Sample records for alternative landfill cover

  1. Bio-tarp alternative daily cover prototypes for methane oxidation atop open landfill cells. (United States)

    Adams, Bryn L; Besnard, Fabien; Bogner, Jean; Hilger, Helene


    Final landfill covers are highly engineered to prevent methane release into the atmosphere. However, methane production begins soon after waste placement and is an unaddressed source of emissions. The methane oxidation capacity of methanotrophs embedded in a "bio-tarp" was investigated as a means to mitigate methane release from open landfill cells. The bio-tarp would also serve as an alternative daily cover during routine landfill operation. Evaluations of nine synthetic geotextiles identified two that would likely be suitable bio-tarp components. Pilot tarp prototypes were tested in continuous flow systems simulating landfill gas conditions. Multilayered bio-tarp prototypes consisting of alternating layers of the two geotextiles were found to remove 16% of the methane flowing through the bio-tarp. The addition of landfill cover soil, compost, or shale amendments to the bio-tarp increased the methane removal up to 32%. With evidence of methane removal in a laboratory bioreactor, prototypes were evaluated at a local landfill using flux chambers installed atop intermediate cover at a landfill. The multilayered bio-tarp and amended bio-tarp configurations were all found to decrease landfill methane flux; however, the performance efficacy of bio-tarps was not significantly different from controls without methanotrophs. Because highly variable methane fluxes at the field site likely confounded the test results, repeat field testing is recommended under more controlled flux conditions.

  2. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  3. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter


    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  4. Deployment of an alternative cover and final closure of the Mixed Waste Landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); McVey, Michael David (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Borns, David James


    An alternative cover design consisting of a monolithic layer of native soil is proposed as the closure path for the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The proposed design would rely upon soil thickness and evapotranspiration to provide long-term performance and stability, and would be inexpensive to build and maintain. The proposed design is a 3-ft-thick, vegetated soil cover. The alternative cover meets the intent of RCRA Subtitle C regulations in that: (a) water migration through the cover is minimized; (b) maintenance is minimized by using a monolithic soil layer; (c) cover erosion is minimized by using erosion control measures; (d) subsidence is accommodated by using a ''soft'' design; and (e) the permeability of the cover is less than or equal to that of natural subsurface soil present. Performance of the proposed cover is integrated with natural site conditions, producing a ''system performance'' that will ensure that the cover is protective of human health and the environment. Natural site conditions that will produce a system performance include: (a) extremely low precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration; (b) negligible recharge to groundwater; (c) an extensive vadose zone; (d) groundwater approximately 500 ft below the surface; and (e) a versatile, native flora that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance.

  5. 75 FR 6597 - Determination to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill... (United States)


    ... and constructed to: (1) Have a permeability less than or equal to the permeability of any bottom liner system or natural sub-soils present, or a permeability no greater than 1x10 -5 cm/sec, whichever is less... final cover. EPA is basing its determination on a number of factors, including unsaturated soil...

  6. The effect of using a geotextile in a monolithic (evapotranspiration) alternative landfill cover on the resulting water balance. (United States)

    Sun, Jianlei; Yuen, Samuel T S; Fourie, Andy B


    This paper examines the potential effects of a geotextile layer used in a lysimeter pan experiment conducted in a monolithic (evapotranspiration) soil cover trial on its resulting water balance performance. The geotextile was added to the base of the lysimeter to serve as a plant root barrier in order to delineate the root zone depth. Both laboratory data and numerical modelling results indicated that the geotextile creates a capillary barrier under certain conditions and retains more water in the soil above the soil/geotextile interface than occurs without a geotextile. The numerical modelling results also suggested that the water balance of the soil cover could be affected by an increase in plant transpiration taking up this extra water retained above the soil/geotextile interface. This finding has a practical implication on the full-scale monolithic cover design, as the absence of the geotextile in the full-scale cover may affect the associated water balance and hence cover performance. Proper consideration is therefore required to assess the final monolithic cover water balance performance if its design is based on the lysimeter results.

  7. Performance of geotextiles in landfills covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, L.J.; Holtz, R.D.


    As part of the research into the performance of geotextiles in landfill covers, 14 test pits were excavated in five landfill covers constructed between 1988 and 1992 in Washington State. Materials used in the drainage system were examined and documented. Specimens of geotextiles (all 8 oz/yd{sup 2}, needle punched nonwovens) as well as samples of the vegetative and sand drainage soils, were obtained for laboratory analyses. Laboratory tests indicated that the geotextiles satisfactorily performed their intended filtration function. No apparent migration of fines into the drainage layer was detected. The degree of clogging was evaluated by performing permittivity tests on specimens of the exhumed geotextiles, as retrieved and after washing. Washing typically resulted in permittivity increases on the order of 30 to 90 percent.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  9. Evaluation of simultaneous biodegradation of methane and toluene in landfill covers. (United States)

    Su, Yao; Zhang, Xuan; Wei, Xiao-Meng; Kong, Jiao-Yan; Xia, Fang-Fang; Li, Wei; He, Ruo


    The biodegradation of CH4 and toluene in landfill cover soil (LCS) and waste biocover soil (WBS) was investigated with a serial toluene concentration in the headspace of landfill cover microcosms in this study. Compared with the LCS sample, the higher CH4 oxidation activity and toluene-degrading capacity occurred in the WBS sample. The co-existence of toluene in landfill gas would positively or negatively affect CH4 oxidation, mainly depending on the toluene concentrations and exposure time. The nearly complete inhibition of toluene on CH4 oxidation was observed in the WBS sample at the toluene concentration of ∼ 80,000 mg m(-3), which was about 10 times higher than that in the LCS sample. The toluene degradation rates in both landfill covers fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten model. These findings showed that WBS was a good alternative landfill cover material to simultaneously mitigate emissions of CH4 and toluene from landfills to the atmosphere.

  10. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, G.W.; Ho, A.; Kim, P.J.; Kim, Sang Yun


    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to mit

  11. Characterization of H2S removal and microbial community in landfill cover soils. (United States)

    Xia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Wei, Xiao-Meng; Su, Yao; He, Ruo


    H2S is a source of odors at landfills and poses a threat to the surrounding environment and public health. In this work, compared with a usual landfill cover soil (LCS), H2S removal and biotransformation were characterized in waste biocover soil (WBS), an alternative landfill cover material. With the input of landfill gas (LFG), the gas concentrations of CH4, CO2, O2, and H2S, microbial community and activity in landfill covers changed with time. Compared with LCS, lower CH4 and H2S concentrations were detected in the WBS. The potential sulfur-oxidizing rate and sulfate-reducing rate as well as the contents of acid-volatile sulfide, SO4(2-), and total sulfur in the WBS and LCS were all increased with the input of LFG. After exposure to LFG for 35 days, the sulfur-oxidizing rate of the bottom layer of the WBS reached 82.5 μmol g dry weight (d.w.)(-1) day(-1), which was 4.3-5.4 times of that of LCS. H2S-S was mainly deposited in the soil covers, while it escaped from landfills to the atmosphere. The adsorption, absorption, and biotransformation of H2S could lead to the decrease in the pH values of landfill covers; especially, in the LCS with low pH buffer capacity, the pH value of the bottom layer dropped to below 4. Pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene showed that the known sulfur-metabolizing bacteria Ochrobactrum, Paracoccus, Comamonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter dominated in the WBS and LCS. Among them, Comamonas and Acinetobacter might play an important role in the metabolism of H2S in the WBS. These findings are helpful to understand sulfur bioconversion process in landfill covers and to develop techniques for controlling odor pollution at landfills.

  12. On the performance of capillary barriers as landfill cover (United States)

    Kämpf, M.; Montenegro, H.

    Landfills and waste heaps require an engineered surface cover upon closure. The capping system can vary from a simple soil cover to multiple layers of earth and geosynthetic materials. Conventional design features a compacted soil layer, which suffers from drying out and cracking, as well as root and animal intrusion. Capillary barriers consisting of inclined fine-over-coarse soil layers are investigated as an alternative cover system. Under unsaturated conditions, the textural contrast delays vertical drainage by capillary forces. The moisture that builds up above the contact will flow downdip along the interface of the layers. Theoretical studies of capillary barriers have identified the hydraulic properties of the layers, the inclination angle, the length of the field and the infiltration rate as the fundamental characteristics of the system. However, it is unclear how these findings can lead to design criteria for capillary barriers. To assess the uncertainty involved in such approaches, experiments have been carried out in a 8 m long flume and on large scale test sites (40 m x 15 m). In addition, the ability of a numerical model to represent the relevant flow processes in capillary barriers has been examined.

  13. On the performance of capillary barriers as landfill cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kämpf


    Full Text Available Landfills and waste heaps require an engineered surface cover upon closure. The capping system can vary from a simple soil cover to multiple layers of earth and geosynthetic materials. Conventional design features a compacted soil layer, which suffers from drying out and cracking, as well as root and animal intrusion. Capillary barriers consisting of inclined fine-over-coarse soil layers are investigated as an alternative cover system. Under unsaturated conditions, the textural contrast delays vertical drainage by capillary forces. The moisture that builds up above the contact will flow downdip along the interface of the layers. Theoretical studies of capillary barriers have identified the hydraulic properties of the layers, the inclination angle, the length of the field and the infiltration rate as the fundamental characteristics of the system. However, it is unclear how these findings can lead to design criteria for capillary barriers. To assess the uncertainty involved in such approaches, experiments have been carried out in a 8 m long flume and on large scale test sites (40 m x 15 m. In addition, the ability of a numerical model to represent the relevant flow processes in capillary barriers has been examined.

  14. Large-Scale Field Study of Landfill Covers at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, S.F.


    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for dry environments. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing demonstration.

  15. Closure Alternatives for Municipal Waste Landfills.Study Case: Municipal Waste Landfill Medias,Sibiu County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the environmental impact produced by municipal solid wastes has received specialattention. All new EU countries are involved in the process of implementation of the European Council Directive31/99/EC on the landfill of waste in the European Union. As consequence National legislation, adapted to fit the EUrequirements, focuses on integrated waste management and environmental control of municipal solid waste landfills,from start-up to closure and assimilation into the environment. In Romania, by Government decision, HG 349/2005,was established the obligatoriness of closing unconform waste landfills located in urban areas starting at July 2009. Asconsequence the owner of municipal waste landfill Medias started the proceedings of closure for the landfill. The aim ofthis study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the closure of the municipalsolid waste landfill Somard-Medias (Romania.

  16. [Culturable psychrotolerant methanotrophic bacteria in landfill cover soil]. (United States)

    Kallistova, A Iu; Montonen, L; Jurgens, G; Munster, U; Kevbrina, M V; Nozhevnikova, A N


    Methanotrophs closely related to psychrotolerant members of the genera Methylobacter and Methylocella were identified in cultures enriched at 10@C from landfill cover soil samples collected in the period from April to November. Mesophilic methanotrophs of the genera Methylobacter and Methylosinus were found in cultures enriched at 20 degrees C from the same cover soil samples. A thermotolerant methanotroph related to Methylocaldum gracile was identified in the culture enriched at 40 degrees C from a sample collected in May (the temperature of the cover soil was 11.5-12.5 degrees C). In addition to methanotrophs, methylobacteria of the genera Methylotenera and Methylovorus and members of the genera Verrucomicrobium, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Candidatus Protochlamydia, and Thiorhodospira were also identified in the enrichment cultures. A methanotroph closely related to the psychrotolerant species Methylobacter tundripaludum (98% sequence identity of 16S r-RNA genes with the type strain SV96(T)) was isolated in pure culture. The introduction of a mixture of the methanotrophic enrichments, grown at 15 degrees C, into the landfill cover soil resulted in a decrease in methane emission from the landfill surface in autumn (October, November). The inoculum used was demonstrated to contain methanotrophs closely related to Methylobacter tundripaludum SV96.

  17. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng


    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter.

  18. Analysis of Vegetative on Six Different Landfill Cover Profiles in an Arid Environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; McClellan, Yvonne; Reavis, Bruce A.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Newman, Gretchen; Wolters, Gale


    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs was constructed and monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle 'D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle 'C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for arid environments. The demonstration was intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. A portion of this project involves the characterization of vegetation establishment and growth on the landfill covers. The various prototype landfill covers were expected to have varying flux rates (Dwyer et al 2000). The landfill covers were further expected to influence vegetation establishment and growth, which may impact site erosion potential and long-term site integrity. Objectives of this phase were to quantify the types of plants occupying each site, the percentage of ground covered by these plants, the density (number of plants per unit area) of plants, and the plant biomass production. The results of this vegetation analysis are presented in this report.3 DRAFT07/06/14AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank all technical and support staff from Sandia and the USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Station not included in the authors' list of this document for their valuable contributions to this research. We would also like to acknowledge the Department of Energy's Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area for funding this work.4

  19. Rational design approach for landfill liner protective soil cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruetten, M.G. [STS Consultants Ltd., Green Bay, WI (United States); Bandi, S.R. [Rust Environment & Infrastructure, Livonia, MI (United States); Reddy, K.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)


    This paper presents a rational approach for designing protective soil cover for landfill geomembrane liners in order to prevent damage to the liners. The present practice involves using a combination of geotextile and soil layer as protective cover. The geotextile is placed directly over the geomembrane and then a protective soil is placed on the geotextile. The protective soil layer generally consists of a free-draining granular soil which also serves as a drainage layer for the leachate collection and removal system. The degree of protection offered to the geomembrane depends on the type of geotextile, and the composition and thickness of the protective soil used.

  20. An Interactive Real-time Decision Support System for Leachate Irrigation on Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers (United States)

    Wang, Y.


    Landfill disposal is still the most common and economical practice for municipal solid waste in most countries. However, heavily polluted leachate generated by excess rainwater percolating through the landfill waste is the major drawback of this practice. Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used as alternative cover systems to minimize percolation by evapotranspiration. Leachate recirculation is one of the least expensive options for leachate treatment. The combination of ET cover systems and leachate recirculation can be an economical and environment-friendly practice for landfill leachate management. An interactive real-time decision support system is being developed to better manage leachate irrigation using historical and forecasting weather data, and real time soil moisture data. The main frame of this system includes soil water modules, and plant-soil modules. An inverse simulation module is also included to calibrate certain parameters based on observed data when necessary. It would be an objectives-oriented irrigation management tool to minimize landfill operation costs and negative environmental impacts.

  1. Microbial mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from landfill cover soils (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Woo

    Landfills are one of the major sources of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential (GWP) ˜23 times higher than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Although some effective strategies have been formulated to prevent methane emissions from large landfills, many landfills allow methane to be freely emitted to the atmosphere. In such situations, it is often proposed to stimulate methanotrophs, a group of bacteria that consume methane, in the cover soil to prevent fugitive methane emissions. Several factors, however, must be addressed to make such a biogenic removal mechanism effective. First, methanotrophic activity can be inhibited by nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) that are commonly found in landfill soil gas. Second, although methanotrophs can be easily stimulated with the addition of nitrogenous fertilizers, biogenic production of nitrous oxide with a GWP ˜296 times higher than that of carbon dioxide, is also stimulated. To consider these issues, two general areas of research were performed. First, a dimensionless number was developed based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics that describes the effects of the presence of multiple NMOCs on methanotrophic growth and survival. This model was validated via experimental measurements of methanotrophic growth in the presence of varying amounts of NMOCs. Second, the effects of nutrient amendments on methane oxidation and nitrous oxide production were examined by constructing soil microcosms using landfill cover soils. Here, it was shown that the addition of ammonium in the presence of phenylacetylene stimulated methane oxidation but inhibited nitrous oxide production. Furthermore, to understand the methanotrophic community structure and activity in response to these amendments, DNA microarray and transcript analyses were performed. The results indicated the predominance of Type II methanotrophs but that Type I methanotrophs responded more significantly to these amendments. Also, substantial activity

  2. The estimation of methane emissions from landfills with different cover systems (United States)

    Park, S.; Lee, K.; Sung, K.


    Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas, second only to CO2 as an anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Landfills are important anthropogenic source in the CH4 emissions. Microbially mediated CH4 oxidation in landfills with conventional soil covers can serve as an efficient biological sink. Methane from modern sanitary landfills equipped with composite covers and gas collection system is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills at which it is collected and burned. However, previous laboratory research has shown that biofilters have the potential to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills with modern composite covers. In this study a CH4 emission model was developed. The model used the calculated CH4 oxidation rates to estimate CH4 emissions from landfills constructed with conventional soil covers, modern composite covers, and modern composite covers plus biofilters. According to the CH4 emission rates predicted by CH4 emission model, it was estimated that 90% of the generated CH4 was emitted to the atmosphere for landfills with modern composite cover. For landfills with modern composite cover plus biofilters, an average of only 9% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. For landfills with conventional covers, an average of 83% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. By comparing the CH4 emission rates from three different landfill types, the use of a properly managed biofilter should be an effective technique to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills.

  3. Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-xian ZHANG; Zhan-yu ZHANG; Kang WANG


    Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation) into the underlying waste.This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers) and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM).Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers.Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers.In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover,the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm,respectively.The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil.The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow.Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration,thus reducing percolation.

  4. Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian ZHANG


    Full Text Available Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation into the underlying waste. This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM. Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers. Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers. In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover, the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm, respectively. The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil. The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow. Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration, thus reducing percolation.

  5. Parametric analyses of evapotranspiration landfill covers in humid regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie Zhang; Cheng Sun


    Natural soils are more durable than almost all man-made materials. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers use vegetated soil layers to store water until it is either evaporated from the soil surface or transpired through vegetation. ET covers rely on the water storage capacity of soil layer, rather than low permeability materials, to minimize percolation. While the use of ET covers in landfills increased over the last decade, they were mainly used in arid or semi-arid regions. At present, the use of ET covers has not been thoroughly investigated in humid areas. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of ET covers in humid areas where there is an annual precipitation of more than 800 mm. Numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the influences of cover thickness, soil type, vegetation level and distribution of precipitation on performance of ET covers. Performance and applicability of capillary barriers and a new-type cover were analyzed. The results show that percolation decreases with an increasing cover thickness and an increasing vegetation level, but the increasing trend becomes unclear when certain thickness or LAI (leaf area index) is reached. Cover soil with a large capability of water storage is recommended to minimize percolation. ET covers are significantly influenced by distribution of precipitation and are more effective in areas where rainy season coincides with hot season. Capillary barriers are more efficient than monolithic covers. The new cover is better than the monolithic cover in performance and the final percolation is only 0.5%of the annual precipitation.

  6. Modified sewage sludge as temporary landfill cover material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He


    Full Text Available In order to study the feasibility of modified sewage sludge as landfill cover material and its performance in a complex landfill environment, strength and hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted. The permeability requirements for daily and interim covers were analyzed first. Based on saturated-unsaturated seepage calculations, it is suggested that approximately 1.0 × 10-4 cm/s and 1.0 × 10-5 cm/s are the appropriate values for the hydraulic conductivities of daily and interim covers, respectively. The strength and permeability requirements of the mixtures, when used as an interim cover, can be met at a sludge:lime:cement:silt:tire-derived aggregate (TDA weight ratio of 100:15:5:70:15. Results also demonstrate that the solid content ratio of modified sewage sludge, which should be greater than 60% when modified sewage sludge is used as a temporary cover material, is crucial to both strength and hydraulic performance. In addition, as the duration of soaking of modified sewage sludge in synthetic leachate increases, the unconfined compressive strength increases, and the hydraulic conductivity decreases slightly or fluctuates between 1.0 × 10-5 cm/s and 1.0 × 10-6 cm/s, still meeting the requirements for an interim cover. The reduction in hydraulic conductivity of modified sewage sludge under the effect of synthetic leachate, as well as the long-term and environmental performance of the modified sewage sludge, should be examined in future studies.

  7. Mechanism of H2S removal during landfill stabilization in waste biocover soil, an alterative landfill cover. (United States)

    He, Ruo; Xia, Fang-Fang; Bai, Yun; Wang, Jing; Shen, Dong-Sheng


    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is one of the primary contributors to odors at landfills. The mechanism of waste biocover soil (WBS) for H(2)S removal was investigated in simulated landfill systems with the contrast experiment of a landfill cover soil (LCS). The H(2)S removal efficiency was higher than 90% regardless of the WBS or LCS covers. The input of landfill gas (LFG) could stimulate the growth of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, actinomycete, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the WBS cover, while that caused a decrease of 1-2 orders of magnitude in the populations of actinomycete and fungi in the bottom layer of the LCS cover. As H(2)S inputted, the sulfide content in the WBS cover increased and reached the maximum on day 30. In the LCS cover, the highest soil sulfide content was exhibited in the bottom layer during the whole experiment. After exposure to LFG, the lower pH value and higher sulfate content were observed in the top layer of the WBS cover, while there was not a significant difference in different layers of the LCS cover. The results indicated a more rapid biotransformation between sulfide and sulfate occurred in the WBS cover compared to the LCS.

  8. Adsorption and transport of methane in landfill cover soil amended with waste-wood biochars. (United States)

    Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R


    The natural presence of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in landfill soils can stimulate the bio-chemical oxidation of CH4 to CO2 and H2O under suitable environmental conditions. This mechanism can be enhanced by amending the landfill cover soil with organic materials such as biochars that are recalcitrant to biological degradation and are capable of adsorbing CH4 while facilitating the growth and activity of MOB within their porous structure. Several series of batch and small-scale column tests were conducted to quantify the CH4 sorption and transport properties of landfill cover soil amended with four types of waste hardwood biochars under different levels of amendment percentages (2, 5 and 10% by weight), exposed CH4 concentrations (0-1 kPa), moisture content (dry, 25% and 75% water holding capacity), and temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C). The linear forms of the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model were used to determine the kinetics and the maximum CH4 adsorption capacity of cover materials. The maximum CH4 sorption capacity of dry biochar-amended soils ranged from 1.03 × 10(-2) to 7.97 × 10(-2) mol kg(-1) and exhibited a ten-fold increase compared to that of soil with 1.9 × 10(-3) mol kg(-1). The isosteric heat of adsorption for soil was negative and ranged from -30 to -118 kJ/mol, while that of the biochar-amended soils was positive and ranged from 24 to 440 kJ/mol. The CH4 dispersion coefficients for biochar-amended soils obtained through predictive transport modeling indicated that amending the soil with biochar enhanced the methane transport rates by two orders of magnitude, thereby increasing their potential for enhanced exchange of gases within the cover system. Overall, the use of hardwood biochars as a cover soil amendment to reduce methane emissions from landfills appears to be a promising alternative to conventional soil covers.

  9. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varank, Gamze, E-mail:; Demir, Ahmet, E-mail:; Top, Selin, E-mail:; Sekman, Elif, E-mail:; Akkaya, Ebru, E-mail:; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail:; Bilgili, M. Sinan, E-mail:


    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + bentonite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + zeolite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. - Research highlights: {yields} Migration of

  10. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover. (United States)

    Kim, Gil Won; Ho, Adrian; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon


    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to mitigate CH4 emissions, as well as to prevent water infiltration using vegetation on landfill cover soils. In our previous studies, bottom ash from coal-fired power plants was selected among several industrial residues (blast furnace slag, bottom ash, construction waste, steel manufacture slag, stone powder sludge, and waste gypsum) as the best additive for ET cover systems, with the highest mechanical performance achieved for a 35% (wtwt(-1)) bottom ash content in soil. In this study, to evaluate the field applicability of bottom ash mixed soil as ET cover, four sets of lysimeters (height 1.2m×width 2m×length 6m) were constructed in 2007, and four different treatments were installed: (i) soil+bottom ash (35% wtwt(-1)) (SB); (ii) soil+compost (2% wtwt(-1), approximately corresponding to 40Mgha(-1) in arable field scale) (SC); (iii) soil+bottom ash+compost (SBC); and (iv) soil only as the control (S). The effects of bottom ash mixing in ET cover soil on CH4 oxidation potential and vegetation growth were evaluated in a pilot ET cover system in the 5th year after installation by pilot experiments using the treatments. Our results showed that soil properties were significantly improved by bottom ash mixing, resulting in higher plant growth. Bottom ash addition significantly increased the CH4 oxidation potential of the ET cover soil, mainly due to improved organic matter and available copper concentration, enhancing methanotrophic abundances in soil amended with bottom ash. Conclusively, bottom ash could be a good alternative as a soil additive in the ET cover system to improve vegetation growth and mitigate CH4 emission impact in the waste landfill system.

  11. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones


    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily

  12. Transport and reaction processes affecting the attenuation of landfill gas in cover soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K.U.; Scheutz, Charlotte


    to exopolymeric substance production, may result in reduced methane attenuation due to limited O2-ingress. Copyright © 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.......Methane and trace organic gases produced in landfill waste are partly oxidized in the top 40 cm of landfill cover soils under aerobic conditions. The balance between the oxidation of landfill gases and the ingress of atmospheric oxygen into the soil cover determines the attenuation of emissions...... of methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons to the atmosphere. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxidation reactions on the overall gas transport regime and to evaluate, the contributions of various gas transport processes on methane attenuation in landfill cover soils...

  13. Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction. (United States)

    Travar, I; Lidelöw, S; Andreas, L; Tham, G; Lagerkvist, A


    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl(-), nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, construction, which could contribute to the retention of trace elements in the liner in the long term. Hence, from an environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner.

  14. Landfills (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data set defines both current and historic landfills/waste disposal storage sites for the State of Vermont. Historic landfills were identified with the...

  15. Modeling of methane oxidation in landfill cover soil using an artificial neural network. (United States)

    Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Elfithri, Rahmah; Younes, Mohammad K; Irwan, Dani


    Knowing the fraction of methane (CH4) oxidized in landfill cover soils is an important step in estimating the total CH4 emissions from any landfill. Predicting CH4 oxidation in landfill cover soils is a difficult task because it is controlled by a number of biological and environmental factors. This study proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward backpropagation to predict CH4 oxidation in landfill cover soil in relation to air temperature, soil moisture content, oxygen (O2) concentration at a depth of 10 cm in cover soil, and CH4 concentration at the bottom of cover soil. The optimum ANN model giving the lowest mean square error (MSE) was configured from three layers, with 12 and 9 neurons at the first and the second hidden layers, respectively, log-sigmoid (logsig) transfer function at the hidden and output layers, and the Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. This study revealed that the ANN oxidation model can predict CH4 oxidation with a MSE of 0.0082, a coefficient of determination (R2) between the measured and predicted outputs of up to 0.937, and a model efficiency (E) of 0.8978. To conclude, further developments of the proposed ANN model are required to generalize and apply the model to other landfills with different cover soil properties.

  16. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson


    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  17. LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC). (United States)

    van Haaren, Rob; Themelis, Nickolas J; Barlaz, Morton


    This study compared the environmental impacts of composting yard wastes in windrows with using them in place of soil as alternative daily cover (ADC) in landfills. The Life Cycle Assessment was made using the SimaPro LCA software and showed that the ADC scenario is more beneficial for the environment than windrow composting. ADC use is also a less costly means of disposal of yard wastes. This finding applies only in cases where there are sanitary landfills in the area that are equipped with gas collection systems and can use yard wastes as alternative daily cover. Otherwise, the environmentally preferable method for disposal of source-separated yard wastes is composting rather than landfilling.

  18. Gas Transport Parameters for Landfill Final Cover Soil: Measurements and Model Modification by Dry Bulk Density (United States)

    Wickramarachchi, P. N.; Kawamoto, K.; Hamamoto, S.; Nagamori, M.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.


    Landfill sites have been emerging in greenhouse warming scenarios as a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Until recently, landfill management strategies have mainly addressed the problem of preventing groundwater contamination and reduction of leachate generation. Being one of the largest sources of anthropogenic CH4 emission, the final cover system should also be designed for minimizing the greenhouse gases migration into the atmosphere or the areas surrounding the landfill while securing the hydraulic performance. Compared to the intensive research efforts on hydraulic performances of landfill final cover soil, few studies about gas transport characteristics of landfill cover soils have been done. However, recent soil-gas studies implied that the effects of soil physical properties such as bulk density (i.e., compaction level), soil particle size are key parameters to understand landfill gaseous performance. The gas exchange through the final cover soils is controlled by advective and diffusive gas transport. Air permeability (ka) governs the advective gas transport while the soil-gas diffusion coefficient (Dp) governs diffusive gas transport. In this study, the effects of compaction level and particle size fraction effects on ka and Dp for landfill final cover soil was investigated. The disturbed soil samples were taken from landfill final cover in Japan. A compaction tests were performed for the soil samples with two different size fractions (content , the soil samples were repacked into soil cores (i.d. 15-cm, length 12-cm, 2120 cm3) at two different compaction levels [(MP):2700 kN/m2 and (SP):600 kN/m2]. After the compaction tests, ka and Dp were measured and then samples were saturated and subsequently drained at different soil-water matric potential of 0.98, 2.94, 9.81, 1235 kPa and with air-dried and oven-dried conditions. Results showed that measured Dp and ka values for the coarser (content. Further, compaction effort was much significant

  19. Long-term performance of landfill covers - results of lysimeter test fields in Bavaria (Germany). (United States)

    Henken-Mellies, Wolf-Ulrich; Schweizer, Andreas


    A comprehensive study was conducted to examine the performance and possible changes in the effectiveness of landfill surface covers. Three different profiles of mineral landfill caps were examined. The results of precipitation and flow measurements show distinct seasonal differences which are typical for middle-European climatic conditions. In the case of the simple landfill cap design consisting of a thick layer of loamy sand, approximately 100-200 L m(-2) of annual seepage into the landfill body occurs during winter season. The three-layer systems of the two other test fields performed much better. Most of the water which percolated through the top soil profile drained sideways in the drainage layer. Only 1-3% of precipitation percolated through the sealing layer. The long-term effectiveness of the mineral sealing layer depended on the ability of the top soil layer to protect it from critical loss of soil water/critical increase of suction. In dry summers there was even a loss in soil water content at the base of the 2.0 m thick soil cover. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of the long-term aspect when assessing the effectiveness of landfill covers: The hydraulic conductivity at the time of construction gives only an initial (minimum) value. The hydraulic conductivity of the compacted clay layer or of the geosynthetic clay liner may increase substantially, if there is no long-lasting protection against desiccation (by a thick soil cover or by a geomembrane). This has to be taken into account in landfill cover design.

  20. N 2O emissions at municipal solid waste landfill sites: Effects of CH 4 emissions and cover soil (United States)

    Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

    Municipal solid waste landfills are the significant anthropogenic sources of N 2O due to the cooxidation of ammonia by methane-oxidizing bacteria in cover soils. Such bacteria could be developed through CH 4 fumigation, as evidenced by both laboratory incubation and field measurement. During a 10-day incubation with leachate addition, the average N 2O fluxes in the soil samples, collected from the three selected landfill covers, were multiplied by 1.75 ( p landfill sites, N 2O fluxes in two landfill sites were significantly correlated with the variations of the CH 4 emissions without landfill gas recovery ( p landfill gas recovery in another landfill site ( p > 0.05). The annual average N 2O flux was 176 ± 566 μg N 2O-N m -2 h -1 ( p landfill site, which was 72% ( p landfill sites, respectively. The magnitude order of N 2O emissions in three landfill sites was also coincident by the results of laboratory incubation, suggesting the sandy soil cover could mitigate landfill N 2O emissions.

  1. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills,this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux.

  2. From a Literature Review to an Alternative Treatment System for Landfill Gas and Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang


    Full Text Available This paper provides an alternative treatment system for landfill gas and leachate control in order to reduce the energy consumption and disposal cost, using the recycled landfill gas as the combustion promoter for incineration of the leachate. This study starts by providing a literature review to summarize and analyze different approaches being applied to landfill leachate treatment. Subsequently, a conceptual prototype is proposed, which can be built using existing technology by means of technical possibility analysis, whilst economic benefits could be returned through preliminary comparison. With the proposed introduction of a “waste treatment park”, this alternative treatment system could provide a template for leachate and landfill gas control. This study may provide an insight for landfill operators and engineers to promote the transformation from the conceptual framework to the real achievement. Finally, the limitations of the conceptual model and analysis are discussed, laying a foundation for further work.

  3. Removal of halogenated organic compounds in landfill gas by top covers containing zero-valent iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Winther, K.; Kjeldsen, Peter


    Transformation of gaseous CCl3F and CCl4 by zero-valent iron was studied in systems unsaturated with water under anaerobic conditionssin an N2 gas and in a landfill gas atmosphere. The transformation was studied in batch as well as flow-through column tests. In both systems, the transformation...... process of the compounds was pseudo-firstorder. Transformation rate constants, referring to the water phase and normalized to 1 m2 iron surface/mL, of up to 1100 mL m-2 h-1 (batch) and 200 mL m-2 h-1 (flowthrough) were found. The transformation was strongly dependent on pH and the presence of oxygen....... During continuous aerobic conditions, the transformation of CCl3F decreased toward zero. Model calculations show that use of zero-valent iron in landfill top covers is a potential treatment technology for emission reduction of halogenated trace compounds from landfills....

  4. Gas breakthrough and emission through unsaturated compacted clay in landfill final cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.W.W.; Chen, Z.K.; Coo, J.L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chen, R., E-mail: [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Urban and Civil Engineering for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhou, C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)


    Highlights: • Explore feasibility of unsaturated clay as a gas barrier in landfill cover. • Gas breakthrough pressure increases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • Gas emission rate decreases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • A 0.6 m-thick clay layer may be sufficient to meet gas emission rate limit. - Abstract: Determination of gas transport parameters in compacted clay plays a vital role for evaluating the effectiveness of soil barriers. The gas breakthrough pressure has been widely studied for saturated swelling clay buffer commonly used in high-level radioactive waste disposal facility where the generated gas pressure is very high (in the order of MPa). However, compacted clay in landfill cover is usually unsaturated and the generated landfill gas pressure is normally low (typically less than 10 kPa). Furthermore, effects of clay thickness and degree of saturation on gas breakthrough and emission rate in the context of unsaturated landfill cover has not been quantitatively investigated in previous studies. The feasibility of using unsaturated compacted clay as gas barrier in landfill covers is thus worthwhile to be explored over a wide range of landfill gas pressures under various degrees of saturation and clay thicknesses. In this study, to evaluate the effectiveness of unsaturated compacted clay to minimize gas emission, one-dimensional soil column tests were carried out on unsaturated compacted clay to determine gas breakthrough pressures at ultimate limit state (high pressure range) and gas emission rates at serviceability limit state (low pressure range). Various degrees of saturation and thicknesses of unsaturated clay sample were considered. Moreover, numerical simulations were carried out using a coupled gas–water flow finite element program (CODE-BRIGHT) to better understand the experimental results by extending the clay thickness and varying the degree of saturation to a broader range that is typical at different

  5. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona


    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  6. Two-year performance by evapotranspiration covers for municipal solid waste landfills in northwest Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnswell, Kristopher D., E-mail: [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Lake Erie Center, 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH 43616 (United States); Dwyer, Daryl F., E-mail: [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Mail Stop 604, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All ET covers produced rates of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum allowable rate by the Ohio EPA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dredged sediment provided sufficient water storage and promoted growth by native plant species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Native plant mixtures attained acceptable rates of evapotranspiration throughout the growing season. - Abstract: Evapotranspiration (ET) covers have gained interest as an alternative to conventional covers for the closure of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills because they are less costly to construct and are expected to have a longer service life. Whereas ET covers have gained acceptance in arid and semi-arid regions (defined by a precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio less than 0.75) by meeting performance standards (e.g. rate of percolation), it remains unclear whether they are suitable for humid regions (P:PET greater than 0.75). The goal of this project is to extend their application to northwest Ohio (P:PET equals 1.29) by designing covers that produce a rate of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum acceptable rate by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). Test ET covers were constructed in drainage lysimeters (1.52 m diameter, 1.52 m depth) using dredged sediment amended with organic material and consisted of immature (I, plants seeded onto soil) or mature (M, plants transferred from a restored tall-grass prairie) plant mixtures. The water balance for the ET covers was monitored from June 2009 to June 2011, which included measured precipitation and percolation, and estimated soil water storage and evapotranspiration. Precipitation was applied at a rate of 94 cm yr{sup -1} in the first year and at rate of 69 cm yr{sup -1} in the second year. During the first year, covers with the M plant mixture produced noticeably less percolation (4 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (17 cm). However, during the

  7. Methane oxidation in a landfill cover soil reactor: Changing of kinetic parameters and microorganism community structure. (United States)

    Xing, Zhi L; Zhao, Tian T; Gao, Yan H; Yang, Xu; Liu, Shuai; Peng, Xu Y


    Changing of CH4 oxidation potential and biological characteristics with CH4 concentration was studied in a landfill cover soil reactor (LCSR). The maximum rate of CH4 oxidation reached 32.40 mol d(-1) m(-2) by providing sufficient O2 in the LCSR. The kinetic parameters of methane oxidation in landfill cover soil were obtained by fitting substrate diffusion and consumption model based on the concentration profile of CH4 and O2. The values of [Formula: see text] (0.93-2.29%) and [Formula: see text] (140-524 nmol kgsoil-DW(-1)·s(-1)) increased with CH4 concentration (9.25-20.30%), while the values of [Formula: see text] (312.9-2.6%) and [Formula: see text] (1.3 × 10(-5) to 9.0 × 10(-3) nmol mL(-1) h(-1)) were just the opposite. MiSeq pyrosequencing data revealed that Methylobacter (the relative abundance was decreased with height of LCSR) and Methylococcales_unclassified (the relative abundance was increased expect in H 80) became the key players after incubation with increasing CH4 concentration. These findings provide information for assessing CH4 oxidation potential and changing of biological characteristics in landfill cover soil.

  8. Methane oxidation and degradation of organic compounds in landfill soil covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter


    High rates of methane oxidation and degradation of the lowed halogenated methanes (TCM and DCM) and HCFCs (HCFC-21 and HCFC-22) were found in an investigation of the oxidation of methane and halogenated organic compunds (HOCs) in landfill gas affected soil. The degradation followed zero-order kin......High rates of methane oxidation and degradation of the lowed halogenated methanes (TCM and DCM) and HCFCs (HCFC-21 and HCFC-22) were found in an investigation of the oxidation of methane and halogenated organic compunds (HOCs) in landfill gas affected soil. The degradation followed zero......-order kinetics and occurred in parallel with the oxidation of methane. TeCM, CFC-11, and CFC-12 were not degradable in presence of oxygen and degradation of these compounds in the oxidative zone in landfill top covers is therefore expected to be limited. However these compounds were found degradable...... in the anaerobic zone in the lower part of soil columns permeated with artificial landfill gas. The lesser-chlorinated compounds were degraded in the upper oxic zone with overlapping gradients of methane and oxygen. Methane oxidation and degradation of HOCs in the top-soils may play a very important role...

  9. Alternating group covers of the affine line

    CERN Document Server

    Muskat, Jeremy


    We prove Abhyankar's Inertia Conjecture for the alternating group A_{p+2} on p+2 letters when p = 2 mod 3, by showing that every possible inertia group occurs for a (wildly ramified) A_{p+2}-Galois cover of the projective k-line branched only at infinity where k is an algebraically closed field of characteristic p > 0. More generally, when 1 < s < p and gcd(p-1, s+1)=1, we prove that all but finitely many rational numbers which satisfy the obvious necessary conditions occur as the upper jump in the filtration of higher ramification groups of an A_{p+s}-Galois cover of the projective line branched only at infinity.

  10. Effects of methane on the microbial populations and oxidation rates in different landfill cover soil columns. (United States)

    He, Ruo; Ruan, Aidong; Shen, Dong-Sheng


    A considerable fraction of methane produced in landfills is oxidized by landfill cover soils. In this work, microbial populations and oxidation rates developed in response to the presence of methane were studied in three soil columns simulated landfill cover soil environments. The population of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria was highest in the waste soil, middle in the clay soil, and lowest in the red soil. After exposure to methane-rich environments, the populations of methanotrophic bacteria showed increases in the waste and clay soils. The population of methanotrophic bacteria increased from 30.77x10(4) to 141.77x10(4) cfu g d.w.-1 in the middle layer of the waste soil column as a function of exposure to methane for 120 days. The populations of methanotrophic bacteria were correlated with the potential methane oxidation rates in the waste and clay soils, respectively. The topsoil was observed to be dried in the three soil columns. Most of methane oxidation occurred at the depth of between 10 and 20 cm in the waste soil column, while it took place mainly at the depth of between 20 and 30 cm in the clay soil column.

  11. Structure and function of methanotrophic communities in a landfill-cover soil. (United States)

    Henneberger, Ruth; Lüke, Claudia; Mosberger, Lona; Schroth, Martin H


    In landfill-cover soils, aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) convert CH(4) to CO(2), mitigating emissions of the greenhouse gas CH(4) to the atmosphere. We investigated overall MOB community structure and assessed spatial differences in MOB diversity, abundance and activity in a Swiss landfill-cover soil. Molecular cloning, terminal restriction-fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR of pmoA genes were applied to soil collected from 16 locations at three different depths to study MOB community structure, diversity and abundance; MOB activity was measured in the field using gas push-pull tests. The MOB community was highly diverse but dominated by Type Ia MOB, with novel pmoA sequences present. Type II MOB were detected mainly in deeper soil with lower nutrient and higher CH(4) concentrations. Substantial differences in MOB community structure were observed between one high- and one low-activity location. MOB abundance was highly variable across the site [4.0 × 10(4) to 1.1 × 10(7) (g soil dry weight)(-1)]. Potential CH(4) oxidation rates were high [1.8-58.2 mmol CH(4) (L soil air)(-1) day(-1) ] but showed significant lateral variation and were positively correlated with mean CH(4) concentrations (P structure are driving factors in CH(4) oxidation at this landfill.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  13. Effectiveness of compacted soil liner as a gas barrier layer in the landfill final cover system. (United States)

    Moon, Seheum; Nam, Kyoungphile; Kim, Jae Young; Hwan, Shim Kyu; Chung, Moonkyung


    A compacted soil liner (CSL) has been widely used as a single barrier layer or a part of composite barrier layer in the landfill final cover system to prevent water infiltration into solid wastes for its acceptable hydraulic permeability. This study was conducted to test whether the CSL was also effective in prohibiting landfill gas emissions. For this purpose, three different compaction methods (i.e., reduced, standard, and modified Proctor methods) were used to prepare the soil specimens, with nitrogen as gas, and with water and heptane as liquid permeants. Measured gas permeability ranged from 2.03 x 10(-10) to 4.96 x 10(-9) cm(2), which was a magnitude of two or three orders greater than hydraulic permeability (9.60 x 10(-13) to 1.05 x 10(-11) cm(2)). The difference between gas and hydraulic permeabilities can be explained by gas slippage, which makes gas more permeable, and by soil-water interaction, which impedes water flow and then makes water less permeable. This explanation was also supported by the result that a liquid permeability measured with heptane as a non-polar liquid was similar to the intrinsic gas permeability. The data demonstrate that hydraulic requirement for the CSL is not enough to control the gas emissions from a landfill.

