WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative fuel transit

  1. Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

  2. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  3. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  4. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  6. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Caban; Agata Gniecka; Lukáš Holeša

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  8. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  9. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  10. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  11. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  12. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  13. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  14. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  15. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  16. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  17. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  18. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  20. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  1. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  2. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  3. Sulphur release from alternative fuel firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The cement industry has long been dependent on the use of fossil fuels, although a recent trend in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels has arisen. 1, 2 However, when unconverted or partly converted alternative fuels are admitted directly in the rotary kiln inlet, the volatiles released...... from the fuels may react with sulphates present in the hot meal to form SO 2 . Here Maria del Mar Cortada Mut and associates describe pilot and industrial scale experiments focusing on the factors that affect SO 2 release in the cement kiln inlet....

  4. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    There are different interpretations of the term 'alternative fuels', depending on the part of the world in which the definition is used. In this report, alternative fuels mainly stand for fuels that can replace gasoline and diesel oil and at the same time contribute to lowered emissions with impact on health, environment and climate. The use of alternative vehicle fuels has increased during the last 30 years. However, the increase has developed slowly and today the use is very limited, compared to the use of conventional fuels. Although, the use in some special applications, often in rather small geographical areas, can be somewhat larger. The main interest for alternative fuels has for a long time been driven by supply security issues and the possibility to reduce emissions with a negative impact on health and environment. However, the development of reformulated gasoline and low sulphur diesel oil has contributed to substantially decreased emissions from these fuels without using any alternative fuel. This has reduced the environmental impact driving force for the introduction of alternative fuels. In line with the increased interest for climate effects and the connections between these effects and the emission of greenhouse gases, and then primarily carbon dioxide, the interest for biomass based alternative fuels has increased during the 1990s. Even though one of the driving forces for alternative fuels is small today, alternative fuels are more commonly accepted than ever before. The European Commission has for example in May 2003 agreed on a directive for the promotion of the use of bio fuels. In the directive there are goals for the coming 7 years that will increase the use of alternative fuels in Europe rather dramatically, from below 1 percent now up to almost 6 percent of the total vehicle fuel consumption in 2010. The increased use of alternative fuels in Europe and the rest of the world will create a need for a common interpretation of what we

  5. Implementation barriers of alternative transport fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troelstra, W.P. [Innas, Breda (Netherlands); Smith, A. [AEA Technology, London (United Kingdom); Bol, M. [Sypher Mueller International, Morristown, New Jersey (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    The study on the title subject aims to present an overview of the practical barriers associated with the introduction of alternative fuels for transport applications in IEA countries. The aim is to provide an information source to which potential users can refer when deciding whether to introduce an alternative fuel. The report will highlight potential problems so that users can either select the alternative fuel best suited to their needs, or implement possible solutions to the problems. The study covers natural gas (both compressed (CNG) and liquefied (LNG)), LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), ethanol (mainly bio-ethanol), methanol, bio-diesel, hydrogen, DME(dimethyl ether), and electricity. 48 refs.

  6. Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

  7. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  8. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any fleet... fueled vehicle credit to— (1) A fleet that is required to acquire alternative fueled vehicles; or (2)...

  9. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  10. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2000-09-30

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  11. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-03-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  12. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2000-06-30

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  13. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  14. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  15. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  16. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  17. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  18. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-01-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  19. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  20. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  1. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-02-03

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  4. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  5. Alternative Fuels and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The main report of the project on Transportation Fuels based on Renewable Energy. The report contains a review of potential technologies for electric, hybrid and hydrogen propulsion in the Danish transport sector, including an assessment of their development status. In addition, the energy and en...

  6. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  7. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  8. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  9. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  10. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    in particular is influenced by insufficient carbon burnout in the calciner system, which results in reducing conditions in the material inlet of the rotary kiln and consequently an increased tendency to form deposits induced by sticky eutectic melts. Clinker quality is mainly affected by minor components from...... a decisive influence on the fuel carbon burnout in cement kiln systems. The oxidation kinetics of a char from TDF was investigated experimentally and by mathematical modelling. Experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor under well - iii - defined conditions, where small particles (102-212μm) of TDF...

  11. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transporation Program - State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Factsheet answering frequently asked questions about the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (the Program) that implements provisions of Titles III–V of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). Answers to questions that are frequently asked about the Program by managers of state government and alternative fuel provider fleets are provided in the factsheet.

  12. Alternative fuels: how real? how soon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) are looking for politically stable sources of oil in response to the ever growing demand for fuel. World oil consumption has reached 76.5 MMB/d and demand is expected to be 80 MMB/d by 2005. More restrictive environmental policies are resulting in improved conversion efficiency of oil dependent supply chains and the switching to alternative fuels. The adoption of new fuels however, depends on many factors such as the economic advantage, technological superiority, and convenience. The dominant electrical supply chains at the moment are nuclear, coal, hydropower, hydrocarbons, and renewable energy alternatives such as wind, solar and hydrogen fuels. The paper presented graphs illustrating adoption patterns for various fuels over the past century and presented a potential adoption pattern for fuel cell vehicles. Also included in this presentation were graphs depicting how price can drive supply chain demand and allow other fuels to gain market share. The impact of fuel substitution, efficiency and price effects was mentioned along with the impact of recent policy changes on vehicle fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions. The role of government incentives to promote alternative fuel sales was also discussed along with a broad assessment of renewable supply chains. It was noted that most new fuels are linked to hydrocarbons. For example, hydrogen generation through water electrolysis requires petroleum generated electricity or the steam reforming of natural gas. Ethanol processes also require hydrocarbon consumption indirectly. It was noted that the average efficiencies of coal and natural gas plants has increased in the past decade and the incumbent price trends in electricity in the United States have decreased for fuels such as oil, gas, coal and nuclear energy. With ongoing innovation in the internal combustion engine in the past 30 years, the incumbents have also improved with

  13. Fossil Fuels, Alternative Energy and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Barreto

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework that incorporates energy within an endogenous growth model. The model explicitly allows for the interaction and substitution between fossil fuels, defined as a non-renewable resource derived from some fixed initial stock, and alternative energy, defined as renewable resource whose production requires capital input. The dynamics of the model depict a unique balance growth to a saddle point. The consumption path temporarily peaks, when fossil fuels are plentif...

  14. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  15. Review of alternative fuels data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the interaction of fuel physical and chemical properties with combustion characteristics and indicators, a ranking of the importance of various fuel properties with respect to the combustion process was established. This ranking was used to define a suite of specific experiments whose objective is the development of an alternative fuels design data base. Combustion characteristics and indicators examined include droplet and spray formation, droplet vaporization and burning, ignition and flame stabilization, flame temperature, laminar flame speed, combustion completion, soot emissions, NOx and SOx emissions, and the fuels' thermal and oxidative stability and fouling and corrosion characteristics. Key fuel property data is found to include composition, thermochemical data, chemical kinetic rate information, and certain physical properties.

  16. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anna E.; Saxena, Nikita T.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize alternative fueling for military and commercial use, the industry has set forth guidelines that must be met by each fuel. These aviation fueling requirements are outlined in MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 Annex (2011) standards, and are classified as "drop-in" fuel replacements. This report provides combustor performance data for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100, relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Data were taken at various nominal inlet conditions: 75 psia (0.52 MPa) at 500 degF (533 K), 125 psia (0.86 MPa) at 625 degF (603 K), 175 psia (1.21 MPa) at 725 degF (658 K), and 225 psia (1.55 MPa) at 790 degF (694 K). Combustor performance analysis assessments were made for the change in flame temperatures, combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, and exhaust plane temperatures at 3, 4, and 5 percent combustor pressure drop (DP) for fuel:air ratios (F/A) ranging from 0.010 to 0.025. Significant general trends show lower liner temperatures and higher flame and combustor outlet temperatures with increases in FT fueling relative to JP-8+100 fueling. The latter affects both turbine efficiency and blade and vane lives.

  17. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  18. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  19. Low Floor Americans with Disabilities Compliant Alternate Fuel Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bartel

    2004-11-26

    This project developed a low emission, cost effective, fuel efficient, medium-duty community/transit shuttle bus that meets American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and meets National Energy Policy Act requirements (uses alternative fuel). The Low Profile chassis, which is the basis of this vehicle is configured to be fuel neutral to accommodate various alternative fuels. Demonstration of the vehicle in Yellowstone Park in summer (wheeled operation) and winter (track operation) demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility for this vehicle to provide year around operation throughout the Parks system as well as normal transit operation. The unique configuration of the chassis which provides ADA access with a simple ramp and a flat floor throughout the passenger compartment, provides maximum access for all passengers as well as maximum flexibility to configure the vehicle for each application. Because this product is derived from an existing medium duty truck chassis, the completed bus is 40-50% less expensive than existing low floor transit buses, with the reliability and durability of OEM a medium duty truck.

  20. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  2. Power generation costs for alternate reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total electric generating costs at the power plant busbar are estimated for various nuclear reactor fuel cycles which may be considered for power generation in the future. The reactor systems include pressurized water reactors (PWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), light-water pre-breeder and breeder reactors (LWPR, LWBR), and a fast mixed spectrum reactor (FMSR). Fuel cycles include once-through, uranium-only recycle, and full recycle of the uranium and plutonium in the spent fuel assemblies. The U3O8 price for economic transition from once-through LWR fuel cycles to both PWR recycle and LMFBR systems is estimated. Electric power generation costs were determined both for a reference set of unit cost parameters and for a range of uncertainty in these parameters. In addition, cost sensitivity parameters are provided so that independent estimations can be made for alternate cost assumptions

  3. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  4. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton K. Schindler; Steve R. Duke; Thomas E. Burch; Edward W. Davis; Ralph H. Zee; David I. Bransby; Carla Hopkins; Rutherford L. Thompson; Jingran Duan; Vignesh Venkatasubramanian; Stephen Giles.

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  5. Hydrogen as alternative clean fuel: Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In analogy to biofuel production from biomasses, the electrolytic conversion of other renewable energies into hydrogen as an alternative clean fuel is considered. This solution allows the intermittent renewable energy sources, as photovoltaics and wind energy, to enhance their development and enlarge the role into conventional fuel market. A rough economic analysis of hydrogen production line shows the costs, added by electrolysis and storage stages, can be recovered by properly accounting for social and environmental costs due to whole cycle of conventional fuels, from production to use. So, in a perspective of attaining the economic competitiveness of renewable energy, the hydrogen, arising from intermittent renewable energy sources, will be able to compete in the energy market with conventional fuels, making sure that their substitution will occur in a significant amount and the corresponding environment

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  7. Market brief : the alternative fuels bus market in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2003, alternative fuel bus technologies in India were valued at approximately $1.5 billion. There are an estimated 600,000 buses in India, of which 21 per cent are owned by public transit. Bus production is currently 33,000 per year and increasing at 4 per cent annually. The main alternative fuel bus technologies include fuel cells, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Since urban centres in India are among the most polluted in the world, demand for these technologies is strong. India is ranked fifth in the world in terms of vehicles converted to natural gas. In 2003, New Delhi switched from diesel to CNG fuel for buses but has faced challenges because there is no well-developed underground distribution system and refilling times are long due to weak pressure at fueling stations. India's new $28 million fuel cell bus development project aims to place 8 fuel cell powered buses with the Delhi Transport Corporation. This market brief describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. It describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers listed the companies that buy alternative fuel buses in India. Considerations for market-entry in India were also outlined

  8. Valuation of flexible solutions with alternative fuel cell energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haahtela, T.; Surakka, T.; Malinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). BIT Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    Fuel cells are an emerging technology with high potential, but also with significant market uncertainty. Fuel cells are currently in the transition from field trials to commercial introduction, and firms need to consider whether the technology fulfils the reliability and cost requirements of their current and upcoming products. This paper presented a framework to assist managers in finding the suitable valuation method for comparing different alternatives with emerging fuel cell technology. The dynamic valuation approaches of decision tree analysis, real options and system dynamics were discussed as they help in choosing the optimal timing and product structure over a long time period. Three examples of applications with fuel cells were briefly presented. The paper also addressed how the suggested valuation methods could be applied to them. These applications included maritime buoys; removable crisis management energy source container; and electrification of public transportation. It was concluded that the fuel cell technology has already become economically feasible in certain application areas. Improving technical reliability and cost reductions will make fuel cells even more competitive alternatives in new application areas. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  9. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables

  10. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

  11. 78 FR 23832 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... (77 FR at 36424), the Commission also proposed to add three categories of vehicles (hydrogen fuel cell... component (expressed as a percentage). \\3\\ 60 FR 26926 (May 19, 1995). \\4\\ The Rule requires manufacturers... comments in response.\\8\\ \\6\\ 76 FR 31513 (June 1, 2011) (ANPR on Alternative Fuels Rule). In 2011,...

  12. 76 FR 31513 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... vehicle's estimated cruising range (i.e., the travel distance on a single charge or tank of fuel), general... various types of electric vehicles (including those operating solely on batteries and those operating on a... the EPA, 99% of FFV owners run their vehicles only on gasoline and never use alternative fuel. 75...

  13. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  14. Effect of alternative fuel properties on NOx reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter; Tokheim, Lars-André; Bjerketvedt, Dag

    2002-01-01

    Today we see a substantial increase in the use of alternative fuels in the cement industry. The prospect of reduction in fuel costs and the environmental benefits of waste to energy conversion are the driving forces. For several years Norcem have steadily increased their use of alternative fuels such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), liquid hazardous waste (LHW), solid hazardous waste (SHW), animal meal (AM) and waste oil (WO). Alternative fuels behave differently compared to e.g. coa...

  15. Societal lifecycle costs of cars with alternative fuels/engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effectively addressing concerns about air pollution (especially health impacts of small-particle air pollution), climate change, and oil supply insecurity will probably require radical changes in automotive engine/fuel technologies in directions that offer both the potential for achieving near-zero emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases and a diversification of the transport fuel system away from its present exclusive dependence on petroleum. The basis for comparing alternative automotive engine/fuel options in evolving toward these goals in the present analysis is the 'societal lifecycle cost' of transportation, including the vehicle first cost (assuming large-scale mass production), fuel costs (assuming a fully developed fuel infrastructure), externality costs for oil supply security, and damage costs for emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases calculated over the full fuel cycle. Several engine/fuel options are considered--including current gasoline internal combustion engines and a variety of advanced lightweight vehicles: internal combustion engine vehicles fueled with gasoline or hydrogen; internal combustion engine/hybrid electric vehicles fueled with gasoline, compressed natural gas, Diesel, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or hydrogen; and fuel cell vehicles fueled with gasoline, methanol or hydrogen (from natural gas, coal or wind power). To account for large uncertainties inherent in the analysis (for example in environmental damage costs, in oil supply security costs and in projected mass-produced costs of future vehicles), lifecycle costs are estimated for a range of possible future conditions. Under base-case conditions, several advanced options have roughly comparable lifecycle costs that are lower than for today's conventional gasoline internal combustion engine cars, when environmental and oil supply insecurity externalities are counted--including advanced gasoline internal combustion engine cars, internal combustion engine

  16. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  17. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of § 281.208(b)(1)(i)(B), and § 281.305: (1) Alternative fuel volume of an essential agricultural user is equal to...

  18. Proceedings of the 1996 Windsor workshop on alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document contains information which was presented at the 1996 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels. Topics include: international links; industry topics and infrastructure issues; propane; engine developments; the cleanliness of alternative fuels; heavy duty alternative fuel engines; California zev commercialization efforts; and in-use experience.

  19. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 85 and 86 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions; Proposed Rule...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 85 and 86 RIN 2060-AP64 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine... tampering for the conversion of vehicles and engines to operate on a clean alternative fuel. Under...

  20. Overview of alternate-fuel fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternate fuels (AFs) such as Cat-D, D-3He and p-11B offer the potential advantages of elimination of tritium breeding and reduced energy release in neutrons. An adequate energy balance appears exceedingly difficult to achieve with proton-based fuels such as p-11B. Thus Cat-D, which can ignite at temperatures in the range of 30 to 40 keV, represents the logical near-term candidate. An attractive variation which adds flexibility would be to develop semi-catalyzed-D plants for synfuel production with simultaneous generation of 3He for use in D-3He satellite electrical power plants. These approaches and problems are discussed

  1. The impact of alternate fuels on future candidate automotive engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahnke, C.J.; Nichols, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The thermal efficiency that could occur in the future for a variety of automotive engine candidates operating on conventional and alternate fuels is projected based on current automotive engine development trends and the special characteristics of the various alternate fuels. The multi-fuel engine candidates include mixture cycle and direct injection reciprocating engines, as well as adiabatic turbocompound engines and advanced gas turbine and Stirling engines. The alternate fuels considered are propane, methanol, ethanol, diesel and methane.

  2. California's experience with alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    California is often referred to as a nation-state, and in many aspects fits that description. The state represents the seventh largest economy in the world. Most of California does not have to worry about fuel to heat homes in the winter. What we do worry about is fuel for our motor vehicles, approximately 24 million of them. In fact, California accounts for ten percent of new vehicle sales in the United States each year, much of it used in the transportation sector. The state is the third largest consumer of gasoline in the world, only exceeded by the United States as a whole and the former Soviet Union. California is also a leader in air pollution. Of the nine worst ozone areas in the country cited in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, two areas the Los Angeles Basin and San Diego are located in California. Five of California's cities made the top 20 smoggiest cities in the United States. In reality, all of California's major metropolitan areas have air quality problems. This paper will discuss the beginnings of California's investigations of alternative fuels use in vehicles; the results of the state's demonstration programs; and future plans to improve California's air quality and energy security in the mobile sector

  3. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 H. Review Under the Treasury and General Government..., 1996. 61 FR 10622. EPAct 1992 requires that SFP fleets acquire AFVs as minimum percentages of their... alternative fuels, the use of biodiesel blends without either the B20 threshold or the 50 percent cap...

  4. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this

  5. Maintenance and operation of the US Alternative Fuel Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Ferrill, J.L.; Hetrick, D.L. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The Alternative Fuels Utilization Program (AFUP) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has investigated the possibilities and limitations of expanded scope of fuel alternatives and replacement means for transportation fuels from alternative sources. Under the AFUP, the Alternative Fuel Center (AFC) was created to solve problems in the DOE programs that were grappling with the utilization of shale oil and coal liquids for transportation fuels. This report covers the first year at the 3-year contract. The principal objective was to assist the AFUP in accomplishing its general goals with two new fuel initiatives selected for tasks in the project year: (1) Production of low-sulfur, low-olefin catalytically cracked gasoline blendstock; and (2) production of low-reactivity/low-emission gasoline. Supporting goals included maintaining equipment in good working order, performing reformulated gasoline tests, and meeting the needs of other government agencies and industries for fuel research involving custom processing, blending, or analysis of experimental fuels.

  6. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-15

    March 2003 the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor fuels (IEA/AMF) decided to continue annex XXVII 'Standardization of alternative fuels' with a second phase. The purpose of the second phase was to go further in the contacts with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as well as the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and their technical committees, to better understand their needs and to investigate how IEA/AMF could contribute to their work. It was also scheduled to put forward proposals on how IEA/AMF could cooperate with CEN and ISO and their technical committees (TC: s), primarily ISO/TC 28 'Petroleum Products and Lubricants' and CEN/TC 19 'Petroleum Products, Lubricants and Related Products'. The main part of the work in IEA/AMF annex XXVII phase two has focused on personal contacts within CEN/TC 19 and ISO/TC 28, but also on data and information collection from websites and written information. Together with the analysis of this information, the internal organization of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and ISO/TC 28 and of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and CEN/TC 19 have also been discussed and analysed.

  7. Maintenance and operation of the USDOE Alternative Fuel Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Moulton, D.S.; Hetrick, D.L. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The Alternative Fuels Utilization Program (AFUP) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has investigated the possibilities and limitations of expanded scope of fuel alternatives and replacement means for transportation fuels from alternative sources. Under the AFUP, the Alternative Fuel Center (AFC) was created to solve problems in the DOE programs that were grappling with the utilization of shale oil and coal liquids for transportation fuels. In year one of this contract, a timeline was set to coordinate uses and operations of the AFC hydrogenation pilot plant among test fuels production project work, facility maintenance, other government work, and work for industry for second-generation operations. In year two, consistent with assisting the AFUP in accomplishing its general goals, the work was done with fuel producers, regulators, and users in mind. AFC capabilities and results were disseminated through tours and outside presentations.

  8. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  9. The use of thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of thorium as an alternative or supplementary nuclear fuel is examined and compared with uranium. A description of various reactor types and their suitability to thorium fuel, and a description of various aspects of the fuel cycle from mining to waste disposal, are included. Comments are made on the safety and economics of each aspect of the fuel cycle and the extension of the lifetime of nuclear fuel

  10. Preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsoever, F.J. van; Hagen, P.; Willems, M

    2013-01-01

    Using a choice model, we estimate the preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments. The analysis shows that local governments are willing to pay between 25% and 50% extra for an alternative fuel vehicle without a serious loss of utility. Further, local emissions are an import

  11. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ...-AP64 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... fuel conversion systems may demonstrate compliance with vehicle and engine emissions requirements... Engineering Judgment C. Vehicle/Engine Groupings and Emission Data Vehicle/Engine Selection D. Mixed-Fuel...

  12. Alternative Fuels for Marine and Inland Waterways: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    MOIRANGTHEM KAMALJIT

    2016-01-01

    Alternative fuels for marine transport can play a crucial role in decarbonising the shipping sector and ultimately contribute towards climate change goals. Market penetration by alternative fuels have already begun with ship builders, engine manufacturers and classification bodies by introducing greener ships running on cleaner fuels. This can be attributed in large part to the MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) regulations in place since the 1970s an...

  13. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  14. Transition Towards a Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support the evaluation of R and D needs and relevant technology requirements for future nuclear fuel cycles, the OECD/NEA WPFC Expert Group on Advanced Fuel Cycle Scenarios was created in 2010, replacing the WPFC Expert Group on Fuel Cycle Transition Scenario Studies (1) to assemble, organise and understand the scientific issues of advanced fuel cycles and (2) to provide a framework for assessing specific national needs related to the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. In this framework, a simulation of world transition scenarios towards possible future fuel cycles with fast reactors has been performed, using both a homogeneous and a heterogeneous approach involving different world regions. In fact, it has been found that a crucial feature of any world scenario study is to provide not only trends for an idealised 'homogeneous' description of the world, but also trends for different regions in the world, selected with simple criteria (mostly of geographical type), in order to apply different hypotheses to energy demand growth, different fuel cycle strategies and different reactor types implementation in the different regions. This approach was an attempt to avoid focusing on selected countries, in particular on those where no new spectacular energy demand growth is expected, but to provide trends and conclusions that account for the features of countries that will be major future players in the world's energy development. The heterogeneous approach considered a subdivision of the world in four main macro-regions (where countries have been grouped together according to their economic development dynamics). An original global electricity production envelope was used in simulations and a specific regional energy share was defined. In the regional approach two different fuel cycles were analysed: a once-through LWR cycle was used as the reference and a transition to fast reactor closed cycle to enable a better management of resources and minimisation of waste

  15. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    , and particle size and shape. A one-dimensional mathematical model of the rotary kiln flame is developed to evaluate the influence of fuel properties and combustion system parameters on the fuel burnout and flame temperature profile. Two alternative fuel cases are simulated; dried sewage sludge and refuse...... derived fuel firing. Firing sewage sludge or refused derived fuel with large particles and high moisture contents at conditions similar to a coal fired flame results in an elongated flame and a burnout time exceeding the available time in suspension. Fuel pretreatment, i.e. grinding and drying...... and applying O2 enrichment it is found that full conversion of the large alternative fuel particles may be reached. The simplified mathematical model may serve as a tool for predicting the effect of introducing new fuels on burnout behaviour, and flame properties such as flame length and gas temperature...

