Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project in which students developed an all-class laboratory activity called "The Decomposition of Organic and Inorganic Substances in a Landfill". Explores what conditions are necessary to facilitate decomposition in a landfill. (SAH)

  1. Sanitary landfill liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole V.; Stentsøe, Steen; Petersen, Søren

    DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners.......DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners....

  2. Landfill design in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanac Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste disposal is an important element of integrated waste management. In order to dispose of waste that is free of environmental risk, the proper design of landfills during their construction and/or closure is necessary. The first section of the paper presents the current state of landfills in Serbia, the second deals with problems in project design of landfills, especially in regard to their: a program of waste disposal; b impermeable layer; c leaching collection and treatment; and d gas collection and treatment. Analysis shows that many modern landfills in Serbia do not meet environmental protection requirements, therefore, they need reconstruction. All existing landfills owned by municipalities, as well as illegal dump sites, should be adequately closed. This paper presents the guidelines for successful landfill design which are to serve to meet the requirements and recommendations of Serbian and European regulations. Sound design of landfill technological elements should insure full sustainability of landfills in Serbia.

  3. Organic farming and cover crops as an alternative to mineral fertilizers to improve soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Cima, Diego; Luik, Anne; Reintam, Endla

    2015-10-01

    For testing how cover crops and different fertilization managements affect the soil physical properties in a plough based tillage system, a five-year crop rotation experiment (field pea, white potato, common barley undersown with red clover, red clover, and winter wheat) was set. The rotation was managed under four different farming systems: two conventional: with and without mineral fertilizers and two organic, both with winter cover crops (later ploughed and used as green manure) and one where cattle manure was added yearly. The measurements conducted were penetration resistance, soil water content, porosity, water permeability, and organic carbon. Yearly variations were linked to the number of tillage operations, and a cumulative effect of soil organic carbon in the soil as a result of the different fertilization amendments, organic or mineral. All the systems showed similar tendencies along the three years of study and differences were only found between the control and the other systems. Mineral fertilizers enhanced the overall physical soil conditions due to the higher yield in the system. In the organic systems, cover crops and cattle manure did not have a significant effect on soil physical properties in comparison with the conventional ones, which were kept bare during the winter period. The extra organic matter boosted the positive effect of crop rotation, but the higher number of tillage operations in both organic systems counteracted this effect to a greater or lesser extent.

  4. Evaluating Gas Emissions From Landfills – Which Methodologies Can Be Used?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Many methodologies exist to measure whole landfill methane emission as alternatives to imprecise estimation of the methane emission using existing landfill gas generation models. An overview of the different measurement methodologies is given, and suggestions to the most promising methodologies...

  5. Degradability of Chlorinated Solvents in Landfill Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. Y.; Litman, M.

    2002-12-01

    The use of landfills as an in situ remediation system represents a cost-effective alternative for groundwater remediation in the source area. This research was conducted to investigate the intrinsic bioattenuation capacity of the landfill ecosystem for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). This research, using excavated refuse samples, studied how the reductive dechlorination of CAHs is linked to the decomposition of solid waste in landfills. Most research effort in groundwater remediation has focused on the contaminant plumes beneath and downgradient from landfills, while the source area remediation has received increasing attention. Bioreactor landfill and leachate recirculation projects have been planned and implemented by the USEPA and some states. However, the use of bioreactor landfill has primarily been considered only to expedite refuse decomposition. This research provides an understanding of the biological fate of CAHs in landfills, an understanding that can lead to the bioreactor landfill system designed to promote the degradation of pollutants right at the source. The research was conducted in two complementary systems: simulated landfill bioreactors and batch degradation experiment in serum bottles. Refuse samples were excavated from a municipal solid waste landfill located in Wayland, Massachusetts, USA. Bioreactors were designed and operated to facilitate refuse decomposition under landfilling conditions. For each reactor, leachate was collected and recirculated back to the reactor and gas was collected into a gas bag and the methane production rate was monitored. Target CAHs, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), were added to selected reactors and maintained at about 20 uM each in leachate. The design is to study the effect of long-term exposure of refuse microorganisms to CAHs on the degradation potential of these chemicals in landfills. Changes of biochemical conditions in bioreactors, including leachate pH, leachate COD, and

  6. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Landfilling: Concepts and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.; Hjelmar, O.

    2011-01-01

    new approaches and technological advancement the landfill still is a long lasting accumulation of waste in the environment. Much of current landfill design and technology has been introduced as a reaction to problems encountered at actual landfills. The solution was in many cases sought in isolation......Landfilling of waste historically has been the main management route for waste, and in many parts of the world it still is. Landfills have developed from open polluting dumps to modern highly engineered facilities with sophisticated control measures and monitoring routines. However, in spite of all...... to understand the concepts, the processes and the long-term aspects of landfilling. This chapter describes the main conceptual aspects of landfilling. The historical development is presented and key issues of time frames, mass balances and technical approaches are discussed. The environmental issues...

  8. Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Burlakovs, Juris; Kriipsalu, Mait; Hogland, Marika; Hogland, William

    2017-06-01

    Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m 3 of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of <10 mm and analyzed for its potential for metals recovery. The average chemical composition of the <10 mm soil-like fraction suggests that it offers opportunities for metal (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) extraction and recovery. The findings from this study highlight the importance of implementing best available site-specific technologies for on-site separation up to 10 mm grain size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

  9. The aspects of fire safety at landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshina Tat'yana Anatol'evna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with 2008 and till 2013 there have been alarm messages about fires occurring at landfill places in Russia. Landfill fires are especially dangerous as they emit dangerous fumes from the combustion of the wide range of materials within the landfill. Subsurface landfill fires, unlike typical fires, cannot be put out with water. The article includes the analysis of the sources and causes of conflagrations at landfills. There maintains the necessity to eliminate the reasons, which cause the fires. There are quantification indices of environmental, social and economic effects of fires at landfills all over Russia. Surface fires generally burn at relatively low temperatures and are characterized by the emission of dense white smoke and the products of incomplete combustion. The smoke includes irritating agents, such as organic acids and other compounds. Higher temperature fires can cause the breakdown of volatile compounds, which emit dense black smoke. Surface fires are classified as either accidental or deliberate. For the ecologic security there is a need in the execution of proper hygienic requirements to the content of the places as well as international recommendations. In addition to the burning and explosion hazards posed by landfill fires, smoke and other by-products of landfill fires also present a health risk to firefighters and others exposed to them. Smoke from landfill fires generally contains particulate matter (the products of incomplete combustion of the fuel source, which can aggravate pre-existing pulmonary conditions or cause respiratory distress and damage ecosystem. The monitoring of conducting preventive inflamings and transition to alternative, environment friendly methods of waste disposal is needed.

  10. Economic feasibility of hydrogen enrichment for reducing NOx emissions from landfill gas power generation alternatives: A comparison of the levelized cost of electricity with present strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornbluth, Kurt; Greenwood, Jason; Jordan, Eddie; McCaffrey, Zach; Erickson, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on recent research showing that hydrogen enrichment can lower NO x emissions from landfill gas combustion below future NO x emission control standards imposed by both federal and California state regulations, an investigation was performed to compare the levelized cost of electricity of this technology with other options. In this cost study, a lean-burn reciprocating engine with no after-treatment was the baseline case to compare six other landfill gas-to-energy projects. These cases include a lean burn engine with selective catalytic reduction after treatment, a lean-burn microturbine, and four variations on an ultra-lean-burn engine utilizing hydrogen enrichment with each case using a different method of hydrogen production. Only hydrogen enrichment with an in-stream autothermal fuel reformer was shown to be potentially cost-competitive with current strategies for reaching the NO x reduction target in IC engines. - Highlights: ► Levelized cost of electricity for hydrogen enriched combustion was compared. ► Various ultra-lean-burn engines and microturbines with hydrogen were analyzed. ► Combustion with an autothermal fuel reformer was potentially cost-competitive.

  11. Reduction of methane emission from landfills using bio-mitigation systems – from lab tests to full scale implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    Landfills are significant sources of methane, which contributes to climate change. As an alternative to mitigation by gas utilization systems, bio-mitigation systems may be implemented. Such systems are based on microbial methane oxidation in full surface biological covers, so-called biocovers......, or open or closed bed biofilter systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the relationship between research on process understanding of the oxidation of landfill gas contained methane and the up-scale to full bio-mitigation systems implemented at landfills. The oxidation of methane is controlled...... due to self-heating processes. Bio-mitigation can be used as a stand-alone technology or combined with active or passive gas collection. When implementing bio-mitigation systems focus should be on additional fugitive methane emissions or the presence of uncontrolled point releases. A protocol...

  12. Characterization of an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) as a groundwater pollution source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Grundtvig, Aase; Winther, Pia

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the pollution of groundwater from old landfill have, in most cases, focused on delineating the pollution plume rather than on the landfill as a source of groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas and spatial variations in leachate composition within the landfill...... may have great impact on the location of the main pollution plume in the downstream aquifer. The history of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark was investigated using aerial photographs and interviews. On the basis of the aerial photographs, waste volume and age of the different areas of the landfill...

  13. Geosynthetic applications in landfill design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshunnar, I.S.; Afifi, S.S.; Tiseo, B.

    1996-01-01

    Landfills are designed to contain waste and to provide protection against discharges of leachate into the environment. Main components of a landfill include a liner system, a leachate collection system, and a cover system. Traditional designs have typically incorporated clay soils for containment and sands with embedded piping for leachate collection. As a result of recent advances in design, geosynthetic materials are now widely used for components. While these materials present cost and feasibility advantages, they also pose significant challenges in stability evaluations, handing during installation, and quality assurance. This paper presents an overview of applications of geosynthetics in design and construction, including: Advantages, disadvantages, design criteria, possible economic benefits of various systems, and related construction considerations. 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  15. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Both nonhazardous and nonradioactive sanitary solid waste are generated at the Hanford Site. This permit application describes the manner in which the Solid Waste Landfill will be operated. A description is provided of the landfill, including applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. The characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of are discussed. The regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill are reviewed. A plan is included of operation, closure, and postclosure. This report addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill is discussed

  16. Estimating historical landfill quantities to predict methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyons, S.; Murphy, L.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    There are no observations for methane emissions from landfill waste in Ireland. Methane emissions are imputed from waste data. There are intermittent data on waste sent to landfill. We compare two alternative ways to impute the missing waste " data" and evaluate the impact on methane emissions. We

  17. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  18. Landfill methane emission mitigation – How to construct and document a full‐scale biocover system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Landfills receiving organic wastes produce biogas (landfill gas – LFG) containing methane (CH4). Landfills are significant sources of methane, which contributes to climate change. As an alternative to gas utilization systems or as a follow‐on technology when a gas utilization system gets non‐cost...

  19. REQUIREMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND CLOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication contains edited versions of the material presented at ten Technology Transfer seminars conducted in 1988 on this subject. Sections are included on design of clay and flexible membrane liners, leachate collector systems, and landfill covers. Construction quality a...

  20. Assessing the current and future impacts of the disposal of chromated copper arsenate-treated wood in unlined landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Elisabeth L; Kresic, Neven; Wright, Alexandra P; Kavanaugh, Michael C

    2009-03-01

    Several states have recently considered altering disposal requirements for chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste, particularly Florida, where CCA-treated wood waste is disposed in unlined construction and demolition (C&D) debris and Class III municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The primary concern is the potential for CCA-treated wood waste to elevate arsenic levels in groundwater downgradient of the disposal sites. To address this concern, we evaluated the impact of past disposal practices of these wastes in unlined Florida C&D and Class III landfills by conducting a statistical analysis of two sets of groundwater data compiled by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). The databases contain water quality data from C&D and Class III landfills in Florida covering 15 yr of record from February 1992 through February 2007 and together provide the most complete datasets to evaluate this issue. Comparative statistics of the different population groups in the databases showed that the arithmetic mean concentrations of total arsenic were in most cases higher in background wells than in wells downgradient of the landfills. The statistical analysis indicates that past disposal of CCA-treated wood in C&D and Class III landfills in Florida has not increased arsenic levels downgradient of the landfills. Policy decisions regarding the continued disposal of CCA-treated wood waste as a nonhazardous waste in unlined landfills must therefore be based on a scientifically sound assessment of potential future impacts. Quantitative predictions of future impacts are difficult and pose several scientific challenges. Therefore, future management decisions should be based on a more accurate and comprehensive risk analysis that assesses the risks and benefits of different alternatives and takes into account the natural attenuation capacity of soils and aquifer solids for arsenic and the practical limitations of managing this waste stream as a hazardous

  1. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of page replacements for the Y-12 industrial waste landfill. The cover page is to replace the old page, and a new set of text pages are to replace the old ones. A replacement design drawing is also included

  2. Assessment of the Spatial Variability in Leachate Migration from an Old Landfill Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Winther, Pia

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of the pollution of groundwater from old landfills have in most cases focused on delineating the pollution plume and only in very few cases on the landfill as a source to groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas. Spatial variations in leachate composition may have...... great impact on the location of the main pollution plume in the downstream aquifer. Grindsted landfill in Denmark was investigated by sampling leachate beneath the landfill and in groundwater at the borders of the landfill. A pronounced variability in leachate quality and leakage patterns from...... the landfill was observed. Also variations in local groundwater flow directions were found. These observations are very important for delineation of the groundwater pollution and for proper choice of remedial action activities, related both to the plume and to the landfill....

  3. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F. L.; Gonçalves, Ana L.; Moreira, Francisca C.; Silva, Tânia F. C. V.; Vilar, Vítor J. P.; Pires, José C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates. PMID:27869676

  4. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F L; Gonçalves, Ana L; Moreira, Francisca C; Silva, Tânia F C V; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pires, José C M

    2016-11-17

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N-NH₄⁺) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N-NH₄⁺ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N-NH₄⁺ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N-NO₃ - removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  5. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio F. L. Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+ concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  6. Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities. PMID:10417373

  7. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  8. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkeby, Janus T.; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion

  9. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Chanton, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called “biocovers”) to enhance biological...... oxidation of CH4. A full scale biocover system to reduce CH4 emissions was installed at Fakse landfill, Denmark using composted yard waste as active material supporting CH4 oxidation. Ten biowindows with a total area of 5000m2 were integrated into the existing cover at the 12ha site. To increase CH4 load...

  10. Chromium in soil layers and plants on closed landfill site after landfill leachate application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Marija; Justin, Maja Zupancic; Bukovec, Peter; Selih, Vid Simon

    2009-06-01

    Landfill leachate (LL) usually contains low concentrations of heavy metals due to the anaerobic conditions in the methanogenic landfill body after degradation of easily degradable organic matter and the neutral pH of LL, which prevents mobilization and leaching of metals. Low average concentrations of metals were also confirmed in our extensive study on the rehabilitation of an old landfill site with vegetative landfill cover and LL recirculation after its treatment in constructed wetland. The only exception was chromium (Cr). Its concentrations in LL ranged between 0.10 and 2.75 mg/L, and were higher than the concentrations usually found in the literature. The objectives of the study were: (1) to understand why Cr is high in LL and (2) to understand the fate and transport of Cr in soil and vegetation of landfill cover due to known Cr toxicity to plants. The total concentration of Cr in LL, total and exchangeable concentrations of Cr in landfill soil cover and Cr content in the plant material were extensively monitored from May 2004 to September 2006. By obtained data on Cr concentration in different landfill constituents, supported with the data on the amount of loaded leachate, amount of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (ETP) during the performance of the research, a detailed picture of time distribution and co-dependency of Cr is provided in this research. A highly positive correlation was found between concentrations of Cr and dissolved organic carbon (r=0.875) in LL, which indicates the co-transport of Cr and dissolved organic carbon through the system. Monitoring results showed that the substrate used in the experiment did not contribute to Cr accumulation in the landfill soil cover, resulting in percolation of a high proportion of Cr back into the waste layers and its circulation in the system. No negative effects on plant growth appeared during the monitoring period. Due to low uptake of Cr by plants (0.10-0.15 mg/kg in leaves and 0.05-0.07 mg

  11. ENHANCED LANDFILL MINING: KONSEP BARU PENGELOLAAN LANDFILL BERKELANJUTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyono, Sri

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced landfill mining (ELFM) adalah konsep baru yang terintegrasi tentang recovery material dan energi pada sebuah landfill yang bermanfaat bagi keberlanjutan pengelolaan material dan pengelolaan landfill. Konsep tersebut mengintegrasikan berbagai teknologi seperti teknologi ekskavasi, teknologi pemilahan, teknologi termal, teknologi transformasi dan daur ulang. Hal tersebut juga terintegrasi dengan aspek non teknis seperti aspek regulasi, market, ekonomi, sosial, dan lingkungan. Konsep EL...

  12. Numerical simulation of landfill gas pressure distribution in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yonghui; Xiong, Hao

    2013-11-01

    Landfill gas emissions are recognized as one of the three major concerns in municipal solid waste landfills. There are many factors that affect the generation of landfill gas when the landfill is capped. In this article, a model has been developed based on the theory of porous media flow. The model could predict the pressure distribution of landfill gas in landfill, coupling the effect of landfill settlement. According to the simulation analysis of landfill, it was found that: (a) the landfill gas pressure would reach a peak after 1.5 years, then begin to decline, and the rate of decay would slow down after 10 years; (b) the influence radius of the gas wells is limited; (c) the peak value of landfill gas pressure is larger, it appears later and the rate of decay is slower when the landfill settlement is considered in the model; (d) the calculation of excess gas pressure in landfill under different negative pressures of the extraction well is compared between this model and another model, and the results show that the relative pressure distribution form and range are almost the same.

  13. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  14. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h(-1), corresponding to 0.7-13.2 g m(-2)d(-1), with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41-81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y(-1). This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y(-1), which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y(-1) estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for 2011. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Observations on the methane oxidation capacity of landfill soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field data and two independent models indicate that landfill cover methane (CH4) oxidation should not be considered as a constant 10% or any other single value. Percent oxidation is a decreasing exponential function of the total methane flux rate into the cover and is also dependent on climate and c...

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-05-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution

  17. Ensaios de campo para determinação de emissões de biogás em camadas de cobertura de aterros de resíduos sólidos Field tests for biogas emissions determination in cover layers of municipal solid waste landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete Holanda Mariano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma metodologia de campo utilizada para determinar as emissões de biogás através das camadas de cobertura de aterros de resíduos sólidos urbanos, por meio de ensaios simples, diretos e de baixo custo. Os resultados obtidos nesses estudos indicaram que o fluxo de metano (CH4 pode atingir valores de até 150 kg/m². ano, o que representa 630 mil toneladas do CO2eq por ano em um simples aterro de 20 hectares. A espessura da camada de cobertura, que variou entre 0,2 e 0,7 m, não foi um fator relevante nas emissões medidas, enquanto que as pressões de biogás no contato camada-lixo, com valores acima de 500 Pa, favorecem a formação de microfissuras no solo da camada de cobertura, o que eleva as emissões de gases nesses pontos.This paper presents a field methodology used to determine emissions of biogas through the cover layers of municipal solid waste landfills, by means of simple, straightforward and inexpensive tests. The results from these studies indicated that the flow of methane (CH4 can reach values up to 150 kg/m². year, representing 630,000 tons of CO2eq per year in a mere 20 hectares of landfill. The thickness of the cover layer, which ranged between 0.2 and 0.7 m, was not a relevant factor in the measured emissions, while the pressure of biogas in the contact layer-waste, with values above 500 Pa, favors the formation of microcracks on the soil of the cover layer, which increases the emissions of gases in these points.

  18. Post-closure care of engineered municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Amalendu; Bhattacharya, Abhik

    2015-03-01

    Post-closure care is divided into perpetual care (PPC) and long-term care (LTC). Guidelines for post-closure care and associated costs are important for engineered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. In many states in the USA, landfill owners are required to set aside funds for 30-40 years of LTC. Currently there are no guidelines for PPC, which is also required. We undertook a pilot study, using two landfills (note: average landfill capacity 2.5 million MT MSW waste) in Wisconsin, to establish an approach for estimating the LTC period using field data and PPC funding need. Statistical analysis of time versus concentration data of selected leachate parameters showed that the concentration of most parameters is expected to be at or below the preventive action limit of groundwater and leachate volume will be very low, within 40 years of the LTC period. The gas extraction system may need to be continued for more than 100 years. Due to lack of data no conclusion could be made regarding adequacy of the LTC period for the groundwater monitoring system. The final cover must be maintained for perpetuity. The pilot study shows that although technology is available, the financial liability of maintaining a 'Dry Tomb' design for landfills is significantly higher than commonly perceived. The paper will help landfill professionals to estimate realistic post-closure funding and to develop field-based policies for LTC and PPC of engineered MSW landfills. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Financing landfill gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, R.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of financing landfill gas projects in the UK in the last few years are discussed. The approach of the author in setting up a company to finance such projects in the power generation field and a separate company to design and supply turnkey packages is reported. (UK)

  20. Modelling gas generation for landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, Sumedha; Mathur, Shashi

    2017-06-01

    A methodology was developed to predict the optimum long-term spatial and temporal generation of landfill gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide on post-closure landfill. The model incorporated the chemical and the biochemical processes responsible for the degradation of the municipal solid waste. The developed model also takes into account the effects of heterogeneity with different layers as observed at the site of landfills' morphology. The important parameters for gas generation due to biodegradation such as temperature, pH, and moisture content were incorporated. The maximum and the minimum generations of methane and hydrogen sulphide were observed. The rate of gas generation was found almost same throughout the depth after 30 years of landfill closure. The proposed model would be very useful for landfill engineering in the mining landfill gas and proper design for landfill gas management systems.

  1. Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-09-01

    The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.

  2. Methane balance of a bioreactor landfill in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Jenny; Hettiaratchi, Patrick; Hunte, Carlos; Hurtado, Omar; Keller, Alejandro

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents results from a methane (CH4) gas emission characterization survey conducted at the Loma Los Colorados landfill located 60 km from Santiago, Chile. The landfill receives approximately 1 million metric tons (t) of waste annually, and is equipped with leachate control systems and landfill gas collection systems. The collected leachate is recirculated to enable operation of the landfill as a bioreactor. For this study, conducted between April and July 2000, a total of 232 surface emission measurements were made over the 23-ha surface area of the landfill. The average surface flux rate of CH4 emissions over the landfill surface was 167 g x m(-2) x day(-1), and the total quantity of surface emissions was 13,320 t/yr. These values do not include the contribution made by "hot spots," originating from leachate pools caused by "daylighting" of leachate, that were identified on the landfill surface and had very high CH4 emission rates. Other point sources of CH4 emissions at this landfill include 20 disconnected gas wells that vent directly to the atmosphere. Additionally, there are 13 gas wells connected to an incinerator responsible for destroying 84 t/yr of CH4. The balance also includes CH4 that is being oxidized on the surface of the landfill by meth-anotrophic bacteria. Including all sources, except leachate pool emissions, the emissions were estimated to be 14,584 t/yr CH4. It was estimated that less than 1% of the gas produced by the decomposition of waste was captured by the gas collection system and 38% of CH4 generated was emitted to the atmosphere through the soil cover.

  3. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  4. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, Stewart M.; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. ► Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. ► We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. ► Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. ► The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m 2 /person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country’s total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1–3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48

  5. Control and monitoring of landfill gas underground migration at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heroux, M.; Turcotte, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proposed paper covers the various aspects of control and monitoring of potential landfill gas (LFG) migration through soil voids or rock fractures at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site. It depicts the social, geographical and geological context and presents a brief history of the landfill site. It describes the LFG collecting system and LFG migration monitoring equipment and programs. Finally it presents monitoring data taken over last few years. The landfill site is located in a well populated urban area. Since 1968, about 33 million metric tons of domestic and commercial waste have been buried in a former limestone quarry. Because of houses and buildings in the vicinity, 100 m in some locations, LFG underground migration is a major risk. LFG could indeed infiltrate buildings and reach explosive concentrations. So it must be controlled. The City of Montreal acquired the site in 1988 and has progressively built a LFG collecting system, composed of more than 288 vertical wells, to pump out of the landfill 280 million m 3 of gas annually. To verify the efficiency of this system to minimize LFG underground migration, monitoring equipment and programs have also been designed and put into operation. The monitoring network, located all around the landfill area, is composed of 21 well nests automated to monitor presence of gas in the ground in real time. In addition, 55 individual wells, where manual measurements are made, are also available. To complete the monitoring program, some measurements are also taken in buildings, houses and underground utilities in the neighborhood of the site. Monitoring data show that LFG underground migration is well controlled. They also indicate significant decrease of migration over the years corresponding to improvements to the LFG collecting system

  6. [Nitrous oxide emissions from municipal solid waste landfills and its measuring methodology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Shao-Hua

    2014-06-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of three major greenhouse gases and the dominant ozone-depleting substance. Landfilling is the major approach for the treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW), while MSW landfills can be an important anthropogenic source for N2O emissions. Measurements at lab-scale and full-scale landfills have demonstrated that N2O can be emitted in substantial amounts in MSW landfills; however, a large variation in reported emission values exists. Currently, the mechanisms of N2O production and emission in landfills and its contribution to global warming are still lack of sufficient studies. Meanwhile, obtaining reliable N2O fluxes data in landfills remains a question with existing in-situ measurement techniques. This paper summarized relevant literature data on this issue and analyzed the potential production and emission mechanisms of N2O in traditional anaerobic sanitary landfill by dividing it into the MSW buried and the cover soil. The corresponding mechanisms in nitrogen removal bioreactor landfills were analyzed. Finally, the applicability of existing in-situ approaches measuring N2O fluxes in landfills, such as chamber and micrometeorological methods, was discussed and areas in which further research concerning N2O emissions in landfills was urgently required were proposed as well.

  7. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran (Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden)); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  8. Assessing methods to estimate emissions of non-methane organic compounds from landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saquing, Jovita M.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Yazdani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    The non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emission rate is used to assess compliance with landfill gas emission regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). A recent USEPA Report (EPA/600/R-11/033) employed a ratio method to estimate speciated NMOC emissions (i...... and speciated NMOC concentration and flux data from 2012/2013 field sampling of four landfills, an unpublished landfill study, and literature data from three landfills. The ratio method worked well for landfills with thin covers (.......e., individual NMOC emissions): speciated NMOC emissions=measured methane (CH4) emission multiplied by the ratio of individual NMOCs concentration relative to CH4 concentration (CNMOCs/CCH4) in the landfill header gas. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy of the ratio method...

  9. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....

  10. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.L.; Williamson, K.L.; Owen, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m 3 ha -1 yr -1 . However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios

  11. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  12. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed

  13. Quantitative option analysis for implementation and management of landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerestecioğlu, Merih

    2016-09-01

    The selection of the most feasible strategy for implementation of landfills is a challenging step. Potential implementation options of landfills cover a wide range, from conventional construction contracts to the concessions. Montenegro, seeking to improve the efficiency of the public services while maintaining affordability, was considering privatisation as a way to reduce public spending on service provision. In this study, to determine the most feasible model for construction and operation of a regional landfill, a quantitative risk analysis was implemented with four steps: (i) development of a global risk matrix; (ii) assignment of qualitative probabilities of occurrences and magnitude of impacts; (iii) determination of the risks to be mitigated, monitored, controlled or ignored; (iv) reduction of the main risk elements; and (v) incorporation of quantitative estimates of probability of occurrence and expected impact for each risk element in the reduced risk matrix. The evaluated scenarios were: (i) construction and operation of the regional landfill by the public sector; (ii) construction and operation of the landfill by private sector and transfer of the ownership to the public sector after a pre-defined period; and (iii) operation of the landfill by the private sector, without ownership. The quantitative risk assessment concluded that introduction of a public private partnership is not the most feasible option, unlike the common belief in several public institutions in developing countries. A management contract for the first years of operation was advised to be implemented, after which, a long term operating contract may follow. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Spokas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local GHG mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for landfill CH4 generation (methanogenesis, but does not explicitly consider climate or soil dependencies for emissions. Relying on a comprehensive California landfill database, a field-validated process-based model for landfill CH4 emissions (CALMIM, and select field measurements at 10 California sites with a variety of methods, we support the contrary position: Limited climate dependency for methanogenesis, but strong climate dependency for landfill CH4 emissions. Contrary to the historic IPCC empirical model for methanogenesis with kinetic constants related to climate, we demonstrate a simpler and more robust linear empirical relationship (r2 = 0.85; n=128 between waste mass and landfill biogas recovery [126 × 10-6 Nm3 CH4 hr-1 Mgwaste-1]. More interestingly, there are no statistically significant relationships with climate, site age, or status (open/closed for landfill biogas recovery. The current IPCC methodology does not consider soil or climate drivers for gaseous transport or seasonal methanotrophy in different cover soils. On the other hand, we illustrate strong climate and soil dependencies for landfill emissions—e.g., average intermediate cover emissions below 20 g CH4 m-2 d-1 when the site’s mean annual precipitation is >500 mm y-1. Thereby, for the California landfill CH4 inventory, the highest-emitting sites shift from landfills containing the largest mass of waste to sites dominated by intermediate cover types having a reduced rate of soil CH4 oxidation during the annual cycle. These differences have profound implications for developing more realistic, science-based urban and regional scale GHG inventories for landfill CH4 while reducing

  15. Mercury emission to the atmosphere from municipal solid waste landfills: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Dai, Shijin; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is regarded as an important emission source of atmospheric mercury (Hg), which is associated with potential health and environmental risks, as outlined by the Minamata Convention on Hg. This review presents the current state of knowledge with regards to landfill Hg sources, Hg levels in MSW and cover soils, Hg emission to the atmosphere, available Hg biogeochemical transformations, research methods for Hg emission, and important areas for future research. In addition, strategies for controlling landfill Hg emissions are considered, including reducing the Hg load in landfill and in situ controls. These approaches mainly focus on Hg source reduction, Hg recycling programs, public education, and in situ technology such as timely soil cover, vegetation, and end-of-pipe technology for controlling Hg emission from landfill gas.