  14. Utilisation of chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil in a landfill cover. (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Desogus, Paolo; Schulenburg, Sven; Arenella, Mariarita; Renella, Giancarlo; Brännvall, Evelina; Lagerkvist, Anders; Andreas, Lale; Sjöblom, Rolf


    The aim of the study was to determine if an As-contaminated soil, stabilized using zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) and its combination with gypsum waste, coal fly ash, peat, or sewage sludge, could be used as a construction material at the top layer of the landfill cover. A reproduction of 2 m thick protection/vegetation layer of a landfill cover using a column setup was used to determine the ability of the amendments to reduce As solubility and stimulate soil functionality along the soil profile. Soil amendment with Fe(0) was highly efficient in reducing As in soil porewater reaching 99 % reduction, but only at the soil surface. In the deeper soil layers (below 0.5 m), the Fe treatment had a reverse effect, As solubility increased dramatically exceeding that of the untreated soil or any other treatment by one to two orders of magnitude. A slight bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri was detected in the Fe(0) treatment. Soil amendment with iron and peat showed no toxicity to bacteria and was the most efficient in reducing dissolved As in soil porewater throughout the 2 m soil profile followed by iron and gypsum treatment, most likely resulting from a low soil density and a good air diffusion to the soil. The least suitable combination of soil amendments for As immobilization was a mixture of iron with coal fly ash. An increase in all measured enzyme activities was observed in all treatments, particularly those receiving organic matter. For As to be stable in soil, a combination of amendments that can keep the soil porous and ensure the air diffusion through the entire soil layer of the landfill cover is required.

  15. Spatial patterns of methane oxidation and methanotrophic diversity in landfill cover soils of southern China. (United States)

    Chi, Zi-Fang; Lu, Wen-Jing; Wang, Hong-Tao


    Aerobic CH4 oxidation is an important CH4 sink in landfills. To investigate the distribution and community diversity of methanotrophs and link with soil characteristics and operational parameters (e.g., concentrations of O2, CH4), cover soil samples were collected at different locations and depths from the Mengzi semi-aerobic landfill (SAL) in Yunnan Province of southern China. Specific PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and realtime PCR were used to examine methanotrophs in the landfill cover soils. The results showed that different locations did harbor distinct methanotroph communities. Methanotrophs were more abundant in areas near the venting pipes because of the higher O2 concentrations. The depth of 20-25 cm, where the ratio of the CH4 to O2 was within the range from 1.3 to 8.6, was more conducive to the growth of CH4-oxidizing bacteria. Type II methanotrophs dominated in all samples compared with Type I methanotrophs, as evidenced by the high ratio of Type II to Type I methanotrophic copy numbers (from 1.76 to 11.60). The total copy numbers of methanotrophs detected were similar to other ecosystems, although the CH4 concentration was much higher in SAL cover soil. Methylobacter and Methylocystis were the most abundant Type I and Type II methanotrophs genera, respectively, in the Mengzi SAL. The results suggested that SALs could provide a special environment with both high concentrations of CH4 and O2 for methanotrophs, especially around the vertical venting pipes.

  16. Methane oxidation potential of boreal landfill cover materials: The governing factors and enhancement by nutrient manipulation. (United States)

    Maanoja, Susanna T; Rintala, Jukka A


    Methanotrophs inhabiting landfill covers are in a crucial role in mitigating CH4 emissions, but the characteristics of the cover material or ambient temperature do not always enable the maximal CH4 oxidation potential (MOP). This study aimed at identifying the factors governing MOPs of different materials used for constructing biocovers and other cover structures. We also tested whether the activity of methanotrophs could be enhanced at cold temperature (4 and 12°C) by improving the nutrient content (NO3(-), PO4(3-), trace elements) of the cover material. Compost samples from biocovers designed to support CH4 oxidation were exhibiting the highest MOPs (4.16 μmol CH4 g dw(-1) h(-1)), but also the soil samples collected from other cover structures were oxidising CH4 (0.41 μmol CH4 g dw(-1) h(-1)). The best predictors for the MOPs were the NO3(-) content and activity of heterotrophic bacteria at 72.8%, which were higher in the compost samples than in the soil samples. The depletion of NO3(-) from the landfill cover material limiting the activity of methanotrophs could not be confirmed by the nutrient manipulation assay at 4°C as the addition of nitrogen decreased the MOPs from 0.090 μmol CH4 g dw(-1) h(-1) to 0.096 μmol CH4 g dw(-1)h(-1)) suggesting that this was attributable to stimulation of the enzymatic activity of the psychrotolerant methanotrophs.

  17. A Water Balance Study of Four Landfill Cover Designs at Material Disposal Area B in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David D. Breshears; Fairley J. Barnes; John W. Nyhan; Johnny A. Salazar


    The goal of disposing of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose an unacceptable hazard. In order to achieve this, the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Program is comparing the performance of several different surface covers at Material Disposal Area (MDA) B in Los Alamos. Two conventional landfill were compared with an improved cover designed to minimize plant and animal intrusion and to minimize water infiltration into the underlying wastes. The conventional covers varied in depth and both conventional and improved designs had different combinations of vegetation (grass verses shrub) and gravel mulch (no mulch verses mulch). These treatments were applied to each of 12 plots and water balance parameters were measured from March1987 through June 1995. Adding a gravel mulch significantly influenced the plant covered field plots receiving no gravel mulch averaged 21.2% shrub cover, while plots with gravel had a 20% larger percent cover of shrubs. However, the influence of gravel mulch on the grass cover was even larger than the influence on shrub cover, average grass cover on the plots with no gravel was 16.3%, compared with a 42% increase in grass cover due to gravel mulch. These cover relationships are important to reduce runoff on the landfill cover, as shown by a regression model that predicts that as ground cover is increased from 30 to 90%,annual runoff is reduced from 8.8 to 0.98 cm-a nine-fold increase. We also found that decreasing the slope of the landfill cover from 6 to 2% reduced runoff from the landfill cover by 2.7-fold. To minimize the risk of hazardous waste from landfills to humans, runoff and seepage need to be minimized and evapotranspiration maximized on the landfill cover. This has to be accomplished for dry and wet years at MDA B. Seepage consisted of 1.9% and 6.2% of the precipitation in the average and

  18. Prediction of long-term erosion from landfill covers in the southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.E.; Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Erosion is a primary stressor of landfill covers, especially for climates with high intensity storms and low native plant density. Rills and gullies formed by discrete events can damage barrier layers and induce failure. Geomorphologic, empirical and physical modeling procedures are available to provide estimates of surface erosion, but numerical modeling requires accurate representation of the severe rainfall events that generate erosion. The National Weather Service precipitation frequency data and estimates of 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60-minute intensity can be statistically combined in a numerical model to obtain long-term erosion estimates. Physically based numerical models using the KINEROS and AHYMO programs have been utilized to predict the erosion from a southwestern landfill or waste containment site with 0.03, 0.05 and 0.08 meter per meter surface slopes. Results of AHYMO modeling were within 15 percent of average annual values computed with the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation. However, the estimation of rill and gully formation that primarily degrades cover systems requires quantifying single events. For Southwestern conditions, a single 10-year storm can produce erosion quantifies equal to three times the average annual erosion and a 100-year storm can produce five times the average annual erosion.

  19. Field note: comparative efficacy of a woody evapotranspiration landfill cover following the removal of aboveground biomass. (United States)

    Schnabel, William; Munk, Jens; Byrd, Amanda


    Woody vegetation cultivated for moisture management on evapotranspiration (ET) landfill covers could potentially serve a secondary function as a biomass crop. However, research is required to evaluate the extent to which trees could be harvested from ET covers without significantly impacting their moisture management function. This study investigated the drainage through a six-year-old, primarily poplar/cottonwood ET test cover for a period of one year following the harvest of all woody biomass exceeding a height of 30 cm above ground surface. Results were compared to previously reported drainage observed during the years leading up to the coppice event. In the first year following coppice, the ET cover was found to be 93% effective at redirecting moisture during the spring/summer season, and 95% effective during the subsequent fall/winter season. This was slightly lower than the 95% and 100% efficacy observed in the spring/summer and fall/winter seasons, respectively, during the final measured year prior to coppice. However, the post-coppice efficacy was higher than the efficacy observed during the first three years following establishment of the cover. While additional longer-term studies are recommended, this project demonstrated that woody ET covers could potentially produce harvestable biomass while still effectively managing aerial moisture.

  20. [Effect of operational modes on community structure of type I methanotroph in the cover soil of municipal solid waste landfill]. (United States)

    Yu, Ting; He, Pin-Jing; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming


    Type I methanotroph is crucial for methane oxidization and it responses fast to the changes in environment. In this study, 16S rDNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) gene fingerprint technology was applied to investigate the effect of operational modes, i. e. high-density polyethylene liner (HDPE) isolation or subsurface irrigation of landfill leachate and vegetation, on community structure and diversity of type I methanotroph in soils covering municipal solid waste landfill. 16S rDNA based phylogenetic analysis reveals type I methanotroph in all tested soils belongs to Methylobacter. According to Shannon-Wiener diversity index and principal component analysis, landfill leachate subsurface irrigation and vegetation have more impact on type I methanotroph community structure and diversity than HDPE liner isolation does, and they reduce type I methanotroph diversity. Leachate irrigation is supposed to inhibit the growth of Methylobacter population. Community structure of type I methanotroph in landfill cover soil isolated by HDPE, i.e. invaded by landfill gas, shifts during long-term gas interference. When cover age is 1.5 years old, Shannon-Wiener diversity index of type I methanotroph reaches its maximum.

  1. In-Situ Quantification of Methanotrophic Activity in a Landfill Cover Soil Using Gas Push-Pull Tests (United States)

    Gomez, K. E.; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Schroth, M. H.; Zeyer, J.


    Landfills are both a major anthropogenic source and a sink for the greenhouse gas CH4. Methanogenic bacteria produce CH4 during the anaerobic digestion of landfill waste, whereas, methanotrophic bacteria consume CH4 as it is transported through a landfill cover soil. Methanotrophs are thought to be ubiquitous in soils, but typically exist in large numbers at oxic/anoxic interfaces, close to anaerobic methane sources but exposed to oxygen required for metabolism. Accurate in-situ quantification of the sink strength of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils is needed for global carbon balances and for local emissions mitigation strategies. We measured in-situ CH4 concentrations at 30, 60, and 100 cm depth at 18 evenly spaced locations across a landfill cover soil. Furthermore, we performed Gas Push-Pull Tests (GPPTs) to estimate in-situ rates of methanotrophic activity in the cover soil. The GPPT is a gas-tracer test in which a gas mixture containing CH4, O2, and non-reactive tracer gases is injected (pushed) into the soil followed by extraction (pull) from the same location. Quantification of CH4 oxidation rates is based upon comparison of the breakthrough curves of CH4 and tracer gases. We present the results of a series of GPPTs conducted at two locations in the cover soil to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of this technique to quantify methanotrophic activity. Additional GPPTs were performed with a methanotrophic inhibitor in the injection gas mixture to confirm the appropriate choice of tracers to quantify CH4 oxidation. Estimated CH4 oxidation rate constants indicate that the cover soil contains a highly active methanotrophic community.

  2. Covering the Bases: Exploring Alternative Systems (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Garcia, Jorge


    Since the 1950s, the understanding of how the base 10 system works has been encouraged through alternative base systems (Price 1995; Woodward 2004). If high school students are given opportunities to learn other base systems and analyze what they denote, we believe that they will better understand the structure of base 10 and its operations…

  3. Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils. (United States)

    Bogner, Jean E; Spokas, Kurt A; Chanton, Jeffrey P


    Compared with natural ecosystems and managed agricultural systems, engineered landfills represent a highly managed soil system for which there has been no systematic quantification of emissions from coexisting daily, intermediate, and final cover materials. We quantified the seasonal variability of CH, CO, and NO emissions from fresh refuse (no cover) and daily, intermediate, and final cover materials at northern and southern California landfill sites with engineered gas extraction systems. Fresh refuse fluxes (g m d [± SD]) averaged CH 0.053 (± 0.03), CO 135 (± 117), and NO 0.063 (± 0.059). Average CH emissions across all cover types and wet/dry seasons ranged over more than four orders of magnitude (types, including both final covers, averaging 200 cm) cover materials, below which methanogenesis was well established, the variability in gaseous fluxes was attributable to cover thickness, texture, density, and seasonally variable soil moisture and temperature at suboptimal conditions for CH oxidation. Thin daily covers (30 cm local soil) and fresh refuse generally had the highest CO and NO fluxes, indicating rapid onset of aerobic and semi-aerobic processes in recently buried refuse, with rates similar to soil ecosystems and windrow composting of organic waste. This study has emphasized the need for more systematic field quantification of seasonal emissions from multiple types of engineered covers.

  4. Temperatures In Compost Landfill Covers As Result Of Methane Oxidation And Compost Respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Merono, A. R.; Pedersen, Rasmus Broen;


    This study investigated the influence of the temperature on methane (CH4) oxidation and respiration in compost sampled at a full scale biocover implemented at Klintholm landfill exhibiting high temperatures. Compost material was collected at Klintholm landfill and incubated with and without CH4...

  5. Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    biomass production in the irrigated control plots over that produced in the non-irrigated control plots. This surprising result was probably due to the cumulative effects of other factors that influenced the initial establishment and production of plants in the plots (e.g., plant species competition, seed germination delay times, differences in nutrient release and availability). Variation within individual plots, and among the three replicate plots associated with each treatment, rendered many of the recorded differences in vegetation establishment and production statistically insignificant. However, after two complete growing seasons the highest total plant foliar cover and the greatest biomass production and plant species diversity occurred in the cobble-mulched plots. These results suggest that cobble-mulch may be the desired amendment in re-vegetated arid landfill covers if the principal objectives are to quickly establish vegetation cover, stabilize the site from erosion, and increase water usage by plants, thereby reducing the potential for leaching and contaminant movement from the landfill's waste-bearing zone.

  6. Use of gas push-pull tests for the measurement of methane oxidation in different landfill cover soils. (United States)

    Streese-Kleeberg, Jan; Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Stegmann, Rainer


    In order to optimise methane oxidation in landfill cover soils, it is important to be able to accurately quantify the amount of methane oxidised. This research considers the gas push-pull test (GPPT) as a possible method to quantify oxidation rates in situ. During a GPPT, a gas mixture consisting of one or more reactive gases (e.g., CH(4), O(2)) and one or more conservative tracers (e.g., argon), is injected into the soil. Following this, the mixture of injected gas and soil air is extracted from the same location and periodically sampled. The kinetic parameters for the biological oxidation taking place in the soil can be derived from the differences in the breakthrough curves. The original method of Urmann et al. (2005) was optimised for application in landfill cover soils and modified to reduce the analytical effort required. Optimised parameters included the flow rate during the injection phase and the duration of the experiment. 50 GPPTs have been conducted at different landfills in Germany during different seasons. Generally, methane oxidation rates ranged between 0 and 150 g m(soil air)(-3)h(-1). At one location, rates up to 440 g m(soil air)(-3)h(-1) were measured under particularly favourable conditions. The method is simple in operation and does not require expensive equipment besides standard laboratory gas chromatographs.

  7. Use of stable isotopes to determine methane oxidation in landfill cover soils (United States)

    Liptay, K.; Chanton, J.; Czepiel, P.; Mosher, B.


    The mean isotopic composition of CH4 emitted from six New England (United States) landfills was 13C and D enriched (-48.1 to -50.4‰ and -273 to -281‰) relative to anoxic zone landfill CH4 (mean values of -55.9 to -56.2‰ and -296 to -300‰) owing to the oxidation of methane as it was transported from the landfill to the atmosphere through the soil cap. The fraction of methane oxidized f0 during its passage through the soil cap was calculated from the degree of 13C enrichment in emitted CH4 relative to anoxic zone CH4 in conjunction with values determined for the preference of soil methane oxidizing bacteria for 12CH4 over 13CH4 (α = 1.022 ± 0.008). Mean values for methane oxidation in six landfills were from 24 to 35% of the total flux through the soil during the warm season, depending upon how the data were grouped. Our results bracket recent estimates of methane oxidation of about 30% in the warm summer period produced using a model with the input terms of soil temperature, moisture, depth, and oxygen concentration. Because of variations in the response of methane oxidation to temperature at these New England sites, our study is consistent with the modeling results of Czepiel et al. [1996b] that the best estimate for the annual value for methane oxidation in the landfills considered is about 10%.

  8. Effect of earthworms on the community structure of active methanotrophic bacteria in a landfill cover soil. (United States)

    Héry, Marina; Singer, Andrew C; Kumaresan, Deepak; Bodrossy, Levente; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Prosser, Jim I; Thompson, Ian P; Murrell, J Colin


    In the United Kingdom, landfills are the primary anthropogenic source of methane emissions. Methanotrophic bacteria present in landfill biocovers can significantly reduce methane emissions via their capacity to oxidize up to 100% of the methane produced. Several biotic and abiotic parameters regulate methane oxidation in soil, such as oxygen, moisture, methane concentration and temperature. Earthworm-mediated bioturbation has been linked to an increase in methanotrophy in a landfill biocover soil (AC Singer et al., unpublished), but the mechanism of this trophic interaction remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine the composition of the active methanotroph community and to investigate the interactions between earthworms and bacteria in this landfill biocover soil where the methane oxidation activity was significantly increased by the earthworms. Soil microcosms were incubated with 13C-CH4 and with or without earthworms. DNA and RNA were extracted to characterize the soil bacterial communities, with a particular emphasis on methanotroph populations, using phylogenetic (16S ribosomal RNA) and functional methane monooxygenase (pmoA and mmoX) gene probes, coupled with denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis, clone libraries and pmoA microarray analyses. Stable isotope probing (SIP) using 13C-CH4 substrate allowed us to link microbial function with identity of bacteria via selective recovery of 'heavy' 13C-labelled DNA or RNA and to assess the effect of earthworms on the active methanotroph populations. Both types I and II methanotrophs actively oxidized methane in the landfill soil studied. Results suggested that the earthworm-mediated increase in methane oxidation rate in the landfill soil was more likely to be due to the stimulation of bacterial growth or activity than to substantial shifts in the methanotroph community structure. A Bacteroidetes-related bacterium was identified only in the active bacterial community of earthworm-incubated soil but

  9. The potential application of red mud and soil mixture as additive to the surface layer of a landfill cover system. (United States)

    Ujaczki, Éva; Feigl, Viktória; Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Uzinger, Nikolett; Erdélyi, Attila; Gruiz, Katalin


    Red mud, the by-product of aluminum production, has been regarded as a problematic residue all over the world. Its storage involves risks as evidenced by the Ajka red mud spill, an accident in Hungary where the slurry broke free, flooding the surrounding areas. As an immediate remediation measure more than 5cm thick red mud layer was removed from the flooded soil surface. The removed red mud and soil mixture (RMSM) was transferred into the reservoirs for storage. In this paper the application of RMSM is evaluated in a field study aiming at re-utilizing waste, decreasing cost of waste disposal and providing a value-added product. The purpose was to investigate the applicability of RMSM as surface layer component of landfill cover systems. The field study was carried out in two steps: in lysimeters and in field plots. The RMSM was mixed at ratios ranging between 0 and 50% w/w with low quality subsoil (LQS) originally used as surface layer of an interim landfill cover. The characteristics of the LQS+RMSM mixtures compared to the subsoil (LQS) and the RMSM were determined by physical-chemical, biological and ecotoxicological methods. The addition of RMSM to the subsoil (LQS) at up to 20% did not result any ecotoxic effect, but it increased the water holding capacity. In addition, the microbial substrate utilization became about triple of subsoil (LQS) after 10months. According to our results the RMSM mixed into subsoil (LQS) at 20% w/w dose may be applied as surface layer of landfill cover systems.

  10. Use of Impervious Covers and Carbon Adsorption for the Control of Leachate Production in Municipal Landfills. (United States)


    studies are explained in part by the following factors: age of the landfill and corresponding state of stabilization ; composition of the solid waste, the...polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), butyl rubber, Hyalon (a registered trademark of Dupont), ethylene propylene diene monomer ( EPDM ), active anaerobic population of methane formers. The removal of organics resulted in a more rapid stabilization or "aging" of the experimental

  11. Field-Scale Stable-Isotope Probing of Active Methanotrophs in a Landfill-Cover Soil (United States)

    Schroth, M. H.; Henneberger, R.; Chiri, E.


    The greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is an important contributor to global climate change. While its atmospheric concentration is increasing, a large portion of produced CH4 never reaches the atmosphere, but is consumed by aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). The latter are ubiquitous in soils and utilize CH4 as sole source of energy and carbon. Among other methods, MOB may be differentiated based on characteristic phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Stable-isotope probing (SIP) on PLFA has been widely applied to identify active members of MOB communities in laboratory incubation studies, but results are often difficult to extrapolate to the field. Thus, novel field-scale approaches are needed to link activity and identity of MOB in their natural environment. We present results of field experiments in which we combined PLFA-SIP with gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) to label active MOB at the field-scale while simultaneously quantifying CH4 oxidation activity. During a SIP-GPPT, a mixture of reactive (here 13CH4, O2) and non-reactive tracer gases (e.g., Ar, Ne, He) is injected into the soil at a location of interest. Thereafter, gas flow is reversed and the gas mixture diluted with soil air is extracted from the same location and sampled periodically. Rate constants for CH4 oxidation can be calculated by analyzing breakthrough curves of 13CH4 and a suitable non-reactive tracer gas. SIP-GPPTs were performed in a landfill-cover soil, and feasibility of this novel approach was tested at several locations along a gradient of MOB activity and soil temperature. Soil samples were collected before and after SIP-GPPTs, total PLFA were extracted, and incorporation of 13C in the polar lipid fraction was analyzed. Potential CH4 oxidation rates derived from SIP-GPPTs were similar to those derived from regular GPPTs (using unlabeled CH4) performed at the same locations prior to SIP-GPPTs, indicating that application of 13CH4 did not adversely affect bacterial CH4 oxidation rates. Rates

  12. Modeling the effects of vegetation on methane oxidation and emissions through soil landfill final covers across different climates. (United States)

    Abichou, Tarek; Kormi, Tarek; Yuan, Lei; Johnson, Terry; Francisco, Escobar


    Plant roots are reported to enhance the aeration of soil by creating secondary macropores which improve the diffusion of oxygen into soil as well as the supply of methane to bacteria. Therefore, methane oxidation can be improved considerably by the soil structuring processes of vegetation, along with the increase of organic biomass in the soil associated with plant roots. This study consisted of using a numerical model that combines flow of water and heat with gas transport and oxidation in soils, to simulate methane emission and oxidation through simulated vegetated and non-vegetated landfill covers under different climatic conditions. Different simulations were performed using different methane loading flux (5-200 g m(-2) d(-1)) as the bottom boundary. The lowest modeled surface emissions were always obtained with vegetated soil covers for all simulated climates. The largest differences in simulated surface emissions between the vegetated and non-vegetated scenarios occur during the growing season. Higher average yearly percent oxidation was obtained in simulations with vegetated soil covers as compared to non-vegetated scenario. The modeled effects of vegetation on methane surface emissions and percent oxidation were attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) increase in methane oxidation associated with the change of the physical properties of the upper vegetative layer and (2) increase in organic matter associated with vegetated soil layers. Finally, correlations between percent oxidation and methane loading into simulated vegetated and non-vegetated covers were proposed to allow decision makers to compare vegetated versus non-vegetated soil landfill covers. These results were obtained using a modeling study with several simplifying assumptions that do not capture the complexities of vegetated soils under field conditions.

  13. Bentonite mat demonstration: Field performance evaluation of an alternative geosynthetic composite cover system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Site


    The Savannah River Site is investigating an alternative RCRA closure cover system configuration for hazardous solid-waste landfills. The bentonite mat demonstration is a field performance test of an alternative composite geosynthetic material cover configuration. The bentonite mat demonstration consists of four test pads; each test pad is a compacted sandy clay layer 30 ft wide, 80 ft long, and 2 ft deep. Three of the test pads will be blanketed with one of the commercially available bentonite mats (geosynthetic clay liner), then overlain by a flexible membrane liner to form the composite barrier. The remaining test pad will not contain any geosynthetic materials and will be used as the control pad for the demonstration. Each test pad will be constructed over a 4-ft sand layer. A series of access pipes will be embedded in the sand layer to provide a means for evacuating portions of the sand layer in order to create underlying cavities, thus inducing localized subsidence in the test pad. Material stress data will be collected to identify the composite barrier failure point. Infiltration data will be collected for each test pad to correlate permeability as a function of deflection. At the conclusion of the subsidence testing, the test pads will be dismantled to identify the failure mechanisms of the barriers. A finite-element analysis computer model is being developed to predict the structural behavior of the composite barrier system. The bentonite mat demonstration data will be used to verify this model, which will serve as a diagnostic tool for future designs. The formulation and execution of this demonstration is one element in achieving regulatory approval of the composite geosynthetic materials alternative cover system design configuration.

  14. Ammonium-dependent regulation of aerobic methane-consuming bacteria in landfill cover soil by leachate irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Lü; Pinjing He; Min Guo; Na Yang; Liming Shao


    The impacts of landfill leachate irrigation on methane oxidation activities and methane-consuming bacteria populations were studied by incubation of landfill cover soils with leachate and (NH4)2SO4 solution at different ammonium concentrations.The community structures and abundances of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were examined by PCRDGGE and real-time PCR.Compared with the pure (NH4)2SO4 solution,leachate addition was found to have a positive effect on methane oxidation activity.In terms of the irrigation amount,ammonium in leachate was responsible for the actual inhibition of leachate.The extent of inhibitory effect mainly depended on its ammonium concentration.The suppression of the predominant methaneconsuming bacteria,type Ⅰ MOB,was responsible for the decreased methane oxidation activity by ammonium inhibition.Methaneconsuming bacteria responded diversely in abundance to ammonium.The abundance of type Ⅰ MOB decreased by fivefold; type Ⅱ MOB showed stimulation response of fivefold magnification upon the first addition but lessened to be lower than the original level after the second addition; the amount of AOB was stimulated to increase for 20-30 times gradually.Accumulated nitrate from nitrification strengthened the ammonium inhibition on type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ MOB,as a result,repetitive irrigation was unfavorable for methane oxidation.

  15. Ammonium-dependent regulation of aerobic methane-consuming bacteria in landfill cover soil by leachate irrigation. (United States)

    Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing; Guo, Min; Yang, Na; Shao, Liming


    The impacts of landfill leachate irrigation on methane oxidation activities and methane-consuming bacteria populations were studied by incubation of landfill cover soils with leachate and (NH4)2SO4 solution at different ammonium concentrations. The community structures and abundances of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were examined by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR. Compared with the pure (NH4)2SO4 solution, leachate addition was found to have a positive effect on methane oxidation activity. In terms of the irrigation amount, ammonium in leachate was responsible for the actual inhibition of leachate. The extent of inhibitory effect mainly depended on its ammonium concentration. The suppression of the predominant methane-consuming bacteria, type I MOB, was responsible for the decreased methane oxidation activity by ammonium inhibition. Methane-consuming bacteria responded diversely in abundance to ammonium. The abundance of type I MOB decreased by fivefold; type II MOB showed stimulation response of fivefold magnification upon the first addition but lessened to be lower than the original level after the second addition; the amount of AOB was stimulated to increase for 20-30 times gradually. Accumulated nitrate from nitrification strengthened the ammonium inhibition on type I and type II MOB, as a result, repetitive irrigation was unfavorable for methane oxidation.

  16. Monitoring the performance of an alternative cover using caisson lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Smith, G.M.; Mushovic, P.S.


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, collaborated on a series of field lysimeter studies to design and monitor the performance of an alternative cover for a uranium mill tailings disposal cell at the Monticello, Utah, Superfund Site. Because groundwater recharge is naturally limited at Monticello in areas with thick loess soils, DOE and EPA chose to design a cover for Monticello using local soils and a native plant community to mimic this natural soilwater balance. Two large drainage lysimeters fabricated of corrugated steel culvert lined with high-density polyethylene were installed to evaluate the hydrological and ecological performance of an alternative cover design constructed in 2000 on the disposal cell. Unlike conventional, lowpermeability designs, this cover relies on (1) the water storage capacity of a 163-cm soil “sponge” layer overlying a sand-and-gravel capillary barrier to retain precipitation while plants are dormant and (2) native vegetation to remove precipitation during the growing season. The sponge layer consists of a clay loam subsoil compacted to 1.65 g/cm2 in one lysimeter and a loam topsoil compacted to 1.45 g/cm2 in the other lysimeter, representing the range of as-built conditions constructed in the nearby disposal cell cover. About 0.1 mm of drainage occurred in both lysimeters during an average precipitation year and before they were planted, an amount well below the EPA target of <3.0 mm/yr. However, the cover with less compacted loam topsoil sponge had a 40% greater water storage capacity than the cover with overly compacted clay loam subsoil sponge. The difference is attributable in part to higher green leaf area and water extraction by plants in the loam topsoil. The lesson learned is that seemingly subtle differences in soil types, sources, and compaction can result in salient differences in performance. Diverse, seeded communities of

  17. Field-scale tracking of active methane-oxidizing communities in a landfill-cover soil reveals spatial and seasonal variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneberger, R.; Chiri, E.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Frenzel, P.; Luke, C.; Schroth, M.H.


    Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in soils mitigate methane (CH4) emissions. We assessed spatial and seasonal differences in active MOB communities in a landfill cover soil characterized by highly variable environmental conditions. Field-based measurements of CH4 oxidation activity and stable

  18. Coupled Environmental Processes and Long-term Performance of Landfill Covers in the northern Mojave Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shafer; Michael Young; Stephen Zitzer; Eric McDonald; Todd Caldwell


    Evapotransiration (ET) covers have gained widespread acceptance as a closure feature for waste disposal sites, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern U.S. But as landforms, ET covers are subject to change over time because of processes such as pedogenesis, hydrologic processes, vegetation establishment and change, and biological processes. To better understand the effects of coupled process changes to ET covers, a series of four primary analog sites in Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site, along with measurements and observations from other locations in the Mojave Desert, were selected to evaluate changes in ET covers over time. The analog sites, of varying ages, were selected to address changes in the early post-institutional control period, the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and the 10,000-year compliance period for transuranic waste sites.

  19. Complex group algebras of the double covers of the symmetric and alternating group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Nguyen, Hung Ngoc; Olsson, Jørn Børling


    We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras......We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras...

  20. Field-scale tracking of active methane-oxidizing communities in a landfill cover soil reveals spatial and seasonal variability. (United States)

    Henneberger, Ruth; Chiri, Eleonora; Bodelier, Paul E L; Frenzel, Peter; Lüke, Claudia; Schroth, Martin H


    Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in soils mitigate methane (CH4 ) emissions. We assessed spatial and seasonal differences in active MOB communities in a landfill cover soil characterized by highly variable environmental conditions. Field-based measurements of CH4 oxidation activity and stable-isotope probing of polar lipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA-SIP) were complemented by microarray analysis of pmoA genes and transcripts, linking diversity and function at the field scale. In situ CH4 oxidation rates varied between sites and were generally one order of magnitude lower in winter compared with summer. Results from PLFA-SIP and pmoA transcripts were largely congruent, revealing distinct spatial and seasonal clustering. Overall, active MOB communities were highly diverse. Type Ia MOB, specifically Methylomonas and Methylobacter, were key drivers for CH4 oxidation, particularly at a high-activity site. Type II MOB were mainly active at a site showing substantial fluctuations in CH4 loading and soil moisture content. Notably, Upland Soil Cluster-gamma-related pmoA transcripts were also detected, indicating concurrent oxidation of atmospheric CH4 . Spatial separation was less distinct in winter, with Methylobacter and uncultured MOB mediating CH4 oxidation. We propose that high diversity of active MOB communities in this soil is promoted by high variability in environmental conditions, facilitating substantial removal of CH4 generated in the waste body.

  1. Alternatives to Conventional Construction Materials on Landfills. A Guide; Alternativa konstruktionsmaterial paa deponier. Vaegledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rihm, Thomas; Rogbeck, Yvonne; Svedberg, Bo; Eriksson, Maria


    Before a landfill can be sited, an application for a permit from the authorities is required. Already in the application process the consequences concerning impact on human health and on the environment must be described, including descriptions of e.g. bottom liners and capping constructions. Since there is a long period of time between when the permit is given and when the capping will be carried out, it is common practice, either to postpone decisions concerning capping details, or to delegate the decisions to the supervisory authorities to be made at a later stage. All constructions must however be approved by the authorities before they can be carried out. A construction must fulfil the demands for its function. For the capping this means that the percolation through it must be low, even in a long time perspective. A construction may not in itself cause adverse environmental effects, e.g. leaching of hazardous substances from the construction material. Thus, there are functional as well as environmental demands. Beside the functional demands given in the Swedish legislation, notably in the ordinance on landfilling, the construction must be physically stable, also in a long time perspective. The materials in the construction must have sufficient strength, and may not change over time, e.g. due to degradation, which could lead to malfunction. Demands on environmental behaviour can be divided into two parts. Humans and animals must be kept from direct contact with dangerous substances including dermal contact, inhalation of dust or gases and oral intake of soil, plants or berries. Secondly, dangerous substances may not be spread with surface or ground water to an extent that could lead to adverse effects on human health or on the environment. The impact on the environment is not only depending of the materials being used, but also on the construction design, where in the landfill the construction is situated and, not least, how the landfill is located. It is

  2. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  4. Landfill leachate treatment in assisted landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Pin-jing; QU Xian; SHAO Li-ming; LEE Duu-jong


    Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste(MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved not only considerably reducing the pollution potential of leachate, but also enhancing organic degradation in the landfill. However, as this paper shows, although direct leachate recycling was effective in landfilled MSW with low food waste fraction (3.5%, w/w), it failed in MSW containing 54% food waste, as normally noted in Asian countries. The initial acid stuck would inhibit methanogenesis to build up, hence strong leachate was yielded from landfill to threaten the quality of receiving water body. We demonstrated the feasibility to use an assisted bioreactor landfill, with a well-decomposed refuse layer as ex-situ anaerobic digester to reducing COD loading in leachate. By doing so, the refuse in simulated landfill column (2.3 m high) could be stabilized in 30 weeks while the COD in leachate reduced by 95%(61000 mg/L to 3000 mg/L). Meanwhile, the biogas production was considerably enhanced, signaling by the much greater amount and much higher methane content in the biogas.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Sanitary landfilling is the most important method of municipalsolid waste disposal in China. Landfill sites are always set up in mountain valley, on plain or beside seashore. A complete landfill consists of base system, cover system, and leachate collection and gas extraction system. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art landfilling technology in China and collection discusses research projects for engineers.

  6. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.


    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  7. Assessment of methane emission and oxidation at Air Hitam Landfill site cover soil in wet tropical climate. (United States)

    Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Elfithri, Rahmah


    Methane (CH₄) emissions and oxidation were measured at the Air Hitam sanitary landfill in Malaysia and were modeled using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change waste model to estimate the CH₄ generation rate constant, k. The emissions were measured at several locations using a fabricated static flux chamber. A combination of gas concentrations in soil profiles and surface CH₄ and carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions at four monitoring locations were used to estimate the CH₄ oxidation capacity. The temporal variations in CH₄ and CO₂ emissions were also investigated in this study. Geospatial means using point kriging and inverse distance weight (IDW), as well as arithmetic and geometric means, were used to estimate total CH₄ emissions. The point kriging, IDW, and arithmetic means were almost identical and were two times higher than the geometric mean. The CH₄ emission geospatial means estimated using the kriging and IDW methods were 30.81 and 30.49 gm(−2) day(−1), respectively. The total CH₄ emissions from the studied area were 53.8 kg day(−1). The mean of the CH₄ oxidation capacity was 27.5 %. The estimated value of k is 0.138 year(−1). Special consideration must be given to the CH₄ oxidation in the wet tropical climate for enhancing CH₄ emission reduction.

  8. Potential application of biocover soils to landfills for mitigating toluene emission. (United States)

    Su, Yao; Pei, Junshen; Tian, Baohu; Fan, Fengxi; Tang, Mengling; Li, Wei; He, Ruo


    Biocover soils have been demonstrated to be a good alternative cover material to mitigate CH4 emission from landfills. To evaluate the potential of biocover soil in mitigating emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) from landfills, simulated cover soil columns with the influx of toluene (chosen as typical of NMVOCs) concentrations of 102-1336 mg m(-3) in the presence or absence of the major landfill gas components (i.e., CH4 and CO2) were conducted in this study. In the two experimental materials (waste biocover soils (WBS) and landfill cover soils (LCS)), higher toluene reduction was observed in WBS with respect to LCS. After the introduction of landfill gas, an increase of microbial diversity and relative abundance of toluene-degrading bacteria and methanotrophs occurred in WBS. To illustrate the role of toluene-degrading activity in mitigating toluene emissions through landfill covers, an analytical model was developed by incorporating the steady-state vapor transport with the first-order kinetics of aerobic biodegradation limited by O2 availability. This study demonstrated that biocover soils have great potential in applying to landfills for mitigating toluene emission to the atmosphere.

  9. Assessment of Performance for Alternative Cover Systems on a Waste Rock Storage Area (United States)

    Argunhan, C.; Yazicigil, H.


    A cover is usually applied to the top of the mining wastes to prevent exposure of sulphide minerals in the waste to water and oxygen ingress in order to mitigate the unwanted consequences such as acid rock drainage. Hence, the selection and design of the appropriate cover system by considering the climatic conditions, local unsaturated and saturated properties and the availability of the cover materials become an important issue. This study aims to investigate the performance of various cover systems and designs for the North Waste Rock Storage Area in Kışladağ Gold Mine located in Uşak in Western Turkey. SEEP/W and VADOSE/W softwares are used to model the flow in unsaturated and saturated zones and to assess the performance of various cover systems. The soil water characteristics and parameters used in the model for saturated and unsaturated conditions were taken from field tests and literature. Accuracy of input data is checked during calibration for steady state conditions with SEEP/W. Then, bedrock, waste rock and cover alternatives are modeled under transient conditions for 20 years using daily climatic data. The effectiveness of the various cover systems for minimizing the ingress of water and air that cause acid rock drainage is evaluated and recommendations are made so that the impacts to groundwater from the waste rock storage areas during closure period are minimized.

  10. Environmental conditions for alternative tree-cover states in high latitudes (United States)

    Abis, Beniamino; Brovkin, Victor


    Previous analysis of the vegetation cover from remote sensing revealed the existence of three alternative modes in the frequency distribution of boreal tree cover: a sparsely vegetated treeless state, an open woodland state, and a forest state. Identifying which are the regions subject to multimodality, and assessing which are the main factors underlying their existence, is important to project future change of natural vegetation cover and its effect on climate.We study the link between the tree-cover fraction distribution and eight globally observed environmental factors: mean annual rainfall, mean minimum temperature, growing degree days above 0 °C, permafrost distribution, mean spring soil moisture, wildfire occurrence frequency, soil texture, and mean thawing depth. Through the use of generalised additive models, conditional histograms, and phase-space analysis, we find that environmental conditions exert a strong control over the tree-cover distribution, uniquely determining its state among the three dominant modes in ˜ 95 % of the cases. Additionally, we find that the link between individual environmental variables and tree cover is different within the four boreal regions considered here, namely eastern North Eurasia, western North Eurasia, eastern North America, and western North America. Furthermore, using a classification based on rainfall, minimum temperatures, permafrost distribution, soil moisture, wildfire frequency, and soil texture, we show the location of areas with potentially alternative tree-cover states under the same environmental conditions in the boreal region. These areas, although encompassing a minor fraction of the boreal area ( ˜ 5 %), correspond to possible transition zones with a reduced resilience to disturbances. Hence, they are of interest for a more detailed analysis of land-atmosphere interactions.

  11. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.


    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t

  12. Bioreactor landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; XING Kai; Anthony Adzomani


    Following the population expansion, there is a growing threat brought by municipal solid waste (MSW) against environment and human health. Sanitary landfill is the most important method of MSW disposal in China. In contrast to the conventional landfill, this paper introduces a new technique named bioreactor landfill (BL). Mechanisms, operation conditions as well as the advantages and disadvantages of BL are also discussed in this paper.

  13. Study of modified sludge as landfill cover soil%改性污泥替代垃圾填埋场覆土的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹庐泉; 吴长淋; 伍静静


    以市政污泥为研究对象,采用固化剂对污泥进行改性,通过分析不同固化剂添加比例下固化产物的抗压强度和渗透系数,比较不同养护时间下污泥固化产物浸出液的COD、氨氮和重金属性质,探讨市政污泥固化产物作为垃圾填埋场覆土可行性。实验结果表明:固化剂添加比例为30%的固化产物抗压强度高于50kPa,其渗透系数达到10^-7cm/s数量级,基本满足覆土材料的标准要求。污泥固化产物重金属的最大浸出量远远低于《污水综合排放标准》(GB8978-88)中一级排放标准。随养护时间延长,固化产物浸出液COD和氨氮浸出浓度亦呈下降趋势,重金属Pb、Cd浸出量明显减少,浸出比例小于1%。养护有利于降低固化产物的浸出污染程度,30%的污泥固化产物养护3d后可作为垃圾填埋场日覆盖材料。%This research took municipal sewage sludge as the object, using curing agent to change charac- teristics of the sludge. The feasibility of cured products to be used as landfill cover soil was discussed, through analyzing the compressive strength and permeability coefficient of cured products under different proportion of cu- ring agent added, and comparing COD, ammonia and heavy metal concentration of leaching solutions of cured products with different curing times. The results showed that, the compressive strength of cured products with a curing agent proportion of 30% reached over 50 kPa, and its permeability coefficient was up to 10-7cm/s, which could meet the standard of casing soil. And the maximum leaching of heavy metals was much lower than the Class I of effluent standards in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-88). COD and ammonia in the leaching solutions of cured products tended to decrease with longer curing time. The amount of heavy met- als such as lead and cadmium in the leaching solutions decreased significantly, the amount leached

  14. 75 FR 50930 - Final Determination To Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, Montana Landfill (United States)


    ...) Have a permeability of less than or equal to the permeability of any bottom liner system or natural sub-soils present, or a permeability no greater than 1 x 10\\-5\\ cm/sec, whichever is less, and (2) Minimize... determination on a number of factors, including unsaturated soil modeling, site-specific climatic and soils...