  16. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  17. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Bushnell, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, aviation alone uses 85 to 95 billion gallons of nonrenewable fossil fuel per year (2008). General transportation fueling can accommodate several different fuels; however, aviation fuels have very specific requirements. Biofuels have been flight demonstrated, are considered renewable, have the capacity to become "drop-in" replacements for Jet-A fuel, and solve the CO2 climate change problem. The major issue is cost; current biomass biofuels are not economically competitive. Biofuel feedstock sources being researched are halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, weeds-to-crops, wastes with contingent restraints on use of crop land, freshwater, and climate change. There are five major renewable energy sources: solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, drilled geothermal and biomass, each of which have an order of magnitude greater capacity to meet all energy needs. All five address aspects of climate change; biomass has massive potential as an energy fuel feedstock.

  18. Analysis of Alternative Fuels in Automotive Powertrains

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The awareness of the effect emissions have on the environment and climate has risen in the last decades. This has caused strict regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases cause global warming which may have devastating environmental effects. Most of the fuels commercially available today are fossil fuels. There are two major effects of using fuels with fossil origin; the source will eventually drain and the usage results in an increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Fue...

  19. A smooth transition to hydrogen transportation fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Schock, R.N.

    1995-04-14

    The goal of this work is to examine viable near-term infrastructure options for a transition to hydrogen fueled vehicles and to suggest profitable directions for technology development. The authors have focused in particular on the contrasting options of decentralized production using the existing energy distribution network, and centralized production of hydrogen with a large-scale infrastructure. Delivered costs have been estimated using best available industry cost and deliberately conservative economic assumptions. The sensitivities of these costs have then been examined for three small-scale scenarios: (1) electrolysis at the home for one car, and production at the small station scale (300 cars/day), (2) conventional alkaline electrolysis and (3) steam reforming of natural gas. All scenarios assume fueling a 300 mile range vehicle with 3.75 kg. They conclude that a transition appears plausible, using existing energy distribution systems, with home electrolysis providing fuel costing 7.5 to 10.5{cents}/mile, station electrolysis 4.7 to 7.1{cents}/mile, and steam reforming 3.7 to 4.7{cents}/mile. The average car today costs about 6{cents}/mile to fuel. Furthermore, analysis of liquid hydrogen delivered locally by truck from central processing plants can also be competitive at costs as low as 4{cents}/mile. These delivered costs are equal to $30 to $70 per GJ, LHV. Preliminary analysis indicates that electricity transmission costs favor this method of distributing energy, until very large (10 GW) hydrogen pipelines are installed. This indicates that significant hydrogen pipeline distribution will be established only when significant markets have developed.

  20. DUPIC technology as an alternative for closing nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of DUPIC technology as an alternative for closing nuclear fuel cycle has been carried out. The goal of this study is to understand the DUPIC technology and its possibility as an alternative technology for closing nuclear fuel cycle. DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In CANDU) is a utilization of PWR spent fuel to reprocess and fabricate become DUPIC fuel as nuclear fuel of Candu reactor. The synergy utilization is based on the fact that fissile materials contained in the PWR spent fuel is about twice as much as that in Candu fuel. Result of the study indicates that DUPIC is an alternative promising technology for closing nuclear fuel cycle. The DUPIC fuel fabrication technology of which the major process is the OREOX dry processing, is better than the conventional reprocessing technology of PUREX. The OREOX dry processing has no capability to separate fissile plutonium, thus give the impact of high nuclear proliferation resistance. When compared to once through cycle, it gives advantages of uranium saving of about 20% and spent fuel accumulation reduction of about 65%. Economic analysis indicates that the levelized cost of DUPIC cycle is cheaper by 0.073 mill$/kwh than that of once through cycle. (author)

  1. Peculiar Features of Burning Alternative Motor Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some peculiar features of air-hydrogen mixture combustion process in a modeling combustion chamber are given in the paper. Dependences of burning duration of various fuel types on initial pressure have been obtained. The paper considers dynamics of changes in pressure and ignition rate of some fuel types in the combustion chamber.

  2. Ontario Select Committee on Alternative Fuel Sources : Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 28, 2001, the Ontario Legislative Assembly appointed the Select Committee an Alternative Fuel Sources, comprised of representatives of all parties, with a broad mandate to investigate, report and offer recommendations with regard to the various options to support the development and application of environmentally sustainable alternatives to the fossil fuel sources already existing. The members of the Committee elected to conduct extensive public hearings, conduct site visits, attend relevant conferences, do some background research to examine a vast number of alternative fuel and energy sources that could be of relevance to the province of Ontario. A discussion paper (interim report) was issued by the Committee in November 2001, and the present document represents the final report, containing 141 recommendations touching 20 topics. The information contained in the report is expected to assist in the development and outline of policy and programs designed to specifically support alternative fuels and energy sources and applicable technologies. Policy issues were discussed in Part A of the report, along with the appropriate recommendations. The recommendations on specific alternative fuels and energy sources were included in Part B of the report. It is believed that the dependence of Ontario on traditional petroleum-based fuels and energy sources can be reduced through aggressive action on alternative fuels and energy. The benefits of such action would be felt in the area of air quality, with social, and economic benefits as well. 3 tabs

  3. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane

  4. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  5. INDOT Fleet Management Strategies: Implementing Alternative Fuel Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This session will discuss INDOT’s initiative to introduce vechicles fueled by propane and compressed natural gas (CNG) to their fleet. Successes to date will be shared as well as recommendations for fleet managers considering these alternative technologies.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    from any one of a variety of sources (including coal) for the production of a spectrum of alternative fuels (hydrocarbons and oxygenate fuels), octane enhancers, and chemicals and chemical intermediates. In particular, the data from the 1995 LPMEOH{trademark} campaign provided confirmation of assumptions used in the design of the catalyst reduction system at the Kingsport LPMEOH{trademark} Commercial Demonstration Project, and the alternate methanol catalyst has been in use there since late 1998. The kinetic model was also expanded to allow for more accurate prediction of methanol production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) conversion, and more accurate modeling of by-product formation for the alternate methanol catalyst. The outstanding performance results of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process at Kingsport can be attributed in large part to the body of work performed since 1981 in collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products. In addition, a pilot-plant-tested LPDME{trademark} Process has been demonstrated, and the product cost of DME from coal-derived syngas can be competitive in certain locations and applications. The need for liquid fuels will continue to be a critical concern for this nation in the 21st century. Efforts are needed to ensure the development and demonstration of economically competitive, efficient, environmentally responsible technologies that produce clean fuels and chemicals from coal under DOE's Vision 21 concept. These liquids will be a component of the fuel mix that will provide the transition from the current reliance on carbon-based fuels to the ultimate use of H{sub 2} as a means of energy transport. Indirect liquefaction, which converts the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) produced by the gasification of coal to sulfur- and nitrogen-free liquid products, is a key component of the Vision 21 initiative. The results from this current program provide continued support to the objectives for the conversion of domestic coal to

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    from any one of a variety of sources (including coal) for the production of a spectrum of alternative fuels (hydrocarbons and oxygenate fuels), octane enhancers, and chemicals and chemical intermediates. In particular, the data from the 1995 LPMEOH{trademark} campaign provided confirmation of assumptions used in the design of the catalyst reduction system at the Kingsport LPMEOH{trademark} Commercial Demonstration Project, and the alternate methanol catalyst has been in use there since late 1998. The kinetic model was also expanded to allow for more accurate prediction of methanol production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) conversion, and more accurate modeling of by-product formation for the alternate methanol catalyst. The outstanding performance results of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process at Kingsport can be attributed in large part to the body of work performed since 1981 in collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products. In addition, a pilot-plant-tested LPDME{trademark} Process has been demonstrated, and the product cost of DME from coal-derived syngas can be competitive in certain locations and applications. The need for liquid fuels will continue to be a critical concern for this nation in the 21st century. Efforts are needed to ensure the development and demonstration of economically competitive, efficient, environmentally responsible technologies that produce clean fuels and chemicals from coal under DOE's Vision 21 concept. These liquids will be a component of the fuel mix that will provide the transition from the current reliance on carbon-based fuels to the ultimate use of H{sub 2} as a means of energy transport. Indirect liquefaction, which converts the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) produced by the gasification of coal to sulfur- and nitrogen-free liquid products, is a key component of the Vision 21 initiative. The results from this current program provide continued support to the objectives for the conversion of domestic coal to

  8. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  9. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  10. Sulfur Release during Alternative fuels Combustion in Cement Rotary Kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar

    Cement production is an energy-intensive process, whic h has traditionally been dependent on fossil fuels. However, the usage of selected waste, biomass, and by-products with recoverable calorific value, defined as alternative fuels, is increasing and their combustion is mo re challenging compared...... to fossil fuels, due to the lack of experience in handling the different and va rying combustion characteristics caused by different chemical and physical properties, e.g. higher moisture content and larger particle sizes. When full combustion of alternative fuels in the calcin er and/or main burner...... in order to separate the influence of the simultaneous phenomena occurring in the experimental set-up, such as mixing th e fuel with the bed material, heating up of a particle, 5 iii Abstract Cement production is an energy-intensive process, whic h has traditionally been dependent on fossil fuels. However...

  11. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  12. Effect of fuel cycle alternatives on nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fuel cycle alternatives considered here and their corresponding material flowsheets are: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) with no fuel reprocessing; PWR with reprocessing for uranium recycle and plutonium storage; PWR with reprocessing for uranium recycle and self-generated plutonium recycle; and high-temperature gas-cooled reactor with uranium recycle

  13. Abundant thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has long been known that thorium-232 is a fertile radioactive material that can produce energy in nuclear reactors for conversion to electricity. Thorium-232 is well suited to a variety of reactor types including molten fluoride salt designs, heavy water CANDU configurations, and helium-cooled TRISO-fueled systems. Among contentious commercial nuclear power issues are the questions of what to do with long-lived radioactive waste and how to minimize weapon proliferation dangers. The substitution of thorium for uranium as fuel in nuclear reactors has significant potential for minimizing both problems. Thorium is three times more abundant in nature than uranium. Whereas uranium has to be imported, there is enough thorium in the United States alone to provide adequate grid power for many centuries. A well-designed thorium reactor could produce electricity less expensively than a next-generation coal-fired plant or a current-generation uranium-fueled nuclear reactor. Importantly, thorium reactors produce substantially less long-lived radioactive waste than uranium reactors. Thorium-fueled reactors with molten salt configurations and very high temperature thorium-based TRISO-fueled reactors are both recommended for priority Generation IV funding in the 2030 time frame. - Highlights: • Thorium is an abundant nuclear fuel that is well suited to three advanced reactor configurations. • Important thorium reactor configurations include molten salt, CANDU, and TRISO systems. • Thorium has important nuclear waste disposal advantages relative to pressurized water reactors. • Thorium as a nuclear fuel has important advantages relative to weapon non-proliferation

  14. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson III, George R. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)); Freerks, Robert L. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend

  15. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2013-05-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  16. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steve [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moore, D. [USCAR

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  17. Effect of Alternative Fuels on SCR Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarzi, Simin

    2012-01-01

    In the time line of world industrial age, the most important era begins in the late 18th century when the use of fossil fuels was growing intensively. This approach has continued and developed up to the 20th century. Besides, this trend has had side effects like polluting environment. Air pollution is one of the critical issues nowadays that stems from using hydrocarbon fuels. One type of the problematic compounds in polluting air is nitrogen oxides that can be produced in combustion process ...

  18. Preliminary evaluation of alternate-fueled gas cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary evaluation of various alternative fuel cycles for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) is presented. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous oxide-fueled GCFRs are considered. The scenario considered is the energy center/dispersed reactor concept in which proliferation-resistant denatured reactors are coupled to 233U production reactors operating in secure energy centers. Individual reactor performance characteristics and symbiotic system parameters are summarized for several possible alternative fuel concepts. Comparisons are made between the classical homogeneous GCFR and the advanced heterogeneous concept on the basis of breeding ratio, doubling time, and net fissile gain. In addition, comparisons are made between a three-dimensional reactor model and the R-Z heterogeneous configuration utilized for the depletion and fuel management calculations. Lastly, thirty-year mass balance data are given for the various GCFR fuel cycles studied

  19. The causes and effects of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yimin

    The corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard is the major policy tool to improve the fleet average miles per gallon of automobile manufacturers in the U.S. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) provides special treatment in calculating the fuel economy of alternative fuel vehicles to give manufacturers CAFE incentives to produce more alternative fuel vehicles. AMFA has as its goals an increase in the production of alternative fuel vehicles and a decrease in gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This dissertation examines theoretically the effects of the program set up under AMFA. It finds that, under some conditions, this program may actually increase gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The dissertation also uses hedonic techniques to examine whether the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) has a significant effect on the implicit price of fuel economy and whether the marginal value of vehicle fuel efficiency changes over time. It estimates the change of implicit price in miles per gallon after the production of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Results indicate that every year consumers may evaluate vehicle fuel economy differently, and that since AFVs came to the market, the marginal value of fuel economy from specific companies producing AFVs has decreased. This finding suggests that since the AMFA provides extra Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) credit for those automakers producing AFVs, the automakers can take advantage of the incentive to produce more profitable conventional vehicles and meet CAFE standards without improving the fleet fuel economy. In this way, manufacturers who produce AFVs are willing to offer a lower price for the fuel economy under the AMFA. Additionally, this paper suggests that the flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the market are not significantly more expensive than comparable conventional vehicles, even if FFVs are also able to run on an alternative fuel and may cost more than conventional vehicles

  20. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  1. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Stratton, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hileman, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Malwitz, A. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Balasubramanian, S. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  2. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  3. Data Query at the AFDC: Using Oracle Data Query to Access Vehicle Demonstration Data at the Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R. J.

    1994-11-01

    Through funding by the Office of Alternative Fuels of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collects operating data from alternative-fueled vehicles. These vehicles include passenger sedans and light trucks (light-duty vehicles) operating within the federal fleet; heavy-duty trucks operating in private, city, or state fleets and co-funded by DOE; and municipal transit buses operating in revenue service around the country. This document gives examples of accessing the light-duty vehicle data.

  4. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic

  5. Dimethoxymethane and trimethoxymethane as alternative fuels for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raghuram; Scott, Keith

    The electrooxidation of dimethoxymethane (DMM) and trimethoxymethane (TMM) was studied at different platinum-based electrocatalysts deposited onto a titanium mesh substrate by thermal decomposition of chloride precursors. Half-cell tests showed an increase in oxidation current for the methoxy fuels at the platinum electrode with the alloying of ruthenium and tin. Increase in reaction temperature and reactant concentration showed an increase in current density for the mesh-based anodes similar to carbon-supported catalysts. Single fuel cell tests, employing the titanium mesh anode with PtRu and PtSn catalysts showed maximum power densities up to 31 mW cm -2 and 48 mW cm -2 for 1.0 mol dm -3 aqueous solutions of DMM and TMM, respectively at 60 °C using oxygen.

  6. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  7. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-12-01

    A DOE/PETC funded study was conducted to examine the use of a liquid phase mixed alcohol synthesis (LPMAS) plant to produce gasoline blending ethers. The LPMAS plant was integrated into three utilization scenarios: a coal fed IGCC power plant, a petroleum refinery using coke as a gasification feedstock, and a standalone natural gas fed partial oxidation plant. The objective of the study was to establish targets for the development of catalysts for the LPMAS reaction. In the IGCC scenario, syngas conversions need only be moderate because unconverted syngas is utilized by the combined cycle system. A once through LPMAS plant achieving syngas conversions in the range of 38--49% was found to be suitable. At a gas hourly space velocity of 5,000 sL/Kg-hr and a methanol:isobutanol selectivity ratio of 1.03, the target catalyst productivity ranges from 370 to 460 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the petroleum refinery scenario, high conversions ({approximately}95%) are required to avoid overloading the refinery fuel system with low Btu content unconverted syngas. To achieve these high conversions with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas, a recycle system was required (because of the limit imposed by methanol equilibrium), steam was injected into the LPMAS reactor, and CO{sub 2} was removed from the recycle loop. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 265 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the standalone LPMAS scenario, essentially complete conversions are required to achieve a fuel balanced plant. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 285 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. The economics of this scenario are highly dependent on the cost of the natural gas feedstock and the location of the plant. For all three case scenarios, the economics of a LPMAS plant is marginal at current ether market prices. Large improvements over demonstrated catalyst productivity and alcohol selectivity are required.

  8. Demonstrating and evaluating heavy-duty alternative fuel operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peerenboom, W. [Trucking Research Inst., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The principal objectives of this project was to understand the effects of using an alternative fuel on a truck operating fleet through actual operation of trucks. Information to be gathered was expected to be anecdotal, as opposed to statistically viable, because the Trucking Research institute (TRI) recognized that projects could not attract enough trucks to produce statistically credible volumes of data. TRI was to collect operational data, and provide them to NREL, who would enter the data into the alternative fuels database being constructed for heavy-duty trucks at the time. NREL would also perform data analysis, with the understanding that the demonstrations were generally pre-production model engines and vehicles. Other objectives included providing information to the trucking industry on the availability of alternative fuels, developing the alternative fuels marketplace, and providing information on experience with alternative fuels. In addition to providing information to the trucking industry, an objective was for TRI to inform NREL and DOE about the industry, and give feedback on the response of the industry to developments in alternative fuels in trucking. At the outset, only small numbers of vehicles participated in most of the projects. Therefore, they had to be considered demonstrations of feasibility, rather than data gathering tests from which statistically significant conclusions might be drawn. Consequently, data gathered were expected to be useful for making estimates and obtaining valuable practical lessons. Project data and lessons learned are the subjects of separate project reports. This report concerns itself with the work of TRI in meeting the overall objectives of the TRI-NREL partnership.

  9. Commercial and economic comparison of traditional and alternative fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Negative predictions about oil stocks combined with the instability in the Middle East encourage development of alternative fuels, which would reduce dependence of the world's economies on oil. The oil and petroleum derivatives are the main dependencies for vehicular traffic, which contributes to the greenhouse gas emissions by a large part. It is therefore necessary to focus on trying to reduce the fuel consumption of cars used for personal transportation. One way to achieve this goal is, fo...

  10. An update in the 'development of alternate liquid fuels'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M. J.

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory has formulated a series of Alternate Liquid Fuels (AIF), compounded from combustible fluids such as alcohols, mineral oils and solvents, found in the waste streams of the cosmetic, petrochemical, electronics and other industries. These fuels are now being processed by a pilot plant with a productive capacity of 40,000 gallons in 8 hours, at direct costs ranging from $0.26 to $0.29 a gallon depending on selected feedstocks and blend ratios

  11. TAFV Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2001-07-27

    A model for predicting choice of alternative fuel and among alternative vehicle technologies for light-duty motor vehicles is derived. The nested multinomial logit (NML) mathematical framework is used. Calibration of the model is based on information in the existing literature and deduction based on assuming a small number of key parameters, such as the value of time and discount rates. A spreadsheet model has been developed for calibration and preliminary testing of the model.

  12. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  13. Examination of physical properties of fuels and mixtures with alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Anne Lauren

    ABSTRACT. EXAMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FUELS AND MIXTURES WITH ALTERNATIVE FUELS. By. Anne Lauren Lown. The diversity of alternative fuels is increasing due to new second generation biofuels. By modeling alternative fuels and fuel mixtures, types of fuels can be selected based on their properties, without producing and testing large batches. A number of potential alternative fuels have been tested and modeled to determine their impact when blended with traditional diesel and jet fuels. The properties evaluated include cloud point and pour point temperature, cetane number, distillation curve, and speed of sound. This work represents a novel approach to evaluating the properties of alternative fuels and their mixtures with petroleum fuels. Low temperature properties were evaluated for twelve potential biofuel compounds in mixtures with three diesel fuels and one jet fuel. Functional groups tested included diesters, esters, ketones, and ethers, and alkanes were used for comparison. Alkanes, ethers, esters, and ketones with a low melting point temperature were found to decrease the fuel cloud point temperature. Diesters added to fuels display an upper critical solution temperature, and multiple methods were used to confirm the presence of liquid-liquid immiscibility. These behaviors are independent of chain length and branching, as long as the melting point temperature of the additive is not significantly higher than the cloud point temperature of the fuel. Physical properties were estimated for several potential fuel additive molecules using group contribution methods. Quantum chemical calculations were used for ideal gas heat capacities. Fuel surrogates for three petroleum based fuels and six alternative fuels were developed. The cloud point temperature, distillation curve, cetane number, and average molecular weight for different fuel surrogates were simultaneously represented. The proposed surrogates use the experimental mass fractions of paraffins, and

  14. Alternative Methods for Treatment of TRISO Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current treatment technologies of spent TRISO fuel have been review. The proposed innovative technologies such as thermal shock breaching and EMS-CC processes were found to be promising. A schematic flow sheet has been constructed by using thermal shock, EMS-CC process and separation of breached fines. The heating and fracture behavior of SiC powder by RF heating was investigated. Hoop stress was calculated for breaching of coating layers by inter fission gas pressure at elevated temperature. Electrolytic molten salt cell was installed in glove box and preliminary test was performed. EMS-CC reaction was realized by using glassy carbon and CVD SiC. The morphology of the sample was observed after EMS-CC test. Cyclic voltammogram was constructed by using SiC in order to check the effect of magnesium as a reductant. Investigation of fracture behavior of TRISO coating layers by using thermal shock : 1500 .deg. C of temperature gradient was applied. Macro, microstructure and crystal structure were investigated by using XRD and SEM. Vicker hardness was measured before and after experiment. Innovative gas-solid reaction method beside RF heating and EMS-CC was proposed. This process was also evaluated as a promising to decrease secondary waste. Construction of cyclone separator and optimization : ZrO2(kernel), SiC and graphite powders as surrogate of TRISO were used for the process optimization of fluidization separator equipped with cyclone. The optimum condition was found to be 1.5cm/s of fluidization velocity and 99.9% of separation efficiency was achieved. Literature survey of FP recovery : Recovery technologies of fission products such as I, Kr/Xe, 14C and tritium which are released during the breaching process were surveyed, and its flow sheet was constructed

  15. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. SWAFEA. Sustainable Way for Alternative Fuels and Energy in Aviation.