  16. Landfill Gas Energy Project Data and Landfill Technical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides data from the LMOP Database for U.S. landfills and LFG energy projects in Excel files, a map of project and candidate landfill counts by state, project profiles for a select group of projects, and information about Project Expo sites.

  17. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.

    1997-01-01

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (10 15 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  18. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  19. Evaluation of the geotechnical properties of MSW in two Brazilian landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Sandro Lemos; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran; Shariatmadari, Nader; Carvalho, Miriam Fatima; do Nascimento, Julio C F

    2010-12-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) play a key role in many aspects of waste disposal facilities and landfills. Because most of a landfill is made up of MSW, the overall stability of the landfill slopes are governed by the strength parameters and physical properties of the MSW. These parameters are also important in interactions involving the waste body and the landfill structures: cover liner, leachate and gas collection systems. On the other hand, the composition of the waste, which affects the geotechnical behavior of the MSW, is dependent on a variety of factors such as climate, disposal technology, the culture and habits of the local community. It is therefore essential that the design and stability evaluations of landfills in each region be performed based on the local conditions and the geotechnical characteristic of the MSW. The Bandeirantes Landfill, BL, in São Paulo and the Metropolitan Center Landfill, MCL, in Salvador, are among the biggest landfills in Brazil. These two disposal facilities have been used for the development of research involving waste mechanics in recent years. Considerable work has been made in the laboratory and in the field to evaluate parameters such as water and organic contents, composition, permeability, and shear strength. This paper shows and analyzes the results of tests performed on these two landfills. The authors believe that these results could be a good reference for certain aspects and geotechnical properties of MSW materials in countries with similar conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uncontrolled methane emissions from a MSW landfill surface: influence of landfill features and side slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Viviani, Gaspare

    2013-10-01

    Sanitary landfills for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal have been identified as one of the most important anthropogenic sources of methane (CH4) emissions; in order to minimize its negative effects on the environment, landfill gas (LFG) recovery is a suitable tool to control CH4 emissions from a landfill site; further, the measurement of CH4 emissions can represent a good way to evaluate the effectiveness of LFG recovering systems. In general, LFG will escape through any faults in the landfill capping or in the LFG collection system. Indeed, some areas of the capping can be more permeable than others (e.g. portions of a side slope), especially when considering a temporarily capped zone (covered area that is not expected to receive any further waste for a period of at least 3 months, but for engineering reasons does not have a permanent cap yet). These areas, which are characterized by abnormal emissions, are usually defined as "features": in particular, a feature is a small, discrete area or an installation where CH4 emissions significantly differ from the surrounding zones. In the present study, the influence that specific features have on CH4 emissions has been investigated, based on direct measurements carried out in different seasons by means of a flux chamber to the case study of Palermo (IT) landfill (Bellolampo). The results showed that the flux chamber method is reliable and easy to perform, and the contoured flux maps, obtained by processing the measured data were found to be a suitable tool for identifying areas with abnormal (high) emissions. Further, it was found that a relationship between methane emission rates and landfill side slope can be established. Concerning the influence of the temporary HDPE cover system on CH4 recovery efficiency, it contributed to a significant decrease of the free surface area available for uncontrolled emissions; this aspect, coupled to the increase of the CH4 volumes collected by the LFG recovery system, led to a

  1. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  2. Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Merry-Libby, P.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the US Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the Middlesex Municipal landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 m 3 of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 m 3 was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage. Based on the pathway analysis for the onsite and near-site resident scenarios, the radiation dose rates and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater would be below the regulatory requirements for both the short-term and long-term scenarios. Hence, the potential health risks to maximally exposed individuals due to radioactive releases from the Middlesex landfill would be insignificant

  3. Hazardous waste landfill research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1983-05-01

    The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical area of landfills, surface impoundments, and underground mines encompasses state-of-the-art documents, laboratory analysis, economic assessment, bench and pilot studies, and full scale field verification studies. Over the next five years the research will be reported as Technical Resource Documents in support of the Permit Writers Guidance Manuals. These manuals will be used to provide guidance for conducting the review and evaluation of land disposal permit applications. This paper will present an overview of this program and will report the current status of work in the various categorical areas.

  4. Patient Characteristics and Surgical Approach Impacting Simultaneous to Alternate Prism Cover Test Disparity After Exotropia Surgery: A Quantitative Look at the Difference in Motor Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Pavlina S; Chang, Yoon-Hee; Melvin, Patrice; Dagi, Linda R

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between simultaneous prism and cover test (SPCT) and alternate prism and cover test (APCT) outcomes after exotropia surgery, and to identify characteristics associated with significant disparity between them. Review of sensorimotor outcomes 2 to 6 months after exotropia surgery identified patients with alignment documented by both SPCT and APCT at the same examination. Two hundred seventy-four and 319 patients had both measurements recorded at distance and near, respectively. Correlation between the SPCT and APCT and range of APCT when the SPCT measurement was zero were determined. Patient characteristics studied for association with a difference between the SPCT and APCT exceeding known APCT test-retest variability included age, visual acuity, fusion, intermittency, pattern, preoperative and postoperative angle, and treatment with or without medial rectus resection. SPCT and APCT outcomes were strongly correlated (P different (P difference. Although a greater postoperative SPCT-APCT disparity was confirmed for patients with intermittent exotropia, it also independently associated with a larger preoperative deviation and surgery without medial rectus resection. Performing medial rectus resection, a surgeon's prerogative, provides more apparently consistent postoperative alignment characterized by less SPCT-APCT disparity. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(4):222-230.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Investigation of Biodegradation Processes in Solid Waste Landfills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colborn, Philip

    1997-01-01

    Greater demands on landfill capacity, stricter regulations intended to minimize landfill environmental impacts, and the economic potential associated with landfill operations have shifted the emphasis...

  6. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  7. The concept of “Loop Cycle” in landfill management (Case study at Piyungan landfill, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama Putra Hijrah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of waste continues to increase from year to year, one of which is due to the population increase. With the target of 100% service level by 2020, Indonesia must prepare the land that will be used as a landfill location in order to accommodate the waste that continues to be produced. Apparently, the problem is not only limited to the provision of land, but operational challenges become more severe. One of its is experienced by Piyungan Landfill, Bantul, Yogyakarta which has been designed to expire by 2015. The government of Yogyakarta is optimizing for landfill can still operate until 2018. One solution that can be given in operation for the loop cycle or closed cycle concepts is landfill mining method, which is utilizing degraded waste into other designations so that the land can still be used to accommodate other waste. Sampling and analysis results show that the waste contained in 1st zone Piyungan landfill aged 15-20 years, with the highest composition is soil (59% dominate other types of waste. The soil obtained has the potential to be utilized as cover soil and compost, but for compost is necessary to further study the modification of the design of the zoning zone, so that the waste not too long is in the soil so that the nutrient content is still high.

  8. Landfill gas management facilities design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In British Columbia, municipal solid waste landfills generate over 1000 tonnes of methane per year; landfill gas management facilities are required to improve the environmental performance of solid waste landfills. The aim of this document, developed by the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, is to provide guidance for the design, installation, and operation of landfill gas management facilities to address odor and pollutant emissions issues and also address health and safety issues. A review of technical experience and best practices in landfill gas management facilities was carried out, as was as a review of existing regulations related to landfill gas management all over the world. This paper provides useful information to landfill owners, operators, and other professionals for the design of landfill gas management facilities which meet the requirements of landfill gas management regulations.

  9. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Critical Factors for the Climate Impact of Landfill Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Cencic, Oliver; Svensson, Niclas; Krook, Joakim

    2016-07-05

    Landfill mining has been proposed as an innovative strategy to mitigate environmental risks associated with landfills, to recover secondary raw materials and energy from the deposited waste, and to enable high-valued land uses at the site. The present study quantitatively assesses the importance of specific factors and conditions for the net contribution of landfill mining to global warming using a novel, set-based modeling approach and provides policy recommendations for facilitating the development of projects contributing to global warming mitigation. Building on life-cycle assessment, scenario modeling and sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify critical factors for the climate impact of landfill mining. The net contributions to global warming of the scenarios range from -1550 (saving) to 640 (burden) kg CO2e per Mg of excavated waste. Nearly 90% of the results' total variation can be explained by changes in four factors, namely the landfill gas management in the reference case (i.e., alternative to mining the landfill), the background energy system, the composition of the excavated waste, and the applied waste-to-energy technology. Based on the analyses, circumstances under which landfill mining should be prioritized or not are identified and sensitive parameters for the climate impact assessment of landfill mining are highlighted.

  11. Syntaxonomy of vegetation of Kalush hexachlorobenzene toxic waste landfill (Ivano-Frankivsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Parpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of a landfill of hexachlorobenzene toxic waste was studied. It is situated in the neighborhood of Kalush (Ivano-Frankivsk region and has an area of 4.5 ha. As a result of damage to the containers, hazardous waste has contaminated the air, soil and aquifers at the test site and adjacent areas. During the period 2010–2012 measures were taken to recover and remove the mixture of toxic waste and contaminated soil from the landfill. In its place, unpolluted soil was brought to the landfill. Work was carried out to recultivate the territory. Nowadays natural succession of vegetation cover is observed. There is closed herbaceous cover in the western part of the landfill. The total projective herbaceous cover in the central and eastern parts varies from 10% to 60%. Vegetation composition of the landfill contains eight syntaxa of association rank that belong to seven alliances, six orders and five classes. Communities of the Phragmito-Magnocaricetea and Bolboschoenetea maritimi classes (ass. Typhetum laxmanii grow in areas with excessive humidification. The central and eastern parts of the waste landfill are primarily occupied by halophytic communities of the Puccinellio distanti-Tripolietum vulgare association of the Asteretea tripolium class. Ruderal communities belong to three associations of the Artemisietea vulgaris class. These communities mainly occur in the periphery zone of Kalush landfill. Areas with a moderate moisture regime are occupied by ruderal communities of the Calamagrostietum epigeios association of the Agropyretea repentis class. The total number of vascular herbaceous plant species at the landfill is 119. The dominating groups are meadow, synanthropic and wetland species. The differentiation of vegetation cover is caused by heterogeneity of edaphic and hydrological conditions, also by different activity of succession processes.

  12. GCLs in landfill applications: influence of subgrade, temperature and confining pressure on bentonite hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Chevrier , Boris; Didier , Gérard; Cazaux , David; Gamet , Marc; Guyonnet , Dominique

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) are often used in landfills applications, for example in landfill covers. In order to act as a barrier, GCLs must hydrate and swell under a confining pressure. According to the French Committee for Geosynthetics, the water content of the bentonite must be at least 100% (wet dry weight). If GCLs are installed at their initial bentonite water content (around 10-15%), the question arises as to the duration of the hydration period (vapour mi...

  13. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal

  14. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  15. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fugitive halocarbon emissions from working face of municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Dastyar, Wafa; Liu, Yanting; Guo, Hanwen; Fu, Xindi; Li, Hao; Meng, Ruihong; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Hongtao

    2017-12-01

    Halocarbons are important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to their long lifetime and large characteristic factors. The present study for the first time assessed the global warming potential (GWP) of fugitive halocarbon emissions from the working face of landfills in China. The national emissions of five major halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-113, CH 2 Cl 2 , CHCl 3 and CCl 4 ) from the working face of municipal solid waste landfills in China were provided through observation-based estimations. The fluxes of halocarbons from working face of landfills were observed much higher than covered cells in landfills hence representing the hot spots of landfill emissions. The annual emissions of the halocarbons from landfills in China were 0.02-15.6kt·y -1 , and their GWPs were 128-60,948kt-CO 2 -eq·y -1 based on their characteristic factors on a 100-year horizon. CFC-113 was the dominant species owing to its highest releasing rate (i.e. 15.4±19.1g·t -1 ) and largest characteristic factor, resulting in a GWP up to 4036±4855kt-CO 2 -eq·y -1 . The annual emissions of CFC-113 from landfills (i.e. 0.61kt·y -1 ) made up ∼76% of the total national CFC-113 emissions. The GWPs of halocarbons were estimated ∼14.4% of landfill methane emissions. Therefore, fugitive halocarbons emissions from working face are significant sources of GHGs in landfill sites in China, although they comprise a small fraction of total landfill gases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochim, April; Zytner, Richard G; McBean, Edward A; Endres, Anthony L

    2013-10-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable at 33.9% for the drier landfill and 18.1% for the wetter landfill. Infiltration experiments also showed the potential to measure small increases in water content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantifying spatial and temporal variability of methane emissions from a complex area source: case study of a central Indiana landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    strengths, limitations, and uncertainties of these two approaches. Because US landfills are highly-engineered and composed of daily, intermediate, and final cover areas with differing thicknesses, composition, and implementation of gas recovery, we also expected different emissi...

  19. Astronomy on a Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  20. Environmental upgrading of a landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinetto, V.; Vendrame, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article refers to an experimental study concerning the vegetative upgrading of a closed-down landfill (once used for industrial waste disposal). The aim was to check the possibility of reconstructing or aiding the natural growth of a vegetation in keeping with the surrounding area, in a tried environment such as that of landfills. The original idea contained in the approved project - which meant to generically upgrade the territory by planting species belonging to the grassy layer, shrubs and trees - has, with time, undergone some changes. On the basis of both the knowledge acquired during management and of a more accurate analysis of the territory, the experiment was preferred to aim at finding out which were the species, both continental and Mediterranean, able to gradually adjust to the surrounding landscape, leaving to natural selection the task to decide which species were more suitable to the upgrading of closed-down landfills, and which planting technique was more effective [it

  1. New tool for landfill location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiloglou, Vasilios Chr

    2004-12-01

    In the present paper a decision-making process for the potential location of new landfill areas with wide community participation and acceptance is suggested. The main scientific contribution of this work is the elaboration of an independent decision-making tool, which can be used in landfill site selection. Specifically, at a first level it acts as an intermediary between experts (i.e. engineers, technical advisors) and decision-makers (i.e. elected representatives, appointive advisors), helping decision-makers to use experts' knowledge. At a higher level, it acts as an independent processor of decision-makers judgments thereby giving a result that is in accordance with pre-chosen criteria. In this way, the local authorities can effectively participate in the decision-making process and avert the violation of possible agreements. Furthermore, the criteria (pre-selection - evaluation) and the methodology of multicriteria analysis for new landfill location are presented.

  2. Vinča landfill leachate characteristics prediction by the leaching method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić Nataša D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the newly implemented waste management policy in European Union countries, sanitary landfilling constitutes the fourth and the least preferred of the alternative management options for the disposal of solid urban wastes. Landfills generate emissions over long periods, often longer than a lifetime. The longest lasting emission is leachate: leachate production and management is now recognized as one of the greatest problems associated with the environmentally sound operation of sanitary landfills. These liquid wastes can cause considerable pollution problems by contacting the surrounding soil, ground or surface waters and, are therefore considered major pollution hazards unless precautionary measures are implemented. Landfill leachate characterization is a critical factor in establishing a corresponding effective management strategy or treatment process. This paper summarizes leachate quality indicators, and investigates the temporal variation of leachate quality from municipal solid waste. The toxicity of leachates from the municipal solid waste landfill "Vinca" in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, was characterized using toxicity characteristics leaching procedures (TCLP. The "Vinca" landfill was established in 1978 as one of several municipal landfills. Since the 1990-ies the "Vinca" landfill has been the only operating landfill servicing the Belgrade Metropolitan area, the biggest city in Serbia, with 1,576,124 inhabitants in the larger-city area, and 1,273,651 inhabitants in the inner-city area. The total average amount of solid wastes deposited in the landfill is estimated to be 1100 tons/day. The landfill site is not lined and the tributary flows through the centre of the site-in some places directly under the mass of refuse. No consideration has been given to the protection of ground waters, surface runoff or drainage. Local authorities plan to expand the landfill by 0.4 km2 to a total of 1.3 km Chemical analysis was performed on the

  3. Determination of the coefficient of uranium and thorium distribution in phosphogypsum for their use in sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M. F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D. S.; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do; Taddei, Maria Helena

    2013-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct from the production of phosphoric acid, and contain radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids from phosphate rock. It represents a risk to the environment if improperly stored. Because it is composed mainly of dihydrated calcium sulphate, phosphogypsum can be used in anaerobic environments such as those found in landfills to accelerate microbial processes of decomposition of municipal solid waste and thus increase the life of these facilities. One of the options of your application being studied is the use of phosphogypsum replacing the covers of soil/clay in landfills. Besides reducing the demand for soil and clay, this application would be an alternative to disposal of the waste, since the alternatives are not sufficient for more than five million tons produced per year in Brazil. To ensure the safety of this application, the potential environmental impact of contaminants in phosphogypsum should be evaluated. The rate of leaching of contaminants are being studied by determining the coefficient of distribution of the contaminants in the phosphogypsum. Batch tests were performed by mixing different proportions of slurry and phosphogypsum. This work presents the results for the chain of uranium and natural thorium

  4. Determination of the coefficient of uranium and thorium distribution in phosphogypsum for their use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M. F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D. S., E-mail: mvmarchesi@hotmail.com, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br, E-mail: naruhikohama@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do; Taddei, Maria Helena, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct from the production of phosphoric acid, and contain radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids from phosphate rock. It represents a risk to the environment if improperly stored. Because it is composed mainly of dihydrated calcium sulphate, phosphogypsum can be used in anaerobic environments such as those found in landfills to accelerate microbial processes of decomposition of municipal solid waste and thus increase the life of these facilities. One of the options of your application being studied is the use of phosphogypsum replacing the covers of soil/clay in landfills. Besides reducing the demand for soil and clay, this application would be an alternative to disposal of the waste, since the alternatives are not sufficient for more than five million tons produced per year in Brazil. To ensure the safety of this application, the potential environmental impact of contaminants in phosphogypsum should be evaluated. The rate of leaching of contaminants are being studied by determining the coefficient of distribution of the contaminants in the phosphogypsum. Batch tests were performed by mixing different proportions of slurry and phosphogypsum. This work presents the results for the chain of uranium and natural thorium.

  5. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: the semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Stewart M; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with a land requirement of 0.2m(2)/person year, a cover to waste ratio of 0.2, and an estimated soil surplus of 298,000 m(3) that is valorized and used onsite. The landfill has been operated solely by the municipality with an operational cost in 2010 estimated at US$4.60 per ton. A modified water balance analysis at Villanueva shows negligible leachate generation from covered trenches and 700 m(3)/yr (60 m(3)/ha yr) from the two open

  6. Methane emissions from landfill: influence of vegetation and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Rongxing; Xin, Danhui; Chai, Xiaoli

    2018-02-22

    Vegetation plays an important role in CH 4 transport and oxidation in landfill cover soil. This study investigated CH 4 emission fluxes in two landfills with different surface coverage conditions and it found that the CH 4 emission fluxes presented spatial and temporal disparities. A significant discrepancy in CH 4 emission flux between day and night in areas covered with Kochia sieversiana indicated that enhanced diffusion induced by rising temperature was the main mechanism for CH 4 transport during daytime. A significant increase of CH 4 emission flux after the K. sieversiana and Suaeda glauca plants were cut indicated that these plants provide greater contributions to CH 4 oxidation than to CH 4 transport. Diel CH 4 emission flux was found closely correlated with the climatic conditions. Diffusion was determined as the main mechanism for CH 4 transport at daytime in bare area, mediated by solar radiation and air temperature. Diffusion and plant-mediated transport by convection was established as the main transport mechanism in areas covered with K. sieversiana. Our results further the understanding of both the CH 4 emission mechanism and the impact of vegetation on CH 4 oxidation, transport, and emission, which will benefit the development of a reliable model for landfill CH 4 emissions.

  7. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  8. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yochim, April; Zytner, Richard G.; McBean, Edward A.; Endres, Anthony L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable

  9. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    to approximately 260 kg per tonne of waste landfilled. The environmental burdens from the extraction and manufacturing of the materials used in the landfill, as well as from the construction of the landfill, were modelled as potential environmental impacts. For example, the potential impact on global warming was 2.......5 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents or 0.32 milli person equivalents per tonne of waste. The potential impacts from the use of materials and construction of the landfill are low-to-insignificant compared with data reported in the literature on impact potentials of landfills in operation......Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting...

  10. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  11. Emissions from the Bena Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, C.; Blake, D. R.; Hughes, S.

    2016-12-01

    In 2013, Americans generated 254 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW). The gas generated from the decomposition of MSW is composed of approximately 50% methane, 50% carbon dioxide, and a small proportion of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs). NMOCs constitute less than 1% of landfill emissions, but they can have a disproportionate environmental impact as they are highly reactive ozone precursors. During the 2016 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), whole air samples were collected at the Bena landfill outside of Bakersfield, CA and throughout Bakersfield and analyzed using gas chromatography in order to quantify NMOC emissions. This area was determined to have elevated concentrations of benzene, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which are categorized by the EPA as hazardous to human health. Benzene was found to have a concentration of 145 ± 4 pptv, four times higher than the background levels in Bakersfield (36 ± 1 pptv). Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene had concentrations of 18 ± 1 pptv and 31 ± 1 pptv which were 18 and 10 times greater than background concentrations, respectively. In addition, hydroxyl radical reactivity (ROH) was calculated to determine the potential for tropospheric ozone formation. The total ROH of the landfill was 7.5 ± 0.2 s-1 compared to total background ROH of 1.0 ± 0.1 s-1 . NMOCs only made up 0.6% of total emissions, but accounted for 67% of total ROH.These results can help to shape future landfill emission policies by highlighting the importance of NMOCs in addition to methane. More research is needed to investigate the ozone forming potential of these compounds at landfills across the country.

  12. Environmental assessment of Ammassuo Landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modelling (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niskanen, A.; Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The Old Ammassuo Landfill (Espoo, Finland) covers an area of 52 hectares and contains about 10 million tonnes of waste that was landfilled between 1987 and 2007. The majority of this waste was mixed, of which about 57% originated from households. This paper aims at describing the management......) and ecotoxicity in water chronic (ETwc). The largest impact potential was found for SGR and amounted to 57.6 person equivalent (PE) per tonne of landfilled waste. However, the SGR impact may not be viewed as a significant issue in Finland as the drinking water is mostly supplied from surface water bodies. Overall...... of the Old Ammassuo Landfill throughout its operational lifetime (1987-2007), and at developing an environmental evaluation based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE-model. The assessment criteria evaluate specific categories of impact, including standard impact categories, toxicity...

  13. Reduced sulfur compounds in gas from construction and demolition debris landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue; Xu, Qiyong; Booth, Matthew; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    The biological conversion of sulfate from disposed gypsum drywall to hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in the anaerobic environment of a landfill results in odor problems and possible health concerns at many disposal facilities. To examine the extent and magnitude of such emissions, landfill gas samples from wells, soil vapor samples from the interface of the waste and cover soil, and ambient air samples, were collected from 10 construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills in Florida and analyzed for H(2)S and other reduced sulfur compounds (RSC). H(2)S was detected in the well gas and soil vapor at all 10 sites. The concentrations in the ambient air above the surface of the landfill were much lower than those observed in the soil vapor, and no direct correlation was observed between the two sampling locations. Methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide were the most frequently observed other RSC, though they occurred at smaller concentrations than H(2)S. This research confirmed the presence of H(2)S at C&D debris landfills. High concentrations of H(2)S may be a concern for employees working on the landfill site. These results indicate that workers should use proper personal protection at C&D debris landfills when involved in excavation, landfill gas collection, or confined spaces. The results indicate that H(2)S is sufficiently diluted in the atmosphere to not commonly pose acute health impacts for these landfill workers in normal working conditions. H(2)S concentrations were extremely variable with measurements occurring over a very large range (from less than 3 ppbv to 12,000 ppmv in the soil vapor and from less than 3 ppbv to 50 ppmv in ambient air). Possible reasons for the large intra- and inter-site variability observed include waste and soil heterogeneities, impact of weather conditions, and different site management practices.

  14. Simulated evapotranspiration from a landfill irrigated with landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Evapotranspiration from a landfill area, irrigated with leachate water, was simulated with the SOIL model. Three different types of vegetation (bare soil, grass ley, and willow) were used both with and without irrigation. The highest simulated evapotranspiration (604 mm) during the growing season was found from an irrigated willow stand with a high interception capacity. The lowest evapotranspiration (164 mm) was found from the bare soil. The relatively high evapotranspiration from the willow was probably caused by the high LAI (Leaf Area Index) and the low aerodynamic resistance within the willow stand. The results indicate that it is possible to reduce most of the leakage water from a landfill by irrigation of willow stands. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  15. Landfill methane oxidation across climate types in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanton, Jeffrey; Abichou, Tarek; Langford, Claire; Hater, Gary; Green, Roger; Goldsmith, Doug; Swan, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Methane oxidation in landfill covers was determined by stable isotope analyses over 37 seasonal sampling events at 20 landfills with intermediate covers over four years. Values were calculated two ways: by assuming no isotopic fractionation during gas transport, which produces a conservative or minimum estimate, and by assuming limited isotopic fractionation with gas transport producing a higher estimate. Thus bracketed, the best assessment of mean oxidation within the soil covers from chamber captured emitted CH(4) was 37.5 ± 3.5%. The fraction of CH(4) oxidized refers to the fraction of CH(4) delivered to the base of the cover that was oxidized to CO(2) and partitioned to microbial biomass instead of being emitted to the atmosphere as CH(4) expressed as a percentage. Air samples were also collected at the surface of the landfill, and represent CH(4) from soil, from leaking infrastructure, and from cover defects. A similar assessment of this data set yields 36.1 ± 7.2% oxidation. Landfills in five climate types were investigated. The fraction oxidized in arid sites was significantly greater than oxidation in mediterranean sites, or cool and warm continental sites. Sub tropical sites had significantly lower CH(4) oxidation than the other types of sites. This relationship may be explained by the observed inverse relationship between cover loading and fractional CH(4) oxidation.

  16. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-01

    Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the continued operation of a 'safety net' in waste management. Regulations have created a financial incentive to pass on the burden of monitoring and controlling the impact of waste to future generations. To prevent this, it is necessary to revise regulations on aftercare and create incentives to actively stabilise landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  18. Microbial community structure and diversity in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Cao, Aixin; Zhao, Guozhu; Zhou, Chuanbin; Xu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are the most prevalent waste disposal method and constitute one of the largest sources of anthropogenic methane emissions in the world. Microbial activities in disposed waste play a crucial role in greenhouse gas emissions; however, only a few studies have examined metagenomic microbial profiles in landfills. Here, the MiSeq high-throughput sequencing method was applied for the first time to examine microbial diversity of the cover soil and stored waste located at different depths (0-150cm) in a typical MSW landfill in Yangzhou City, East China. The abundance of microorganisms in the cover soil (0-30cm) was the lowest among all samples, whereas that in stored waste decreased from the top to the middle layer (30-90cm) and then increased from the middle to the bottom layer (90-150cm). In total, 14 phyla and 18 genera were found in the landfill. A microbial diversity analysis showed that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla, whereas Halanaerobium, Methylohalobius, Syntrophomonas, Fastidiosipila, and Spirochaeta were the dominant genera. Methylohalobius (methanotrophs) was more abundant in the cover layers of soil than in stored waste, whereas Syntrophomonas and Fastidiosipila, which affect methane production, were more abundant in the middle to bottom layers (90-150cm) in stored waste. A canonical correlation analysis showed that microbial diversity in the landfill was most strongly correlated with the conductivity, organic matter, and moisture content of the stored waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the performance of gas collection systems in select Chinese landfills according to the LandGEM model: drawbacks and potential direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Yue, Dongbei; Li, Rundong; Yang, Ting; Liu, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    In China, municipal solid waste (MSW) is primarily treated by landfilling. Landfill gas (LFG) collection effectively reduces methane emission from MSW landfills. An accurate system of LFG collection is important in landfill planning, design, and operation. However, China has not developed such systems. In this study, the efficiency of methane collection is calculated in three Chinese landfills with different collection systems (A: vertical wells for MSW before 2010; combined horizontal trenches and under-membrane pipes for MSW from 2011 onwards; B: combined horizontal trenches and vertical wells; C: vertical wells only). This efficiency was computed by dividing the quantity of methane obtained from landfill operation records by the quantity estimated based on the LandGEM model. Results show that the collection efficiencies of landfills with vertical wells and/or horizontal pipes ranged from 8.3% to 27.9%, whereas those of a system equipped with geomembrane reached 65.3%. The poor performance of the landfills was attributed to the open burning of early-stage LFG, LFG release from cracks in high-density polyethylene covers, and high levels of leachate within a landfill site. Therefore, this study proposes an integrated LFG collection system that can remove leachate and collect gas from landfills that accept waste with high moisture content.

  20. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  1. Two Scenarios for Landfills Design in Special Conditions Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in Babylon Governorate, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Chabuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The sound design of landfills is essential in order to protect human health and the environment (air, water, and soil. The study area, Babylon Governorate, is situated in the middle of Iraq, and is distinguished by a hot climate and shallow groundwater. The governorate did not have landfill sites that meet international criteria; in addition, the groundwater depth in Babylon Governorate is commonly shallow. Previously, the most important criteria for the study area and GIS software were used to select the best sites for locating landfills in the major cities of the governorate. In this study, the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP 3.95D model was applied in order to ensure that there was no leakage of the leachate that results from the waste in the selected landfill sites. It is the most commonly utilized model for landfill design, and it is used to estimate water inflow through the soil layers. For the present study, to avoid groundwater pollution by leachate from a landfill site due to the shallow groundwater depth, compacted waste was placed on the surface using two height scenarios (2 m and 4 m. This design was developed using the soil properties of the selected sites coupled with the weather parameters in Babylon Governorate (precipitation, temperature, solar, and evapotranspiration for a 12-year period covering 2005 to 2016. The results from both of the suggested landfill designs showed an absence of leachate from the bottom liner.