  15. 垃圾填埋场覆盖土CH4氧化影响因素的研究进展%Research on Main Factors for CH4 Oxidation in Landfill Cover Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫风; 彭禹; 张后虎; 吴世东


    温室气体CH4是导致气候变化、引起全球变暖的因素之一。垃圾填埋场是CH4重要的人为释放源,而填埋场覆盖土CH4氧化能有效削减CH4排放。本文对近年来国内外在影响覆盖土CH4氧化的主要因素方面取得的研究成果进行了总结,提出影响覆盖土CH4氧化的主要因素有:土壤含水率、土壤pH、土壤温度、土壤碳氮含量、土壤粒径、气象条件、CH4及O2浓度、重金属及覆盖土材料。最后,对其后的研究方向进行了展望,指出通过优选覆盖土材料以及控制环境状态,可以有效提高覆盖土CH4氧化速率,减小垃圾填埋场CH4释放。%CH4, as a serious greenhouse gas, is one of the reasons for climate change and global warming. Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is a significant source of anthropogenic CH4, but the use of landfill cover soil (LCS) is seen as a key technology for the mitigation of CH4 emissions from landfill. In this paper, research progress about the main factors affecting CH4 oxidation in LCS were reviewed, and the major factors influencing CH4 oxidation potential in LCS included soil water content, soil pH, soil temperature, soil carbon and nitrogen content, soil particle, weather condition, CH4 and O2 concentrations, metal content and landfill final cover material. Finally, the future research directions of MOP in LCS were discussed, and through optimizing cover material and controlling environment condition, MOP can be effectively improved and mitigation of CH4 emissions from MSW landfills can be decreased.

  16. Results from a full scale application of ashes and other residuals in the final cover construction of the Tveta landfill; Utvaerdering av fullskaleanvaendning av askor och andra restprodukter vid sluttaeckning av Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, Gustav (Telge AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden)); Andreas, Lale (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))


    In 2000 Telge Aatervinning - a waste management and recycling company - started investigating ashes from incineration of industrial and biowaste waste. The company was given a permit from the Swedish Environmental Court to cover four hectares of the house hold waste landfill area. In 2006 the company received an unlimited permit to cover the remaining part of the landfill when the works end some thirty years later. Ashes were used the first time in 1966 for testing. Literature studies indicated the ashes can have a low hydraulic conductivity under certain conditions. In 1999 collaboration started with the Division of Waste Science and Technology at Luleaa University of Technology. Residuals from household and industrial waste were subject to investigation. Initially, biowaste incineration products were subject to testing and were later extended to other waste products, e.g. sludge, contaminated soils, foundry, and compost material. Several different sub-fractions of ashes were included in the investigation e.g. bottom and fly ash, various slag products after up-grading including dewatering, separation and sifting. Subsequently, a complete covering system of a landfill consists of residuals. Six test areas were outlined in order to give a good representation for cover construction in flat and steep areas with different compositions of liner material. The results show that in all areas the hydraulic conductivity construction yields less then 50 liters per square meters and years and can be less the than 5 liters in a repository for hazardous waste if required. In accordance with literature data the field observations show the liner material constructed only by ash material under certain conditions can form a monolithic structure due to very slow processes thus indicating small pore volumes that unable water air to interact with other media. The concept of using ash can be related to natural analogues of volcanic ashes and has been used in old defence walls and other

  17. Evaluation of respiration in compost landfill biocovers intended for methane oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedicone, Alessio; Pedersen, Gitte Bukh;


    A low-cost alternative approach to reduce landfill gas (LFG) emissions is to integrate compost into the landfill cover design in order to establish a biocover that is optimized for biological oxidation of methane (CH4). A laboratory and field investigation was performed to quantify respiration...... in an experimental compost biocover in terms of oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and emission rates. O2 consumption and CO2 production rates were measured in batch and column experiments containing compost sampled from a landfill biowindow at Fakse landfill in Denmark. Column gas...... concentration profiles were compared to field measurements. Column studies simulating compost respiration in the biowindow showed average CO2 production and O2 consumption rates of 107±14gm−2d−1 and 63±12gm−2d−1, respectively. Gas profiles from the columns showed elevated CO2 concentrations throughout...

  18. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study. (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing


    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%.

  19. Simulation model for oxygen consumption flux and prediction of methane oxidation in landfill cover soil%覆盖层氧气消耗通量模型及甲烷氧化能力预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢志林; 赵天涛; 陈新安; 车轮; 张丽杰; 全学军


    填埋场覆盖层生物气扩散规律和甲烷氧化能力的评估是甲烷减排研究的重要组成部分。以数值模拟方法分析了氧气在覆盖层中的扩散规律,得到了指数方程形式的氧气扩散模型(R2范围0.8941~0.9975);通过检测有机碳和甲烷浓度变化进一步考察了模拟覆盖层不同深度的甲烷氧化能力,证实了在0.05~0.25 m范围内甲烷氧化活性最高;以Fick定律和轴向扩散模型推导了模拟覆盖层中氧气消耗通量模型,该模型计算得到的氧气消耗通量与覆盖层中微生物甲烷氧化经验方程相比无显著差异;结合以上模型推演出覆盖层甲烷消耗通量模型,与实际检测值相比,预测结果理想(R2=0.9983)。该成果可为揭示填埋场覆盖层生物气扩散规律、强化甲烷氧化能力以及预测甲烷排放提供新的思路和理论依据。%Diffusion process of biogas and evaluation of methane oxidation in landfill cover soil are important parts of research on methane emission. Diffusion process of oxygen in landfill cover soil was analyzed by simulation, and an oxygen diffusion model fitted by exponential equation (0.8941landfill cover depths was also investigated by analyzing organic carbon and monitoring methane concentration. The most intensive methane oxidation occurred at the layer of 0.05—0.25 m. An oxygen consumption flux model in landfill cover was derived on the basis of Fick’s law and axial dispersion model. There was no significant difference between fitted values by oxygen consumption flux model and derived values by empirical equation of biological methane oxidation. Based on the above model, a methane consumption flux model was derived finally, and the prediction was consistent with detection. These results provided new ideas and theoretical basis for revealing biogas diffusion process in landfill cover soil

  20. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan


    of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively...

  1. Wood ash amendment to biogas reactors as an alternative to landfilling? A preliminary study on changes in process chemistry and biology. (United States)

    Podmirseg, Sabine M; Seewald, Martin S A; Knapp, Brigitte A; Bouzid, Ourdia; Biderre-Petit, Corinne; Peyret, Pierre; Insam, Heribert


    Wood ash addition to biogas plants represents an alternative to commonly used landfilling by improving the reactor performance, raising the pH and alleviating potential limits of trace elements. This study is the first on the effects of wood ash on reactor conditions and microbial communities in cattle slurry-based biogas reactors. General process parameters [temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, ammonia, volatile fatty acids, carbon/nitrogen (C/N), total solids (TS), volatile solids, and gas quantity and quality] were monitored along with molecular analyses of methanogens by polymerase chain reaction- denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and modern microarrays (archaea and bacteria). A prompt pH rise was observed, as was an increase in C/N ratio and volatile fatty acids. Biogas production was inhibited, but recovered to even higher production rates and methane concentration after single amendment. High sulphur levels in the wood ash generated hydrogen sulphide and potentially hampered methanogenesis. Methanosarcina was the most dominant methanogen in all reactors; however, diversity was higher in ash-amended reactors. Bacterial groups like Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were favoured, which could improve the hydrolytic efficiency of the reactors. We recommend constant monitoring of the chemical composition of the used wood ash and suggest that ash amendment is adequate if added to the substrate at a rate low enough to allow adaptation of the microbiota (e.g. 0.25 g g(-1) TS). It could further help to enrich digestate with important nutrients, for example phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, but further experiments are required for the evaluation of wood ash concentrations that are tolerable for anaerobic digestion.

  2. Landfills, Landfills, Published in 2003, Taylor County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Landfills dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2003. It is described as 'Landfills'. Data by this publisher are...

  3. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter


    , the extent and quality of the technical environmental protection measures introduced, the daily operation and the timescale. This chapter describes the main potential environmental impacts from landfills. The modern landfill is able to avoid most of these impacts. However, in the planning and design...... of landfills it is important to understand the potential environmental impacts, which must be avoided. The emissions of landfill gas and leachate causing most of the environmental risks are described in detail in the chapters addressing specific landfill types: Chapter 10.5 (mineral waste landfill), Chapter 10...... to air, soil and water caused by the processes stabilizing the waste in the landfill. The main factors controlling the actual environmental impacts from the landfilling are: the nature and amount of the waste landfilled, the geological and hydrological setting of the landfill, the landfill technology...

  4. The co-oxidation of methane and dichloromethane in landfill bio-cover[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, E.; Albanna, M.; Fernandes, L.; Warith, M. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering


    Solid waste landfills are responsible for 13 per cent of the annual global anthropogenic methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. Landfill bio-cover systems using methanotrophic bacteria to oxidize CH{sub 4} to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water (H{sub 2}O) is a cost effective solution for the attenuation of these fugitive greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study analyzed the affect of dichloromethane (DCM), a volatile organic compound (VOC), on the rate of methane oxidation at several environmental conditions. Compost from Trail Road, a municipal landfill in Ottawa, was used in batch experiments. Gas chromatography was used to measure the concentrations of CH{sub 4} in the absence of DCM, and under varying DCM concentrations and atmospheric temperatures. The oxidation of DCM by the methanotrophs in the presence as well as absence of CH{sub 4} was also observed, and their oxidation rates determined. The study showed that the presence of DCM plays a very significant role on the oxidative capacity of CH{sub 4} under closed conditions on a laboratory scale. The study also showed that it will be important to restrict the type of waste that can be dumped in landfills. Controlling the industrial waste of non-methane organic carbon (NMOC) dumped into municipal landfills is crucial if CH{sub 4} is to be oxidized by a bio-cover. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  5. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.


    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  6. Landfill site selection for municipal solid wastes in mountainous areas with landslide susceptibility. (United States)

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Falamaki, Amin


    Several cities across the world are located in mountainous and landslide prone areas. Any landfill siting without considering landslide susceptibility in such regions may impose additional environmental adversity. This study was aimed to propose a practical method for selecting waste disposal site that accounts for landslide exposure. The proposed method was applied to a city which is highly proneness to landslide due to its geology, morphology, and climatic conditions. First, information on the previously occurred landslides of the region was collected. Based on this information, proper landslide causative factors were selected and their thematic maps were prepared. Factors' classes were then standardized in 0-1 domain, and thematic layers were weighted by using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The landslide susceptibility map was prepared afterwards. Unsuitable areas for landfill location were masked in GIS environment by Boolean method, retaining sufficient areas for further evaluation. Nine remaining alternatives were selected through comprehensive field visits and were ranked by using AHP. Consequently, 17 factors in three environmental, economical, and social perspectives were employed. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the stability of the alternatives ranking with respect to variations in criterion weights. Based on the obtained landslide susceptible map, nearly 36 % of the entire region is proneness to landslide. The prepared Boolean map indicates that potential areas for landfill construction cover 11 % of the whole region. The results further indicated that if landslide susceptible areas are not considered in landfill site selection, the potential landfill sites would become more than twice. It can be concluded that if any of these landslide prone sites are selected for landfilling, further environmental disaster would be terminated in the future. It can be further concluded that the proposed method could reasonably well be adjusted to

  7. Designing systems for landfill gas migration control in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, J. [Camp, Dresser & McKee, Inc., St. Paul, MN (United States)


    Camp, Dresser & McKee (CDM) has designed or is in the process of designing several landfill gas migration control systems in Minnesota. The systems are for both active and closed municipal solid waste landfills. The sites have a variety of covers, including geomembranes, clay caps, and non-engineered soil covers. The control system types include small perimeter systems, full-site systems and phased systems for active sites. Figure 1 shows the locations of the systems CDM is working on in Minnesota. This paper focuses on four sites: Oak Grove Landfill, Hopkins Landfill, Washington County Landfill, and Elk River Landfill. Table 1 provides an outline of the individual site characteristics. The first three sites are closed landfills. The Oak Grove Landfill system was designed and constructed for a group of industries responsible for closure and remedial action. The Hopkins and Washington County landfills are under the control of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The MPCA enacted a remedial action program at closed landfills, taking over responsibility for long-term liability under the terms of legally binding agreements negotiated with the site owners. The Elk River Landfill is an active, privately-owned facility. The migration problems and solutions developed for these four landfills are generally descriptive of all the landfills CDM is working on in Minnesota. All landfills have unique characteristics requiring site-specific solutions. CDM, after designing a number of migration control systems in Minnesota, is able to provide a generalized description of design options for specific types of sites. This paper discussions design options used to address different cover types, aesthetic needs, and waste depths, and includes a discussion of design needs for cold climates. A brief case history of the Oak Grove Landfill is included.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT


    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  9. 蒸散覆盖垃圾填埋场机理试验及渗沥污染分析%Field Test and Percolation Analysis of landfill Performance with Evapotranspiration Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文贤; 张展羽; 王康


    研究并探讨了腾发覆盖垃圾场覆盖不同植物、土质和厚度调节对覆盖层控制渗沥的作用.4 组腾发覆盖试验结果表明,腾发作用在覆盖层控制渗沥水过程起关键作用,无植物覆盖处理的实际利用土壤水库容量能力仅相当于植物覆盖的65%,无植物覆盖的60 cm覆盖层的储水能力与有植物覆盖40 cm覆盖层的储水能力基本相当;植物生长是覆盖层水均衡和渗沥控制的关键因素.在腾发作用强烈的夏秋季,渗沥水控制效果明显,然而在冬季,仅依靠覆盖层储水能力控制深层渗沥,则需要较大的覆盖层厚度.%Use of an evapotranspiration landfill was studied, considering vegetation structures, soil textile, and soil cover thickness. Results of four experiments showed that the transpiration process played an im-portance role in controlling water balance in the ET cover system. The evaporation in the bare soil was 65% as that of evapotranspiration amount. In a 40 cm soil profile, Plant growth is a coating of water bal-ance and seepage control of the key factors Lek. Role in the strong evapotranspiration in summer and au-tumn, seepage control effect is obvious, but in the winter, only rely on the ability to control water cover deep percolation Lek, to cover a larger thickness is needed.

  10. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)


    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  11. Organic farming and cover crops as an alternative to mineral fertilizers to improve soil physical properties (United States)

    Sánchez de Cima, Diego; Luik, Anne; Reintam, Endla


    For testing how cover crops and different fertilization managements affect the soil physical properties in a plough based tillage system, a five-year crop rotation experiment (field pea, white potato, common barley undersown with red clover, red clover, and winter wheat) was set. The rotation was managed under four different farming systems: two conventional: with and without mineral fertilizers and two organic, both with winter cover crops (later ploughed and used as green manure) and one where cattle manure was added yearly. The measurements conducted were penetration resistance, soil water content, porosity, water permeability, and organic carbon. Yearly variations were linked to the number of tillage operations, and a cumulative effect of soil organic carbon in the soil as a result of the different fertilization amendments, organic or mineral. All the systems showed similar tendencies along the three years of study and differences were only found between the control and the other systems. Mineral fertilizers enhanced the overall physical soil conditions due to the higher yield in the system. In the organic systems, cover crops and cattle manure did not have a significant effect on soil physical properties in comparison with the conventional ones, which were kept bare during the winter period. The extra organic matter boosted the positive effect of crop rotation, but the higher number of tillage operations in both organic systems counteracted this effect to a greater or lesser extent.

  12. Elimination of sulphur odours at landfills by bioconversion and the corona discharge plasma technique. (United States)

    Xia, Fangfang; Liu, Xin; Kang, Ying; He, Ruo; Wu, Zucheng


    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) contributes a lot to odours at landfills, which is a threat to the environment and the health of the staff therein. To mitigate its emission, the bioconversion within landfill cover soils (LCSs) was introduced. H2S emission and concentration both in the field air above the landfill and in microcosm testing were surveyed. Results indicated that H2S emission and concentration in the landfill varied with landfill seasons and sites. There existed relationship between H2S concentration and fluxes spatially and temporally. To characterize and assess the spatial and temporal diversity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the LCSs, the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was employed. Using the functional genes of dsrB and soxB, SOB, including Halothiobacillus, Rhodothalassium, Paracocccus, Allochromatium, and Thiobacillus, and SRB, including Desulfovibrio, Syntrophobacter, Desulfomonile and Desulfobacca, were identical and exhibited the dominant role in the LCSs. By employing an alternative available corona reactor, more than 90% removal efficiencies of sulphides were demonstrated, suggesting that the LCSs for eliminating odours in a lower concentration would be feasible.

  13. The implementation of artificial neural networks to model methane oxidation in landfill soil covers[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, A.; Albanna, M.; Warith, M. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering


    The disposal of solid waste significantly contributes to the total anthropogenic emissions of methane (CH{sub 4}), a greenhouse gas that negatively affects climate change. The oxidation of methane in landfill bio-covers takes place through the use of methanotrophic bacteria which provides a sink for methane. The rate at which methane is biologically oxidized depends on several parameters. This study provided a better understanding of the oxidation of methane in landfill soil covers through modeling methane oxidation with artificial neural networks (ANNs). An ANN was trained and tested to model methane oxidation in various batch scale systems for 3 types of soils. Input data consisted of temperature, moisture content, soil composition and the nutrient content added to the system. Model results were in good agreement with experimental results reported by other researchers. It was concluded that the use of ANNs to model methane oxidation in batch scale bio-covers can address the large number of complicated physical and biochemical processes that occur within the landfill bio-cover. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Landfilling: Concepts and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.; Hjelmar, O.


    Landfilling of waste historically has been the main management route for waste, and in many parts of the world it still is. Landfills have developed from open polluting dumps to modern highly engineered facilities with sophisticated control measures and monitoring routines. However, in spite of all...... new approaches and technological advancement the landfill still is a long lasting accumulation of waste in the environment. Much of current landfill design and technology has been introduced as a reaction to problems encountered at actual landfills. The solution was in many cases sought in isolation...... to understand the concepts, the processes and the long-term aspects of landfilling. This chapter describes the main conceptual aspects of landfilling. The historical development is presented and key issues of time frames, mass balances and technical approaches are discussed. The environmental issues...

  15. Field tests on landfill covers for evaluation of performance of mineral cover systems%垃圾填埋场覆盖层现场试验及特性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GARTUNG; Erwin; HENKEN-MELLIES; Ulrich; RAMKE; Hans-Giinter; 胡一峰


    Cover systems consist of soil layers with different properties and different functions. They are exposed to the atmosphere and to vegetation. The water content of the soils varies with seasons and weather conditions. In winter, the degree of saturation of the soils increases, and in summer the water content is reduced while the matric suction increases. If the matric suction in the compacted clay layer exceeds a limiting value, desiccation cracks occur, and the sealing function is impeded. In order to examine the performance of mineral cover systems, two large scale test fields were installed with different thickness of the restoration profile. Preliminary results of these investigations were presented including data of water flow, matric suction and soil temperature. The role of the restoration profile for the water balance of the cover systems was focussed on.%填埋场覆盖系统由不同的土层组成,它们具有不同的性质和功能.覆盖层直接与大气和植被接触,因此土的含水率随季节和天气条件不断变化.冬天,土的饱和度增加.夏天,土的含水率减少,同时土中吸力增加.如果土中吸力达到某个极限值,将出现干缩裂缝.这时,粘土阻隔层的密封功能将受到损害.为了研究粘土覆盖系统的长期性状,我们进行了两个大规模现场试验.本文介绍第一批现场试验结果,包括水流量、土中吸力和温度的变化规律.重点介绍保护层(营养层)厚度对覆盖系统水平衡的影响.

  16. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran (Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden)); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden))


    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  17. Proposal Of Landfill Site Model In The Particular Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopka Ondrej


    Full Text Available Nowadays, waste logistics is a relevant element within the worldwide logistics system. This paper is focused on the proposal of the appropriate model of landfill site for disposal of municipal waste. This issue refers to waste logistics in urban areas. In this regard, three different alternative models of landfill sites are considered. Landfill site model can significantly influence the waste management productivity and effectiveness of the enterprise. In the paper, one of the decision-making problem methods is utilized. This particular method enables to assess each model of landfill site in relation to each of the specified criterion and order the models according to the achieved results.

  18. Aerobic landfill bioreactor (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.


    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between F. and F. in steady state.

  19. Methane oxidation kinetics of bio-cover sewage sludge modified by coal ash for landfill%垃圾填埋场覆盖材料改性污泥的甲烷氧化动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 赵玲; 尹平河; 肖娟宜; 黄思明


    在实验室模拟条件下,以粉煤灰改性污泥为垃圾填埋场生物覆盖材料,分析了初始甲烷浓度、初始氧气浓度对甲烷氧化效率的影响,并测定了甲烷氧化动力学方程及动力学参数,旨在为材料实际工程应用提供理论依据.结果表明:初始CH4、O2浓度制约生物覆盖材料的甲烷氧化效率,初始CH4、O2浓度越高,材料甲烷氧化能力越强;甲烷氧化过程符合2级动力学方程-dV(CH4)/dt=kV(CH4)V(O2);利用Michaelis-Menten模型得出覆盖层材料的最大氧化速率Vmax为2.54 μmol g-1h-1,半速常数Km为0.49 μmol.%In this study, laboratory-scale experiments were carried out to examine the effects of initial methane and oxygen contents on methane oxidation efficiency in landfill bio-cover sewage sludge, and the kinetic equation and corresponding parameters were also determined, aiming to provide scientific basis for the practical engineering application. The results showed that the methane and oxygen contents strongly affected the methane oxidation efficiency. The higher methane and oxygen contents resulted in stronger methane oxidation efficiency. The kinetics of methane oxidation was - dV( CH4)/di = kV{ CH4 ) V( 02) , which fit the second-order reaction. As calculated from Michaelis-Menten equation, the largest methane oxidation rate ( Kmax ) was 2. 54 μmol g ‐ 1h‐ 1, and the half saturation constant ( Km ) was found at 0. 49 μmol.

  20. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mønster, Jacob [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Samuelsson, Jerker, E-mail: [Chalmers University of Technology/FluxSense AB, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Kjeldsen, Peter [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)


    Highlights: • Quantification of whole landfill site methane emission at 15 landfills. • Multiple on-site source identification and quantification. • Quantified methane emission from shredder waste and composting. • Large difference between measured and reported methane emissions. - Abstract: Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h{sup −1}, corresponding to 0.7–13.2 g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}, with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41–81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y{sup −1}. This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y{sup −1}, which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y{sup −1} estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for

  1. Assessment of the Spatial Variability in Leachate Migration from an Old Landfill Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Winther, Pia


    Investigations of the pollution of groundwater from old landfills have in most cases focused on delineating the pollution plume and only in very few cases on the landfill as a source to groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas. Spatial variations in leachate composition may have g...... the landfill was observed. Also variations in local groundwater flow directions were found. These observations are very important for delineation of the groundwater pollution and for proper choice of remedial action activities, related both to the plume and to the landfill....

  2. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio F. L. Pereira


    Full Text Available Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+ concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  3. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F. L.; Gonçalves, Ana L.; Moreira, Francisca C.; Silva, Tânia F. C. V.; Vilar, Vítor J. P.; Pires, José C. M.


    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates. PMID:27869676

  4. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco


    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta


    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with

  6. Use of natural zeolites as a landfill liner. (United States)

    Tuncan, Ahmet; Tuncan, Mustafa; Koyuncu, Hakan; Guney, Yucel


    The purpose of this study is to investigate certain features of a novel material proposed to serve as an impervious liner in landfills. Various ratios of bentonites and zeolites (B/Z) compacted at optimum water content were tested to determine the strength parameters, permeability, pH, heavy metals and other properties. A B/Z ratio of 0.10 was found to be an ideal landfill liner material regarding its low hydraulic conductivity and high cation exchange capacity. The use of B/Z mixtures as an alternative to clay liners would provide potential to significantly reduce the thickness of base liner for landfills.

  7. Sustainable Approach for Landfill Management at Final Processing Site Cikundul in Sukabumi City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Darwati


    Full Text Available The main problem of landfill management in Indonesia is the difficulty in getting a location for Final Processing Sites (FPS due to limited land and high land prices. Besides, about 95% of existing landfills are uncontrolled dumping sites, which could potentially lead to water, soil and air pollution. Based on data from the Ministry of Environment (2010, The Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 18 Year 2008 Concerning Solid Waste Management, prohibits open dumping at final processing sites and in ratification, the Local Governments have to convert the open dump sites into controlled or sanitary landfill. The Research Institute for Human Settlements has been conducting multi-year researches related to the rehabilitation of dumpsites toward sustainable landfill. The research methods are literature reviews, experiments, laboratory analysis and field observations. A pilot model of dumpsite rehabilitation was carried out in 2010 at the Final Processing Site at Cikundul in Sukabumi City, consisting of (1 mining landfill (2 construction of landfill cells in a former mining area with a semi aerobic landfill and an anaerobic landfill and (3 landfill operations using decomposed material from landfill mining as a soil cover. The purpose of the study is to develop a sustainable approach for landfill management and rehabilitation through landfill mining and implementation of semi aerobic landfill. Findings in the construction of landfill mining indicate that (1 the construction of landfill mining is constrained by leachate that is trapped in a pile of waste, therefore, the leachate needs to be pumped to leachate treatment installations, (2 the volume of waste excavation is expanding due to the high plastic content of about 26% in landfills (3 the potency of decomposed materials from landfill mining is 40–83% for landfill operations or greening.. The performance of landfill systems shows that leachate quality of semi aerobic landfill tends to be lower

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV


    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution

  9. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  10. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...

  11. Effects of filling material and depth on the removal of hydrogen sulfide in landfill gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkoong, W.; Park, J.S.; Seok, C.Y. [Kon-Kuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.H. [Environmental Technology Team, Samsung Corporation (Korea, Republic of)


    Bio filtration has been used successfully to control odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a variety of `industrial sources in European countries and USA. This study was performed to investigate H{sub 2}S removal efficiencies during landfill mining with several bio filter filling materials and filling depths. Extracted landfill gases including H{sub 2}S at Nanjido landfill site were injected into bio filter reactors after mixing with air. H{sub 2}S inlet concentration was in the range of 15 ppm to 20 ppm. Experiments were performed in a incubator being set to 20 deg. C. Landfill cover soil, compost, landfill cover soil mixed with compost, and compost mixed with wood chip were used as filling materials. H{sub 2}S was monitored at the depths of 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm from the bottom of the reactor. H{sub 2}S removal efficiency was the highest when landfill cover soil mixed with 10% compost by dry weight basis was used as filling material. In order to remove more than 98% of inlet H{sub 2}S concentration, landfill cover soil and landfill cover soil containing 10% compost required about 100 cm and only 25 cm depth, respectively. In spite of pH drop of bio filter drainage during the operation for 2 months, H{sub 2}S removal efficiency was not decreased. (author). 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  13. Modeling impact of small Kansas landfills on underlying aquifers (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.; Stadnyk, N.G.; Stotts, M.


    Small landfills are exempt from compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D standards for liner and leachate collection. We investigate the ramifications of this exemption under western Kansas semiarid environments and explore the conditions under which naturally occurring geologic settings provide sufficient protection against ground-water contamination. The methodology we employed was to run water budget simulations using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model, and fate and transport simulations using the Multimedia Exposure Assessment Model (MULTIMED) for several western Kansas small landfill scenarios in combination with extensive sensitivity analyses. We demonstrate that requiring landfill cover, leachate collection system (LCS), and compacted soil liner will reduce leachate production by 56%, whereas requiring only a cover without LCS and liner will reduce leachate by half as much. The most vulnerable small landfills are shown to be the ones with no vegetative cover underlain by both a relatively thin vadose zone and aquifer and which overlie an aquifer characterized by cool temperatures and low hydraulic gradients. The aquifer-related physical and chemical parameters proved to be more important than vadose zone and biodegradation parameters in controlling leachate concentrations at the point of compliance. ??ASCE.

  14. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran (Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden)); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden))


    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  15. Landfill methane emission mitigation – How to construct and document a full‐scale biocover system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte


    Landfills receiving organic wastes produce biogas (landfill gas – LFG) containing methane (CH4). Landfills are significant sources of methane, which contributes to climate change. As an alternative to gas utilization systems or as a follow‐on technology when a gas utilization system gets non......‐cost‐effective, bio‐mitigation systems may be implemented. Bio‐mitigation systems are defined here as systems based on microbial removal processes implemented at landfills to reduce emission of methane (or other harmful substances). In respect to CH4, experiments have documented that a very high methane oxidation...... rate can be obtained in soils, compost and other materials, high enough to significant reduce the methane emission from landfills. The process has been scaled up by DTU Environment to a full‐scale implemented technology at two Danish landfills. Now the Danish government has decided to establish bio...

  16. Comparison between controlled landfill reactor and conditioned landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Feng; CHEN Wan-zhi; SONG Fu-zhong; LI Xiao-peng; ZHANG Guo-qing


    Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. The results of laboratory-scale simulators of landfill reactors treating municipal solid wastes were studied, the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation, nutrient balance, pH value, moisture content and temperature on the rate of municipal solid waste(MSW) biodegradation were determined, and it indicated the optimum pH value, moisture content and temperature can used to decompose MSW. The results of waste biodegradation were compared with that of the simulators of the leachate-recirculated landfill and conservative sanitary landfill. In the control experiment the antitheses of a decreasing trend of the organic load, measured as biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, was shown, and heavy metals concentration was observed. An obvious enhancement of effective disposal from simulator of conservative sanitary landfill(CSL), to that of leachate-recirculated landfill(LRL) and to that of conditioned bioreactor landfill(CBL) would be noted, through displaying the compared results of solid waste settlement, heavy metal concentration in leachate, methane production rate, biogas composition, BOD and COD as well as their ratio.

  17. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Spokas


    Full Text Available Abstract Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local GHG mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for landfill CH4 generation (methanogenesis, but does not explicitly consider climate or soil dependencies for emissions. Relying on a comprehensive California landfill database, a field-validated process-based model for landfill CH4 emissions (CALMIM, and select field measurements at 10 California sites with a variety of methods, we support the contrary position: Limited climate dependency for methanogenesis, but strong climate dependency for landfill CH4 emissions. Contrary to the historic IPCC empirical model for methanogenesis with kinetic constants related to climate, we demonstrate a simpler and more robust linear empirical relationship (r2 = 0.85; n=128 between waste mass and landfill biogas recovery [126 × 10-6 Nm3 CH4 hr-1 Mgwaste-1]. More interestingly, there are no statistically significant relationships with climate, site age, or status (open/closed for landfill biogas recovery. The current IPCC methodology does not consider soil or climate drivers for gaseous transport or seasonal methanotrophy in different cover soils. On the other hand, we illustrate strong climate and soil dependencies for landfill emissions—e.g., average intermediate cover emissions below 20 g CH4 m-2 d-1 when the site’s mean annual precipitation is >500 mm y-1. Thereby, for the California landfill CH4 inventory, the highest-emitting sites shift from landfills containing the largest mass of waste to sites dominated by intermediate cover types having a reduced rate of soil CH4 oxidation during the annual cycle. These differences have profound implications for developing more realistic, science-based urban and regional scale GHG inventories for landfill CH4 while reducing

  18. Methane elimination methods on landfills


    Ponikvar, Martin


    Increase in substance and energy exploitation from waste which reduces the greenhouse gas emissions are one of the main goals of environmental protection. Slovenian legislation defines that in case captured landfill gas cannot be used for energy acquisition, incineration on the landfill itself or some other equivalent procedure must be used to prevent gas emissions into the air. The graduation thesis is based on existing municipal landfill Volče where suitable gas elimination is yet to be arr...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱泽强; 刘政怡


    Static hand gesture recognition is the prerequisite and base of the human-computer interaction.Most of the hand gesture recognition systems use template matching or artificial neural network algorithm,while ours in the paper is based on the alternative covering algorithm.First,we take photos of different hand gestures,and pre-process them with gray transforming,smoothing and binarising,etc.;then in training stage,we use alternative covering algorithm to train these binarised hand gesture images to obtain the categorisation of hand gestures; at last,we recognise these hand gestures on test set.Experimental result shows that since the alternative covering avoids huge computation during the process of optimisation,and also allows the dynamic variation of the classifying targets within certain scope,the accuracy rate of the hand gesture recognition is enhanced effectively.%静态手势识别是实现人机交互的前提和基础,多数手势识别采用模板匹配或人工神经网络算法.基于交叉覆盖算法的手势识别,首先通过摄像头采集到的手势图像经过灰度变换、平滑、二值化等预处理,在训练阶段,用交叉覆盖算法对二值化手势图像进行训练以得到手势分类,最后在测试集上进行手势识别.实验结果表明,由于该算法避免了优化过程中所需的巨大运算量,且允许分类目标在一定范围内的动态变化,手势识别的准确率得到有效提高.

  20. Performance of paper mill sludges as landfill capping material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moo-Young, H.K. Jr. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Zimmie, T.F. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)


    The high cost of waste containment has sparked interest in low cost and effective strategies of containing wastes. Paper mill sludges have been effectively used as the impermeable barrier in landfill covers. Since paper mill sludges are viewed as a waste material, the sludge is given to the landfill owner at little or no cost. Thus, when a clay soil is not locally available to use as the impermeable barrier in a cover system, paper sludge barriers can save $20,000 to $50,000 per acre in construction costs. This study looks at the utilization and performance of blended and primary paper sludge as landfill capping material. To determine the effectiveness of paper sludge as an impermeable barrier layer, test pads were constructed to simulate a typical landfill cover with paper sludge and clay as the impermeable barrier and were monitored for infiltration rates for five years. Long-term hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the leachate generation rates of the test pads indicate that paper sludge provides an acceptable hydraulic barrier.

  1. Model test of a capillary barrier evapotranspiration cover for landfills%垃圾填埋场毛细阻滞型腾发封顶模型试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文杰; 林午; 董林兵


    作为替代型垃圾填埋场封顶,毛细阻滞型腾发封顶具有诸多优点,但目前主要在欧美干旱、半干旱地区使用,对其在湿润气候区工作性能的研究较少。选用低塑性粉质黏土和砾砂作为填料,在杭州市一露天环境构筑模型土柱并培育植被,量测自然降雨、蒸发和植被蒸腾作用下土柱透水量、地表径流量和各深度含水率变化,探讨毛细阻滞型腾发封顶的工作机制。试验历时15个月,得到该封顶在降雨高峰期、晴热高温期、台风影响期和冬季阴冷期等时段的响应。试验结果表明,降雨和腾发作用下粉质黏土含水率变化较大,底部砾砂中也有较小幅度干湿循环,腾发可在整个封顶土层范围内起作用;当粉质黏土底部达到饱和,砾砂含水率接近4%时底部有水透出,此时该封顶暂时失效,后随水汽运移毛细阻滞界面功能恢复,该封顶仍能正常工作;试验过程中,降雨总量为1782.6 mm,共产生地表径流为53.08 mm,透水为19.64 mm,其他降水均在土层吸持与腾发交替作用下最终返回大气,在试验期间该封顶能有效地阻止降雨入渗。%Capillary barrier evapotranspiration covers have many advantages over conventional covers. But they are mainly used in arid or semi-arid areas in USA and Europe. Whether they can be used in humid areas remains to be determined. Using low plastic silty clay and gravelly sand as material, a soil column is constructed in outdoor environment in Hangzhou and vegetation is planted. Water content, percolation and surface runoff are measured. Peak rainfall season, sunny and hot season, typhoon period and winter season are experienced during the monitoring 15 months. Results show that volumetric water content of silty clay changes greatly under natural infiltration and evapotranspiration; the and small dry-wet cycles exist in gravelly sand. It is shown that evapotranspiration acts

  2. Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants (United States)

    Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.


    An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

  3. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining. (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco


    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area.

  4. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies. (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H


    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  5. Landfill gas management facilities design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In British Columbia, municipal solid waste landfills generate over 1000 tonnes of methane per year; landfill gas management facilities are required to improve the environmental performance of solid waste landfills. The aim of this document, developed by the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, is to provide guidance for the design, installation, and operation of landfill gas management facilities to address odor and pollutant emissions issues and also address health and safety issues. A review of technical experience and best practices in landfill gas management facilities was carried out, as was as a review of existing regulations related to landfill gas management all over the world. This paper provides useful information to landfill owners, operators, and other professionals for the design of landfill gas management facilities which meet the requirements of landfill gas management regulations.

  6. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Chanton, Jeffrey


    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called “biocovers”) to enhance biological...... oxidation of CH4. A full scale biocover system to reduce CH4 emissions was installed at Fakse landfill, Denmark using composted yard waste as active material supporting CH4 oxidation. Ten biowindows with a total area of 5000m2 were integrated into the existing cover at the 12ha site. To increase CH4 load...... to the biowindows, leachate wells were capped, and clay was added to slopes at the site. Point measurements using flux chambers suggested in most cases that almost all CH4 was oxidized, but more detailed studies on emissions from the site after installation of the biocover as well as measurements of total CH4...


    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  8. Residential landfill remedial action construction case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creamer, P.D.; Martin, K.E. [RMT, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Fahrney, J.S. [City of Madison, WI (United States)


    The City of Madison - Mineral Point Park is located on Madison`s west side within a well-established neighborhood on approximately 11 acres of open green space, which was formerly the Mineral Point Landfill. In 1994, a comprehensive remedial action construction project was implemented to more effectively extract methane gas and control gas migration, to minimize potential groundwater contamination, and to improve surface water run-off controls. This was accomplished by installing two new gas extraction systems, constructing a 4-foot-thick composite final cover with a geosynthetic subsurface drainage system, and adding 12 feet of relief and a storm sewer system to promote positive surface water drainage. While these features alone are not uncommon to many other landfills, the challenging aspect of this project was to install them in extreme proximity to homes, condominiums, and a school that were quickly developed shortly after the landfill closed. Some of the issues unique to this project due to the residential setting included strict noise, dust, and odor controls, easement negotiations, limited hours of operation, limited material storage areas, utility relocations and crossings, continuous operation of the existing gas extraction system, limited construction access, and increased health and safety concerns for the general public. The need to keep the neighboring residents informed, as well as to address their concerns and requests, was also a critical requirement in both the design and construction phases. This paper will review the design of the remedial action plan and present the construction process, highlighting the constructability issues encountered and the innovative means to overcome them. The program for communication with the neighbors throughout the design and construction phases will also be addressed.

  9. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  10. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR. (United States)

    Yochim, April; Zytner, Richard G; McBean, Edward A; Endres, Anthony L


    Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable at 33.9% for the drier landfill and 18.1% for the wetter landfill. Infiltration experiments also showed the potential to measure small increases in water content.

  11. Determination of the coefficient of uranium and thorium distribution in phosphogypsum for their use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M. F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D. S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do; Taddei, Maria Helena, E-mail:, E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas


    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct from the production of phosphoric acid, and contain radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids from phosphate rock. It represents a risk to the environment if improperly stored. Because it is composed mainly of dihydrated calcium sulphate, phosphogypsum can be used in anaerobic environments such as those found in landfills to accelerate microbial processes of decomposition of municipal solid waste and thus increase the life of these facilities. One of the options of your application being studied is the use of phosphogypsum replacing the covers of soil/clay in landfills. Besides reducing the demand for soil and clay, this application would be an alternative to disposal of the waste, since the alternatives are not sufficient for more than five million tons produced per year in Brazil. To ensure the safety of this application, the potential environmental impact of contaminants in phosphogypsum should be evaluated. The rate of leaching of contaminants are being studied by determining the coefficient of distribution of the contaminants in the phosphogypsum. Batch tests were performed by mixing different proportions of slurry and phosphogypsum. This work presents the results for the chain of uranium and natural thorium.

  12. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: the semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras. (United States)

    Oakley, Stewart M; Jimenez, Ramón


    Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with a land requirement of 0.2m(2)/person year, a cover to waste ratio of 0.2, and an estimated soil surplus of 298,000 m(3) that is valorized and used onsite. The landfill has been operated solely by the municipality with an operational cost in 2010 estimated at US$4.60 per ton. A modified water balance analysis at Villanueva shows negligible leachate generation from covered trenches and 700 m(3)/yr (60 m(3)/ha yr) from the two open

  13. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors (United States)

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  14. A review of landfill microbiology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, D.; Reynolds, P.; Blakey, N.C.


    In May 1994 the DTI through ETSU commissioned WRc to undertake a comprehensive review of the landfill microbiology programme to date. The review has attempted to identify remaining gaps in knowledge which are most likely to find application in controlling the production of gas from landfills, and concludes with a list of recommendations for specific landfill process research which is likely to facilitate and optimise energy recovery from landfill. (UK)


    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  16. Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse


    Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

  17. Water hyacinth system for municipal landfill leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gendy, A.S.; Biswas, N.; Bewtra, J.K. [Univ. of Windsor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)


    Batch experiments were conducted in a green house environment to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to treat municipal landfill leachate. The experiments were carried out on leachate samples collected from Essex-Windsor Regional Landfill, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Three leachate dilutions were used in the study. In addition to plant growth, leachate constituents such as pH, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate, reactive phosphate, total iron, potassium and chloride were also determined. These parameters were analyzed at different times covering the duration of the experiments. The experimental data showed that water hyacinth system was capable of reducing total nitrogen in the leachate. The pH level remained around 8.0. High consumption of alkalinity during the first three weeks was observed, which could be attributed to nitrification of ammonia. Ammonia nitrogen and total reactive phosphate were removed completely, whereas potassium and chloride remained unchanged. Landfill leachate has a negative impact on plant growth. As the concentration of leachate increases, its toxicity increases resulting in the decrease in the growth of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth system seems to be a promising technology for treating municipal landfill leachate. However, additional studies are required to investigate the system tolerance for some pollutants that might be present in leachate at wide ranges of concentrations such as salinities, hydrogen ion concentration, and heavy metals. (author)

  18. Gradient packing bed bio-filter for landfill methane mitigation. (United States)

    Obulisamy, Parthiba Karthikeyan; Sim Yan May, Jane; Rajasekar, Balasubramanian


    We assessed the suitability of various biogenic materials for development of a gradient packed bed bio-filter to mitigate the methane (CH4) emission from landfills. Five different biogenic materials (windrow compost-WC; vermicompost-VC; landfill top cover-LTC; landfill bottom soil-LBS; and river soil sediment-SS) were screened. Among these materials, the VC showed a better CH4 oxidation potential (MOP) of 12.6μg CH4 gdw(-1)h(-1). Subsequently, the VC was used as a packing material along with wood chips in proto-type bio-filters. Wood chips were mixed at 5-15% to form three distinct gradients in a test bio-filter. Under the three different CH4 loading rates of 33, 44 and 55 gCH4 m(-3)h(-1), the achieved MOPs were 31, 41, and 47gCH4 m(-3)h(-1), respectively. The gradient packed bed bio-filter is effective for landfill CH4 mitigation than the conventional bio-filter as the latter shows gas channeling effects with poor MOPs.