    OpenAIRE

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R. E. E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; E Joubert; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the aviation sector uses petroleum derived liquid fuels as the energy carrier of choice for flight. In light the present environmental, economical and political concerns as to the sustainability of this energy source, the question of which alternatives the aviation sector should pursue in the future has emerged. Among these concerns, the environmental impact of fossil fuel use on global warming and air quality is of major importance, while the impact of volatile oil prices and the ...

  16. Emissions from Petrol Engine Fueled Gasoline–Ethanol–Methanol (GEM) Ternary mixture as Alternative Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Thangavelu Saravana Kannan; Chelladorai Piraiarasi; Ani Farid Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demands of petroleum fuels due to the rapid development automotive society coupled with the environmental pollution issues have inspired the efforts on exploring alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Bioethanol obtained from biomass and bioenergy crops has been proclaimed as one of the feasible alternative to gasoline. In this study, the effect of gasoline–ethanol–methanol (GEM) ternary blend on the emission characteristics of petrol engine was studied. Three diffe...

  17. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  18. FY2015 Annual Report for Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjöberg, Carl-Magnus G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and the need to secure energy supplies are two reasons for a growing interest in engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This project contributes to the science-base needed by industry to develop highly efficient DISI engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Our emphasis is on lean operation, which can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, we focus on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification is used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion but has soot- and NOx- emissions challenges. For ultralean well-mixed operation, turbulent deflagration can be combined with controlled end-gas auto-ignition to render mixed-mode combustion that facilitates high combustion efficiency. However, the response of both combustion and exhaust emissions to these techniques depends on the fuel properties. Therefore, to achieve optimal fuel-economy gains, the engine combustion-control strategies must be adapted to the fuel being utilized.

  19. Annual Report FY2014 Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Due to concerns about future petroleum supply and accelerating climate change, increased engine efficiency and alternative fuels are of interest. This project contributes to the science-base needed by industry to develop highly efficient DISI engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Lean operation is studied since it can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, focus is on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification can be used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion, but may lead to soot and NOx emissions challenges. Advanced ignition system and intake air preheating both promote ignition stability. Controlled end-gas autoignition can be used maintain high combustion efficiency for ultra-lean well-mixed conditions. However, the response of both combustion and exhaust emission to these techniques depends on the fuel properties. Therefore, to achieve optimal fuel-economy gains, the combustion-control strategies of the engine must adopt to the fuel being utilized.

  20. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  1. Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

    1997-11-01

    To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

  2. Alternative Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program. Volume IV. International Fuel Service Center evaluation. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, L D [comp.

    1979-11-01

    This Alternative Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program (AFCEP) study presents the technical, economic and social aspects of the International Fuel Service Center (IFSC) as an institutional approach to nuclear fuel cycle development and is provided in support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment program (NASAP). Four types of IFSCs are described and evaluated in terms of three different twenty-year nuclear growth scenarios. Capital costs for each IFSC and comparable dispersed facility costs are discussed. Finally, the possible impact of each scenario and IFSC on the environmental and socio-economic structure is examined. 14 refs., 33 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Moving beyond alternative fuel hype to decarbonize transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Noel; Axsen, Jonn; Sperling, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In the past three decades, government, industry and other stakeholders have repeatedly been swept up with the ‘fuel du jour’, claiming that a particular alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) technology can succeed in replacing conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. However, AFV technologies have experienced relatively little success, with fossil fuels still accounting for about 95% of global transport energy use. Here, using the US as a case study, we conduct a media analysis to show how society’s attention has skipped among AFV types between 1980 and 2013, including methanol, natural gas, plug-in electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen and biofuels. Although our results provide no indication as to whether hype ultimately has a net positive or negative impact on AFV innovation, we offer several recommendations that governments can follow to move past hype to support significant AFV adoption and displace fossil fuel use in the transportation sector.

  4. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  5. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  6. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. SWAFEA. Sustainable Way for Alternative Fuels and Energy in Aviation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the aviation sector uses petroleum derived liquid fuels as the energy carrier of choice for flight. In light the present environmental, economical and political concerns as to the sustainability of this energy source, the question of which alternatives the aviation sector should pursue in

  7. Part 2. Design and performance characteristics of alternative fuels and fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents performance characteristics of a wide range of fast breeder reactor designs and fuel cycle options to provide the bases for the study of alternatives that is the primary focus of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Since breeding performance is at the center of many of the feasibility questions connected with alternative forms of breeder development, particular attention was given to a consistent comparison between various alternatives and quantitative analyses that provide physical understanding of intrinsic differences in their breeding performance

  8. Fuel cycle transition - A Belgian implementation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2002 the total installed electric power in Belgium was 16,200 MWe of which 40% (6485 MWe) corresponds to the seven nuclear power plants installed on the two Belgian sites of Doel (4 power plants) and Tihange (3 power plants) and the 25% participation in the two French Units B1 and B2 at Chooz at the Belgian-French border. The nuclear installed power in Belgium is 5800 MWe. In 2003, the government decided to phase out the nuclear energy progressively by closing the Belgian NPPs after 40 years of operation. This means that the first generation units (Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1) will be closed in 2015 and the four other remaining units in 2022-2025. Nevertheless, this phase out is subject to various conditions: the guarantee of energy independence should not be affected and the engagement to respect the Kyoto agreement (reducing the CO2 production by 7.5% in 2010 as compared to the 1990 production). Thus the phase-out decision can be re-opened if the above mentioned conditions are not met. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Actual fuel cycle; 3. Transition fuel cycle; 4. Calculations; 4.1. PWR modelling; 4.2. ADS modelling; 4.3. Calculation code; 5. Results; 5.1. PWR/EPR; 5.2. ADS; 6. Conclusions. In conclusion it is shown that the evaluated stock pile of waste in Belgium (with no increase of electricity demand) coming from the thermal reactors park is 4380 tons (52 t Pu, 9 t MA, 217 t FP) with phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2025, last PWR) and 7825 tons (84 t Pu, 20 t MA, 381 t FP) without phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2075, last EPR). According to this study, Belgium should keep all its first generation Pu for the eventual starting of the self burning FR. Indeed, the Pu needed to start the self burning FR is evaluated between 60 t and 90 t (based on 10 t to 15 t per GWe). With an homogeneous core loading, 54% of the MA could be eliminated after 24 years in three 600 MWth industrial ADS (corresponding

  9. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.M.

    1992-05-19

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products' laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively benign'' system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE's program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

  10. Dimethyl ether as alternative fuel for CI engine and vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen HUANG; Xinqi QIAO; Wugao ZHANG; Junhua WU; Junjun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    As a developing and the most populous country in the world, China faces major challenges in energy supply and environmental protection. It is of great importance to develop clean and alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. On the basis of researches on DME engine and vehicle at Shanghai Jiaotong University in the last twelve years, fuel injection, combustion, performance and exhaust emissions of DME engine and DME vehicle are introduced in this paper. The results indicate that DME engines can achieve high thermal efficiency and ultra low emissions, and will play a significant role in meeting the energy demand while minimizing environmental impact in China.

  11. Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Division of URS

    2008-07-01

    This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.

  12. The California Multimedia Risk Assessment Protocol for Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, T.; Ginn, T. R.; McKone, T. E.; Rice, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Any new fuel in California requires approval by the state agencies overseeing human and environmental health. In order to provide a systematic evaluation of new fuel impacts, California now requires a multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for fuel approval. The fuel MMRA involves all relevant state agencies including: the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), the Office of Environmental Health Hazards Assessment (OEHHA), and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) overseen by the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA). The lead agency for MMRAs is the CARB. The original law requiring a multimedia assessment is California Health and Safety Code 43830.8. In addition, the low carbon fuel standard (LCFS), the Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), and the Verified Diesel Emission Control Strategy (VDECS) have provisions that can require a multimedia assessment. In this presentation, I give an overview of the California multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for new fuels that has been recently developed and applied to several alternative fuels. The objective of the California MMRA is to assess risk of potential impacts of new fuels to multiple environmental media including: air, water, and soil. Attainment of this objective involves many challenges, including varying levels of uncertainty, relative comparison of incommensurate risk factors, and differing levels of priority assigned to risk factors. The MMRA is based on a strategy of relative risk assessment and flexible accommodation of distinct and diverse fuel formulations. The approach is tiered by design, in order to allow for sequentially more sophisticated investigations as knowledge gaps are identified and re-prioritized by the ongoing research. The assessment also involves peer review in order to provide coupling between risk assessment and stakeholder investment, as well as constructive or confrontational feedback. The multimedia assessment

  13. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  14. Pyrolysis decomposition of tamarind seed for alternative fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, M A; Islam, M R; Parveen, M; Haniu, H; Takai, K

    2013-12-01

    The conversion of tamarind seed into bio-oil by pyrolysis has been taken into consideration in the present work. The major components of the system were fixed bed fire-tube heating reactor, liquid condenser and collector. The crushed tamarind seed in particle form was pyrolyzed in an electrically heated fixed bed reactor. The products were liquid, char and gasses. The parameters varied were reactor temperature, running time, gas flow rate and feed particle size. The maximum liquid yield was 45 wt% at 400°C for a feed size of 3200 μm diameter at a gas flow rate of 6l/min with a running time of 30 min. The obtained pyrolysis liquid at these optimum process conditions were analyzed for physical and chemical properties to be used as an alternative fuel. The results show the potential of tamarind seed as an important source of alternative fuel and chemicals as well.

  15. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-01-01

    This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power ...

  16. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

  17. 77 FR 36423 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... other alcohols including E85 ethanol-gasoline mixtures, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen...) (i.e., dual fueled vehicles) that operate on a combination of gasoline and ethanol, the labels... displays a 390 mile driving range for gasoline and a 270 mile range for E85 operation. See 76 FR at...

  18. Core analysis during transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An 1200-day time-dependent fuel-management for the transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in a CANDU 6 reactor has been simulated to show the compatibility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the reactor operation. The simulation calculations were carried out with the RFSP code, provided by cell averaged fuel properties obtained from the POWDERPUFS-V code. The refueling scheme for both fuels was an eight bundle shift at a time. The simulation results show that the maximum channel and bundle powers were maintained below the license limit of the CANDU 6. This indicates that the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle is compatible with the CANDU 6 reactor operation during the transition period. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  19. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  20. Alternative Measuring Approaches in Gamma Scanning on Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihm Kvenangen, Karen

    2007-06-15

    In the future, the demand for energy is predicted to grow and more countries plan to utilize nuclear energy as their source of electric energy. This gives rise to many important issues connected to nuclear energy, such as finding methods that can verify that the spent nuclear fuel has been handled safely and used in ordinary power producing cycles as stated by the operators. Gamma ray spectroscopy is one method used for identification and verification of spent nuclear fuel. In the specific gamma ray spectroscopy method called gamma scanning the gamma radiation from the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134 and Eu-154 are measured in a spent fuel assembly. From the results, conclusions can be drawn about the fuels characteristics. This degree project examines the possibilities of using alternative measuring approaches when using the gamma scanning method. The focus is on examining how to increase the quality of the measured data. How to decrease the measuring time as compared with the present measuring strategy, has also been investigated. The main part of the study comprises computer simulations of gamma scanning measurements. The simulations have been validated with actual measurements on spent nuclear fuel at the central interim storage, Clab. The results show that concerning the quality of the measuring data the conventional strategy is preferable, but with other starting positions and with a more optimized equipment. When focusing on the time aspect, the helical measuring strategy can be an option, but this needs further investigation.

  1. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  2. 10 CFR 490.203 - Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.203 Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. (a) General Provisions... fleets, a State may follow a Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan that has been approved by...

  3. Alternative transportation fuels: Infrastructure requirements and environmental impacts for ethanol and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Heather L.

    Alternative fuels could replace a significant portion of the 140 billion gallons of annual US gasoline use. Considerable attention is being paid to processes and technologies for producing alternative fuels, but an enormous investment in new infrastructure will be needed to have substantial impact on the demand for petroleum. The economics of production, distribution, and use, along with environmental impacts of these fuels, will determine the success or failure of a transition away from US petroleum dependence. This dissertation evaluates infrastructure requirements for ethanol and hydrogen as alternative fuels. It begins with an economic case study for ethanol and hydrogen in Iowa. A large-scale linear optimization model is developed to estimate average transportation distances and costs for nationwide ethanol production and distribution systems. Environmental impacts of transportation in the ethanol life cycle are calculated using the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model. An EIO-LCA Hybrid method is developed to evaluate impacts of future fuel production technologies. This method is used to estimate emissions for hydrogen production and distribution pathways. Results from the ethanol analyses indicate that the ethanol transportation cost component is significant and is the most variable. Costs for ethanol sold in the Midwest, near primary production centers, are estimated to be comparable to or lower than gasoline costs. Along with a wide range of transportation costs, environmental impacts for ethanol range over three orders of magnitude, depending on the transport required. As a result, intensive ethanol use should be encouraged near ethanol production areas. Fossil fuels are likely to remain the primary feedstock sources for hydrogen production in the near- and mid-term. Costs and environmental impacts of hydrogen produced from natural gas and transported by pipeline are comparable to gasoline. However, capital costs are prohibitive and

  4. Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean Air Act Amendments

  5. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  6. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  7. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  8. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  9. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the

  10. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the

  11. Advisable alternative fuels for Mexico; Combustibles alternativos convenientes para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Gonzalez, Jorge Luis [ICA Fluor (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The alternative fuels are born with the goal of not damaging the environment; biodiesel, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, methanol, natural gas, LP gas, are the main alternative fuels. However, the biodiesel and bioetanol are the only completely renewable ones, this makes them ideal to be developed in Mexico, since the agricultural sector could be fortified, the technological independence be favored, improve the conservation of the oil resources and by all means not to affect the environment. On the other hand, also efficient cultivation techniques should be developed to guarantee the economy of the process. [Spanish] Los combustibles alternativos nacen con la meta de no danar el medio ambiente; el biodiesel, electricidad, etanol, hidrogeno, metanol, gas natural, gas LP, son los principales combustibles alternativos. No obstante, el biodiesel y el bioetanol son los unicos completamente renovables, esto los hace ideales para desarrollarse en Mexico, ya que se podria fortalecer el sector agricola, favorecer la independencia tecnologica, mejorar la administracion de los recursos petroleros y por supuesto no afectar al medio ambiente. Por otro lado tambien se tendrian que desarrollar tecnicas de cultivo eficientes para garantizar la economia del proceso.

  12. Speeding the transition: Designing a fuel-cell hypercar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B.D.; Moore, T.C.; Lovins, A.B. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States). Hypercar Center

    1997-12-31

    A rapid transformation now underway in automotive technology could accelerate the transition to transportation powered by fuel cells. Ultralight, advanced-composite, low-drag, hybrid-electric hypercars--using combustion engines--could be three- to fourfold more efficient and one or two orders of magnitude cleaner than today`s cars, yet equally safe, sporty, desirable, and (probably) affordable. Further, important manufacturing advantages--including low tooling and equipment costs, greater mechanical simplicity, autobody parts consolidation, shorter product cycles, and reduced assembly effort and space--permit a free-market commercialization strategy. This paper discusses a conceptual hypercar powered by a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). It outlines the implications of platform physics and component selection for the vehicle`s mass budget and performance. The high fuel-to-traction conversion efficiency of the hypercar platform could help automakers overcome the Achilles` heel of hydrogen-powered vehicles: onboard storage. Moreover, because hypercars would require significantly less tractive power, and even less fuel-cell power, they could adopt fuel cells earlier, before fuel cells` specific cost, mass, and volume have fully matured. In the meantime, commercialization in buildings can help prepare fuel cells for hypercars. The promising performance of hydrogen-fueled PEMFC hypercars suggests important opportunities in infrastructure development for direct-hydrogen vehicles.

  13. Fuel alternatives for oil sands development - the nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently natural gas is the fuel of choice in all oil sand developments. Alberta sources of hydrocarbon based fuels are large but limited. Canadian nuclear technology was studied as a possible alternative for providing steam for the deep commercial in situ oil sand projects which were initiated over ten years ago. Because the in situ technology of that time required steam at pressures in excess of 10 MPa, the nuclear option required the development of new reactor technology, or the use of steam compressors, which was not economical. The current SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology requires steam at pressures of less than 5 MPa, which is in the reach of existing Canadian nuclear technology. The cost of supplying steam for a SAGD in situ project using a CANDU 3 nuclear reactor was developed. The study indicates that for gas prices in excess of $2.50 per gigajoule, replacing natural gas fuel with a nuclear reactor is economically feasible for in situ projects in excess of 123 thousand barrels per day. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  14. Study of Temperature Gradient in Burning of Alternative Engine Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Assad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an approximate method for calculation of the temperature at a final stage of fuel-air mixture burning in a closed vessel that is a combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine (ICE. The paper contains calculation of temperature values for various fuel-air mixtures, shows nature of temperature changes and presents analysis of combustion product temperature behaviour modification and analyzed the behaviour in accordance with an initial pressure in the chamber. The paper reveals the fact that a combustion temperature is increasing for all mixtures when an initial pressure in combustion chamber is increased. The hydrogen-air mixture has the highest combustion temperature among investigated mixtures and products of propane conversion have the lowest one.The Maxe-effect has been investigated in combustion of hydrogen-air mixture and design formulaes have been obtained. Calculation of temperature difference of the first and last portions of combustion products has been made with due account of the Maxe-effect.The proposed approximate method for calculation of temperatures indices in the various zones of combustion chamber in view of the Mach effect makes it possible to forecast thermodynamic nature of combustion process while using alternative engine fuels for internal combustion engine.

  15. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  16. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  17. Solid fuel block as an alternate fuel for cooking and barbecuing: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Monikankana [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039 (India); Mukunda, H.S.; Sridhar, G. [Combustion Gasification Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2009-04-15

    A large part of the rural people of developing countries use traditional biomass stoves to meet their cooking and heating energy demands. These stoves possess very low thermal efficiency; besides, most of them cannot handle agricultural wastes. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternate cooking contrivance which is simple, efficient and can handle a range of biomass including agricultural wastes. In this reported work, a highly densified solid fuel block using a range of low cost agro residues has been developed to meet the cooking and heating needs. A strategy was adopted to determine the best suitable raw materials, which was optimized in terms of cost and performance. Several experiments were conducted using solid fuel block which was manufactured using various raw materials in different proportions; it was found that fuel block composed of 40% biomass, 40% charcoal powder, 15% binder and 5% oxidizer fulfilled the requirement. Based on this finding, fuel blocks of two different configurations viz. cylindrical shape with single and multi-holes (3, 6, 9 and 13) were constructed and its performance was evaluated. For instance, the 13 hole solid fuel block met the requirement of domestic cooking; the mean thermal power was 1.6 kW{sub th} with a burn time of 1.5 h. Furthermore, the maximum thermal efficiency recorded for this particular design was 58%. Whereas, the power level of single hole solid fuel block was found to be lower but adequate for barbecue cooking application. (author)

  18. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance: Part A: Combustor Performance Part B: Combustor Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouse, D. T.; Neuroth, C.; Henricks, R. C.; Lynch, A.; Frayne, C.; Stutrud, J. S.; Corporan, E.; Hankins, T.

    2010-01-01

    Alternate aviation fuels for military or commercial use are required to satisfy MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 (2010) standards, respectively, and are classified as drop-in fuel replacements. To satisfy legacy issues, blends to 50% alternate fuel with petroleum fuels are certified individually on the basis of feedstock. Adherence to alternate fuels and fuel blends requires smart fueling systems or advanced fuel-flexible systems, including combustors and engines without significant sacrifice in performance or emissions requirements. This paper provides preliminary performance (Part A) and emissions and particulates (Part B) combustor sector data for synthetic-parafinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type fuel and blends with JP-8+100 relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling.

  19. Utilization of Alternative Fuels in Cement Pyroprocessing : the Messebo Factory case study in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ebuy Teka, Axumawi

    2015-01-01

    Energy costs and environmental standards encouraged cement manufacturers worldwide to evaluate to what extent conventional fuels (Furnace oil, Coal and Petcock) can be replaced by alternative fuels in cement production, i.e. biomass or processed waste materials like sewage sludge, MSW (municipal solid waste), Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF), Tire Derived Fuel (TDF), Plastic Derived Fuel (PDF), Biomass Derived Fuels (BDF), meat and bone meal (MBM), etc.  High temperature of >1500 C, long residen...

  20. Emissions from Petrol Engine Fueled Gasoline–Ethanol–Methanol (GEM Ternary mixture as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Saravana Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demands of petroleum fuels due to the rapid development automotive society coupled with the environmental pollution issues have inspired the efforts on exploring alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Bioethanol obtained from biomass and bioenergy crops has been proclaimed as one of the feasible alternative to gasoline. In this study, the effect of gasoline–ethanol–methanol (GEM ternary blend on the emission characteristics of petrol engine was studied. Three different fuel blends, namely, E0 (gasoline, G75E21M4 (75% gasoline, 21% hydrous ethanol and 4% methanol and E25 (25% anhydrous ethanol and 75% gasoline were tested in a 1.3-l K3-VE spark-ignition engine. The results indicate that, when G75E21M4 fuel blend was used, a significant drop in CO, CO2, NOx and HC emissions by about 42%, 15%, 7% and 5.2% compared to E0, respectively. Moreover, the emission results for G75E21M4 are marginally lower than E25 whereas; HC emission was slightly higher than E25.

  1. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems. Summary technical progress report, August 15, 1978-January 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Wong, E.

    1980-02-27

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resources. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternative fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are: (a) develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternative fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and (b) provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. This is the second major report of the program. Key experimental findings during this reporting period concern stirred combustor soot production during operation at controlled temperature conditions, soot production as a function of combustor residence time, an improved measurement technique for total hydrocarbons and initial stirred combustor results of fuel nitrogen conversion. While the results to be presented concern a stirred combustor which utilizes premixed fuel vapor/oxidant mixtures, a new combustor which combusts liquid fuel injected into the reactor as a spray has been developed and will be described. Analytical program progress includes the development of new quasiglobal models of soot formation and assessment of needs for other submodel development.