  2. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  3. Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2001-01-01

    is on dissolved organic matter, xenobiotic organic compounds, inorganic macrocomponents as anions and cations, and heavy metals. Laboratory as well as field investigations are included. This review is an up-date of an earlier comprehensive review. The review shows that most leachate contamination plumes...... are relatively narrow and do not in terms of width exceed the width of the landfill. The concept of redox zones being present in the plume has been confirmed by the reported composition of the leachate contaminated groundwater at several landfills and constitutes an important framework for understanding...... in a few cases. Apparently, observations in actual plumes indicate more extensive degradation than has been documented in the laboratory. The behavior of cations in leachate plumes is strongly influenced by exchange with the sediment, although the sediment often is very coarse and sandy. Ammonium seems...

  4. Quantification of methane emissions from danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Mønster, Jacob; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Whole-landfill methane emission was quantified using a tracer technique that combines controlled tracer gas release from the landfill with time-resolved concentration measurements downwind of the landfill using a mobile high-resolution analytical instrument. Methane emissions from 13 Danish...... landfills varied between 2.6 and 60.8 kg CH4 h–1. The highest methane emission was measured at the largest (in terms of disposed waste amounts) of the 13 landfills, whereas the lowest methane emissions (2.6-6.1 kgCH4 h–1) were measured at the older and smaller landfills. At two of the sites, which had gas...... collection, emission measurements showed that the gas collection systems only collected between 30-50% of the methane produced (assuming that the produced methane equalled the sum of the emitted methane and the collected methane). Significant methane emissions were observed from disposed shredder waste...

  5. LABORATORY TESTING OF BENTONITE CLAYS FOR LANDFILL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević Zelić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Top and bottom liners are one of the key construction elements in every landfill. They are usually made as compacted clay liners (CCLs composed of several layers of compacted clay with strictly defined properties or by the use of alternative materials such as: GCL – geosynthetic clay liner, BES – bentonite enhanced soils or bentonite/polymer mixtures. Following the state of the art experiences in the world, GCLs are used in Croatian landfills for several years, as well. Depending upon the location and the obeying function, GCLs have to fulfill certain conditions. A legislated compatibility criterion has to be proven by various laboratory tests. In the paper are presented the results of direct shear and chemical compatibility tests of GCLs as well as the results of permeability measurement of kaolin clay (the paper is published in Croatian .

  6. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in landfill leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jan; Ahrens, Lutz; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are widely used in industry and consumer products. These products could end up finally in landfills where their leachates are a potential source for PFCs into the aqueous environment. In this study, samples of untreated and treated leachate from 22 landfill sites in Germany were analysed for 43 PFCs. ΣPFC concentrations ranged from 31 to 12,819 ng/L in untreated leachate and 4-8060 ng/L in treated leachate. The dominating compounds in untreated leachate were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (mean contribution 27%) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (24%). The discharge of PFCs into the aqueous environment depended on the cleaning treatment systems. Membrane treatments (reverse osmosis and nanofiltrations) and activated carbon released lower concentrations of PFCs into the environment than cleaning systems using wet air oxidation or only biological treatment. The mass flows of ΣPFCs into the aqueous environment ranged between 0.08 and 956 mg/day. - The first comprehensive survey of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in landfill leachates.

  7. Livingston Parish Landfill Methane Recovery Project (Feasibility Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Steven

    2012-11-15

    The Woodside Landfill is owned by Livingston Parish, Louisiana and is operated under contract by Waste Management of Louisiana LLC. This public owner/private operator partnership is commonplace in the solid waste industry today. The landfill has been in operation since approximately 1988 and has a permitted capacity of approximately 41 million cubic yards. Based on an assumed in-place waste density of 0.94 ton per cubic yard, the landfill could have an expected design capacity of 39.3 million tons. The landfill does have an active landfill gas collection and control system (LFGCCS) in place because it meets the minimum thresholds for the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The initial LFGCS was installed prior to 2006 and subsequent phases were installed in 2007 and 2010. The Parish received a grant from the United States Department of Energy in 2009 to evaluate the potential for landfill gas recovery and utilization at the Woodside Landfill. This includes a technical and economic feasibility study of a project to install a landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) plant and to compare alternative technologies. The LFGTE plant can take the form of on-site electrical generation, a direct use/medium Btu option, or a high-Btu upgrade technology. The technical evaluation in Section 2 of this report concludes that landfill gas from the Woodside landfill is suitable for recovery and utilization. The financial evaluations in sections 3, 4, and 5 of this report provide financial estimates of the returns for various utilization technologies. The report concludes that the most economically viable project is the Electricity Generation option, subject to the Parish’s ability and willingness to allocate adequate cash for initial capital and/or to obtain debt financing. However, even this option does not present a solid return: by our estimates, there is a 19 year simple payback on the electricity generation option. All of the energy recovery options discussed in this report

  8. Deployment of an Alternative Closure Cover and Monitoring System at the Mixed Waste Disposal Unit U-3ax/bl at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, D.G.; Fitzmaurice, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    In October 2000, final closure was initiated of U-3ax/bl, a mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The application of approximately 30 cm of topsoil, composed of compacted native alluvium onto an operational cover, seeding of the topsoil, installation of soil water content sensors within the cover, and deployment of a drainage lysimeter facility immediately adjacent to the disposal unit initiated closure. This closure is unique in that it required the involvement of several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) groups: Waste Management (WM), Environmental Restoration (ER), and Technology Development (TD). Initial site characterization of the disposal unit was conducted by WM. Regulatory approval for closure of the disposal unit was obtained by ER, closure of the disposal unit was conducted by ER, and deployment of the drainage lysimeter facility was conducted by WM and ER, with funding provided by the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment ( ASTD) program, administered under TD. In addition, this closure is unique in that a monolayer closure cover, also known as an evapotranspiration (ET) cover, consisting of native alluvium, received regulatory approval instead of a traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered cover. Recent studies indicate that in the arid southwestern United States, monolayer covers may be more effective at isolating waste than layered covers because of the tendency of clay layers to desiccate and crack, and subsequently develop preferential pathways. The lysimeter facility deployed immediately adjacent to the closure cover consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two were left bare; two were revegetated with native species; two were allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. The lysimeters are constructed such that any drainage through the bottoms of the lysimeters can be measured. Sensors installed in the

  9. Instrumental research method of qualitative composition of landfill gas in the surface layer of landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, I. R.; Kashapov, N. F.; Gilmanshina, S. I.; Galeeva, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    The article analyzes the practice of waste management in Russia. The system of target indicators of the efficient landfills functioning is formalized. The method of instrumental analysis of concentration and qualitative composition of landfill gas in the surface layer of the Samosyrovo landfill is presented.

  10. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  11. Hotspot detection and spatial distribution of methane emissions from landfills by a surface probe method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Valencia, Rodrigo; Magana-Rodriguez, Felipe; Cristóbal, Jordi; Thalasso, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    A surface probe method previously developed was used to detect hotspots and to determine spatial variation of methane (CH4) emissions from three landfills located in Mexico, with an intermediate or a final cover, as well as with or without a landfill gas collection system. The method was effective in the three landfills and allowed mapping of CH4 emissions with a resolution of 24-64 measurements per hectare, as well as the detection and quantification of hotspots, with a moderate experimental effort. In the three selected landfills, CH4 emissions were quantified to 10, 72, and 575gm(-2)d(-1). Two straightforward parameters describing the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions were also developed. The first parameter provides the percentage of area responsible for a given percentage of total emissions, while the second parameter assigns a numerical value to flux homogeneity. Together, the emissions map and the spatial distribution parameters offer an appropriate tool to landfill operators willing to begin recovering CH4 emissions or to improve the effectiveness of an existing recovery system. This method may therefore help to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of landfills, which are still the primary option for waste management in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  13. Evaluation of sludge management alternatives in Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, M; Erdim, E; Kinaci, C; Akca, L

    2005-01-01

    The main concern of this paper was to predict the sludge quantities generated from 18 wastewater treatment plants, which were stated to be established in the "Istanbul Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage, Sewage Treatment and Disposal Master Plan", 10 of which are in operation at present. Besides this, obtaining the required data to compare various treatment schemes was another goal of the study. Especially, the estimation of the sludge quantity in the case of enhanced primary sedimentation was of importance. Wastewater sludge management strategies were discussed in order to develop suggestions for Istanbul Metropolitan city. Within this context, the wastewater treatment facilities, mentioned in the Master Plan that had been completed by 2000, were evaluated in terms of sludge production rates, locations and technical and management aspects. Disposal alternatives of the wastewater treatment sludge were also evaluated in this study. Using of the dewatered sludge as a landfill cover material seems the best alternative usage. Up to the year of 2040, the requirement of cover material for landfills in Istanbul will be met by the dewatered sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants in the region.

  14. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  15. PROPOSAL OF BROWNFIELD LAND DEVELOPMENT ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LANDFILLS OF FORMER KRAKOW SODA WORKS „SOLVAY”

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Gliniak; Wiktoria Sobczyk

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a proposal for the development of soda industry landfills on the example of a former Cracow Soda Works "Solvay". The area is located in close proximity to the center of Krakow and is surrounded by places of worship. The analyzed area is characterized by specific physical and chemical properties of the substrate (soda production waste) that manifest themselves e.g. in very high salinity and the presence of numerous processes of water erosion. The former landfill covers an ...

  16. Effects of Moisture Content in Solid Waste Landfills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eck, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Solid waste landfills are an extremely complex and heterogeneous environment. Modeling the biodegradation processes within a landfill must involve an understanding of how environmental factors affect these processes...

  17. Reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a energy efficient waste management system: methodology and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tatyana; Melnichuk, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Kseniya; Vitvitskaya, Valentina; Popovych, Valentina; Dunaieva, Ielizaveta; Terleev, Vitaly; Nikonorov, Aleksandr; Togo, Issa; Volkova, Yulia; Mirschel, Wilfried; Garmanov, Vitaly

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the methodological and practical aspects of reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a waste management system. The general tendencies of system development in the context of elements of the international concept of waste hierarchy are analyzed. Statistics of the formation and burial of domestic waste indicate a strategic non-alternative to the rejection of landfill technologies in favor of environmentally, energy efficient and economically expedient ways of utilization of municipal waste as a world trend. Practical approaches to the study of territories on which there are dumps and landfills are considered to justify the design solutions for reclamation.

  18. Leachate impacts on groundwater: modeling generation and transport at the naameh landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; El FAdel, M.; Basha, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.Although municipal solid waste is now managed through integrated schemes that rank land filling as one of the least favorable options for disposal, this management alternative continues to be the most economic and attractive in the vast majority of cases. An inevitable consequence of the practice of solid waste disposal in landfills is the generation, refuse characteristics and land filling operations. Leachate migration away from the landfill boundaries and its subsequent release into the surrounding environment, present serious environmental concerns at both existing and new facilities particularly in relation to surface and ground water pollution. While numerous mathematical models have been developed to simulate processes governing leachate occurrence and behavior in landfills and their potential migration away from landfill boundaries, none have been applied at former quarries converted to waste disposal facilities. The objective of this research work is to calibrate and apply mathematical models to predict the generation, fate and transport of leachate at a former quarry landfill facility (the Naameh landfill site). The site offers unique characteristics in that it is the first quarry converted to a landfill in Lebanon and is planned to have refuse depth in excess of one hundred meters, making it one of the deepest in the world. The modeling estimates leachate quantity in order to control its associated environmental impacts, particularly on ground water wells down gradient of the site. The sensitivity of leachate generation to meteorological, operation and design parameters was assessed. Guidance for leachate control, recirculation and collection to minimize these impacts is also provided. The fate and transport of contaminants released from the landfill to the subsurface was modeled. A sensitivity analysis with respect to geological properties of the site was conducted. Worst case scenarios were investigated as well

  19. Environmental assessment of low-organic waste landfill scenarios by means of life-cycle assessment modelling (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H; Scharff, Heijo; Jacobs, Joeri

    2010-02-01

    The environmental performance of two low-organic waste landfill scenarios ('low-organic-energy' and 'low-organic-flare') was developed and compared with two household waste landfill scenarios ('household-energy' and 'household-flare') by means of LCA-modelling. The LCA-modelling was made for 1 tonne of wet waste landfilled and the environmental aspects were evaluated for a 100-year period after disposal. The data utilized in the LCA-calculations to model the first 10-20 years of landfilling of the two low-organic waste scenarios make extensive use of site-specific data from the Nauerna Landfill (The Netherlands), but average data from other comparable, existing landfills were used too. As data from full-scale landfills do not cover more than 30-40 years of landfilling, data from laboratory simulations and accelerated tests of limited scale were also utilized. The life-cycle impact assessments show that the low-organic waste scenarios achieved better environmental performance than the household waste scenarios with regard to both ordinary and toxicity-related environmental impact categories. This indicates that the reduction of organic matter accepted at landfills (as prescribed by the European Union Landfill Directive: Council Directive 1999/31/EC, EU, Brussels, 1999) can be a successful approach to decrease the environmental loads in several impact categories in comparison with landfilling of waste with significant organic content. However, when utilization of landfill gas is accounted for in the life-cycle impact assessment calculation, the small gas generation in low-organic waste landfills reduced the actual potential for energy generation and therefore the environmental savings obtained were reduced proportionally. Groundwater pollution from input of leachate was also evaluated and the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality; WHO, Geneva, 2006) guideline for drinking water quality was assumed as reference. The results show that low-organic waste landfills

  20. Non-controlled biogenic emissions to the atmosphere from Lazareto landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Dácil; Lima, R Noemí; Hernández, Pedro A; Pérez, Nemesio M

    2008-01-01

    [corrected] Historically, landfills have been the simplest form of eliminating urban solid waste with the minimum cost. They have been the most usual method for discarding solid waste. However, landfills are considered authentic biochemical reactors that introduce large amounts of contaminants into the environment in the form of gas and leachates. The dynamics of generation and the movement of gas in landfills depend on the input and output parameters, as well as on the structure of the landfill and the kind of waste. The input parameters include water introduced through natural or artificial processes, the characteristics of the urban solid waste, and the input of atmospheric air. The main output parameters for these biochemical reactors include the gases and the leachates that are potentially pollutants for the environment. Control systems are designed and installed to minimize the impact on the environment. However, these systems are not perfect and a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as Non-controlled emission. In this paper, the results of the Non-controlled biogenic gas emissions from the Lazareto landfill in Tenerife, Canary Islands, are presented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of CH4 and CO2 in the soil gas of the landfill cover, the CH4 and CO2 efflux from the surface of the landfill and, finally, to compare these parameters with other similar landfills. In this way, a better understanding of the process that controls biogenic gas emissions in landfills is expected. A Non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of 281 sampling sites was carried out during February and March, 2002. The sampling sites were selected in order to obtain a well-distributed sampling grid. Surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site on the surface landfill together with soil gas collection and ground temperatures at a depth of 30

  1. Methane from landfills in Sweden. Final report; Metan fraan avfallsupplag i Sverige. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, Jerker [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Galle, Bo; Boerjesson, Gunnar [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Water and Environmental Studies

    2006-01-15

    Three years of measurements has been conducted at seven Swedish landfills, quantifying methane emission, methane oxidation and methane production. The measurements reveal a large span between the sites in terms of gas recovery efficiency, 29-78% during normal operation. The fraction of the totally produced methane that is eventually leaking out to the atmosphere, was found to vary between 21-68%. Regarding methane oxidation, the study shows that of the methane going from the landfill interior towards the atmosphere, 6-43% is oxidised to CO{sub 2} in the different landfill cover soils. The highest methane oxidation was found in closed landfills during summertime, and the lowest at active landfills during wintertime, due to the strong temperature dependence of the oxidation. The equipment developed for methane emission measurements is based on time resolved concentration measurements with FTIR spectroscopy in combination with tracer gas releases from the surface of the landfill. The method has proven to be able to state the methane emission from the landfills with high accuracy, {+-}18% of the emission estimate (95% confidence interval). This is in line with what has been achieved in the literature for fugitive emission sources. The system has also proven to be useful for on site leak search. The precision for the methane production measurement was demonstrated to be high, down to {+-}4.2%. This enables trend studies and verification of improvement measures taken at the landfill sites. In terms of absolute accuracy for the production estimate, a 95%-confidence interval of down to (-6.0%, +6.2%) has been achieved. At times of strong methane oxidation the uncertainties increase, particularly if the emission is high. The gas production at the landfill site is therefore preferably measured during autumn-winter-spring when the temperature and the methane oxidation are low. The methane oxidation has been measured by carbon isotope technique, utilising the enrichment in

  2. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    elimination of methane production and acceleration of waste decomposition. In the first phase of this project a 12-acre module that contains a 9.5-acre anaerobic cell and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell has been constructed and filled with over 220,000 tons of municipal solid waste. Water and leachate addition began in April 2002 and to date less than 200,000 gallons of liquid has been added to the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell. The waste filling phase of the aerobic cell was completed in June of 2002 and a 12-inches soil cover and 12-inches of greenwaste compost cover was placed on top of the cell. A vacuum will be applied to the piping within the waste to draw air through the landfill. Instrumentations have been installed to monitor the following parameters: waste temperature, moisture, leachate volumes, leachate hydraulic head over the primary liner, leachate composition, gas volumes and composition. A supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system has been installed to monitor and control the operation of the bioreactor cells. Waste samples were taken from each cell for laboratory testing in early June 2002.

  3. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  4. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR THE AREA 3 LANDFILL COMPLEX, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, CAU 424, REVISION 0, MARCH 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1998-03-03

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for the Area 3 Landfill Complex (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 424) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 424 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs), each an individual landfill located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound (DOE/NV, 1996a): (1) Landfill A3-1 is CAS No. 03-08-001-A301. (2) Landfill A3-2 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A302. (3) Landfill A3-3 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A303. (4) Landfill A3-4 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A304. (5) Landfill A3-5 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A305. (6) Landfill A3-6 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A306. (7) Landfill A3-7 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A307. (8) Landfill A3-8 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A308. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (6) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS. In June and July 1997, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). Details can be found in Appendix A of this document. The results indicated four groupings of site characteristics as shown in Table ES-1. Based on the potential exposure pathways, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for CAU No. 424: (1) Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soils containing waste. (2) Remediate the site per

  5. Characterisation of landfills using a multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, B.F.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Hoekstra, N.K.; Oonk, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands has about 3800 abandoned landfills with a total surface of about 9000 ha. As they are often located near urban areas and their influence extends into their surrounding environment they put pressure on available space. Most abandoned landfills were in use until the 1960s and 1970s.

  6. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m(3) were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting to approximately 260 kg per tonne of waste landfilled. The environmental burdens from the extraction and manufacturing of the materials used in the landfill, as well as from the construction of the landfill, were modelled as potential environmental impacts. For example, the potential impact on global warming was 2.5 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents or 0.32 milli person equivalents per tonne of waste. The potential impacts from the use of materials and construction of the landfill are low-to-insignificant compared with data reported in the literature on impact potentials of landfills in operation. The construction of the landfill is only a significant contributor to the impact of resource depletion owing to the high use of gravel and steel.

  7. Imaging scatterers in landfills using seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Dragnov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Ghose, R.

    2013-01-01

    A significant problem with landfills is their aftercare period. A landfill is considered to be safe for the environment only after a relatively long period of time. Until it reaches such a condition, it has to be periodically treated. Not only are treatments very expensive, but they could be

  8. Generation of leachate and the flow regime in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, D.

    1998-06-01

    In this thesis the generation of leachate and the presence and movement of water in landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) is investigated. The precipitation-leachate discharge relationship for landfills was found to be dominated by evaporation, accumulation in the soil cover, accumulation in the solid waste and fast gravitational flow in a network of channels. The flow regime is governed by the heterogeneity of the internal geometry of the landfill, which is characterized by a discrete structure, significant horizontal stratification, structural voids, impermeable surfaces, and low capillarity. Also the boundary conditions, that is the water input pattern, has shown to be important for the flow process. Based on this, landfilled waste can be conceptualized as a dual domain medium, consisting of a channel domain and a matrix domain. The matrix flow is slow and diffusive, whereas the channel flow is assumed to be driven solely by gravity and to take place as a thin viscous film on solid surfaces. A kinematic wave model for unsaturated infiltration and internal drainage in the channel domain is presented. The model employs a two-parameter power expression as macroscopic flux law. Solutions were derived for the cases when water enters the channel domain laterally and when water enters from the upper end. The model parameters were determined and interpreted in terms of the internal geometry of the waste medium by fitting the model to one set of infiltration and drainage data derived from a large scale laboratory experiment under transient conditions. The model was validated using another set of data from a sequence of water input events and was shown to perform accurately. A solute transport model was developed by coupling a simple piston flux expression and a mobile-immobile conceptualization of the transport domains with the water flow model. Breakthrough curves derived from steady and transient tracer experiments where interpreted with the model. The transport

  9. Review of existing landfill leachate production models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water resources is a fundamental consideration in managing landfill operations. Landfill sites should be designed and operated so as to control leachate production and hence minimize the risk of surface and ground water pollution. A further important development is the use of computer models to estimate the production of leachate from landfill sites. It is revealed from the literature that a number of landfill leachate management model lave been development in recent years. These models allow different engineering schemes to be evaluated and are essential tools for design and operation managements of modern landfills. This paper describes a review of such models mainly focused on their theory, practicability, data requirements, suitability to real situation and usefulness. An evaluation of these models identifies. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the Oedometer Tests of Municipal Landfill Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Emőke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the ongoing research is (i to develop a new biodegradation landfill technique so that the landfill gas production could be controlled and the utilisation of the landfill gas could economically be optimized, (ii to plan the energy utilisation of the landfill including individual and combined solutions (solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage using methanol etc.. [1, 2, 3

  11. Environmental risks of farmed and barren alkaline coal ash landfills in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellantonio, Alex; Fitz, Walter J.; Custovic, Hamid; Repmann, Frank; Schneider, Bernd U.; Gruenewald, Holger; Gruber, Valeria; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Zerem, Nijaz; Carter, Claudia; Markovic, Mihajlo; Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter W.

    2008-01-01

    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) has led to a significant consumption of land in the West Balkan region. In Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) we studied previously soil-covered (farmed) and barren CCR landfills including management practises, field ageing of CCR and the transfer of trace elements into crops, wild plants and wastewaters. Soil tillage resulted in mixing of cover soil with CCR. Medicago sativa showed very low Cu:Mo ratios (1.25) which may cause hypocuprosis in ruminants. Total loads of inorganic pollutants in the CCR transport water, but not pH (∼12), were below regulatory limits of most EU countries. Arsenic concentrations in CCR transport water were -1 whereas reductive conditions in an abandoned landfill significantly enhanced concentrations in leachates (44 μg l -1 ). The opposite pattern was found for Cr likely due to large initial leaching of CrVI. Public use of landfills, including farming, should be based on a prior risk assessment due to the heterogeneity of CCR. - Uncontrolled farming and tillage of previously soil-covered coal ash landfills resulted in exposure of ash on the surface

  12. An Assessment of the Disposal of Petroleum Industry NORM in Nonhazardous Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnish, John J.; Blunt, Deborah, L.; Haffenden, Rebecca A.; Herbert, Jennifer; Pfingston, Manjula; Smith, Karen P.; Williams, Gustavious P.

    1999-10-12

    In this study, the disposal of radium-bearing NORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the MDEQ guidelines was modeled to evaluate potential radiological doses and resultant health risks to workers and the general public. In addition, the study included an evaluation of the potential doses and health risks associated with disposing of a separate NORM waste stream generated by the petroleum industry--wastes containing lead-210 (Pb-210) and its progeny. Both NORM waste streams are characterized in Section 3 of this report. The study also included reviews of (1) the regulatory constraints applicable to the disposal of NORM in nonhazardous landfills in several major oil and gas producing states (Section 2) and (2) the typical costs associated with disposing of NORM, covering disposal options currently permitted by most state regulations as well as the nonhazardous landfill option (Section 4).

  13. Influence of dynamic coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes on response of municipal solid waste and liner system in bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Kumar, Girish; Giri, Rajiv K

    2017-05-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) mathematical model is presented to predict the response of municipal solid waste (MSW) of conventional as well as bioreactor landfills undergoing coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes. The newly developed and validated 2-D coupled mathematical modeling framework combines and simultaneously solves a two-phase flow model based on the unsaturated Richard's equation, a plain-strain formulation of Mohr-Coulomb mechanical model and first-order decay kinetics biodegradation model. The performance of both conventional and bioreactor landfill was investigated holistically, by evaluating the mechanical settlement, extent of waste degradation with subsequent changes in geotechnical properties, landfill slope stability, and in-plane shear behavior (shear stress-displacement) of composite liner system and final cover system. It is concluded that for the given specific conditions considered, bioreactor landfill attained an overall stabilization after a continuous leachate injection of 16years, whereas the stabilization was observed after around 50years of post-closure in conventional landfills, with a total vertical strain of 36% and 37% for bioreactor and conventional landfills, respectively. The significant changes in landfill settlement, the extent of MSW degradation, MSW geotechnical properties, along with their influence on the in-plane shear response of composite liner and final cover system, between the conventional and bioreactor landfills, observed using the mathematical model proposed in this study, corroborates the importance of considering coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes while designing and predicting the performance of engineered bioreactor landfills. The study underscores the importance of considering the effect of coupled processes while examining the stability and integrity of the liner and cover systems, which form the integral components of a landfill. Moreover, the spatial and temporal variations in the landfill settlement, the

  14. Monitoring of landfill influences on groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Landfills of waste present serious threat to groundwater. To prevent groundwater pollution from landfill monitoring is performed. Rule of groundwater pollution monitoring from dangerous substances implements principles in Slovene legislation. In everyday practice certain questions arose since validity of the rule. These questions are about responsible parties in monitoring, groundwater distribution in space, target groundwater units, characterization level of the landfill and its surroundings, background values in groundwater, table of content of groundwater monitoring plan, quality of groundwater monitoring network, phases of monitoring, maintenance of monitoring network and activation of piezometers.

  15. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  16. Comparison Of Four Landfill Gas Models Using Data From Four Danish Landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob G.; Mou, Zishen; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Data about type and quantity of waste disposed in four Danish landfills was collected and used on four different landfill gas generation models. This was done to compare the output data in order to evaluate the performance of the four landfill gas models when used on Danish waste types......, and to compare the four Danish landfill sites. The results show that three of the models generally give similar methane generation output. Only the LandGem model seems to give a much higher methane generation for Danish waste data, most likely due to a low organic fraction. Interpretation of the waste data...

  17. Compositional and physicochemical changes in waste materials and biogas production across 7 landfill sites in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R R; Cipullo, S; Garcia, J; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the paper and fines across seven landfill sites (LFS) and assess the relationship between waste physicochemical properties and biogas production. Physicochemical analysis of the waste samples demonstrated that there were no clear trends in the spatial distribution of total solids (TS), moisture content (MC) and waste organic strength (VS) across all LFS. There was however noticeable difference between samples from the same landfill site. The effect of landfill age on waste physicochemical properties showed no clear relationship, thus, providing evidence that waste remains dormant and non-degraded for long periods of time. Landfill age was however directly correlated with the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of waste; with the highest BMP obtained from the most recent LFS. BMP was also correlated with depth as the average methane production decreased linearly with increasing depth. There was also a high degree of correlation between the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Test (EHT) and BMP test results, which motivates its potential use as an alternative to the BMP test method. Further to this, there were also positive correlations between MC and VS, VS and biogas volume and biogas volume and CH 4 content. Outcomes of this work can be used to inform waste degradation and methane enhancement strategies for improving recovery of methane from landfills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  19. Landfill closure with dredged materials - desktop analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report describes a Rutgers University project for the New Jersey Department of : Transportation (NJDOT) designed to analyze the potential for closure of New Jersey : landfills using dredge material from existing Confined Disposal Facilities (CDF...

  20. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  1. Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The program models rainfall, runoff, infiltration, and other water pathways to estimate how much water builds up above each landfill liner. It can incorporate data on vegetation, soil types, geosynthetic materials, initial moisture conditions, slopes, etc.

  2. The mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burford, T.D.; Williams, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in arid environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies and systems. The comparison will include the cost, efficiency, risk, and feasibility of using these innovative technologies at other sites

  3. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  4. Shallow groundwater hydrochemistry assessment of engineered landfill and dumpsite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Ramli, Mohd Zakwan; Hossain, Md Shabbir

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, hydrochemistry analysis was performed at two different landfill site that is Matang and Beriah landfills, to evaluate the environmental risks associated with leachate flowing into groundwater resources. Selected parameters considered were heavy metal and physico-chemical properties of the groundwater samples. Analysis for Matang Landfill shows that the pollutant species seem to accumulate within MT1 that were located at the southeast of the landfill site. The pollutant species have tendency to migrate and disperse toward the southeast side of the landfill site which are MT 1, MT4 AND MT5. Meanwhile, the analysis for Beriah Landfill site shows that the contaminant tends to migrate to the south west direction of the landfill where AP6 and AP7 show the highest concentration of Heavy Metals, Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2. The concentration of heavy metal is higher in Beriah Landfill as compared to Matang Landfill which was due to the type of landfill itself, where Matang Landfill operates as sanitary landfill meanwhile Beriah Landfil function as a dumpsite or uncontrolled landfill.