  19. Evaluation and selection of decision-making methods to assess landfill mining projects. (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Vorbach, Stefan; Ragossnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland


    For the first time in Austria, fundamental technological and economic studies on recovering secondary raw materials from large landfills have been carried out, based on the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Austria' pilot project. A main focus of the research - and the subject of this article - was to develop an assessment or decision-making procedure that allows landfill owners to thoroughly examine the feasibility of a landfill mining project in advance. Currently there are no standard procedures that would sufficiently cover all the multiple-criteria requirements. The basic structure of the multiple attribute decision making process was used to narrow down on selection, conceptual design and assessment of suitable procedures. Along with a breakdown into preliminary and main assessment, the entire foundation required was created, such as definitions of requirements to an assessment method, selection and accurate description of the various assessment criteria and classification of the target system for the present 'landfill mining' vs. 'retaining the landfill in after-care' decision-making problem. Based on these studies, cost-utility analysis and the analytical-hierarchy process were selected from the range of multiple attribute decision-making procedures and examined in detail. Overall, both methods have their pros and cons with regard to their use for assessing landfill mining projects. Merging these methods or connecting them with single-criteria decision-making methods (like the net present value method) may turn out to be reasonable and constitute an appropriate assessment method.

  20. Improvement of Landfill Leachate Biodegradability with Ultrasonic Process


    Mahvi Amirhossein; Roodbari Aliakbar; Nabizadeh Nodehi Ramin; Naseri Simin; Dehghani Mohammadhadii; Alimohammadi Mahmood


    Leachate from mature landfills is typically characterized by high ammonium (NH4+) content, low biodegradability (low BOD5/COD ratio) and high fraction of refractory and large organic molecules such as humic and fulvic acids. Mature leachate effluents are known to contain recalcitrant and/or non-biodegradable organic substances and biological processes are not efficient in these cases. A promising alternative to complete oxidation of biorecalcitrant leachate is the use of ultrasonic process as...

  1. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, J.E.;


    utilizing oxygen that diffuses into the cover layer from the atmosphere. The methane oxidation process, which is governed by several environmental factors, can be exploited in engineered systems developed for methane emission mitigation. Mathematical models that account for methane oxidation can be used...... to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed.......Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials...

  2. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi


    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  3. 简析生活垃圾卫生填埋场封场设计%Closure Design of Domestic Waste Sanitary Landfill Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Functions of closure of domestic waste sanitary landfill sites were sketched. Main contents about closure design were analyzed, including landfill pile shaping, structure determining of closure cover system, collection and drainage of landfill gas, and collection and discharge of rainwater in landfill pile.%简述了生活垃圾卫生填埋场封场的作用,分析了封场设计中堆体整形、封场覆盖系统结构的确定、填埋气体的收集导排、垃圾堆体雨水的收集排放等主要内容.

  4. Final closure cover for a Hanford radioactive mixed waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.D.


    This study provides a preliminary design for a RCRA mixed waste landfill final closure cover. The cover design was developed by a senior class design team from Seattle University. The design incorporates a layered design of indigenous soils and geosynthetics in a layered system to meet final closure cover requirements for a landfill as imposed by the Washington Administrative Code WAC-173-303 implementation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  5. Detection of gas in landfills using resistivity measurements; Detektering av gas i deponier med resistivitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosqvist, Haakan; Leroux, Virginie; Lindsjoe, Magnus (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden)); Dahlin, Torleif (Lund Univ., LTH (Sweden)); Svensson, Mats; Maansson, Carl-Henrik (Tyrens AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    The main objective with the research project was to develop a methodology to improve the understanding of landfill gas migration in landfills, based on measurements with electrical resistivity. Consequently, the project aimed at an improvement of the utilisation of the energy potential in landfill gas, and to reduce the environmental impact to the atmosphere. Further more, the objective was to improve techniques for investigations of internal structures in landfills. The project also aimed at better understanding of gas migration in the waste body and the mitigation through a landfill cover. Measurements were performed at four landfills; the Biocell reactor (NSR, Helsingborg), the Filborna landfill (NSR, Helsingborg), the Hyllstofta landfill (Naarab, Klippan) and the Flishult landfill (Vetab, Vetlanda). Three dimensional (3D) measurements and analysis were performed. The measurements were repeated in time in order to study changes with time for the resistivity. Supplementary information was created by measurement of other parameters, such as, groundwater table and soil temperature. The results from the resistivity measurements agreed with previous measurements performed at landfills, and thus, the results are therefore regarded as reliable. The measurements showed large temporal and spatial variations, and all of the measurements showed the highest variability near the surface. The results show that the resistivity technique is a powerful tool for investigations of the internal of landfills. Water and gas migration are important features in landfill management and both processes can be detected by using resistivity. Degradation of organic waste results in process with high variability in time and space. Also the degradation rate varies in a landfill and high variability was registered during the resistivity measurements. The high variability in resistivity is likely to be explained by changes in gas pressure and thus indicating gas migration. Therefore, the project

  6. GlobeLand30 as an alternative fine-scale global land cover map: Challenges, possibilities, and implications for developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Tayyebi, A.; Vaz, E.


    these regions, their coarse spatial resolution e.g., 500 m as well as their accuracy are very challenging. Recently, GlobeLand30 a global land cover with a relatively fine resolution at 30 m extracted from Landsat images has been released, which seems to be a potential dataset for mapping areas with limited......Global land cover maps are a vital source for mapping our globe into a set of thematic types. They have been extensively used as a basis layer for a large number of applications including ecosystem services, environmental planning, climate change, hydrological processes and policy making. While...

  7. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.


    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  8. The implications of alternative developer decision-making strategies on land-use and land-cover in an agent-based land market model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, D.C.; Sun, S.; Filatova, T.; Magliocca, N.; Huang, Q.; Brown, D.G.; Riolo, R.; Seppelt, R.; et al, .


    Land developers play a key role in land-use and land cover change, as they directly make land development decisions and bridge the land and housing markets. Developers choose and purchase land from rural land owners, develop and subdivide land into parcel lots, build structures on lots, and sell hou

  9. [Alternate method for closure of oro-antral fistulas. Plastic covering of jaw opening with lyophilized Dura and alcoholic solution of Prolamin]. (United States)

    Kinner, U; Frenkel, G


    The operative closure of an oroantral fistula due to tooth extractions by the method of Rehrmann consists of various disadvantages, e.g. postoperative pain, swelling, flattening of the vestibulum and scar-tissue. Two alternative methods to close fresh oroantral fistulas without surgical intervention are described. By the use of prolamin occlusion gel or lyophilized dura these disadvantages can be avoided. Both techniques were successfully attempted on patients. The rate of failure is on both counts under 4%. Some indications limits must be strictly regarded. Both methods are really a good alternative to the usual operative procedure of Rehrmann and can easily be applied even on patients of great risk.

  10. Livingston Parish Landfill Methane Recovery Project (Feasibility Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Steven


    The Woodside Landfill is owned by Livingston Parish, Louisiana and is operated under contract by Waste Management of Louisiana LLC. This public owner/private operator partnership is commonplace in the solid waste industry today. The landfill has been in operation since approximately 1988 and has a permitted capacity of approximately 41 million cubic yards. Based on an assumed in-place waste density of 0.94 ton per cubic yard, the landfill could have an expected design capacity of 39.3 million tons. The landfill does have an active landfill gas collection and control system (LFGCCS) in place because it meets the minimum thresholds for the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The initial LFGCS was installed prior to 2006 and subsequent phases were installed in 2007 and 2010. The Parish received a grant from the United States Department of Energy in 2009 to evaluate the potential for landfill gas recovery and utilization at the Woodside Landfill. This includes a technical and economic feasibility study of a project to install a landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) plant and to compare alternative technologies. The LFGTE plant can take the form of on-site electrical generation, a direct use/medium Btu option, or a high-Btu upgrade technology. The technical evaluation in Section 2 of this report concludes that landfill gas from the Woodside landfill is suitable for recovery and utilization. The financial evaluations in sections 3, 4, and 5 of this report provide financial estimates of the returns for various utilization technologies. The report concludes that the most economically viable project is the Electricity Generation option, subject to the Parish’s ability and willingness to allocate adequate cash for initial capital and/or to obtain debt financing. However, even this option does not present a solid return: by our estimates, there is a 19 year simple payback on the electricity generation option. All of the energy recovery options discussed in this report

  11. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.


    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  12. Quantification of methane emissions from danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Mønster, Jacob; Kjeldsen, Peter


    Whole-landfill methane emission was quantified using a tracer technique that combines controlled tracer gas release from the landfill with time-resolved concentration measurements downwind of the landfill using a mobile high-resolution analytical instrument. Methane emissions from 13 Danish...... landfills varied between 2.6 and 60.8 kg CH4 h–1. The highest methane emission was measured at the largest (in terms of disposed waste amounts) of the 13 landfills, whereas the lowest methane emissions (2.6-6.1 kgCH4 h–1) were measured at the older and smaller landfills. At two of the sites, which had gas...... collection, emission measurements showed that the gas collection systems only collected between 30-50% of the methane produced (assuming that the produced methane equalled the sum of the emitted methane and the collected methane). Significant methane emissions were observed from disposed shredder waste...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński


    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  14. Siting MSW landfill using weighted linear combination and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) methodology in GIS environment (case study: Karaj). (United States)

    Moeinaddini, Mazaher; Khorasani, Nematollah; Danehkar, Afshin; Darvishsefat, Ali Asghar; Zienalyan, Mehdi


    Selection of landfill site is a complex process and needs many diverse criteria. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the suitability of the studied site as landfill for MSW in Karaj. Using weighted linear combination (WLC) method and spatial cluster analysis (SCA), suitable sites for allocation of landfill for a 20-year period were identified. For analyzing spatial auto-correlation of the land suitability map layer (LSML), Maron's I was used. Finally, using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), the most preferred alternative for the landfill siting was identified. Main advantages of AHP are: relative ease of handling multiple criteria, easy to understand and effective handling of both qualitative and quantitative data. As a result, 6% of the study area is suitable for landfill siting and third alternative was identified as the most preferred for siting MSW landfill by AHP. The ranking of alternatives were obtained only by applying the WLC approach showed different results from the AHP. The WLC should be used only for the identification of alternatives and the AHP is used for prioritization. We suggest the employed procedure for other similar regions.

  15. Landfill Barrier-Overview and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liange; Zhao Yongsheng


    Landfill is the primary method of waste disposal. The increasing attention focused on the effect of landfill on environment prompts the development of environmental sound landfill system. As the key parts of landfill, the barrier system can provide impermeabilization of leachate and prevent biogas from escaping intotheenvironment. In recent years, the technology pertaining the barrier system developed rapidly. In this paper, new materials used in liners and new concept of barrier construction are reviewed; the mechanisms of leachate through clay liner and geomembrane, the calculation of leaks through liner and the effect of freezing/thaw on liner are discussed.

  16. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E


    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  17. Land Cover (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  18. Prediction of Post-Closure Water Balance for Monolithic Soil Covers at Waste Disposal Sites in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana


    Kodwo Beedu Keelson


    The Ghana Landfill Guidelines require the provision of a final cover system during landfill closure as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of uncontrolled leachate discharges. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configurations that would be suitable for the different climatic zones in Ghana. The aim of this study was to simulate and predict post-closure landfill cover water balance for waste disposal sites located i...

  19. Field-scale treatment of landfill gas with a passive methane oxidizing biofilter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philopoulos, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Felske, C. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); McCartney, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Natural Resources Engineering Facility


    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills produce methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a result of the anaerobic biodegradation of organic fractions of waste. This paper provided details of field tests conducted to test 2 approaches that addressed the issue of gases produced at a landfill in Alberta. A CH{sub 4} oxidation layer was applied to replace intermediate and final landfill covers. Landfill gas (LFG) was then trapped using 3 biogenic CH{sub 4} oxidizing biofilters. Mature yard waste was used as a biofilter medium. The LFG was trapped by the liner, accumulated in a collection system, and then passed through the biofilter medium. The study was conducted over a period of 10 months. Results of the study showed that the integration of the biofilter into the landfill cover showed promising results. Low surface emissions were observed in 6 out of 8 monitoring events at 2 of the sites. Low influent LFG fluxes at the third site did not allow for full air sampling analyses to be conducted. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Environmental assessment of low-organic waste landfill scenarios by means of life-cycle assessment modelling (EASEWASTE). (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H; Scharff, Heijo; Jacobs, Joeri


    The environmental performance of two low-organic waste landfill scenarios ('low-organic-energy' and 'low-organic-flare') was developed and compared with two household waste landfill scenarios ('household-energy' and 'household-flare') by means of LCA-modelling. The LCA-modelling was made for 1 tonne of wet waste landfilled and the environmental aspects were evaluated for a 100-year period after disposal. The data utilized in the LCA-calculations to model the first 10-20 years of landfilling of the two low-organic waste scenarios make extensive use of site-specific data from the Nauerna Landfill (The Netherlands), but average data from other comparable, existing landfills were used too. As data from full-scale landfills do not cover more than 30-40 years of landfilling, data from laboratory simulations and accelerated tests of limited scale were also utilized. The life-cycle impact assessments show that the low-organic waste scenarios achieved better environmental performance than the household waste scenarios with regard to both ordinary and toxicity-related environmental impact categories. This indicates that the reduction of organic matter accepted at landfills (as prescribed by the European Union Landfill Directive: Council Directive 1999/31/EC, EU, Brussels, 1999) can be a successful approach to decrease the environmental loads in several impact categories in comparison with landfilling of waste with significant organic content. However, when utilization of landfill gas is accounted for in the life-cycle impact assessment calculation, the small gas generation in low-organic waste landfills reduced the actual potential for energy generation and therefore the environmental savings obtained were reduced proportionally. Groundwater pollution from input of leachate was also evaluated and the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality; WHO, Geneva, 2006) guideline for drinking water quality was assumed as reference. The results show that low-organic waste landfills

  1. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.


    elimination of methane production and acceleration of waste decomposition. In the first phase of this project a 12-acre module that contains a 9.5-acre anaerobic cell and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell has been constructed and filled with over 220,000 tons of municipal solid waste. Water and leachate addition began in April 2002 and to date less than 200,000 gallons of liquid has been added to the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell. The waste filling phase of the aerobic cell was completed in June of 2002 and a 12-inches soil cover and 12-inches of greenwaste compost cover was placed on top of the cell. A vacuum will be applied to the piping within the waste to draw air through the landfill. Instrumentations have been installed to monitor the following parameters: waste temperature, moisture, leachate volumes, leachate hydraulic head over the primary liner, leachate composition, gas volumes and composition. A supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system has been installed to monitor and control the operation of the bioreactor cells. Waste samples were taken from each cell for laboratory testing in early June 2002.

  2. Generation of leachate and the flow regime in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, D.


    In this thesis the generation of leachate and the presence and movement of water in landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) is investigated. The precipitation-leachate discharge relationship for landfills was found to be dominated by evaporation, accumulation in the soil cover, accumulation in the solid waste and fast gravitational flow in a network of channels. The flow regime is governed by the heterogeneity of the internal geometry of the landfill, which is characterized by a discrete structure, significant horizontal stratification, structural voids, impermeable surfaces, and low capillarity. Also the boundary conditions, that is the water input pattern, has shown to be important for the flow process. Based on this, landfilled waste can be conceptualized as a dual domain medium, consisting of a channel domain and a matrix domain. The matrix flow is slow and diffusive, whereas the channel flow is assumed to be driven solely by gravity and to take place as a thin viscous film on solid surfaces. A kinematic wave model for unsaturated infiltration and internal drainage in the channel domain is presented. The model employs a two-parameter power expression as macroscopic flux law. Solutions were derived for the cases when water enters the channel domain laterally and when water enters from the upper end. The model parameters were determined and interpreted in terms of the internal geometry of the waste medium by fitting the model to one set of infiltration and drainage data derived from a large scale laboratory experiment under transient conditions. The model was validated using another set of data from a sequence of water input events and was shown to perform accurately. A solute transport model was developed by coupling a simple piston flux expression and a mobile-immobile conceptualization of the transport domains with the water flow model. Breakthrough curves derived from steady and transient tracer experiments where interpreted with the model. The transport

  3. Mercury air-borne emissions from 5 municipal solid waste landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. Li


    Full Text Available A detailed study on atmospheric mercury emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in China is necessary to understand mercury behavior in this source category, simply because China disposes of bulk MSW by landfilling and a large quantity of mercury enters into landfills. Between 2003 and 2006, mercury airborne emissions through different pathways, as well as mercury speciation in landfill gas (LFG were measured at 5 MSW landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China. The results showed that mercury content in the substrate fundamentally affected the magnitude of mercury emissions, resulting in the highest emission rate (as high as 57 651 ng Hg m−2 h−1 at the working face and in un-covered waste areas, and the lowest measured at soil covers and vegetation areas (less than 20 ng Hg m−2 h−1. Meteorological parameters, especially solar radiation, influenced the diurnal pattern of mercury surface-air emissions. Total gaseous mercury (TGM in LFG varied from 2.0 to 1406.0 ng m−3, monomethyl mercury (MMHg and dimethyl mercury (DMHg in LFG averaged at 1.93 and 9.21 ng m−3, and accounted for 0.51% and 1.79% of the TGM in the LFG, respectively. Total mercury emitted from the five landfills ranged from 17 to 3285 g yr−1, with the highest from the working face, then soil covering, and finally the vent pipes.


    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  5. Imaging scatterers in landfills using seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Dragnov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Ghose, R.


    A significant problem with landfills is their aftercare period. A landfill is considered to be safe for the environment only after a relatively long period of time. Until it reaches such a condition, it has to be periodically treated. Not only are treatments very expensive, but they could be dangero

  6. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian


    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting to ...


    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

  8. Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup


    is on dissolved organic matter, xenobiotic organic compounds, inorganic macrocomponents as anions and cations, and heavy metals. Laboratory as well as field investigations are included. This review is an up-date of an earlier comprehensive review. The review shows that most leachate contamination plumes...... the behavior of the contaminants in the plume as the leachate migrates away from the landfill. Diverse microbial communities have been identified in leachate plumes and are believed to be responsible for the redox processes. Dissolved organic C in the leachate, although it appears to be only slowly degradable...

  9. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers. (United States)

    Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E


    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as

  10. Evaluation of the Oedometer Tests of Municipal Landfill Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Emőke


    Full Text Available The aim of the ongoing research is (i to develop a new biodegradation landfill technique so that the landfill gas production could be controlled and the utilisation of the landfill gas could economically be optimized, (ii to plan the energy utilisation of the landfill including individual and combined solutions (solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage using methanol etc.. [1, 2, 3

  11. Evaluating Gas Emissions From Landfills – Which Methodologies Can Be Used?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte


    Many methodologies exist to measure whole landfill methane emission as alternatives to imprecise estimation of the methane emission using existing landfill gas generation models. An overview of the different measurement methodologies is given, and suggestions to the most promising methodologies...... are presented. Methods based on the tracer dilution approach are most promising. However, still some developments are needed, both in respect to the technical implementation, and in respect to the protocols needed to obtain annual emission estimates based on the limited number of measurement campaigns....

  12. An Assessment of the Disposal of Petroleum Industry NORM in Nonhazardous Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnish, John J.; Blunt, Deborah, L.; Haffenden, Rebecca A.; Herbert, Jennifer; Pfingston, Manjula; Smith, Karen P.; Williams, Gustavious P.


    In this study, the disposal of radium-bearing NORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the MDEQ guidelines was modeled to evaluate potential radiological doses and resultant health risks to workers and the general public. In addition, the study included an evaluation of the potential doses and health risks associated with disposing of a separate NORM waste stream generated by the petroleum industry--wastes containing lead-210 (Pb-210) and its progeny. Both NORM waste streams are characterized in Section 3 of this report. The study also included reviews of (1) the regulatory constraints applicable to the disposal of NORM in nonhazardous landfills in several major oil and gas producing states (Section 2) and (2) the typical costs associated with disposing of NORM, covering disposal options currently permitted by most state regulations as well as the nonhazardous landfill option (Section 4).

  13. Formation of dimethyldithioarsinic acid in a simulated landfill leachate in relation to hydrosulfide concentration. (United States)

    An, Jinsung; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kong, Mihye; Kim, Joo-Ae; Shin, Jeoung Hwa; Ahn, Yun Gyong; Yoon, Hye-On


    Dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)), present in such intense sources as municipal landfill leachate, has drawn a great deal of attention due to its abundant occurrence and different aspect of toxicity. The hydrosulfide (HS(-)) concentration in leachate was studied as a major variable affecting the formation of DMDTA(V). To this end, the HPLC-ICPMS system equipped with the reversed-phase C18 column was used to determine DMDTA(V). Simulated landfill leachates (SLLs) were prepared to cover a mature landfill condition with the addition of sodium sulfate and sulfide at varying concentrations in the presence of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)). The concentration of sodium sulfide added in the SLLs generally exhibited a strong positive correlation with the concentration of DMDTA(V). As such, the formation of DMDTA(V) in the SLLs is demonstrated to be controlled by the interactive relationship between DMA(V) and the HS(-).

  14. Microbial activity in the landfill soil. (United States)

    Brzezinska, M Swiontek; Burkowska, A; Walczak, M


    The research objective was to determine the activity of microorganisms in the soil exposed to direct influence of a landfill, as well as in the soil beyond its influence. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity and respiration in the soil were determined. The highest number of cultivated bacteria was recorded at the site located within the zone of direct influence exerted by the landfill, whereas the least amount was found at a distance of 1000 metres from the landfill. In contrast, the largest numbers of molds were observed in the soil at a distance of 1000 m from the headquarters of the landfill. The highest FDA hydrolytic activity and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) were recorded in the soil by the headquarters of the landfill, and the least parameters were revealed at a distance of 1000 m from the landfill. It was found a high correlation between the number of bacteria and FDA hydrolytic activity of soil and BOD5 in the north-eastern of the landfill. However, in the same place, there is a low correlation between the number of molds, and FDA hydrolytic activity of soil and BOD5.

  15. Geophysical characterization in solid waste landfill for evaluation of geotechnical instability conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del Roveri


    Full Text Available The disposal of solid waste can create environmental problems, in addition to the potential risk of instability even in planned geotechnical works, such as provisions in stacks or high ends of the landfill, because they represent mere adjustments in civil engineering works. The Leme city, SP, generates about 35 t/day of municipal waste, that are deposited in a landfill located in the Barro Preto neighborhood. This work conducted a geophysical survey, based on geotechnical instability evidence in area, for analysis of the conditioners that cause on the sides leachate resurgence landfill and its relationship to mass movements and ravines installation in cover soil, with consequent waste exposure. The results indicate horizons of low resistivity connected with resurgence points generated by the organic matter decomposition contained in the waste. Such horizons result in leachate concentration in some places, which, in turn, may lead to loss of cohesion of the materials constituting the residues mass. The results are areas with mass flow by rotational movements, which, together with the surface flow of rainwater, evolves into ravines and exposed residues, preferably at the resurgence point. The leachate flow on the surface affects areas beyond the limits at landfill with direct impact on local agriculture and risk to pedestrians using the highway bordered by the landfill beyond the soil and the local aquifer.

  16. Benthic Cover (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  17. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa. (United States)

    Nahman, Anton


    The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  18. Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: a case study in Beijing, China. (United States)

    Wang, Guiqin; Qin, Li; Li, Guoxue; Chen, Lijun


    Site selection is an important and necessary issue for waste management in fast-growing regions. Because of the complexity of waste management systems, the selection of the appropriate solid waste landfill site requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and evaluation criteria. Based on actual conditions of the study area, we considered economic factors, calculated criteria weights using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and built a hierarchy model for solving the solid waste landfill site-selection problem in Beijing, China. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to manipulate and present spatial data. All maps are graded from 1 (lowest suitability) to 5 (highest suitability) using spatial information technologies. The candidate sites were determined by aggregation based on the criteria weights. The candidate sites are divided by 'best', 'good' and 'unsuitable' landfill areas. Best landfill areas represent optimal sites; good landfill areas can be used as back-up candidate sites. Our work offers a sitting methodology and provides essential support for decision-makers in the assessment of waste management problems in Beijing and other rapidly developing cities in developing countries.

  19. Compositional and physicochemical changes in waste materials and biogas production across 7 landfill sites in UK. (United States)

    Frank, R R; Cipullo, S; Garcia, J; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the paper and fines across seven landfill sites (LFS) and assess the relationship between waste physicochemical properties and biogas production. Physicochemical analysis of the waste samples demonstrated that there were no clear trends in the spatial distribution of total solids (TS), moisture content (MC) and waste organic strength (VS) across all LFS. There was however noticeable difference between samples from the same landfill site. The effect of landfill age on waste physicochemical properties showed no clear relationship, thus, providing evidence that waste remains dormant and non-degraded for long periods of time. Landfill age was however directly correlated with the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of waste; with the highest BMP obtained from the most recent LFS. BMP was also correlated with depth as the average methane production decreased linearly with increasing depth. There was also a high degree of correlation between the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Test (EHT) and BMP test results, which motivates its potential use as an alternative to the BMP test method. Further to this, there were also positive correlations between MC and VS, VS and biogas volume and biogas volume and CH4 content. Outcomes of this work can be used to inform waste degradation and methane enhancement strategies for improving recovery of methane from landfills.

  20. Landfills in the Western United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  1. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.


    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  2. Landfill mining: Developing a comprehensive assessment method. (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pomberger, Roland; Sarc, Renato


    In Austria, the first basic technological and economic examinations of mass-waste landfills with the purpose to recover secondary raw materials have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Österreich' pilot project. A main focus of its research, and the subject of this article, is the first conceptual design of a comprehensive assessment method for landfill mining plans, including not only monetary factors (like costs and proceeds) but also non-monetary ones, such as the concerns of adjoining owners or the environmental impact. Detailed reviews of references, the identification of influences and system boundaries to be included in planning landfill mining, several expert workshops and talks with landfill operators have been performed followed by a division of the whole assessment method into preliminary and main assessment. Preliminary assessment is carried out with a questionnaire to rate juridical feasibility, the risk and the expenditure of a landfill mining project. The results of this questionnaire are compiled in a portfolio chart that is used to recommend, or not, further assessment. If a detailed main assessment is recommended, defined economic criteria are rated by net present value calculations, while ecological and socio-economic criteria are examined in a utility analysis and then transferred into a utility-net present value chart. If this chart does not support making a definite statement on the feasibility of the project, the results must be further examined in a cost-effectiveness analysis. Here, the benefit of the particular landfill mining project per capital unit (utility-net present value ratio) is determined to make a final distinct statement on the general benefit of a landfill mining project.

  3. On the current state of the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. (United States)

    Berger, Klaus U


    The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is the most widely applied model to calculate the water balance of cover and bottom liner systems for landfills. The paper summarizes the 30 year history of the model from HELP version 1 to HELP 3.95 D and includes references to the three current and simultaneously available versions (HELP 3.07, Visual HELP 2.2, and HELP 3.95 D). A sufficient validation is an essential precondition for the use of any model in planning. The paper summarizes validation approaches for HELP 3 focused on cover systems in the literature. Furthermore, measurement results are compared to simulation results of HELP 3.95 D for (1) a test field with a compacted clay liner in the final cover of the landfill Hamburg-Georgswerder from 1988 to 1995 and (2) a test field with a 2.3m thick so-called water balance layer on the landfill Deetz near Berlin from 2004 to 2011. On the Georgswerder site actual evapotranspiration was well reproduced by HELP on the yearly average as well as in the seasonal course if precipitation data with 10% systematic measurement errors were used. However, the increase of liner leakage due to the deterioration of the clayey soil liner was not considered by the model. On the landfill Deetz HELP overestimated largely the percolation through the water balance layer resulting from an extremely wet summer due to an underestimation of the water storage in the layer and presumably also due to an underestimation of the actual evapotranspiration. Finally based on validation results and requests from the practice, plans for improving the model to a future version HELP 4 D are described.

  4. Evolution on qualities of leachate and landfill gas in the semi-aerobic landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qifei; YANG Yufei; PANG Xiangrui; WANG Qi


    To study the characteristics of stabilization in semi-aerobic landfill, large-scale simulated landfill was constructed based on the semi-aerobic landfill theory. Consequently, the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite nitrogen, and the pH value in leachate, as well as the component contents of landfill gas composition (methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen) in landfill were regularly monitored for 52 weeks. The results showed that COD and ammonia concentrations declined rapidly and did not show the accumulating rule like anaerobic landfill, and remained at about 300 and 100 mg/L, respectively, after 48 weeks. Meanwhile, the descending rate reached 98.9% and 96.9%, respectively. Nitrate concentration increased rapidly after 24 weeks and fluctuated between 220-280 mg/L after 43 weeks. The pH values were below 7 during the first 8 weeks and after that leachates appeared to be alkaline. Carbon dioxide was the main composition in landfill gas and its concentration remained at a high level through the whole stabilization process. The average contents of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane varied between 19 vol.%-28 vol.%, 2 vol.%-8 vol.%, and 5 vol.%-13 vol.%, respectively. A relative equilibrium was reached after 48 weeks. The highest temperature in the landfill chamber could amount to 75.8 degrees centigrade.

  5. Gaseous methyl- and inorganic mercury in landfill gas from landfills in Florida, Minnesota, Delaware, and California (United States)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Southworth, G.; Prestbo, E. M.; Wallschläger, D.; Bogle, M. A.; Price, J.


    Municipal waste landfills contain numerous sources of mercury which could be emitted to the atmosphere. Their generation of methane by anaerobic bacteria suggests that landfills may act as bioreactors for methylated mercury compounds. Since our previous study at a single Florida landfill, gaseous inorganic and methylated mercury species have now been identified and quantified in landfill gas at nine additional municipal landfills in several regions of the US. Total gaseous mercury occurs at concentrations in the μg m-3 range, while methylated compounds occur at concentrations in the ng m-3 range at all but one of the landfill sites. Dimethylmercury is the predominant methylated species, at concentrations up to 100 ng m-3, while monomethyl mercury was generally lower. Limited measurements near sites where waste is exposed for processing (e.g. working face, transfer areas) suggest that dimethylmercury is released during these activities as well. Although increasing amounts of landfill gas generated in the US are flared (which should thermally decompose the organic mercury to inorganic mercury), unflared landfill gas is a potentially important anthropogenic source of methylated mercury emissions to the atmosphere.

  6. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend

  7. Environmental assessment of Ammässuo Landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modelling (EASEWASTE). (United States)

    Niskanen, Antti; Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H; Anderson, Reetta


    The Old Ammässuo Landfill (Espoo, Finland) covers an area of 52 hectares and contains about 10 million tonnes of waste that was landfilled between 1987 and 2007. The majority of this waste was mixed, of which about 57% originated from households. This paper aims at describing the management of the Old Ammässuo Landfill throughout its operational lifetime (1987-2007), and at developing an environmental evaluation based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE-model. The assessment criteria evaluate specific categories of impact, including standard impact categories, toxicity-related impact categories and an impact categorized as spoiled groundwater resources (SGR). With respect to standard and toxicity-related impact categories, the LCA results show that substantial impact potentials are estimated for global warming (GW), ozone depletion (OD), human toxicity via soil (HTs) and ecotoxicity in water chronic (ETwc). The largest impact potential was found for SGR and amounted to 57.6 person equivalent (PE) per tonne of landfilled waste. However, the SGR impact may not be viewed as a significant issue in Finland as the drinking water is mostly supplied from surface water bodies. Overall, the results demonstrate that gas management has great importance to the environmental performance of the Old Ammässuo Landfill. However, several chemicals related to gas composition (especially trace compounds) and specific emissions from on-site operations were not available or were not measured and were therefore taken from the literature. Measurement campaigns and field investigations should be undertaken in order to obtain a more robust and comprehensive dataset that can be used in the LCA-modelling, before major improvements regarding landfill management are finalized.

  8. Size-resolved culturable airborne bacteria sampled in rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incineration sites. (United States)

    Heo, Yongju; Park, Jiyeon; Lim, Sung-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil; Kim, Daesung; Park, Kihong


    Size-resolved bacterial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols sampled by using a six stage viable impactor at rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incinerator sites were determined. Culture-based and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were used to identify the airborne bacteria. The culturable bacteria concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) was found to be the highest (848 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/m(3)) at the sanitary landfill sampling site, while the rice field sampling site has the lowest (125 CFU/m(3)). The closed landfill would be the main source of the observed bacteria concentration at the sanitary landfill. The rice field sampling site was fully covered by rice grain with wetted conditions before harvest and had no significant contribution to the airborne bacteria concentration. This might occur because the dry conditions favor suspension of soil particles and this area had limited personnel and vehicle flow. The respirable fraction calculated by particles less than 3.3 mum was highest (26%) at the sanitary landfill sampling site followed by waste incinerator (19%) and rice field (10%), which showed a lower level of respiratory fraction compared to previous literature values. We identified 58 species in 23 genera of culturable bacteria, and the Microbacterium, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus were the most abundant genera at the sanitary landfill, waste incinerator, and rice field sites, respectively. An antibiotic resistant test for the above bacteria (Micrococcus sp., Microbacterium sp., and Staphylococcus sp.) showed that the Staphylococcus sp. had the strongest resistance to both antibiotics (25.0% resistance for 32 microg ml(-1) of Chloramphenicol and 62.5% resistance for 4 microg ml(-1) of Gentamicin).

  9. Modelization of Biogas production in Sanitary landfills; Modelizacion de la produccion de Biogas en vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Iglesias, J.; Castrillon, L.; Maranon, E.; Sastre, H. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)


    Amongst all the different alternatives for the eliminator or treatment of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), sanitary landfills is probably the one that is most widely employed to date, due to its economic advantages. With the coming into effect of the Spanish Containers and Packaging Law, alongside that of the Council Directive 1999/31/CE, concerning waste disposal, this situation will be substantially modified. At the same time, the application of said Directive will influence the amount of biogas generated in landfills. The present research work a study of the influence that the aforementioned Directive will have on the production of biogas in a sanitary landfill which currently disposes of around 400.000 Tm/year of MSW, 52% of which is easily biodegradable organic matter. The model proposed by Marticorena was applied and the kinetic parameters, MPO and d, were experimentally obtained by means of a pilot-plant study of MSW anaerobic degradation, the values employed being 173 Nm3 of biogas/Tm of the organic fraction of MSW for MPO, and 3 years for d. The results obtained in the model are compared with those obtained experimentally at the COGERSA landfill, Asturias, Spain. Twenty wells were chosen to analyse the production of biogas, giving an overall average yield of 70%. In 1999, around 4,100 m''3/h of biogas were extracted at the COGERSA landfill. Application of the model gave an estimation for 1999 of an average production of 5,369 m''3/h giving a maximum yield in the extraction of biogas of around 75%. The difference between the two average yields obtained may be due to the fact that the model only takes into account the easily biodegradable organic fraction, whilst in the landfill, given that more time has passed, other substances with a longer period of degradation, such as paper and cardboard, may also be degraded. (Author) 10 refs.

  10. Site specific diel methane emission mechanisms in landfills: A field validated process based on vegetation and climate factors. (United States)

    Xin, Danhui; Hao, Yongxia; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Chai, Xiaoli


    Diel methane emission fluxes from a landfill that was covered by vegetation were investigated to reveal the methane emission mechanisms based on the interaction of vegetation characteristics and climate factors. The methane emissions showed large variation between daytime and nighttime, and the trend of methane emissions exhibited clear bimodal patterns from both Setaria viridis- and Neyraudia reynaudiana-covered areas. Plants play an important role in methane transportation as well as methane oxidation. The notable decrease in methane emissions after plants were cut suggests that methane transportation via plants is the primary way of methane emissions in the vegetated areas of landfill. Within plants, the methane emission fluxes were enhanced due to a convection mechanism. Given that the methane emission flux is highly correlated with the solar radiation during daytime, the convection mechanism could be attributed to the increase in solar radiation. Whereas the methane emission flux is affected by a combined impact of the wind speed and pedosphere characteristics during nighttime. An improved understanding of the methane emission mechanisms in vegetated landfills is expected to develop a reliable model for landfill methane emissions and to attenuate greenhouse gas emissions from landfills.

  11. GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia (United States)

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana


    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  12. Isolation of methanotrophic bacteria from a london landfill: a preliminary study using molecular and stable isotopic techniques. (United States)

    Sriskantharajah, S.; Cutting, S.; Lowry, D.; Grassineau, N.; Nisbet, E.


    Methane emissions from landfills are an important source of European greenhouse emissions, and could be reduced by a biological management program that used methanotrophs in landfill cover soils. Topsoil samples taken from a London Landfill were incubated on Nitrate Mineral Salts medium in the presence of methane. The resulting colonies were probed for methanotrophic DNA using PCR amplification. DNA from methanotroph positive colonies was cloned and sequenced for identification. Isolates belonging to the genera Methylocaldum, Methylomonas and Methylosinus were detected. Phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of possible new species. In addition dried samples of the isolates were analysed for their stable carbon isotope (δ 13C) composition. The results were δ 13C values of -27 per mil and -25 per mil for Methylomonas isolates, -35 per mil and -44 per mil for Methylosinus isolates, -58 per mil and -60 per mil for some of the Methylocaldum isolates and -35 per mil and -45 per mil for the others. This isotopic variation is reflected in a phylogenetic tree of the isolates. The differences shown in the δ 13C analysis could be due to differing biochemical properties, and if the technique is further developed, it may be used for rapid identification of bacteria useful in landfill management for reducing methane emissions. The results suggest that useful reductions in methane emissions could be achieved by a careful design of landfill cover to culture methanotrophs.

  13. Decision Making on Regional Landfill Site Selection in Hormozgan Province Using Smce (United States)

    Majedi, A. S.; Kamali, B. M.; Maghsoudi, R.


    Landfill site selection and suitable conditions to bury hazardous wastes are among the most critical issues in modern societies. Taking several factors and limitations into account along with true decision making requires application of different decision techniques. To this end, current paper aims to make decisions about regional landfill site selection in Hormozgan province and utilizes SMCE technique combined with qualitative and quantitative criteria to select the final alternatives. To this respect, we first will describe the existing environmental situation in our study area and set the goals of our study in the framework of SMCE and will analyze the effective factors in regional landfill site selection. Then, methodological procedure of research was conducted using Delphi approach and questionnaires (in order to determine research validity, Chronbach Alpha (0.94) method was used). Spatial multi-criteria analysis model was designed in the form of criteria tree in SMCE using IL WIS software. Prioritization of respective spatial alternatives included: Bandar Abbas city with total 4 spatial alternatives (one zone with 1st priority, one zone with 3rd priority and two zones with 4thpriority) was considered the first priority, Bastak city with total 3 spatial alternatives (one zone with 2nd priority, one zone with 3rdpriorit and one zone with 4th priority) was the second priority and Bandar Abbas, Minab, Jask and Haji Abad cities were considered as the third priority.

  14. Landfills as a biorefinery to produce biomass and capture biogas. (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Thangarajan, R; Seshadri, B; Jena, U; Das, K C; Wang, H; Naidu, R


    While landfilling provides a simple and economic means of waste disposal, it causes environmental impacts including leachate generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the introduction of gas recovery systems, landfills provide a potential source of methane (CH4) as a fuel source. Increasingly revegetation is practiced on traditionally managed landfill sites to mitigate environmental degradation, which also provides a source of biomass for energy production. Combustion of landfill gas for energy production contributes to GHG emission reduction mainly by preventing the release of CH4 into the atmosphere. Biomass from landfill sites can be converted to bioenergy through various processes including pyrolysis, liquefaction and gasification. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the role of landfills as a biorefinery site by focusing on the potential volumes of CH4 and biomass produced from landfills, the various methods of biomass energy conversion, and the opportunities and limitations of energy capture from landfills.

  15. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate. (United States)

    Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg


    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources.

  16. Feasibility analysis of remedial scheme of Qilongcun landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yun-ju; LIU Dong-yan; LIU Xin-rong; LI Xiu-lan


    Based on hydro-geological of Qilongcun landfill, the transportation mathematical model of leachat was established. The boundaries conditions and replenishment of model were determined. The leachate COD density and the water level were simulated, and the model was identified, and then the right model was defined. The right model was used to simulate leachate COD density in the interior, exterior, and peripheral of landfill. The results show that the COD densities are not high. The pollution is slight in the interior of landfill and is little in the exterior of landfill. They are proving the overburden on top of landfill and drain around the landfill is right. The max. density on the south of landfill shows it is scientific that the cisterns are building on the south of landfill. The paper shows the remediation scheme is feasible.


    Landfill bioreactor technology has been under investigation in the field for its potential economic and waste treatment benefits over conventional landfill systems. A better understanding of biological influences on the stabilization process is needed for incorporation into the e...

  18. Assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling. (United States)

    Smith, Karen P; Arnish, John J; Williams, Gustavious P; Blunt, Deborah L


    Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study.

  19. Removal of high concentrated ammonia nitrogen from landfill leachate by landfilled waste layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui-dong; HE Pin-jing; SHAO Li-ming; LI Guo-jian


    The landfill of municipal solid waste(MSW) could be regarded as denitrification reactor and used in ammonia nitrogen biological removal process. In this research, the process was applied to municipal solid waste(MSW) collected in Shanghai, China, which was characterized with high food waste content. The NH4+ removal efficiency in the system of SBR nitrifying reactor followed by fresh and matured landfilled waste layer in series was studied. In the nitrifying reactor, above 90% of NH4+ in leachate was oxidized to NO2- and NO3-. Then high concentrated NO2- and NO3- was removed in the way of denitrification process in fresh landfilled waste layer. At the same time, degradation of fresh landfilled waste was accelerated. Up to the day 120, 136.5 gC/(kg dry waste) and 17.9 gN/(kg dry waste) were produced from waste layer. It accounted for 50.15% and 86.89% of the total carbon and nitrogen content of preliminary fresh waste, which was 4.42 times and 5.17 times higher than that of reference column respectively. After filtering through matured landfilled waste, BOD5 concentration in leachate dropped to below 100 mg/L, which would not affect following nitrification adversely. Because the matured landfilled waste acted as a well methanogenic reactor, 23% of carbon produced accumulatively from fresh landfilled waste degradation was converted into CH4.

  20. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter


    , whether composed of soils or geosynthetic barriers, are able to prevent leachate emission to the environment for a relatively long time (50 years or longer), it should be realized that no liner is 100% efficient. However, modern lining systems, which include composite liners and multiple (double, or even......The critical element of a landfill, which is essential for the protection of the environment in general, and prevention of contamination of the underlying soils and groundwater in particular, is the bottom lining system. The major focus of the bottom lining system development is to prevent leachate......, as well as the migration of landfill gas, preventing contact between gas and groundwater. The bottom lining system is composed of a relatively impermeable liner or lining system. This very low hydraulic conductivity system controls the movement of the leachate out of the landfill. The bottom lining system...