  2. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  3. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  4. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineered barriers alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves emplacing the waste in a vault excavated at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The solid waste would be isolated from the biosphere by a multibarrier system consisting of engineered barriers, including long-lived containers and clay and cement-based sealing materials, and the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation. The technical feasibility of this concept and its impact on the environment and human health are being documented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which will be submitted for review under the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. This report, one of nine EIS primary references, describes the various alternative designs and materials for engineered barriers that have been considered during the development of the Canadian disposal concept and summarizes engineered barrier concepts being evaluated in other countries. The basis for the selection of a reference engineered barrier system for the EIS is presented. This reference system involves placing used CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) fuel bundles in titanium containers, which would then be emplaced in boreholes drilled in the floor of disposal rooms. Clay-based sealing materials would be used to fill both the space between the containers and the rock and the remaining excavations. In the section on waste forms, the properties of both used-fuel bundles and solidified high-level wastes, which would be produced by treating wastes resulting from the reprocessing of used fuel, are discussed. Methods of solidifying the wastes and the chemical durability of the solidified waste under disposal conditions are reviewed. Various alternative container designs are reviewed, ranging from preliminary conceptual designs to designs that have received extensive prototype testing. Results of structural performance, welding and inspection studies are also summarized. The corrosion of

  5. Second interim report of the Interagency Commission on Alternative Motor Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes progress the commission and government agencies have made in implementing the provisions of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, assessing the role of alternative motor fuels in the US transportation sector, and developing policies to promote the use of alternative fuels. The alternative motor-fuels policies proposed in the National Energy Strategy (NES) are described and shows how they compose an effective long-term plan to encourage the widespread use of alternative motor fuels. The progress to date of the Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies in implementing the programs required by the AMFA is reported. A detailed scenario of future alternative-fuel use that displaces 2.5 million barrels per day (MMBD) of petroleum and a feasible path of vehicle production and fuel supply leading to that goal is described. An analytical tool for exploring and quantifying the energy market impacts of alternative fuels, the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM), is described. The AFTM provides a means of investigating the impacts of alternative fuels in interrelated world energy markets for petroleum and natural gas. Several major initiatives have recently been enacted that have important ramifications for alternative-fuels policy. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 contain provisions mandating the use of nonpetroleum oxygenates in reformulated gasoline. Other provisions for much more stringent emissions standards may affect the ability of manufacturers to make and sell conventional-fuel vehicles or, at the very least, affect their cost-effectiveness in comparison to cleaner alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV's). Finally, the key areas in which technological advances could substantially improve the competitiveness of AFV technologies in the marketplace are reviewed

  6. Leveraging Fuel Subsidy Reform for Transition in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ecker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Yemen is currently undergoing a major political transition, yet many economic challenges—including fuel subsidy reform—remain highly relevant. To inform the transition process with respect to a potential subsidy reform, we use a dynamic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model for Yemen; we show that overall growth effects of subsidy reduction are positive in general, but poverty can increase or decrease depending on reform design. A promising strategy for a successful reform combines fuel subsidy reduction with direct income transfers to the poorest one-third of households during reform, and productivity-enhancing investment in infrastructure, plus fiscal consolidation. Public investments should be used for integrating economic spaces and restructuring of agricultural, industrial and service value chains in order to create a framework that encourages private-sector-led and job-creating growth.

  7. An Alternative Approach to the Teaching of Systematic Transition Metal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Brian

    1979-01-01

    Presents an alternative approach to teaching Systematic Transition Metal Chemistry with the transition metal chemistry skeleton features of interest. The "skeleton" is intended as a guide to predicting the chemistry of a selected compound. (Author/SA)

  8. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The evaluation period in this report (January 2008 through February 2009) has been chosen to coincide with a UTC Power propulsion system changeout that occurred on January 15, 2008.

  9. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2009-08-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

  10. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fourth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from April 2008 through October 2008. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous three evaluation reports.

  11. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  12. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  13. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle fuel... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538. 536.10 Section 536.10 Transportation Other Regulations...

  14. Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.

    2014-11-01

    When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer for Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, Andrew Carl [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-03-23

    modern turbine engines; and What advancements in film cooling hole geometry and design can increase effectiveness of film cooling in turbines burning high-hydrogen coal syngas due to the higher heat loads and mass flow rates of the core flow? Experimental and numerical investigations of advanced cooling geometries that can improve resistance to surface deposition were performed. The answers to these questions were investigated through experimental measurements of turbine blade surface temperature and coolant coverage (via infrared camera images and thermocouples) and time-varying surface roughness in the NETL high-pressure combustion rig with accelerated, simulated surface deposition and advanced cooling hole concepts, coupled with detailed materials analysis and characterization using conventional methods of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), 3-D Surface Topography (using a 3-D stylus profilometer). Detailed surface temperatures and cooling effectiveness could not be measured due to issues with the NETL infrared camera system. In collaboration with faculty startup funding from the principal investigator, experimental and numerical investigations were performed of an advanced film cooling hole geometry, the anti-vortex hole (AVH), focusing on improving cooling effectiveness and decreasing the counter-rotating vortex of conventional cooling holes which can entrain mainstream particulate matter to the surface. The potential benefit of this program is in gaining a fundamental understanding of how the use of alternative fuels will effect the operation of modern gas turbine engines, providing valuable data for more effective cooling designs for future turbine systems utilizing alternative fuels.

  16. Automobile Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts, Efficiency, and Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Soren; Parry, Ian; James M. Sallee; FISCHER, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses fuel economy regulations in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including their impacts on fuel use and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review different methodologies for assessing the costs of fuel economy regulations and discuss what the results of these methodologies imply for policy. Following that, we compare the welfare effects of fuel economy regulations to those of fuel taxes and ...

  17. Performance, emission and economic assessment of clove stem oil-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarawa, Makame [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    In this study the performance, emission and economic evaluation of using the clove stem oil (CSO)-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engine have been carried out. Experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of the CSO-diesel blended fuels on the engine performance and emissions. The societal life cycle cost (LCC) was chosen as an important indicator for comparing alternative fuel operating modes. The LCC using the pure diesel fuel, 25% CSO and 50% CSO-diesel blended fuels in diesel engine are analysed. These costs include the vehicle first cost, fuel cost and exhaust emissions cost. A complete macroeconomic assessment of the effect of introducing the CSO-diesel blended fuels to the diesel engine is not included in the study. Engine tests show that performance parameters of the CSO-diesel blended fuels do not differ greatly from those of the pure diesel fuel. Slight power losses, combined with an increase in fuel consumption, were experienced with the CSO-diesel blended fuels. This is due to the low heating value of the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Emissions of CO and HC are low for the CSO-diesel blended fuels. NO{sub x} emissions were increased remarkably when the engine was fuelled with the 50% CSO-diesel blended fuel operation mode. A remarkable reduction in the exhaust smoke emissions can be achieved when operating on the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Based on the LCC analysis, the CSO-diesel blended fuels would not be competitive with the pure diesel fuel, even though the environmental impact of emission is valued monetarily. This is due to the high price of the CSO. (author)

  18. Carpet As An Alternative Fuel in Cement Kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew J Realff

    2007-02-06

    Approximately 5 billion lbs of carpet will be removed from buildings in the US each year for the foreseeable future. This carpet is potentially a valuable resource because it contains plastic in the face of the carpet that can be re-used. However, there are many different types of carpet, and at least four major different plastics used to make the face. The face is woven through a backing fabric and held in place by a “glue” that is in most cases a latex cross-linked polymer which is heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate). This backing has almost no value as a recycled material. In addition, carpet is a bulky material that is difficult to handle and ship and must be kept dry. It would be of significant benefit to the public if this stream of material could be kept out of landfills and some of its potential value unlocked by having high volume alternatives for recycled carpet use. The research question that this project investigated was whether carpet could be used as a fuel in a cement kiln. If this could be done successfully, there is significant capacity in the US cement industry to absorb carpet and use it as a fuel. Cement kilns could serve as a way to stimulate carpet collection and then side streams be taken for higher value uses. The research demonstrated that carpet was technically a suitable fuel, but was unable to conclude that the overall system could be economically feasible at this time with the constraints placed on the project by using an existing system for feeding the kiln. Collection and transportation were relatively straightforward, using an existing collector who had the capacity to collect high volumes of material. The shredding of the carpet into a suitable form for feeding was more challenging, but these problems were successfully overcome. The feeding of the carpet into the kiln was not successfully carried out reliably. The overall economics were not positive under the prevailing conditions of costs for transportation and size

  19. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  20. Economic analysis of alternative options in CANDU fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, fuel cycle options for CANDU reactor were studied. Three main options in a CANDU fuel cycle involve use of : (1) natural uranium (0.711 weight percent U-235) fuel, (2) slightly enriched uranium (1.2 weight percent U-235) fuel, and (3) recovered uranium (0.83 weight percent U-235) fuel from light water reactor spent fuel. ORIGEN-2 computer code was used to identify composition of the spent fuel for each option , including the standard LWR fuel (3.3 weight percent U-235). Uranium and plutonium credit calculations were performed by using ORIGEN-2 output. WIMSD-5 computer code was used to determine maximum discharge burnup values for each case. Cost estimations were carried out using specially-developed computer programs. Comparison of levelized costs for the fuel cycle options and sensitivity analysis for the cost components are also presented

  1. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets (77 FR 14,482 (Mar. 12...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 438 RIN 1904-AB98 Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption... issue implementing regulations for a statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption...

  2. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM... of a fleet or covered person in an annual report under this part, DOE shall treat each credit as the acquisition of an alternative fueled vehicle that the fleet or covered person is required to acquire...

  3. 10 CFR 490.201 - Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 490.201 Section 490.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.201 Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate... annually for State government fleets, including agencies thereof but excluding municipal fleets,...

  4. ESTIMATION OF POSSIBILITY OF TYRE UTILIZATION PRODUCTS USAGE AS ALTERNATIVE FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grytsenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that without additional processing neither solid nor liquid products of tire pyrolysis can be used in practice. The purification methods of pyrolysis liquid used for installations are proposed. They offer to use liquid products as alternative diesel fuel, solid products - as alternative fuel for energy installations.

  5. ESTIMATION OF POSSIBILITY OF TYRE UTILIZATION PRODUCTS USAGE AS ALTERNATIVE FUEL

    OpenAIRE

    A. Grytsenko; N. Vnukova; Ye. Pozdniakova

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that without additional processing neither solid nor liquid products of tire pyrolysis can be used in practice. The purification methods of pyrolysis liquid used for installations are proposed. They offer to use liquid products as alternative diesel fuel, solid products - as alternative fuel for energy installations.

  6. Experimental investigation of spray characteristics of alternative aviation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Physical properties of GTL fuel are different from those of conventional jet fuels. • Spray characteristics of GTL and Jet A-1 fuels are experimentally investigated using phase Doppler anemometry. • Regions near the nozzle are influenced by differences in fuel physical properties. • Spray characteristics of GTL can be predicted by empirical relations developed for conventional jet fuels. - Abstract: Synthetic fuels derived from non-oil feedstock are gaining importance due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. This work investigates spray characteristics of two Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) synthetic jet fuels from a pilot-scale pressure swirl nozzle and compares them with those of the conventional Jet A-1 fuel. The microscopic spray parameters are measured at 0.3 and 0.9 MPa injection pressures at several points in the spray using phase Doppler anemometry. The results show that the effect of fuel physical properties on the spray characteristics is predominantly evident in the regions close to the nozzle exit at the higher injection pressure. The lower viscosity and surface tension of GTL fuel seems to lead to faster disintegration and dispersion of the droplets when compared to those of Jet A-1 fuel under atmospheric conditions. Although the global characteristics of the fuels are similar, the effects of fuel properties are evident on the local spray characteristics at the higher injection pressure

  7. THE FUTURE OF MOTOR TRANSPORT – ALTERNATIVE FUEL AND CANCEROGENIC SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanilo, P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of application of synthetic hydrocarbonic motor fuels and hydrogen as the basic and additional energy carriers are analysed. It is shown that the use of alternative fuels does not only effectively replaces oil fuel, but also provides essential decrease of environmental contamination by supertoxic substancses, namely cancerogenic and mutagen.

  8. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  9. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  10. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2011-11-01

    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  11. Charcoal-Oil Mixture as an Alternative Fuel: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roila Awang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast depletion of fuel oil and continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. The world energy consumption is projected to grow at an average of 2.7-3.7% from 1996 to 2010. Therefore search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus this study presents the results on the characteristic of charcoal-oil mixture as an alternative fuel. The calorific value, ash content and stability of the mixture are determined.

  12. Chlorella protothecoides Microalgae as an Alternative Fuel for Tractor Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy; Talal Yusaf

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel has attracted a great deal attention recently as an alternative fuel due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. Among a wide range of biodiesel resources, microalgae are a promising alternative fuel source because of the high biomass, lipid productivity and environmentally friendliness. Microalgae is also a non-edible food, therefore, there will be no impact on the human food supply chain. In this work, petroleum diesel (PD) and biodiesel from the microalg...

  13. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables

  14. Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project: Recommended path forward. Volume 2: Alternatives and path forward evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has completed an evaluation of four alternatives for expediting the removal of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins and stabilizing and placing the fuel into interim storage. Four alternatives were compared: (1) Containerizing fuel in the K Basins, transporting fuel to a facility for stabilization, and interim storage of stabilized fuel in a dry storage facility (DSF); (2) Containerizing fuel in the K Basins, transporting fuel to a wet temporary staging facility, moving fuel to a facility for stabilization, and transporting stabilized fuel to an interim DSF; (3) Containerizing fuel in the K Basins in multi-canister overpacks, transporting fuel directly to a stabilization facility for passivation in the overpack, and interim storage of stabilized fuel in a DSF; (4) Packaging fuel for transport overseas and shipping fuel to a foreign reprocessing facility for reprocessing with eventual return of U, Pu and vitrified high level waste. The comparative evaluation consisted of a multi-attribute utility decision analysis, a public, worker and environmental health risk assessment, and a programmatic risk evaluation. The evaluation concluded that the best Path Forward combines the following concepts: Removal of K Basin fuel and sludge is uncoupled from the operation of a stabilization facility; A storage capability is provided to act as a lag storage or staging operation for overpack fuel containers as they are removed from the K Basins; Metal fuel drying and passivation should be maintained as the fuel stabilization process with the option of further refinements as more information becomes available; and The near term NEPA strategy should focus on expeditious removal of fuel and sludge from K Basins and placing overpacked fuel in temporary storage

  15. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    stand is an asset which provides an ongoing research capability dedicated to the testing of alternative fuels for aircraft engines. The test stand is now entirely functional with the exception of the electronic ignition unit which still needs adjustments.

  16. A numerical investigation on the influence of EGR in a supercharged SI engine fueled with gasoline and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CFD modeling the combustion of different alternative fuels in SI engine. • 10% of EGR is the most desirable amount from the viewpoint of emissions and power. • EGR affects on methane fuel more than others. • Supercharging has the most noticeable effect on gasoline fuel and the least on hydrogen fuel. - Abstract: Alternative fuels are mostly extracted from renewable resources, and their emission levels can be lower than those of traditional fossil-based fuels. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is utilized to investigate the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and initial charge pressure on the emissions and performance of a SI engine. The engine is fueled separately by gasoline and some of potential alternative fuels including hydrogen, propane, methane, ethanol and methanol. The results of simulation are compared to the experimental data. In all validation cases, experimental and numerical results were observed to have good agreement with each other. The calculations are carried out for EGR ratios between 0% and 20% and four cases of initial pressure have been mentioned: Pin = 1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 bar. The effect of EGR on NOx emission of methane is more than other fuels and its effect on IMEP of hydrogen is less than other fuels. From the viewpoints of emission and power, 10% of EGR seems to be the most desirable amount. The most noticeable effect of supercharging is on gasoline unlike hydrogen, which seems to be affected the least. The comparison of results shows that hydrogen due to its high heating value and burning without producing any carbon-based compounds such as HC, CO and CO2 is an ideal alternative fuel compared to the other fuels

  17. Decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley, New York, Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, L F; Nemec, J F; Koochi, A K

    1978-06-01

    The methodology and numerical values of NUREG-0278 were applied to four decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The cost and impacts of the following four alternatives for the process building, fuel receiving and storage, waste tank farm, and auxiliary facilities were assessed: (1) layaway, (2) protective storage, (3) preparation for alternate nuclear use, and (4) dismantlement. The estimated costs are 5.7, 11, 19, and 31 million dollars, respectively. (DLC)

  18. Decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley, New York, Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology and numerical values of NUREG-0278 were applied to four decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The cost and impacts of the following four alternatives for the process building, fuel receiving and storage, waste tank farm, and auxiliary facilities were assessed: (1) layaway, (2) protective storage, (3) preparation for alternate nuclear use, and (4) dismantlement. The estimated costs are 5.7, 11, 19, and 31 million dollars, respectively

  19. Alternative Fuels for Transportation : A Sustainability Assessment of Technologies within an International Energy Agency Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Shehzad; Conradt, Marcos H. K.; Pereira, Valeria De Fusco

    2009-01-01

    Transport sector is an essential driver of economic development and growth, and at the same time, one of the biggest contributors to climate change, responsible for almost a quarter of the global carbon dioxide emissions. The sector is 95 percent dependent on fossil fuels. International Energy Agency (IEA) scenarios present different mixes of fuels to decrease both dependence on fossil fuels and emissions, leading to a more sustainable future. The main alternative fuels proposed in the Blue m...

  20. Addressing the Need for Alternative Transportation Fuels: The Joint BioEnergy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanch, Harvey; Adams, Paul; Andrews-Cramer, Katherine; Frommer, Wolf; Simmons, Blake; Keasling, Jay

    2008-01-18

    Today, carbon-rich fossil fuels, primarily oil, coal, and natural gas, provide 85% of the energy consumed in the U.S. As world demand increases, oil reserves may become rapidly depleted. Fossil fuel use increases CO{sub 2} emissions and raises the risk of global warming. The high energy content of liquid hydrocarbon fuels makes them the preferred energy source for all modes of transportation. In the U.S. alone, transportation consumes >13.8 million barrels of oil per day and generates 0.5 gigatons of carbon per year. This release of greenhouse gases has spurred research into alternative, nonfossil energy sources. Among the options (nuclear, concentrated solar thermal, geothermal, hydroelectric, wind, solar, and biomass), only biomass has the potential to provide a high-energy-content transportation fuel. Biomass is a renewable resource that can be converted into carbon-neutral transporation fuels. Currently, biofuels such as ethanol are produced largely from grains, but there is a large, untapped resource (estimated at more than a billion tons per year) of plant biomass that could be utilized as a renewable, domestic source of liquid fuels. Well-established processes convert the starch content of the grain into sugars that can be fermented to ethanol. The energy efficiency of starch-based biofuels is however not optimal, while plant cell walls (lignocellulose) represent a huge untapped source of energy. Plant-derived biomass contains cellulose, which is more difficult to convert to sugars; hemicellulose, which contains a diversity of carbohydrates that have to be efficiently degraded by microorganisms to fuels; and lignin, which is recalcitrant to degradation and prevents cost-effective fermentation. The development of cost-effective and energy-efficient processes to transform lignocellulosic biomass into fuels is hampered by significant roadblocks, including the lack of specifically developed energy crops, the difficulty in separating biomass components, low

  1. Alternate fuel cycle technologies. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-01

    This quarterly report describes studies to provide information needed to close the back end of the commercial light-water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. These efforts are directed primarily at reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium from spent LWR fuel. Research is reported in the following categories: environmental studies, fuel receipt, head-end processes, purex process, waste management, safeguards (dose rate for extraction streams), and general support.

  2. Alternatives for water basin spent fuel storage using pin storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The densest tolerable form for storing spent nuclear fuel is storage of only the fuel rods. This eliminates the space between the fuel rods and frees the hardware to be treated as non-fuel waste. The storage density can be as much as 1.07 MTU/ft2 when racks are used that just satisfy the criticality and thermal limitations. One of the major advantages of pin storage is that it is compatible with existing racks; however, this reduces the storage density to 0.69 MTU/ft2. Even this is a substantial increase over the 0.39 MTU/ft2 that is achievable with current high capacity stainless steel racks which have been selected as the bases for comparison. Disassembly requires extensive operation on the fuel assembly to remove the upper end fitting and to extract the fuel rods from the assembly skeleton. These operations will be performed with the aid of an elevator to raise the assembly where each fuel rod is grappled. Lowering the elevator will free the fuel rod for transfer to the storage canister. A storage savings of $1510 per MTU can be realized if the pin storage concept is incorporated at a new away-from-reactor facility. The storage cost ranges from $3340 to $7820 per MTU of fuel stored with the lower cost applying to storage at an existing away-from-reactor storage facility and the higher cost applying to at-reactor storage

  3. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  4. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  5. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jiwoon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Naeson 2-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 437-713 (Korea); Jeong, Gicheol [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-402, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-744 (Korea); Kim, Yeonbae [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-318, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, South Seoul, 151-744 (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  6. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  7. Diesel fuel processor for PEM fuel cells: Two possible alternatives (ATR versus SR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillo, A.; Specchia, S.; Antonini, M.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, V.

    There are large efforts in exploring the on-board reforming technologies, which would avoid the actual lack of hydrogen infrastructure and related safety issues. From this view point, the present work deals with the comparison between two different 10 kW e fuel processors (FP) systems for the production of hydrogen-rich fuel gas starting from diesel oil, based respectively on autothermal (ATR) and steam-reforming (SR) process and related CO clean-up technologies; the obtained hydrogen rich gas is fed to the PEMFC stack of an auxiliary power unit (APU). Based on a series of simulations with Matlab/Simulink, the two systems were compared in terms of FP and APU efficiency, hydrogen concentration fed to the FC, water balance and process scheme complexity. Notwithstanding a slightly higher process scheme complexity and a slightly more difficult water recovery, the FP based on the SR scheme, as compared to the ATR one, shows higher efficiency and larger hydrogen concentration for the stream fed to the PEMFC anode, which represent key issues for auxiliary power generation based on FCs as compared, e.g. to alternators.