  5. Field study of nitrous oxide production with in situ aeration in a closed landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Mitali; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Komiya, Teppei; Xiaoli, Chai

    2016-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) has gained considerable attention as a contributor to global warming and depilation of stratospheric ozone layer. Landfill is one of the high emitters of greenhouse gas such as methane and N(2)O during the biodegradation of solid waste. Landfill aeration has been attracted increasing attention worldwide for fast, controlled and sustainable conversion of landfills into a biological stabilized condition, however landfill aeration impel N(2)O emission with ammonia removal. N(2)O originates from the biodegradation, or the combustion of nitrogen-containing solid waste during the microbial process of nitrification and denitrification. During these two processes, formation of N(2)O as a by-product from nitrification, or as an intermediate product of denitrification. In this study, air was injected into a closed landfill site and investigated the major N(2)O production factors and correlations established between them. The in-situ aeration experiment was carried out by three sets of gas collection pipes along with temperature probes were installed at three different distances of one, two and three meter away from the aeration point; named points A-C, respectively. Each set of pipes consisted of three different pipes at three different depths of 0.0, 0.75 and 1.5 m from the bottom of the cover soil. Landfill gases composition was monitored weekly and gas samples were collected for analysis of nitrous oxide concentrations. It was evaluated that temperatures within the range of 30-40°C with high oxygen content led to higher generation of nitrous oxide with high aeration rate. Lower O(2) content can infuse N(2)O production during nitrification and high O(2) inhibit denitrification which would affect N(2)O production. The findings provide insights concerning the production potentials of N(2)O in an aerated landfill that may help to minimize with appropriate control of the operational parameters and biological reactions of N turnover. Investigation of

  6. On the current state of the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Klaus U

    2015-04-01

    The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is the most widely applied model to calculate the water balance of cover and bottom liner systems for landfills. The paper summarizes the 30 year history of the model from HELP version 1 to HELP 3.95 D and includes references to the three current and simultaneously available versions (HELP 3.07, Visual HELP 2.2, and HELP 3.95 D). A sufficient validation is an essential precondition for the use of any model in planning. The paper summarizes validation approaches for HELP 3 focused on cover systems in the literature. Furthermore, measurement results are compared to simulation results of HELP 3.95 D for (1) a test field with a compacted clay liner in the final cover of the landfill Hamburg-Georgswerder from 1988 to 1995 and (2) a test field with a 2.3m thick so-called water balance layer on the landfill Deetz near Berlin from 2004 to 2011. On the Georgswerder site actual evapotranspiration was well reproduced by HELP on the yearly average as well as in the seasonal course if precipitation data with 10% systematic measurement errors were used. However, the increase of liner leakage due to the deterioration of the clayey soil liner was not considered by the model. On the landfill Deetz HELP overestimated largely the percolation through the water balance layer resulting from an extremely wet summer due to an underestimation of the water storage in the layer and presumably also due to an underestimation of the actual evapotranspiration. Finally based on validation results and requests from the practice, plans for improving the model to a future version HELP 4 D are described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Landfills potential source for cores -- computer model analyzes landfills for on-site recycling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; R.J. Bush; E.B. Hager; A.L. Hammett

    1999-01-01

    Are you having trouble finding enough used pallet cores? Do you have trouble finding more than one reliable source of used pallet parts? Have you ever considered your local landfill as a "source?" In 1995, more pallets ended up in landfills that at pallet recovery-repair companies. Virginia Tech and the U.S. Forest Service have developed a business plan...

  8. One-dimensional transient solution for landfill gas pressure in landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haijie; Lan, Ji-wu; Li, He; Wu, Tao; Ma, Peng-cheng

    2017-11-01

    The paper summarizes depth-based changing rules of the gas permeation coefficient, establishes a one-dimensional gas pressure distribution model with consideration of depth-based changes of the permeation coefficient, and analyzes gas extraction pressure values required by different waste landfill thickness. Results show that the gas extraction negative pressure of -1kPa satisfied gas collection requirements of landfills with thicknesses of 10m, 15m and 20m. The gas extraction negative pressure of -1kPa satisfied gas collection requirements of landfills with thicknesses of 10m, 15m and 20m. On the landfill with waste thickness of 30m, landfill gas within the scope from the pile top to the 27m height under the ground could not be collected effectively, the maximum gas pressure of about 0.65kPa appeared at the 12m height under the ground.

  9. Comparison of potential greenhouse gas emissions from disposal of MSW in sanitary landfills vs. waste-to-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates the US currently generates about 160 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) per year, and this figure will exceed 200 million tons annually by the year 2000. About 80 percent of the MSW will be disposed of in landfills and waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities, both of which generate greenhouse gases, namely methane and carbon dioxide. This paper provides an introductory level analysis of the potential long term greenhouse gas emissions from these two MSW disposal alternatives. Carbon dioxide credits are derived for fossil fuel offset by WTE and methane emissions are converted to equivalent CO 2 emissions in order to derive a single emission figure for comparison of the greenhouse contribution of the two disposal strategies. A secondary analysis is presented to compare the net equivalent CO 2 emissions from WTE facilities to those from landfills with methane gas recovery, combustion and energy generation. The conclusion is, that for a given amount of MSW, landfilling contributes to the greenhouse effect about 10 times more than a modern Waste-To-Energy facility. Even with 50% of all landfill methane emissions recovered and converted to electricity, the contribution to the greenhouse effect by the landfill alternative is about 6 times greater than the waste-to-energy alternative

  10. Determination of gas recovery efficiency at two Danish landfills by performing downwind methane measurements and stable carbon isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdam, Ehsan F; Fredenslund, Anders M; Chanton, Jeffrey; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the total methane (CH 4 ) generation rate and gas recovery efficiency at two Danish landfills were determined by field measurements. The landfills are located close to each other and are connected to the same gas collection system. The tracer gas dispersion method was used for quantification of CH 4 emissions from the landfills, while the CH 4 oxidation efficiency in the landfill cover layers was determined by stable carbon isotopic technique. The total CH 4 generation rate was estimated by a first-order decay model (Afvalzorg) and was compared with the total CH 4 generation rate determined by field measurements. CH 4 emissions from the two landfills combined ranged from 29.1 to 49.6 kg CH 4 /h. The CH 4 oxidation efficiency was 6-37%, with an average of 18% corresponding to an average CH 4 oxidation rate of 8.1 kg CH 4 /h. The calculated gas recovery efficiency was 59-76%, indicating a high potential for optimization of the gas collection system. Higher gas recovery efficiencies (73-76%) were observed after the commencement of gas extraction from a new section of one of the landfills. A good agreement was observed between the average total CH 4 generation rates determined by field measurements (147 kg CH 4 /h) and those estimated by the Afvalzorg model (154 kg CH 4 /h). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Methane emission to the atmosphere from landfills in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Rodríguez, Fátima; Alonso, Mar; García-Merino, Marta; Amonte, Cecilia; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel A.; Hernández-Abad, Marta; Pérez, Erica; Alonso, Monica; Tassi, Franco; Raco, Brunella; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is one of the most powerful greenhouse gases, and is increasing in the atmosphere by 0.6% each year (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, 2013). This gas is produced in landfills in large quantities following the anaerobic degradation of organic matter. The IPCC has estimated that more than 10% of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 are originated in landfills. Even after years of being no operative (closed), a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through its surface as diffuse or fugitive degassing. Many landfills currently report their CH4 emissions to the atmosphere using model-based methods, which are based on the rate of production of CH4, the oxidation rate of CH4 and the amount of CH4 recovered (Bingemer and Crutzen, 1987). This approach often involves large uncertainties due to inaccuracies of input data and many assumptions in the estimation. In fact, the estimated CH4 emissions from landfills in the Canary Islands published by the Spanish National Emission and Pollutant Sources Registration (PRTR-Spain) seem to be overestimated due to the use of protocols and analytical methodologies based on mathematical models. For this reason, direct measurements to estimate CH4 emissions in landfills are essential to reduce this uncertainty. In order to estimate the CH4 emissions to the atmosphere from landfills in the Canary Islands 23 surveys have been performed since 1999. Each survey implies hundreds of CO2and CH4 efflux measurements covering the landfill surface area. Surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Samples of landfill gases were taken in the gas accumulated in the chamber and CO2 and CH4 were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. The CH4 efflux measurent was computed combining CO2 efflux and CH4/CO2 ratio

  12. Tracing landfill gas migration using chlorofluorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, M.; Elliot, T. E.; Redeker, K.; Boshoff, G.

    2003-04-01

    Typical landfill gas (LFG) compositions include a wide range of trace-level Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The most mobile VOCs are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and their presence around landfills may reflect the initial flushing out of VOCs during the early aerobic stage when landfills are most active reaching high temperatures, driving off VOCs, and injecting LFG into the surrounding environment. CFCs are aerobically stable and therefore, may prove a useful means of characterising the environmental impact of landfill gas in the unsaturated zone around landfills. Moreover, as a possible pathfinder environmental tracer of LFG impacts in the environment, any subsequent changes in the CFCs concentrations after injection potentially reflect natural attenuation (NA) processes, which can also affect other VOCs. Thus tracing the CFCs around a landfill may provide an analogue indicator/proxy for other VOCs transport and fate. To assess the feasibility of using chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) as proxy tracers, it is imperative to characterise the effects of possible NA processes on both CFC abundances and their overall systematics. In this research, anaerobic biodegradation microcosm studies, which mimic the unsaturated zone of a LFG plume, are conducted using methanogenic soil samples. Results are discussed in terms of the potential effects on CFCs signatures due to anaerobic biodegradation in the unsaturated zone and will also explore ways of characterising NA processes by identifying the effects of diffusion on transport processes, and degradation products of CFCs. The discussion will also include how stable carbon isotopic signatures may be used to enhance our assessments of biodegradation of CFCs in the unsaturated zone around landfills.

  13. Municipal solid waste landfills harbor distinct microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Warren Stamps

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its built environments. Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2 and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of landfill microbiomes and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  15. Assessing the disposal of wastes containing NORM in nonhazardous waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K. P.; Blunt, D. L.; Williams, G. P.; Arnish, J. J.; Pfingston, M. R.; Herbert, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the past few years, many states have established specific regulations for the management of petroleum industry wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) above specified thresholds. These regulations have limited the number of disposal options available for NORM-containing wastes, thereby increasing the related waste management costs. In view of the increasing economic burden associated with NORM management, industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that still provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative being considered is the disposal of NORM-containing wastes in landfills permitted to accept only nonhazardous wastes. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 and lead-210 above regulated levels in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and associated health risks to workers and the general public. A variety of scenarios were considered to evaluate the effects associated with the operational phase (i.e., during landfill operations) and future use of the landfill property. Doses were calculated for the maximally exposed receptor for each scenario. This paper presents the results of that study and some conclusions and recommendations drawn from it

  16. Energy crops on landfills: functional, environmental, and costs analysis of different landfill configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, Alberto; Garbo, Francesco; Moretto, Marco; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina

    2018-02-09

    The cultivation of energy crops on landfills represents an important challenge for the near future, as the possibility to use devalued sites for energy production is very attractive. In this study, four scenarios have been assessed and compared with respect to a reference case defined for northern Italy. The scenarios were defined taking into consideration current energy crops issues. In particular, the first three scenarios were based on energy maximisation, phytotreatment ability, and environmental impact, respectively. The fourth scenario was a combination of these characteristics emphasised by the previous scenarios. A multi-criteria analysis, based on economic, energetic, and environmental aspects, was performed. From the analysis, the best scenario resulted to be the fourth, with its ability to pursue several objectives simultaneously and obtain the best score relatively to both environmental and energetic criteria. On the contrary, the economic criterion emerges as weak, as all the considered scenarios showed some limits from this point of view. Important indications for future designs can be derived. The decrease of leachate production due to the presence of energy crops on the top cover, which enhances evapotranspiration, represents a favourable but critical aspect in the definition of the results.

  17. Prevention of landfill pollution by multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS): development, implementation, and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshand, Afshin; Bafrani, Ali Hasani; Zahedipour, Mohammad; Mirbagheri, Seyed Ahmad; Ehtehsami, Majid

    2018-03-01

    Landfilling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the serious environmental concerns as improper location of MSW landfill site can release the pollutants into the surrounding environment. The process of selecting MSW landfill site is a complicated decision making problem since it is subjected to simultaneous assessment of several environmental criteria, rules, and restrictions besides sociocultural and economic ones. The current study suggests a framework based on Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) to select landfill site. The MC-SDSS is an advanced method to integrate multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and geographical information systems (GIS) techniques. This approach enables the incorporation of several conflicting objectives and preferences into spatial decision models. In this study, 14 criteria were chosen and then divided into environmental, sociocultural, and economic categories. Finally, suitability maps were generated based on the MC-SDSS analysis. The developed method was implemented in a real case study in Arak city in northwestern region of Iran, which is environmentally sensitive area. The suitability maps of the case study in Arak showed that 10% (391 km 2 ) is least suitable area, 23% (942 km 2 ) is low suitable, 37% (1507 km 2 ) is moderate suitable, 19% (783 km 2 ) is suitable, and 11% (489 km 2 ) is most suitable locations for landfill site, and finally, three best alternative sites were introduced for the final landfill site.

  18. Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the widespread and erroneous belief that they are natural and do no harm, and because their use offers the opportunity for more control over treatment options and procedures. Alternative therapies can reduce stress, pain, and/or fatigue. Some therapies are covered ...

  19. Landfills and the waste act implementation - what has changed?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of landfill permits by Section 20 of the Environment Conservation Act, 1989, resulted in the development of the Minimum Requirements series of documents to guide waste disposal to landfill. The promulgation of the National...

  20. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone and simulated time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table, municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Peter F.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) is located about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. The landfill is built on the Hueco Bolson, a deposit that yields water to five public-supply wells within 1.1 miles of the landfill boundary on all sides. The bolson deposits consist of lenses and mixtures of sand, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. The unsaturated zone at the landfill is about 300 feet thick. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and the Multimedia Exposure Assessment Model for Evaluating the Land Disposal of Wastes (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the time of first arrival of landfill leachate at the water table. Site-specific data were collected for model input. At five sites on the landfill cover, hydraulic conductivity was measured by an in situ method; in addition, laboratory values were obtained for porosity, moisture content at field capacity, and moisture content at wilting point. Twenty-seven sediment samples were collected from two adjacent boreholes drilled near the southwest corner of the landfill. Of these, 23 samples were assumed to represent the unsaturated zone beneath the landfill. The core samples were analyzed in the laboratory for various characteristics required for the HELP and MULTIMED models: initial moisture content, dry bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention percentages at various suction values, total organic carbon, and pH. Parameters were calculated for the van Genuchten and Brooks-Corey equations that relate hydraulic conductivity to saturation. A reported recharge value of 0.008 inch per year was estimated on the basis of soil- water chloride concentration. The HELP model was implemented using input values that were based mostly on site-specific data or assumed in a conservative manner. Exceptions were the default values used for waste characteristics. Flow through the landfill was

  1. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in old solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the state of polluted soils in the main landfills of the Community of Madrid (central Spain), as part of a continuous assessment of the impacts of urban solid waste (USW) landfills that were capped with a layer of soil 20 years ago. Our analysis of this problem has been highly conditioned by the constant re-use of many of the USW landfills, since they have never been the target of any specific restoration plan. Our periodical analysis of cover soils and soils from discharge areas of the landfills indicates soil pollution has worsened over the years. Here, we examined heavy metal, salts, and organic compounds in soil and surface water samples taken from 15 landfills in the Madrid region. Impacts of the landfill soil covers on nematode and plant diversity were also evaluated. These analyses continue to reveal the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) in soils, and salts (sulphates, chlorides and nitrates) in soils and surface waters. In addition, non-agricultural organic compounds, mainly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, often appeared in very high concentrations, and high levels of insecticides such as gamma-HCH (lindane) were also detected in soils. Around 50% of the water samples collected showed chemical demand of oxygen (CDO) values in excess of 150 mg/l. Traces of phenolic compounds were detected in some landfills, some of which exhibited high levels of 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. All these factors are conditioning both the revegetation of the landfill systems and the remediation of their slopes and terrestrial ecosystems arising in their discharge areas. This work updates the current situation and discusses risks for the health of the ecosystems, humans, domestic animals and wildlife living close to these landfills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Title I conceptual design for Pit 6 landfill closure at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, B.A.; Obenauf, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this design project is to evaluate and prepare design and construction documents for a closure cover cap for the Pit 6 Landfill located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300. This submittal constitutes the Title I Design (Conceptual Design) for the closure cover of the Pit 6 Landfill. A Title I Design is generally 30 percent of the design effort. Title H Design takes the design to 100 percent complete. Comments and edits to this Title I Design will be addressed in the Title II design submittal. Contents of this report are as follows: project background; design issues and engineering approach; design drawings; calculation packages; construction specifications outline; and construction quality assurance plan outline

  3. Improvement of landfill leachate biodegradability with ultrasonic process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    Full Text Available Landfills leachates are known to contain recalcitrant and/or non-biodegradable organic substances and biological processes are not efficient in these cases. A promising alternative to complete oxidation of biorecalcitrant leachate is the use of ultrasonic process as pre-treatment to convert initially biorecalcitrant compounds to more readily biodegradable intermediates. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of ultrasonic process on biodegradability improvement. After the optimization by factorial design, the ultrasonic were applied in the treatment of raw leachates using a batch wise mode. For this, different scenarios were tested with regard to power intensities of 70 and 110 W, frequencies of 30, 45 and 60 KHz, reaction times of 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes and pH of 3, 7 and 10. For determining the effects of catalysts on sonication efficiencies, 5 mg/l of TiO(2 and ZnO have been also used. Results showed that when applied as relatively brief pre-treatment systems, the sonocatalysis processes induce several modifications of the matrix, which results in significant enhancement of its biodegradability. For this reason, the integrated chemical-biological systems proposed here represent a suitable solution for the treatment of landfill leachate samples.

  4. Decision Making on Regional Landfill Site Selection in Hormozgan Province Using Smce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majedi, A. S.; Kamali, B. M.; Maghsoudi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill site selection and suitable conditions to bury hazardous wastes are among the most critical issues in modern societies. Taking several factors and limitations into account along with true decision making requires application of different decision techniques. To this end, current paper aims to make decisions about regional landfill site selection in Hormozgan province and utilizes SMCE technique combined with qualitative and quantitative criteria to select the final alternatives. To this respect, we first will describe the existing environmental situation in our study area and set the goals of our study in the framework of SMCE and will analyze the effective factors in regional landfill site selection. Then, methodological procedure of research was conducted using Delphi approach and questionnaires (in order to determine research validity, Chronbach Alpha (0.94) method was used). Spatial multi-criteria analysis model was designed in the form of criteria tree in SMCE using IL WIS software. Prioritization of respective spatial alternatives included: Bandar Abbas city with total 4 spatial alternatives (one zone with 1st priority, one zone with 3rd priority and two zones with 4thpriority) was considered the first priority, Bastak city with total 3 spatial alternatives (one zone with 2nd priority, one zone with 3rdpriorit and one zone with 4th priority) was the second priority and Bandar Abbas, Minab, Jask and Haji Abad cities were considered as the third priority.

  5. Greenhouse effect contributions of US landfill methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augenstein, D.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect has recently been receiving a great deal of scientific and popular attention. The term refers to a cause-and-effect relationship in which ''heat blanketing'' of the earth, due to trace gas increases in the atmosphere, is expected to result in global warming. The trace gases are increasing as the result of human activities. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the trace gas contributing most importantly to the ''heat blanketing'' and currently receives the most attention. Less widely recognized has been the high importance of methane (CH 4 ). Methane's contribution to the increased heat blanketing occurring since 1980 is estimated to be over a third as much as that of carbon dioxide. Gas from landfills has in turn been recognized to be a source of methane to the atmospheric buildup. However the magnitude of the landfill methane contribution, and the overall significance of landfill methane to the greenhouse phenomenon has been uncertain and the subject of some debate. (Author)

  6. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  7. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  8. Quantifying landfill biogas production potential in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents an overview of the biogas (biomethane) availability in U.S. landfills, calculated from EPA estimates of landfill capacities. This survey concludes that the volume of landfill-derived methane in the U.S. is 466 billion cubic feet per year, of which 66 percent is collected and onl...

  9. Assessment of the Landfill Situation of Addis Ababa City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the Addis Ababa City landfill system with respect to the standard requirement for a landfill. This qualitative study was conducted during March 2001 at the Addis Ababa landfill site found at the southwestern end of Addis Ababa commonly called 'Repi'. The methods employed were ...

  10. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requiremen...

  11. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic...... the fate of reactive pollutants leached from the landfill....

  12. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  13. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed

  14. Seasonal biogeochemical profiling of an unlined landfill in rural Victoria (Australia): implications for stream and groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minard, A.; Moreau, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Unlined landfills and waste transfer stations lack collection systems to prevent groundwater pollution. Unmonitored leakage into shallow groundwater can lead to eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems. Such sites are fairly common in rural Australia, and seven years of groundwater and leachate biogeochemical data taken near a rural landfill in Beaufort (Victoria) Australia, showed that interacting biogeochemical cycles (i.e. C, N, S, Fe) influenced contaminant transport into groundwaters seasonally. Reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides coupled with alkalinity spikes was coupled to higher carbon turnover rates within a methanogenic landfill cell. This process appeared to occur mainly during summers and less during winters. Dissolved trace metal concentrations (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn) alternated with increases in dissolved iron, but with less frequency during the winter months. Nitrate and sulphate however seasonally alternated with high nitrate/low sulphate during the winter, and low nitrate/high sulphate during the summer, within the landfill cell. The seasonal variability of nitrate and sulphate in landfill leachate was also reflected in the down-flow groundwater chemistry.

  15. A framework for a decision support system for municipal solid waste landfill design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verge, Ashley; Rowe, R Kerry

    2013-12-01

    A decision support system (Landfill Advisor or LFAdvisor) was developed to integrate current knowledge of barrier systems into a computer application to assist in landfill design. The program was developed in Visual Basic and includes an integrated database to store information. LFAdvisor presents the choices available for each liner component (e.g. leachate collection system, geomembrane liner, clay liners) and provides advice on their suitability for different situations related to municipal solid waste landfills (e.g. final cover, base liner, lagoon liner). Unique to LFAdvisor, the service life of each engineered component is estimated based on results from the latest research. LFAdvisor considers the interactions between liner components, operating conditions, and the existing site environment. LFAdvisor can be used in the initial stage of design to give designers a good idea of what liner components will likely be required, while alerting them to issues that are likely to arise. A systems approach is taken to landfill design with the ultimate goal of maximising long-term performance and service life.

  16. Application of inert wastes in the construction, operation and closure of landfills: Calculation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer Mendoza, Francisco J; Esteban Altabella, Joan; Gallardo Izquierdo, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Waste from construction and demolition activities represents one of the highest volumes of waste in Europe. 500 million tonnes are produced throughout the whole EU every year. In some EU members like Spain, approximately 83 per cent of such waste is disposed in landfills. The remaining part is classified and processed in treatment facilities so that it can later be used as recycled aggregates in the construction sector (sand, gravel, aggregates, etc.) but without much commercial success. The aim of this study is to use recycled aggregates from inert wastes (IW) in the different phases of a landfill (construction, operation and closure) with the aid of a new computer tool called LABWASTE.14. This tool incorporates the mathematical relationship among the activities of the landfill and provides as a result the economic viability of using recycled aggregates compared to aggregates from quarries. Therefore, knowing the needs of aggregates in landfills (dams, drainage layers, covering layers, collection wells, etc.) may determine the amount of IW that could be recovered. These calculations can be obtained from some of the data that is introduced (population, land physiography, etc.). Furthermore, the use of LABWASTE.14 makes it possible to reduce the demand for aggregates from quarries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of landfill characteristics on leachate organic matter properties and coagulation treatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sarah E H; Boyer, Treavor H; Graf, Katherine C; Townsend, Timothy G

    2010-11-01

    This work spans landfill characteristics, leachate organic matter properties, and coagulation chemistry to provide new insights into the physical-chemical treatability of stabilized landfill leachate. Furthermore, leachate organic matter is viewed in terms of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in the natural environment, and coagulation chemistry is evaluated based on previous leachate and water treatment coagulation studies. Stabilized leachate was collected from four landfills for a total of seven leachate samples, and samples were coagulated using ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and aluminum sulfate. Landfill characteristics, such as age, leachate recirculation, and cover material, influenced properties of DOM present in the leachate, as measured by specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. The coagulation performance of the metal salts was ferric sulfate>aluminum sulfate>ferric chloride, and DOM removal followed the trend of color>UV254>dissolved organic carbon>chemical oxygen demand (COD). Finally, a strong association was found between increasing SUVA254 and increasing DOM removal for coagulation of both leachate and natural surface water. Thus, SUVA254 is expected to be a better predictor of leachate treatability, in particular DOM removal, than the traditionally used ratio of biochemical oxygen demand to COD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Landfill Site Selection by Weighted Overlay Technique: Case Study of Al-Kufa, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Al-Anbari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill siting is a hard and complex process. For this reason, it is considered as one of the major problems in waste management. This is due to the fact that a number of factors are involved within the process such as such as inhabitants’ growth, rapid economic growth, living standards improvements, etc. In Iraq, landfill siting does not follow environmental regulations. Al-Kufa city located is located south-western part of Iraq (area of 550 km2 and inhabitants 372,760. Existing landfills are not selected according to the environmental standards. Landfill site that is required was achieved using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA and spatial overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS. Many factors were considered in the siting process; including geology, water supplies resources, urban centers, sensitive sites, and wells. AHP (analytic hierarchy process method was used in weighting the criteria used. The result showed that there are six sites most suitable covering an area about (113 km2.

  19. VEGETATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE LANDFILLS WITHIN THE AGGLOMERATION OF THE CAPITAL CITY OF WARSAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz H. Dyguś

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of examination of the vegetation on the waste landfill of ArcelorMittal-Warszawa steel mill and the combustion waste landfill of Siekierki Power Station, both sites in Warsaw. The presented analyses of the field research contain detailed floristic-phytosociological data as well as botanical and ecological evaluation of the identified plants. The vegetative structures, together with the succession trends of the vegetation cover of two examined landfills, have been shown. Ecological habitat adaptations of plants and their spatial structure have been evaluated. The inventoried flora has been subjected to taxonomic, syntaxonomic and ecological classification. 154 plant species from 48 taxones in the range of families have been identified. Families characterized by the biggest abundance of species were: Compositae, grasses and Fabaceae. More than half of the live forms indentified were hemicryptophytes. The vegetation of two landfills has been dominated by synantrophic communities (Stellarietea mediae, Artemisietea vulgaris, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, with apophytes being in the largest number. With the use of ecological indicators a broad ecological tolerance of the majority of species toward ecological factors has been observed.

  20. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F., E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.b, E-mail: letsteixeira@gmail.co, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  1. Spatio-temporal variation of landfill gas in pilot-scale semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills over 5years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yue, Bo; Huang, Qifei; Wang, Qi; Lin, Ye; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Zhuoyi

    2017-04-01

    Variation of CH 4 , CO 2 , and O 2 concentrations in layers of different depths in semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills was analyzed over a period of 5years. The results showed that most of the municipal solid waste became basically stable after 5years of landfill disposal. In the upper and middle layer, the concentration of CH 4 in the semi-aerobic landfill was significantly lower than that in the anaerobic landfill in different landfill periods, while in the lower layer, there was little difference in the CH 4 concentration between the semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills. The average concentration of CH 4 and CO 2 in the anaerobic landfill was always higher than that in the semi-aerobic landfill, while the O 2 concentration showed an opposite variation in different landfill periods. This was related to the aerobic reaction of landfill waste around the perforated pipe in the semi-aerobic landfill, which inhibited effective landfill gas generation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Physical and numerical modeling of an inclined three-layer (silt/gravelly sand/clay) capillary barrier cover system under extreme rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charles W W; Liu, Jian; Chen, Rui; Xu, Jie

    2015-04-01

    As an extension of the two-layer capillary barrier, a three-layer capillary barrier landfill cover system is proposed for minimizing rainfall infiltration in humid climates. This system consists of a compacted clay layer lying beneath a conventional cover with capillary barrier effects (CCBE), which is in turn composed of a silt layer sitting on top of a gravelly sand layer. To explore the effectiveness of the new system in minimizing rainfall infiltration, a flume model (3.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.1 m) was designed and set up in this study. This physical model was heavily instrumented to monitor pore water pressure, volumetric water content, surface runoff, infiltration and lateral drainage of each layer, and percolation of the cover system. The cover system was subjected to extreme rainfall followed by evaporation. The experiment was also back-analyzed using a piece of finite element software called CODE_BRIGHT to simulate transient water flows in the test. Based on the results obtained from various instruments, it was found that breakthrough of the two upper layers occurred for a 4-h rainfall event having a 100-year return period. Due to the presence of the newly introduced clay layer, the percolation of the three-layer capillary barrier cover system was insignificant because the clay layer enabled lateral diversion in the gravelly sand layer above. In other words, the gravelly sand layer changed from being a capillary barrier in a convention CCBE cover to being a lateral diversion passage after the breakthrough of the two upper layers. Experimental and back-analysis results confirm that no infiltrated water seeped through the proposed three-layer barrier system. The proposed system thus represents a promising alternative landfill cover system for use in humid climates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ren; Hou, Yujing; Zhan, Liangtong; Yao, Yangping

    2016-01-01

    In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability. PMID:26771627

  4. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  5. Treatment of leachates of sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes. Tratamiento de lixiviados de vertederos controlados de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iza Lopez, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y de Medio Ambiente, ETSII, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The method more used for Urban Solid Wastes is the sanitary landfill. Its management is similar to the industrial process plant. The minimization techniques of wastes are applicated to reduce the environmental impact and to increase the degradation process in order to improve the biogas as alternative energy. This article analyzes the anaerobic digestion, the leachates characterization and treatment of leachates. (Author)

  6. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  7. Fiscal year 1996 groundwater sampling for the Horn Rapids Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, C.J.; Ford, B.H.