  1. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F., E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.b, E-mail:, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  2. Municipal solid waste landfill site selection with geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process: a case study in Mahshahr County, Iran. (United States)

    Alavi, Nadali; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen


    Landfill siting is a complicated process because it must combine social, environmental and technical factors. In this study, in order to consider all factors and rating criteria, a combination of geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the best sites for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Mahshahr County, Iran. In order to the decision making for landfill siting a structural hierarchy formed and the most important criteria: surface water, sensitive ecosystems, land cover, urban and rural areas, land uses, distance to roads, slope and land type were chosen according to standards and regulations. Each criterion was evaluated by rating methods. In the next step the relative importance of criteria to each other was determined by AHP. Land suitability for landfill was evaluated by simple additive weighting method. According to the landfill suitability map, the study area classified to four categories: high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 18.6%, 20.3%, 1.6 and 0.8% of the study area respectively. The other 58.7% of the study area was determined to be completely unsuitable for landfill. By considering the parameters, such as the required area for landfill, distance to MSW generation points, and political and management issues, and consulting with municipalities managers in the study area, six sites were chosen for site visiting. The result of field study showed that it is a supplementary, and necessary, step in finding the best candidate landfill site from land with high suitability.

  3. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  4. Treatment of leachates of sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes. Tratamiento de lixiviados de vertederos controlados de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iza Lopez, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y de Medio Ambiente, ETSII, Bilbao (Spain))


    The method more used for Urban Solid Wastes is the sanitary landfill. Its management is similar to the industrial process plant. The minimization techniques of wastes are applicated to reduce the environmental impact and to increase the degradation process in order to improve the biogas as alternative energy. This article analyzes the anaerobic digestion, the leachates characterization and treatment of leachates. (Author)

  5. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  6. Electrocoagulation and decolorization of landfill leachate (United States)

    Mussa, Zainab Haider; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Abdullah, Md Pauzi


    In this study, several operating conditions such as electrode material, treatment time, applied voltage, Cl□ concentration and PH of solution were tested on treatability of landfill leachate by using electrocoagulation (EC) method. According to the results, EC method can be used efficiently for the treatment of landfill leachate by using proper operating conditions. The best removal rats were obtained when C (rod) electrode as anode, operating time is 120 min, voltage applied is 10 V, NaCl concentration is 5.85 g/L and the raw PH, for these conditions, 70% color removal was obtained.

  7. Occurrence and Removal of Organic Micropollutants in Landfill Leachates Treated by Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes. (United States)

    Oturan, Nihal; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Zhang, Hui; Mazeas, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Oturan, Mehmet A


    In recent years, electrochemical advanced oxidation processes have been shown to be an effective alternative for the removal of refractory organic compounds from water. This study is focused on the effective removal of recalcitrant organic matter (micropollutants, humic substances, etc.) present in municipal solid waste landfill leachates. A mixture of eight landfill leachates has been studied by the electro-Fenton process using a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon felt cathode or by the anodic oxidation process with a BDD anode. These processes exhibit great oxidation ability due to the in situ production of hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), a highly powerful oxidizing species. Both electrochemical processes were shown to be efficient in the removal of dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) from landfill leachates. Regarding the electro-Fenton process, the replacement of the classical anode Pt by the anode BDD allows better performance in terms of dissolved TOC removal. The occurrence and removal yield of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 15 volatile organic compounds, 7 alkylphenols, 7 polychlorobiphenyls, 5 organochlorine pesticides, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate were also investigated. Both electrochemical processes allow one to reach a quasicomplete removal (about 98%) of these organic micropollutants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opy Kurniasari


    Full Text Available PERFORMANCE OF METHANE OXIDATION IN CONTINUOUS REACTOR BY BIOCOVER LANDFILL FILM THICKNESS IMPROVEMENT. Municipal solid waste (MSW handling in Indonesia is currently highly dependent on landfilling at the final disposal facility (TPA, which generally operated in layer-by-layer basis, allowing the anaerobic (absent of oxygen process. This condition will certainly generate biogas in the form of methane (CH4 and CO2. Methane is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential greater than CO2, and can absorb infrared radiation 23 times more efficient than CO2 in the period of over 100 years. One way that can be done to reduce methane gas from landfills that escape into nature is to oxidize methane by utilizing landfill cover material (biocover as methane-oxidizing microorganism media. Application of compost as landfill cover material is a low-cost approach to reduce emissions so are suitable for developing countries. The compost used in this study was compost landfill mining, which is degraded naturally in landfill. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of biocover to oxidize the methane on a certain layer thickness with a continuous flow conditions. Three column reactors were used, which were made of flexy glass measuring 70 cm in high and 15 cm in diameter. The methane flowed from the bottom of the reactor continuously at a flow rate of 5 ml/minute. The columns were filled with biocover compost landfill mining with layer thickness of 5, 25, 35 and 60 cm. The results showed that the thicker layer of biocover, the higher the efficiency of methane oxidation. The oxidation efficiency obtained in each layer thickness of 15, 25, 35 and 60 cm was 56.43%, 63.69%, 74.58% and 80, 03% respectively, with the rate of oxidation of 0.29 mol m-2 d-1 and the fraction of oxidation of 99%. The oxidation result was supported by the identification of bacteria isolated in this experiment, namely metanotrophic bacteria that have the ability to oxidize

  9. Microbiological indication of municipal solid waste landfill non-stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; SYLVESTER Runyuzi; YU Ji-yu; ZHANG Qian-ru


    Accidental collapse resulted from unstable factors is an important technological problem to be solved in sanitary landfill. Microbiological degradation of organic matters in landfilled solid waste are an important unstable factor. A landfill reactor was thus manufactured and installed to examine quantitative and population dynamics of microorganisms during degradation of landfilled solid waste. It was showed that unstable landfill can be reflected and indicated by microbiological features such as rapidly decreased growth amount of microorganisms, no detection of fungi and actinomyces, and changing the dominant population into methanogenic bacteria and Acinotobacter.

  10. Influence of landfill structures on stabilization of fully recycled leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The experiment was conducted to treat the leachate from two simulating columns by recycling to the columns themselves without being discharged into the enviroment. The columns were employed to simulate anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills separately. The influence of landfill structure on stabilization of fully recycled leachate was studied. The results show that semi-aerobic landfill structure accelerates the stabilization of leachate recycled. The full recycle of leachate in semi-aerobic landfill is a very feasible and effective technology for leachate treatment with low cost and energy saving especially in arid and rare rainfall regions. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of landfill can be greatly minimized.

  11. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelis K. Panteli


    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  12. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng


    Full Text Available In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.


    Interim report resulting from a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between US EP A's Officeof Research and Development - National Risk Management Research Laboratory and a n ongoing field demonstrationof municipal waste landfills being operated as bioreact...

  14. Comparison Of Four Landfill Gas Models Using Data From Four Danish Landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob G.; Mou, Zishen; Kjeldsen, Peter


    , and to compare the four Danish landfill sites. The results show that three of the models generally give similar methane generation output. Only the LandGem model seems to give a much higher methane generation for Danish waste data, most likely due to a low organic fraction. Interpretation of the waste data......Data about type and quantity of waste disposed in four Danish landfills was collected and used on four different landfill gas generation models. This was done to compare the output data in order to evaluate the performance of the four landfill gas models when used on Danish waste types...... and the categorization of the waste play an important role in the methane prediction and combining the model predictions with whole site methane measurements would therefore be advised....

  15. Cover Picture. (United States)

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen


    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  16. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  17. Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq. (United States)

    Chabuk, Ali; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Hussain, Hussain Musa; Knutsson, Sven; Pusch, Roland


    Al-Hillah Qadhaa is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 908 km(2) with a total population of 856,804 inhabitants. This Qadhaa is the capital of Babylon Governorate. Presently, no landfill site exists in that area based on scientific site selection criteria. For this reason, an attempt has been carried out to find the best locations for landfills. A total of 15 variables were considered in this process (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using a geographic information system. In addition, an analytical hierarchy process was used to identify the weight for each variable. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined that fulfil the requirements with an area of 9.153 km(2) and 8.204 km(2) These sites can accommodate solid waste till 2030.

  18. Measurement of representative landfill gas migration samples at landfill perimeters: a case study


    Kiernan, Breda M.; Beirne, Stephen; Fay, Cormac; Diamond, Dermot


    This paper describes the development of a fully integrated autonomous system based on existing infrared sensing technology capable of monitoring landfill gas migration (specifically carbon dioxide and methane) at landfill sites. Sampling using the described system was validated against the industry standard, GA2000 Plus hand held device, manufactured by Geotechnical Instruments Inc. As a consequence of repeated sampling during validation experiments, fluctuations in the gas mixtures became ap...

  19. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  20. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky


    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...

  1. Numerical Groundwater Model of the Inarajan and Tinaga River Basins in Support of a Potential Landfill Inarajan, Guam (United States)

    Tallman, A. A.; Richards, K. E.; Stringer, A. C.; Weaver, J.; Daus, A.; Robinson, J. C.


    Geomatrix conducted a hydrogeologic assessment of the Inarajan and Tinaga River basins in southern Guam to develop a conceptual understanding of groundwater flow and occurrence in support of design, construction, and operation of a regional municipal landfill. Few previous hydrologic studies have focused on southern Guam, and thus this study provided the first detailed comprehensive assessment of groundwater and surface water conditions in the area. Data collected from an extensive field program, along with previous investigations were used to develop a hydrogeologic conceptual model describing regional and site geology, hydrostratigraphy, and groundwater and surface water flow. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model of the system was developed using MODFLOW-SURFACT. The model was used to test various alternative conceptualizations and to provide a tool to evaluate landfill design and potential impacts to water resources from construction and operation of the landfill. The nature of the local watershed systems allowed for design of a basin-scale model. Historic USGS daily discharge measurements on the Inarajan and Tinaga Rivers coupled with historic precipitation records facilitated the basin scale approach. The model was calibrated to both steady state and transient conditions allowing for simulation of groundwater flow under a variety of conditions. Following calibration, predictive simulations were conducted to assess various aspects of landfill construction. The primary finding of the predictive assessments was that elimination of areal recharge resulting from construction of the landfill will cause a dramatic lowering of the water table in the weathered and fractured pyroclastic units that underlie the site. In addition, construction of the landfill will likely result in some reduction in stream base flow. Discharge of storm water runoff from the landfill into adjacent wetlands will mitigate some of the predicted impacts to base flow and

  2. Climate co-benefits of energy recovery from landfill gas in developing Asian cities: a case study in Bangkok. (United States)

    Menikpura, S N M; Sang-Arun, Janya; Bengtsson, Magnus


    Landfilling is the most common and cost-effective waste disposal method, and it is widely applied throughout the world. In developing countries in Asia there is currently a trend towards constructing sanitary landfills with gas recovery systems, not only as a solution to the waste problem and the associated local environmental pollution, but also to generate revenues through carbon markets and from the sale of electricity. This article presents a quantitative assessment of climate co-benefits from landfill gas (LFG) to energy projects, based on the case of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Thailand. Life cycle assessment was used for estimating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, considering the whole lifespan of the landfill. The assessment found that the total GHG mitigation of the Bangkok project would be 471,763 tonnes (t) of carbon dioxide (CO(2))-equivalents (eq) over its 10-year LFG recovery period.This amount is equivalent to only 12% of the methane (CH(4)) generated over the whole lifespan of the landfill. An alternative scenario was devised to analyse possible improvement options for GHG mitigation through LFG-to-energy recovery projects. This scenario assumes that LFG recovery would commence in the second year of landfill operation and gas extraction continues throughout the 20-year peak production period. In this scenario, GHG mitigation potential amounted to 1,639,450 tCO(2)-eq during the 20-year project period, which is equivalent to 43% of the CH(4) generated throughout the life cycle. The results indicate that with careful planning, there is a high potential for improving the efficiency of existing LFG recovery projects which would enhance climate co-benefits, as well as economic benefits. However, the study also shows that even improved gas recovery systems have fairly low recovery rates and, in consequence, that emissions of GHG from such landfills sites are still considerable.

  3. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.


    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).


    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  5. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Achterkamp, M.C.; de Visser, B.J.


    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction. Conseq

  6. Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Achterkamp, M.C.; Visser, B.J. de


    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction. Conseq


    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  8. Comparison of first-order-decay modeled and actual field measured municipal solid waste landfill methane data. (United States)

    Amini, Hamid R; Reinhart, Debra R; Niskanen, Antti


    The first-order decay (FOD) model is widely used to estimate landfill gas generation for emissions inventories, life cycle assessments, and regulation. The FOD model has inherent uncertainty due to underlying uncertainty in model parameters and a lack of opportunities to validate it with complete field-scale landfill data sets. The objectives of this paper were to estimate methane generation, fugitive methane emissions, and aggregated collection efficiency for landfills through a mass balance approach using the FOD model for gas generation coupled with literature values for cover-specific collection efficiency and methane oxidation. This study is unique and valuable because actual field data were used in comparison with modeled data. The magnitude and variation of emissions were estimated for three landfills using site-specific model parameters and gas collection data, and compared to vertical radial plume mapping emissions measurements. For the three landfills, the modeling approach slightly under-predicted measured emissions and over-estimated aggregated collection efficiency, but the two approaches yielded statistically equivalent uncertainties expressed as coefficients of variation. Sources of uncertainty include challenges in large-scale field measurement of emissions and spatial and temporal fluctuations in methane flow balance components (generated, collected, oxidized, and emitted methane). Additional publication of sets of field-scale measurement data and methane flow balance components will reduce the uncertainty in future estimates of fugitive emissions.

  9. Hydrological evaluation of landfill performance (HELP) model assessment of the geology at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Material Disposal Area J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, L. (Luciana)


    The purpose of this paper is: (1) conduct HELP model variations in weather data, profile characteristics, and hydraulic conductivities for major rock units; (2) compare and contrast the results of simulations; (3) obtain an estimation of leakage through the landfill from the surface to the aquifer; and (4) evaluate contaminant transport to the aquifer utilizing leakage estimation. The conclusions of this paper are: (1) the HELP model is useful to assess landfill design alternatives or the performance of a pre-existing landfill; (2) model results using site-specific data incorporated into the Weather Generator (Trail 4), varied significantly from generalized runs (Trials 1-3), consequently, models that lack site-specific data should be used cautiously; and (3) data from this study suggest that there will not be significant downward percolation of leachate from the surface of the landfill cap to the aquifer-leachate transport rates have been calculated to be slow.

  10. Empirical gas emission and oxidation measurement at cover soil of dumping site: example from Malaysia. (United States)

    Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Basri, Hassan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; El-Shafie, Ahmed Hussein


    Methane (CH₄) is one of the most relevant greenhouse gases and it has a global warming potential 25 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO₂), risking human health and the environment. Microbial CH₄ oxidation in landfill cover soils may constitute a means of controlling CH₄ emissions. The study was intended to quantify CH₄ and CO₂ emissions rates at the Sungai Sedu open dumping landfill during the dry season, characterize their spatial and temporal variations, and measure the CH₄ oxidation associated with the landfill cover soil using a homemade static flux chamber. Concentrations of the gases were analyzed by a Micro-GC CP-4900. Two methods, kriging values and inverse distance weighting (IDW), were found almost identical. The findings of the proposed method show that the ratio of CH₄ to CO₂ emissions was 25.4 %, indicating higher CO₂ emissions than CH₄ emissions. Also, the average CH₄ oxidation in the landfill cover soil was 52.5 %. The CH₄ and CO₂ emissions did not show fixed-pattern temporal variation based on daytime measurements. Statistically, a negative relationship was found between CH₄ emissions and oxidation (R(2) = 0.46). It can be concluded that the variation in the CH₄ oxidation was mainly attributed to the properties of the landfill cover soil.

  11. Environmental risks of farmed and barren alkaline coal ash landfills in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellantonio, A.; Fitz, W.J.; Custovic, H.; Repmann, F.; Schneider, B.U.; Grunewald, H.; Gruber, V.; Zgorelec, Z.; Zerem, N.; Carter, C.; Markovic, M.; Puschenreiter, M.; Wenzel, W.W. [University for Natural Resources & Applied Life Science, Vienna (Austria)


    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) has led to a significant consumption of land in the West Balkan region. In Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) we studied previously soil-covered (farmed) and barren CCR landfills including management practises, field ageing of CCR and the transfer of trace elements into crops, wild plants and wastewaters. Soil tillage resulted in mixing of cover soil with CCR. Medicago sativa showed very low Cu:Mo ratios (1.25) which may cause hypocuprosis in ruminants. Total loads of inorganic pollutants in the CCR transport water, but not pH (similar to 12), were below regulatory limits of most EU countries. Arsenic concentrations in CCR transport water were < 2 {mu} g l{sup -1} whereas reductive conditions in an abandoned landfill significantly enhanced concentrations in leachates (44 {mu} g l{sup -1}). The opposite pattern was found for Cr likely due to large initial leaching of CrVI. Public use of landfills, including farming, should be based on a prior risk assessment due to the heterogeneity of CCR.

  12. Identification of Cellulose Breaking Bacteria in Landfill Samples for Organic Waste Management (United States)

    Chan, P. M.; Leung, F. C.


    According to the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, the citizens of Hong Kong disposes 13,500 tonnes of waste to the landfill everyday. Out of the 13,500 tonnes, 3600 tonnes consist of organic waste. Furthermore, due to the limited supply of land for landfills in Hong Kong, it is estimated that landfills will be full by about 2020. Currently, organic wastes at landfills undergo anaerobic respiration, where methane gas, one of the most harmful green house gases, will be released. The management of such waste is a pressing issue, as possible solutions must be presented in this crucial period of time. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy introduced their very own method to manage the waste produced by the students. With an approximate of 1500 students on campus, the school produces 27 metric tonnes of food waste each academic year. The installation of the rocket food composter provides an alternate method of disposable of organic waste the school produces, for the aerobic environment allows for different by-products to be produced, namely compost that can be used for organic farming by the primary school students and subsequently carbon dioxide, a less harmful greenhouse gas. This research is an extension on the current work, as another natural factor is considered. It evaluates the microorganism community present in leachate samples collected from the North East New Territories Landfill, for the bacteria in the area exhibits special characteristics in the process of decomposition. Through the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the bacteria, the identification of the bacteria might lead to a break through on the current issue. Some bacteria demonstrate the ability to degrade lignin cellulose, or assist in the production of methane gas in aerobic respirations. These characteristics can hopefully be utilized in the future in waste managements across the globe.

  13. Geologic and hydrologic data for the municipal solid waste landfill facility, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas (United States)

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Frenzel, P.F.


    Geologic and hydrologic data for the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility on the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss in El Paso County, Texas, were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army. The 106.03-acre landfill has been in operation since January 1974. The landfill contains household refuse, Post solid wastes, bulky items, grass and tree trimmings from family housing, refuse from litter cans, construction debris, classified waste (dry), dead animals, asbestos, and empty oil cans. The depth of the filled areas is about 30 feet and the cover, consisting of locally derived material, is 2 to 3 feet thick. Geologic and hydrologic data were collected at or adjacent to the landfill during (1) drilling of 10 30- to 31-foot boreholes that were completed with gas-monitoring probes, (2) drilling of a 59-foot borehole, (3) drilling of a 355-foot borehole that was completed as a ground-water monitoring well, and (4) in situ measurements made on the landfill cover. After completion, the gas- monitoring probes were monitored on a quarterly basis (1 year total) for gases generated by the landfill. Water samples were collected from the ground-water monitoring well for chemical analysis. Data collection is divided into two elements: geologic data and hydrologic data. Geologic data include lithologic descriptions of cores and cuttings, geophysical logs, soil- gas and ambient-air analyses, and chemical analyses of soil. Hydrologic data include physical properties, total organic carbon, and pH of soil and sediment samples; soil-water chloride and soil-moisture analyses; physical properties of the landfill cover; measurements of depth to ground water; and ground-water chemical analyses. Interpretation of data is not included in this report.

  14. Field test of infrared thermography applied to biogas controlling in landfill sites (United States)

    Madruga, Francisco J.; Muñoz, Jaime M.; González, Daniel A.; Tejero, Juan I.; Cobo, Adolfo; Gil, José L.; Conde, Olga M.; López-Higuera, Jose M.


    The gases accumulated inside the landfill as result of the fermentation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) known as biogas, are taking into consideration all possible uses as direct transformation into electricity. The system for collecting, regulating and controlling the biogas must include all the necessary safety features where the biogas leakage presents a high impact. Infrared thermography can be use to detect gas leakages due to the differences in temperature between the gas and the immediate surroundings. This method is able to monitor a wide area of landfill sites, quickly. This technology will not be effective if the differences in temperature are not better than five degrees. This paper describes a field test conducted to study the limitations of the infrared thermography caused by weather conditions and the moment of day or/and season when the thermal images was captured. Pipelines, borders, cells, covers, slopes and leakage (hot spots) are studied and optimum conditions are defined.

  15. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China. (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing


    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate amounts in the first 40 years, so decreasing the initial moisture content of waste arriving at landfills could reduce leachate generation. In China-S, the leachate generated by infiltrated precipitation after HDPE geomembranes in top cover started failing, contributed more than 60% of the overall amounts over 100 years of landfilling. Therefore, the quality and placing of HDPE geomembranes in the top cover should be controlled strictly for the purpose of mitigation leachate generation.

  16. Influence of Landfill Operation and Tropical Seasonal Variation on Leachate Characteristics: Results from Lysimeter Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Rafizul


    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the influence of lysimeter operational condition and tropical seasonal variation of leachate characteristics generated from municipal solid waste (MSW deposited in landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Bangladesh. Three different situations of landfill were considered here as well as both the open dump lysimeter-A having a base liner and sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C at two different types of cap liner were simulated. The leachate characteristics, leachate generation and climatic influence parameter had been continually monitored, from June 2008 to May 2010. This period covers both dry and rainy season. The leachate generation followed the rainfall pattern and the open dump lysimeter-A without top cover was recorded to have the highest leachate generation. Moreover, the open dump lysimeter-A had lower concentration and load of total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, while chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD5 concentration were higher compared with sanitary lysimeter-B and C. On the other hand, sanitary lysimeter-B, not only had lowest leachate generation, but also produced reasonably low COD and BOD5 concentration compared with open dump lysimeter-A. Based on evaluated results, it was also concluded that metal concentrations which were comparatively higher in leachate of open dump lysimeter were Ca and K, however, the heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn, and those apparently lower were metals of Na, Mg and Fe as well as heavy metals of Cr, Pb and Ni. However, significant release of heavy metals under open dump lysimeter was observed compared to sanitary lysimeter. Moreover, meaningful correlation between DOC and leaching of Cu and Pb was observed. Result reveals that lysimeter operational mode had direct effect on leachate quality. Finally, it can be concluded that the knowledge of leachate quality will be useful in planning and

  17. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar


    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  18. Integrating knowledge-based multi-criteria evaluation techniques with GIS for landfill site selection: A case study using AHP (United States)

    Fagbohun, B. J.; Aladejana, O. O.


    A major challenge in most growing urban areas of developing countries, without a pre-existing land use plan is the sustainable and efficient management of solid wastes. Siting a landfill is a complicated task because of several environmental regulations. This challenge gives birth to the need to develop efficient strategies for the selection of proper waste disposal sites in accordance with all existing environmental regulations. This paper presents a knowledge-based multi-criteria decision analysis using GIS for the selection of suitable landfill site in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. In order to identify suitable sites for landfill, seven factors - land use/cover, geology, river, soil, slope, lineament and roads - were taken into consideration. Each factor was classified and ranked based on prior knowledge about the area and existing guidelines. Weights for each factor were determined through pair-wise comparison using Saaty's 9 point scale and AHP. The integration of factors according to their weights using weighted index overlay analysis revealed that 39.23 km2 within the area was suitable to site a landfill. The resulting suitable area was classified as high suitability covering 6.47 km2 (16.49%), moderate suitability 25.48 km2 (64.95%) and low suitability 7.28 km2 (18.56%) based on their overall weights.

  19. Gas Production Potential in the Landfill of Tehran by Landfill Methane Outreach Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Landfilling is the most common way of municipal solid waste (MSW disposal in Iran. Many countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings as well as the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. Landfill gas (LFG consists of 50% - 60 vol% methane and 30% - 40 vol% carbon dioxide as well as trace amounts of numerous chemical compounds such as aromatics, chlorinated organic compounds and sulfur compounds. Landfill methane outreach program (LMOP is a voluntary assistance program which helps reduce methane emissions from landfills by encouraging the recovery and the beneficial use of LFG as an energy resource. Objectives In this study, the volume of LFG of Tehran by landfill methane outreach program (LMOP software was calculated. In addition, the relationship between the time of gas collection system operation and the volume of LFG production was evaluated. Materials and Methods The LMOP software was used. The available information and some presumptions were used to operate the software. The composition of the solid waste collected from the landfill of Tehran had specific details. A large amount of it was organic materials, which was about 67.8%. These materials have a good potential to produce gas. In addition, LMOP Colombia model uses the first-order equations in all the analytical equations. Furthermore, it is assumed that the landfill operation time is 30 years and the process is considered in two conditions; first, the gas was recovered in 2000, and second, the process started in 2015. Results The modeling results showed that for the gas recovery starting in 2000 and 2015, the power generation would be 2

  20. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina


    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  1. Proposed Expansion of Acme Landfill Operations. (United States)


    decays, it produces bacteria that release gases. Methane develops in phases. Initially, during a phase which can last several days to months, a...90 and 95°F. Another factor which affects landfill gas production is pH. Methanogenic bacteria need a pH near 7.0 to produce optimal amounts of...Los Osos-Millsholm-Los Gatos soil association while the other four sites were located in the Altamont-Diablo-Fontana association. A standard slope

  2. Research on Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The article focuses on the topics of Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWL, including municipal refuse landfills or industrial solid waste landfills, MSWL). At first, health risk assessment

  3. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge : Potential impacts from Dare County Landfills (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surface runoff or leachate from two landfills (East Lake Landfill and the Dare County Construction and Demolition Debris Landfill) have the potential to impact fish...

  4. Ammonia release and conversion in bioreactor landfill simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubberding, H.; Valencia, R.; Salazar, R.; Lens, P.


    Bioreactor landfills are considered to be an improvements to normal sanitary landfills, because the Municipal Solid Waste is stabilised faster and the biogas is produced in a shorter period of time (Valencia et al 2008a, b). In spite of these advantages, it is still difficult to reach within 30 years a safe status of the landfill due to the elevated NH{sub 4}{sup +} levels (up to 3 g/L) in the leachate. (Author)

  5. Landfill is an important atmospheric mercury emission source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xinbin; TANG Shunlin; LI Zhonggen; WANG Shaofeng; LIANG Lian


    Since municipal wastes contain refuses with high mercury contents, incineration of municipal wastes becomes the major anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission source. In China, landfills are however the main way to dispose of municipal wastes. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in landfill gas of Gaoyan sanitary landfill located in suburb of Guiyang City were monitored using a high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer, and mono-methylmercury (MMHg) and dimethylmercury (DMHg) concentrations in landfill gas were also measured using GC coupled with the cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAFS) method. Meanwhile, the TGM exchange fluxes between exposed waste and air and the soil surface of the landfill and air, were measured using low Hg blank quartz flux chamber coupled with high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer technique. TGM concentrations in landfill gas from half year filling area averaged out at 665.52±291.25 ng/m3, which is comparable with TGM concentrations from flue gas of a small coal combustion boiler in Guiyang. The average MMHg and DMHg concentrations averaged out at 2.06±1.82 ng/m3 and 9.50±5.18 ng/m3, respectively. It is proven that mercury emission is the predominant process at the surfaces of both exposed wastes and soil of landfill. Landfills are not only TGM emission source, but also methylmercury emission source to the ambient air. There are two ways to emit mercury to the air from landfills, one is with the landfill gas through landfill gas duct, and the other through soil/air exchange. The Hg emission processes from landfills are controlled by meteorological parameters.

  6. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills


    Heimovaara, T.J.


    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate emission to the groundwater is considered to be one of the largest long-term impacts related to landfilling. Currently we are starting up a research program, partly subsidized by the Dutch Technology fou...

  7. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill. (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac


    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste).

  8. Degradation of Refuse in Hybrid Bioreactor Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objectivess To explore the process of refuse decomposition in hybrid bioreactor landfill. Methods The bioreactor landfill was operated in sequencing of facultative-anaerobic and aerobic conditions with leachate recireulation, pH, COD, and ammonia in the leachate and pH, biodegradable organic matter (BDM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in refuse were detected. Results CEC increased gradually with the degradation of refuse, which was negatively correlad, With BDM. COD and ammonia in the leachate was declined to 399.2 mg L-1 and 20.6 mg N L-1, respectively, during the 357-day operation. The respective concentrations of ammonia and COD were below the second and the third levels of current discharge standards in China. Conclusion The refuse is relatively stable at the end of hybrid bioreactor landfill operation. Most of the readily biodegradable organic matter is mineralized in the initial phase of refuse degradation, whereas the hard-biodegradable organic matter is mainly humidified in the maturity phase of refuse degradation.

  9. Behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate. (United States)

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R; Santra, Swadeshmukul


    This research sought to understand the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate by examining the interactions between nanoparticles and leachate components. The primary foci of this paper are the effects of ZnO, TiO2, and Ag nanoparticles on biological landfill processes and the form of Zn, Ti, and Ag in leachate following the addition of nanoparticles. Insight into the behavior of nanoparticles in landfill leachate was gained from the observed increase in the aqueous concentrations over background for Zn, Ti, and Ag in some tested leachates attributed to leachate components interacting with the nanoparticle coatings resulting in dispersion, dissolution/dissociation, and/or agglomeration. Coated nanoparticles did not affect biological processes when added to leachate; five-day biochemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential results were not statistically different when exposed to nanoparticles, presumably due to the low concentration of dissolved free ionic forms of the associated metals resulting from the interaction with leachate components. Chemical speciation modeling predicted that dissolved Zn in leachate was primarily associated with dissolved organic matter, Ti with hydroxide, and Ag with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia; less than 1% of dissolved Zn and Ag was in the free ionic form, and free ionic Ti and Ag concentrations were negligible.

  10. Evaluating the ability of artificial neural network and PCA-M5P models in predicting leachate COD load in landfills. (United States)

    Azadi, Sama; Amiri, Hamid; Rakhshandehroo, G Reza


    Waste burial in uncontrolled landfills can cause serious environmental damages and unpleasant consequences. Leachates produced in landfills have the potential to contaminate soil and groundwater resources. Leachate management is one of the major issues with respect to landfills environmental impacts. Improper design of landfills can lead to leachate spread in the environment, and hence, engineered landfills are required to have leachate monitoring programs. The high cost of such programs may be greatly reduced and cost efficiency of the program may be optimized if one can predict leachate contamination level and foresee management and treatment strategies. The aim of this study is to develop two expert systems consisting of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Principal Component Analysis-M5P (PCA-M5P) models to predict Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load in leachates produced in lab-scale landfills. Measured data from three landfill lysimeters, including rainfall depth, number of days after waste deposition, thickness of top and bottom Compacted Clay Liners (CCLs), and thickness of top cover over the lysimeter, were utilized to develop, train, validate, and test the expert systems and predict the leachate COD load. Statistical analysis of the prediction results showed that both models possess good prediction ability with a slight superiority for ANN over PCA-M5P. Based on test datasets, the mean absolute percentage error for ANN and PCA-M5P models were 4% and 12%, respectively, and the correlation coefficient for both models was greater than 0.98. Developed models may be used as a rough estimate for leachate COD load prediction in primary landfill designs, where the effect of a top and/or bottom liner is disputed.

  11. Groundwater contamination due to lead (Pb migrating from Richmond municipal landfill into Matsheumhlope aquifer: evaluation of a model using field observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kubare


    Full Text Available Disposal of solid waste in landfills is an economic option for many municipalities in developing countries where alternatives like incineration and composting are costly. However, groundwater pollution from the leachate generated within the landfill and migrating through the bottom liner material into the underlying groundwater aquifers remains a major public health concern. In our study, we evaluated the application of a mathematical model to determine the aerial extent of unacceptable groundwater contamination due to lead migrating from the Richmond landfill leachate into the underlying Matsheumhlope unconfined aquifer. A one-dimensional advection-dispersion model was applied to predict the down-gradient migration of lead into the aquifer. Linear sorption and first-order decay were considered as the dominant contaminant sink mechanisms for lead. Lead concentrations in the monitoring wells at the landfill site were used as the source term. The lead migration from the landfill was determined by water quality sampling from boreholes situated down-gradient of the landfill. The model simulations gave a good fit of the field results. The safe distance for potable water abstraction was determined to be 400 m, and the model simulations showed that the aerial extent of the pollution will increase with time. The model is most sensitive to the partition coefficient, hydraulic conductivity and longitudinal dispersivity, whilst it exhibits no sensitivity to the lead decay coefficient.

  12. Case study: City of Industry landfill gas recovery operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Development of civic, recreation, and conservation facilities throughout a 150-acre site which had been used for waste disposal from 1951 to 1970 is described. The history of the landfill site, the geology of the site, and a test well program to assess the feasibility of recoverying landfill gas economically from the site are discussed. Based on results of the test well program, the City of Industry authorized the design and installation of a full-scale landfill gas recovery system. Design, construction, and operation of the system are described. The landfill gas system provides fuel for use in boilers to meet space heating and hot water demands for site development (MCW)

  13. Estimation of emissions of nonmethane organic compounds from a closed landfill site using a landfill gas emission model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Diya, A.W. [Health Sciences Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)


    Nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC) emissions from landfills often constitute significant risks both to human health and the general environment. To date very little work has been done on tracking the emissions of NMOC from landfills. To this end, a concerted effort was made to investigate the total annual mass emission rate of NMOC from a closed landfill site in South Manchester, United Kingdom. This was done by using field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters into the Landfill Gas Emission Model embedded in ACTS and RISK software. Two results were obtained: (i) a deterministic outcome of 1.7218 x 10-7 kg/year, which was calculated from mean values of the field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters, and (ii) a probabilistic outcome of 1.66 x 10-7 - 1.78 x 10-7 kg/year, which is a range of value obtained after Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertain parameters of the landfill including NMOC concentration. A comparison between these two results suggests that the probabilistic outcome is a more representative and reliable estimate of the total annual mass emission of NMOC especially given the variability of the parameters of the model. Moreover, a comparison of the model result and the safety standard of 5.0 x 10-5 kg/year indicate that the mass emission of NMOC from the studied landfill is significantly less than previously thought. However, given that this can accumulate to a dangerous level over a long period of time (such as the age of this landfill site); it may have started affecting the health of the people living within the vicinity of the landfill. A case is therefore made for more studies to be carried out on the emissions of other gases such as CH4 and CO2 from the studied landfill site, as this would help to understand the synergistic effect of the various gases being emitted from the landfill.

  14. Prediction of Post-Closure Water Balance for Monolithic Soil Covers at Waste Disposal Sites in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson


    Full Text Available The Ghana Landfill Guidelines require the provision of a final cover system during landfill closure as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of uncontrolled leachate discharges. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configurations that would be suitable for the different climatic zones in Ghana. The aim of this study was to simulate and predict post-closure landfill cover water balance for waste disposal sites located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area using the USGS Thornthwaite monthly water balance computer program. Five different cover soil types were analyzed under using historical climatic data for the metropolis from 1980 to 2001. The maximum annual percolation and evapotranspiration rates for the native soil type were 337 mm and 974 mm respectively. Monthly percolation rates exhibited a seasonal pattern similar to the bimodal precipitation regime whereas monthly evapotranspiration did not. It was also observed that even though soils with a high clay content would be the most suitable option as landfill cover material in the Accra metropolis the maximum thickness of 600 mm recommended in the Ghana Landfill Guidelines do not seem to provide significant reduction in percolation rates into the buried waste mass when the annual rainfall exceeds 700 mm. The findings from this research should provide additional guidance to landfill managers on the specification of cover designs for waste disposal sites with similar climatic conditions.

  15. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  16. Dense resistivity and induced polarization profiling for a landfill restoration project at Härlöv, Southern Sweden. (United States)

    Leroux, Virginie; Dahlin, Torleif; Svensson, Mats


    A resistivity and time-domain induced polarization (IP) survey was conducted at a landfill site under restoration at Härlöv in Southern Sweden. The covering of the landfill had begun some years ago, without keeping precise records of the work done, as is usual in such procedures. The survey was conducted in two steps, on two adjacent areas. First, a number of geoelectrical sections were made on a partly covered area that had been investigated earlier by auger drilling, in order to assist restoration. Then, a second area that should have received its final cover was imaged, and some defects in the cover could be detected and repaired. The resistivity and time-domain IP results were consistent with the results of the geotechnical drillings, and they enabled quasi-continuous mapping along the profiles. Three-dimensional visualization showed the overall consistency of the two-dimensional lines, and helped to generate a global view of the site. In spite of some ambiguities, cover and waste could be distinguished in most cases. In particular, fine-grained cover materials could be clearly distinguished from other cover materials.

  17. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.


    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  18. Treatment of landfill leachate by using lateritic soil as a natural coagulant. (United States)

    Syafalni; Lim, Han Khim; Ismail, Norli; Abustan, Ismail; Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Ahmad, Anees


    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate.

  19. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...


    This is a summary of the Workshop on Landfill Bioreactors, held 9/6-7/2000 in Arlington, VA. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to EPA, state and local governments, solid waste industry, and academic research representatives to exchange information and ideas on b...

  1. Sanitary landfills. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This bibliography contains citations concerning refuse disposal in sanitary landfills. Among the topics reviewed are site selection criteria, leachate analysis and treatment, and economic and management aspects. Hydrologic studies pertaining to contaminant transport, and the use of liners and covers are discussed. Considerable attention is given to gas generation and recovery, and specific operations are described. Citations pertaining specifically to hazardous and industrial waste materials are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)


    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  3. Composition of leachate from old landfills in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Christophersen, Mette


    smaller landfills by a comprehensive review of the investigations carried out by the counties. In total 106 landfills were selected by criteria avoiding dilution effects. A database was constructed using a standard program. Statistical evaluations showed that the leachate concentrations in general...

  4. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.


    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate emissi

  5. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail:; Yarimtepe, Canan Can


    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  6. Characterization and treatment of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welander, Ulrika


    The efficiency of different leachate treatment methods for the removal of refractory organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen was investigated. The methods evaluated were nitrification, denitrification, adsorption onto activated carbon, precipitation by ferric chloride or aluminum sulphate and oxidation by ozone or Fenton`s reagent. Furthermore, analyses were performed on leachates from municipal landfills of different kinds (a biocell deposit, a conventional mixed landfill containing household and industrial waste, and an ash deposit) in order to study the leachate composition in regard to various hydrophobic organic compounds as a function of the type of waste deposited. The results suggested that, in order to achieve a satisfactory removal of both ammonium-nitrogen and organic substances, the treatment of methanogenic leachates should be performed through a process combining biological and physical or chemical stages. When the biological treatment was not combined with a physical or a chemical process a COD removal of only 20-30% was achieved, whereas the toxicity of the leachate was significantly reduced. In contrast, a combination of nitrification and either adsorption onto activated carbon or oxidation using Fenton`s reagent resulted in a COD removal of about 80%, although certain specific organic compounds, such as phthalates, were unaffected by the treatment. A combination of nitrification, precipitation by ferric chloride and adsorption onto activated carbon removed 96% of the TOC. The analyses of leachates from municipal landfills of different types showed the leachate from the ash deposit to contain more C4-substituted phenols than the other leachates and to likewise contain alkanes, which the others did not 154 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Landfill energy complex based on the renewable energy installations (United States)

    Gilmanshin, Iskander; Kashapov, Nail; Gilmanshina, Suriya; Galeeva, Asiya


    The article presents the analysis of standard approaches to degassing of landfills. The need of comprehensive work on the degassing of the landfill body is identified. The author's task decomposition of the landfill degassing is formulated. The analysis of existing methods of work on degassing of landfills is presented. The author's approach is including implements of series of parallel studies in the framework of achieving a common goal to reduce the anthropogenic pressure on the ecosystem of the region due to the need for disposal of solid waste. An action plan for the development of the target problem-oriented management techniques of the landfill with the following development of the effective energy complex is formulated.

  8. Methane recovery from landfill in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaolai, L.


    GEF has approved a special project for a demonstration project for Methane Recovery from the Urban Refuse Land Fill. This paper will introduce the possibility of GHG reduction from the landfill in China, describe the activities of the GEF project, and the priorities for international cooperation in this field. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) approved the project, China Promoting Methane Recovery and Unlization from Mixed Municipal Refuse, at its Council meeting in last April. This project is the first one supported by international organization in this field.

  9. Removal and transformation of recalcitrant organic matter from stabilized saline landfill leachates by coagulation-ozonation coupling processes. (United States)

    Monje-Ramirez, I; Orta de Velásquez, M T


    The Bordo Poniente sanitary landfill in Mexico City currently receives 11,500 ton/day of solid wastes. The landfill has been in operation since 1985, in what was formerly Texcoco Lake, now a dried-up lakebed. The physico-chemical characteristics of the leachate generated by this particular landfill are altered by the incorporation of freatic saline water present in the area. This paper reports the results from a study evaluating coagulation and ozonation as alternative processes for removing and transforming recalcitrant organic matter from stabilized saline landfill leachate. Coagulation with ferric sulfate was found to remove up to 67% of COD and 96% of leachate color. The remaining 33% COD was removed with ozone. Recalcitrant organic matter removal by ozonation is limited by the reaction kinetic due mainly to ozone's low reactivity with the organic compounds present in the leachates (amines, amides, alcohols, aliphatic compounds, and carboxylic acids). However, ozone contributes greatly to changing the recalcitrant characteristics of organic matter. Leachate biodegradability was found to be significantly enhanced through ozonation: BOD(5) values reach 265%, and the BOD(5)/COD ratio increases from 0.003 to 0.015. Infrared analysis of ozonated leachates shows that the main by-products of recalcitrant organic matter ozonation are an increase in the hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, and the presence of aldehydes groups.

  10. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  11. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (United States)


    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  12. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  13. Bioenergy recovery from landfill gas: A case study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; Yuxiang LUO; Zhou DENG


    Landfill gas (LFG) utilization which means a synergy between environmental protection and bioenergy recovery was investigated in this study. Pressure swing adsorption technology was used in LFG purification, and laboratory experiment, pilot-scale test, and on-site demon-stration were carried out in Shenzhen, China. In the laboratory experiment, A-type carbon molecular sieve was selected as the adsorbent by comparison of several other adsorbents. The oPtimal adsorption pressure and adsorp-tion time were 0.25 MPa and 2 min, respectively, under which the product generation rate was 4.5 m3/h and the methane concentration was above 90%. The process and optimization of the pilot-scale test were also reported in the paper. The product gas was of high quality compared with the National Standard of Compressed Natural Gas as Vehicle Fuel (GB 18047-2000), when the air concentration in feed gas was under 10.96%. The demonstration project was composed of a collection system, production system,and utilization system. The drive performance, environ-mental protection performance, and economic feasibility of the product gas -- as alternative fuel in passenger car,truck, and bulldozer-were tested, showing the feasibility technology for LFG utilization.