  8. Alternative fuels in cement industry; Alternativa braenslen i cementindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, K.E.; Ek, R. [Finnsementti Oy, Parainen (Finland); Maekelae, K. [Finreci Oy (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the cement industry`s possibilities to replace half of the fossil fuels with waste derived fuels are investigated. Bench-scale experiments, pilot plant tests and full scale tests have been done with used tires and plastics wastes

  9. Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewables is already ongoing, but it will be a long and difficult process because the energy system is a gigantic and complex machine. Key renewable energy production data show the remarkable growth of solar electricity technologies and indicate that crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines are the workhorses of the first wave of renewable energy deployment on the TW scale around the globe. The other PV alternatives (e.g., copper/indium/gallium/selenide (CIGS) or CdTe), along with other less mature options, are critically analyzed. As far as fuels are concerned, the situation is significantly more complex because making chemicals with sunshine is far more complicated than generating electric current. The prime solar artificial fuel is molecular hydrogen, which is characterized by an excellent combination of chemical and physical properties. The routes to make it from solar energy (photoelectrochemical cells (PEC), dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPEC), PV electrolyzers) and then synthetic liquid fuels are presented, with discussion on economic aspects. The interconversion between electricity and hydrogen, two energy carriers directly produced by sunlight, will be a key tool to distribute renewable energies with the highest flexibility. The discussion takes into account two concepts that are often overlooked: the energy return on investment (EROI) and the limited availability of natural resources-particularly minerals-which are needed to manufacture energy converters and storage devices on a multi-TW scale. PMID:26584653

  10. Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewables is already ongoing, but it will be a long and difficult process because the energy system is a gigantic and complex machine. Key renewable energy production data show the remarkable growth of solar electricity technologies and indicate that crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines are the workhorses of the first wave of renewable energy deployment on the TW scale around the globe. The other PV alternatives (e.g., copper/indium/gallium/selenide (CIGS) or CdTe), along with other less mature options, are critically analyzed. As far as fuels are concerned, the situation is significantly more complex because making chemicals with sunshine is far more complicated than generating electric current. The prime solar artificial fuel is molecular hydrogen, which is characterized by an excellent combination of chemical and physical properties. The routes to make it from solar energy (photoelectrochemical cells (PEC), dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPEC), PV electrolyzers) and then synthetic liquid fuels are presented, with discussion on economic aspects. The interconversion between electricity and hydrogen, two energy carriers directly produced by sunlight, will be a key tool to distribute renewable energies with the highest flexibility. The discussion takes into account two concepts that are often overlooked: the energy return on investment (EROI) and the limited availability of natural resources-particularly minerals-which are needed to manufacture energy converters and storage devices on a multi-TW scale.

  11. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  12. Risk-analysis for alternative fuels; Risikoanalyse alternativer Treibstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermaud, Ch.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Charles Fermaud from the Ernst Basler and Partner AG company in Zollikon, Switzerland, deals with risk-related topics in connection with the shift away from traditional oil-based fuels. The various risks posed by liquid and gas fuels in the various stages from their manufacture through storage, tank-filling and use are discussed. The author is of the opinion that, with the proliferation of new fuels, the overall risk level will be reduced. The subjective perception of risk and increasing demands on safety are looked at.

  13. Fusion reactor technology impact of alternate fusion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial results of a study carried out to assess some of the technology implications of non-D-T fusion fuel cycles are presented. The primary emphasis in this paper is on D-D, catalyzed-D and D-3He fuel cycles. Tokamaks and field-reversed mirrors have been selected as sample confinement concepts. The technology areas considered include first wall design considerations, shielding requirements, fuel cycle requirements and some safety and environmental considerations. Conclusions resulting from the study are also presented

  14. The Transitional Experience: An Alternative View of Culture Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter S.

    1975-01-01

    This article contended that the problems and frustrations encountered in the culture shock process are important to an understanding of change and movement experiences, and that such transitional experiences can be the source of higher levels of personality development. (Author/RK)

  15. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs

  16. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  17. AN EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL USE IN PRODUCING CLINKER PRODUCTS: AKCANSA BUYUKCEKMECE CEMENT PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Ömer ÖZKAN; Cemal YILMAZ; APAY, Ahmet Celal

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Ministry of Environment and Forestry issued a notification about the general rules to be followed in using waste as fuel. After that date, within that period, cement plants started to buy waste incineration license. On the other hand, the use of waste as fuel in the EU began in the 1990s. The use of alternative fuels in the production of clinker, allows maximum level of energy supply and less use of fossil fuel. Another feature of these fuels is that their waste products mix in c...

  18. Review: Circulation of Inorganic Elements in Combustion of Alternative Fuels in Cement Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2015-01-01

    Cement production is an energy-intensive process, which traditionally has been dependent on fossil fuels. However, the use of alternative fuels, i.e., selected waste, biomass, and byproducts with recoverable calorific value, is constantly increasing. Combustion of these fuels is more challenging......, compared to fossil fuels, because of a lack of experience and different chemical and physical properties. When complete oxidation Of fuels in the calciner and main burner is not achieved, they burn in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln, causing local reducing conditions and increasing...

  19. Atmospheric Photochemistry Studies of Pollutant Emissions from Transportation Vehicles Operating on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, H.; Sexton, K.; Yu, J.

    1998-07-01

    This project was undertaken with the goal of improving our ability to predict the changes in urban ozone resulting from the widespread use of alternative fuels in automobiles. This report presents the results in detail.

  20. Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen; Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; McQueen, S.; Brinch, J.

    2008-07-01

    DOE sponsored the Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen workshop to understand how lessons from past experiences can inform future efforts to commercialize hydrogen vehicles. This report contains the proceedings from the workshop.

  1. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels

  2. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  3. Alternative measuring approaches in gamma scanning on spent nuclear fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Sihm Kvenangen, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the future, the demand for energy is predicted to grow and more countries plan to utilize nuclear energy as their source of electric energy. This gives rise to many important issues connected to nuclear energy, such as finding methods that can verify that the spent nuclear fuel has been handled safely and used in ordinary power producing cycles as stated by the operators. Gamma ray spectroscopy is one method used for identification and verification of spent nuclear fuel. In the specific ga...

  4. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is sonsidered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis.The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditons, a lab-scale circulatin...

  5. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from the SWAFEA preliminary state of the art study. It covers trends in aspects of future air transport, potential candidate fuels and associated feedstock along with sustainability and economical issues relevant for alternative fuels in aviation..

  6. Emission benefits in application of alternative fuels on racing car compression ignition engines

    OpenAIRE

    Herreros, José M.; Lapuerta, Magín; Lowe, Derek; Njuguna, James A. K.

    2011-01-01

    The depletion of fossil fuels, and the weather-related disasters associated with climate change and greenhouse gas emissions plus the other human health and environmental hazards related to exhaust pollutant emissions demands the use of innovative approaches to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Motorsport industry should become a test-bed, and because of its advertising potential should promote the use of alternative steps to minimize fossil fuel consumption and address associ...

  7. Alternating skills training and clerkships to ease the transition from preclinical to clinical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hell, E.A.; Kuks, J.B.; Borleffs, J.C.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The transition from preclinical to clinical training is perceived as stressful with a high workload being the main difficulty. To ease this transition, we implemented a dual learning year, where just-in-time skills training and clerkships alternated. Aims: To examine the effect of the du

  8. Editor's Perspective Article: Alternative Certification Teachers--Strategies for the Transition to a New Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    New teachers who are prepared to teach through alternative certification pathways may find the transition to a new career stressful and tumultuous. There are techniques that can be used to help make the transition easier on new teachers as they begin their new careers. This article explores several strategies for new teachers, which include…

  9. Fuel cell - An alternative for power and heat generating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most promising energy generating technologies is the fuel cell (FC) because of its high efficiency and low emissions. There are even zero chemical emissions FC and cogeneration plants based on FC generate low heat emissions too. FC was invented 160 years ago but it was usually used only since 1960 in space missions. A FC farm tractor was tested 40 years ago. FC was again taken into account by power engineering since 1990 and it is now considered a credible alternative to power and heat generating. The thermal power engineers (and not only they) have two problems of cardinal importance for mankind to solve: - Energy saving (by increasing of energy generating efficiency) and - Environmental protection (by reducing chemical and heat emissions). The possibilities to use FC to generate power and heat are practically endless: on the earth, in the air and outer space, by and under water, in numberless areas of human activities. FC are now powering buses, cars, trains, boats, plains, scooters, highway road signs etc. There are already miniature FC for portable electronics. Homes, schools, hospitals, institutes, banks, police stations, etc are using FC to generate power and heat for their facilities. The methane gas produced by wastewater treatment plants and landfills is converted into electricity by using FC. Being less expensive than nuclear and solar source of energy, FC is now generally used in the space missions (in addition FC generates water). In this work an analysis of the possibilities to use FC especially for combined power and heat generating is presented. FC is favourite as energy source in space missions because it is less expensive than nuclear or solar sources. All major automobile companies have FC powered automobiles in testing stage. Mini FC for phone, laptop, and electronics are already on market. FC will be use to pagers, video recorders, small portable tools, miniature robots, special devices as hearing aid various devices, smoke detectors

  10. Evaluation of wood residues from Crete as alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vamvuka, G. Bandelis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Olive and citrus prunings, the main agricultural residues of Crete, are considered to be of premium importance for local energy production, substituting a large part of conventional fuels. The thermal behaviour of these fuels during combustion was studied by thermogravimetry, at non-isothermal heating conditions. Fly ashes were collected from tests in a lab-scale fluidized bed facility. The effect of the inorganic constituents of the fuels on slagging/fouling and agglomeration propensities, as well as environmental pollution was examined. Kinetic models were developed and reaction rates were determined. The agroresidues studied were characterized as good quality fuels, having high volatile and low ash and sulphur contents. Their ash was rich in Ca, Si, K and P minerals. However, fly ashes were poorer in alkali compounds, implying lower deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. The environmental impact of heavy metals is negligible. The thermochemical reactivity of the two fuels in air was very similar. A power low model fitted the experimental results accurately.

  11. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Gikakis, C.

    2013-12-01

    This report is the seventh in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results from August 2012 through July 2013 for five FCEB demonstrations at four transit agencies.

  12. Josephson effects in an alternating current biased transition edge sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Gottardi, Luciano; Akamatsu, Hiroki; van der Kuur, Jan; Bruijn, Marcel P; Hartog, Roland H den; Hijmering, Richard; Khosropanah, Pourya; Lambert, Colin; van der Linden, Anton J; Ridder, Marcel L; Suzuki, Toyo; Gao, Jan R

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental evidence of the ac Josephson effect in a transition edge sensor (TES) operating in a frequency domain multiplexer and biased by ac voltage at MHz frequencies. The effect is observed by measuring the non-linear impedance of the sensor. The TES is treated as a weakly linked superconducting system and within the resistively shunted junction model framework. We provide a full theoretical explanation of the results by finding the analytic solution of the non-inertial Langevian equation of the system and calculating the non-linear response of the detector to a large ac bias current in the presence of noise.

  13. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    OpenAIRE

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Larsen, Morten Boberg

    2012-01-01

    I cementindustrien er der en øget miljømœssig og økonomisk motivation for at erstatte konventionelle fossile brœndsler med alternative brœndsler; biomasse og affald. Indførelsen af alternative brœndsler kan dog påvirke emissioner, cementproduktkvalitet, processtabilitet og -effektivitet. I kalcinatoren er substitutionen med alternative brœndsler nået tœt på 100% på mange cementanlœg, og for at øge anvendelsen af alternative brœndsler yderligere må substitutionen i roterovnen øges. Der er begr...

  14. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  15. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  16. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-11-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  17. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Fourth quarterly report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  18. Alternative fuel cycle options: performance characteristics and impact on nuclear power growth potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y. I.; Till, C. E.; Rudolph, R. R.; Deen, J. R.; King, M. J.

    1977-09-01

    The fuel utilization characteristics for LWR, SSCR, CANDU and LMFBR reactor concepts are quantified for various fuel cycle options, including once-through cycles, thorium cycles, and denatured cycles. The implications of various alternative reactor deployment strategies on the long-term nuclear power growth potential are then quantified in terms of the maximum nuclear capacity that can be achieved and the growth pattern over time, subject to the constraint of a fixed uranium-resource base. The overall objective of this study is to shed light on any large differences in the long-term potential that exist between various alternative reactor/fuel cycle deployment strategies.

  19. Use of hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends as alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, M.; Atmaca, M. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Department

    2008-09-30

    Interest in vegetable oil as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines has increased during the last few decades because reserves of petroleum fuel and its derivatives are diminishing rapidly, and because they have harmful effects on the environment. Numerous vegetable oil esters have been tried as alternatives to diesel fuel. Many researchers have reported that with the use of vegetable oil ester as a fuel in diesel engiens there is a decrease in harmful exhaust emissions and engine performance that is the equivalent of diesel fuel. Several studies have found that biodiesel emits far less of the most regulated pollutants than standard diesel fuel. Decreasing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by using biodiesel contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, diminishing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and smoke density improves air quality. Essential oils that have been tested in diesel engines are soybean, sunflower, corn, safflower, cottonseed, and rapeseed, which are categorized as edible oils; however, some edible oils, such as neat hazelnut kernel oil, have not been comprehensively tested as alternative fuel in diesel engines. In this study, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was evaluated as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. Firstly, the optimum transesteri.cation reaction conditions for hazelnut kernel oil, with respect to reaction temperature, volumetric ratio of reactants, and catalyst, were investigated. Secondly, an experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running on hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel. Results showed that hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel, according to engine performance and emissions.

  20. Alternative anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B.; Huang, Yun-Hui [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, 1 University Station, C2200, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2007-11-08

    The electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an O{sup 2-}-ion conductor. The anode must oxidize the fuel with O{sup 2-} ions received from the electrolyte and it must deliver electrons of the fuel chemisorption reaction to a current collector. Cells operating on H{sub 2} and CO generally use a porous Ni/electrolyte cermet that supports a thin, dense electrolyte. Ni acts as both the electronic conductor and the catalyst for splitting the H{sub 2} bond; the oxidation of H{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O occurs at the Ni/electrolyte/H{sub 2} triple-phase boundary (TPB). The CO is oxidized at the oxide component of the cermet, which may be the electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia, or a mixed oxide-ion/electron conductor (MIEC). The MIEC is commonly a Gd-doped ceria. The design and fabrication of these anodes are evaluated. Use of natural gas as the fuel requires another strategy, and MIECs are being explored for this application. The several constraints on these MIECs are outlined, and preliminary results of this on-going investigation are reviewed. (author)

  1. Castor oil biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a study related to the production and use of castor oil biodiesel is presented. The maximum methyl esters yield of the castor oil transesterification reaction is obtained under the following conditions: ambient temperature, a molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil equal to 9 and a catalyst percentage equal to 0.8%. The castor oil biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel as far as 15% in such way that the resulting blend complies with national and international technical standards for diesel fuels. Its high viscosity becomes the main difficulty for using castor oil biodiesel in engines. However this biofuel exhibits excellent cold flow properties (low values of cloud and pour points). The motor tests using castor oil biodiesel petroleum diesel blends, for the biodiesel proportion tested; show that a biodiesel percentage increase leads to an increase in the specific fuel consumption, a decrease in the fuel air ratio, a slight decrease in smoke opacity, while the fuel conversion efficiency and the CO and CO2 emissions practically remain constants

  2. Bio Diesel An Alternative Vehicles Fuel; Analytical View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transesterification of a vegetable oil was conducted as early as 1853, by scientists E. Duffy and J. Patrick, many years before the first diesel engine became functional(1). Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10 ft (3 m) iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg, Germany on August 10, 1893(2). Diesel later demonstrated his engine at the World Fair in Paris, France in 1898. This engine stood as an example of Diesel's vision because it was powered by peanut oil-a bio fuel. He believed that the utilization of a biomass fuel was the real future of his engine. In a 1912 speech, Rudolf Diesel said, (I) the use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today, but such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum and the coal-tar products of the present time. Rudolf Diesel was not the only inventor to believe that biomass fuels would be the mainstay of the transportation industry. Henry Ford designed his automobiles, beginning with the 1908 Model T(1), to use ethanol. Ford was so convinced that renewable resources were the key to the success of his automobiles that he built a plant to make ethanol in the Midwest and formed a partnership with Standard Oil to sell it in their distributing stations

  3. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  4. The life cycle assessment of alternative fuel chains for urban buses and trolleybuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliucininkas, L; Matulevicius, J; Martuzevicius, D

    2012-05-30

    This paper describes a comparative analysis of public transport alternatives in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. An LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) inventory analysis of fuel chains was undertaken using the midi urban bus and a similar type of trolleybus. The inventory analysis of fuel chains followed the guidelines provided by the ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 standards. The ReCiPe Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology was used to quantify weighted damage originating from five alternative fuel chains. The compressed biogas fuel chain had the lowest weighted damage value, namely 45.7 mPt/km, whereas weighted damage values of the fuel chains based on electricity generation for trolleybuses were 60.6 mPt/km (for natural gas) and 78.9 mPt/km (for heavy fuel oil). The diesel and compressed natural gas fuel chains exhibited considerably higher damage values of 114.2 mPt/km and 132.6 mPt/km, respectively. The comparative life cycle assessment of fuel chains suggested that biogas-powered buses and electric trolleybuses can be considered as the best alternatives to use when modernizing the public transport fleet in Kaunas.

  5. Thermodynamic Analysis of Alternative Marine Fuels for Marine Gas Turbine Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed M El Gohary; Nader R Ammar

    2016-01-01

    The marine shipping industry faces challenges to reduce engine exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ships, and in particular, carbon dioxide. International regulatory bodies such as the International Maritime Organization and National Environmental Agencies of many countries have issued rules and regulations to drastically reduce GHG and emissions emanating from marine sources. This study investigates the possibility of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuels to diesel oil for marine gas turbines and uses a mathematical model to assess the effect of these alternative fuels on gas turbine thermodynamic performance. Results show that since natural gas is categorized as a hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using natural gas was close to that of the diesel case. However, the gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be slightly lower for natural gas and hydrogen fuels compared to diesel fuel.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of alternative marine fuels for marine gas turbine power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gohary, Mohamed M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2016-03-01

    The marine shipping industry faces challenges to reduce engine exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ships, and in particular, carbon dioxide. International regulatory bodies such as the International Maritime Organization and National Environmental Agencies of many countries have issued rules and regulations to drastically reduce GHG and emissions emanating from marine sources. This study investigates the possibility of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuels to diesel oil for marine gas turbines and uses a mathematical model to assess the effect of these alternative fuels on gas turbine thermodynamic performance. Results show that since natural gas is categorized as a hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using natural gas was close to that of the diesel case. However, the gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be slightly lower for natural gas and hydrogen fuels compared to diesel fuel.

  7. Findings and Recommendations from the NIST Workshop on Alternative Fuels and Materials: Biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Sowards, Jeffrey W; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Applied Chemicals and Materials Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hosted a workshop to identify and prioritize research needs in the area of biocorrosion. Materials used to store and distribute alternative fuels have experienced an increase in corrosion due to the unique conditions caused by the presence of microbes and the chemistry of biofuels and biofuel precursors. Participants in this workshop, including experts from the microbiological, fuel, and materials communities, delved into the unique materials and chemical challenges that occur with production, transport, and storage of alternative fuels. Discussions focused on specific problems including: a) the changing composition of "drop-in" fuels and the impact of that composition on materials; b) the influence of microbial populations on corrosion and fuel quality; and c) state-of-the-art measurement technologies for monitoring material degradation and biofilm formation.

  8. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  9. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells). An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Stavroula Sfaelou; Panagiotis Lianos

    2016-01-01

    This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell op...

  10. Automobiles and global warming: Alternative fuels and other options for carbon dioxide emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automobiles are a source of considerable pollution at the global level, including a significant fraction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Alternative fuels have received some attention as potential options to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles. This article discusses the feasibility and desirability (from a technical as well as a broader environmental perspective) of the large-scale production and use of alternative fuels as a strategy to mitigate automotive carbon dioxide emissions. Other options such as improving vehicle efficiency and switching to more efficient modes of passenger transportation are also discussed. These latter options offer an effective and immediate way to tackle the greenhouse and other pollutant emission from automobiles, especially as the limitations of currently available alternative fuels and the technological and other constraints for potential future alternatives are revealed

  11. Thermal Aspects of Using Alternative Nuclear Fuels in Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Lisa Christine

    A SuperCritical Water-cooled Nuclear Reactor (SCWR) is a Generation IV concept currently being developed worldwide. Unique to this reactor type is the use of light-water coolant above its critical point. The current research presents a thermal-hydraulic analysis of a single fuel channel within a Pressure Tube (PT)-type SCWR with a single-reheat cycle. Since this reactor is in its early design phase many fuel-channel components are being investigated in various combinations. Analysis inputs are: steam cycle, Axial Heat Flux Profile (AHFP), fuel-bundle geometry, and thermophysical properties of reactor coolant, fuel sheath and fuel. Uniform and non-uniform AHFPs for average channel power were applied to a variety of alternative fuels (mixed oxide, thorium dioxide, uranium dicarbide, uranium nitride and uranium carbide) enclosed in an Inconel-600 43-element bundle. The results depict bulk-fluid, outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperature profiles together with the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles along the heated length of fuel channel. The objective is to identify the best options in terms of fuel, sheath material and AHFPS in which the outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperatures will be below the accepted temperature limits of 850°C and 1850°C respectively. The 43-element Inconel-600 fuel bundle is suitable for SCWR use as the sheath-temperature design limit of 850°C was maintained for all analyzed cases at average channel power. Thoria, UC2, UN and UC fuels for all AHFPs are acceptable since the maximum fuel-centreline temperature does not exceed the industry accepted limit of 1850°C. Conversely, the fuel-centreline temperature limit was exceeded for MOX at all AHFPs, and UO2 for both cosine and downstream-skewed cosine AHFPs. Therefore, fuel-bundle modifications are required for UO2 and MOX to be feasible nuclear fuels for SCWRs.

  12. Alternative Observers for SI Engine Air/Fuel Ratio Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Poulsen, Jannik; Olsen, Mads Bruun;

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work it has been shown that a nonlinear observer based on the use of the manifold pressure state equation and a nonlinear fuel film compensator can maintain accurate A/F ratio control during both steady state and transient operation. This observer may be called a manifold absolute...... engine control system designer with a variety of robust control systems which can easily be made redundant in order to satisfy newer engine emissions and diagnosis requirements and legislation...

  13. Baseline and Feasibility Assessment for Alternative Cooking Fuels in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Practical Action Consulting; Enda; World Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report was prepared by Practical Action Consulting for the Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions (ACCES) initiative of the World Bank. Most of Sub-Saharan Africa continues to rely overwhelmingly on traditional fuels and cooking technologies, both of which are a major cause of death and illness as well as a range of socio-economic and environmental problems. More than 90 per cent of th...

  14. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-01

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels. PMID:22732009

  15. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-01

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  16. Transition Analysis of Promising U.S. Future Fuel Cycles Using ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunny, Eva E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Joshua L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gregg, Robert [Preston Laboratory, Springfields Works (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies performed an evaluation and screening (E&S) study of nuclear fuel cycle options to help prioritize future research and development decisions. Previous work for this E&S study focused on establishing equilibrium conditions for analysis examples of 40 nuclear fuel cycle evaluation groups (EGs) and evaluating their performance according to a set of 22 standardized metrics. Following the E&S study, additional studies are being conducted to assess transitioning from the current US fuel cycle to future fuel cycle options identified by the E&S study as being most promising. These studies help inform decisions on how to effectively achieve full transition, estimate the length of time needed to undergo transition from the current fuel cycle, and evaluate performance of nuclear systems and facilities in place during the transition. These studies also help identify any barriers to achieve transition. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuel Cycle Options Campaign team used ORION to analyze the transition pathway from the existing US nuclear fuel cycle—the once-through use of low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel in thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs) —to a new fuel cycle with continuous recycling of plutonium and uranium in sodium fast reactors (SFRs). This paper discusses the analysis of the transition from an LWR to an SFR fleet using ORION, highlights the role of lifetime extensions of existing LWRs to aid transition, and discusses how a slight delay in SFR deployment can actually reduce the time to achieve an equilibrium fuel cycle.