    1996-10-01

    The Horn Rapids Landfill is contained within the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit immediately north of Richland, Washington. The landfill is a 20 hectare size area and was placed on the National Priorities List in July 1989. The landfill was used primarily to dispose of office and construction waste, asbestos, sewage sludge, and fly ash. The remedial investigation/feasibility study for the operable unit identified some polychlorinated biphenol-contaminated soil in the landfill. The operable unit record of decision included excavation of the PCB-contaminated soil and placing a soil cap over the landfill in April 1995

  8. Measurement of carbon storage in landfills from the biogenic carbon content of excavated waste samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz, Florentino B; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-10-01

    Landfills are an anaerobic ecosystem and represent the major disposal alternative for municipal solid waste (MSW) in the U.S. While some fraction of the biogenic carbon, primarily cellulose (Cel) and hemicellulose (H), is converted to carbon dioxide and methane, lignin (L) is essentially recalcitrant. The biogenic carbon that is not mineralized is stored within the landfill. This carbon storage represents a significant component of a landfill carbon balance. The fraction of biogenic carbon that is not reactive in the landfill environment and therefore stored was derived for samples of excavated waste by measurement of the total organic carbon, its biogenic fraction, and the remaining methane potential. The average biogenic carbon content of the excavated samples was 64.6±18.0% (average±standard deviation), while the average carbon storage factor was 0.09±0.06g biogenic-C stored per g dry sample or 0.66±0.16g biogenic-C stored per g biogenic C. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Molecular Analysis of Methanogen Richness in Landfill and Marshland Targeting 16S rDNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shailendra; Kundu, Sharbadeb; Ghosh, Sankar K; Maitra, S S

    2015-01-01

    Methanogens, a key contributor in global carbon cycling, methane emission, and alternative energy production, generate methane gas via anaerobic digestion of organic matter. The methane emission potential depends upon methanogenic diversity and activity. Since they are anaerobes and difficult to isolate and culture, their diversity present in the landfill sites of Delhi and marshlands of Southern Assam, India, was analyzed using molecular techniques like 16S rDNA sequencing, DGGE, and qPCR. The sequencing results indicated the presence of methanogens belonging to the seventh order and also the order Methanomicrobiales in the Ghazipur and Bhalsawa landfill sites of Delhi. Sequences, related to the phyla Crenarchaeota (thermophilic) and Thaumarchaeota (mesophilic), were detected from marshland sites of Southern Assam, India. Jaccard analysis of DGGE gel using Gel2K showed three main clusters depending on the number and similarity of band patterns. The copy number analysis of hydrogenotrophic methanogens using qPCR indicates higher abundance in landfill sites of Delhi as compared to the marshlands of Southern Assam. The knowledge about "methanogenic archaea composition" and "abundance" in the contrasting ecosystems like "landfill" and "marshland" may reorient our understanding of the Archaea inhabitants. This study could shed light on the relationship between methane-dynamics and the global warming process.

  10. Assessing the role of renewable energy policies in landfill gas to energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shanjun; Yoo, Han Kyul; Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2015-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is the second most prevalent greenhouse gas and has a global warming potential at least 28 times as high as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). In the United States, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are reported to be the third-largest source of human-made methane emissions, responsible for 18% of methane emissions in 2011. Capturing landfill gas (LFG) for use as an energy source for electricity or heat produces alternative energy as well as environmental benefits. A host of federal and state policies encourage the development of landfill gas to energy (LFGE) projects. This research provides the first systematic economic assessment of the role of these policies on adoption decisions. Results suggest that Renewable Portfolio Standards and investment tax credits have contributed to the development of these projects, accounting for 13 of 277 projects during our data period from 1991 to 2010. These policy-induced projects lead to 10.4 MMTCO 2 e reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and a net benefit of $41.8 million. - Highlights: • Examine the role of renewable energy policies in landfill gas to energy projects • Renewable Portfolio Standards and investment tax credit had impacts. • Investment tax credit policy is cost-effectiveness in promoting these projects. • Policy-induced projects lead to significant environmental benefits

  11. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spokas, K.; Bogner, J.; Chanton, J.P.; Morcet, M.; Aran, C.; Graff, C.; Golvan, Y. Moreau-Le; Hebe, I.

    2006-01-01

    Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH 4 m -2 d -1 . Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery

  12. PERFORMA OKSIDASI METAN PADA REAKTOR KONTINYU DENGAN PENINGKATAN KETEBALAN LAPISAN BIOCOVER LANDFILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opy Kurniasari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available PERFORMANCE OF METHANE OXIDATION IN CONTINUOUS REACTOR BY BIOCOVER LANDFILL FILM THICKNESS IMPROVEMENT. Municipal solid waste (MSW handling in Indonesia is currently highly dependent on landfilling at the final disposal facility (TPA, which generally operated in layer-by-layer basis, allowing the anaerobic (absent of oxygen process. This condition will certainly generate biogas in the form of methane (CH4 and CO2. Methane is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential greater than CO2, and can absorb infrared radiation 23 times more efficient than CO2 in the period of over 100 years. One way that can be done to reduce methane gas from landfills that escape into nature is to oxidize methane by utilizing landfill cover material (biocover as methane-oxidizing microorganism media. Application of compost as landfill cover material is a low-cost approach to reduce emissions so are suitable for developing countries. The compost used in this study was compost landfill mining, which is degraded naturally in landfill. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of biocover to oxidize the methane on a certain layer thickness with a continuous flow conditions. Three column reactors were used, which were made of flexy glass measuring 70 cm in high and 15 cm in diameter. The methane flowed from the bottom of the reactor continuously at a flow rate of 5 ml/minute. The columns were filled with biocover compost landfill mining with layer thickness of 5, 25, 35 and 60 cm. The results showed that the thicker layer of biocover, the higher the efficiency of methane oxidation. The oxidation efficiency obtained in each layer thickness of 15, 25, 35 and 60 cm was 56.43%, 63.69%, 74.58% and 80, 03% respectively, with the rate of oxidation of 0.29 mol m-2 d-1 and the fraction of oxidation of 99%. The oxidation result was supported by the identification of bacteria isolated in this experiment, namely metanotrophic bacteria that have the ability to oxidize

  13. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  14. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the environmental risk associated with landfills. This chapter provides information about the materials used in the construction of liners and drainage systems, tools to calculate migrations through liners, as well as information about requirements for lining systems in the European Union (EU) and the United States...

  15. Landfill Lifespan Estimation: A Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... Akyen, T., Boye, C.B. and Ziggah, Y. Y. (2017), “Landfill Lifespan Estimation: A Case Study”, Ghana Mining ... through the application of various modeling ... The data was provided by the. Environmental and Sanitation Unit of the Tarkwa. Nsuaem Municipal Assembly. Table 1 presents the data used. Fig.

  16. Landfill gases and some effects on vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin B. Flower; Ida A. Leone; Edward F. Gilman; John J. Arthur

    1977-01-01

    Gases moving from refuse landfills through soil were studied in New Jersey. The gases, products of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in the refuse, caused injury and death of peach trees, ornamentals, and commercial farm crops, and create possible hazards to life and property because of the entrance of combustible gases into residences. Remedial measures are...

  17. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

  18. Combined Treatment of Old Sanitary Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visnja Orescanin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate presents hardly treatable, highly complex and very toxic environmental effluent originated in the municipal solid waste degradation process. Although, numerous treatment methods were developed so far, none of them alone could achieve permissible limits of the primary pollutants to discharge into natural recipients. The current study aimed to develop and apply the process to treat landfill leachate by simultaneous application of electrochemical methods, ultrasound, electromagnetic field and ozonation to achieve the legal criteria for its discharge into natural recipient and minimize its adverse environmental impacts. For this purpose, old landfill leachate was taken from the Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia sanitary landfill. Prior to the treatment, the leachate was supplemented with NaCl (2 g/L and subjected to simultaneous treatment with stainless steel electrode plates, ultrasound and recirculation through electromagnetic field. After 45 minutes, stainless steel electrode plates were replaced by iron electrodes and treated for another 10 minutes followed by 15 minutes of the treatment with aluminum electrode plates. Ultrasound and recirculation through electromagnetic field were also applied during Fe and Al electrode treatment. Finally, the electrodes were removed and the suspension was mixed with ozone for another 30 minutes and allowed to settle for an hour. Following the combined treatment, the removal efficiency for the turbidity, color, suspended solids, ammonium, phosphates and heavy metals was 99% or higher, while the removal of COD was 97%. All the measured parameters in the treated leachate were lower compared to upper permissible limit for discharge into natural recipient.

  19. Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Achterkamp, M.C.; Visser, B.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  20. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Achterkamp, M.C.; de Visser, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  1. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  2. Soil contaminations in landfill: a case study of the landfill in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamcová, D.; Vaverková, M. D.; Bartoň, S.; Havlíček, Z.; Břoušková, E.

    2015-10-01

    Phytotoxicity test was determined to assess ecotoxicity of landfill soil. Sinapis alba L. was used as heavy metals bioindicator. Soil samples 1-8, which were taken from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body and its vicinity meet the limits for heavy metals Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn specified in the applicable legislation. Hg and Mn threshold values are not established in legislation, but values have been determined for the needs of the landfill operator. For heavy metals Cr, Cu, and Ni sample 2 exceeded the threshold values, which attained the highest values of all the samples tested for Cr, Cu and Ni. For Cr and Ni the values were several times higher than values of the other samples. The second highest values for Cr, Cu, and Ni showed sample 6 and 7. Both samples exceeded the set limits. An increase in plant biomass was observed in plants growing on plates with soil samples, but no changes in appearance, slow growth or necrotic lesions appeared. Ecotoxicity tests show that tested soils (concentration of 50 %) collected from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body and its vicinity reach high percentage values of germination capacity of seeds of Sinapis alba L. (101-137 %). At a concentration of 25 %, tested soil samples exhibit lower values of germination capacity; in particular samples 3 to 8, yet the seed germination capacity in all 8 samples of tested soils range between 86 and 137 %.

  3. Soil contamination in landfills: a case study of a landfill in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamcová, D.; Vaverková, M. D.; Bartoň, S.; Havlíček, Z.; Břoušková, E.

    2016-02-01

    A phytotoxicity test was determined to assess ecotoxicity of landfill soil. Sinapis alba L. was used as a bioindicator of heavy metals. Soil samples 1-8, which were taken from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body, and its vicinity meet the limits for heavy metals Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn specified in the applicable legislation. Hg and Mn threshold values are not established in legislation, but values have been determined for the needs of the landfill operator. For heavy metals Cr, Cu, and Ni sample 2 exceeded the threshold values, which attained the highest values of all the samples tested for Cr, Cu, and Ni. For Cr and Ni the values were several times higher than values of the other samples. The second highest values for Cr, Cu, and Ni showed sample 6 and 7. Both samples exceeded the set limits. An increase in plant biomass was observed in plants growing on plates with soil samples, but no changes in appearance, slow growth, or necrotic lesions appeared. Ecotoxicity tests show that tested soils (concentration of 50 %) collected from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body, and its vicinity reach high percentage values of germination capacity of seeds of Sinapis alba L. (101-137 %). At a concentration of 25 %, tested soil samples exhibit lower values of germination capacity - in particular samples 3 to 8 - yet the seed germination capacity in all eight samples of tested soils ranges between 86 and 137 %.

  4. Challenges in Selecting a Sustainable Landfill Site in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Tey Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfill is essential in the management of municipal solid wastes in Malaysia. The role of a landfill site has become prominent with the increasing quantity of municipal solid waste. However, the selection of a landfill site has always been one of the crucial yet complicated parts in constructing a landfill. Due to the negative impacts that caused by a landfill site, an appropriate landfill site is required in order to minimize the negative impacts to the lower. Therefore, this paper probes into the challenges in landfill site selection in Peninsular Malaysia. This research is conducted through the reviewing of past similar research and case study with eight different government departments that have play a role in evaluating the suitability of a site to be used as landfill. The results obtained show the challenges in selecting a landfill site. Through the understanding of the landfill site selection, it enables future research to improve the current landfill site selection system and ensure its sustainability.

  5. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, James W.; Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. -- Highlights: • Artificial sweeteners detected at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites. • Concentrations comparable to wastewater even at sites closed for >50 yr. • Saccharin elevated at all sites; potentially diagnostic of landfill impacts. • Potential for age-dating recent (past 2 decades) waste with acesulfame. -- Artificial sweeteners may be useful for tracing landfill leachate contamination and distinguishing it from wastewater impacts

  6. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...

  7. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...

  8. Technical and economic evaluation of biogas capture and treatment for the Piedras Blancas landfill in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisca, Franco Matías; Montoro, Marcos Alexis; Glatstein, Daniel Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) management is one of the most important tasks for landfill operation and closure because of its impact in potential global warming. The aim of this work is to present a case history evaluating an LFG capture and treatment system for the present landfill facility in Córdoba, Argentina. The results may be relevant for many developing countries around the world where landfill gas is not being properly managed. The LFG generation is evaluated by modeling gas production applying the zero-order model, Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]), Scholl Canyon model, and triangular model. Variability in waste properties, weather, and landfill management conditions are analyzed in order to evaluate the feasibility of implementing different treatment systems. The results show the advantages of capturing and treating LFG in order to reduce the emissions of gases responsible for global warming and to determine the revenue rate needed for the project's financial requirements. This particular project reduces by half the emission of equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) compared with the situation where there is no gas treatment. In addition, the study highlights the need for a change in the electricity prices if it is to be economically feasible to implement the project in the current Argentinean electrical market. Methane has 21 times more greenhouse gas potential than carbon dioxide. Because of that, it is of great importance to adequately manage biogas emissions from landfills. In addition, it is environmentally convenient to use this product as an alternative energy source, since it prevents methane emissions while preventing fossil fuel consumption, minimizing carbon dioxide emissions. Performed analysis indicated that biogas capturing and energy generation implies 3 times less equivalent carbon dioxide emissions; however, a change in the Argentinean electrical market fees are required to guarantee the

  9. Comparison of first-order-decay modeled and actual field measured municipal solid waste landfill methane data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Hamid R; Reinhart, Debra R; Niskanen, Antti

    2013-12-01

    The first-order decay (FOD) model is widely used to estimate landfill gas generation for emissions inventories, life cycle assessments, and regulation. The FOD model has inherent uncertainty due to underlying uncertainty in model parameters and a lack of opportunities to validate it with complete field-scale landfill data sets. The objectives of this paper were to estimate methane generation, fugitive methane emissions, and aggregated collection efficiency for landfills through a mass balance approach using the FOD model for gas generation coupled with literature values for cover-specific collection efficiency and methane oxidation. This study is unique and valuable because actual field data were used in comparison with modeled data. The magnitude and variation of emissions were estimated for three landfills using site-specific model parameters and gas collection data, and compared to vertical radial plume mapping emissions measurements. For the three landfills, the modeling approach slightly under-predicted measured emissions and over-estimated aggregated collection efficiency, but the two approaches yielded statistically equivalent uncertainties expressed as coefficients of variation. Sources of uncertainty include challenges in large-scale field measurement of emissions and spatial and temporal fluctuations in methane flow balance components (generated, collected, oxidized, and emitted methane). Additional publication of sets of field-scale measurement data and methane flow balance components will reduce the uncertainty in future estimates of fugitive emissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of gas recovery efficiency at two Danish landfills by performing downwind methane measurements and stable carbon isotopic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Chanton, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the total methane (CH4) generation rate and gas recovery efficiency at two Danish landfills were determined by field measurements. The landfills are located close to each other and are connected to the same gas collection system. The tracer gas dispersion method was used...... for quantification of CH4 emissions from the landfills, while the CH4 oxidation efficiency in the landfill cover layers was determined by stable carbon isotopic technique. The total CH4 generation rate was estimated by a first-order decay model (Afvalzorg) and was compared with the total CH4 generation rate...... determined by field measurements. CH4 emissions from the two landfills combined ranged from 29.1 to 49.6 kg CH4/h. The CH4 oxidation efficiency was 6–37%, with an average of 18% corresponding to an average CH4 oxidation rate of 8.1 kg CH4/h. The calculated gas recovery efficiency was 59–76%, indicating...

  11. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  12. Phycoremediation of landfill leachate with chlorophytes: Phosphate a limiting factor on ammonia nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskuliakova, Andrea; Tonry, Steven; Touzet, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The potential of microalgae to bioremediate wastewater has been reported in numerous studies but has not been investigated as extensively for landfill leachate, which may be attributed to its complex nature and toxicity. In this study we explored if microalgal phycoremediation could constitute an alternative biological treatment option for landfill leachate management in regions with temperate climatic conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of microalgae species at relatively low temperature (15 °C) and light intensity (14:10 h, light: dark, 22 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for reduction in energy inputs. Four chlorophyte strains originating from the North-West of Ireland were selected and used in batch experiments in order to evaluate their ability to reduce total ammonia nitrogen, oxidised nitrogen and orthophosphate in landfill leachate. The Chlamydomonas sp. strain SW15aRL isolated from raw leachate achieved the highest level of pollutant reduction whereby a decrease of 51.7% of ammonia nitrogen was observed in 10% raw leachate (∼100 mg l(-1) NH4(+)-N) by day 24 in experiments without culture agitation. However, in the experiment conducted with 10% raw leachate supplemented with phosphate, a decrease of 90.7% of ammonia nitrogen was obtained by day 24 while also achieving higher biomass production. This series of experiments pointed to phosphorus being a limiting factor in the microalgae based phycoremediation of the landfill leachate. The effective reduction of ammonia nitrogen in landfill leachate can be achieved at lower temperature and light conditions. This was attained by employing native species adapted to such conditions and by improving nutrient balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of Cellulose Breaking Bacteria in Landfill Samples for Organic Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P. M.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    According to the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, the citizens of Hong Kong disposes 13,500 tonnes of waste to the landfill everyday. Out of the 13,500 tonnes, 3600 tonnes consist of organic waste. Furthermore, due to the limited supply of land for landfills in Hong Kong, it is estimated that landfills will be full by about 2020. Currently, organic wastes at landfills undergo anaerobic respiration, where methane gas, one of the most harmful green house gases, will be released. The management of such waste is a pressing issue, as possible solutions must be presented in this crucial period of time. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy introduced their very own method to manage the waste produced by the students. With an approximate of 1500 students on campus, the school produces 27 metric tonnes of food waste each academic year. The installation of the rocket food composter provides an alternate method of disposable of organic waste the school produces, for the aerobic environment allows for different by-products to be produced, namely compost that can be used for organic farming by the primary school students and subsequently carbon dioxide, a less harmful greenhouse gas. This research is an extension on the current work, as another natural factor is considered. It evaluates the microorganism community present in leachate samples collected from the North East New Territories Landfill, for the bacteria in the area exhibits special characteristics in the process of decomposition. Through the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the bacteria, the identification of the bacteria might lead to a break through on the current issue. Some bacteria demonstrate the ability to degrade lignin cellulose, or assist in the production of methane gas in aerobic respirations. These characteristics can hopefully be utilized in the future in waste managements across the globe.

  14. A New Empirical Model to Estimate Landfill Gas Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kamalan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Landfills are the most important producers of methane as human source. So, prediction of landfill gas generation is by far the most important concern of scientists, decision makers, and landfill owners as well as health authorities. Almost all the currently used models are based on Monod equation first order decay rate which is experimental while the main purpose of this research is to develop a numerical model. Methods: A real scale pilot landfill with 4500 tons of municipal solid waste has been designed, constructed, and operated for two years. Required measurements have been done to provide proper data on greenhouse gases emitted by the landfill and monitor its status such as internal temperature, leachate content, and its settlement during two years. Afterwards, weighted residual method has been used to develop the numerical model. Then, the newly mathematical method has been verified with data from another landfill. Results: Measurements showed that the minimum and maximum percentages of methane among landfill gas were 22.3 and 46.1%, respectively. These values for velocity of landfill gas are 0.3 and 0.48 meters per second, in that order. Conclusion: Since there is just 0.6 percent error in calculation as compared to real measurements from a landfill in California and most of the models used have ten percent error, this simple empirical numerical model is suggested to be utilized by scientists, decision makers, and landfill owners

  15. Landfill mining: Development of a cost simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pinkel, Michael; Polansek, Stephanie; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Landfill mining permits recovering secondary raw materials from landfills. Whether this purpose is economically feasible, however, is a matter of various aspects. One is the amount of recoverable secondary raw material (like metals) that can be exploited with a profit. Other influences are the costs for excavation, for processing the waste at the landfill site and for paying charges on the secondary disposal of waste. Depending on the objectives of a landfill mining project (like the recovery of a ferrous and/or a calorific fraction) these expenses and revenues are difficult to assess in advance. This situation complicates any previous assessment of the economic feasibility and is the reason why many landfills that might be suitable for landfill mining are continuingly operated as active landfills, generating aftercare costs and leaving potential hazards to later generations. This article presents a newly developed simulation model for landfill mining projects. It permits identifying the quantities and qualities of output flows that can be recovered by mining and by mobile on-site processing of the waste based on treatment equipment selected by the landfill operator. Thus, charges for disposal and expected revenues from secondary raw materials can be assessed. Furthermore, investment, personnel, operation, servicing and insurance costs are assessed and displayed, based on the selected mobile processing procedure and its throughput, among other things. For clarity, the simulation model is described in this article using the example of a real Austrian sanitary landfill. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Gas Production Potential in the Landfill of Tehran by Landfill Methane Outreach Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Landfilling is the most common way of municipal solid waste (MSW disposal in Iran. Many countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings as well as the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. Landfill gas (LFG consists of 50% - 60 vol% methane and 30% - 40 vol% carbon dioxide as well as trace amounts of numerous chemical compounds such as aromatics, chlorinated organic compounds and sulfur compounds. Landfill methane outreach program (LMOP is a voluntary assistance program which helps reduce methane emissions from landfills by encouraging the recovery and the beneficial use of LFG as an energy resource. Objectives In this study, the volume of LFG of Tehran by landfill methane outreach program (LMOP software was calculated. In addition, the relationship between the time of gas collection system operation and the volume of LFG production was evaluated. Materials and Methods The LMOP software was used. The available information and some presumptions were used to operate the software. The composition of the solid waste collected from the landfill of Tehran had specific details. A large amount of it was organic materials, which was about 67.8%. These materials have a good potential to produce gas. In addition, LMOP Colombia model uses the first-order equations in all the analytical equations. Furthermore, it is assumed that the landfill operation time is 30 years and the process is considered in two conditions; first, the gas was recovered in 2000, and second, the process started in 2015. Results The modeling results showed that for the gas recovery starting in 2000 and 2015, the power generation would be 2

  17. Greenhouse gases emission from sanitary landfills in Lombardy: estimation and uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognazza, F.; Moretti, M.; Caserini, S.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of methane emissions from landfills is important to evaluate measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A census has been conducted across all landfills in Lombardy in order to get a double assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 1973-2007. The first approach is of a deterministic kind: it produced a GHG emission assessment of about 2,240 ktCO 2 (like 2.4% of GHG emission in Lombardy in 2005). The second approach is a probabilistic approach according to Monte Carlo simulation, and allows an assessment of probabilistic distribution of emissions and uncertainty. Uncertainty in GHG emission from landfill in Lombardy is about 20% and efficiency of LFG collection and biodegradable carbon content are the most relevant parameters in this assessment. Also, a projection of GHG emission was made. Two scenarios were analyzed for the 2008-2020 period: a business as usual (BAU) one and an alternative one. It results that we are expecting a 50% reduction of GHG emission, with alternative scenario, from 2007 level: at regional scale it is like a 1% of overall GHG emissions in Lombardy. [it

  18. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  19. Arsenic speciation in municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yarong; Low, Gary K-C; Scott, Jason A; Amal, Rose

    2010-05-01

    Arsenic species in municipal landfill leachates (MLL) were investigated by HPLC-DRC-ICPMS and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Various arsenic species including arsenate (iAs(V)), arsenite (iAs(III)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), as well as sulfur-containing organoarsenic species were detected. Two sulfur-containing arsenic species in a MLL were positively identified as dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)) and dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA(V)) by comparing their molecular ions, fragment patterns and sulfur/arsenic ratios with in-house synthesised thiol-organoarsenic compounds. The findings demonstrated the potential for transformation of DMA(V) to DMDTA(V) and DMMTA(V) in a DMA(V)-spiked MLL in a landfill leachate environment.

  20. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-12-01

    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate amounts in the first 40 years, so decreasing the initial moisture content of waste arriving at landfills could reduce leachate generation. In China-S, the leachate generated by infiltrated precipitation after HDPE geomembranes in top cover started failing, contributed more than 60% of the overall amounts over 100 years of landfilling. Therefore, the quality and placing of HDPE geomembranes in the top cover should be controlled strictly for the purpose of mitigation leachate generation

  1. The sea - landfill or sphere of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Koller, U.; Assmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Information Agency held its third seminar for journalists, entitled 'The sea - landfill or sphere of life' in Hamburg on July 18, 1989. Some 40 journalists - radio journalists and journalists from the staff of dailies and the technical press - took the opportunity to listen for a day to short lectures on selected subjects and submit their questions concerning sea pollution to scientists of diverse disciplines. (orig.) [de

  2. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g −1 dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  3. Domestic Solid Waste Landfills: Experimental Analysis of Leachate Stripping Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakov, N. E.; Strelkov, A. K.; Teplykh, S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    The domestic solid waste (DSW) landfills activity is based on the natural processes of organic substances decomposition through their processing into other substances by micro-organisms. Such micro-organisms can only live in water or, in other words, they exist only in the aquatic environment, both in natural environment and under artificial conditions, e.g. in DSW landfill sites. This paper investigates the problem of DSW landfills leachate preparation for the reuse as irrigation water. Leachate is formed as an inescapable side-product of DSW landfills operation. Leachate is a result of precipitations and artificial irrigation contaminated by substances of microbiological decomposition and destruction of organic substances coming to landfill sites as domestic solid waste. The use of leachate as irrigation water will significantly change the DSW decomposition technology and the safety of landfill sites operations.

  4. Integrating knowledge-based multi-criteria evaluation techniques with GIS for landfill site selection: A case study using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagbohun B.J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in most growing urban areas of developing countries, without a pre-existing land use plan is the sustainable and efficient management of solid wastes. Siting a landfill is a complicated task because of several environmental regulations. This challenge gives birth to the need to develop efficient strategies for the selection of proper waste disposal sites in accordance with all existing environmental regulations. This paper presents a knowledge-based multi-criteria decision analysis using GIS for the selection of suitable landfill site in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. In order to identify suitable sites for landfill, seven factors - land use/cover, geology, river, soil, slope, lineament and roads - were taken into consideration. Each factor was classified and ranked based on prior knowledge about the area and existing guidelines. Weights for each factor were determined through pair-wise comparison using Saaty’s 9 point scale and AHP. The integration of factors according to their weights using weighted index overlay analysis revealed that 39.23 km2 within the area was suitable to site a landfill. The resulting suitable area was classified as high suitability covering 6.47 km2 (16.49%, moderate suitability 25.48 km2 (64.95% and low suitability 7.28 km2 (18.56% based on their overall weights.

  5. Modeling of leachate recirculation using combined drainage blanket-horizontal trench systems in bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Cao, Ben-Yi; Xie, Hai-Jian

    2017-10-01

    Leachate recirculation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills operated as bioreactors offers significant economic and environmental benefits. Combined drainage blanket (DB)-horizontal trench (HT) systems can be an alternative to single conventional recirculation approaches and can have competitive advantages. The key objectives of this study are to investigate combined drainage blanket -horizontal trench systems, to analyze the effects of applying two recirculation systems on the leachate migration in landfills, and to estimate some key design parameters (e.g., the steady-state flow rate, the influence width, and the cumulative leachate volume). It was determined that an effective recirculation model should consist of a moderate horizontal trench injection pressure head and supplementary leachate recirculated through drainage blanket, with an objective of increasing the horizontal unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and thereby allowing more leachate to flow from the horizontal trench system in a horizontal direction. In addition, design charts for engineering application were established using a dimensionless variable formulation.

  6. Stochastic modelling of landfill processes incorporating waste heterogeneity and data uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharof, A.I.; Butler, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    A landfill is a very complex heterogeneous environment and as such it presents many modelling challenges. Attempts to develop models that reproduce these complexities generally involve the use of large numbers of spatially dependent parameters that cannot be properly characterised in the face of data uncertainty. An alternative method is presented, which couples a simplified microbial degradation model with a stochastic hydrological and contaminant transport model. This provides a framework for incorporating the complex effects of spatial heterogeneity within the landfill in a simplified manner, along with other key variables. A methodology for handling data uncertainty is also integrated into the model structure. Illustrative examples of the model's output are presented to demonstrate effects of data uncertainty on leachate composition and gas volume prediction

  7. Effects of Moisture Content in Solid Waste Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Sewage sludges can bring a substantial amount of water into a landfill and raise the moisture content of the solid waste. However, government...regulations may limit or not allow placement of sewage sludges in a MSW landfill (Tchobanoglous and others, 1993: 372). Therefore, at this time, sludges are a...Environment. 100: 415-468 (1991). Manna, L., M.C. Zanetti and G. Genon, "Modeling Biogas Production at Landfill Sites," Resources. Conservation and

  8. Ecotoxicologic diagnosis of a sealed municipal district landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A. J.; Perez-Leblic, M. I.; Bartolome, C.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the environmental impact of a soil-topped landfill requires and ecotoxicologic diagnosis. Here we describe a set of protocols for such a diagnosis as well as their application to a real case ( the urban soil waste, USW, landfill of Getafe, Madrid). Since their initial sealing some 20 years ago with soils taken from the surroundings, waste deposition has continued in most USW landfills of the Comunidad de Madrid. (Author)

  9. Assesment of opportunities for landfill gas utilisation in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramatikov, S.; Iliev, I.; Andreev, S.; Hristoskov, I.