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  16. An innovative multi-source approach for environmental monitoring of landfills (United States)

    Manzo, Ciro; Mei, Alessandro; Paciucci, Lucia; Bassani, Cristiana


    This paper describes the application of downscaling approach, based on the products obtained by remote sensing and in situ survey, for the geo-environmental analysis of landfill site, located in the San Giovanni in Fiore Municipalty (CS) in the Southern Italy (Calabria District). The aim of the study focused on the optimization of techniques for the monitoring of landfill area by optical remote sensing, which represents a crucial issue since usual investigation methods are expensive and time-consuming. This approach integrated data with different spectral and spatial resolutions extracting parameters descriptive of superficial condition. The use of remote sensing provided a synoptic perspective considering time and spatial ranges which were useful for the monitoring of different environmental matrices and the assessment of biogas and leachate migration. Indeed the multispectral data of Worldview 2 (2012) and Pléiades (2014 and 2015) operating in the range from visible to near-infrared, were adopted for the retrieval of indices descriptive of the vegetation and soil targets with high spatial resolution. The orthophoto dataset integrated the temporal analysis not covered by spectral imagery showing a general increasing of land consumption and highlighting area with no or senescent vegetation cover. These evidences, due to the intensive human activities and to geological, hydraulic and land cover conditions, provided the general setting of the area and its evolution identifying ongoing processes in the study area. The Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) airborne sensor extended the remote sensing analysis up to the thermal domain highlighting superficial anomalies of landfill capping linked to local phenomena such as biogas migration or local humidity into the ground. The dataset of products obtained by remote sensing data processing was validated by in situ analysis. The evidences of ground anomalies were collected by field surveys and

  17. Factors affecting temporal H2S emission at construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills. (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy


    Odor problems associated with H2S emissions often result in odor complaints from nearby residents of C&D debris landfills, especially in the early morning. As part of a field study conducted on H2S removal ability using different cover materials, daily and seasonal H2S emissions through a soil cover layer were monitored at a C&D debris landfill to investigate factors affecting H2S emissions. H2S emission rates were not a constant, but varied seasonally, with an average emission rate of 4.67×10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1). During a the 10-month field study, as the H2S concentration increased from 140ppm to about 3500ppm underneath the cover soil in the testing cell, H2S emissions ranged from zero to a maximum emission rate of 1.24×10(-5)mgm(-2)s(-1). Continuous emission monitoring indicated that H2S emissions even changed over time throughout the day, generally increasing from morning to afternoon, and were affected by soil moisture and temperature. Laboratory experiments were also conducted to investigate the effects of H2S concentration and cover soil moisture content on H2S emissions. The results showed that increased soil moisture reduced H2S emissions by retarding H2S migration through cover soil and dissolving H2S into soil water. The field study also indicated that due to atmospheric dispersion, high H2S emissions may not cause odor problems.

  18. Bacterial community diversity in municipal waste landfill sites. (United States)

    Song, Liyan; Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Lei, Yu


    Little is known about the bacterial diversity of landfills and how environmental factors impact the diversity. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial communities of ten landfill leachate samples from five landfill sites in China. A total of 137 K useable sequences from the V3-V6 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were retrieved from 205 K reads. These sequences revealed the presence of a large number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the landfills (709-1599 OTUs per sample). The most predominant bacterial representatives in the landfills investigated, regardless of geographic area, included Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The phyla Fusobacteria and Tenericutes were also found for the first time to be predominant in the landfills. The phylum Fusobacteria predominated (51.5 and 48.8%) in two semi-arid landfills, and the phylum Tenericutes dominated (30.6%) at one humid, subtropical landfill. Further, a large number of Pseudomonas was detected in most samples, comprising the dominant group and accounting for 40.9 to 92.4% of the total abundance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis based on OTU abundance showed that the abundant taxa separated the bacterial community. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that precipitation and landfilling age significantly impact on the bacterial community structure. The bacterial community function (e.g., cellulolytic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfate-oxidizing bacteria, and xenobiotic organic compound (XOC)-degrading bacteria) was also diverse, but the pattern is unclear.

  19. Covering Numbers for Convex Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Guntuboyina, Adityanand


    In this paper we study the covering numbers of the space of convex and uniformly bounded functions in multi-dimension. We find optimal upper and lower bounds for the $\\epsilon$-covering number of $\\C([a, b]^d, B)$, in the $L_p$-metric, $1 \\le p 0$, and $\\C([a,b]^d, B)$ denotes the set of all convex functions on $[a, b]^d$ that are uniformly bounded by $B$. We summarize previously known results on covering numbers for convex functions and also provide alternate proofs of some known results. Our results have direct implications in the study of rates of convergence of empirical minimization procedures as well as optimal convergence rates in the numerous convexity constrained function estimation problems.

  20. Integrated modeling and up-scaling of landfill processes and heterogeneity using stochastic approach


    Bun, A.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Baviskar, S.M.; Van Turnhout, A.G.; Konstantaki, L.A.


    Municipal solid waste landfills are a very complex and heterogeneous systems. The waste in a landfill body is a heterogeneous mixture of a wide range of materials containing high levels of organic matter, high amounts of salts and a wide range of different organic and inorganic substances, such as heavy metals and organic solvents. A range of processes of different nature occur within landfills. Bio-geochemical processes in a landfill body lead to the development of landfill gases, a mixture ...

  1. Sanitary Landfill Leachate Recycle and Environmental Problems at Selected Army Landfills: Lessons Learned (United States)


    Benson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamlys, Characteristics, Control and Treatment of Leachate at Military Irnstallations, !nterim Report N- 97/ADA097035...D. Smith, R. Pileccia, J. Handy, G. Gerdes, S. Kloster, G. Schanche, _. .1. fJanson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamiya, Characteri.tic.i Control, and...Learned N 1. Do not construct buildings on top of or close to a closed landfill until methane gas production has stopped.... - 2. Note that explosive

  2. Landfill gas as vehicle fuel; Deponigas som fordonsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Johansson, Nina; Karlsvaerd, Johan (Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    The landfill gas extraction in Sweden 2008 was 370 GWh. Mainly because of lack of available technologies for landfill gas upgrading and high assessed upgrading costs, landfill gas has so far only been used for heating and cogenerations plants (CHP). In recent years, interest has been brought to upgrade landfill gas and this study highlights the possibility of using landfill gas as fuel for vehicles. A decision in investment in an upgrading installation requires a forecast of future gas production and landfill gas extraction. From 2005, dispose of organic waste is prohibited, reducing the number of active landfills and the landfill gas production will go down. Factors such as moisture content, design of the final coverage and landfill gas collection system have a major impact on the extraction. It is therefore difficult to make appropriate predictions of the future gas production. Today's landfill gas extraction is approximately 35% of the landfill gas production and in the light of this, extraction can be in a level comparable to today's at least ten years ahead, provided that the extraction system is being expanded and that measurements are taken to so that landfills should not dry out. In comparison with biogas from anaerobic digestion in a dedicated digester, landfill gas has a high percentage of nitrogen and a content of many contaminants such as organic silicon compounds (siloxanes) and halogenated hydrocarbons (hydrocarbons containing the halogens chlorine, fluorine and bromine). This often requires more treatment and a further separation step. A common method for purification of landfill gas is regenerative adsorption on a dedicated adsorption material. Carbon dioxide is separated by conventional techniques like PSA, water scrubber and membranes. The main barrier to use landfill gas as vehicle fuel is a cost-effective separation of nitrogen that does not generate high methane losses. Nitrogen is separated by PSA or distillation technique (cryogenic

  3. Landfill leachate treatment by solar-driven AOPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Elisangela M.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Centro de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Hidraulica e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Saneamento (LABOSAN), Avenida da Universidade, 2853 - Benfica, 60020-181 Fortaleza (Brazil); Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Fonseca, Amelia; Saraiva, Isabel [Efacec Ambiente, SA, Rua Eng. Frederico Ulrich - Guardeiras, Apartado 3003, 4471-907 Moreira da Maia (Portugal)


    Sanitary landfill leachate resulting from the rainwater percolation through the landfill layers and waste material decomposition is a complex mixture of high-strength organic and inorganic compounds which constitutes serious environmental problems. In this study, different heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}/UV, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) and homogenous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalytic processes were investigated as an alternative for the treatment of a mature landfill leachate. The addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to TiO{sub 2}/UV system increased the reduction of the aromatic compounds from 15% to 61%, although mineralization was almost the same. The DOC and aromatic content abatement is similar for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV processes, although the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption is three times higher in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system. The low efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system is presumably due to the alkaline leachate solution, for which the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} becomes highly unstable and self-decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} occurs. The efficiency of the TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system increased 10 times after a preliminary pH correction to 4. The photo-Fenton process is much more efficient than heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) or homogeneous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalysis, showing an initial reaction rate more than 20 times higher, and leading to almost complete mineralization of the wastewater. However, when compared with TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV with acidification, the photo-Fenton reaction is only two times faster. The optimal initial iron dose for the photo-Fenton treatment of the leachate is 60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}, which is in agreement with path length of 5 cm in the photoreactor. The kinetic behaviour of the process (60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) comprises a slow initial reaction, followed by a first-order kinetics (k = 0.020 LkJ{sub UV

  4. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danon-Schaffer, Monica N. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Tetra Tech, 800-555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, Canada V6B 1M1 (Canada); Mahecha-Botero, Andrés, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Grace, John R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Ikonomou, Michael [Institute of Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 6000, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, B.C., Canada V8L 4B2 (Canada)


    Previous research on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has largely focussed on their concentrations in the environment and their adverse effects on human health. This paper explores their transfer from waste streams to water and soil. A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), originating from e-waste and non-e-waste solids leaching from a landfill. Stepwise debromination is assumed to occur in three sub-systems (e-waste, aqueous leachate phase, and non-e-waste solids). Analysis of landfill samples and laboratory results from a solid-liquid contacting chamber are used to estimate model parameters to simulate an urban landfill system, for past and future scenarios. Sensitivity tests to key model parameters were conducted. Lower BDEs require more time to disappear than high-molecular weight PBDEs, since debromination takes place in a stepwise manner, according to the simplified reaction scheme. Interphase mass transfer causes the decay pattern to be similar in all three sub-systems. The aqueous phase is predicted to be the first sub-system to eliminate PBDEs if their input to the landfill were to be stopped. The non-e-waste solids would be next, followed by the e-waste sub-system. The model shows that mass transfer is not rate-limiting, but the evolution over time depends on the kinetic degradation parameters. Experimental scatter makes model testing difficult. Nevertheless, the model provides qualitative understanding of the influence of key variables. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the various mass transfer (MT) and input/output steps for sub-systems in the landfill model. NeWS is defined as non-electronic waste solids, including sand and soil added as cover materials. Highlights: • A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). • Landfill samples and laboratory results are used to estimate the model

  5. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Giacobbo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira [Universidade FEEVALE, ICET, RS 239, 2755, CEP 93352-000 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Meneguzzi, Alvaro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm{sup −2}, 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment.

  6. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P


    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  7. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.


    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  8. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.


    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  9. Are closed landfills free of CH_{4} emissions? A case study of Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands (United States)

    Barrancos, José; Cook, Jenny; Phillips, Victoria; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    Landfills are authentic chemical and biological reactors that introduce in the environment a wide amount of gas pollutants (CO2, CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) and leachates. Even after years of being closed, a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission. The study of the spatial-temporal distribution of diffuse emissions provides information of how a landfill degassing takes place. The main objective of this study was to estimate the diffuse uncontrolled emission of CH4 into the atmosphere from the closed Arico's landfill (0.3 km2) in Tenerife Island, Spain. To do so, a non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of nearly 450 sampling sites was carried out during August 2015. Surface gas sampling and surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases, CO2 and CH4, were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. The CH4 efflux was computed combining CO2 efflux and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CH4 emission was estimated in 2.2 t d-1, with CH4 efflux values ranging from 0-922 mg m-2 d-1. This type of studies provides knowledge of how a landfill degasses and serves to public and private entities to establish effective systems for extraction of biogas. This aims not only to achieve higher levels of controlled gas release from landfills resulting in a higher level of energy production but also will contribute to minimize air pollution caused by them.

  10. Landfills, Landfill point locations within Iredell County, NC, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Iredell County GIS. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Landfills dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2009. It is described as 'Landfill...

  11. Landfills, Landfills - only two in County, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Landfills dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Landfills -...

  12. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik


    comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location......A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...

  13. Estimation of emissions of nonmethane organic compounds from a closed landfill site using a landfill gas emission model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Nwachukwu, A. W. Diya


    Full Text Available Nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC emissions from landfills often constitute significant risks both to human health and the general environment. To date very little work has been done on tracking the emissions of NMOC from landfills. To this end, a concerted effort was made to investigate the total annual mass emission rate of NMOC from a closed landfill site in South Manchester, United Kingdom. This was done by using field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters into the Landfill Gas Emission Model embedded in ACTS and RISK software. Two results were obtained: (i a deterministic outcome of 1.7218 x 10-7 kg/year, which was calculated from mean values of the field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters, and (ii a probabilistic outcome of 1.66 x 10-7 - 1.78 x 10-7 kg/year, which is a range of value obtained after Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertain parameters of the landfill including NMOC concentration. A comparison between these two results suggests that the probabilistic outcome is a more representative and reliable estimate of the total annual mass emission of NMOC especially given the variability of the parameters of the model. Moreover, a comparison of the model result and the safety standard of 5.0 x 10-5 kg/year indicate that the mass emission of NMOC from the studied landfill is significantly less than previously thought. However, given that this can accumulate to a dangerous level over a long period of time (such as the age of this landfill site; it may have started affecting the health of the people living within the vicinity of the landfill. A case is therefore made for more studies to be carried out on the emissions of other gases such as CH4 and CO2 from the studied landfill site, as this would help to understand the synergistic effect of the various gases being emitted from the landfill.

  14. Supercritical water oxidation of landfill leachate. (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhong; Guo, Yang; Chen, Chongming; Zhang, Jie; Gong, Yanmeng; Wang, Yuzhen


    In this paper, ammonia as an important ingredient in landfill leachate was mainly studied. Based on Peng-Robinson formulations and Gibbs free energy minimization method, the estimation of equilibrium composition and thermodynamic analysis for supercritical water oxidation of ammonia (SCWO) was made. As equilibrium is reached, ammonia could be totally oxidized in SCW. N(2) is the main product, and the formation of NO(2) and NO could be neglected. The investigation on SCWO of landfill leachate was conducted in a batch reactor at temperature of 380-500 °C, reaction time of 50-300s and pressure of 25 MPa. The effect of reaction parameters such as oxidant equivalent ratio, reaction time and temperature were investigated. The results showed that COD and NH(3) conversion improved as temperature, reaction time and oxygen excess increased. Compared to organics, NH(3) is a refractory compound in supercritical water. The conversion of COD and NH(3) were higher in the presence of MnO(2) than that without catalyst. The interaction between reaction temperature and time was analyzed by using response surface method (RSM) and the results showed that its influence on the NH(3) conversion was relatively insignificant in the case without catalyst. A global power-law rate expression was regressed from experimental data to estimate the reaction rate of NH(3). The activation energy with and without catalyst for NH(3) oxidation were 107.07 ± 8.57 kJ/mol and 83.22 ± 15.62 kJ/mol, respectively.

  15. Attenuation of Landfill Leachate In Unsaturated Sandstone (United States)

    Butler, A. P.; Brook, C.; Godley, A.; Lewin, K.; Young, C. P.

    Landfill leachate emanating from old "dilute and disperse" sites represents a potential (and in many cases actual) threat to the integrity of groundwater. Indeed, this concern has been included in EU legislation (80/86/EEC), where key contaminants (e.g. ammonia, various toxic organic compounds and heavy metals) are explicitly highlighted in terms of their impact on groundwater. In the UK, whilst there are a substantial number of unlined landfills sited on major aquifers, many of these are in locations where there is a substantial unsaturated zone. Thus, there exists the opportunity for the modification and attenuation of contaminants prior to it encountering the water table. An understanding of likely changes in leachate content and concentrations at such sites will enable a more comprehensive assessment of the potential risks and liabilities posed by such sites to be evaluated. The Burntstump landfill, situated 8 km north of Nottingham (UK), is sited on an outcrop of Sherwood sandstone. The fine friable sand has been quarried since the 1960s and the excavated volume used to store municipal waste. Filling at the site commenced in the mid 1970s and originally was unlined. In 1978 the first of what was to become a series of boreholes was installed within an area of roughly 5 m radius over one of the original waste cells. Cores of the waste and underlying sandstone were extracted and analysed for a range of physical and chemical parameters. The most recent set of analyses were obtained in 2000. The series of investigations therefore provide an important record of leachate migration and modification through the unsaturated zone for over twenty years. The progression of the leachate front is clearly delineated by the chloride concentration profile with an average velocity of around 1.6 m.yr-1. Combining this value with an average (and reasonably uniform) measured moisture content of about 7% gives a mean inter-granular specific discharge of 110 mm.yr-1. An interesting

  16. Utilization of sepiolite materials as a bottom liner material in solid waste landfills. (United States)

    Guney, Yucel; Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Tanyu, Burak F; Koparal, Savas


    Landfill bottom liners are generally constructed with natural clay soils due to their high strength and low hydraulic conductivity characteristics. However, in recent years it is increasingly difficult to find locally available clay soils that satisfy the required engineering properties. Fine grained soils such as sepiolite and zeolite may be used as alternative materials in the constructions of landfill bottom liners. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using natural clay rich in kaolinite, sepiolite, zeolite, and their mixtures as a bottom liner material. Unconfined compression tests, swell tests, hydraulic conductivity tests, batch and column adsorption tests were performed on each type of soil and sepiolite-zeolite mixtures. The results of the current study indicate that sepiolite is the dominant material that affects both the geomechanical and geoenvironmental properties of these alternative liners. An increase in sepiolite content in the sepiolite-zeolite mixtures increased the strength, swelling potential and metal adsorption capacities of the soil mixtures. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreased significantly with the addition of sepiolite. The utilization of sepiolite-zeolite materials as a bottom liner material allowed for thinner liners with some reduction in construction costs compared to use of a kaolinite-rich clay.

  17. Investigation of daily covering material for biocells (United States)

    Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.


    Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglabāšanas sfērā, sakarā ar Direktīvas 1999/31/EC pieņemšanu, ir zaudējusi savu aktualitāti, taču šī metode vēl joprojām var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu noārdīšanai un biogāzes ražošanai. Viena no iespējām kā samazināt bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir biošūnu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstrādei pirms to noglabāšanas. Šūnas piepildīšana ikdienā prasa nepieciešamību izolēt lielāko tās daļu, lai samazinātu gāzes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materiāli, kas ikdienā tiek izmantoti atkritumu pārklāšanai, nepietiekami ietekmē bioprocesus, kas pamatā ir galvenais biošūnas izmantošanas mērķis. Šajā sakarā ir veikta dažādu tirdzniecībā pieejamu pārklājuma materiālu izpēte, pielietojot virkni fizikālo, ķīmisko un bioloģisko metožu, un nosakot svarīgākos parametrus, kas ir b

  18. A biological assessment of Wildcat Landfill Superfund Site (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document was prepared as part of the Wildcat Landfill Remedial Investigation (RI) Report; the report was financed through a grant and authority of CERCLA as...

  19. Excavation and characterization of refuse in closed landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Refuse in landfills becomes stabilized as organic matter in refuse degrades and soluble inorganic substances dissolve during their longterm stabilization process.In this paper,this process is also referred to as mineralization process and the resultant stabilized refuse referred to as aged refuse.Aged refuse contains a wide spectrum and huge quantity of microorganisms with strong decomposition capability for refractory organic matter present in some wastewater such as leachate.In this study,aged refuse excavated from 2 to 10 years old closed landfill compartments in Shanghai Refuse Landfill is characterized in terms of particulate distribution by screening,total nitrogen,total phosphorus,biodegradable matter.The approaches for redevelopment of both land and aged refuse in the stabilized landfills are proposed.


    The liquids management strategy for any municipal or hazardous waste landfill requires a knowledgeable design strategy for the leachate collection system located at the base of the waste mass. Such leachate collection systems generally consist of sumps, perforated pipes, drainag...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettis, William [William Lettis & Associates, Inc.


    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  2. Fuel Flexibility: Landfill Gas Contaminant Mitigation for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Lewis, Samuel [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Sepaniak, Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)


    This research project focused on the mitigation of silica damage to engine-based renewable landfill gas energy systems. Characterization of the landfill gas siloxane contamination, combined with characterization of the silica deposits in engines, led to development of two new mitigation strategies. The first involved a novel method for removing the siloxanes and other heavy contaminants from the landfill gas prior to use by the engines. The second strategy sought to interrupt the formation of hard silica deposits in the engine itself, based on inspection of failed landfill gas engine parts. In addition to mitigation, the project had a third task to develop a robust sensor for siloxanes that could be used to control existing and/or future removal processes.

  3. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  4. Ecolotree{sup {trademark}} cap at the Barje Landfill, Ljubljana, Slovenia, prototype demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, L.; Schnoor, J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)


    The Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer uses strategically planted Populus spp. (poplar) trees and forbs to prevent water pollution while growing fiber for biomass fuels, paper pulps, and construction materials. The concept, developed at the University of Iowa, uses root systems that act as a pump to predictable depths greater than 1.5 m (5 ft). The plant uptakes water, nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.), and adsorbable organics (such as herbicides) from soil. When the plant survival, growth rate, rooted soil depth, and water uptake are predictable, the site`s hydrology can be managed, and regulatory agencies are more willing to issue operating permits that include this vegetated barrier. Poplars transpire 600 to 1000 kilograms of water for every kilogram of stem dry matter (DM) growth. Measured poplar growth rates for 4-year old trees was 16,600 kg DM/hectare/yr. Conservatively, the water uptake calculated using the 600:1 water/stem growth ratio is 10,000,000 liters/hectare/yr. When transpiration exceeds rainfall, plants remove stored water from rooted soils. This dehydrating action effectively gives the soil a water storage capacity during winter dormancy. This Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer technology develops the ability to greatly reduce water leakage without the need for membrane or clay layers in landfill cover soils. This concept is now being used to manage water at American and Slovenian landfills. In contrast with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved clay or geomembrane covers designed with slight regard for plant growth, this cover focuses on reestablishing a vigorous ecosystem. While accomplishing the primary goal of protecting groundwater purity, the Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer grows a productive cover that stabilizes soil slopes, produces marketable crops, develops wildlife habitat, and provides a more pleasing ambiance.

  5. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country. (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P


    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia.

  6. Ammonia nitrogen desorption from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers


    Leite,Valderi D.; Barros,Aldre J. M.; Lopes,Wilton S.; Sousa,José T. de


    Sanitary landfill leachates present high concentrations of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials. The crucial point is that carbonaceous materials are of difficult biodegradation, what compromises the performance of biological treatment processes, while nitrogenous materials, such as ammonia nitrogen, probably preclude the use of biological treatments. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the desorption process of ammonia nitrogen from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers. De...

  7. A pluridisciplinary model to predict municipal landfill life


    Hiligsmann, Serge; Rodriguez, C.; Lardinois, M.; Radu, Jean-Pol; Charlier, Robert; Destain, Jacqueline; Drion, R.; Thonart, Philippe


    Most degradation processes that occur within municipal wastes landfills result from different microbial activities interacting all along the landfill lifetime and that are influenced by several non-biological factors. These complex biological and chemical processes require a multidisciplinary pattern in order to assess and control their environmental impact. Thanks to Walloon Region support, we have developed a pattern or model combining the evolution of different key parameters. Such paramet...

  8. Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery......, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributions to the GHG accounting, up to about 1000 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1 for the open dump, 300 kg CO2-eq. tonne —1...... for conventional landfilling of mixed waste and 70 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1 for low-organic-carbon waste landfills. The load caused by indirect, upstream emissions from provision of energy and materials to the landfill was low, here estimated to be up to 16 kg CO2-eq. tonne—1. On the other hand, utilization of landfill...

  9. Seismic stability and permanent displacement of landfill along liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN YunMin; GAO Deng; ZHU Bin; CHEN RenPeng


    The three-part wedge limit equilibrium method for seismic stability analysis of the landfill along liners is presented. The approximate solutions of the factor of safety and the yield acceleration coefficient are obtained. Parametric studies show that the interface strength of liners, the shear strength of waste and the height of retaining wall can influence the seismic stability of landfill along liners. The density and the shear wave velocity of the field waste are obtained by the borehole investigation and the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), respectively. The strain-dependent shear modulus and damping ratio of the artifical waste are obtained by the moderate-scale dynamic triaxial tests. The one- dimensional (1D) equivalent linear dynamic response analysis is used to calculate the horizontal equivalent seismic coefficient-time history of the sliding landfill during earthquake. The seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners with different site conditons and heights is evaluated by the Newmark method. The catculated results show that ratio of ky/kmax, site conditions, the amplitude and frequency content of the bedrock motion can affect the seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners in some degree. Finally, the seismic stability and permanent displacements of three expanded configurations of a certain landfill case are analyzed.

  10. A Decision Making Tool for Hazardous Waste Landfill Site Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pandiyan


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Continuous global environmental crisis and degradation has been a challenge for the sustainability of living on earth. This threat was posed by industrialization, high products need, urbanization and population growth activities. As a result, the hazardous waste generation has tremendously increased. Approach: Landfill was one of the positive approaches to handle hazardous waste generated in great quantity. The appropriate selection of landfill site played a major role to remediate the hazardous waste materials. Attributes to be considered for decision-making were selected based on literature, observations with weightage assigned to each attribute following the pair wise comparison method and sensitivity index on a scale of 0 to 1 based on attribute measurement. The attributes were then grouped and ranked following Delphi approach. Results: In environmental assessment, field based study of three landfill sites such as Melakottaiyur, Pachaiyankuppam and Gummidipoondi in Tamil Nadu, India were selected and the sites scored a Risk Index (RI of 298.75, 369.05 and 408.25 respectively. In economical assessment, economic viability related attributes were analyzed and the three landfill site such as Pachaiyankuppam, Melakottaiyur and Gummidipoondi scored a RI of 86.1, 94.3 and 131.5 respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: In environmental assessment the landfill sites were shortlisted. In order to achieve economic sustainability of the landfill, economic viability related attributes has to be analyzed with high priority and weightage in economical assessment.

  11. Groundwater geochemistry of a municipal landfill in Araras, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico de Castro Alves 1


    Full Text Available A contaminated area associated with a residential unlined landfill, located in Araras, was investigated. The aim of this work was to develop a hydrogeological and geochemical conceptual model in order to identify the redox zones related to the landfill and to explain the main processes resulting from the impact of leachates on the local groundwaters and soil. The work consisted of a surface geological mapping, geophysical survey with electric tomography, logging of subsoil boreholes, an installation of monitoring wells and soil, gas, leachate and groundwater samples analyses. The results show that the Araras landfill is in the methanogenic phase and promotes alterations in local groundwater quality. The main parameters of environmental interest identified in the leachate were total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonium, methane, Na, Cl, Fe, Mn, Ba, B, Co and Cd. According to criteria specifically developed for this landfill, the following redox zones were identified in the groundwater: (i aerobic, located upgradient from the landfill; (ii methanogenic, downgradient from the landfill; (iii iron and/or manganese reduction, located between the methanogenic zone and the Araras river. Bypassing the iron and/or manganese redox zone, the existence of a denitrification zone was inferred. Besides the redox reactions in these zones, other processes that mitigate the impact of leachate into groundwater were also discovered: dilution, degradation by the action of surface microorganisms, dispersion, ionic exchange, formation of organic and inorganic complexes, dissolution and precipitation.

  12. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul [WorleyParsons Komex, Bristol (United Kingdom); Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul [UKAEA, Dounreay (United Kingdom)


    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure.

  13. Seismic stability and permanent displacement of landfill along liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The three-part wedge limit equilibrium method for seismic stability analysis of the landfill along liners is presented. The approximate solutions of the factor of safety and the yield acceleration coefficient are obtained. Parametric studies show that the interface strength of liners, the shear strength of waste and the height of retaining wall can influence the seismic stability of landfill along liners. The density and the shear wave velocity of the field waste are obtained by the borehole investigation and the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), respectively. The strain-dependent shear modulus and damping ratio of the artifical waste are obtained by the moderate-scale dynamic triaxial tests. The onedimensional (1D) equivalent linear dynamic response analysis is used to calculate the horizontal equivalent seismic coefficient-time history of the sliding landfill during earthquake. The seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners with different site conditons and heights is evaluated by the Newmark method. The catculated results show that ratio of ky /kmax, site conditions, the amplitude and frequency content of the bedrock motion can affect the seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners in some degree. Finally, the seismic stability and permanent displacements of three expanded configurations of a certain landfill case are analyzed.

  14. [Community Structure and Succession of Methanogens in Beishenshu Landfill, Beijing]. (United States)

    Song, Li-na; Wang, Lei; Xia, Meng-jing; Su, Yue; Li, Zhen-shan


    Methanogens are the key microorganisms for landfill stabilization. RT-PCR and qPCR detecting system were employed to determine the types and abundance of methanogens in 2-15 year-old solid wastes that sampled from Beishenshu Landfill, Beijing. The organic components were almost stable and the pH values were in alkaline range, which indicated that the landfill was in the methanogenic process. Methanobacterials, Methanosaeta, and Methanosarcina were detected, among which Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina are acetoclastic, and Methanobacterials are hydrogenotrophic. As landfill processing, within this time range, although the bacterial abundance was significantly decreased, the amount of methanogens was first increased and then decreased, and finally became stable after being landfilled for 9 years. Methanosarcina was the dominate taxa. Significant correlations were found between the methanogens and the volatile fatty acids, but the correlations between methanogens and larger molecular organic matters were relatively weak or even absent. Taken together, our study revealed that the amount of methanogens were affected by substrates, but hardly influenced by the conversion of large molecules in these wastes landfilled for more than 2 years.

  15. Occurrence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance in landfill leachate. (United States)

    Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Qiao, Jing; Song, Liyan


    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is extensively present in various environments, posing emerging threat to public and environmental health. Landfill receives unused and unwanted antibiotics through household waste and AR within waste (e.g., activated sludge and illegal clinical waste) and is supposed to serve as an important AR reservoir. In this study, we used culture-dependent methods and quantitative molecular techniques to detect and quantify antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in 12 landfill leachate samples from six geographic different landfills, China. Five tested ARGs (tetO, tetW, bla(TEM), sulI, and sulII) and seven kinds of antibiotic-resistant heterotrophic ARB were extensively detected in all samples, demonstrating their occurrence in landfill. The detected high ratio (10(-2) to 10(-5)) of ARGs to 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies implied that ARGs are prevalent in landfill. Correlation analysis showed that ARGs (tetO, tetW, sulI, and sulII) significantly correlated to ambient bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies, suggesting that the abundance of bacteria in landfill leachate may play an important role in the horizontal spread of ARGs.

  16. Health effects of living in the vicinity of the landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lar


    Full Text Available Landfill sites are the easiest, the cheapest and the most common way of waste management and disposal. In the face of the increasing amount of waste, the dynamics of globalization and urbanization process, waste management is an important issue of ecological policy in highly developed countries. Landfill sites intensify environmental threats for the neighborhood and give rise to toxic substances which impair human health being released from the landfills. These are persistent organic pollutants (POPs, heavy metals and also biological gas, bioaerosols, bacteria and viruses. Scientists have conducted a lot of research to evaluate the impact of landfill sites on human health living in their vicinity. They found increased occurrence of congenital anomalies, increased risk of certain cancers and low birth weight of infants. The results of the studies didn’t deliver absolute proof of relation between the impact of landfill sites on the induction of cancer and other diseases. There is a necessity to conduct further research to evaluate the impact of landfill sites on people health living in the vicinity

  17. Site-specific criteria for the completion of landfill aftercare. (United States)

    Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H


    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills need to be managed after closure to assure long-term environmental compatibility. Aftercare can be completed when the authorities consider the landfill not likely to pose a threat to humans and the environment. In this work, a methodology for deriving site-specific aftercare completion criteria is presented and its application is illustrated via a case study. The evaluation method combines models addressing waste emission behavior, long-term barrier performance, and pollutant migration to assess the potential impact of landfill emissions on the environment. Based on the definition of acceptable impact levels at certain points of compliance, scenario- and pollutant-specific aftercare completion criteria are derived. The methodology was applied to a closed MSW landfill in Austria and potential aftercare durations were determined. While landfill gas emissions may become environmentally tolerable within decades at the site, leachate-related aftercare measures were expected to be necessary for centuries (primarily as a result of ammonium). Although the evaluation comes with large uncertainties, it allows for linking aftercare intensity and duration with respect to an environmentally compatible state of the landfill in the absence of aftercare. However, further case studies including regulatory review and acceptance are needed to use the methodology in a decision support tool on aftercare completion.

  18. Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

  19. Is phytoremediation without biomass valorization sustainable? - comparative LCA of landfilling vs. anaerobic co-digestion. (United States)

    Vigil, Miguel; Marey-Pérez, Manuel F; Martinez Huerta, Gemma; Álvarez Cabal, Valeriano


    This study examines the sustainability of phytoremediation for soils contaminated with heavy metals, especially the influence of management of the produced metal-enriched biomass on the environmental performance of the complete system. We examine a case study in Asturias (north of Spain), where the land was polluted with Pb by diffuse emissions from an adjacent steelmaking factory. A Phytoremediation scenario based on this case was assessed by performing a comparative life cycle assessment and by applying the multi-impact assessment method ReCiPe. Our Baseline scenario used the produced biomass as feedstock for an anaerobic digester that produces biogas, which is later upgraded cryogenically. The Baseline scenario was compared with two alternative scenarios: one considers depositing the produced biomass into landfill, and the other considers excavating the contaminated soil, disposing it in a landfill, and refilling the site with pristine soil. A sensitivity analysis was performed using different yields of biomass and biogas, and using different distances between site and biomass valorization/disposal center. Our results show that the impacts caused during agricultural activities and biomass valorization were compensated by the production of synthetic natural gas and the avoided impact of natural gas production. In addition, it was found that if the produced biomass was not valorized, the sustainability of phytoremediation is questionable. The distance between the site and the biomass processing center is not a major factor for determining the technology's sustainability, providing distances are less than 200-300 km. However, distance to landfill or to the source of pristine soil is a key factor when deciding to use phytoremediation or other ex-situ conventional remediation techniques.

  20. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Hwayang-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Namhoon, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane.

  1. Cultivos de cobertura,¿una alternativa viable para la región semirárida pampeana? Cover crops: a viable alternative for the semiarid Pampa region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernández


    N disponible en el suelo para el cultivo de maíz y sorgo. El rendimiento de maíz fue dependiente de la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo a la siembra, ya que en B fue de 1015 kg ha-1, mientras que el rendimiento promedio con antecesor CC fue de 4044 kg ha-1. Para el caso del cultivo de sorgo, el manejo previo (con o sin CC no condicionó los rendimientos del mismo, debido a su ciclo fenológico más largo que facilitó que el cultivo aprovechara mayores precipitaciones específicamente durante el período entre siembra y floración.The effect of cover crops (CC on the provision of soil cover, N sequestration, accumulation of available water and the yield of a subsequent summer crop was evaluated. A field experiment with the following treatments was established: fallow without cover crop (B and rye as CC, control (CT, and fertilized (CF in a randomized complete block design with plots divided in two moments of drying of CC: July (CTJ and CFJ respectively and August (CTA and CFA respectively. On all treatments, two summer crops (CV, corn and sorghum were planted after fallowing at the end of November. Soil moisture and nitrate-N were determined at seeding of the CC, during their growing season, and at planting and flowering of corn and sorghum. Consumptive water use (UC and water use efficiency (EUA of CC, corn and sorghum were calculated. The standing biomass of CC was determined at the two dates of drying (J and A, and at planting of the summer crops and during their growing period the CC biomass litter was measured. The carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents of the dry matter were determined for all sampling dates. At planting of the summer crops, B treatment had less available water stored in the soil than CC, and J stored more water than A treatment. Total dry matter production of CC was higher in F and when dried in A. The CC sequestered important amounts of C, N and P, preventing potential leaching losses of N during the fallow, and CC litter

  2. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia. (United States)

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas


    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management.

  3. Electrochemical treatment of leachates from sanitary landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The electrochemical treatment of leachate samples from a Portuguese intermunicipal sanitary landfill was carried out using anodic oxidation. The treatment was performed in a pilot plant that possesses an electrochemical cell, with boron-doped diamond electrodes, working in batch mode with recirculation. The influence of the applied current density and the flow rate on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Current density was decreased by steps, during the degradation, in order to study this effect on the efficiency of the process. For the assays run at equal flow rate and initial current intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal seems to depend mainly on the charge passed and the variation of the current density during the anodic oxidation process can reduce the energetic costs. An increase in the recirculation flow rate leads to an increase in the organic load removal rate and a consequent decrease in the energetic costs, but it decreases the nitrogen removal rate. Also, the bias between dissolved organic carbon and COD removals increases with flow rate, indicating that an increase in recirculation flow rate decreases the mineralization index.

  4. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE ZhengFang; YU HongYan; WEN LiLi; NI JinRen


    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl's method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L-1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L-1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L-1, At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  5. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl’s method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L?1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L?1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L?1. At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  6. The Importance of Landfill Gas Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this document is to identify and examine global policies, measures, and incentives that appear to be stimulating LFG use. As certain countries have made great advances in LFGE development through effective policies, the intention of this report is to use information from the IEA's Global Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Measures and Policies Databases to identify and discuss policies. By consolidating this information and categorising it according to policy type, the attributes that are most appealing or applicable to the circumstances of a particular country or area -- technology demonstration, financial incentives, awareness campaigns, etc. -- are more easily identified. The report begins with background information on LFG and sanitary landfill practices, including a discussion of regional disparities, followed by a description of LFG mitigation technologies. Barriers to LFGE projects are then outlined. An explanation of the importance and effectiveness of policy measures leads into a discussion of types and examples of measures that are being used to overcome these barriers and encourage LFGE development. The report concludes with lessons learned, recommendations for further study, and resources where more information can be found.

  7. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate. (United States)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman; Yarimtepe, Canan Can


    The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman's test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (pbiogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p<0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency ultrasound pretreatment can be potentially used for wastewater management especially with integration of anaerobic processes.

  8. Assessment of two thermally treated drill mud wastes for landfill containment applications. (United States)

    Carignan, Marie-Pierre; Lake, Craig B; Menzies, Todd


    Offshore oil and gas drilling operations generate significant amounts of drill mud waste, some of which is transported onshore for subsequent thermal treatment (i.e. via thermal remediation). This treatment process results in a mineral waste by-product (referred to as thermally treated drill mud waste; TTDMW). Bentonites are originally present in many of the drill mud products and it is hypothesized that TTDMW can be utilized in landfill containment applications (i.e. cover or base liner). The objective of this paper is to examine the feasibility of this application by performing various physical and chemical tests on two TTDMW samples. It is shown that the two TTDMW samples contained relatively small amounts of clay-sized minerals although hydraulic conductivity values are found to be less than 10(-8) m/s. Organic carbon contents of the samples were approximately 2%. Mineralogy characterization of the samples confirmed varying amounts of smectite, however, peak friction angles for a TTDMW sample was greater than 36 degrees. Chemical characterization of the TTDMW samples show potential leaching of barium and small amounts of other heavy metals. Discussion is provided in the paper on suggestions to assist in overcoming regulatory issues associated with utilization of TTDMW in landfill containment applications.

  9. An attempt to perform water balance in a Brazilian municipal solid waste landfill. (United States)

    São Mateus, Maria do Socorro Costa; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Barbosa, Maria Cláudia


    This paper presents an attempt to model the water balance in the metropolitan center landfill (MCL) in Salvador, Brazil. Aspects such as the municipal solid waste (MSW) initial water content, mass loss due to decomposition, MSW liquid expelling due to compression and those related to weather conditions, such as the amount of rainfall and evaporation are considered. Superficial flow and infiltration were modeled considering the waste and the hydraulic characteristics (permeability and soil-water retention curves) of the cover layer and simplified uni-dimensional empirical models. In order to validate the modeling procedure, data from one cell at the landfill were used. Monthly waste entry, volume of collected leachate and leachate level inside the cell were monitored. Water balance equations and the compressibility of the MSW were used to calculate the amount of leachate stored in the cell and the corresponding leachate level. Measured and calculated values of the leachate level inside the cell were similar and the model was able to capture the main trends of the water balance behavior during the cell operational period.

  10. Application of continuous normal-lognormal bivariate density functions in a sensitivity analysis of municipal solid waste landfill. (United States)

    Petrovic, Igor; Hip, Ivan; Fredlund, Murray D


    The variability of untreated municipal solid waste (MSW) shear strength parameters, namely cohesion and shear friction angle, with respect to waste stability problems, is of primary concern due to the strong heterogeneity of MSW. A large number of municipal solid waste (MSW) shear strength parameters (friction angle and cohesion) were collected from published literature and analyzed. The basic statistical analysis has shown that the central tendency of both shear strength parameters fits reasonably well within the ranges of recommended values proposed by different authors. In addition, it was established that the correlation between shear friction angle and cohesion is not strong but it still remained significant. Through use of a distribution fitting method it was found that the shear friction angle could be adjusted to a normal probability density function while cohesion follows the log-normal density function. The continuous normal-lognormal bivariate density function was therefore selected as an adequate model to ascertain rational boundary values ("confidence interval") for MSW shear strength parameters. It was concluded that a curve with a 70% confidence level generates a "confidence interval" within the reasonable limits. With respect to the decomposition stage of the waste material, three different ranges of appropriate shear strength parameters were indicated. Defined parameters were then used as input parameters for an Alternative Point Estimated Method (APEM) stability analysis on a real case scenario of the Jakusevec landfill. The Jakusevec landfill is the disposal site of the capital of Croatia - Zagreb. The analysis shows that in the case of a dry landfill the most significant factor influencing the safety factor was the shear friction angle of old, decomposed waste material, while in the case of a landfill with significant leachate level the most significant factor influencing the safety factor was the cohesion of old, decomposed waste material. The

  11. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques (United States)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy


    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described

  12. Metal concentrations of simulated aerobic and anaerobic pilot scale landfill reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinan Bilgili, M. [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Ince, Mahir [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail:


    Leachate and solid waste samples from aerobic and anaerobic simulated landfill reactors operated with and without leachate recirculation were characterized in terms of metals such as Fe, Ca, K, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Metal concentrations of aerobic landfill reactor leachate samples are always below the regulation limits. The higher concentrations in anaerobic landfill leachate samples decreased to regulation limits after the landfill becomes methanogenic. The effect of leachate recirculation is determined in anaerobic landfills more clearly than aerobic landfills. Metal precipitation resulted in a decrease in leachate metal content and an increase in solid waste metal content as expected. Result of the study show that the metal content of landfill leachate samples is not a major concern for both aerobic and anaerobic landfills.