  17. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., voltage, whether the voltage is alternating current (“ac”) or direct current (“dc”), amperage, and whether... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of D 1945-91 and D 1946-90 may be obtained from the..., Washington, DC, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on...

  18. RME or DME: A preferred alternative fuel option for future diesel engine operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twin challenges of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation, present engine and vehicle manufacturers with problems focused on future provision of both automotive power plant and conventional hydrocarbon fuels. In the drive to meet more stringent emission controls, many options have been identified, in the investigation of viable alternative fuels, and in the means of meeting the standards. While the operation of spark-ignition engines with natural gas is proven, other fuels are currently being explored for compression-ignition engines. In this study, di-methyl ether and rape-seed methyl ester, together with diesel fuel, were used, both as neat fuels and for pilot injection, in a natural gas dual-fuelled compression-ignition engine, to examine the performance and the levels of exhaust emissions. The merits and shortcomings as alternative fuels for diesel engines are discussed. While the ester performs much like diesel fuel in both modes, the ether produced lower specific oxides of nitrogen in dual-fuel operation

  19. Status and outlook for biofuels, other alternative fuels and new vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.-O.; Aakko-Saksa, P.; Sipilae, K.

    2008-03-15

    The report presents an outlook for alternative motor fuels and new vehicles. The time period covered extends up to 2030. The International Energy Agency and the U.S. Energy Information Administration predict that the world energy demand will increase by over 50% from now to 2030, if policies remain unchanged. Most of the growth in demand for energy in general, as well as for transport fuels, will take place in non-OECD countries. Gasoline and diesel are projected to remain the dominant automotive fuels until 2030. Vehicle technology and high quality fuels will eventually solve the problem of harmful exhaust emissions. However, the problem with CO{sub 2} still remains, and much attention will be given to increase efficiency. Hybrid technology is one option to reduce fuel consumption. Diesel engines are fuel efficient, but have high emissions compared with advanced gasoline engines. New combustion systems combining the best qualities of gasoline and diesel engines promise low emissions as well as high efficiency. The scenarios for alternative fuels vary a lot. By 2030, alternative fuels could represent a 10- 30% share of transport fuels, depending on policies. Ambitious goals for biofuels in transport have been set. As advanced biofuels are still in their infancy, it seems probable that traditional biofuels will also be used in 2030. Ethanol is the fastest growing biofuel. Currently the sustainability of biofuels is discussed extensively. Synthetic fuels promise excellent end-use properties, reduced emissions, and if produced from biomass, also reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. The report presents an analysis of technology options to meet the requirements for energy security, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, reduced local emissions as well as sustainability in general in the long run. In the short term, energy savings will be the main measure for CO{sub 2} reductions in transport, fuel switches will have a secondary role. (orig.)

  20. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  1. 40 CFR 1054.645 - What special provisions apply for converting an engine to use an alternate fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conformity. (b) Converting a certified engine that is not new to run on a different fuel type violates 40 CFR... converting an engine to use an alternate fuel? 1054.645 Section 1054.645 Protection of Environment... apply for converting an engine to use an alternate fuel? A certificate of conformity is no longer...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.645 - What special provisions apply for converting an engine to use an alternate fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Converting a certified engine that is not new to run on a different fuel type violates 40 CFR 1068.101(b)(1... converting an engine to use an alternate fuel? 1045.645 Section 1045.645 Protection of Environment... for converting an engine to use an alternate fuel? A certificate of conformity is no longer valid...

  3. Rape oil methyl ester (RME) and used cooking oil methyl ester (UOME) as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, G.H. [Military Technology Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The author presents a review about the fleet tests carried out by the Austrian Armed Forces concerning the practical application of a vegetable oil, i.e Rape Oil Methyl Ester (RME) and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UOME) as alternative fuels for vehicles under military conditions, and reviews other research results carried out in Austria. As a result of over-production in Western European agriculture, the increase in crop yields has led to tremendous surpluses. Alternative agricultural products have been sought. One alternative can be seen in biological fuel production for tractors, whereby the farmer is able to produce his own fuel supply as was the case when he previously provided self-made feed for his horses. For the market introduction different activities were necessary. A considerable number of institutes and organizations including the Austrian Armed Forces have investigated, tested and developed these alternative fuels. The increasing disposal problems of used cooking oil have initiated considerations for its use. The recycling of this otherwise waste product, and its preparation for use as an alternative fuel to diesel oil, seems to be most promising.

  4. A STUDY ON LIMITATION OF GOVERNMENT INITIATIVE MODEL FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV PROMOTION IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghun Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese responsibility for reducing Greenhouse Gas or carbon dioxide emission increases continuously. Chinese government suggested two targets; Alternative Fuel Vehicle output volume 500 thousand and AFV market share 5% by the end of 2011. However any of two targets did not come true. Therefore this study accessed the question, ‘why Chinese government initiative model for AFV promotion has been so poor?’ This study reviewed the transition process for AFV policies in China and made a structural analysis for three key policies since 2009. As a result the number of articles for related industries or factor endowments was relatively more than firm strategy or demand conditions. Also this study accessed the AFV strategy of Six SOEs from the perspective of social responsibility. Six SOEs have more concentrated on electric vehicle rather than hybrid vehicle with following the government leadership. However major EV or HEV models of them mostly were made by Joint Ventures being under control of foreign makers and the JVs have actually controlled over AFV business. So the limitation of Chinese government initiative model resulted from supplier-centric approach with targeting for public transportation and institution consumer, and it caused a failure to create the demand conditions of general customers.

  5. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  6. Physical Simulation of Burning Process of Alternative Engine Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Assad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of burning process in the closed vessel has been fulfilled with the help of method high-speed photography through a transparent glass. This method as an efficient means for investigation of fast processes permits to obtain a visual, convenient visual perception insight about the development of the burning process and understand peculiarities of the development of flame in the closed vessels.The paper contains a description of an experimental stand and methodology for execution of an experiment on visualization of the flame development and measurement of main parameters of the burning process in a closed vessel that is in the simulating combustion chamber.According to the obtained photos an analysis of form, structure and dynamics of flame front development has been carried out; some peculiarities and differences of flames of various fuel-air mixtures have been established and the paper proves an occurrence of the secondary glow during burning in the closed vessel.Body of data obtained with the help of the visualization of burning process makes it possible to determine main parameters of the burning process. In particular, relation of the pressure developed in the chamber with the mass of burnt-out mixture has been investigated and dependence has been obtained that shows the law of fuel burning-out in the graphic form.

  7. Performance of a small-scale turbojet engine fed with traditional and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • One synthetic fuel, one bio-fuel blend and one traditional kerosene were tested on a small-scale turbojet. • The three fuels were characterized and their chemical and physical specifications were compared. • The experimental results, in term of CO, UHC and NOx emissions, are discussed. • Emissions are compared with CFD analysis and semi-empirical equations found in literature. - Abstract: The growing use of aeronautical fuels, together with the increasing attention towards reduced environmental impact technologies, are driving governments and aeronautical companies to search for alternative aeronautical fuels to petroleum based kerosene. Analysis and measurements on real aeronautical turbines are complex and expensive; for this reason the use of parts of real engines or small size turbojets can be very interesting for research activities. The present paper describes the results of an experimental and numerical activity, regarding the influence of alternative fuels on the performance in term of emissions, on a small-scale turbojet engine with a nominal thrust of 80 N at 80,000 rpm. Three different fuels, a traditional Jet-A kerosene, a synthetic Gas To Liquid (GTL) fuel and a blend of 30% Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME) and 70% Jet-A, were tested. The experimental results, in term of CO, UHC and NOx emissions, are discussed and compared with results obtained from CFD analysis and from semi-empirical equations found in literature

  8. Alternative bio-based fuels for aviation: the clean airports program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has been designated as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. The U.S. Dept. of Energy (US DOE) conferred this designation in March 1996. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. The two major fuels used in aviation are the current piston engine aviation gasoline and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation gasoline (100LL), currently used in the general aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the U.S. today. Turbine engine fuel (jet fuel) produces two major environmental impacts: a local one, in the vicinity of the airports, and a global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinity of airports, through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles. (author)

  9. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkl, Michael; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek, Michal

    2016-03-01

    The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  10. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenkl Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  11. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  12. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  13. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strigáč Július

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I –SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  15. Entry of Alternative Fuels in a Volatile U.S. Gasoline Market

    OpenAIRE

    Vedenov, Dmitry V.; Duffield, James A.; Wetzstein, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis underlying this analysis is that in the presence of volatile gasoline prices competitive market forces will yield alternative, less volatile fuels as substitutes. A real-option pricing approach was employed for this analysis by modeling investment under uncertainty for the case of comparing stochastic prices of substitute commodities. Based on real options, threshold decision rules were developed for the adoption of portfolio fuels such as ethanol and conventional gasoline blen...

  16. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Rosli A. Bakar

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two op...

  17. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Awogbemi; Omojola; Adeyemo,, Adebowale; Sunday Babatunde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective p...

  18. Demand for alternative-fuel vehicles when registration taxes are high

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential futures for alternative-fuel vehicles in Denmark, where the vehicle registration tax is very high and large tax rebates can be given. A large stated choice dataset has been collected concerning vehicle choice among conventional, hydrogen, hybrid, bio......-diesel, and electric vehicles. We estimate a mixed logit model that improves on previous contributions by controlling for reference dependence and allowing for correlation of random effects. Both improvements are found to be important. An application of the model shows that alternative-fuel vehicles with present...... technology could obtain fairly high market shares given tax regulations possible in the present high-tax vehicle market....

  19. Efficiency versus cost of alternative fuels from renewable resources: outlining decision parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the discussion of traditional versus renewable energies and alternatives to conventional crude oil-based fuels in the transportation sector, efficiency calculations are but one decision making parameter. Comparing the assets and liabilities of fossil-based and renewable fuels in the transportation sector, further aspects such as centralized versus decentralized technologies, cost evaluations, taxation, and ecological/social benefits have to be taken into account. This paper outlines the driving parameters for shifting toward alternative fuels based on fossil or renewable resources and their use in innovative vehicle technologies such as advanced internal combustion and fuel cell electric drive systems. For the decision in favor or against an alternative fuel to be introduced to the mass market, automotive technologies and the energy supply system have to be examined in an integrated way. From an economic and technological perspective, some fuels may be even incompatible with the trend toward using renewable resources that have advantages in decentralized systems. Beyond efficiency calculations, political and industrial interests arise and may be influential to reshaping our currently crude oil-based mobility sector

  20. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  1. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration

  2. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1986-05-01

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration.

  3. System comparison of hydrogen with other alternative fuels in terms of EPACT requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbir, F.; Oezay, K.; Veziroglu, T.N. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility of several alternative fuels, namely natural gas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen and electricity, to replace 10% of gasoline by the year 2000 has been investigated. The analysis was divided in two parts: (i) analysis of vehicle technologies, and (ii) analysis of fuel production storage and distribution, from the primary energy sources to the refueling station. Only technologies that are developed to at least demonstration level were considered. The amount and type of the primary energy sources have been determined for each of the fuels being analyzed. A need for a common denominator for different types of energy has been identified.

  4. Review of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives including certain features pertaining to weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Largely as a result of concerns over nuclear weapon proliferation, the U.S. program to develop and commercialize the plutonium-fueled breeder reactor has been slowed down; interest in alternative fuel cycles has increased. The report offers an informal review of the various nuclear fuel cycle options including some aspects relevant to weapon proliferation, although no complete review of the latter subject is attempted. Basic principles governing breeding, reactor safety, and efficient utilization of fission energy resources (thorium and uranium) are discussed. The controversial problems of weapon proliferation and its relation to fuel reprocessing (which is essential for efficient fuel cycles) are reviewed and a number of proposed approaches to reducing proliferation risks are noted. Some representative specific reactor concepts are described, with emphasis on their development status, their potentials for resource utilization, and their implications for proliferation

  5. Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Macadamia Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the prospects of biodiesel production from macadamia oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The biodiesel was produced using conventional transesterification process using the base catalyst (KOH. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emission of 5% (B5 and 20% (B20 macadamia biodiesel fuel at different engine speeds and full load condition. It was found that the characteristics of biodiesel are within the limit of specified standards American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751 and comparable to diesel fuel. This study also found that the blending of macadamia biodiesel–diesel fuel significantly improves the fuel properties including viscosity, density (D, heating value and oxidation stability (OS. Engine performance results indicated that macadamia biodiesel fuel sample reduces brake power (BP and increases brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC while emission results indicated that it reduces the average carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and particulate matter (PM emissions except nitrogen oxides (NOx than diesel fuel. Finally, it can be concluded that macadamia oil can be a possible source for biodiesel production and up to 20% macadamia biodiesel can be used as a fuel in diesel engines without modifications.

  6. Sentence production with verbs of alternating transitivity in agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van Zonneveld, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Bastiaanse, Koekkoek And Van Zonneveld (2003) hypothesized that individuals with Broca's aphasia have problems with sentences in which the verb and its arguments are not in their base position. The present study is meant to test this hypothesis with the help of verbs with alternating transitivity: t

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer R [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  9. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  10. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chandler, Kevin [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results over the last year.

  11. Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

  12. Development of the Model of Decision Support for Alternative Choice in the Transportation Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabashkin Igor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision support system is one of the instruments for choosing the most effective decision for cargo owner in constant fluctuated business environment. The objective of this Paper is to suggest the multiple-criteria approach for evaluation and choice the alternatives of cargo transportation in the large scale transportation transit system for the decision makers - cargo owners. The large scale transportation transit system is presented by directed finite graph. Each of 57 alternatives is represented by the set of key performance indicators Kvi and set of parameters Paj. There has been developed a two-level hierarchy system of criteria with ranging expert evaluations based on Analytic Hierarchy Process Method. The best alternatives were suggested according to this method.

  13. A study of the diffusion of alternative fuel vehicles : An agent-based modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Ting; Gensler, Sonja; Garcia, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of an agent-based model (ABM) to investigate factors that can speed the diffusion of eco-innovations, namely alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The ABM provides the opportunity to consider the interdependencies inherent between key participants in the automotive indust

  14. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  15. SO2 Release as a Consequence of Alternative Fuel Combustion in Cement Rotary Kiln Inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of alternative fuels in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln may cause local reducing conditions and, subsequently, decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials, increasing the SO2 concentration in the gas phase. The decomposition of sulfates increases...

  16. Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenfeld, J.W.; Taylor, W.F.

    1980-11-01

    The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from Occidental Shale Company was fractionated to give three liquids in the diesel fuel boiling range. The initial boiling point in each case was 325/sup 0/F (163/sup 0/C). The final boiling points were 640/sup 0/F (338/sup 0/C), 670/sup 0/F (354/sup 0/C) and 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/F). Each fraction was hydrotreated to three different severities (800, 1200 and 1500 psi total pressure) over a Shell 324 nickel molybdate on alumina catalyst at 710 to 750/sup 0/F to afford 9 different model fuels. A variety of commercial and experimental additives were evaluated as cold flow improvers in the model fuels at treat levels of 0.04 to 0.4 wt %. Both the standard pour point test (ASTM D97) and a more severe low temperature flow test (LTFT) were employed. Reductions in pour points of up to 70/sup 0/F and improvements in LTFT temperatures up to 16/sup 0/F were achieved. It is concluded that flow improver additives can play an important role in improving the cold flow properties of future synthetic fuels of the diesel type derived from oil shale.

  17. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency

  18. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts. The paper reports the progress on the following tasks: engineering and modifications: AFDU shakedown, operations, deactivation and disposal; and research and development on new processes for DME, chemistry and catalyst development, and oxygenates via synthesis gas.

  19. Determination of heating value of industrial waste for the formulation of alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouabid G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative fuels has become increasingly widespread. They are basically designed based on industrial waste so that they can substitute fossil fuels which start to become scarce. Alternative fuels must meet some criteria, namely an important calorific content, minimum humidity and ash content. When it comes to combustion, the most interesting parameter is the calorific value which represents the thermal energy released during combustion. The experiments that were conducted showed that the calorific value is influenced by other parameters namely moisture and ash content. It was therefore necessary to study the behavior of the heating value in terms of these two parameters in order to establish a relationship that is used to describe the behavior. This is expected to allow a simulation of the calorific value of a mixture of various industrial waste.

  20. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  1. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awogbemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical consumed less fuel and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

  2. Fueling the Car of Tomorrow: An Alternative Fuels Curriculum for High School Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumack, Mark; Baker, Stokes; Benvenuto, Mark; Graves, James; Haman, Arthur; Maggio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    It is no secret that many high school students are fascinated with automobiles. The activities in "Fueling the Car of Tomorrow"--a free high school science curriculum, available online--(see "On the web")--capitalize on this heightened awareness and provide relevant learning opportunities designed to reinforce basic physics, chemistry, biology,…

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) - Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated. Simula...

  4. Fuel property enhancement of biodiesel fuels from common and alternative feedstocks via complementary blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) prepared from field pennycress and meadowfoam seed oils were blended with methyl esters from camelina, cottonseed, palm, and soybean oils in an effort to ameliorate technical deficiencies inherent to these biodiesel fuels. For instance, camelina, cottonseed, and ...

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Simon; Raper, David; Lee, David S; Williams, Paul I; Rye, Lucas; Blakey, Simon; Wilson, Chris W; Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip D

    2012-06-01

    We report on the particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the exhaust of a test-bed gas turbine engine when powered by Jet A-1 aviation fuel and a number of alternative fuels: Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF), Shell gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene, and Jet A-1/GTL 50:50 blended kerosene. The concentration of PAH compounds in the exhaust emissions vary greatly between fuels. Combustion of FSJF produces the greatest total concentration of PAH compounds while combustion of GTL produces the least. However, when PAHs in the exhaust sample are measured in terms of the regulatory marker compound benzo[a]pyrene, then all of the alternative fuels emit a lower concentration of PAH in comparison to Jet A-1. Emissions from the combustion of Jet A-1/GTL blended kerosene were found to have a disproportionately low concentration of PAHs and appear to inherit a greater proportion of the GTL emission characteristics than would be expected from volume fraction alone. The data imply the presence of a nonlinear relation between fuel blend composition and the emission of PAH compounds. For each of the fuels, the speciation of PAH compounds present in the exhaust emissions were found to be remarkably similar (R(2) = 0.94-0.62), and the results do provide evidence to support the premise that PAH speciation is to some extent indicative of the emission source. In contrast, no correlation was found between the PAH species present in the fuel with those subsequently emitted in the exhaust. The results strongly suggests that local air quality measured in terms of the particulate-bound PAH burden could be significantly improved by the use of GTL kerosene either blended with or in place of Jet A-1 kerosene.

  6. Effects of Alternative Fuels and Aromatics on Gas-Turbine Particle Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.; Klettlinger, J. L.; Ross, R. C.; Surgenor, A.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes experiments conducted with a Honeywell GTCP36-150 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to evaluate the effects of varying fuel composition on particle emissions. The APU uses a single-stage compressor stage, gas turbine engine with a can-type combustor to generate bypass flow and electrical power for supporting small aircraft and helicopters. It is installed in a "hush-house" at NASA Glenn Research Center and is configured as a stand-alone unit that can be fueled from an onboard tank or external supply. It operates at constant RPM, but its fuel flow can be varied by changing the electrical load or volume of bypass flow. For these tests, an external bank of resistors were attached to the APU's DC and AC electrical outlets and emissions measurements were made at low, medium and maximum electrical current loads. Exhaust samples were drawn from several points downstream in the exhaust duct and fed to an extensive suite of gas and aerosol sensors installed within a mobile laboratory parked nearby. Aromatic- and sulfur-free synthetic kerosenes from Rentech, Gevo, UOP, Amyris and Sasol were tested and their potential to reduce PM emissions evaluated against a single Jet A1 base fuel. The role of aromatic compounds in regulating soot emissions was also evaluated by adding metered amounts of aromatic blends (Aro-100, AF-Blend, SAK) and pure compounds (tetracontane and 1-methylnaphthalene) to a base alternative fuel (Sasol). Results show that, relative to Jet A1, alternative fuels reduce nonvolatile particle number emissions by 50-80% and--by virtue of producing much smaller particles—mass emissions by 65-90%; fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest reductions. Nonvolatile particle emissions varied in proportion to fuel aromatic content, with additives containing the most complex ring structures producing the greatest emission enhancements.

  7. Use of alternative fuels in cement manufacture. Effect on clinker and cement characteristics and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares industrial clinker and cement produced using conventional and alternative fuels (animal meal, tyres or a mixture of the two. The results show no relevant differences in terms of mineralogical composition between the clinker manufactured with alternative fuels and the product obtained using conventional fuel. Clinker produced with alternative fuels at any one factory have a very similar or even lower content in heavy metals than the product manufactured with conventional fuel in the same plant (with the sole exception of Zn when the alternative fuel used is shredded tyres. Mineralogical and morphological analyses reveal no significant differences between the two types of products that can be attributed to the type of fuel used in their manufacture. All six types of cement studied are compliant with the existing legislation as regards both physical and chemical properties. Cement compressive strength is found to be to legal standards regardless of the type of fuel used. Finally, the rheological properties of the cement paste are observed to be unaffected by the type of fuel.