    2011-01-01

    In Bulgaria, about 14 million tons annually of municipal solid waste (MSW) are collected and disposed of in landfills - about 618 kg/capita annually. The implementation of Landfill Gas (LFG) energy recovery/utilization projects in Bulgaria serves as an essential landfill management strategy, and can also reduce greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to improved local air quality and reduced health risks. Results of assesment landfill tests of several municipalities, made by the team of Encon Services for estimation of the potential of their sites are shown in this paper. (authors)

  10. Power generation from landfill gas, Middleton Broom, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A power station is fuelled by gas from a landfill site at Middleton Broom, West Yorkshire in the North of England. The plant was commissioned in January 1993 and has a Declared Net Capacity of about 1.2 MW (enough power for about 700 homes). The electricity produced is exported to the National Grid. After various possible uses of the landfill gas were explored, it was decided that a power station fuelled by the gas was the most commercially viable prospect. Because of the proximity of housing to the landfill site, gas is pumped to the power station, located about 1,500 m from the landfill. (UK)

  11. Managing the leachate at the regional landfill in Kikinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed, industrial countries, there is 1.2kg waste per capita, waste being collected and disposed of in regulated, sanitary landfills, which have systems for the protection of groundwater and air from pollutants, in Serbia, the largest number of landfills does not meet even the basic safety criteria for environmental protection. Several municipalities in Serbia began with the organization of the regional waste management system and within that frame, the construction of regional landfills which meet European standards in terms of environmental protection. The paper presents a method of management and use of leachate at the regional waste landfill 'ASA', Kikinda.

  12. Composition of leachate from old landfills in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Christophersen, Mette

    2001-01-01

    The Danish counties have performed numerous investigations of old landfills. These investigations have been presented in several reports, but no comprehensive summary of the findings has been carried out. The objective of this study was to evaluate the typical composition of leachates from old...... smaller landfills by a comprehensive review of the investigations carried out by the counties. In total 106 landfills were selected by criteria avoiding dilution effects. A database was constructed using a standard program. Statistical evaluations showed that the leachate concentrations in general...... decreased with the age of the landfill, and that the leachate concentrations were lower than found in other similar studies....

  13. Estimation of emissions of nonmethane organic compounds from a closed landfill site using a landfill gas emission model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Diya, A.W. [Health Sciences Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC) emissions from landfills often constitute significant risks both to human health and the general environment. To date very little work has been done on tracking the emissions of NMOC from landfills. To this end, a concerted effort was made to investigate the total annual mass emission rate of NMOC from a closed landfill site in South Manchester, United Kingdom. This was done by using field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters into the Landfill Gas Emission Model embedded in ACTS and RISK software. Two results were obtained: (i) a deterministic outcome of 1.7218 x 10-7 kg/year, which was calculated from mean values of the field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters, and (ii) a probabilistic outcome of 1.66 x 10-7 - 1.78 x 10-7 kg/year, which is a range of value obtained after Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertain parameters of the landfill including NMOC concentration. A comparison between these two results suggests that the probabilistic outcome is a more representative and reliable estimate of the total annual mass emission of NMOC especially given the variability of the parameters of the model. Moreover, a comparison of the model result and the safety standard of 5.0 x 10-5 kg/year indicate that the mass emission of NMOC from the studied landfill is significantly less than previously thought. However, given that this can accumulate to a dangerous level over a long period of time (such as the age of this landfill site); it may have started affecting the health of the people living within the vicinity of the landfill. A case is therefore made for more studies to be carried out on the emissions of other gases such as CH4 and CO2 from the studied landfill site, as this would help to understand the synergistic effect of the various gases being emitted from the landfill.

  14. Evaluating the ability of artificial neural network and PCA-M5P models in predicting leachate COD load in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Sama; Amiri, Hamid; Rakhshandehroo, G Reza

    2016-09-01

    Waste burial in uncontrolled landfills can cause serious environmental damages and unpleasant consequences. Leachates produced in landfills have the potential to contaminate soil and groundwater resources. Leachate management is one of the major issues with respect to landfills environmental impacts. Improper design of landfills can lead to leachate spread in the environment, and hence, engineered landfills are required to have leachate monitoring programs. The high cost of such programs may be greatly reduced and cost efficiency of the program may be optimized if one can predict leachate contamination level and foresee management and treatment strategies. The aim of this study is to develop two expert systems consisting of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Principal Component Analysis-M5P (PCA-M5P) models to predict Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load in leachates produced in lab-scale landfills. Measured data from three landfill lysimeters, including rainfall depth, number of days after waste deposition, thickness of top and bottom Compacted Clay Liners (CCLs), and thickness of top cover over the lysimeter, were utilized to develop, train, validate, and test the expert systems and predict the leachate COD load. Statistical analysis of the prediction results showed that both models possess good prediction ability with a slight superiority for ANN over PCA-M5P. Based on test datasets, the mean absolute percentage error for ANN and PCA-M5P models were 4% and 12%, respectively, and the correlation coefficient for both models was greater than 0.98. Developed models may be used as a rough estimate for leachate COD load prediction in primary landfill designs, where the effect of a top and/or bottom liner is disputed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and closure of the solid waste landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the proposed construction, operation, and closure of a Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) that would be designed in accordance with Commonwealth of Kentucky landfill regulations (401 Kentucky Administrative Regulations Chapters 47 and 48 and Kentucky Revised Statutes 224.855). PGDP produces approximately 7,200 cubic yards per year of non-hazardous, non-radioactive solid waste currently being disposed of in a transitional contained (residential) landfill cell (Cell No. 3). New Kentucky landfill regulations mandate that all existing landfills be upgraded to meet the requirements of the new regulations or stop receiving wastes by June 30, 1995. Cell No. 3 must stop receiving wastes at that time and be closed and capped within 180 days after final receipt of wastes. The proposed SWL would occupy 25 acres of a 60-acre site immediately north of the existing PGDP landfill (Cell No. 3). The EA evaluated the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action and reasonable alternative actions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action which will significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, it is determined that an environmental impact statement will not be prepared, and DOE is issuing this FONSI

  16. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Measurements of Landfill Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Fabrizio; Robinson, Rod; Gardiner, Tom; Finlayson, Andrew; Connor, Andy

    2017-04-01

    DIFFERENTIAL ABSORPTION LIDAR (DIAL) MEASURMENTS OF LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS F. INNOCENTI *, R.A. ROBINSON *, T.D. GARDINER, A. FINLAYSON *, A. CONNOR* * National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW, United Kingdom Methane is one of the most important gaseous hydrocarbon species for both industrial and environmental reasons. Understanding and quantifying methane emissions to atmosphere is an important element of climate change research. Range-resolved infrared Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements provide the means to map and quantify a wide range of different methane sources. DIAL is a powerful technique that can be used to track and quantify plumes emitted from area emission sources such as landfill sites, waste water treatment plants and petrochemical plants. By using lidar (light detection and ranging), the DIAL technique is able to make remote range-resolved single-ended measurements of the actual distribution of target gases in the atmosphere, with no disruption to normal site operational activities. DIAL provides 3D mapping of emission concentrations and quantification of emission rates for a wide range of target gases such as methane. The NPL DIAL laser source is operated alternately at two similar wavelengths. One of these, termed the "on-resonant wavelength", is chosen to be at a wavelength which is absorbed by the target species. The other, the "off-resonant wavelength", is chosen to be at a nearby wavelength which is not absorbed significantly by the target species. The two wavelengths are chosen to be close, so that the atmospheric scattering properties are the same for both wavelengths. They are also chosen so that any differential absorption due to other atmospheric species are minimised. Any measured difference in the returned signals is therefore due to absorption by the target gas. In the typical DIAL measurement configuration the mobile DIAL facility is positioned downwind of the area being

  17. Impact assessment of concentrate recirculation on the landfill gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džolev Nikola M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of concentrate recirculation, as a product of leachate treated by reverse osmosis plant, on the production of landfill gas at the real-scale landfill for municipal solid waste. In an effort to come up with results experimental measurements were carried out at the landfill in Bijeljina. All measurements performed, were divided into 3 groups. The aims of two groups of measurement were to determine landfill gas and methane yield from concentrate and leachate in laboratory conditions (1st group and to find out concentrations of oxidizing matters (COD and BOD5 present in leachate and concentrate at different points of treatment as well as its variability over the time (2nd group which could be used to calculate the potential of landfill gas and methane generation from concentrate by recirculation, theoretically. 3rd group of measurements, carried out in parallel, have goal to determine the quality and quantity of the collected landfill gas at wells throughout the landfill. The results of analysis carried out in this experimental research show the clear evidence of concentrate recirculation impact on methane production by increasing the landfill gas flow, as well as its concentration within the landfill gas composition, at the nearby well. Although results indicated relatively high impact of concentrate recirculation on landfill gas production, comparing to its theoretical potential, the influence on the landfill at whole, is negligible, due to relatively low volumes in recirculation with respect to its size and objectively low potential given by organic matter present in concentrate.

  18. Implementation of waste-to-energy options in landfill-dominated countries: Economic evaluation and GHG impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracil, Cristina; Haro, Pedro; Fuentes-Cano, Diego; Gómez-Barea, Alberto

    2018-03-30

    The economic and environmental impact of several waste-to-energy (WtE) schemes to produce electricity from municipal solid waste (MSW) refuse is evaluated and compared with landfill disposal. Both incineration and gasification alternatives are considered. The gasification option includes three different configurations: (1) a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) with internal combustion engine (ICE), (2) a FBG with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and (3) a grate gasifier with steam Rankine cycle (SRC). The study is primarily applied to regions where the management system is based on Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plants, generating a large share of refuse (>70%), which is currently landfilled. The specific case of Andalusia, a region in the south of Spain with 23 MBT plants distributed over a region of 87.000 km 2 , where about 80% of municipal solid waste (MSW) is currently landfilled, is taken as main reference; thereafter, the study is further extended to preliminary assess other regions of some European landfill-dominated countries with similar characteristics. The results show that both incineration and gasification improve landfill disposal, contributing favorably to greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and fulfilling EU environmental regulations, although the three gasification options analyzed yield lower GHG emissions than incineration. In addition, gasification enables better integration of WtE into existing MBT plants, especially in the particular case of Andalusia, where MBT plants are widespread on the region, making it a more promising option than incineration, which is mainly based on large centralized plants, and less socially accepted. From the options analyzed, the WtE scheme based on FBG with ICE gives the highest profitability for a given gate fee, due to much higher electrical efficiency. However, FBG with ORC seems to be a better option in the short-term for landfill-dominated countries, due to its higher technical reliability and the low gate fee

  19. Leachate pollution management to overcome global climate change impact in Piyungan Landfill, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjito; Suntoro; Gunawan, T.; Maskuri, M.

    2018-03-01

    Environmental problems associated with the landfill system are generated by domestic waste landfills, especially those with open dumping systems. In these systems, waste degrades and produces some gases, namely methane gas (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), which can cause global climate change. This research aimed at identifying the areas that experience groundwater pollution and the spread pattern of leachate movement to the vicinity as well as to develop a leachate management model. The Electricity Resistivity Tomography (ERT) survey is deployed to assess the distribution of electrical resistivity in the polluted areas. In this study, the groundwater contamination is at a very low in the aquifer zone, i.e., 3-9 Ωm. It is caused by the downward migration of leachate to water table that raises the ion concentration of groundwater. These ions will increase the electrical conductivity (EC), i.e., up to 1,284 μmhos/cm, and decrease the electrical resistivity. The leachate spreads westward and northward at a depth of 6-17 m (aquifer) with a thickness of pollution between 4 and11 m.The recommended landfill management model involves the installation of rainwater drainage, use of cover and baseliner made of waterproof materials, and massive waste treatment.

  20. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  1. Landfill wall revegetation combined with leachate recirculation: a convenient procedure for management of closed landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moro, G; Barca, E; Cassano, D; Di Iaconi, C; Mascolo, G; Brunetti, G

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for a reliable sustainable option to effectively manage the landfill leachate generation. This study presents a simple procedure for the revegetation of the walls of closed landfills, employing the leachate as a fertirrigant. The native plants Lepidium sativum, Lactuca sativa, and Atriplex halimus, which suit the local climate, were chosen for this study in Southern Italy. The methodology was structured into three phases (i) early stage toxicity assessment phase (apical root length and germination tests), (ii) adult plant resistance assessment phase, and (iii) soil properties verification phase. The rationale of the proposed approach was first to look at the distinctive qualities and the potential toxicity in landfill leachates for fertigation purposes. Afterwards, through specific tests, the plants used were ranked in terms of resistance to the aqueous solution that contained leachate. Finally, after long-term irrigation, any possible worsening of soil properties was evaluated. The results demonstrated the real possibility of using blended leachate as a fertigant for the revegetation of the walls of closed landfills. In particular, the plants maintained good health when leachate was blended at concentrations of lower than 25 and 5%, respectively for A. halimus and Lepidium sativum. Irrigation tests showed good resistance of the plants, even at dosages of 112 and 133.5 mm m(-2), at maximum concentrations of 25 and 5%, respectively, for A. halimus and Lepidium sativum. The analysis of the total chlorophyll content and of aerial parts dried weight confirmed the results reported above.

  2. Analysis of a CHP plant in a municipal solid waste landfill in the South of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, Ricardo; Carvalho, Monica; Abrahão, Raphael; Becerra, José

    2015-01-01

    increasing the leachates evaporation ratio and landfill capacity. • Analysis of economic viability under old and new Spanish legislations for cogeneration. • Alternative biogas uses integrated with CHP for increasing economic results.

  3. Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleboudy, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration

  4. Characterization and treatment of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welander, Ulrika

    1998-03-01

    The efficiency of different leachate treatment methods for the removal of refractory organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen was investigated. The methods evaluated were nitrification, denitrification, adsorption onto activated carbon, precipitation by ferric chloride or aluminum sulphate and oxidation by ozone or Fenton`s reagent. Furthermore, analyses were performed on leachates from municipal landfills of different kinds (a biocell deposit, a conventional mixed landfill containing household and industrial waste, and an ash deposit) in order to study the leachate composition in regard to various hydrophobic organic compounds as a function of the type of waste deposited. The results suggested that, in order to achieve a satisfactory removal of both ammonium-nitrogen and organic substances, the treatment of methanogenic leachates should be performed through a process combining biological and physical or chemical stages. When the biological treatment was not combined with a physical or a chemical process a COD removal of only 20-30% was achieved, whereas the toxicity of the leachate was significantly reduced. In contrast, a combination of nitrification and either adsorption onto activated carbon or oxidation using Fenton`s reagent resulted in a COD removal of about 80%, although certain specific organic compounds, such as phthalates, were unaffected by the treatment. A combination of nitrification, precipitation by ferric chloride and adsorption onto activated carbon removed 96% of the TOC. The analyses of leachates from municipal landfills of different types showed the leachate from the ash deposit to contain more C4-substituted phenols than the other leachates and to likewise contain alkanes, which the others did not 154 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Characteristics and biological treatment of leachates from a domestic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste material from urban areas is a major environmental concern and landfill application is a frequent method for waste disposal. The leachate from landfills can, however, negatively affect the surrounding environment. A bioreactor cascade containing submerged biofilms was used to treat newly forme...

  6. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resident support for a landfill-to-park transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine A. Vogt; David B. Klenosky; Stephanie A. Snyder; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Globally, landfills are being transformed into other uses because land resources scarce, property values are increasing, and governments seek to reduce urban blight and adaptively reuse space. Park planners and city managers are likely to find that gauging public perceptions of a landfill-to-park project transformation and promoting such sites to potential visitors as...

  8. Mbeubeuss Landfill : Exploring Options to Protect Health, the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mbeubeuss Landfill : Exploring Options to Protect Health, the Environment, and Livelihoods (Sénégal) ... International is also working with the project team to examine the potential to extract methane from the landfill and qualify for carbon emissions credits under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol.

  9. 40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. 258.41 Section 258.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.41 Project XL Bioreactor...

  10. Methane emission quantification from landfills using a double tracer approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Samuelsson, J.; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

    2007-01-01

    A tracer method was successfully used for quantification of the whole methane (CH4) emission from Fakse landfill. By using two different tracers the emission from different sections of the landfill could be quantified. Furthermore, is was possible to determine the emissions from local on site...

  11. USERS MANUAL: LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS MODEL - VERSION 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is a user's guide for a computer model, Version 2.0 of the Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM), for estimating air pollution emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The model can be used to estimate emission rates for methane, carbon dioxide, nonmet...

  12. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate

  13. A geophysical toolbox for imaging and characterization of a landfill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Ghose, R.; Draganov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Leachate and gas are a product of biochemical reactions occurring inside the landfill. Treatment technologies (e.g., recirculation of leachate) are developed to reduce the production of leachate. Imaging the location of the wet and gas pockets inside the landfill can help improve the treatment

  14. THE EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was conducted to monitor the emission potential from solid waste landfilled in Jordan over a period of 292 days using an anaerobic lysimeter. A 30 kg waste sample reflecting the typical municipal solid waste (MSW streams generated in Jordan was used to simulate the influence of climate on the emission potential of landfills located in semi-arid areas. The experimental results demonstrated that a significant amount of leachate and landfill gas was produced. The methane content was found to be more than 45% and the leachate produced reached 15.7 l after 200 days. However, after 260 days the gas and leachate production rate became negligible. A significant amount of heavy metal traces was found in the leachate due to mixed waste disposal. Changes in biogas and leachate quality parameters in the lysimeter revealed typical landfill behaviour trends, the only difference being that they developed much more quickly. In view of current landfill practices in Jordan and the effect of climate change, the results suggest that landfill design and operational modes need to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainability. For this reason, optimized design parameters and operational scenarios for sustainable landfill based on the country’s climatic conditions and financial as well as technical potential are recommended as a primary reference for future landfills in Jordan as well as in similar regions and climates.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ON WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    Earthquake hazards may arise as a result of: (a) transient ground deformation, which is induced due to seismic wave propagation, and (b) permanent ground deformation, which is caused by abrupt fault dislocation. Since the adequate performance of waste landfills after an earthquake is of outmost...... importance, the current study examines the impact of both types of earthquake hazards by performing efficient finite-element analyses. These took also into account the potential slip displacement development along the geosynthetic interfaces of the composite base liner. At first, the development of permanent...

  16. Airborne monitoring of landfills CH_{4} emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarra, Daniele; Gioli, Beniamino; Carlucci, Pantaleone; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Toscano, Piero; Zaldei, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The disposal and treatment of waste produces emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), which contribute to global climate change. In particular, large quantities of Methane are released in the breakdown of organic matter in landfills. In this work we present a new payload of the Sky Arrow ERA aircraft and an original methodology to compute methane emissions, based on the atmospheric mass budget approach. The payload is presently being used for intensive measurements in the area known as "Terra dei fuochi". In this area, located between the provinces of Naples and Caserta (Southern Italy), urban waste combined with industrial toxic waste has been illegally dumped in old quarries or buried in the nearby countryside for decades. This led to patchy sources of methane, with several hot spots spread over a heterogeneous land. In this context, the use of aircraft allows for the investigation at the landscape as well as at the regional scale, taking into account all sources, including those of small dimensions. The Sky Arrow ERA is equipped with the Mobile Flux Platform, capable of deriving the 3D wind vector at 50 Hz, while CO2 and water vapor densities are measured by an infrared gas analyzer (Licor 7500). A new configuration of the Licor 7700 open path fast methane gas analyzer was developed, based on enclosing the sensor within a cylinder exposed to the external air in-flow. This set-up allows for fast response measurements, while avoiding external modifications, subjected to restrictions. Ambient methane mixing ratios in excess of 7 ppm were measured during landfills overpasses; performing grid flight plans at different heights, to describe a virtual box enclosing the study area, and applying interpolation procedures, it was possible to reconstruct wind components and scalar concentrations in a 5x5 kilometers domain containing 6 different landfills, with a resolution of 50 m horizontal and 20 m vertical. For each flight the methane mass flows along and across the wind

  17. Methane recovery from landfill in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaolai, L.

    1996-12-31

    GEF has approved a special project for a demonstration project for Methane Recovery from the Urban Refuse Land Fill. This paper will introduce the possibility of GHG reduction from the landfill in China, describe the activities of the GEF project, and the priorities for international cooperation in this field. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) approved the project, China Promoting Methane Recovery and Unlization from Mixed Municipal Refuse, at its Council meeting in last April. This project is the first one supported by international organization in this field.

  18. Molecular Analysis of Methanogen Richness in Landfill and Marshland Targeting 16S rDNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanogens, a key contributor in global carbon cycling, methane emission, and alternative energy production, generate methane gas via anaerobic digestion of organic matter. The methane emission potential depends upon methanogenic diversity and activity. Since they are anaerobes and difficult to isolate and culture, their diversity present in the landfill sites of Delhi and marshlands of Southern Assam, India, was analyzed using molecular techniques like 16S rDNA sequencing, DGGE, and qPCR. The sequencing results indicated the presence of methanogens belonging to the seventh order and also the order Methanomicrobiales in the Ghazipur and Bhalsawa landfill sites of Delhi. Sequences, related to the phyla Crenarchaeota (thermophilic and Thaumarchaeota (mesophilic, were detected from marshland sites of Southern Assam, India. Jaccard analysis of DGGE gel using Gel2K showed three main clusters depending on the number and similarity of band patterns. The copy number analysis of hydrogenotrophic methanogens using qPCR indicates higher abundance in landfill sites of Delhi as compared to the marshlands of Southern Assam. The knowledge about “methanogenic archaea composition” and “abundance” in the contrasting ecosystems like “landfill” and “marshland” may reorient our understanding of the Archaea inhabitants. This study could shed light on the relationship between methane-dynamics and the global warming process.

  19. Treatment of landfill leachate by using lateritic soil as a natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafalni; Lim, Han Khim; Ismail, Norli; Abustan, Ismail; Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Ahmad, Anees

    2012-12-15

    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laboratory study on sequenced permeable reactive barrier remediation for landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jun; Zhao Yongsheng; Zhang Weihong; Hong Mei

    2009-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was a promising technology for groundwater remediation. Landfill leachate-polluted groundwater riches in various hazardous contaminants. Two lab-scale reactors (reactors A and B) were designed for studying the feasibility of PRB to remedy the landfill leachate-polluted groundwater. Zero valent iron (ZVI) and the mixture of ZVI and zeolites constitute the first section of the reactors A and B, respectively; the second section of two reactors consists of oxygen releasing compounds (ORCs). Experimental results indicated that BOD 5 /COD increased from initial 0.32 up to average 0.61 and 0.6 through reactors A and B, respectively. Removal efficiency of mixed media for pollutants was higher than that of single media (ZVI only). Zeolites exhibited selective removal of Zn, Mn, Mg, Cd, Sr, and NH 4 + , and removal efficiency was 97.2%, 99.6%, 95.9%, 90.5% and 97.4%, respectively. The maximum DO concentration of reactors A and B were 7.64 and 6.78 mg/L, respectively, while the water flowed through the ORC. Therefore, sequenced PRB system was effective and was proposed as an alternative method to remedy polluted groundwater by landfill leachate

  1. Behaviour of a clay layer submitted to bending: application to a landfill for storing very low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp Devernay, S.

    2008-12-01

    The sealing cover system of landfills for storing non bio-degradable and dangerous waste is most of the time made up of a layer of clay and/or a geo-membrane. The question of the optimization of the conditions of storage of the radioactive waste envisage a surface storage for very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) and low and intermediate short-lived radioactive waste. This study is applied to a VLLW disposal facility of which the cover is made up of a clay layer over a geo-membrane but can be transposed to landfill for dangerous waste. The cover clay barrier of a landfill must preserve its properties; in particular its permeability must remain inferior to ten to the minus nine meters per second, during the life of the landfill in spite of the various solicitations which can generate cracking. Among these solicitations, the relative settlements of subjacent waste, generating bending solicitation, are one of the most critical solicitations. The current regulation concerning the implementation as a cover of a clay layer presents gaps, in particular with regard to the deformability of clay. This study presents the interest to couple laboratory tests (four points bending tests, splitting test and punching test) with field bending tests carried out at scale one and with their modeling with centrifugal tests. These tests were also numerically modeled by finite elements. A good compatibility of the results, in particular with regard to the definition of the conditions of initiation of the crack by bending, is shown. Numerical modeling and centrifugal tests made it possible to extend the study to unperformed in situ cases (settlement tests, reinforcement of the clay). (author)

  2. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

    2011-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  3. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater. The historical investigation showed that the original soil surface beneath the waste was a relatively heterogeneous mixture of boggy ground and sand soil areas. This indicated......Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... that the leaching from the landfill could be unevenly distributed. The main specific organic compounds observed in the leachate were aromatic hydrocarbons (mainly xylenes), phenols and the pesticide MCPP. Preliminary investigations of the leach from the landfill indicated, that both a northerly leach to a drainage...

  4. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  5. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3–4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate......-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic...... leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007E to 0.013PE and 0.002 to 0.003 PE respectively). The reason for this is that even if the leachate is treated, slight amounts of contaminants are released...

  6. Attenuation of fluorocarbons released from foam insulation in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Dote, Yukata; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

    2007-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have been used as blowing agents (BAs) for foam insulation in home appliances and building materials, which after the end of their useful life are disposed of in landfills. The objective of this project...... was to evaluate the potential for degradation of BAs in landfills, and to develop a landfill model, which could simulate the fate of BAs in landfills. The investigation was performed by use of anaerobic microcosm studies using different types of organic waste and anaerobic digested sludge as inoculum. The BAs...... in any of the experiments within a run time of up to 200 days. The obtained degradation rate coefficients were used as input for an extended version of an existing landfill fate model incorporating a time dependent BA release from co-disposed foam insulation waste. Predictions with the model indicate...

  7. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  8. Distribution of Escherichia Coli as Soil Pollutant around Antang Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiningsih, Andi; Zubair, Hazairin; Imran, A. M.; Widodo, Sri

    2018-03-01

    Tamangapa Antang Landfill locates around the residential area and faces an air and water pollution due to an open dumping system in its operation. The system arises a potential pollution in air, water and soil. Sampling was done surround the landfill in two parts, parallel and perpendicular to the ground water flow. This study shows the abundance of E. coli bacteria in soil around the Antang Landfills at depth of 10 to 20 cm (93x105 cfu/gr of soil) in the direction of groundwater flow. While in other locations the E. coli bacteria is not detected. The abundance of E. coli bacteria is a conjunction factor from landfill and human activities surround the area. The absence of E. coli bacteria in other location highly interpreted that the landfill is the major contributor of pollutant.

  9. Prediction of Post-Closure Water Balance for Monolithic Soil Covers at Waste Disposal Sites in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ghana Landfill Guidelines require the provision of a final cover system during landfill closure as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of uncontrolled leachate discharges. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configurations that would be suitable for the different climatic zones in Ghana. The aim of this study was to simulate and predict post-closure landfill cover water balance for waste disposal sites located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area using the USGS Thornthwaite monthly water balance computer program. Five different cover soil types were analyzed under using historical climatic data for the metropolis from 1980 to 2001. The maximum annual percolation and evapotranspiration rates for the native soil type were 337 mm and 974 mm respectively. Monthly percolation rates exhibited a seasonal pattern similar to the bimodal precipitation regime whereas monthly evapotranspiration did not. It was also observed that even though soils with a high clay content would be the most suitable option as landfill cover material in the Accra metropolis the maximum thickness of 600 mm recommended in the Ghana Landfill Guidelines do not seem to provide significant reduction in percolation rates into the buried waste mass when the annual rainfall exceeds 700 mm. The findings from this research should provide additional guidance to landfill managers on the specification of cover designs for waste disposal sites with similar climatic conditions.

  10. Further studies on the role of protozoa in landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlay, B.J.; Clarke, K.J.; Cranwell, P.A.; Embley, T.M.; Hindle, R.M.; Simon, B.M.

    1993-11-01

    The specific objectives of this study were: to determine the growth requirements of methanogen-bearing protozoa living in landfill; to measure the rate of methane generation by these `protozoan consortia`; to quantify the role of protozoan grazing in stimulating overall microbial activity; to determine the identity of both symbiotic methanogens and host ciliates in different landfill sites. The results showed that the landfill ciliated protozoon, Metopus palaeformis, showed net growth in the temperature range 7-35{sup o}C, if the landfill material contained at least 40% water by weight. The methanogens living inside one cell of M.palaeformis produced, on average, 0.37 x 10{sup -12}mol CH{sub 4}/hour. In laboratory studies, the initial rate of methane generation from landfill material was twice as great when ciliates were present. There was no experimental evidence that this was due to ciliate grazing activity stimulating the re-cycling of essential nutrients to free-living bacteria. It is theoretically possible that acetate excreted by ciliates was converted to methane by free-living methanogens and that this was the source of ciliate-enhanced methane production. It was shown that the methanogenic bacteria living symbiotically within the ciliates are quite distinct from free-living methanogens previously described from landfill refuse. It is unlikely that the ciliates act as vectors for the transmission of methanogens between landfill sites. In conclusion, protozoon may be an important component of the landfill microbial community because they stimulate the rate of anaerobic decomposition and hence the rate of methane production. But protozoa are important only when the landfill material is wet (> 40% water) and when the temperature of the landfill does not exceed 30{sup o}C. (author)

  11. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  12. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE's Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit

  13. LANDFILL SITTING USING MCDM in TEHRAN METROPOLITAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Abediniangerabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing Municipal Solid Waste in order to control waste materials in Tehran Metropolitan with a population of over 8.5 million persons and daily production of 7500 tons of trash seems an evitable necessity. Daily production of such amount of trash and accumulation of them in the southern part of Tehran (Kahrizak due to lack of proper and standard methods of landfilling have caused severe problems by creating a latex lake of twelve hectares. Among these problems, penetration of infection and contamination to underground waters, causing excessive problems for soil and agricultural lands can be mentioned. In such conditions caused for Tehran, lack of solution finding for the issue would bring heavy outcomes for the Tehran Metropolitan in terms of environmental and economic issues. In this paper, efforts are taken to find a new place as a landfill by applying sustainable development approach. For this, in order to use the criteria propounded in sustainable development, multi-criteria decision making methods has been applied for weighing and spatial analysis has been used to combining them for indicating the most appropriate site. In this way, the new site would be selected by observance of sustainable development would be a place with the least environmental and social damages while being economically affordable.