    Landfill bioreactor technology has been under investigation in the field for its potential economic and waste treatment benefits over conventional landfill systems. A better understanding of biological influences on the stabilization process is needed for incorporation into the e...

  14. Application of Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology for Characterization of Leachate Generation in Landfills (United States)

    aharoni, imri; dahan, ofer


    Ground water contamination due to landfill leachate percolation is considered the most severe environmental threat related to municipal solid waste landfills. Natural waste degradation processes in landfills normally produce contaminated leachates up to decades after the waste has been buried. Studies have shown that understanding the mechanisms which govern attenuation processes and the fate of pollutants in the waste and in the underlying unsaturated zone is crucial for evaluation of environmental risks and selection of a restoration strategy. This work focuses on a closed landfill in the coastal plain of Israel that was active until 2002 without any lining infrastructure. A vadose zone monitoring system (VMS) that was implemented at the site enables continuous measurements across the waste body (15 m thick) and underlying sandy vadose zone (16 m thick). Data collected by the VMS included continuous measurements of water content as well as chemical composition of the leachates across the entire waste and vadose zone cross section. Results indicated that winter rain percolated through the waste, generating wetting waves which were observed across the waste and unsaturated sediment from land surface until groundwater at 31 m bls. Quick percolation and high fluxes were observed in spite of the clay cover that was implemented at the site as part of the rehabilitation scheme. The results show that the flow pattern is controlled by a preferential mechanism within the waste body. Specific sections showed rapid fluxes in response to rain events, while other sections remained unaffected. In the underlying sandy vadose zone the flow pattern exhibited characteristics of matrix flow. Yet, some sections received higher fluxes due to the uneven discharge of leachates from the overlying waste body. Water samples collected from the waste layer indicate production of highly polluted leachates over 14 years after the landfill was closed. The chemical composition within the waste

  15. Energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuels from landfill mining. (United States)

    Rotheut, Martin; Quicker, Peter


    The residence of municipal solid waste within a landfill body results in a significant change of material properties. Experiences with the energetic utilisation of the burnable fractions from formerly landfilled waste are hardly documented, the influence of refuse derived fuels (RDF) from such materials on the performance of modern waste-to-energy plants is not sufficiently described in scientific literature. Therefore this study focuses on the energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuel from landfilled waste, processed in a mechanical waste treatment facility, and the impact of the material on the operation of the incineration plant. Additionally, the possibility of direct combustion of non-pre-treated excavated landfill material has been evaluated in the same facility. First, sampling and analysis of the fuel has been carried out. Based on this, a large-scale combustion experiment was planned and conducted in an industrial waste-to-energy plant. Steam mass flow rate, concentration of harmful substances in the raw gas, as well as total emissions of the facility have been monitored in detail. Furthermore, the influence of the landfilled material on the additive consumption has been determined. The combustion residues (bottom ash) were also sampled and analysed. Based on the evaluation of operating data and analysis of both fuel and residue, suitable thermal treatment approaches for the refuse-derived fuel and the non-pre-treated excavated material have been assessed.

  16. Characterization of thermal properties of municipal solid waste landfills. (United States)

    Faitli, József; Magyar, Tamás; Erdélyi, Attila; Murányi, Attila


    Municipal waste landfills represent not only a source of landfill gases, but a source of thermal energy as well. The heat in landfills is generated by physical, chemical and microbiological processes. The goal of our study was to characterize the thermal properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples of the given landfill. A new apparatus was designed and constructed to measure heat flow. A systematic test series of 17 discrete measurements was carried out with municipal waste samples of 1.0-1.7 m(3). The thermal conductivity, heat diffusivity and specific heat capacity of the samples were determined. Analysing the results of the sampling and our experiments it was realized that the theoretical fundaments should be clarified. Two theories were developed for the serial and for the parallel heat flow in three phase disperse systems. The serial and parallel models resulted in different theoretical estimations. The measured thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity were better characterized by the parallel heat flow estimations. The results show that heat can flow parallel in solid, liquid and gas phases. Characterization of thermal properties serves to establish the fundament of heat extraction from municipal waste landfills.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein


    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  18. Endogenous mitigation of H2S inside of the landfills. (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Zhong, Zhong; Shen, Dongsheng; Du, Yao; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang


    Vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from landfill sites require urgent disposal. The current study focused on source control and examined the migration and conversion behavior of sulfur compounds in two lab-scale simulated landfills with different operation modes. It aimed to explore the possible strategies and mechanisms for H2S endogenous mitigation inside of landfills during decomposition. It was found that the strength of H2S emissions from the landfill sites was dependent on the municipal solid waste (MSW) degradation speed and vertical distribution of sulfide. Leachate recirculation can shorten both the H2S influence period and pollution risk to the surrounding environment. H2S endogenous mitigation may be achieved by chemical oxidation, biological oxidation, adsorption, and/or precipitation in different stages. Migration and conversion mainly affected H2S release behavior during the initial stabilization phase in the landfill. Microbial activities related to sulfur, nitrogen, and iron can further promote H2S endogenous mitigation during the high reducing phase. Thus, H2S endogenous mitigation can be effectively enhanced via control of the aforementioned processes.

  19. Phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on willow--Salix amygdalina L. (United States)

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Randerson, Peter F


    Because of low investment and operational costs, interest is increasing in the use of willow plants in landfill leachate disposal. Toxic effects of leachate on the plants should be avoided in the initial period of growth and phytotoxicological testing may be helpful to select appropriate leachate dose rates. The aim of this study was to determine the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on young willow (Salix amygdalina L.) cuttings, as a criterion for dose rate selection in the early phase of growth. Over a test period of 6 weeks plants were exposed to six concentrations of landfill leachate solutions (0%; 6.25%; 12.5%; 25%; 50% and 100%), under two different regimes. In regime A willow plants were cultivated in leachate solution from the beginning, whereas in regime B they were grown initially in clean water for 4 weeks, after which the water was exchanged for leachate solutions. The lowest effective concentration causing toxic effects (LOEC) was calculated (pWillow plants were able to survive in landfill leachate solutions with electrical conductivity (EC) values up to 5.0 mS/cm in regime A, whereas in regime B plants were killed when EC exceeded 3.0 mS/cm. This indicates an ability of willow plants to tolerate higher strengths of landfill leachate if they are cultivated in such concentrations from the beginning.

  20. Test methods to aid in the evaluation of the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill. (United States)

    Wagland, S T; Tyrrel, S F


    This response follows on from a recent discussion by Sánchez (2009) on test methods to aid in the evaluation of the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill. Test methods to assess the biodegradability/biodegradable content of organic waste are of great interest across Europe for different purposes, such as landfill acceptance criteria, monitoring treatment facility performance and for monitoring the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill. Many studies have recently attempted to correlate short-term test methods with long-term anaerobic test methods. This response discusses recent findings and conclusions made by Sánchez (2009) and describes recent work undertaken at Cranfield University to develop the enzymatic hydrolysis test (EHT) method. The EHT has previously shown potential as a short-term, non-biological, biodegradability assessment tool, however there is a requirement to further develop this test method. We conclude that aerobic and anaerobic biological test methods are not the only suitable methods of assessing waste treatment process performance; and that alternative methods such as EHT are feasible and potentially suitable.

  1. Percent Forest Cover (Future) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  2. Saturated Domino Coverings

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex


    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  3. Percent Forest Cover (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  4. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter


    biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41-81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills...

  5. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve New Hampshire's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010...

  6. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve Massachusetts's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7,...

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada


    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  8. International training seminar: high training on sanitary landfills design, Madrid 7-11, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The seminar on design of sanitary landfills was articulated in 5 sessions: 1.- Design of sanitary landfills depending on the quality of wastes. 2.- Legal, techniques and administrative aspects of management. 3.- Geotechniques studies 4.- Biogas 5.- Environmental impact of sanitary landfills.

  9. 75 FR 8986 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill... (United States)


    ... constructing and operating a solid waste landfill, recycling facility, and composting facility. In 1989, the... be required to comply with 40 CFR part 258 (Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills). Because... 258. For municipal solid waste landfills in Indian Country, the EPA must makes...

  10. The use of volcanic soil as mineral landfill liner--I. Physicochemical characterization and comparison with zeolites. (United States)

    Navia, Rodrigo; Hafner, Georg; Raber, Georg; Lorber, Karl E; Schöffmann, Elke; Vortisch, Walter


    The main physicochemical characteristics of the volcanic soil of Southern Chile, with allophane as the main pedogenic mineral phase were analysed and compared with common zeolites (clinoptilolite) of the European market. The ultimate goal of this study was to test volcanic soil for the use as mineral landfill liner. The main results indicated that the clay and silt fractions together of the volcanic soil were between 38 and 54%. The buffering capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared with the studied zeolites, whereas the cationic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil (between 5.2 and 6.5 cmol + kg(-1)) is of the same order of magnitude of the studied zeolites (between 9.7 and 11.4 cmol + kg(-1)). Moreover, the anionic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared to the zeolites analysed. The hydraulic conductivity of the volcanic soil, measured in the laboratory at maximum proctor density, ranges between 5.16 x 10(-9) and 6.48 x 10(-9) m s(-1), a range that is comparable to the value of 4.51 x 10(-9) m s(-1) of the studied zeolite. The Proctor densities of the volcanic soil are in a lower range (between 1.11 and 1.15 g ml(-1)) compared with zeolites (between 1.19 and 1.34 g ml(-1)). The volcanic soil physicochemical characteristics are comparable to all the requirements established in the Austrian landfill directive (DVO, 2000). Therefore, the use as mineral landfill basal sealing of the analysed volcanic soil appears reasonable, having a pollutant adsorption capacity comparable to zeolites. It is of special interest for Southern Chile, because there are no alternative mineral raw materials for basal liners of landfills.

  11. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter


    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater. The historical investigation showed that the original soil surface beneath the waste was a relatively heterogeneous mixture of boggy ground and sand soil areas. This indicated...... groundwater divides were located. These measurements indicated that approximately 50% of the leachate from the mixed waste discharged to the drainage ditch. This was supported by directly measuring the flux of leachate (as kilograms chloride per year) carried out by continuous gauging of water flow...

  12. Detailed analysis of a RCRA landfill for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this detailed analysis is to provide a preliminary compilation of data, information, and estimated costs associated with a RCRA landfill alternative for UNC Disposal Site. This is in response to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) comment No. 6 from their review of a {open_quotes}Feasibility Study for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.{close_quotes}

  13. Land Cover Characterization Program (United States)



    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  14. Land Cover Trends Project (United States)

    Acevedo, William


    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  15. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.


    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  16. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  17. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic......, ferrogenic, nitrate-reducing and aerobic environments overa distance of 370 m. This redox zone sequence is consistent with thermodynamical principles and is closely matched by the leachate plume determined by the chloride plume distribution. The redox zone sequence is believed to be key in controlling...

  18. Attenuation of fluorocarbons released from foam insulation in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Dote, Yukata; Fredenslund, Anders Michael


    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have been used as blowing agents (BAs) for foam insulation in home appliances and building materials, which after the end of their useful life are disposed of in landfills. The objective of this project...... in any of the experiments within a run time of up to 200 days. The obtained degradation rate coefficients were used as input for an extended version of an existing landfill fate model incorporating a time dependent BA release from co-disposed foam insulation waste. Predictions with the model indicate...

  19. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

  20. Analysis of a landfill gas to energy system at the municipal solid waste landfill in Gaziantep, Turkey. (United States)

    Tercan, Safak Hengirmen; Cabalar, Ali Firat; Yaman, Gokhan


    This paper presents an analysis of the electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW), via landfill gas valorization technology, at the landfill of Gaziantep City, Turkey. Rapid increase in population, and industrial developments, throughout the world including Turkey results in larger amount of waste materials generated, increased need for energy, and adverse affects on the environment and human health. Turkey plans to produce 1/3 of its electricity demand using renewable energy sources by the year of 2023. It is recommended to use each year around 25 million tonnes of the MSW generated nationwide for a renewable energy supply. In this study, a concise summary of current status of electricity generation from a MSW landfill gas plant (via biogas harnessing) located in Gaziantep City was analyzed as a case study.

  1. Chemical behavior of phthalates under abiotic conditions in landfills. (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip N; Li, Yi; Appiah-Sefah, Gloria


    The phthalates comprise a family of phthalic acid esters that are used primarily as plasticizers in polymeric materials to impart flexibility during the manufacturing process and to the end product. It is estimated that the annual worldwide production of phthalate esters exceeds five million tons. Plasticizers are one of the most prominent classes of chemicals, but unfortunately, they possess endocrine-disrupting chemical properties. As endocrine-disrupting chemicals, plasticizers have produced adverse developmental and reproductive effects in mammalian animal models.Phthalates are easily transported into the environment during manufacture, disposal,and leaching from plastic materials, because they are not covalently bound to the plastics of which they are a component. Because of their fugitive nature and widespread use, the phthalates are commonly detected in air, water, sediment/soil, and biota, including human tissue. Large amounts of phthalic acid esters are often leached from the plastics that are dumped at municipal landfills.Phthalate esters undergo chemical changes when released into the environment.The primary processes by which they are transformed include hydrolysis, photolysis,and biodegradation. It is noteworthy that all of these degradation processes are greatly influenced by the local physical and chemical conditions. Hence, in the present review, we have sought to ascertain from the literature how the phthalate esters undergo transformation when they are released into lower landfill layers.Within the upper landfill layers, biodegradation prevails as the major degradation mechanism by which the phthalates are dissipated. Generally, biodegradation pathways for the phthalates consist of primary biodegradation from phthalate diesters to phthalate monoesters, then to phthalic acid, and ultimately biodegradation of phthalic acid to form C02 and/or CH4• We have noted that the phthalate esters are also degraded through abiotic means,which proceeds via

  2. Landfill leachate effects on sorption of organic micropollutants onto aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Pfeffer, Fred M.;


    content. The experiments showed that hydrophobic organic micropollutants do partition into dissolved organic carbon found in landfill leachate potentially increasing their mobility. However, landfill leachate interacted with aquifer materials apparently increases the sorbent affinity for the hydrophobic......The effect of dissolved organic carbon as present in landfill leachate, on the sorption of organic micropollutants in aquifer materials was studied by laboratory batch and column experiments involving 15 non-polar organic chemicals, 5 landfill leachates and 4 aquifer materials of low organic carbon......, the effect of landfill leachate on retardation of organic micropollutants in aquifer material seems limited....

  3. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powels, C.C. [Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Bon, I. [Army Corps. of Engineers, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Okusu, N.M. [ICF Kaiser Engineering, Savannah, GA (United States)


    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m{sup 2} (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site.

  4. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer


    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  5. Analysis of the contaminants released from municipal solid waste landfill site: A case study. (United States)

    Samadder, S R; Prabhakar, R; Khan, D; Kishan, D; Chauhan, M S


    Release and transport of leachate from municipal solid waste landfills pose a potential hazard to both surrounding ecosystems and human populations. In the present study, soil, groundwater, and surface water samples were collected from the periphery of a municipal solid waste landfill (located at Ranital of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India) for laboratory analysis to understand the release of contaminants. The landfill does not receive any solid wastes for dumping now as the same is under a landfill closure plan. Groundwater and soil samples were collected from the bore holes of 15m deep drilled along the periphery of the landfill and the surface water samples were collected from the existing surface water courses near the landfill. The landfill had neither any bottom liner nor any leachate collection and treatment system. Thus the leachate generated from the landfills finds paths into the groundwater and surrounding surface water courses. Concentrations of various physico-chemical parameters including some toxic metals (in collected groundwater, soil, and surface water samples) and microbiological parameters (in surface water samples) were determined. The analyzed data were integrated into ArcGIS environment and the spatial distribution of the metals and other physic- chemical parameter across the landfill was extrapolated to observe the distribution. The statistical analysis and spatial variations indicated the leaching of metals from the landfill to the groundwater aquifer system. The study will help the readers and the municipal engineers to understand the release of contaminants from landfills for better management of municipal solid wastes.

  6. Percent Wetland Cover (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  7. Percent Wetland Cover (Future) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  8. GAP Land Cover - Image (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification...

  9. GAP Land Cover - Vector (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  10. Projected 2020 Land Cover (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  11. Percent of Impervious Cover (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  12. Anaerobic methane oxidation in a landfill-leachate plume. (United States)

    Grossman, Ethan L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M


    The alluvial aquifer adjacent to Norman Landfill, OK, provides an excellent natural laboratory for the study of anaerobic processes impacting landfill-leachate contaminated aquifers. We collected groundwaters from a transect of seven multilevel wells ranging in depth from 1.3 to 11 m that were oriented parallel to the flow path. The center of the leachate plume was characterized by (1) high alkalinity and elevated concentrations of total dissolved organic carbon, reduced iron, and methane, and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (delta13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its margins. Methane delta13C values increased from about -54 per thousand near the source to > -10 per thousand downgradient and at the plume margins. The isotopic fractionation associated with this methane oxidation was -13.6+/-1.0 per thousand. Methane 13C enrichment indicated that 80-90% of the original landfill methane was oxidized over the 210-m transect. First-order rate constants ranged from 0.06 to 0.23 per year, and oxidation rates ranged from 18 to 230 microM/y. Overall, hydrochemical data suggest that a sulfate reducer-methanogen consortium may mediate this methane oxidation. These results demonstrate that natural attenuation through anaerobic methane oxidation can be an important sink for landfill methane in aquifer systems.

  13. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.


    The SRS Interim Sanitary Landfill opened in Mid-1992 and operated until 1998 under Domestic Waste Permit No. 025500-1120. Several contaminants have been detected in the groundwater beneath the unit.The well sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Procedure 3Q5, Hydrogeologic Data Collection.

  14. Assessment of environmental and economic feasibility of Enhanced Landfill Mining. (United States)

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Vanderreydt, Ive; Van Acker, Karel


    This paper addresses the environmental and economic performance of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). Based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, a detailed model is developed and is applied to a case study, i.e. the first ELFM project in Belgium. The environmental and economic analysis is performed in order to study the valorisation of different waste types in the landfill, such as municipal solid waste, industrial waste and total waste. We found that ELFM is promising for the case study landfill as greater environmental benefits are foreseen in several impact categories compared to the landfill's current situation (the 'Do-nothing' scenario). Among the considered processes, the thermal treatment process dominates both the environmental and economic performances of ELFM. Improvements in the electrical efficiency of thermal treatment process, the calorific value of refuse derived fuel and recovery efficiencies of different waste fractions lead the performance of ELFM towards an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible direction. Although the environmental and economic profiles of ELFM will differ from case to case, the results of this analysis can be used as a benchmark for future ELFM projects.

  15. 40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. (United States)


    ... geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) overlaying and in direct contact with the 18 inches of compacted soil in... direct and uniform contact with an overlaying soil cushioning component. (v) Underlying the above liner... recirculation is allowed only to the extent that the integrity of the landfill including its liner system...


    This report focuses on three field campaigns performed in 2002 and 2003 to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfill in Louisville, KY, using an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The study uses optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping. The horizontal...


    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  18. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate. (United States)

    Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N


    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge.

  19. Gas exchanges in soybean as affected by landfill biogas atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Zerbi, G. (Univ. di Udine (Italy). Dipt. di Produzione Vegetale e Tecnologie Agrarie); Mori, A.; Leita, L. (Ist. Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante-Sezione di Gorizia (Italy))

    A problem in the ecological restoration of closed landfills is the production of potentially toxic gases by decomposition of refuse that affects the root system and physiology of plants growing on these sites. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects induced by landfill biogas contamination on gas-exchanges of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Simulated landfill and control gases were supplied to soybean plants under laboratory conditions for 10 d. The composition of the simulated landfill gas used was: 16% O[sub 2], 8% CO[sub 2], 3% CH[sub 4], and 73% N[sub 2]; a control gas was also tested. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were significantly affected by the gas treatment after 3 d; in the course of the experiment, biogas treatment progressively reduced A[sub max] in light-saturation curves. The fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content were not affected by the treatment. A metabolic adaptation to the biogas in the roots of treated plants was related to the disappearance of a fraction of the protein pool.

  20. Methanogenesis acceleration of fresh landfilled waste by micro-aeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Li-ming; HE Pin-jing; ZHANG Hua; YU Xiao-hua; LI Guo-jian


    When municipal solid waste(MSW) with high content of food waste is landfilled, the rapid hydrolysis of food waste results in the imbalance of anaerobic metabolism in the landfill layer, indicated by accumulation of volatile fatty acids(VFA) and decrease of pH value.This occurrence could lead to long lag time before the initiation of methanogenesis and to the production of strong leachate. Simulated landfill columns with forced aeration, with natural ventilation, and with no aeration, were monitored regarding their organics degradation rate with leachate recirculation. Hydrolysis reactions produced strong leachate in the column with no aeration. With forced aeration, the produced VFA could be effectively degraded, leading to the reduction in COD of the leachate effluent since the week 3. The CH4 in the frequency of twice/d, could amount to 40% (v/v) after only 20 weeks. This amount had increased up to 50% afterward even with no aeration. Most of COD in the recirculated leachate was removed. Using natural ventilation, CH4 could also be produced and the COD of the leachate effluent be reduced after 10 weeks of operation. However, the persistent existence of oxygen in the landfill layer yielded instability in methanogenesis process.

  1. 城市垃圾填埋场振动台试验的数值模拟研究%Numerical simulation for shaking-table test of municipal waste landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓学晶; 邹德高; 孔宪京


    对填埋场振动台模型试验进行非线性数值分析,并与试验结果相互补充、印证,进一步考察填埋场的地震响应规律.研究表明,特殊的夹层结构形式导致水平地震作用下城市垃圾填埋场存在两个主要的响应频率,在这两个主要频率附近模型顶部取得峰值加速度响应;不考虑其他因素的影响,填埋场防渗层的地震永久位移与输入地震动的水平位移振幅近似呈正比关系;坡比是影响填埋场覆盖层和衬垫层永久位移最主要的因素.%Based on the previous work of eight large scale physical model experiments of landfill conducted on shaking table, nonlinear numerical simulation for the test is performed subsequently; and the experimental and numerical results are verified and supplemented one another in order to further examine the characteristics of the seismic response of landfill. The follow results can be got: (1) Due to the special sandwich constructions, landfill has two main response frequencies; the peak acceleration responses at top of landfill are obtained in the vicinity of the two main frequencies under horizontal earthquake. (2) When other parameters are fixed, seism-induced permanent displacement of landfill liner is shown to be approximately proportional to the amplitude of input motion. (3) The inclination angle of landfill cover and base slope have significant effect on the critical sliding acceleration of cover and base liner system respectively.

  2. Groundwater Quality Assessment near a Municipal Landfill, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Longe


    Full Text Available The current research examined the level of groundwater contamination near a municipal landfill sitein Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Water quality parameters (physico-chemical andheavy metals of leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed. The mean concentrations of all measuredparameters except NO3G, PO4+ and CrG conform to the stipulated World Health Organization potable waterstandards and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Mean concentration values for TDS, DO,NH4+, SO4+, PO4+, NO3G and ClG are 9.17 mg LG1, 3.19 mg LG1, 0.22 mg LG1, 1.60 mg LG1, 10.73 mg LG1, 38.5mg LG1 and 7.80 mg LG1 respectively. The mean concentration values for Fe, Mn, Zn and Cr- in groundwatersamples are 0.07mg LG1, 0.08mg LG1, 0.08mg LG1 and 0.44mg LG1 respectively. The current results showinsignificant impact of the landfill operations on the groundwater resource. The existing soil stratigraphy atthe landfill site consisting of clay and silty clay is deduced to have significantly influenced natural attenuationof leachate into the groundwater resource. It is however observed that in the absence of a properly designedleachate collection system, uncontrolled accumulation of leachates at the base of the landfill pose potentialcontamination risk to groundwater resource in the very near future. The research recommends an upgrade ofthe solous landfill to a standard that would guarantee adequate protection of both the surface and thegroundwater resources in the locality.

  3. Evaluation of copper, zinc, and chromium concentration in landfill soil and hospital waste ash of Shahrekord municipal solid waste landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hatami Manesh


    Conclusion: High concentrations of metals determined in the present study represents the high application of these metals in the structure of municipal and hospital solid wastes and also their inaccurate separation. Thus, awareness about physical and chemical characteristics of municipal and hospital wastes and also the landfill soil is necessary for evaluating their effects on the soil quality and surrounding environments.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  6. Waste management alternatives: (Dis)economies of scale in recovery and decoupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Loek


    This paper formulates a theoretical model which allows different waste management strategies in equilibrium, depending on the technology of waste recovery and the utility functional specification. In the model there are two waste treatment alternatives: ‘not-recovered waste’, composed of landfill an

  7. Waste management alternatives : (Dis)economies of scale in recovery and decoupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Julia; Groot, Loek


    This paper formulates a theoretical model which allows different waste management strategies in equilibrium, depending on the technology of waste recovery and the utility functional specification. In the model there are two waste treatment alternatives: 'not-recovered waste', composed of landfill an

  8. Alternative metrics (United States)


    As the old 'publish or perish' adage is brought into question, additional research-impact indices, known as altmetrics, are offering new evaluation alternatives. But such metrics may need to adjust to the evolution of science publishing.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from landfill leachate treatment plants: A comparison of young and aged landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Jia, Mingsheng, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Xiaohai, E-mail: [Xiamen City Environmental Sanitation Management Department, Xiamen 361000 (China); Xu, Ying, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Lin, Xiangyu, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Kao, Chih Ming, E-mail: [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shaohua, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)


    Highlights: • Young and aged leachate works accounted for 89.1% and 10.9% of 33.35 Gg CO{sub 2} yr{sup −1}. • Fresh leachate owned extremely low ORP and high organic matter content. • Strong CH{sub 4} emissions occurred in the fresh leachate ponds, but small in the aged. • N{sub 2}O emissions became dominant in the treatment units of both systems. • 8.45–11.9% of nitrogen was removed as the form of N{sub 2}O under steady-state. - Abstract: With limited assessment, leachate treatment of a specified landfill is considered to be a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In our study, the cumulative GHG emitted from the storage ponds and process configurations that manage fresh or aged landfill leachate were investigated. Our results showed that strong CH{sub 4} emissions were observed from the fresh leachate storage pond, with the fluxes values (2219–26,489 mg C m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) extremely higher than those of N{sub 2}O (0.028–0.41 mg N m{sup −2} h{sup −1}). In contrast, the emission values for both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were low for the aged leachate tank. N{sub 2}O emissions became dominant once the leachate entered the treatment plants of both systems, accounting for 8–12% of the removal of N-species gases. Per capita, the N{sub 2}O emission based on both leachate treatment systems was estimated to be 7.99 g N{sub 2}O–N capita{sup −1} yr{sup −1}. An increase of 80% in N{sub 2}O emissions was observed when the bioreactor pH decreased by approximately 1 pH unit. The vast majority of carbon was removed in the form of CO{sub 2}, with a small portion as CH{sub 4} (<0.3%) during both treatment processes. The cumulative GHG emissions for fresh leachate storage ponds, fresh leachate treatment system and aged leachate treatment system were 19.10, 10.62 and 3.63 Gg CO{sub 2} eq yr{sup −1}, respectively, for a total that could be transformed to 9.09 kg CO{sub 2} eq capita{sup −1} yr{sup −1}.

  10. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi


    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  11. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)


    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  12. Assessment of groundwater contamination by landfill leachate: a case in México. (United States)

    Reyes-López, Jaime A; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Lázaro-Mancilla, Octavio; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepción; Garrido, Miguel Martín-Loeches


    In México, uncontrolled landfills or open-dumps are regularly used as "sanitary landfills". Interactions between landfills/open-dumps and shallow unconfined aquifers have been widely documented. Therefore, evidence showing the occurrence of aquifer contamination may encourage Mexican decision makers to enforce environmental regulations. Traditional methods such as chemical analysis of groundwater, hydrological descriptions, and geophysical studies including vertical electrical sounding (VES) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used for the identification and delineation of a contaminant plume in a shallow aquifer. The Guadalupe Victoria landfill located in Mexicali is used as a model study site. This landfill has a shallow aquifer of approximately 1m deep and constituted by silty sandy soil that may favor the transport of landfill leachate. Geophysical studies show a landfill leachate contaminant plume that extends for 20 and 40 m from the SE and NW edges of the landfill, respectively. However, the zone of the leachate's influence stretches for approximately 80 m on both sides of the landfill. Geochemical data corroborates the effects of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  13. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in China Based on Point Emission Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bo-Feng; LIU Jian-Guo; GAO Qing-Xian; NIE Xiao-Qin; CAO Dong; LIU Lan-Cui; ZHOU Ying; ZHANG Zhan-Sheng


    The methane (CH4) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in China in 2007 were estimated based on database of the three-dimensional emission factors matrix and point sources, by an IPCC recommended FOD (first-order decay) model. The location, capacity and age of landfills constitute the three dimensions of the emission factors matrix, which were obtained by laboratory analysis and in situ investigation. Key parameters such as waste composition, degradable organic carbon ratio, CH4 correction factor, oxidation factor and recovery rate, were carefully analyzed in terms of these three dimensions. The point sources database consists of 2,107 MSW landfills in cities and towns of China in 2007. The results show that the CH4 emissions from MSW landfills were 1.186 Mt in 2007. Compared with the CH4 emissions of 2.20 Mt in 2005, the significant discrepancy mainly comes from statistical data of landfills, e.g., number of landfills and amount of waste disposed in landfills. CH4 emissions were lower than 700 t for most of the landfills, whereas there were 279 landfills with emissions larger than 1,000 t, and only 10 landfills with emissions larger than 10,000 t. Jiangsu province ranks the largest emitter with 98,700 t while Tibet is the smallest emitter with 2,100 t. In general, the emissions from eastern provinces, such as Jiangsu, Guangdong and Zhejiang, were larger than those from western provinces, such as Ningxia, Tibet and Qinghai.

  14. Challenges and issues in moving towards sustainable landfilling in a transitory country - Malaysia. (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Fauziah, S H


    Malaysia disposes of 28,500 tonnes of municipal solid waste directly into landfills daily. This fact alone necessitates sustainable landfills to avoid adverse impacts on the population and the environment. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the issues and challenges faced by waste managers in moving towards sustainable landfilling in Malaysia. Various factors influence the management of a landfill. Among them is the human factor, which includes attitude and public participation. Although Malaysia's economy is developing rapidly, public concern and awareness are not evolving in parallel and therefore participation towards sustainable waste management through the 'reduce, reuse and recycle' approach (3Rs) is severely lacking. Consequently, landfill space is exhausted earlier than scheduled and this is no longer sustainable in terms of security of disposal. Challenges also arise from the lack of funding and the increase in the price of land. Thus, most waste managers normally aim for 'just enough' to comply with the regulations. Investment for the establishment of landfills generally is minimized since landfilling operations are considered uneconomical after closure. Institutional factors also hamper the practice of sustainable landfilling in the country where 3Rs is not mandatory and waste separation is totally absent. Although there are huge obstacles to be dealt with in moving towards sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, recent developments in waste management policy and regulations have indicated that positive changes are possible in the near future. Consequently, with the issues solved and challenges tackled, landfills in Malaysia can then be managed effectively in a more sustainable manner.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of the leaching rate parameter in assessing the environmental risk of phosphogypsum application in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D.S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The attack with sulfuric acid to phosphate rock produces both phosphoric acid, basic raw material in the manufacture of fertilizers, as a by-product called phosphogypsum. Phosphogypsum is composed mostly of calcium sulfate dihydrated, but may have high levels of impurities from the phosphate rock matrix as a series of natural radionuclides, and heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Zn) and metalloids (e.g. , As and Se). Although it is used for agricultural purposes and more recently in construction, in Brazil the generation rate estimated at six million tons per year is much higher than the amount spent on existing alternatives, and therefore mostly deposited in piles in the same place production, causing thereby the risk of contamination of soil and water resources of the region and providing risk to human health. Taken into account the need to find alternative arrangements for phosphogypsum and reduce the impact generated by its contaminants, this study aims to analyze the sensitivity of the leaching rate parameter in the environmental risk evaluation of the application of phosphogypsum in landfills through mathematical modeling, where it is evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the layer of the soil under the clay layer of the landfill.

  16. Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions. (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H; Scharff, Heijo


    Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributions to the GHG accounting, up to about 1000 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for the open dump, 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for conventional landfilling of mixed waste and 70 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) for low-organic-carbon waste landfills. The load caused by indirect, upstream emissions from provision of energy and materials to the landfill was low, here estimated to be up to 16 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1). On the other hand, utilization of landfill gas for electricity generation contributed to major savings, in most cases, corresponding to about half of the load caused by direct GHG emission from the landfill. However, this saving can vary significantly depending on what the generated electricity substitutes for. Significant amounts of biogenic carbon may still be stored within the landfill body after 100 years, which here is counted as a saved GHG emission. With respect to landfilling of mixed waste with energy recovery, the net, average GHG accounting ranged from about -70 to 30 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1), obtained by summing the direct and indirect (upstream and downstream) emissions and accounting for stored biogenic carbon as a saving. However, if binding of biogenic carbon was not accounted for, the overall GHG load would be in the range of 60 to 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1). This paper clearly shows that electricity generation as well as accounting of stored biogenic carbon are crucial to the accounting of GHG of waste landfilling.

  17. Application of Grey Situation Decision-Making Theory in Site Selection of a Waste Sanitary Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-wen; CHENG Yun-huan; ZHANG Jing; ZHOU Xiao-zhi; LIAN Cui-xia


    An application of an unequal-weighted multi-objective decision making method in site selection of a waste sanitary landfill is discussed. The eight factors, which affected possible options, were: size and capacity of the landfill, permeability of the stratum, the average difference in elevation between the groundwater level and the bottom of the landfill pit, quality and source of clay, the quality grade of the landfill site, the effect of landfill engineering on nearby residents, distance to the water supply and the water source as well as the cost of construction and waste transport. These are determined, given the conditions of the geological environment, the need for environmental protection and landfill site construction and transportation related to the design and operation of a sanitary landfill. The weights of the eight factors were further investigated based on the difference in their relevance. Combined with practical experience from Xuzhou city (Jiangsu province, China), the objectives, effects and weights of grey decision-making were determined and the process and outcome of the landfill site selection are stated in detail. The decision-making results have been proven to be acceptable and correct. As we show, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision-mak- ing is characterized by easy calculations and good maneuverability when used in landfill site selection. The number of factors (objectives) affecting the outcome and the quantitative method of qualitative indices can be adjusted on the basis of concrete conditions in landfill site selection. Therefore, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision making is a feasible method in selecting landfill sites which offers a reference method for landfill site selection elsewhere. It is a useful, rational and scientific exploration in the choice of a landfill site.

  18. Utilization of natural zeolite and perlite as landfill liners for in situ leachate treatment in landfills. (United States)

    Ozel, Ummukulsum; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri


    The potential long term environmental impacts of a landfill on groundwater quality depend on its liner material properties. In case synthetic liner materials are damaged during the construction or operation, many of the original chemical and biological constituents are removed by filtration and the adsorptive action of natural liner materials such as natural zeolite, perlite and bentonite minerals. Before leachate treatment, reduction of these constituents is important not only to leachate percolation, but also treatment cost and efficiency. In this study, the pollutant removal efficiency from the leachate was investigated for natural natural zeolite, expanded perlite and bentonite. Experimental studies was performed in boxes made of glass and with 1:10 sloping. Leachate quantity was determined and pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate (NO(3)-N), ammonium-nitrogen (NH(4)-N), phosphate (PO(4)), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic matter in leachate samples were measured and the measurement was compared with control process (System 4). The results showed that natural zeolite was effective in removing NO(3), NH(4), PO(4), COD and organic matter with removal efficiencies of 91.20, 95.6, 95.5, 83.4 and 87.8%, respectively. Expanded perlite has high efficiency removing of NO(3), PO(4) and COD 83.2, 91.0 and 62.5%, respectively, but it was unsuccessful in reducing NH(4) (1.5%).

  19. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid


    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  20. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid


    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  1. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  2. Modelling of landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash for utilization of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Chen


    Energy crisis, environment pollution and climate change are the serious challenges to people worldwide. In the 21st century, human being is trend to research new technology of renewable energy, so as to slow down global warming and develop society in an environmentally sustainable method. Landfill gas, produced by biodegradable municipal solid waste in landfill, is a renewable energy source. In this work, landfill gas utilization for energy generation is introduced. Landfill gas is able to produce hydrogen by steam reforming reactions. There is a steam reformer equipment in the fuel cells system. A sewage plant of Cologne in Germany has run the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells power station with biogas for more than 50,000 hours successfully. Landfill gas thus may be used as fuel for electricity generation via fuel cells system. For the purpose of explaining the possibility of landfill gas utilization via fuel cells, the thermodynamics of landfill gas steam reforming are discussed by simulations. In practice, the methane-riched gas can be obtained by landfill gas purification and upgrading. This work investigate a new method for upgrading-landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash experimentally. Bottom ash is a by-product of municipal solid waste incineration, some of its physical and chemical properties are analysed in this work. The landfill gas adsorption experimental data show bottom ash can be used as a potential adsorbent for landfill gas adsorption to remove CO{sub 2}. In addition, the alkalinity of bottom ash eluate can be reduced in these adsorption processes. Therefore, the interactions between landfill gas and bottom ash can be explained by series reactions accordingly. Furthermore, a conceptual model involving landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash is developed. In this thesis, the parameters of landfill gas adsorption equilibrium equations can be obtained by fitting experimental data. On the other hand, these functions can be deduced with theoretical approach

  3. Energy consumption by forward osmosis treatment of landfill leachate for water recovery. (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Zou, Shiqiang; Brazil, Brian; Novak, John T; He, Zhen


    Forward osmosis (FO) is an alternative approach for treating landfill leachate with potential advantages of reducing leachate volume and recovering high quality water for direct discharge or reuse. However, energy consumption by FO treatment of leachate has not been examined before. Herein, the operational factors such as recirculation rates and draw concentrations were studied for their effects on the quantified energy consumption by an FO system treating actual leachate collected from two different landfills. It was found that the energy consumption increased with a higher recirculation rate and decreased with a higher draw concentration, and higher water recovery tended to reduce energy consumption. The highest energy consumption was 0.276±0.033kWhm(-3) with the recirculation rate of 110mLmin(-1) and 1-M draw concentration, while the lowest of 0.005±0.000kWhm(-3) was obtained with 30mLmin(-1) recirculation and 3-M draw concentration. The leachate with lower concentrations of the contaminants had a much lower requirement for energy, benefited from its higher water recovery. Osmotic backwashing appeared to be more effective for removing foulants, but precise understanding of membrane fouling and its controlling methods will need a long-term study. The results of this work have implied that FO treatment of leachate could be energy efficient, especially with the use of a suitable draw solute that can be regenerated in an energy efficient way and/or through combination with other treatment technologies that can reduce contaminant concentrations before FO treatment, which warrants further investigation.

  4. A simple model for the distribution and fate of organic chemicals in a landfill: MOCLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    of degradation and transformation in the landfill. Local equilibrium is assumed for the distribution of the chemicals in the landfill as expressed by Henry’s Law for the leachate-gas interface, and by the linear partition coefficient based on the waste solid organic carbon content for the waste......A simple mathematical model (MOCLA: Model for Organic Chemicals in Landfills) is presented, describing the distribution of organic chemicals between leachate, gas and solid waste. The model also predicts the fate of the chemicals in terms of emissions with leachate and landfill gas and in terms......-leachate interface. Degradation of the chemicals is expressed as a first order reaction. Annual specific leachate and gas generation data in combination with data on landfill area and volume allow for prediction of main emission routes. Model simulations involving two landfill scenarios for a number of chemicals...

  5. Variability in the concentration of indicator bacteria in landfill leachate--a comparative study. (United States)

    Umar, Muhammad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian


    Leachate collected from the collection ponds of four landfill sites was investigated and compared for total coliforms and E. coli concentration as representatives of fecal pollution. Concentration of total coliforms and E. coli was comparable for leachate obtained from Kulim Landfill Site (KLS) and Ampang Landfill Site (ALS) with little variations. However, the level of indicator bacteria was significantly lower for Kuala Sepetang Landfill Site (KSLS), whereas Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS) had the lowest concentration for both total coliforms and E. coli. Considering the landfills are currently operational, with the exception of ALS, the presence of indicator bacteria implies their inactivation prior to discharge. High concentration of indicator bacteria in ALS is attributed to the run-off entering the leachate pond. Greater concentration of ammonia and salinity level were partly responsible for lower concentration of indicator bacteria in leachate from KSLS and PBLS, indicating that salinty and ammonia could significantly affect the survival of indicator bacteria.

  6. Assessment of landfill leachate toxicity reduction after biological treatment. (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Tišler, Tatjana; Zgajnar-Gotvajn, Andreja


    In the present article, the efficiency of biological treatment of landfill leachates was evaluated by implementation of physicochemical characterisation and a complex toxicity assessment. An array of toxicity tests using bacterium Vibrio fischeri, alga Desmodesmus subspicatus, crustacean Daphnia magna, and embryo of fish Danio rerio, as well as unconventional methods using biochemical biomarkers (protein content, enzymes cholinesterase, and glutathione-S-transferase), were employed. Toxicity of leachates varied depending on the season of collection in relation to their different physicochemical characteristics. Uncommon effects of leachates on organisms, such as hormetic-like increases of algal growth and reproduction of daphnids, were identified. New approaches using the activities of enzymes were found unsuitable for routine hazard assessment of leachates. Although physicochemical parameters and toxicity decreased significantly after biological treatment, the effluents did not meet the demands of the current Slovenian legislation; thus, the existing biological treatment was found inappropriate. The development of advanced treatment techniques for landfill leachates is thus encouraged.

  7. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette;


    in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride......This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... (PVC), copper and chloride). Since waste products from different processes in the product system may be disposed at different landfills where they are mixed with waste originating outside the product system, the estimated emissions from specific waste products cannot be compared with measured emissions...