    Se han estudiado clínkeres y cementos obtenidos en procesos industriales que han utilizado combustibles convencionales y combustibles alternativos (harinas cárnicas, neumáticos usados y mezclas de ambos. Los resultados obtenidos han demostrado que los clínkeres fabricados con los combustibles alternativos no presentan diferencias significativas en la composición mineralógica respecto a los obtenidos con combustibles convencionales. Los contenidos de metales pesados en los clínkeres procedentes de la misma fábrica (a excepción de los contenidos en Zn en aquéllos que utilizan neumáticos son muy similares o incluso inferiores a los fabricados con combustibles convencionales. Los análisis mineralógico y morfológico de los clínkeres no evidencian diferencias asignables al tipo de combustible utilizado. Todos los cementos estudiados cumplen

  8. Assessment of spent-fuel waste-form/stabilizer alternatives for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is studying the possibility of burying canisterized unreprocessed spent fuel in a deep geologic repository. One aspect of this study is an assessment of the possible spent fuel waste forms. The fuel performance portion of the Waste Form Assessment was to evaluate five candidate spent fuel waste forms for postemplacement performance with emphasis on their ability to retard the release of radionuclides to the repository geology. Spent fuel waste forms under general consideration were: (1) unaltered fuel assembly; (2) fuel assembly with end fittings removed to shorten the length; (3 rods vented to remove gases and resealed; (4) disassembled fuel bundles to close-pack the rods; and (5) rods chopped and fragments immobilized in a matrix material. Thirteen spent fuel waste forms, classified by generic stabilizer type, were analyzed for relative in-repository performance based on: (1) waste form/stabilizer support against lithostatic pressure; (2) long-term stability for radionuclide retention; (3) minimization of cladding degradation; (4) prevention of canister/repository breach due to pressurization; (5) stabilizer heat transfer; (6) the stabilizer as an independent barrier to radionuclide migration; and (7) prevention of criticality. The waste form candidates were ranked as follows: (1) the best waste form/stabilizer combination is the intact assembly, with or without end bells, vented (and resealed) or unvented, with a solid stabilizer; (2) a suitable alternative is the combination of bundled close-packed rods with a solid stabilizer around the outside of the bundle to resist lithostatic pressure; and (3) the other possible waste forms are of lower ranking with the worst waste form/stabilizer combination being the intact assembly with a gas stabilizer or the chopped fuel

  9. Inedible vegetable oils and their derivatives for alternative diesel fuels in CI engines: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Soo-Young [Chungbuk National University, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The use of inedible vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increased environmental problems including the great need for edible oil as food and the reduction of biodiesel production cost, etc. Of a lot of inedible vegetable oils which can be exploited for substitute fuel as diesel fuel, seven vegetable oils, i.e., jatropha, karanja, mahua, linseed, rubber seed, cottonseed and neem oils were selected for discussion in this review paper. The application of jatropha oil as a liquid fuel for CI engine can be classified with neat jatropha oil, engine modifications such as preheating, and dual fuelling, and fuel modifications such as jatropha oil blends with other fuels, mostly with diesel fuel, biodiesel, biodiesel blends and degumming. Therefore, jatropha oil is a leading candidate for the commercialization of non-edible vegetable oils. There exists a big difference in the fuel properties of seven inedible vegetable oils and its biodiesels considered in this review. It is clear from this review that biodiesel generally causes an increase in NOx emission and a decrease in HC, CO and PM emissions compared to diesel. It was reported that a diesel engine without any modification would run successfully on a blend of 20% vegetable oil and 80% diesel fuel without damage to engine parts. This trend can be applied to the biodiesel blends even though particular biodiesel shows 40% blend. In addition, the blends of biodiesel and diesel can replace the diesel fuel up to 10% by volume for running common rail direct injection system without any durability problems. (author)

  10. Kiln process impact of alternative solid fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner - Mathematical modelling and full-scale experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars André; Manjula, Edirisinghe V. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased use of alternative fuels in cement kilns is a trend in the world. However, replacing fossil fuels like coal with different alternative fuels will give various impacts on the overall kiln process due to the fuel characteristics. Hence, it is important to know to what extent the fossil fuels can be replaced by different alternative fuels without severely changing process conditions, product quality or emissions. In the present study, a mass and energy balance for the combustion of dif...

  11. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  12. Socio-environmental Impacts Associated with Burning Alternative Fuels in Clinker Kilns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Mainier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The pollutants found in emissions from cement plants depend on the processes used and the operation of the clinker kilns. Another crucial aspect concerns the characteristics of raw materials and fuels. The intensive use of fuels in rotary kilns of cement plants and the increasing fuel diversification, including fuels derived from coal and oil, from a multitude of industrial waste and from biomass, charcoal and agricultural waste (sugarcane bagasse, rice husk, is increasing the possibilities of combinations or mixtures of different fuels, known as blends. Thus, there are socio-environmental impacts associated with the burning of alternative fuels in clinker kilns. In view of the growing trend of entrepreneurs who want to target the waste produced in their unit and of the owners of the cement plants who want to reduce their production costs by burning a waste with lower cost than conventional fuels, it is necessary to warn that a minimum level of environmental care should be followed regarding these decisions. It is necessary to monitor the points of emission from cement kilns and in the wider area influenced by the plant, in order to improve environmental quality. Laboratory studies of burning vulcanised rubber contaminated with arsenic simulate the burning of used tyres in cement clinker kilns producing SO2 and As2O3.

  13. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  14. Chlorella protothecoides Microalgae as an Alternative Fuel for Tractor Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted a great deal attention recently as an alternative fuel due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. Among a wide range of biodiesel resources, microalgae are a promising alternative fuel source because of the high biomass, lipid productivity and environmentally friendliness. Microalgae is also a non-edible food, therefore, there will be no impact on the human food supply chain. In this work, petroleum diesel (PD and biodiesel from the microalgae Chlorella protothecoides (MCP-B20 blend have been used to examine the performance and the emission of a 25.8 kW agriculture tractor engine. Two engine speeds at maximum power take off (PTO power and torque have been selected for analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results showed that there is no significant difference between the engine performance when microalgae biodiesel blend (MCP-B20 and PD were used. However, a significant reduction in CO, CO2 and NO emissions was found when MCP-B20 was used. These outcomes give strong indication that microalgae can be successfully used in tractors as alternative fuel.

  15. Emission factors for vehicles propelled by fossil or alternative fuels. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the project was to develop emission factors for commercial and alternative fuels such as alcohols and methane. The background to the decision to carry out the project was that there was a need for emission factors for some other KFB projects organized within the 'system study' carried out by KFB. The method used for the project was to use the today's emission levels and the knowledge about the emission control technology as a base for the estimation of future emission levels and the coming development of vehicles and the emission control technology. The results of the analysis and the estimation show that there exists a positive development concerning emission control technology and emission levels. However, the future positive development for alternative fuels strongly depends on the possibility of these fuels to capture a market which will have certain impact on the willingness and the economic possibilities of the car manufacturers to also invest in the development of alternative fuels. 70 refs

  16. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  17. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations.

  18. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations. PMID:26867100

  19. Management of spent oxide fuel from thermal reactors: the environmental and radiological effects of alternative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of a study of the environmental and radiological effects of alternative approaches to the management of spent oxide fuel from the UK nuclear power programme. The two main alternatives are extended storage of the fuel, pending decisions on fissile material recycle, and reprocessing of the fuel commencing in the early 1990s. A review is made of experience in spent fuel storage, of the technical issues in long-term storage and of the possible needs of the UK nuclear programme. The main environmental and radiological effects of reprocessing considered in the study are the generation of radioactive wastes, the release of radioactivity in effluents with the resulting radiation exposure of the public, and occupational radiation exposure. The influence of the delay between reprocessing and fabrication of mixed oxide fuel on the environmental and radiological effects of plutonium recycle is investigated and it is shown that the effects would be minimised if reprocessing were delayed until there was a requirement for recycle. Strategies for the management of heavy elements other than plutonium are discussed and results are presented illustrating aspects of actinide management. (author)

  20. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transitions: Optimization, Modeling Choices, and Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Robert W.

    Many nuclear fuel cycle simulators have evolved over time to help understan the nuclear industry/ecosystem at a macroscopic level. Cyclus is one of th first fuel cycle simulators to accommodate larger-scale analysis with it liberal open-source licensing and first-class Linux support. Cyclus also ha features that uniquely enable investigating the effects of modeling choices o fuel cycle simulators and scenarios. This work is divided into thre experiments focusing on optimization, effects of modeling choices, and fue cycle uncertainty. Effective optimization techniques are developed for automatically determinin desirable facility deployment schedules with Cyclus. A novel method fo mapping optimization variables to deployment schedules is developed. Thi allows relationships between reactor types and scenario constraints to b represented implicitly in the variable definitions enabling the usage o optimizers lacking constraint support. It also prevents wasting computationa resources evaluating infeasible deployment schedules. Deployed power capacit over time and deployment of non-reactor facilities are also included a optimization variables There are many fuel cycle simulators built with different combinations o modeling choices. Comparing results between them is often difficult. Cyclus flexibility allows comparing effects of many such modeling choices. Reacto refueling cycle synchronization and inter-facility competition among othe effects are compared in four cases each using combinations of fleet of individually modeled reactors with 1-month or 3-month time steps. There are noticeable differences in results for the different cases. The larges differences occur during periods of constrained reactor fuel availability This and similar work can help improve the quality of fuel cycle analysi generally There is significant uncertainty associated deploying new nuclear technologie such as time-frames for technology availability and the cost of buildin advanced reactors

  1. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance. Parts A and B; (A) Combustor Performance; (B) Combustor Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouse, D. T.; Hendricks, R. C.; Lynch, A.; Frayne, C. W.; Stutrud, J. S.; Corporan, E.; Hankins, T.

    2012-01-01

    Alternate aviation fuels for military or commercial use are required to satisfy MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 (2010) standards, respectively, and are classified as "drop-in" fuel replacements. To satisfy legacy issues, blends to 50% alternate fuel with petroleum fuels are certified individually on the basis of processing and assumed to be feedstock agnostic. Adherence to alternate fuels and fuel blends requires "smart fueling systems" or advanced fuel-flexible systems, including combustors and engines, without significant sacrifice in performance or emissions requirements. This paper provides preliminary performance (Part A) and emissions and particulates (Part B) combustor sector data. The data are for nominal inlet conditions at 225 psia and 800 F (1.551 MPa and 700 K), for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fisher-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100 relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Assessments are made of the change in combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, emissions, and luminosity with SPK of 0%, 50%, and 100% fueling composition at 3% combustor pressure drop. The performance results (Part A) indicate no quantifiable differences in combustor efficiency, a general trend to lower liner and higher core flow temperatures with increased FT fuel blends. In general, emissions data (Part B) show little differences, but with percent increase in FT-SPK-type fueling, particulate emissions and wall temperatures are less than with baseline JP-8. High-speed photography illustrates both luminosity and combustor dynamic flame characteristics.

  2. Study of Volumetric Efficiency for Spark Ignition Engines Using Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Irimescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important parameter for spark ignition engines is volumetric efficiency, as it directly influences specific power output. Several definitions of this parameter are studied from a theoretical point of view, taking into consideration the use of alternative fuels. The influence of using gasoline-bioethanol blends is investigated, as well as the effect of fuelling spark ignition engines with methane, liquefied petroleum gas and hydrogen. Bioethanol features the highest volumetric efficiency, while gaseous fuels cause a drop in specific power output compared to gasoline operation.

  3. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase IV report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.H.; Dellinger, B. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States). Research Institute; Sidhu, S.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    As part of the US-DOE`s on-going interest in the use of alternative automotive fuels, the University of Dayton Research Institute has been conducting research on pollutant emissions resulting from the combustion of candidate fuels. This research, under the direction and sponsorship of the NREL, has been concerned primarily with the combustion of compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and ethanol. In the first 24 months of this program, studies of the oxygen rich, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich thermal degradation of these fuels in the temperature range of 300 to 1100{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and for reaction times of 1.0 and 2.0 s were completed. Trace organic products were identified and quantified for each fuel as a function of temperature. The results of these studies agreed well with the results of tail-pipe emission studies in that the types and quantity of emissions measured in both the laboratory and engine tests were shown to be very similar under certain operating conditions. However, some chemicals were observed in the laboratory studies that were not observed in the engine studies and vice versa. This result is important in that it has implications concerning the origin of these emissions. Experiments concerning the NO perturbed oxidation of methanol, M85, ethanol, and E85 indicated the presence of complex oxidation chemistry. At mild temperatures, NO addition resulted in enhanced fuel conversion. At elevated temperatures, an inhibitory effect was observed through increased yields of both partial oxidation and pyrolysis-type reaction products. Comparison of flow reactor product distributions with engine test results generally indicated improved comparisons when NO was added to the fuel. Analysis of secondary components of alcohol fuels resulted in some unexpected observations. Several previously unidentified species were observed in these experiments which may impact atmospheric reactivity assessments of these fuels.

  4. Importance of hydrogen fuels as sustainable alternative energy for domestic and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy demand is increasing continuously due to rapid growth in population and industrialization development. As a result greenhouse gases especially CO2 produced by the combustion of fossil fuels cause depletion of fossil fuels and deterioration of environmental conditions worldwide. The goal of global energy sustainability implies the replacement of all fossil fuels by renewable energy sources . Hydrogen fuel is one of the sustainable energy sources can be available by conversion of biomass into biological hydrogen gas and ethanol. Rate of biomass generation in domestic wastes in Iranian culture is high. Therefore there is suitable potential for hydrogen generation in rural and urban areas of Iran. On the other hand energy extraction from these fossil fuels causes pollution and diseases. Globally, hydrogen is already produced in significant quantities (around 5 billion cubic metres per annum). It is mainly used to produce ammonia for fertiliser (about 50%), for oil refining (37%), methanol production (8%) and in the chemical and metallurgical industries (4%). On the other hand, increase in emissions rates of greenhouse gases, i.e., CO2 present a threat to the world climate. Also new legislation of Iran has been approved the higher costs of conventional fuels for consuming in vehicles for reduction of greenhouse gases reduction as environmental policies. Demand is rising in all cities of Iran for cleaner fuels such as mixed fuels and natural gas, but unfortunately they are exporting to foreign countries or the required technologies are not available and economically option. Nuclear industries in Iran are also small and expanding only slowly. So importance of alternative energies as hydrogen powers are increasing daily. Presently both major consumers of domestic and industrial such as plants and manufacturers are using fossil fuels for their process that consequently contribute to the global warming and climate change. This paper reviews these options, with

  5. Interpretation and nonuniqueness of CTRW transition distributions: Insights from an alternative solute transport formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K.; Berkowitz, Brian

    2014-12-01

    The continuous time random walk (CTRW) has both an elegant mathematical theory and a successful record at modeling solute transport in the subsurface. However, there are some interpretation ambiguities relating to the relationship between the discrete CTRW transition distributions and the underlying continuous movement of solute that have not been addressed in existing literature. These include the exact definition of "transition", and the extent to which transition probability distributions are unique/quantifiable from data. Here, we present some theoretical results which address these uncertainties in systems with an advective bias. Simultaneously, we present an alternative, reduced parameter CTRW formulation for general advective transport in heterogeneous porous media, which models early- and late-time transport by use of random transition times between sparse, imaginary planes normal to flow. We show that even in the context of this reduced-parameter formulation there is nonuniqueness in the definitions of both transition lengths and waiting time distributions, and that neither may be uniquely determined from experimental data. For practical use of this formulation, we suggest Pareto transition time distributions, leading to a two-degree-of-freedom modeling approach. We then demonstrate the power of this approach in fitting two sets of existing experimental data. While the primary focus is the presentation of new results, the discussion is designed to be pedagogical and to provide a good entry point into practical modeling of solute transport with the CTRW.

  6. Evaluation of hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin as alternative fuel in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin was evaluated as alternative fuel in a diesel engine. Potential hazelnut production throughout the world and the status of Turkey were examined. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was transesterified with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester (HOME) and a comprehensive experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running with HOME and its blends with diesel fuel. Experimental parameters included the percentage of HOME in the blend, engine load, injection timing, compression ratio, and injector. The cost analysis of HOME production comparing to the price of conventional diesel fuel was performed for last decade was performed. Results showed that HOME and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel and small modifications such as increasing injection timing, compression ratio and injector opening pressure provide significant improvement in performance and emissions. It is also expected that the price of HOME will be lower than the price of conventional diesel fuel in the near future. (author)

  7. Evaluation of hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin as alternative fuel in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumus, M. [Automotive Division, Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, Ziverbey, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    In the present study, hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin was evaluated as alternative fuel in a diesel engine. Potential hazelnut production throughout the world and the status of Turkey were examined. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was transesterified with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester (HOME) and a comprehensive experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running with HOME and its blends with diesel fuel. Experimental parameters included the percentage of HOME in the blend, engine load, injection timing, compression ratio, and injector. The cost analysis of HOME production comparing to the price of conventional diesel fuel was performed for last decade was performed. Results showed that HOME and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel and small modifications such as increasing injection timing, compression ratio and injector opening pressure provide significant improvement in performance and emissions. It is also expected that the price of HOME will be lower than the price of conventional diesel fuel in the near future. (author)

  8. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  9. An alternative format for Category I fuel cycle facility physical protection plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides an alternative format for physical protection plans designed to meet the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Sections 73.20, 73.45, and 73.46. These requirements apply to licensees who operate Category I fuel cycle facilities. Such licensees are authorized to use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material. The format described is an alternative to that found under Regulatory Guide 5.52, Rev. 2 ''Standard Format and Content of a Licensee Physical Protection Plan for Strategic Special Nuclear Material at Fixed Sites (Other than Nuclear Power Plants).''

  10. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... rulemaking (Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558). \\2\\ See Air Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558-0002. \\3\\ 73 FR 74350, December 8, 2008. \\4\\ 73 FR 74403, December 8, 2008. \\5\\ See Air Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558-0005. \\6\\ 74 FR 6233, February 6, 2009. EPA is proposing to allow ASTM D6550-05 (SFC) as an alternative...

  11. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Coming on stream: Financing biomass and alternative-fuel projects in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass-energy and alternative-fuels projects make environmental sense, but do they make economic sense? In the current project-finance environment, moving ideas off the drawing board and transforming them into reality takes more than vision and commitment; it takes the ability to understand and address the financial markets' perception of risk. This paper examines the state of the project-finance market, both as it pertains to biomass and alternative-fuels projects and in more general terms, focusing on what project sponsors and developers need to dot to obtain both early-state and construction/term financing, and the role a financial adviser can play in helping ensure access to funds at all stages

  13. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-11-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuels at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consists of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal at up to 30% on a Btu basis, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing prior art with respect to high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. Activities and results thus far include the following. Several potential alternative fuels have been obtained for evaluation and testing as potential feedstocks, including sewage sludge, used railroad ties, urban wood waste, municipal solid waste, and used waste tires/tire-derived fuel. Only fuels with potential tipping fees were considered; potential energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge has been selected as one of the primary feedstocks for consideration at the Wabash plant

  14. Spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF) facility evaluation plan of the alternative storage concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts were evaluated for the storage of unreprocessed spent fuel in a retrievable surface storage facility. This document provides a systematic format for making a concept selection from the seven alternative concepts presented in RHO-LD-2. Results of the evaluation was that the Drywell concept was rated highest with the Water Basin Concept and the Sealed Storage Cask concept with multiple canisters of SURF coming in a close second and third

  15. Efficiency and exhaust gas analysis of variable compression ratio spark ignition engine fuelled with alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Seshaiah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering energy crises and pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. In the present work, the variable compression ratio spark ignition engine designed to run on gasoline has been tested with pure gasoline, LPG (Isobutene, and gasoline blended with ethanol 10%, 15%, 25% and 35% by volume. Also, the gasoline mixed with kerosene at 15%, 25% and 35% by volume without any engine modifications has been tested and presented the result. Brake thermal and volumetric efficiency variation with brake load is compared and presented. CO and CO2 emissions have been also compared for all tested fuels.

  16. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and

  17. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success. PMID:26667058

  18. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  19. The use of charcoal as an alternate internal fuel addition in the pelletising process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vining, K.R.; Firth, A.R.; Douglas, J.D.; Garden, J.F. [Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization, Clayton South, Victoria (Australia)

    2007-07-01

    Solid fuels are often combined with ground iron ore fines during the pelletizing process in order to reduce maximum firing temperatures and amounts of burner fuel required, as well as to pellet strength. Coke and coal both contribute to raised levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the pelletization process. Various minerals have been investigated as an alternative to coke and coal. The use of wood biomass and wood char is a suitable alternative to coke and coal, as it is a renewable energy source, has a low ash content, and can reduce GHG emissions from the iron and steel-making process. The results of an experimental testwork program conducted to compare the behaviour of fired pellets containing traditional solid fuels and charcoal were presented. Physical properties of the pellets were compared in terms of their tumble and abrasion indices, reduction properties, and compressive strength. Pellet microstructures were also compared. The aim of the project was to demonstrate that biomass is an adequate replacement for both coke and coal. Chemical analyses were conducted, and surface area and specific reactivity was measured. A pot grate test was conducted. Results of the study showed that the use of charcoal or anthracite resulted in green balls with a higher moisture content than Black Pine charcoal. Various firing regimes were used during the experiments. Results showed that charcoal performed better than coke breeze due to its faster reactivity. Further testing is needed to determine optimal combinations of basicity, firing temperature, and internal fuel additions. 4 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

    2010-11-01

    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  1. Report on the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel alternatives cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial estimates of costs for the interim management and disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. The Task Team evaluated multiple alternatives, assessing programmatic, technical, and schedule risks, and generated life-cycle cost projections for each alternative. The eight technology alternatives evaluated were: direct co-disposal; melt and dilute; reprocessing; press and dilute; glass material oxidation dissolution system (GMODS); electrometallurgical treatment; dissolve and vitrify; and plasma arc. In followup to the Business Plan that was developed to look at SNF dry storage, WSRC prepared an addendum to the cost study. This addendum estimated the costs for the modification and use of an existing (105L) reactor facility versus a greenfield approach for new facilities (for the Direct Co-Disposal and Melt and Dilute alternatives). WSRC assessed the impacts of a delay in reprocessing due to the potential reservation of H-Canyon for other missions (i.e., down blending HEU for commercial use or the conversion of plutonium to either MOX fuel or an immobilized repository disposal form). This report presents the relevant results from these WSRC cost studies, consistent with the most recent project policy, technology implementation, canyon utilization, and inventory assumptions. As this is a summary report, detailed information on the technical alternatives or the cost assumptions raised in each of the above-mentioned cost studies is not provided. A comparison table that briefly describes the bases used for the WSRC analyses is included as Appendix A

  2. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  3. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chander, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2012-11-01

    This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results over the last year. There are 25 active FCEBs in demonstrations this year at eight locations.

  4. Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration (Report and Appendix)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-11-01

    This document describes the fuel cell transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA). This document provides a description of the demonstration sites, funding sources, and data collection activities for fuel cell transit bus evaluations currently planned from FY10 through FY12.