  14. Landfills as sinks for (hazardous) substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of waste regulations is to protect human health and the environment. This requires the removal from the material cycle of those materials that cannot be processed without harm. Policies to promote recycling hold a risk that pollutants are dispersed. Materials have an environmental impact during their entire life cycle from extraction through production, consumption and recycling to disposal. Essentially there are only two routes for pollutants that cannot be rendered harmless: storage in sinks or dispersion into the environment. Many sinks do not contain substances absolutely, but result in slow dispersion. Dispersion leads to exposure and impact to human health and the environment. It is therefore important to assess the impact of the release to the environment. Based on various sources this paper discusses important material flows and their potential impact. This is compared with the intentions and achievements of European environmental and resource policy. The polluter pays principle is being implemented in Europe, but lags behind implementation of waste management regulations. As long as producers are allowed to add hazardous substances to their products and don't take their products back, it is in society's best interest to carefully consider whether recycling or storage in a sink is the better solution. This requires further development of life-cycle assessment tools and harmonization of regulations. In many cases the sink is unavoidable. Landfills as sinks will be needed in the future. Fail-safe design and construction as well as sustainable management of landfills must be further developed.

  15. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  16. Sustainable Impact of Landfill Siting towards Urban Planning in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin Tey, Jia; Goh, Kai Chen; Ern Ang, Peniel Soon

    2017-10-01

    Landfill is one of the most common, widely used waste management technique in Malaysia. The ever increasing of solid waste has made the role of landfill become prominent despite the negative impacts that caused by the landfill is unavoidable. The public and government regulations are getting more aware with the negative impacts that could be brought by the landfill towards the community. It led to the cultural shift to integrate the concept of sustainability into the planning of siting a landfill in an urban area. However, current urban planning tends to emphasize more on the environmental aspect instead of social and economic aspects. This is due to the existing planning guidelines and stakeholder’s understandings are more on the environmental aspect. This led to the needs of incorporating the concept of sustainability into the urban planning. Thus, this paper focuses on the industry stakeholders view on the negative impacts that will cause by the landfill towards the urban planning. The industry stakeholders are those who are related to the decision-making in the selection of a landfill site in the government department. The scope of the study is within the country of Malaysia. This study was conducted through the semi-structured interviews with a total of fifteen industry stakeholders to obtain their perspective on the issues of impacts of siting a landfill in the urban area. The data obtained was analysed using the software, QSR NVivo version 10. Results indicate that landfill bought significant sustainability-related impacts towards landfill siting in urban planning. The negative impacts stated by the respondents are categorized under all three sustainable aspects such as environmental, social and economic. Among the results are such as the pollution, such as the generation of leachate, the objection in siting a landfill site against by the public, and the negotiating and getting money contribution from local authorities. The results produced can be served

  17. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  18. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity less...

  19. Evaluating fugacity models for trace components in landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Sophie; Sweetman, Andrew; Hough, Rupert L.; Smith, Richard; Rosevear, Alan; Pollard, Simon J.T.

    2006-01-01

    A fugacity approach was evaluated to reconcile loadings of vinyl chloride (chloroethene), benzene, 1,3-butadiene and trichloroethylene in waste with concentrations observed in landfill gas monitoring studies. An evaluative environment derived from fictitious but realistic properties such as volume, composition, and temperature, constructed with data from the Brogborough landfill (UK) test cells was used to test a fugacity approach to generating the source term for use in landfill gas risk assessment models (e.g. GasSim). SOILVE, a dynamic Level II model adapted here for landfills, showed greatest utility for benzene and 1,3-butadiene, modelled under anaerobic conditions over a 10 year simulation. Modelled concentrations of these components (95 300 μg m -3 ; 43 μg m -3 ) fell within measured ranges observed in gas from landfills (24 300-180 000 μg m -3 ; 20-70 μg m -3 ). This study highlights the need (i) for representative and time-referenced biotransformation data; (ii) to evaluate the partitioning characteristics of organic matter within waste systems and (iii) for a better understanding of the role that gas extraction rate (flux) plays in producing trace component concentrations in landfill gas. - Fugacity for trace component in landfill gas

  20. An innovative multi-source approach for environmental monitoring of landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Ciro; Mei, Alessandro; Paciucci, Lucia; Bassani, Cristiana

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of downscaling approach, based on the products obtained by remote sensing and in situ survey, for the geo-environmental analysis of landfill site, located in the San Giovanni in Fiore Municipalty (CS) in the Southern Italy (Calabria District). The aim of the study focused on the optimization of techniques for the monitoring of landfill area by optical remote sensing, which represents a crucial issue since usual investigation methods are expensive and time-consuming. This approach integrated data with different spectral and spatial resolutions extracting parameters descriptive of superficial condition. The use of remote sensing provided a synoptic perspective considering time and spatial ranges which were useful for the monitoring of different environmental matrices and the assessment of biogas and leachate migration. Indeed the multispectral data of Worldview 2 (2012) and Pléiades (2014 and 2015) operating in the range from visible to near-infrared, were adopted for the retrieval of indices descriptive of the vegetation and soil targets with high spatial resolution. The orthophoto dataset integrated the temporal analysis not covered by spectral imagery showing a general increasing of land consumption and highlighting area with no or senescent vegetation cover. These evidences, due to the intensive human activities and to geological, hydraulic and land cover conditions, provided the general setting of the area and its evolution identifying ongoing processes in the study area. The Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) airborne sensor extended the remote sensing analysis up to the thermal domain highlighting superficial anomalies of landfill capping linked to local phenomena such as biogas migration or local humidity into the ground. The dataset of products obtained by remote sensing data processing was validated by in situ analysis. The evidences of ground anomalies were collected by field surveys and

  1. Landfill mining: Case study of a successful metals recovery project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P; Raymond, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Worldwide, the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is increasing and landfills continue to be the dominant method for managing solid waste. Because of inadequate diversion of reusable and recoverable materials, MSW landfills continue to receive significant quantities of recyclable materials, especially metals. The economic value of landfilled metals is significant, fostering interest worldwide in recovering the landfilled metals through mining. However, economically viable landfill mining for metals has been elusive due to multiple barriers including technological challenges and high costs of processing waste. The objective of this article is to present a case study of an economically successful landfill mining operation specifically to recover metals. The mining operation was at an ashfill, which serves a MSW waste-to-energy facility. Landfill mining operations began in November 2011. Between December 2011 and March 2015, 34,352 Mt of ferrous and non-ferrous metals were recovered and shipped for recycling, which consisted of metals >125 mm (5.2%), 50-125 mm (85.9%), Mining also increased the landfill's airspace by 10,194 m(3) extending the life of the ashfill with an estimated economic value of $267,000. The estimated per-Mt cost for the extraction of metal was $158. This case study demonstrates that ashfills can be profitably mined for metals without financial support from government. Although there are comparatively few ashfills, the results and experience obtained from this case study can help foster further research into the potential recovery of metals from raw, landfilled MSW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EVALUATION OF LANDFILL LEACHATE POLLUTION: FINDINGS FROM A MONITORING STUDY AT MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daria Vaverková

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring that was carried out at the landfill specialized in leachate, groundwater and surface water. There were 6 sampling sites. The observed parameters were pH, BOD5, CODCr, conductivity. Leachate reached the high values in all observed parameters. Groundwater samples were collected at two monitoring wells and the sampling site (A, B, C. Surface water was collected from two sampling sites (D, E. The pH showed slightly acid values at all sampling points. The pH of surface water was slightly acid to neutral. Both BOD5 and CODCr values ​​remained stable over the reporting period. The average conductivity value at sampling points D, E remained constant. In line with the Czech National Standard ČSN 75 7221 “Classification of Surface Water Quality” sampling point D belongs to II Water Quality Class – slightly polluted water and sampling site E to Class I water quality – unpolluted water. The authors believe that the fluctuations occurring with regard to the values of certain samples were not caused by the operation of the landfill itself, but were a result of the intense agricultural activity nearby the landfill.

  3. Landfill gas as vehicle fuel; Deponigas som fordonsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Johansson, Nina; Karlsvaerd, Johan (Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The landfill gas extraction in Sweden 2008 was 370 GWh. Mainly because of lack of available technologies for landfill gas upgrading and high assessed upgrading costs, landfill gas has so far only been used for heating and cogenerations plants (CHP). In recent years, interest has been brought to upgrade landfill gas and this study highlights the possibility of using landfill gas as fuel for vehicles. A decision in investment in an upgrading installation requires a forecast of future gas production and landfill gas extraction. From 2005, dispose of organic waste is prohibited, reducing the number of active landfills and the landfill gas production will go down. Factors such as moisture content, design of the final coverage and landfill gas collection system have a major impact on the extraction. It is therefore difficult to make appropriate predictions of the future gas production. Today's landfill gas extraction is approximately 35% of the landfill gas production and in the light of this, extraction can be in a level comparable to today's at least ten years ahead, provided that the extraction system is being expanded and that measurements are taken to so that landfills should not dry out. In comparison with biogas from anaerobic digestion in a dedicated digester, landfill gas has a high percentage of nitrogen and a content of many contaminants such as organic silicon compounds (siloxanes) and halogenated hydrocarbons (hydrocarbons containing the halogens chlorine, fluorine and bromine). This often requires more treatment and a further separation step. A common method for purification of landfill gas is regenerative adsorption on a dedicated adsorption material. Carbon dioxide is separated by conventional techniques like PSA, water scrubber and membranes. The main barrier to use landfill gas as vehicle fuel is a cost-effective separation of nitrogen that does not generate high methane losses. Nitrogen is separated by PSA or distillation technique (cryogenic

  4. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater. The historical investigation showed that the original soil surface beneath the waste was a relatively heterogeneous mixture of boggy ground and sand soil areas. This indicated...

  5. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  6. Factors affecting temporal H2S emission at construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-02-01

    Odor problems associated with H2S emissions often result in odor complaints from nearby residents of C&D debris landfills, especially in the early morning. As part of a field study conducted on H2S removal ability using different cover materials, daily and seasonal H2S emissions through a soil cover layer were monitored at a C&D debris landfill to investigate factors affecting H2S emissions. H2S emission rates were not a constant, but varied seasonally, with an average emission rate of 4.67×10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1). During a the 10-month field study, as the H2S concentration increased from 140ppm to about 3500ppm underneath the cover soil in the testing cell, H2S emissions ranged from zero to a maximum emission rate of 1.24×10(-5)mgm(-2)s(-1). Continuous emission monitoring indicated that H2S emissions even changed over time throughout the day, generally increasing from morning to afternoon, and were affected by soil moisture and temperature. Laboratory experiments were also conducted to investigate the effects of H2S concentration and cover soil moisture content on H2S emissions. The results showed that increased soil moisture reduced H2S emissions by retarding H2S migration through cover soil and dissolving H2S into soil water. The field study also indicated that due to atmospheric dispersion, high H2S emissions may not cause odor problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Landfill leachate treatment by solar-driven AOPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Elisangela M.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Centro de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Hidraulica e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Saneamento (LABOSAN), Avenida da Universidade, 2853 - Benfica, 60020-181 Fortaleza (Brazil); Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Fonseca, Amelia; Saraiva, Isabel [Efacec Ambiente, SA, Rua Eng. Frederico Ulrich - Guardeiras, Apartado 3003, 4471-907 Moreira da Maia (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Sanitary landfill leachate resulting from the rainwater percolation through the landfill layers and waste material decomposition is a complex mixture of high-strength organic and inorganic compounds which constitutes serious environmental problems. In this study, different heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}/UV, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) and homogenous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalytic processes were investigated as an alternative for the treatment of a mature landfill leachate. The addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to TiO{sub 2}/UV system increased the reduction of the aromatic compounds from 15% to 61%, although mineralization was almost the same. The DOC and aromatic content abatement is similar for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV processes, although the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption is three times higher in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system. The low efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system is presumably due to the alkaline leachate solution, for which the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} becomes highly unstable and self-decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} occurs. The efficiency of the TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system increased 10 times after a preliminary pH correction to 4. The photo-Fenton process is much more efficient than heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) or homogeneous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalysis, showing an initial reaction rate more than 20 times higher, and leading to almost complete mineralization of the wastewater. However, when compared with TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV with acidification, the photo-Fenton reaction is only two times faster. The optimal initial iron dose for the photo-Fenton treatment of the leachate is 60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}, which is in agreement with path length of 5 cm in the photoreactor. The kinetic behaviour of the process (60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) comprises a slow initial reaction, followed by a first-order kinetics (k = 0.020 LkJ{sub UV

  8. Spreading of Groundwater Contamined by Leached in the Surrounding Area of Piyungan Landfill Bantul District, Yogyakarta Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sartohadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are: (1 to study the characteristics of aquifer, distribution and chemical types of groundwater in the research area; (2 to measure the consentration of major elements (HC03-, Cl-, S042-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and minor elements (S2-, NH4+ as indicators of leached contamination in the groundwater; and (3 to establish the spreading of contamined groundwater by leached. The grid sampling method was applied in this research. The grid dimension is 1 cm x 1 cm measured in the 1:25000 scale of Indonesian Topographic Map. The groundwater samples were taken randomly within the grid. Not the whole study area covered by the map was grided but only the surrounding area of Piyungan Landfill and the area lower than Piyungan landfill were grided. The groundwater samples were taken during the rainy season because during the rainy season there were more leached produced from Piyungan Landfill. The groundwater samples were examined their physical and chemical qualities using the legal standard quality in Yogyakarta Province. Spatial analysis using maps and graphics were applied to examine the spreading of contimined groundwater by leached. The spreading of unconfined groundwater in the study area was not equal distributed but it seems to be controlled by the landforms. There were an increasing elements content of Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3-, as well as dissolved oxygen, NO3- and S2- in the groundwater contamined by leached. The zonation of the spreading of groundwater contamined by leached was categorized into three class, i.e., central (location of landfill, well number 1 0, transisional (well number: 11, 12, 13, 15, and primary (well number: 8, 14, 16, 17, 25, 26 zones. The zonation of groundwater matched with the analysis of groundwater quality by the distance from the Piyungan Landfill.

  9. Cover Your Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Cover Your Cough Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... eat nutritious food. Printable formats of “Cover Your Cough” Posters only available as PDF files. Cover Your ...

  10. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR AREA 9 UXO LANDFILL, TONOPAH TEST RNGE, CAU 453, REVISION 0, MARCH 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for the Area 9 Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Landfill (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 453) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 453 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, and is comprised of three individual landfill cells located northwest of Area 9. The cells are listed as one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 09-55-001-0952. The landfill cells have been designated as: � Cell A9-1 � Cell A9-2 � Cell A9-3 The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for CAU 453. The scope of this CADD consists of the following tasks: � Develop corrective action objectives. � Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. � Develop corrective action alternatives. � Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. � Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the CAU. In June and July 1997, a corrective action investigation was performed that consisted of activities set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE/NV, 1997). Subsurface investigation of the soils surrounding the cells revealed no contaminants of concern (COCs) above preliminary action levels. The cell contents were not investigated due to the potential for live UXO. Details concerning the analytical and investigation results can be found in Appendix A of this CADD. Based on the potential exposure pathways, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for CAU 453: � Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soils containing COCs, solid waste, and/or UXO. � Prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. Based on the review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the TTR, the

  11. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  12. Landfill gas distribution at the base of passive methane oxidation biosystems: Transient state analysis of several configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahoughalandari, Bahar; Cabral, Alexandre R

    2017-11-01

    The design process of passive methane oxidation biosystems needs to include design criteria that account for the effect of unsaturated hydraulic behavior on landfill gas migration, in particular, restrictions to landfill gas flow due to the capillary barrier effect, which can greatly affect methane oxidation rates. This paper reports the results of numerical simulations performed to assess the landfill gas flow behavior of several passive methane oxidation biosystems. The concepts of these biosystems were inspired by selected configurations found in the technical literature. We adopted the length of unrestricted gas migration (LUGM) as the main design criterion in this assessment. LUGM is defined as the length along the interface between the methane oxidation and gas distribution layers, where the pores of the methane oxidation layer material can be considered blocked for all practical purposes. High values of LUGM indicate that landfill gas can flow easily across this interface. Low values of LUGM indicate greater chances of having preferential upward flow and, consequently, finding hotspots on the surface. Deficient designs may result in the occurrence of hotspots. One of the designs evaluated included an alternative to a concept recently proposed where the interface between the methane oxidation and gas distribution layers was jagged (in the form of a see-saw). The idea behind this ingenious concept is to prevent blockage of air-filled pores in the upper areas of the jagged segments. The results of the simulations revealed the extent of the capability of the different scenarios to provide unrestricted and conveniently distributed upward landfill gas flow. They also stress the importance of incorporating an appropriate design criterion in the selection of the methane oxidation layer materials and the geometrical form of passive biosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Giacobbo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira [Universidade FEEVALE, ICET, RS 239, 2755, CEP 93352-000 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Meneguzzi, Alvaro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm{sup −2}, 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment.

  14. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm; Giacobbo, Alexandre; Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Meneguzzi, Alvaro; Bernardes, Andréa Moura

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm −2 , 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment

  15. Fuel Flexibility: Landfill Gas Contaminant Mitigation for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Lewis, Samuel [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Sepaniak, Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-04-01

    This research project focused on the mitigation of silica damage to engine-based renewable landfill gas energy systems. Characterization of the landfill gas siloxane contamination, combined with characterization of the silica deposits in engines, led to development of two new mitigation strategies. The first involved a novel method for removing the siloxanes and other heavy contaminants from the landfill gas prior to use by the engines. The second strategy sought to interrupt the formation of hard silica deposits in the engine itself, based on inspection of failed landfill gas engine parts. In addition to mitigation, the project had a third task to develop a robust sensor for siloxanes that could be used to control existing and/or future removal processes.

  16. Development of computer simulations for landfill methane recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massmann, J.W.; Moore, C.A.; Sykes, R.M.

    1981-12-01

    Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs simulating methane recovery systems in landfills have been developed. These computer programs model multicomponent combined pressure and diffusional flow in porous media. Each program and the processes it models are described in this report. Examples of the capabilities of each program are also presented. The two-dimensional program was used to simulate methane recovery systems in a cylindrically shaped landfill. The effects of various pump locations, geometries, and extraction rates were determined. The three-dimensional program was used to model the Puente Hills landfill, a field test site in southern California. The biochemical and microbiological details of methane generation in landfills are also given. Effects of environmental factors, such as moisture, oxygen, temperature, and nutrients on methane generation are discussed and an analytical representation of the gas generation rate is developed.

  17. An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates

  18. Multiple criteria landfill site selection method incorporating the NIMBY factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Abdul Hakim; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Waste management and disposal issues one way or another need to be resolved correctly. Today, every developing country is facing the very common question of finding the best suitable site for a landfill. Relying on the technical factors alone would not solve the problem, but the best suitable sites for landfill need to consider the Not-In-My-Backyard (NIMBY) policy in resisting the pressure from unwanted development within the neighborhood or town. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to propose a sustainable approach in finding and determining the best landfill site using GIS. A spatial analytical study is presented by applying various criteria derived from several types of spatial data available in the search for the most suitable landfill site in three (3) districts of Kuala Muda, Kulim and Baling, in Kedah. The results of the analysis have not only satisfied the technical factors but have also put into consideration the public opposition to the NIMBY issues.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF HOLOCENE FAULTING PROPOSED C-746-U LANDFILL EXPANSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettis, William [William Lettis & Associates, Inc.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  20. Major Sources of Worries and Concerns about Landfills in Lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    syndrome clearly manifests in that respondents consistently placed high premium on negative externalities of landfills. Specifically, odour, smoke (from burning of wastes), noise, flies and rodents, aesthetics and water pollution were the most frequently mentioned environmental problems, while psychological disturbance,.

  1. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Achieving equilibrium status and sustainable landfill - the holy grail?

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, D. H.; Gronow, Jan R.; Smith, Richard; Blakey, N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research contract jointly funded by the Environment Agency and ESART examining the residues of likely post-Landfill Directive waste streams that will need to go to landfill and the time taken to achieve sufficient stabilisation such that management controls can be removed. The first part of the project has identified a number of processes that are likely to be adopted by the waste management industry in order to meet the biodegradable waste ...

  3. Characterization of fine fraction mined from two Finnish landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkäre, Tiina J; Palmroth, Marja R T; Rintala, Jukka A

    2016-01-01

    A fine fraction (FF) was mined from two Finnish municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Kuopio (1- to 10-year-old, referred as new landfill) and Lohja (24- to 40-year-old, referred as old landfill) in order to characterize FF. In Kuopio the FF (Sieving showed that 86.5±5.7% of the FF was smaller than 11.2mm and the fraction resembled soil. The total solids (TS) content was 46-82%, being lower in the bottom layers compared to the middle layers. The organic matter content (measured as volatile solids, VS) and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of FF were lower in the old landfill (VS/TS 12.8±7.1% and BMP 5.8±3.4 m(3)CH4/t TS) than in the new landfill (VS/TS 21.3±4.3% and BMP 14.4±9.9 m(3)CH4/t TS), and both were lower compared with fresh MSW. In the Kuopio landfill materials were also mechanically sieved in the full scale plant in two size fraction <30 mm (VS/TS 31.1% and 32.9 m(3)CH4/t TS) and 30-70 mm (VS/TS 50.8% and BMP 78.5m(3)CH4/t TS). The nitrogen (3.5±2.0 g/kg TS), phosphorus (<1.0-1.5 g/kg TS) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) (2.77±1.77 kg/t TS) contents were low in all samples. Since FF is major fraction of the content of landfill, the characterization of FF is important to find possible methods for using or disposing FF mined from landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of Impervious Covers and Carbon Adsorption for the Control of Leachate Production in Municipal Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    was pulverized by hand using a mortar and pestle . No care was taken to determine the size of the pulverized carbon particles. Pulverized carbon used...carbon. In performing the first equilibrium test, the carbon was pulverized usir,, mortar and pestle and no care was taken to sieve it prior to use. In...Engineer, Military Regions I and II, Republic of South Vietnam , August 1971 to June 1972, with consulting responsibilities to U.S. Army and Republic of

  5. Utilization of sepiolite materials as a bottom liner material in solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yucel; Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Tanyu, Burak F; Koparal, Savas

    2014-01-01

    Landfill bottom liners are generally constructed with natural clay soils due to their high strength and low hydraulic conductivity characteristics. However, in recent years it is increasingly difficult to find locally available clay soils that satisfy the required engineering properties. Fine grained soils such as sepiolite and zeolite may be used as alternative materials in the constructions of landfill bottom liners. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using natural clay rich in kaolinite, sepiolite, zeolite, and their mixtures as a bottom liner material. Unconfined compression tests, swell tests, hydraulic conductivity tests, batch and column adsorption tests were performed on each type of soil and sepiolite-zeolite mixtures. The results of the current study indicate that sepiolite is the dominant material that affects both the geomechanical and geoenvironmental properties of these alternative liners. An increase in sepiolite content in the sepiolite-zeolite mixtures increased the strength, swelling potential and metal adsorption capacities of the soil mixtures. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreased significantly with the addition of sepiolite. The utilization of sepiolite-zeolite materials as a bottom liner material allowed for thinner liners with some reduction in construction costs compared to use of a kaolinite-rich clay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Methodology for assessing thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianye; Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic leaching and speciation in landfills, especially those with arsenic bearing waste and drywall disposal (such as construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills), may be affected by high levels of sulfide through the formation of thioarsenic anions. A methodology using ion chromatography (IC) with a conductivity detector was developed for the assessment of thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments. Monothioarsenate (H2AsSO3(-)) and dithioarsenate (H2AsS2O2(-)) were confirmed in the IC fractions of thioarsenate synthesis mixture, consistent with previous literature results. However, the observation of AsSx(-) (x=5-8) in the supposed trithioarsenate (H2AsS3O(-)) and tetrathioarsenate (H2AsS4(-)) IC fractions suggested the presence of new arsenic polysulfide complexes. All thioarsenate anions, particularly trithioarsenate and tetrathioarsenate, were unstable upon air exposure. The method developed for thioarsenate analysis was validated and successfully used to analyze several landfill leachate samples. Thioarsenate anions were detected in the leachate of all of the C&D debris landfills tested, which accounted for approximately 8.5% of the total aqueous As in the leachate. Compared to arsenite or arsenate, thioarsenates have been reported in literature to have lower adsorption on iron oxide minerals. The presence of thioarsenates in C&D debris landfill leachate poses new concerns when evaluating the impact of arsenic mobilization in such environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seismic analysis for translational failure of landfills with retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Li-Ya

    2010-11-01

    In the seismic impact zone, seismic force can be a major triggering mechanism for translational failures of landfills. The scope of this paper is to develop a three-part wedge method for seismic analysis of translational failures of landfills with retaining walls. The approximate solution of the factor of safety can be calculated. Unlike previous conventional limit equilibrium methods, the new method is capable of revealing the effects of both the solid waste shear strength and the retaining wall on the translational failures of landfills during earthquake. Parameter studies of the developed method show that the factor of safety decreases with the increase of the seismic coefficient, while it increases quickly with the increase of the minimum friction angle beneath waste mass for various horizontal seismic coefficients. Increasing the minimum friction angle beneath the waste mass appears to be more effective than any other parameters for increasing the factor of safety under the considered condition. Thus, selecting liner materials with higher friction angle will considerably reduce the potential for translational failures of landfills during earthquake. The factor of safety gradually increases with the increase of the height of retaining wall for various horizontal seismic coefficients. A higher retaining wall is beneficial to the seismic stability of the landfill. Simply ignoring the retaining wall will lead to serious underestimation of the factor of safety. Besides, the approximate solution of the yield acceleration coefficient of the landfill is also presented based on the calculated method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating fugacity models for trace components in landfill gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Sophie; Sweetman, Andrew; Hough, Rupert L; Smith, Richard; Rosevear, Alan; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    A fugacity approach was evaluated to reconcile loadings of vinyl chloride (chloroethene), benzene, 1,3-butadiene and trichloroethylene in waste with concentrations observed in landfill gas monitoring studies. An evaluative environment derived from fictitious but realistic properties such as volume, composition, and temperature, constructed with data from the Brogborough landfill (UK) test cells was used to test a fugacity approach to generating the source term for use in landfill gas risk assessment models (e.g. GasSim). SOILVE, a dynamic Level II model adapted here for landfills, showed greatest utility for benzene and 1,3-butadiene, modelled under anaerobic conditions over a 10 year simulation. Modelled concentrations of these components (95,300 microg m(-3); 43 microg m(-3)) fell within measured ranges observed in gas from landfills (24,300-180,000 microg m(-3); 20-70 microg m(-3)). This study highlights the need (i) for representative and time-referenced biotransformation data; (ii) to evaluate the partitioning characteristics of organic matter within waste systems and (iii) for a better understanding of the role that gas extraction rate (flux) plays in producing trace component concentrations in landfill gas.

  9. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul; Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure

  10. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul [WorleyParsons Komex, Bristol (United Kingdom); Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul [UKAEA, Dounreay (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure.

  11. Ecolotree{sup {trademark}} cap at the Barje Landfill, Ljubljana, Slovenia, prototype demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, L.; Schnoor, J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer uses strategically planted Populus spp. (poplar) trees and forbs to prevent water pollution while growing fiber for biomass fuels, paper pulps, and construction materials. The concept, developed at the University of Iowa, uses root systems that act as a pump to predictable depths greater than 1.5 m (5 ft). The plant uptakes water, nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.), and adsorbable organics (such as herbicides) from soil. When the plant survival, growth rate, rooted soil depth, and water uptake are predictable, the site`s hydrology can be managed, and regulatory agencies are more willing to issue operating permits that include this vegetated barrier. Poplars transpire 600 to 1000 kilograms of water for every kilogram of stem dry matter (DM) growth. Measured poplar growth rates for 4-year old trees was 16,600 kg DM/hectare/yr. Conservatively, the water uptake calculated using the 600:1 water/stem growth ratio is 10,000,000 liters/hectare/yr. When transpiration exceeds rainfall, plants remove stored water from rooted soils. This dehydrating action effectively gives the soil a water storage capacity during winter dormancy. This Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer technology develops the ability to greatly reduce water leakage without the need for membrane or clay layers in landfill cover soils. This concept is now being used to manage water at American and Slovenian landfills. In contrast with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved clay or geomembrane covers designed with slight regard for plant growth, this cover focuses on reestablishing a vigorous ecosystem. While accomplishing the primary goal of protecting groundwater purity, the Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer grows a productive cover that stabilizes soil slopes, produces marketable crops, develops wildlife habitat, and provides a more pleasing ambiance.

  12. The application of a multi-parameter analysis in choosing the location of a new solid waste landfill in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Igor; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a process of evaluation and selection of the most favourable location for a sanitary landfill facility from three alternative locations, by applying a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method. An incorrect choice of location for a landfill facility can have a significant negative economic and environmental impact, such as the pollution of air, ground and surface waters. The aim of this article is to present several improvements in the practical process of landfill site selection using the VIKOR MCDM compromise ranking method integrated with a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach for determining the evaluation criteria weighing coefficients. The VIKOR method focuses on ranking and selecting from a set of alternatives in the presence of conflicting and non-commensurable (different units) criteria, and on proposing a compromise solution that is closest to the ideal solution. The work shows that valuable site ranking lists can be obtained using the VIKOR method, which is a suitable choice when there is a large number of relevant input parameters.