  8. Geophysical study in waste landfill localized above fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariveltom Cosme da Silva


    Full Text Available Geophysical survey is an important method for investigation of contaminated areas used in the characterization of contrasting physical properties in the presence of pollutants. This work applied the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity and Self Potential in waste landfill, located in Caçapava do Sul city, RS. The landfill is located over fractured metamorphic rocks. Eight lines of electrical profiling with 288 measures of self potential were done. In addition, 83 measurements of direction and dip of fractures were taken. The application of spontaneous potential method permitted to detect the direction of groundwater flow. The electrical resistivity measurements allowed the identification of low-intensity anomalies associated with the presence of leachate. There is a relationship between anomalous zones and the directions of fractures.

  9. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. Raju


    Full Text Available The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations to measure the depth and characteristics of solid waste. Four sampling wells were made for the collection of ground water samples and they were analyzed for various parameters. All parameters were measured based on Standard methods. It is found that the ground water is contaminated due leachates of Landfill to the large extent and is not suitable for Drinking, Domestic and Irrigation purposes.

  10. Removal of Pollutants of Landfill Leachate by Recirculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye; WANG Lina; ZHENG Shizhong


    S After leached from municipal solid waste landfill was treated by recirculation, the concentration of pollutants decreases greatly, and the moisture content of the solid waste in landfill site was increased and waste stabilization rate was accelerated. Compared with traditional treatment methods, this method offers more important practical values, including short investment, enhanced treatment efficiency and facilitated operation and management. The experimental results indicated that a 99.9% removel of ammonia nitrogen and an 80.5% removal of COD were obtained, when hydraulic power surface load is 15.92 L/m2·d, and organic surface load is 25.54 g/m2·d.

  11. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included.

  12. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.


    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  13. Microbial reduction of hexavalent chromium by landfill leachate. (United States)

    Li, Yarong; Low, Gary K-C; Scott, Jason A; Amal, Rose


    The reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in municipal landfill leachates (MLL) and a non-putrescible landfill leachate (NPLL) was investigated. Complete Cr(VI) reduction was achieved within 17 days in a MLL when spiked with 100 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) or less. In the same period, negligible Cr(VI) reduction was observed in NPLL. In MLL, Cr(VI) reduction was demonstrated to be a function of initial Cr(VI) concentration and bacterial biomass and organic matter concentrations. The bacteria were observed to tolerate 250 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) in MLL and had an optimal growth activity at pH 7.4 in a growth medium. The MLL also possessed an ability to sequentially reduce Cr(VI) over three consecutive spiking cycles.

  14. Ammonium removal from landfill leachate by anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, Adelaida [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Urtiaga, Ane [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain)]. E-mail:; Rivero, Maria-Jose [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Ortiz, Inmaculada [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain)


    The feasibility of removing ammonium from landfill leachates by electrochemical oxidation was studied. Raw leachates and biologically/physico-chemically pretreated leachates from a municipal landfill site were treated. Boron doped diamond was used as anode and stainless steel as cathode, both electrodes with an area of 70 cm{sup 2}. The effects of the applied current density (15-90 mA cm{sup -2}), the initial ammonium concentration (480-2000 mg L{sup -1}), and the initial chloride concentration were experimentally studied. Total ammonium removal was obtained after 360 min of processing and almost half of the initial ammonium nitrogen was oxidized to nitrate. On the other hand, the concentration of chloride enhanced the rate of ammonium oxidation. In addition, the amount of N-NH{sub 4} {sup +} transformed into N-NO{sub 3} {sup -} decreased when additional chloride was provided.

  15. Partial nitrification for nitrogen removal from sanitary landfill leachate. (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Psaila, Giuliana; Rizzo, Andrea


    Biological nitrogen removal using nitrite as a shortcut has recently been proposed for the treatment of high strength landfill leachate. The aim of this study was to assess the application of the SHARON (Single reactor High activity Ammonium Removal Over Nitrite) process for the partial nitrification of leachate generated in old landfills. Particular attention was given to the start-up phase of the process. This study demonstrated that partial nitrification can be obtained when treating raw leachate after biomass acclimation. Only a fraction (50-70%) of the ammonia present in the leachate can be oxidised due to a limited amount of alkalinity available. Stable nitritation was obtained by applying a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4-5 d, which is higher than the values proposed for the effluent of anaerobic digesters. This higher HRT could probably be allowed by the high concentration of free ammonia present in the leachate, which could severely inhibit the growth of nitrite-oxidising bacteria.

  16. Cover crops use in agrosystems: Innovations and applications. Chapter 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholberg, J.M.S.; Dogliotti, S.; Zotarelli, L.; Cherr, C.M.; Leoni, C.; Rossing, W.A.H.


    Cover crops can reduce the dependence of farmers on agrochemicals while enhancing overall agrosystem’s performance. However, the inherent complexity of cover-crop-based systems hampers their adoption by conventional farmers. Therefore, special management skills and alternative research and technolog

  17. Magnetostrictive Alternator (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey


    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  18. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin


    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  19. Alternative Treatments (United States)

    ... triglyceride (fat) produced by processing coconut oil or palm kernel oil. The body breaks down caprylic acid into substances called “ketone bodies.” The theory behind Axona is that the ketone bodies derived from caprylic acid may provide an alternative energy source for brain cells that have lost ...

  20. Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, B.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Austin, TX (United States); Bonaparte, R.; Othman, M.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers (SHBs) used in waste containment or remediation applications. In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system (LCS) and leak detection system (LDS) liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs. Operational data for over 200 waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The top liner of the double-liner system for the units is either a geomembrane (GMB) alone, geomembrane overlying a geosynthetic clay liner (GMB/GCL), or geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (GMB/CCL). In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: (i) infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste (i.e., source control). SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper.

  1. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill. (United States)

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P


    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  2. Assessing Emissions of Volatile Organic Componds from Landfills Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Khademi


    Full Text Available Background: Biogas is obtained by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes buried materials used to produce electricity, heat and biofuels. Biogas is at the second place for power generation after hydropower and in 2000 about 6% of the world power generation was allocated to biogas. Biogas is composed of 40–45 vol% CO2, 55–65 vol% CH4, and about 1% non-methaneVOCs, and non-methane volatile organic compounds. Emission rates are used to evaluate the compliance with landfill gas emission regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. BTEX comounds affect the air quality and may be harmful to human health. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers that are generally called BTEX compounds are the most abundant VOCs in biogas. Methods: Sampling of VOCs in biogas vents was operated passively or with Tedlar bags. 20 samples were collected from 40 wells of old and new biogas sites of Shiraz’ landfill. Immediately after sampling, the samples were transferred to the laboratory. Analysis of the samples was performed with GC-MS. Results: The results showed that in the collection of the old and new biogas sites, the highest concentration of VOCs was observed in toluene (0.85ppm followed by benzene (0.81ppm, ethylbenzene (0.13ppm and xylene (0.08ppm. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that in all samples, most available compounds in biogas vents were aromatic hydrocarbon compounds.These compounds’ constituents originate from household hazardous waste materials deposited in the landfill or from biological/chemical decomposition processes within the landfill.

  3. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  4. Case study of a full-scale evapotranspiration cover (United States)

    McGuire, P.E.; Andraski, B.J.; Archibald, R.E.


    The design, construction, and performance analyses of a 6.1 ha evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover at the semiarid U.S. Army Fort Carson site, near Colorado Springs, Colo. are presented. Initial water-balance model simulations, using literature reported soil hydraulic data, aided selection of borrow-source soil type(s) that resulted in predictions of negligible annual drainage (???1 mm/year). Final construction design was based on refined water-balance simulations using laboratory determined soil hydraulic values from borrow area natural soil horizons that were described with USDA soil classification methods. Cover design components included a 122 cm thick clay loam (USDA), compaction ???80% of the standard Proctor maximum dry density (dry bulk density ???1.3 Mg/m3), erosion control measures, top soil amended with biosolids, and seeding with native grasses. Favorable hydrologic performance for a 5 year period was documented by lysimeter-measured and Richards'-based calculations of annual drainage that were all <0.4 mm/year. Water potential data suggest that ET removed water that infiltrated the cover and contributed to a persistent driving force for upward flow and removal of water from below the base of the cover. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  5. Greenhouse gas accounting of the proposed landfill extension and advanced incineration facility for municipal solid waste management in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woon, K.S.; Lo, Irene M.C., E-mail:


    The burgeoning of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal issue and climate change have drawn massive attention from people. On the one hand, Hong Kong is facing a controversial debate over the implementation of proposed landfill extension (LFE) and advanced incineration facility (AIF) to curb the MSW disposal issue. On the other hand, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is taking concerted efforts to reduce the carbon intensity in this region. This paper discusses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from four proposed waste disposal scenarios, covering the proposed LFE and AIF within a defined system boundary. On the basis of the data collected, assumptions made, and system boundary defined in this study, the results indicate that AIF releases less GHG emissions than LFE. The GHG emissions from LFE are highly contributed by the landfill methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions but offset by biogenic carbon storage, while the GHG emissions from AIF are mostly due to the stack discharge system but offset by the energy recovery system. Furthermore, parametric sensitivity analyses show that GHG emissions are strongly dependent on the landfill CH{sub 4} recovery rate, types of electricity displaced by energy recovery systems, and the heating value of MSW, altering the order of preferred waste disposal scenarios. This evaluation provides valuable insights into the applicability of a policy framework for MSW management practices in reducing GHG emissions. Highlights: • AIF is better than LFE with regard to GHG emissions in Hong Kong. • Major individual sub-processes of LFE and AIF for GHG emissions are investigated. • GHG emissions for LFE and AIF are strongly dependent on studied parametric sensitivity analyses. • Findings are valuable for sustainable MSW management and GHG reductions in waste sector.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Gliniak


    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal for the development of soda industry landfills on the example of a former Cracow Soda Works "Solvay". The area is located in close proximity to the center of Krakow and is surrounded by places of worship. The analyzed area is characterized by specific physical and chemical properties of the substrate (soda production waste that manifest themselves e.g. in very high salinity and the presence of numerous processes of water erosion. The former landfill covers an area of 1 km2 and is a natural link between the two large settlements in the southern part of Krakow, namely Kurdwanów and Borek Fałęcki. The developed landscape concept is based on a detailed analysis of the physicochemical substrate and the conditions necessary for the foundation of buildings and civil engineering. In the research phase, the technical and natural inventory was made, and a detailed review of the literature in the field of land use with similar properties was performed. The designing process was guided by the information contained in the available planning documents and the needs of the local community, which presented in the literature of other scientists. As a result of the research, the concept of omni-zoning area landfills was established. The main assumptions are based on the concept of the nineteenth-century idea of the garden city, consisting in dividing the area into 6 main thematic areas, i.e. parks, which are described in detail in the article. The main functions (leisure and recreation have been supplemented with historical and touristic elements.

  7. Singular coverings of toposes

    CERN Document Server

    Bunge, Marta


    The self-contained theory of certain singular coverings of toposes called complete spreads, that is presented in this volume, is a field of interest to topologists working in knot theory, as well as to various categorists. It extends the complete spreads in topology due to R. H. Fox (1957) but, unlike the classical theory, it emphasizes an unexpected connection with topos distributions in the sense of F. W. Lawvere (1983). The constructions, though often motivated by classical theories, are sometimes quite different from them. Special classes of distributions and of complete spreads, inspired respectively by functional analysis and topology, are studied. Among the former are the probability distributions; the branched coverings are singled out amongst the latter. This volume may also be used as a textbook for an advanced one-year graduate course introducing topos theory with an emphasis on geometric applications. Throughout the authors emphasize open problems. Several routine proofs are left as exercises, but...

  8. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes


    E.A Omondi; P.K Ndiba and P.G Njuru


    Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water sam...



    Contrera,R. C.; K. C. da Cruz Silva; G. H. Ribeiro Silva; D. M. Morita; Zaiat,M.; V. Schalch


    Abstract In some operational circumstances a fast evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatability is necessary, and neither Biochemical Methane Potential nor BOD/COD ratio are fast enough. Looking for a fast indicator, this work evaluated the anaerobic treatability of landfill leachate from São Carlos-SP (Brazil) in a pilot scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR). The experiment was conducted at ambient temperature in the landfill area. After the acclimation, at a ...

  10. From end-of-pipe to industrial ecology: What is the role of enhanced landfill mining?


    Van Acker, Karel; Geysen, Daneel; Van Passel, Steven


    Industrial ecology aims at optimising resource flows throughout society. Landfills and industrial ecology are each other's opposites. The next logical step is that resources dumped into landfills are re-introduced into the material cycles. This article critically reviews whether this recovery of resources out of landfills can currently be realised in a sustainable way and what its role is within an industrial ecology context. The focus is on the evolution in waste management towards Enhanced ...

  11. Aeration of the teuftal landfill: Field scale concept and lab scale simulation. (United States)

    Ritzkowski, Marco; Walker, Beat; Kuchta, Kerstin; Raga, Roberto; Stegmann, Rainer


    Long lasting post-closure care (PCC) is often the major financial burden for operators of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Beside costs for the installation and maintenance of technical equipment and barriers, in particular long term treatment of leachate and landfill gas has to be paid from capital surplus. Estimations based on laboratory experiments project time periods of many decades until leachate quality allows for direct discharge (i.e. no need for further purification). Projections based on leachate samples derived from the last 37years for 35 German landfills confirm these assumption. Moreover, the data illustrate that in particular ammonium nitrogen concentrations are likely to fall below limit values only after a period of 300years. In order to avoid long lasting PCC the operator of Teuftal landfill, located in the Swiss canton Bern, decided to biologically stabilize the landfill by means of a combined in situ aeration and moisturization approach. In December 2014 the aeration started at a landfill section containing approximately 30% of the total landfill volume. From summer 2016 onwards the remaining part of the landfill will be aerated. Landfill aeration through horizontal gas and leachate drains is carried out for the first time in field scale in Europe. The technical concept is described in the paper. Parallel to field scale aeration, investigations for the carbon and nitrogen turnover are carried out by means of both simulated aerated landfills and simulated anaerobic landfills. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that aeration is capable to enhance, both carbon mobilization and discharge via the gas phase. This effect comes along with a significant increase in bio-stabilization of the waste organic fraction, which positively affects the landfill emission behavior in the long run. In terms of leachate pollution reduction it could be demonstrated that the organic load decrease fast and widely independent of the adjusted aeration

  12. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing


    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.


    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  14. Novel and Conventional Technologies for Landfill Leachates Treatment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Torretta


    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste final disposal represents an environmental burden worldwide since landfilling, or open dumping, is still the preferred solution for the end of life of solid discarded materials. This study aims to review the technological innovations applied for landfill leachate treatment, taking into consideration the experiences obtained during the past years and the solutions which have been implemented. The review showed that both biological and physiochemical treatments are not able to achieve the requested water quality level, according to the limits established by regulations, whether applied in a single treatment or multiple treatments. In order to respect sustainable release limits to guarantee environmental protection, the construction of depuration systems and combining biological and physiochemical treatment methods is considered of the utmost importance. The review looks at possible joint applications of different treatment techniques reviewed by other studies and considers the state of the art of current research. Combined technical solutions suggested within the 2016 peer-reviewed papers are presented and discussed as a sustainable way to effectively treat landfill leachate, giving particular attention to feasible solutions for developing countries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Dohnal


    Full Text Available Landfills are unique and difficult to measure. Their optimization must be solved with a severe lack of information. The privilege of not utilizing information items based on common sense cannot be afforded, as this represents an important part of the available ad hoc landfill knowledge related to e.g., economics, sociology. Therefore, a flexible, formal tool for dealing with the common sense knowledge and data of a non-numerical nature is required. The classical quantitative tools, e.g., statistics, are inefficient for dealing with such sets of non-quantitative information items as expert’s interviews. Qualitative quantification is information non-intensive. It is based on just three values-positive, zero and negative; increasing, constant and decreasing. A qualitative model can be used to generate all possible qualitative activities/scenarios. It means that the past history and future scenarios of the landfill under study are known, given the model is correct. The scenarios can be screened against the prescribed trends (maximization or minimization of objective functions, to identify all possible ways of achieving optimal results. A case study with four mutually competing objective functions is presented in details. No prior knowledge of qualitative reasoning is required.

  16. Numerical simulation of landfill aeration using computational fluid dynamics. (United States)

    Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Voudrias, Evangelos A


    The present study is an application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the numerical simulation of landfill aeration systems. Specifically, the CFD algorithms provided by the commercial solver ANSYS Fluent 14.0, combined with an in-house source code developed to modify the main solver, were used. The unsaturated multiphase flow of air and liquid phases and the biochemical processes for aerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste were simulated taking into consideration their temporal and spatial evolution, as well as complex effects, such as oxygen mass transfer across phases, unsaturated flow effects (capillary suction and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), temperature variations due to biochemical processes and environmental correction factors for the applied kinetics (Monod and 1st order kinetics). The developed model results were compared with literature experimental data. Also, pilot scale simulations and sensitivity analysis were implemented. Moreover, simulation results of a hypothetical single aeration well were shown, while its zone of influence was estimated using both the pressure and oxygen distribution. Finally, a case study was simulated for a hypothetical landfill aeration system. Both a static (steadily positive or negative relative pressure with time) and a hybrid (following a square wave pattern of positive and negative values of relative pressure with time) scenarios for the aeration wells were examined. The results showed that the present model is capable of simulating landfill aeration and the obtained results were in good agreement with corresponding previous experimental and numerical investigations.

  17. Covering R-trees

    CERN Document Server

    Berestovskii, V N


    We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

  18. Engineering study of tank fill options for landfill closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, W.A.


    To prepare single-shell tanks for closure, it will be necessary to piece some type of load- bearing fill material inside the tanks to support the domes. Provision of internal support permits the simplifying assumption that the combined weight of the dome, the existing operational soil cover, and the surface barrier will eventually transfer to and be carried by the fill. This engineering study provides descriptions and evaluations of four alternative concepts for fitting and stabilizing nominally empty SSTs with fill materials. For this study it is assumed that 99 percent (or more) of tank wastes will be retrieved before closure is undertaken. The alternatives are: Gravel: tanks would be fitted with crushed aggregate using a rotating stinger apparatus installed in the central riser; Grout: tanks would be fitted with a pumpable, ex-situ mixed grout formulation; Hybrid: tanks would be fitted first with coarse aggregate, then with grout, producing a pre-placed aggregate concrete material; or Concrete: tank. would be filled with a highly-flowable, ex-situ mixed concrete formulation.

  19. Review on pollution control technologies of hydrogen sulfide odor in landfill%填埋场中硫化氢恶臭污染防治技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜耀; 方圆; 沈东升; 龙於洋


    Landfill is a popular disposal method for municipal solid wastes (MSW) in developing countries such as China. With the rapid increase of urbanization and waste output, some landfills are gradually being surrounded by residential areas. Accordingly, odor pollution arisen from landfill site has become one of the most common public complaints. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the major contributors to offensive odors in landfill, which is not only endangers the health of field workers, but also affect the normal life of the surrounding residents. This paper reviewed the recent research progress of H2S odor pollution control technologies in landfill. It shows that the H2S odor pollution in landfill has a very high concentration and intensity with great seasonal and meteorological changing. H2S in landfill gas ranges from hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter up to thousands of milligrams per cubic meter in different MSW landfill sites. Correspondingly, the sulfate, which could be utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as the electron acceptor to produce H2S, ranges from 70 to 1750 mg/L in leachate. Overall, technologies for H2S odor pollution control in landfill are mainly focusing on the end-up treatment including removing of H2S from landfill gas and using the alterative landfill cover layer to reduce H2S emission into the surrounding atmosphere. Besides, semi-aerobic landfill technology, which can accelerate the stabilization of the refuse, reduce the production of leachate and landfill gas, is another good option for H2S odor pollution control. Moreover, technologies of using easy available and efficient materials to control H2S odor emission has also being developed, especially for resource utilization of wastes with special physical, chemical and biological properties. However, technologies about controlling the source of H2S odor in landfill are still very limited. In order to deeply solve the problem of H2S odor pollution from landfill, it may need to

  20. Landfill monitoring using remote sensing: a case study of Glina, Romania. (United States)

    Iacoboaea, Cristina; Petrescu, Florian


    Landfill monitoring is one of the most important components of waste management. This article presents a case study on landfill monitoring using remote sensing technology. The study area was the Glina landfill, one of the largest municipal waste disposal sites in Romania. The methodology consisted of monitoring the differences of temperature computed for several distinct waste disposal zones with respect to a ground reference area, all of them located within the landfill site. The remote sensing data used were Landsat satellite multi-temporal data. The differences of temperature were computed using Landsat thermal infrared data. The study confirmed the use of multi-temporal Landsat imagery as a complementary data source.

  1. Bacterial community composition and abundance in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Bo Yue; Qi Wang; Zechun Huang; Qifei Huang; Zengqiang Zhang


    The abundance and phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfill were compared through real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.In semi-aerobic landfill scenario,the bacterial 16S rRNA copy numbers in leachate had no significant reduction from initial stage to stable period.In the scenario of anaerobic landfill,the largest bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number was found in leachate at initial stage,but it reduced significantly at stable period.Moreover,methane-oxidizing bacteria population in stable period was lower than that in initial period in both two landfill processes.However,semi-aerobic landfill leachate had more methanotrophic bacteria populations than that in the anaerobic one.Furthermore,according to the sequences and phylogenetic analysis,obvious difference could be detected in bacterial community composition in different scenarios.Proteobacteria and bacteroidetes took up a dominantly higher proportion in semi-aerobic landfill leachate.To summarize up,different landfill methods and its landfill ages had crucial impacts on bacterial abundance and composition in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills.

  2. Comparison of green-house gas emission reductions and landfill gas utilization between a landfill system and an incineration system. (United States)

    Haibin Han; Jisheng Long; Shude Li; Guangren Qian


    Electricity generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions were researched by making comparisons between municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill and incineration systems with three different electricity generation efficiencies - 10%, 21%, and 24.7%. For MSW landfill systems, it is shown that the total electricity generation is 198,747 MWh, and the total GHG emission reduction is 1,386,081 tonne CO( 2) during a 21-year operation period. For incineration systems, the total electricity generation is 611,801 MWh, and the total GHG emission reduction is 1,339,158 tonne CO(2) during a 10-year operation period even if the electricity generation efficiency is only 10%. It is also shown that electricity generation increases quicker than the GHG emission reductions with the increase of electricity generation efficiency. However, incineration systems show great superiority in LFG utilisation and GHG emission reductions.

  3. Integrated characterisation of aquifer heterogeneity and landfill leachate plume migration (United States)

    Tremblay, L.; Lefebvre, R.; Gloaguen, E.; Paradis, D.


    The understanding of groundwater flow and contaminant migration is based on our ability to characterize aquifers and represent these processes with numerical simulators. This understanding is required to efficiently remediate contaminated sites since the failure of remediation actions are often related to an insufficient understanding of aquifer heterogeneity. During the last decades, continuous development of numerical simulators allowed models to better represent complex flow systems. However, conventional hydrogeological characterization methods do not provide the data required to define aquifer heterogeneity. An original hydrogeological characterization approach was used to define aquifer heterogeneity and delineate landfill leachate plumes through the use and integration of varied techniques. The objective of the study is to develop a methodology to integrate hydrogeological, geophysical and geochemical data using geostatistical tools. The characterization program aims to better characterize the aquifer, delineate leachate plumes emitted by a former landfill, and guide a study of the natural attenuation of the plumes. The initial phase of the integrated multidisciplinary aquifer characterization program was carried out in a 12 km2 area of the sub-watershed surrounding the landfill of St-Lambert-de-Lauzon, Québec. In the study area, a 10-m thick sandy unconfined aquifer overlies clayey silt and till layers. In this relatively flat area, natural streams as well as agricultural and forestry drainage networks control groundwater flow. The first phase of the project focused on a regional hydrogeological and geochemical characterization where 5 field methods were combined: 1) surface geophysics (ground penetrating radar and electrical tomography) (GPR); 2) direct-push methods including a) cone penetration tests (CPT), b) soil sampling and c) installation of full- screened observation wells; 3) multilevel measurement of geochemical parameters and groundwater

  4. Influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristic of landfills that adopt the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method. (United States)

    Wu, Chuanfu; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Komiya, Teppei; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia


    As far as the optimal design, operation, and field application of the Aerobic-Anaerobic Landfill Method (AALM) are concerned, it is very important to understand how aeration modes (different combinations of aeration depth and air injection rate) affect the biodegradation of organic carbon and the transformation of nitrogen in landfill solid waste. Pilot-scale lysimeter experiments were carried out under different aeration modes to obtain detailed information regarding the influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristics. Results from these lysimeter experiments revealed that aeration at the bottom layer was the most effective for decomposition of organic carbon when compared with aeration at the surface or middle layers. Moreover, the air injection rate led to different nitrogen transformation patterns, unlike the lesser influence it has on organic carbon decomposition. Effective simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were observed for the aeration mode with a higher air injection rate (=1.0 L/min). On the other hand, the phenomenon of sequenced nitrification and denitrification could be observed when a low air injection rate (=0.5L/min.) was employed. Finally, it is concluded that, for AALM, air injection with a higher air injection rate at the deepest layer near the leachate collection pipe tends to accelerate the stabilization of landfill waste as defined in terms of the enhancement of denitrification as well as organic carbon decomposition.

  5. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India. (United States)

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh


    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  6. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin


    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  7. In-situ studies on the performance of landfill caps (compacted soil liners, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, capillary barriers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, S. [IGB - Ingenieurbuero fuer Grundbau, Hamburg (Germany)


    Since 1986 different types of landfill covers have been studied in-situ on the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg, Germany. Water balance data are available for eight years. The performance of different carriers has been measured by collecting the leakage on areas ranging from 100 m{sup 2} to 500 m{sup 2}. Composite liners with geomembranes performed best, showing no leakage. An extended capillary barrier also performed well. The performance of compacted soil liners, however, decreased severely within five years due to desiccation, shrinkage and plant root penetration (liner leakage now ranging from 150 mm/a to 200 mm/a). About 50 % of the water that reaches the surface of the liner is leaking through it. The maximum leakage rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} to 4 x 10{sup -8} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Two types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) have been tested for two years now with disappointing results. The GCL desiccated during the first dry summer of the study. High percolation rates through the GCL were measured during the following winter (45 mm resp. 63 mm in four months). Wetting of the GCL did not significantly reduce the percolation rates.

  8. Effects of nitrogen conversion and environmental factors on landfill CH4 oxidation and N2O emissions in aged refuse. (United States)

    Zhang, Houhu; Zhao, Keqiang; Yan, Xiaofei; Sun, Qinfang; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yi; Zun, Zhao; Ke, Fan


    We determined the effects of nitrification capacity and environmental factors on landfill methane oxidation potential (MOP) using an aged refuse in laboratory batch assays and compared it with two different types of soils. The nitrogen conversion in the three experimental materials after 120 h incubation yielded first-order reaction kinetics at an initial concentration of 200 mg kg(-1) NH4(+)-N. The net nitrification rate for the aged refuse was 1.50 (p bacteria during CH4 co-oxidation, the average value of the MOP in the aged refuse at a temperature range of 4-45 °C was 2.34 (p landfill can be neglected after applying an aged refuse bio-cover because of the much higher MOP in the aged refuse. The calculated maximum MOP value in the aged refuse was 12.45 μmol g(-1) d.w. h(-1), which was much higher than the documented data.

  9. Co-generation potentials of municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Goran B.


    Full Text Available Waste management in the Republic of Serbia is based on landfilling. As a result of such year-long practice, a huge number of municipal waste landfills has been created where landfill gas has been generated. Landfill gas, which is essentially methane (50-55% and carbon dioxide (40-45% (both GHGs, has a great environmental impact which can be reduced by using landfill gas in cogeneration plants to produce energy. The aim of this paper is to determine economic and environmental benefits from such energy production. For that purpose, the database of cogeneration potentials (CP of 51 landfills in the Republic of Serbia (RS was created. Amount of landfill gas generated at each municipal landfill was calculated by applying a first order decay equation which requires the data about solid waste production and composition and about some landfill characteristics. For all landfills, which have over 100,000 m3 each, a techno-economic analysis about building a CHP plant was conducted. The results have shown, that the total investment in 14 CHP plants with payback period of less than 7 years amounts € 11,721,288. The total nominal power of these plants is 7 MW of electrical power and 7.9 MW of thermal power, and an average payback period is about 61 months. In addition, using landfill biogas as energy source in proposed plants would reduce methane emission for 161,000 tons of CO2 equivalent per year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42013: Research of cogeneration potential of municipal and industrial energy power plant in Republic of Serbia and opportunities for rehabilitation of existing and construction of new cogeneration plants

  10. Variability of Parameters Involved in Leachate Pollution Index and Determination of LPI from Four Landfills in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar


    Full Text Available Landfill sites are potential sources of human and environmental hazards. Leachate produced form these waste dumping sites is heterogeneous and exhibits huge temporal and seasonal variations. Leachate pollution index (LPI provides an overall pollution potential of a landfill site. The parameters required to calculate LPI from a landfill site are discussed in terms of their variations over time, and their significance has been highlighted in the context of LPI. The LPI values of two semiaerobic and two anaerobic landfill sites in Malaysia have been calculated in this study. Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS was found to have the highest LPI score while Ampang Jajar Landfill Site (AJLS showed the lowest LPI as compared to other landfills. It is concluded that LPI value can be used as a tool to assess the leachate pollution potential from landfill sites particularly at places where there is a high risk of leachate migration and pollution of groundwater.

  11. The Performance of Four Different Mineral Liners on the Transportation of Chlorinated Phenolic Compounds to Groundwater in Landfills. (United States)

    Adar, Elanur; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan


    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of four different mineral liners (clay, bentonite, kaoline, and zeolite) which could be utilized to prevent the transport of phenolic compounds to groundwater through alternative liner systems. Four laboratory-scale HDPE reactors with 80 cm height and 40 cm inner diameter were operated for a period of 180 days. Results indicated that the transport of mono- or dichlorophenols is significantly prevented by the liner systems used, while the transport of highly chlorinated phenolic compounds cannot be prevented by the landfill liner system effectively. Highly chlorinated phenolic compounds in groundwater can be found in higher concentrations than the leachate, as a result of the degradation and transformation of these compounds. Thus, the analysis of highly chlorinated phenolic compounds such as 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,6-TCP, 3,4,5-TCP, and PCP is of great significance for the studies to be conducted on the contamination of groundwater around landfills.

  12. The Performance of Four Different Mineral Liners on the Transportation of Chlorinated Phenolic Compounds to Groundwater in Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elanur Adar


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of four different mineral liners (clay, bentonite, kaoline, and zeolite which could be utilized to prevent the transport of phenolic compounds to groundwater through alternative liner systems. Four laboratory-scale HDPE reactors with 80 cm height and 40 cm inner diameter were operated for a period of 180 days. Results indicated that the transport of mono- or dichlorophenols is significantly prevented by the liner systems used, while the transport of highly chlorinated phenolic compounds cannot be prevented by the landfill liner system effectively. Highly chlorinated phenolic compounds in groundwater can be found in higher concentrations than the leachate, as a result of the degradation and transformation of these compounds. Thus, the analysis of highly chlorinated phenolic compounds such as 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,6-TCP, 3,4,5-TCP, and PCP is of great significance for the studies to be conducted on the contamination of groundwater around landfills.

  13. Covering walks in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fujie, Futaba


    Covering Walks  in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...

  14. Computational modelling of final covers for uranium mill tailings impoundments. (United States)

    Leoni, Guilherme Luís Menegassi; Almeida, Márcio de Souza Soares; Fernandes, Horst Monken


    To properly design a final cover for uranium mill tailings impoundments the designer must attempt to find an effective geotechnical solution which addresses the radiological and non-radiological potential impact and prevents geochemical processes from occurring within the tailings. This paper presents a computer-based method for evaluating the performance of engineered final covers for the remediation of uranium mill tailings impoundments. Three hypothetical final covers were taken from scientific literature to investigate the proposed method: (i) a compacted clay liner (CCL); (ii) a composite liner (CL) and (iii) a capillary barrier (CB). The processes investigated: (i) the saturated hydraulic flux; (ii) the unsaturated hydraulic flux (exclusively for the capillary barrier) and (iii) the radon exhalation to the atmosphere. The computer programs utilised for the analyses are: (i) Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP); (ii) SEEP/W and (iii) RADON. The site considered for the development of the research presented herein was the uranium mill tailings impoundment located at the Brazilian city of Poços de Caldas, in the Minas Gerais State.

  15. Attenuation of xenobiotic organic leachate compounds from a landfill to surface water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milosevic, Nemanja

    sand lenses, is a common soil type in Scandinavia and parts of North America. Therefore, a study site, the Risby Landfill west of Copenhagen, was chosen, since it encloses all key features for the research – an old landfill without leachate collection and liner, clay till-dominated geology and a local...

  16. Integrated modeling and up-scaling of landfill processes and heterogeneity using stochastic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, A.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Baviskar, S.M.; van Turnhout, A.G.; Konstantaki, L.A.


    Municipal solid waste landfills are a very complex and heterogeneous systems. The waste in a landfill body is a heterogeneous mixture of a wide range of materials containing high levels of organic matter, high amounts of salts and a wide range of different organic and inorganic substances, such as h

  17. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (United States)


    ... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of MSW... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission guidelines for municipal...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  19. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite...

  20. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Alaska's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved... 40 CFR 258.4. III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews This action approves State solid...

  1. 78 FR 5288 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Massachusetts's approved municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) program. The approved... INFORMATION: A. Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule amending the municipal solid...


    This paper presents design charts that a landfill engineer can use for the design of a vertical well system for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills. The flow rate and lateral and vertical zones of impact of a vertical well were estimated as a function of input variables su...

  3. Use of seismic interferometry to improve the imaging of a heterogeneous landfill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Draganov, D.S.; Ghose, R.; Heimovaara, T.J.


    In this study we investigate the application of seismic interferometry (SI) to seismic reflection data recorded over a landfill. Landfills represent strongly heterogeneous subsurfaces making the seismic reflection imaging challenging. We show that SI improves the imaging of high-density areas, which

  4. Heavy metals mobility in full-scale bioreactor landfill: initial stage. (United States)

    Qu, Xian; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong


    Selected heavy metals (HMs) including Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn initially released from a full-scale bioreactor landfill were monitored over the first 20 months of operation. At the initial landfill stage, the leachate exhibited high HMs release, high organic matter content (27000-43000gl(-1) of TOC) and low pH (5-6). By the fifth month of landfilling, the methanogenic stage had been established, and HMs release was reduced below the Chinese National Standards. Total released HMs accounted for less than 1% of landfill deposited during the investigated period. Most landfill HMs were inorganic. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra data and model calculations using Visual MINTEQ indicated that humic substances strongly affected the mobility of organic fractions of HMs in the methanogenic landfill. The initial rates of HMs release could be enhanced by recycling the leachate back to bioreactor landfill, but the total quantity released may be reduced by early establishment of methanogenic stage in bioreactor landfill.

  5. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze


    The main goal of this study was to present a comparison of landfill performance with respect to solids decomposition. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to determine the initial and the remaining CH(4) potentials of solid wastes during 27 months of landfilling operation in two pilo...

  6. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16...

  7. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis surrogate spores in a bench-scale enclosed landfill gas flare. (United States)

    Tufts, Jenia A McBrian; Rosati, Jacky A


    A bench-scale landfill flare system was designed and built to test the potential for landfilled biological spores that migrate from the waste into the landfill gas to pass through the flare and exit into the environment as viable. The residence times and temperatures of the flare were characterized and compared to full-scale systems. Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus, nonpathogenic spores that may serve as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent for anthrax, were investigated to determine whether these organisms would be inactivated or remain viable after passing through a simulated landfill flare. High concentration spore solutions were aerosolized, dried, and sent through a bench-scale system to simulate the fate of biological weapon (BW)-grade spores in a landfill gas flare. Sampling was conducted downstream of the flare using a bioaerosol collection device containing sterile white mineral oil. The samples were cultured, incubated for seven days, and assessed for viability. Results showed that the bench-scale system exhibited good similarity to the real-world conditions of an enclosed standard combustor flare stack with a single orifice, forced-draft diffusion burner. All spores of G. stearothermophilus and B. atrophaeus were inactivated in the flare, indicating that spores that become re-entrained in landfill gas may not escape the landfill as viable, apparently becoming completely inactivated as they exit through a landfill flare.

  8. Applying of Electrical Imaging Survey (EIS) to Evaluate Leachate Pollution in Underground Area of Informal Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Song; Wang, Di; Mou, Zishen;


    An informal landfill is an open dump that pollutes the underground environment because it lacks an impervious liner. The leakage of such a landfill is unidirectional and thus difficult to directly test. This study uses electrical imaging survey to evaluate the pollution of the underground environ...

  9. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da


    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  10. Landfill aeration in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy. (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello


    In situ aeration by means of the Airflow technology was proposed for landfill conditioning before landfill mining in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy. A 1-year aeration project was carried out on part of the landfill with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of the Airflow technology for landfill aerobization, the evolution of waste biological stability during aeration and the effects on leachate and biogas quality and emissions. The main outcomes of the 1-year aeration project are presented in the paper. The beneficial effect of the aeration on waste biological stability was clear (63% reduction of the respiration index); however, the effectiveness of aeration on the lower part of the landfill is questionable, due to the limited potential for air migration into the leachate saturated layers. During the 1-year in situ aeration project approx. 275 MgC were discharged from the landfill body with the extracted gas, corresponding to 4.6 gC/kgDM. However, due to the presence of anaerobic niches in the aerated landfill, approx. 46% of this amount was extracted as CH4, which is higher than reported in other aeration projects. The O2 conversion quota was lower than reported in other similar projects, mainly due to the higher air flow rates applied. The results obtained enabled valuable recommendations to be made for the subsequent application of the Airflow technology to the whole landfill.


    Landfills are not sterile environments. In fact it can be argued that they are the ultimate reactors for biodegradation as they contain nutrients, bacteria, and various redox conditions which, then, change over time. Enhancement of the landfill environment to optimize the rates o...

  12. Natural attenuation processes in landfill leachate plumes at three Danish sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Tuxen, Nina; Reitzel, Lotte;


    This article provides an overview of comprehensive core and fringe field studies at three Danish landfill sites. The goal of the research activities is to provide a holistic description of core and fringe attenuation processes for xenobiotic organic compounds in landfill leachate plumes. The appr...

  13. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  14. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013 (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  15. Enhancing cleanup of heavy metal-polluted landfill soils and improving soil microbial activity using green technology with ferrous sulfate (United States)

    Landfills have led to some of the most intense battles over pollution that has ever been seen. With the population skyrocketing worldwide, these landfills will only become more of a public issue as time goes on. Heavy metals from several sources especially in landfills are an increasingly urgent pro...

  16. Evaluation and application of site-specific data to revise the first-order decay model for estimating landfill gas generation and emissions at Danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter


    Methane (CH4) generated from low-organic waste degradation at four Danish landfills was estimated by three first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models (LandGEM, IPCC, and Afvalzorg). Actual waste data from Danish landfills were applied to fit model (IPCC and Afvalzorg) required...... categories. In general, the single-phase model, LandGEM, significantly overestimated CH4 generation, because it applied too high default values for key parameters to handle low-organic waste scenarios. The key parameters were biochemical CH4 potential (BMP) and CH4 generation rate constant (k.......Implications: Landfill operators use the first-order decay (FOD) models to estimate methane (CH4) generation. A single-phase model (LandGEM) and a traditional model (IPCC) could result in overestimation when handling a low-organic waste scenario. Site-specific data were important and capable of calibrating key parameter...

  17. Landfills, Troup County, Georgia C & D Landfill service Area Map, Published in 2008, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Landfills dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2008. It is described as 'Troup...

  18. Utilization of Agricultural Wastes in Stabilization of Landfill Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidzam Rahmat Mohamad


    Full Text Available Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk Ash (RHA are local agricultural waste material from Palm Oil Industry and from Paddy Industry in Malaysia. Currently, the disposal of these ashes from a burning process is a problem to both industries, and hence leads to environmental pollution. The main aim of this research was to investigate the potential of utilizing POFA and RHA as sustainable stabilizer material as partial replacement of traditional one which is lime and Portland Cement (PC. Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilization of Malaysian Agricultural wastes POFA and RHA in stabilizing Teluk Kapas Landfill soil. Landfill soil on its own and combination with laterite clay soil were stabilized using POFA or RHA either on its own or in combination with Lime or Portland Cement (PC. The traditional stabilizers of lime or Portland Cement (PC were used as controls. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabilizer contents and moist cured for up to 60 days prior to testing for compressive and water absorption tests. The results obtained showed that landfill soil combined with laterite clay (50:50 stabilized with 20% RHA:PC (50:50and POFA: PC (50:50 recorded the highest values of compressive strength compared to the other compositions of stabilizers and soils. However, when the amount of POFA and RHA increased in the system the compressive strength values of the samples tends to increase. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using POFA and RHA and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  19. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeroff, Daniel E., E-mail: [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D.V.; Gasnier, Francois; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, Andre; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical iron-mediated aeration and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis for leachate treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal efficiency tested on COD, BOD{sub 5}, color, ammonia, and lead. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 10-200 h for PIMA Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-filtration is not necessary. - Abstract: Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6 h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10-200 h for PIMA and 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n > 4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process.

  20. Environmental upgrading of a landfill; Ricomposizione ambientale di una discarica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinetto, V.; Vendrame, G.


    This article refers to an experimental study concerning the vegetative upgrading of a closed-down landfill (once used for industrial waste disposal). The aim was to check the possibility of reconstructing or aiding the natural growth of a vegetation in keeping with the surrounding area, in a tried environment such as that of landfills. The original idea contained in the approved project - which meant to generically upgrade the territory by planting species belonging to the grassy layer, shrubs and trees - has, with time, undergone some changes. On the basis of both the knowledge acquired during management and of a more accurate analysis of the territory, the experiment was preferred to aim at finding out which were the species, both continental and Mediterranean, able to gradually adjust to the surrounding landscape, leaving to natural selection the task to decide which species were more suitable to the upgrading of closed-down landfills, and which planting technique was more effective. [Italiano] L`articolo ha per oggetto uno studio sperimentale inerente la ricomposizione vegetativa di una discarica esaurita (un tempo utilizzata per lo smaltimento dei rifiuti industriali), finalizzato a verificare la possibilita` di ricostruire o favorire il naturale insediarsi della vegetazione in sintonia con il territorio circostante in un ambiente provato quale quello di discarica. L`idea originaria contenuta nel progetto approvato che prevedeva una ricomposizione generica mediante l`insediamento di specie relative agli strati erbacei, arbustivi, arborei, si e` nel tempo modificata. Sulla base delle esperienze maturate nella fase gestionale e di una piu` approfondita analisi del contesto territoriale si e` preferito impostare la sperimentazione mirando ad individuare quali fossero le specie sia continentali sia mediterranee in grado di entrare progressivamente in equilibrio con il paesaggio circostante, lasciando alla selezione naturale il compito di decidere quali specie