  13. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  15. A model for prioritizing landfills for remediation and closure: A case study in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubavin, Dejan; Agarski, Boris; Maodus, Nikola; Stanisavljevic, Nemanja; Budak, Igor

    2018-01-01

    The existence of large numbers of landfills that do not fulfill sanitary prerequisites presents a serious hazard for the environment in lower income countries. One of the main hazards is landfill leachate that contains various pollutants and presents a threat to groundwater. Groundwater pollution from landfills depends on various mutually interconnected factors such as the waste type and amount, the amount of precipitation, the landfill location characteristics, and operational measures, among others. Considering these factors, lower income countries face a selection problem where landfills urgently requiring remediation and closure must be identified from among a large number of sites. The present paper proposes a model for prioritizing landfills for closure and remediation based on multicriteria decision making, in which the hazards of landfill groundwater pollution are evaluated. The parameters for the prioritization of landfills are the amount of waste disposed, the amount of precipitation, the vulnerability index, and the rate of increase of the amount of waste in the landfill. Verification was performed using a case study in Serbia where all municipal landfills were included and 128 landfills were selected for prioritization. The results of the evaluation of Serbian landfills, prioritizing sites for closure and remediation, are presented for the first time. Critical landfills are identified, and prioritization ranks for the selected landfills are provided. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:105-119. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Cover array string reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Crochemore, Maxime; S. Iliopoulos, Costas; P. Pissis, Solon; Tischler, German

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A proper factor u of a string y is a cover of y if every letter of y is within some occurrence of u in y. The concept generalises the notion of periods of a string. An integer array C is the minimal-cover (resp. maximal-cover) array of y if C[i] is the minimal (resp. maximal) length of covers of y[0.. i], or zero if no cover exists. In this paper, we present a constructive algorithm checking the validity of an array as a minimal-cover or maximal-cover array of some str...

  17. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Pine-derived Biochar as Option for Adsorption of Сu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni and Decreasing of BOD5 in Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriia Chemerys

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is a highly toxic and hazardous form of wastewater due to its complex composition characteristics, e.g. ammonia, metals, organic compounds. Landfill leachate treatment technologies, such as flotation, coagulation/flocculation, precipitation, oxidation, micro-, ultra-, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, are too expensive, because they require frequent regeneration of the media or generate secondary brine wastes that may pose a disposal problem. In the present study removal of Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu from Kazokiškės landfill leachate was studied. Kazokiškės landfill is the main site for disposal of Vilnius region municipal wastes. Operator of the landfill is interested in the alternative ways for the primary treatment of the landfill leachate for reducing the load on the expensive reverse osmosis. One of the proposed options for the primary landfill leachate treatment was adsorption by biochar. Due to the high specific surface area, well-developed porous structure and surface functionality biochar has been used as low-cost adsorbent for adsorption of PTEs from aqueous solutions. Biochar was produced from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. trunk wood (after debarking by pyrolysis at the highest heating temperature of 700 °C for 45 min in the low-oxygen environment. Laboratory analysis showed that PTEs, such as Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu, were present in the landfill leachate before water treatment plant. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate PTEs (Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu removal efficiency by adsorption by pine-derived biochar. Factors, affecting adsorption efficiency, such as biochar particle size (1, 2.5, 4, 5 mm and dosage of the biochar (1.01, 3.5, 6.05, 9.45, 13.25, 17.82 g/100 ml of leachate were studied. Effects of the biochar on pH of the landfill leachate, BOD5, PTEs adsorption were analyzed. The findings showed that optimal parameters for decreasing of BOD5 and retention of Cr and Pb were particle size 1 mm and dosage 6.05 g/100 ml

  19. A practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wu; Xu, Wenjie; Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin

    2017-11-01

    The settlement of any position of the municipal solid waste (MSW) body during the landfilling process and after its closure has effects on the integrity of the internal structure and storage capacity of the landfill. This paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process. The MSW body in the landfill was divided into independent column units, and the filling process of each column unit was determined by a simplified complete landfilling process. The settlement of a position in the landfill was calculated with the compression of each MSW layer in every column unit. Then, the simultaneous settlement of all the column units was integrated to obtain the settlement of the landfill and storage capacity of all the column units; this allowed to obtain the storage capacity of the landfill based on the layer-wise summation method. When the compression of each MSW layer was calculated, the effects of the fluctuation of the main leachate level and variation in the unit weight of the MSW on the overburdened effective stress were taken into consideration by introducing the main leachate level's proportion and the unit weight and buried depth curve. This approach is especially significant for MSW with a high kitchen waste content and landfills in developing countries. The stress-biodegradation compression model was used to calculate the compression of each MSW layer. A software program, Settlement and Storage Capacity Calculation System for Landfills, was developed by integrating the space and time discretization of the landfilling process and the settlement and storage capacity algorithms. The landfilling process of the phase IV of Shanghai Laogang Landfill was simulated using this software. The maximum geometric volume of the landfill error between the calculated and measured values is only 2.02%, and the accumulated filling weight error between the

  20. Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2013-06-01

    A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals.

  1. Radiological consequences of proposed landfilling of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, P.

    1991-01-01

    A proposal for landfilling of low-level radioactive waste (100 GBq in 10 000 m 3 ) at Ringhals Nuclear Power Plants was sent to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SRPI) in 1989. In 1990, slight changes were made to the proposal to overcome the conventional risks of landfilling. In the proposed method, most of the low-level wastes is compacted and put into sealed plastic packages. The waste is then placed on a sand-moraine bed above a level-blasted rock surface. The area above and between the waste packages is filled with a sand-seashell mixture for pH adjustment of any waster infiltrating into the site. The whole deposit is covered with a least 50 cm of moraine in order to attenuate most of the radiation form the waste and to prevent rainwater from reaching the waste. Downstream from the deposit, there is a retention bed made of seashells and seaweed. Any small quantities of water from the deposit passing through the retention bed, as well as rainwater, will continue out to the sea. Use of this method will most probably not lead to an increase in the radiation dose to people outside the site. In the rather improbable case of intrusion into the deposit after 50 years, a maximum dose of 10 μSv per year would be received. If all the radioactivity were to be transported to the sea in one year, as a results of the breakdown of all the barrier, an individual eating fish caught in the vicinity of the site would receive less than 25 μSv during the following year. In the worst case, if the waste ignites prior to, or during landfilling, individuals living at a distance of 1 km from the fire could receive a dose of less than 20 μSv. (au)

  2. The Importance of Landfill Gas Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and examine global policies, measures, and incentives that appear to be stimulating LFG use. As certain countries have made great advances in LFGE development through effective policies, the intention of this report is to use information from the IEA's Global Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Measures and Policies Databases to identify and discuss policies. By consolidating this information and categorising it according to policy type, the attributes that are most appealing or applicable to the circumstances of a particular country or area -- technology demonstration, financial incentives, awareness campaigns, etc. -- are more easily identified. The report begins with background information on LFG and sanitary landfill practices, including a discussion of regional disparities, followed by a description of LFG mitigation technologies. Barriers to LFGE projects are then outlined. An explanation of the importance and effectiveness of policy measures leads into a discussion of types and examples of measures that are being used to overcome these barriers and encourage LFGE development. The report concludes with lessons learned, recommendations for further study, and resources where more information can be found.

  3. Case study: adams mine landfill proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, L.

    2003-01-01

    I have been asked to comment on 'how to address social concerns' in my capacity as the project manager for the City of Toronto's Toronto Integrated Solid Waste Resource Management (TIRM) Process, which was initiated in 1997 and concluded in the Fall of 2000. Inherent in this request is the goal of learning from a non-nuclear procurement process in order to offer insights for those working in the field on the short- and long-term management of nuclear waste. In particular, I have been asked to comment on the learning experience from the proposed engagement of the Adams Mine Landfill that became the focus of an intense four-day debate before Toronto's City Council and was propelled into international news linked to Toronto's Olympic bid. I would like to extend my thanks to Natural Resources Canada for their support of my participation in the NEA Conference. The opinions in this paper are those of the author and not those of the City of Toronto. (author)

  4. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  5. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment

  6. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  7. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Hwayang-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Namhoon, E-mail: nhlee@anyang.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane.

  8. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Namhoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane

  9. CONJUGATE TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM LANDFILL AND SEWAGE IN DOMESTIC STABILIZATION PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the per capita generation of municipal solid waste is approximately 0.80 kg hab-1 day-1, which implies daily production of 156 tons, whereas on average 50% of this quantity of waste is composed mainly of putrescible organic material that will contribute to the leachate generation process directly influencing the qualitative and quantitative aspects. Landfill leachate basically originates from the percolation process of different types of water and is considered a wastewater to cause in significant environmental impact on the environment, given in possession of high concentration of ammonia nitrogen, organic matter difficult to biodegradation, metals heavy and xenobiotics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a series of stabilization ponds, the treatment process conjugate of landfill leachate fresh more domestic sewage in the proportion of 1 plus 99% (volume percent, respectively. The experimental system consisted of four stabilization ponds in series, being a facultative pond, followed by three maturation ponds. . The applied surface charge (λs the series of stabilization ponds was 320 kg DBO5 ha-1 day-1 with hydraulic retention time (HRT of 17 days for the series. The average removal efficiency of BOD5 and ammonia was 69 and 86% respectively, while removing coliform efficiency always in the 99.9% threshold during the monitoring period was 220 days. Overall it can be concluded that treatment conjugate landfill leachate and sewage in stabilization ponds, in northeastern Brazil, is emerging as a promising technological alternative, given the comfortable area availability in northeastern Brazil, conditions climate favorable and the ponds system present low ratio cost / benefit when compared to other waste treatment systems of this nature.

  10. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management.

  11. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described

  12. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  14. An attempt to perform water balance in a Brazilian municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São Mateus, Maria do Socorro Costa; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Barbosa, Maria Cláudia

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents an attempt to model the water balance in the metropolitan center landfill (MCL) in Salvador, Brazil. Aspects such as the municipal solid waste (MSW) initial water content, mass loss due to decomposition, MSW liquid expelling due to compression and those related to weather conditions, such as the amount of rainfall and evaporation are considered. Superficial flow and infiltration were modeled considering the waste and the hydraulic characteristics (permeability and soil-water retention curves) of the cover layer and simplified uni-dimensional empirical models. In order to validate the modeling procedure, data from one cell at the landfill were used. Monthly waste entry, volume of collected leachate and leachate level inside the cell were monitored. Water balance equations and the compressibility of the MSW were used to calculate the amount of leachate stored in the cell and the corresponding leachate level. Measured and calculated values of the leachate level inside the cell were similar and the model was able to capture the main trends of the water balance behavior during the cell operational period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of thermal properties of municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faitli, József; Magyar, Tamás; Erdélyi, Attila; Murányi, Attila

    2015-02-01

    Municipal waste landfills represent not only a source of landfill gases, but a source of thermal energy as well. The heat in landfills is generated by physical, chemical and microbiological processes. The goal of our study was to characterize the thermal properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples of the given landfill. A new apparatus was designed and constructed to measure heat flow. A systematic test series of 17 discrete measurements was carried out with municipal waste samples of 1.0-1.7 m(3). The thermal conductivity, heat diffusivity and specific heat capacity of the samples were determined. Analysing the results of the sampling and our experiments it was realized that the theoretical fundaments should be clarified. Two theories were developed for the serial and for the parallel heat flow in three phase disperse systems. The serial and parallel models resulted in different theoretical estimations. The measured thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity were better characterized by the parallel heat flow estimations. The results show that heat can flow parallel in solid, liquid and gas phases. Characterization of thermal properties serves to establish the fundament of heat extraction from municipal waste landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product in differ......This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... (PVC), copper and chloride). Since waste products from different processes in the product system may be disposed at different landfills where they are mixed with waste originating outside the product system, the estimated emissions from specific waste products cannot be compared with measured emissions...... from true landfills. Hence, the computer tool is verified in terms of mass balances and sensitivity analyses. The mass balances agree exactly and the sensitivity analyses show that different types of waste product components behave differently in different types of landfills. Emission of e.g. toluene...

  17. Waste disposal mapping with electrical resistivity tomography case: Leuwigajah landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanti, Erisha; Ardi, Ahmad Puji; Almunziri, Muaz; Xanggam, Zael Yahd; Eleazar, Adino; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Leuwigajah landfill as administrative is located between district of Bandung and Cimahi citythat has an environmental and social problem that caused aquifer contamination due to the big amount of waste from Bandung city, Cimahi and Bandung regency. It is occupied in abandoned andesite mine site with an area of about 25 hectare. The aim of this research is to map the geology structure and to study the leachate towards aquifer layer below Leuwigajah landfill. Here, we present the study of Leuwigajah landfill subsurface using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). ERT is one of the most promising prospecting techniques mainly concerning its effective contribution to resolve several environmental problems, was applied for the geophysical modeling. ERT is a robust imaging method the theory and implementation of which are well documented in geophysical research literature. The geological setting comprises clayed weathered layer, fractured andesitic dike. Due to the above-mentioned geological singularity and in the light of the requirement for an environmentally safe construction of the landfill, an ERT survey was carried out with dipole-dipole array, 78 m of acquisition line and 6 m of electrode spacing. The model consists of 4 layers below the Leuwigajah landfill and andesitic fracture until depth of 18.7 m below the surface.

  18. Methane production, recovery and emission from two Danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan

    and Zn and utilized by methanogens to convert CO2 into CH4. The addition of Al and Zn to the incubated SW resulted in higher CH4 production. Relatively high CH4 production from SW at landfills and the unusual gas composition (high CH4 and low CO2 content) are most likely due to methanogens converting......Landfill gas (LFG), mainly consisting of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), is produced by the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste deposited in landfills. CH4 is a greenhouse gas with global warming potential 28 times that of CO2 over a period of 100 years. The produced CH4 in landfills...... can be recovered and utilized for the production of electricity and/or heat. Higher recovery of CH4 could result in lower CH4 emissions into the atmosphere, and thus lower the contribution of landfills to climate change. Moreover, higher CH4 recovery can result in higher production of heat...

  19. Endogenous mitigation of H2S inside of the landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Zhong, Zhong; Shen, Dongsheng; Du, Yao; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang

    2016-02-01

    Vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from landfill sites require urgent disposal. The current study focused on source control and examined the migration and conversion behavior of sulfur compounds in two lab-scale simulated landfills with different operation modes. It aimed to explore the possible strategies and mechanisms for H2S endogenous mitigation inside of landfills during decomposition. It was found that the strength of H2S emissions from the landfill sites was dependent on the municipal solid waste (MSW) degradation speed and vertical distribution of sulfide. Leachate recirculation can shorten both the H2S influence period and pollution risk to the surrounding environment. H2S endogenous mitigation may be achieved by chemical oxidation, biological oxidation, adsorption, and/or precipitation in different stages. Migration and conversion mainly affected H2S release behavior during the initial stabilization phase in the landfill. Microbial activities related to sulfur, nitrogen, and iron can further promote H2S endogenous mitigation during the high reducing phase. Thus, H2S endogenous mitigation can be effectively enhanced via control of the aforementioned processes.

  20. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...

  1. Proposing an alternative linear a successful example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortman, D.

    1994-01-01

    The mandated Sub-Title D landfill liner design which meets the basic Sub-Title D performance requirement (no exceedance of groundwater quality standards at the landfill boundary in 30 years) specifies construction of a two foot thick clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity no greater than 10 -7 cm/sec and a 60 mil HDPE membrane. This mandated design is easily accepted by the regulatory community but very difficult and expensive to properly construct. Fundamental problems arise constructing a clay linear that meets the 10 -7 cm/sec hydraulic conductivity requirement and, in cold climates, protecting the clay but their use requires obtaining special approval for an open-quotes alternative linearclose quotes from the appropriate regulatory agency. This paper presents a simple example of an open-quotes alternative linerclose quotes proposal that has been accepted by the Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences for a new landfill. The arguments presented for the use of a GCL combine site-specific parameters with easily understood calculations to demonstrate compliance with the basic Sub-Title D performance requirement. 8 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Greenhouse gas accounting of the proposed landfill extension and advanced incineration facility for municipal solid waste management in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, K S; Lo, Irene M C

    2013-08-01

    The burgeoning of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal issue and climate change have drawn massive attention from people. On the one hand, Hong Kong is facing a controversial debate over the implementation of proposed landfill extension (LFE) and advanced incineration facility (AIF) to curb the MSW disposal issue. On the other hand, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is taking concerted efforts to reduce the carbon intensity in this region. This paper discusses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from four proposed waste disposal scenarios, covering the proposed LFE and AIF within a defined system boundary. On the basis of the data collected, assumptions made, and system boundary defined in this study, the results indicate that AIF releases less GHG emissions than LFE. The GHG emissions from LFE are highly contributed by the landfill methane (CH4) emissions but offset by biogenic carbon storage, while the GHG emissions from AIF are mostly due to the stack discharge system but offset by the energy recovery system. Furthermore, parametric sensitivity analyses show that GHG emissions are strongly dependent on the landfill CH4 recovery rate, types of electricity displaced by energy recovery systems, and the heating value of MSW, altering the order of preferred waste disposal scenarios. This evaluation provides valuable insights into the applicability of a policy framework for MSW management practices in reducing GHG emissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author) [de

  4. 77 FR 8253 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill... Landfill Superfund Site, Sterling, Loudoun County, Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on the...

  5. Application of Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology for Characterization of Leachate Generation in Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    aharoni, imri; dahan, ofer

    2016-04-01

    Ground water contamination due to landfill leachate percolation is considered the most severe environmental threat related to municipal solid waste landfills. Natural waste degradation processes in landfills normally produce contaminated leachates up to decades after the waste has been buried. Studies have shown that understanding the mechanisms which govern attenuation processes and the fate of pollutants in the waste and in the underlying unsaturated zone is crucial for evaluation of environmental risks and selection of a restoration strategy. This work focuses on a closed landfill in the coastal plain of Israel that was active until 2002 without any lining infrastructure. A vadose zone monitoring system (VMS) that was implemented at the site enables continuous measurements across the waste body (15 m thick) and underlying sandy vadose zone (16 m thick). Data collected by the VMS included continuous measurements of water content as well as chemical composition of the leachates across the entire waste and vadose zone cross section. Results indicated that winter rain percolated through the waste, generating wetting waves which were observed across the waste and unsaturated sediment from land surface until groundwater at 31 m bls. Quick percolation and high fluxes were observed in spite of the clay cover that was implemented at the site as part of the rehabilitation scheme. The results show that the flow pattern is controlled by a preferential mechanism within the waste body. Specific sections showed rapid fluxes in response to rain events, while other sections remained unaffected. In the underlying sandy vadose zone the flow pattern exhibited characteristics of matrix flow. Yet, some sections received higher fluxes due to the uneven discharge of leachates from the overlying waste body. Water samples collected from the waste layer indicate production of highly polluted leachates over 14 years after the landfill was closed. The chemical composition within the waste

  6. Treatment of landfill leachate using ASBR combined with zeolite adsorption technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Chi Kim; Seow, Ta Wee; Neoh, Chin Hong; Md Nor, Muhamad Hanif; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Ware, Ismail; Mat Sarip, Siti Hajar

    2016-01-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the most common way to dispose solid urban waste; however, improper landfill management may pose serious environmental threats through discharge of high strength polluted wastewater also known as leachate. The treatment of landfill leachate to fully reduce the negative impact on the environment, is nowadays a challenge. In this study, an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was proposed for the treatment of locally obtained real landfill leachate with initial ammoni...

  7. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials...... to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed....

  8. Toxicological assessment of closed municipal solid-waste landfill impact to the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jūratė Žaltauskaitė; Iveta Vaitonyte

    2017-01-01

    The large number of municipal solid waste landfills in Lithuania poses a serious environmental threat to the quality of soil, surface and ground water. The physicochemical characteristics and toxicity of closed Panevėžys municipal solid-waste landfill leachate and its impact to soil and surface water were assessed. Landfill leachate is complex mixture of various inorganic and organic compounds. The toxicity of municipal solid waste landfill leachate and surface water was evaluated using bioas...

  9. OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF LANDFILL DISPOSAL SITE: A FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Singh, A. K. Vidyarthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The arbitrary disposal through land-fill sites and also the unscientific management of solid wastes generated by domestic, commercial and industrial activities leading to serious problems of health, sanitation and environmental degradation in India demand an immediate proper solid waste disposal planning otherwise it may cause a serious problem, especially in small and medium-sized cities/towns if proper steps are not initiated now. The present paper aims to develop decision support systems to allocate the best landfill disposal site among the given alternative sites for Vidya Vihar, Pilani, Rajasthan, India. The technique is applied to determine the overall strategy for planning of solid waste disposal and management, while taking into account its environmental impact, as well as economical, technical and sustainable development issues. The model effectively reflects dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the solid waste management system and provides decision-makers with a decision tool to make a better decision while choosing a municipal solid waste management strategy.

  10. Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection in the Sense of Environment Sensitive Sustainable Urbanization: Izmir, Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    TÜdeş, Şule; Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz

    2017-10-01

    Each stage of the planning process should be based on the natural resource protection, in the sense of environmental sensitive and sustainable urban planning. Values, which are vital for the continuity of the life in the Earth, as soil, water, forest etc. should be protected from the undesired effects of the pollution and the other effects caused by the high urbanization levels. In this context, GIS-MCDM based solid waste landfill site selection is applied for Izmir, Turkey, where is a significant attraction place for tourism. As Multi criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used. In this study, geological, tectonically and hydrological data, as well as agricultural land use, slope, distance to the settlement areas and the highways are used as inputs for AHP analysis. In the analysis stage, those inputs are rated and weighted. The weighted criteria are evaluated via GIS, by using weighted overlay tool. Therefore, an upper-scale analysis is conducted and a map, which shows the alternative places for the solid waste landfill sites, considering the environmental protection and evaluated in the context of environmental and urban criteria, are obtained.

  11. Cultivating Composting Culture Activities among Citizens and Its Beneficial to Prolong the Landfill Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azura Zakarya, Irnis; Azri Jamial, Khairul; Mat Tanda, Norazlinda

    2018-03-01

    Currently, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government manage solid waste in Malaysia, with the participation of the private sector. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Material valorisation of food waste usually conducted by biological processes such as composting. Compost, an organic amendment, is the final product of the composting process. These processes are efficient, low cost and environmentally friendly alternative for managing food waste and are used extensively worldwide. Therefore, organic solid waste management practices program for the communities in Perlis was conducted. The main objective of this program was to instilling environment awareness especially among Perlis citizens. This study was investigated the impact of food waste or kitchen waste composting to the citizens in Perlis State and the beneficial of compost fertilizer to our environment especially in plant growth. Composting method was taught to the food premises owner, individuals, teachers, and students and their responses to the composting practices were then summarized. In future, we can prolong our landfill lifespan by practicing organic waste composting and can preserving our environment.

  12. Landfill biogas for heating greenhouses and providing carbon dioxide supplement for plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffrin, A. [INRA-Unite d' Amelioration des Plantes, Frejus, At Aygulf, 83 (France); Bentounes, N. [PICC Sarl, Rognac, 13 (France); Joan, A.M. [J and J Prod. Sarl, Entrecasteaux, 83 (France); Makhlouf, S. [Univ. Tizi Ouzou, Dept.of Mechanical Engineering, Tizi Ouzou (Algeria)

    2003-09-01

    Present municipal solid waste landfills generate biogas and leachate. Biogas is flared on site to destroy noxious contaminants and water is extracted from leachate to be drained away. However, biogas could alternatively be a cheap fuel for winter heating and could provide horticultural greenhouses with abundant carbon dioxide to boost plant growth all year long. The paper describes how this idea was tested in a full-scale experiment through a partnership between French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) and a pool of private industries. A commercial boiler was converted to biogas and combustion exhaust gases rich in carbon dioxide were purified to remove phytotoxic residues. A CO{sub 2} supplementation technique using these purified exhaust gases was tested. Two soilless rose crops were grown under two identical 300 m2 plastic greenhouses, one equipped with exhaust gas injection and the other one, kept under normal atmosphere, being the control. Crop yields and cut rose quality were compared during 24 months. It was found that the high crop productivity gains allowed by exhaust gas injection bring the major contribution to greenhouse economics, much more important than the reduction of heating costs brought by burning biogas. This underlines the potential for new efficient horticultural greenhouses locating near modern landfill sites in France and elsewhere in developed countries. (Author)

  13. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  14. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A. J.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a continuous assessment of the impact of solid urban waste (SUW) landfills in the central Iberian Peninsula that were sealed with a layer of soil 20 years ago. cover soils and soils from discharge areas have been periodically analysed. Soil concentrations of salts and heavy metals affect the biotic components of these ecosystems. (Author)

  15. Geotechnical behavior of the MSW in Tianziling landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-Rong; Jin, Jian-Min; Fang, Peng-Fei

    2003-01-01

    The valley shaped Tianziling landfill of Hangzhou in China built in 1991 to dispose of municipal solid waste (MSW) was designed for a service life of 13 years. The problem of waste landfill slope stability and expansion must be considered from the geotechnical engineering point of view, for which purpose, it is necessary to understand the geotechnical properties of the MSW in the landfill, some of whose physical properties were measured by common geotechnical tests, such as those on unit weight, water content, organic matter content, specific gravity, coefficient of permeability, compressibility, etc. The mechanical properties were studied by direct shear test, triaxial compression test, and static and dynamic penetration tests. Some strength parameters for engineering analysis were obtained.

  16. An overview of the mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prior to May 1992, field demonstrations of characterization technologies were performed at an uncontaminated site near the Chemical Waste Landfill. In mid-1992 through summer 1993, both non-intrusive and intrusive characterization techniques were demonstrated at the Chemical Waste Landfill. Subsurface and dry barrier demonstrations were started in summer 1993 and will continue into 1995. Future plans include demonstrations of innovative drilling, characterization and long-term monitoring, and remediation techniques. Demonstrations were also scheduled in summer 1993 at the Kirtland Air Force HSWA site and will continue in 1994. The first phase of the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) project occurred in April 1992 when two holes were drilled and vapor extraction wells were installed at the Chemical Waste Landfill. Obtaining the engineering design and environmental permits necessary to implement this field demonstration will take until early 1994. Field demonstration of the vapor extraction system will occur in 1994

  17. Energy from Landfill Gas as an Example of Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuła, Józef; Gaska, Krzysztof; Generowicz, Agnieszka; Hajduga, Gabriela

    2018-02-01

    Landfill biogas becomes an important factor in elimination of fossil fuels as a result of fast- growing use of renewable energy sources. The article presents an analysis of operation of the plant where landfill biogas was utilized for energy production. The average annually (gross) productions of electric energy and heat at the plant were 1217 MWh and 1,789 MW, respectively. The average calorific value of biogas was 17 MJ/m3, which corresponds to 4,8 kW/m3. According to the measurements and actual readings acquired during operation of a cogeneration unit, it can be stated that the CHP system has been working within its average operation limits and still has some power reserves to utilize. Therefore, the authors concluded that a landfill can be operated both as a producer and a supplier of prosumer energy.

  18. Risk assessment of landfill disposal sites - State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, Talib E.; Lockley, Elaine; Oduyemi, Kehinde O.K.

    2008-01-01

    A risk assessment process can assist in drawing a cost-effective compromise between economic and environmental costs, thereby assuring that the philosophy of 'sustainable development' is adhered to. Nowadays risk analysis is in wide use to effectively manage environmental issues. Risk assessment is also applied to other subjects including health and safety, food, finance, ecology and epidemiology. The literature review of environmental risk assessments in general and risk assessment approaches particularly regarding landfill disposal sites undertaken by the authors, reveals that an integrated risk assessment methodology for landfill gas, leachate or degraded waste does not exist. A range of knowledge gaps is discovered in the literature reviewed to date. From the perspective of landfill leachate, this paper identifies the extent to which various risk analysis aspects are absent in the existing approaches

  19. Partitioning Gas Tracer Technology for Measuring Water in Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briening, M. L.; Jakubowitch, A.; Imhoff, P. T.; Chiu, P. C.; Tittlebaum, M. E.

    2002-12-01

    Unstable landfills can result in significant environmental contamination and can become a risk to public health. To reduce this risk, water may be added to landfills to ensure that enough moisture exists for biodegradation of organic wastes. In this case risks associated with future breaks in the landfill cap are significantly reduced because organic material is degraded more rapidly. To modify moisture conditions and enhance biodegradation, leachate is typically collected from the bottom of the landfill and then recirculated near the top. It is difficult, though, to know how much leachate to add and where to add it to achieve uniform moisture conditions. This situation is exacerbated by the heterogeneous nature of landfill materials, which is known to cause short circuiting of infiltrating water, a process that has been virtually impossible to measure or model. Accurate methods for measuring the amount of water in landfills would be valuable aids for implementing leachate recirculation systems. Current methods for measuring water are inadequate, though, since they provide point measurements and are frequently affected by heterogeneity of the solid waste composition and solid waste compaction. The value of point measurements is significantly reduced in systems where water flows preferentially, such as in landfills. Here, spatially integrated measurements might be of greater value. In this research we are evaluating a promising technology, the partitioning gas tracer test, to measure the water saturation within landfills, the amount of free water in solid waste divided by the volume of the voids. The partitioning gas tracer test was recently developed by researchers working in the vadose zone. In this methodology two gas tracers are injected into a landfill. One tracer is non-reactive with landfill materials, while the second partitions into and out of free water trapped within the pore space of the solid waste. Chromatographic separation of the tracers occurs

  20. Town of Hague landfill reclamation study: Research ways to increase waste heating value and reduce waste volume. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerni, E. [SSB Environmental Inc., Albany, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Monitored composing was studied as a method for reducing the quantity of waste requiring disposed from a landfill reclamation project. After each of two re-screening steps, composted {open_quotes}soil{close_quotes} from a single long windrow of varying depths and moisture content was subjected to analytical testing to determine its suitability to remain as backfill in a reclaimed landfill site. The remaining uncomposted waste was combusted at a waste-to-energy facility to determine if Btu values were improved. Results indicate that a full-scale composting operation could result in a net decrease of approximately 11 percent in disposal costs. The Btu value of the reclaimed waste was calculated