  5. Optimization analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle transition to the last core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollo, L.; Blanco, J. [Union Fenosa Generacion, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The Zorita NPP was the first Spanish commercial nuclear reactor connected to the grid. It is a 160 MW one loop PWR, Westinghouse design, owned by UFG, in operation since 1968. The configuration of the reactor core is based on 69 fuel elements type 14 x 14, the standard reload of the present equilibrium cycle being based on 16 fuel elements with 3.6% enrichment in {sup 235}U. In order to properly plan the nuclear fuel management of the transition cycles to its end of life, presently foreseen by 2008, an based on the non-reprocessing option required by the policy of the Spanish Administration, a technical-economical optimization analysis has been performed. As a result, a fuel management strategy has been defined looking for getting simultaneously the minimum integral fuel cost of the transition from the present equilibrium cycle to the last core, as well as the minimum residual worth of the fuel remaining in the core after the final outage. Based on the ''lessons learned'' derived from the study, the time margin for the decision making has been determined, and a planning of the nuclear fuel supply for the transition reloads, specifying both the number of fuel elements and their enrichment in {sup 235}U, as been prepared. Finally, based on the calculated economical worth of the partially burned fuel of the last core, after the end of its operation cycle, a financial cover for yearly compensation from now on of the foreseen final lost has been elaborated. Most of the conceptual conclusions obtained are applicable to the other commercial nuclear reactors in operation owned by UFG, so that they are understood to be of general interest and broad application to commercial PWR. (author)

  6. Optimization analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle transition to the last core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Zorita NPP was the first Spanish commercial nuclear reactor connected to the grid. It is a 160 MW one loop PWR, Westinghouse design, owned by UFG, in operation since 1968. The configuration of the reactor core is based on 69 fuel elements type 14 x 14, the standard reload of the present equilibrium cycle being based on 16 fuel elements with 3.6% enrichment in 235U. In order to properly plan the nuclear fuel management of the transition cycles to its end of life, presently foreseen by 2008, an based on the non-reprocessing option required by the policy of the Spanish Administration, a technical-economical optimization analysis has been performed. As a result, a fuel management strategy has been defined looking for getting simultaneously the minimum integral fuel cost of the transition from the present equilibrium cycle to the last core, as well as the minimum residual worth of the fuel remaining in the core after the final outage. Based on the ''lessons learned'' derived from the study, the time margin for the decision making has been determined, and a planning of the nuclear fuel supply for the transition reloads, specifying both the number of fuel elements and their enrichment in 235U, as been prepared. Finally, based on the calculated economical worth of the partially burned fuel of the last core, after the end of its operation cycle, a financial cover for yearly compensation from now on of the foreseen final lost has been elaborated. Most of the conceptual conclusions obtained are applicable to the other commercial nuclear reactors in operation owned by UFG, so that they are understood to be of general interest and broad application to commercial PWR. (author)

  7. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  8. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M. P. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); King, J. C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Gorman, B. P. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Marshall, Doug W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  9. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. For compression ignition engines converted to run on natural gas, there are two main options discussed, there are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can operate at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the CNG engines research and development fueled using CNG are highlighted to keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. The high activities for future CNG engines research and development to meet future CNG engines is recorded in the paper.

  10. A new alternating copolymerized derivative as a cold flow improver for diesel fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haikuan; LIU Hongyan; WANG Shujun

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of a cold flow improver (MAVA-a) for diesel fuel and its effect on solidifying point (SP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) of diesel fuels were investigated. The cold flow improver was prepared by using maleic anhydride (MA) and vinyl acetate (VA) as raw materials, toluene as solvent, dibenzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator, through alternating polymerization under nitrogen to obtain a binary-polymer and then through aminolysis by using a higher carbon amine as aminating agent at a temperature of 80 ℃. A cold flow improver was designed and prepared for No. 0 diesel fuel from Zhang Jia-Gang Petrochemical Company according to the contents of n-paraffin and its carbon number distribution in the No. 0 diesel fuel. It was also used together with two kinds of ethene-vinyl acetate copolymer improvers (EVA) separately. The test result showed that the CFPP of the No.0 diesel fuel could be lowered by 3-5 ℃ when the improver MAVA-a was used.The CFPP was lowered by 8 ℃ when the improver MAVA-a was used together with EVA-2.

  11. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues.

  12. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

  13. Industry requirements for introduction of alternative energies with emphasis on hydrogen fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabbio, F. [Rio Tinto, Canadian Exploration Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Starbuck, D. [Newmont Mining Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Akerman, A. [CVRD-Inco, Toronto, ON (Canada); Betournay, M.C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed issues related to the use of alternate sources of energy in underground mining applications. Hydrogen power systems were examined in relation to operational drivers, available commercial supplies, site supplies, health and safety issues, capital and operating costs, mine production, and the role of government. Hydrogen power systems are being considered for mining applications in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce cooling and ventilation requirements. This article examined a range of issues that must be addressed before alternate energy systems such as hydrogen fuel cell technology can be used in larger-scale underground mining applications. The mining industry supports the development of new technologies. However, the introduction of alternate energy technologies must proceed in steps which include proof of concept testing, the development of generic infrastructure, power systems and regulations, and whole operating system studies. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Well-To-Wheel based fiscal systems. Can a WTW fiscal basis accelerate the introduction of alternative fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explores to which extent alternative, (partially) Well-To-Wheel based fiscal systems may accelerate the introduction of low-carbon fuels and vehicles. The design of two alternative fiscal systems is described, as well as the challenges that any fiscal system must meet. The alternative systems are compared to the existing fiscal system with regard to (1) the extent to which they honour the 'polluter pays' principle, (2) the extent to which they are expected to accelerate the introduction of (alternative) gaseous fuels, liquid biofuels, and zero-emission vehicles, (3) their expected impact on the vehicle stock, and (4) a number of (undesired) side-effects. The results show that the alternative systems provide a stronger fiscal support for some alternative fuels and vehicles, but not for all.

  15. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  16. Proliferation resistant fuel cycle system for the transition from light water reactors to fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction of commercial fast reactors (FR) is predicted to start around 2050 in Japan. Effective utilization of plutonium in FR is important for the sustainable electricity generation by nuclear. Successive replacement of light water reactors (LWR) to FR will take more than 60-years and reasonable fuel cycle management is necessary during this period. The transition scenario has various unpredictable factors such as introduction speed and time of FR, and flexible fuel cycle system was proposed to respond to these factors. The system consists of LWR and FR spent fuels reprocessing for reduction of LWR spent fuel volume and FR fuel fabrication. LWR fuel reprocessing only carries out about 90% uranium removal from LWR spent fuel, then the composition of residual spent fuel called recycle material is about 50% uranium, 15% plutonium and 35% fission products + minor actinides. Recycle material is transferred to FR fuel reprocessing to recover plutonium and uranium followed by mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication for FR with radioactive impurities. Depending on the introduction time of FR, recycle material (about 1/10 volume of original spent fuel) may be stored for future use. The system has some characteristics compared with ordinary system that consists of full reprocessing facilities for LWR and FR spent fuels to produce FR fresh fuels. The LWR reprocessing facility becomes much smaller due to no Pu-U recovery and fabrication. The recycle materials can supply higher content of plutonium to FR and be compactly stored in case of FR introduction delay. Plutonium always contains uranium and impurities (fission products and minor actinides), thus the system maintains high proliferation resistance. The plutonium balance was calculated under several conditions, which revealed that the system could supply enough and no excess plutonium to FR

  17. Multi-level multi-criteria analysis of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoun, Mousa; Madani, Kaveh; Reinhart, Debra

    2016-04-15

    Historically, the U.S. waste collection fleet was dominated by diesel-fueled waste collection vehicles (WCVs); the growing need for sustainable waste collection has urged decision makers to incorporate economically efficient alternative fuels, while mitigating environmental impacts. The pros and cons of alternative fuels complicate the decisions making process, calling for a comprehensive study that assesses the multiple factors involved. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods allow decision makers to select the best alternatives with respect to selection criteria. In this study, two MCDA methods, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), were used to rank fuel alternatives for the U.S. waste collection industry with respect to a multi-level environmental and financial decision matrix. The environmental criteria consisted of life-cycle emissions, tail-pipe emissions, water footprint (WFP), and power density, while the financial criteria comprised of vehicle cost, fuel price, fuel price stability, and fueling station availability. The overall analysis showed that conventional diesel is still the best option, followed by hydraulic-hybrid WCVs, landfill gas (LFG) sourced natural gas, fossil natural gas, and biodiesel. The elimination of the WFP and power density criteria from the environmental criteria ranked biodiesel 100 (BD100) as an environmentally better alternative compared to other fossil fuels (diesel and natural gas). This result showed that considering the WFP and power density as environmental criteria can make a difference in the decision process. The elimination of the fueling station and fuel price stability criteria from the decision matrix ranked fossil natural gas second after LFG-sourced natural gas. This scenario was found to represent the status quo of the waste collection industry. A sensitivity analysis for the status quo scenario showed the overall ranking of diesel and

  18. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  19. Green Engines Development Using Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is a gaseous form of natural gas, it have been recognized as one of the promising alternative fuel due to its substantial benefits compared to gasoline and diesel. Natural gas is produced from gas wells or tied in with crude oil production. Approach: Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Results: The technology of engine conversion was well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For petrol engines or spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. The diesel engines converted or designed to run on natural gas, there were two main options discussed. There are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can be operated at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. Conclusions: In this study, the low exhaust gas emissions of CNG engines research and development were highlighted. Stoichiometric natural gas engines were briefly reviewed. To keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. High activity for future green CNG engines research and development to meet future stringent emissions standards was recorded in the study.

  20. Is the strategy of alternative fuels production and their use in Slovak Republic necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective and flexible system of transport is an essential tool for contemporary economics and quality of life. Enormous growth of transport however brings major problems, which negatively affect environment as well as health of the population, especially in large cities. The sector of transport is the largest consumer of energies as well as the largest producer of gases causing greenhouse effect. In the course of 1990's, a significant improvement in automotive fuels quality in automobile technologies has been achieved. These technologies considerably cut the volume of emissions. Other important factor to find alternative solution for is the dependence of European countries including Slovakia on crude oil imports. Natural resources of oil are located in politically unstable regions. One of the possible solutions is to make a greater use of alternative fuels, especially renewable ones, which may support agriculture. It is very important that majority of cars driven nowadays are able to run on fuels with low volume of bio-components. New development in technologies will also allow the use of higher share of bio-components. Adapted vehicles that run on clean bio-fuels are already used nowadays in public transportation. This approach is significantly positive in respect to environment. Support of biofuels usage should become the next step towards a wider biomass use. Such a policy could create new opportunities for a sustainable regional development and for opening a new market of innovation agricultural products. In the past, the development, production and use of canola oil esters started to accelerate. However, their use was not based on long-term complex considerations. The program has collapsed already with the first amendment to the Act on Consumption Tax of Mineral Oils, which has been harmonized with the European Union (EU) legislation. Introduction of the use of bio-components must be based on expertise and long term strategic support and development with

  1. Implementing of alternative fuels in Sweden. A report to the Governmental Commission on Transport and Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstroem, U.; Heinegaard, C. [Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board, Stockholm (Sweden); Widlert, S. [SIKA (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    The Governmental Commission on Transport and Communications has directed KFB, NUTEK, and SIKA to prepare material for a decision on the introduction on a large scale of alternative fuels. We have carried out this task jointly and the attached report outlines three different strategies for the introduction. Strategies 1 and 2 have been designed to achieve the target of 15% bio-based usage within the road transport sector by 2010. The third strategy extends the introduction period to 2020 and reduces the target to 10%. Strategy 3 also involves the introduction strategy being preceded by a five-year R and D programme. This should be complemented with continued tax exemption for ethanol and a broad evaluation programme to allow experiences gained from different areas of usage to be applied. Based on the background of the R and D situation for the various alternative fuels and the high cost of beginning the introduction on a large scale of bio-based fuels today, we would recommend Strategy 3.

  2. A transition perspective on alternatives to coal in Chinese district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available China accounts for half of the world’s annual coal consumption. Coal is the primary energy source for heating in urban areas, particularly in northern China. This causes significant challenges for urban air quality problems in China and greenhouse gases emissions. Urban district heating (DH systems penetration is very high in northern China. It supplies space heating to more than 80% of urban buildings in the area. Unlike the electricity and transportation sectors, the heating sector has received little attention from policy makers and researchers in China, DH systems are an enabling infrastructure which facilitates energy efficiency improvements and the use of renewable energy sources. This study explores the dynamics and possibility to expand alternative energy sources (natural gas, biomass, direct geothermal heat, ground-source heat pump, municipal waste heat, industrial waste heat for DH in China. We apply an analytical framework largely based on the multi-level perspective in socio-technical transitions theory, in which transitions are interpreted as the result of the functioning of niche, regime and landscape elements, and interactions between them. The study provides an integrated picture of the socio-technical structure and functioning of DH in China. The results show that an energy transition in Chinese DH systems has barely started. The system is characterised by stability of the coal-based DH regime, while a number of alternative niches are struggling to emerge. Among these, natural gas is the most successful example. However, at local level different niches present opportunities in terms of physical availability, economic viability and technical capacity to address changes in landscape pressures. A sustainable heat roadmap based on integrated energy planning and policy attention at the national level could be developed as one mechanism for instigating a much needed energy transition in DH in China.

  3. Comparative analysis of US and Canadian transit ridership response to rising fuel prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, A.R.; Machemeehl, R.B. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Since worldwide gasoline prices have risen significantly over the last three years, several transit agencies have indicated that fuel price growth is the major impetus to increased transit ridership. This paper presented the results of a research project that builds upon previous research conducted in 2006 which found high correlation between fuel price and transit ridership in several historically auto-based United States cities. This comparative research attempted to determine whether a similar pattern of fuel cost-driven mode choice could be observed in three Canadian cities. The selected cities, Calgary, Ottawa, and Vancouver, were chosen based on their relative levels of auto-orientation and the extent and variety of transit services offered. It was concluded that although ridership and fuel prices grew in all three cities, the rates of growth do not correspond and correlation is unlikely. Reasons for this inconsistency with patterns in American cities may involve higher-density city layouts and commute distances. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardi Murachman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasohol is a mixture of premium petrol (gasoline with alcohol, in this case ethanol. The use of gasohol can reduce fuel consumption without having to modify the existing engine. Therefore, this research is conducted to study the characteristics and performance of gasohol in various mixing ratios, which includes analysis of physical properties and the use of gasohol in the machine. Results show that the addition of technical ethanol at 7.0169%v increases the value of gasohol vapor pressure on the value of 8.6682 psi (7.7 psi for regular gasoline. Gasohol with technical ethanol content above 30%v decreases vapor pressure, promotes phase separation, and causes a sharp drop in temperature from 40%v distillation. In term of corrosivity, gasohol with up to 50%v ethanol content has the same corrosion level with regular gasoline, which is corrosion level 1A. Based on gasohol characteristics test, it is known that gasohol with technical ethanol content below 20%v can be used as a fuel substitute for gasoline. Real-time performance test of gasohol in engines has shown that the addition of ethanol content in gasohol tend to increase the engine power at a certain compression ratio, but it also increases fuel consumption because the heat value of ethanol is lower than gasoline. Machine in gasohol with ethanol content below 20%v can operate smoothly without having to modify the engine. Based on the studies that have been done, gasohol in the range of 10%v ethanol content is well-functioned as a substitute for gasoline fuel and meets fuel specifications required by the General Director of Oil and Gas. The feasibility of using gasohol as an alternative fuel can be studied further.

  5. Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

  6. Preliminary assessment of alternative dry storage methods for the storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the (1) state of technology, (2) licensability, (3) implementation schedule, and (4) costs of alternative dry methods for storage of spent fuel at a reactor location when used to supplement reactor pool storage facilities. The methods of storage that were considered included storage in casks, drywells, concrete silos and air-cooled vaults. The impact of disassembly of spent fuel and storage of consolidated fuel rods was also determined. The economic assessments were made based on the current projected storage requirements of Virginia Electric and Power Company's Surry Station for the period 1985 to 2009, which has two operating pressurized water reactors (824 MWe each). It was estimated that the unit cost for storage of spent fuel in casks would amount to $117/kgU and that such costs for storage in drywells would amount to $137/kgU. However, based on the overall assessment it was concluded both storage methods were equal in merit. Modular methods of storage were generally found to be more economic than those requiring all or most of the facilities to be constructed prior to commencement of storage operations

  7. Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK APU were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements...

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Waste Generation Based on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transition Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. R. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    According to the recommendations submitted by the Public Engagement Commission on Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (PECOS), the government was advised to pick the site for an underground laboratory and interim storage facilities before the end of 2020 followed by the related research for permanent and underground disposal of spent fuel after 10 years. In the middle of the main issues, the factors of environmentally friendly and safe way to handle nuclear waste are inextricable from nuclear power generating nation to ensure the sustainability of nuclear power. For this purposes, the closed nuclear fuel cycle has been developed regarding deep geological disposal, pyroprocessing, and burner type sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) in Korea. Among two methods of an equilibrium model and a dynamic model generally used for screening nuclear fuel cycle system, the dynamic model is more appropriate to envisage country-specific environment with the transition phase in the long term and significant to estimate meaningful impacts based on the timedependent behavior of harmful wastes. This study aims at analyzing the spent nuclear fuel generation based on the long-term nuclear fuel cycle transition scenarios considered at up-to-date country specific conditions and comparing long term advantages of the developed nuclear fuel cycle option between once-through cycle and Pyro-SFR cycle. In this study, a dynamic analysis was carried out to estimate the long-term projection of nuclear electricity generation, installed capacity, spent nuclear fuel arising in different fuel cycle scenarios based on the up-to-date national energy plans.

  9. Aircraft emissions, plume chemistry, and alternative fuels: results from the APEX, AAFEX, and MDW-2009 campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Yu, Z.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Lee, B. H.; Santoni, G.; Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S.; Anderson, B.; Knighton, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    We describe observations of aircraft emissions from the APEX, JETS-APEX2, APEX3, MDW-2009 and AAFEX campaigns. Direct emissions of HOx precursors are important for understanding exhaust plume chemistry due to their role in determining HOx concentrations. Nitrous acid (HONO) and formaldehyde are crucial HOx precursors and thus drivers of plume chemistry. At idle power, aircraft engine exhaust is unique among fossil fuel combustion sources due to the speciation of both NOx and VOCs. The impacts of emissions of HOx precursors on plume chemistry at low power are demonstrated with empirical observations of rapid NO to NO2 conversion, indicative of rapid HOx chemistry. The impacts of alternative fuels (derived from biomass, coal, and natural gas) on emissions of NOx, CO, and speciated VOCs are discussed.

  10. AN ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGY OF DETERMINING FEED SORTING IN TRANSITION DAIRY COWS FED GLYCEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodrigues de Carvalho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the standard methodologywith an alternative method to determine feed sorting in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty-six Holstein multiparous cows were paired by expected calving date and fed diets containing either glycerol or high moisture corn from -28 through +56 days relative to calving (DRTC. Feed sorting was determined on -16, -9, +9, +15 and +51 DRTC in two different ways. Firstly, it was determinedas the actual intake of each screen of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding, and expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that correspondent screen. Secondly, by measuring the particle size distribution of feed consumed between 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 hours post feeding. The total mixed ration (TMR at feeding and at each time post feeding was separated by size using the 3-screen (19, 8, and 1.18 mm Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS to yield long (>19 mm, medium (8 mm, short (1.18 mm, and fine particles (19 mm and reduced (P1.18 mm and fine particles (0.05 the proportion of DM% retained as medium particles (8 mm. Cows fed prepartum glycerol increased (P19 mm according to the standard methodology (77.2 vs. 101.5%, control vs. glycerol and also in the alternative methodology (9.2 vs. 17.8%, control vs. glycerol. Cows fed prepartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm in the standard methodology (102.6 vs. 94.2%, control vs. glycerol as well as in the alternative methodology (42 vs. 37.3%, control vs. glycerol. There was no response (P>0.05 of diet on feed sorting of fine particles (8 mm according to the standard methodology (108.6 vs. 116.5%, control vs. glycerol, but did not (P>0.05 according to the alternative methodology. Cows fed postpartum glycerol discriminated against (P1.18 mm according to the standard methodology (100.6 vs. 96.6%, control vs. glycerol, but did not (P>0.05 according to the alternative

  11. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Altemative Fuels Assessment, the Department of Energy (DOE) is studying the use of derivatives of natural gas, including compressed natural gas and methanol, as altemative transportation fuels. A critical part of this effort is determining potential sources of natural gas and the economics of those sources. Previous studies in this series characterized the economics of unutilized gas within the lower 48 United States, comparing its value for methanol production against its value as a pipelined fuel (US Department of Energy 1991), and analyzed the costs of developing undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves in several countries (US Department of Energy 1992c). This report extends those analyses to include Alaskan North Slope natural gas that either is not being produced or is being reinjected. The report includes the following: A description of discovered and potential (undiscovered) quantities of natural gas on the Alaskan North Slope. A discussion of proposed altemative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. A comparison of the economics of the proposed alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the costs of transporting Alaskan North Slope gas to markets in the lower 48 States as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or methanol. It is not intended to recommend one alternative over another or to evaluate the relative economics or timing of using North Slope gas in new tertiary oil recovery projects. The information is supplied in sufficient detail to allow incorporation of relevant economic relationships (for example, wellhead gas prices and transportation costs) into the Altemative Fuels Trade Model, the analytical framework DOE is using to evaluate various policy options

  12. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 2. Alternatives for waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume II of the five-volume report is devoted to the description of alternatives for waste treatment. The discussion is presented under the following section titles: fuel reprocessing modifications; high-level liquid waste solidification; treatment and immobilization of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; treatment of noncombustible solid wastes; treatment of combustible wastes; treatment of non-high-level liquid wastes; recovery of transuranics from non-high-level wastes; immobilization of miscellaneous non-high-level wastes; volatile radioisotope recovery and off-gas treatment; immobilization of volatile radioisotopes; retired facilities (decontamination and decommissioning); and, modification and use of selected fuel reprocessing wastes. (JGB)

  13. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 2. Alternatives for waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the five-volume report is devoted to the description of alternatives for waste treatment. The discussion is presented under the following section titles: fuel reprocessing modifications; high-level liquid waste solidification; treatment and immobilization of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; treatment of noncombustible solid wastes; treatment of combustible wastes; treatment of non-high-level liquid wastes; recovery of transuranics from non-high-level wastes; immobilization of miscellaneous non-high-level wastes; volatile radioisotope recovery and off-gas treatment; immobilization of volatile radioisotopes; retired facilities (decontamination and decommissioning); and, modification and use of selected fuel reprocessing wastes

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Miscanthus as a Fuel Alternative in District Heat Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Nguyen, T Lan T;

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental performance of district heat production based on Miscanthus as a fuel input and compares it with Natural Gas (NG). As a baseline scenario, we assume that the process of energy conversion from Miscanthus to heat takes place in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP......) plant. Alternatively, we have simulated the combustion process of Miscanthus in a boiler, where only heat is produced. For NG similar scenarios are examined. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in relation to 1 MJ of heat production with Miscanthus fired in a CHP would lead to a Global Warming Potential (GWP...

  15. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Lease Car Drivers in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2012-04-15

    In this paper we aim to get insight into preferences of Dutch lease car drivers for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and their characteristics. Since AFVs are either not yet available on the market or have only very limited market shares, we have to rely on stated preference research. We perform a state-of-the-art conjoint analysis, based on data obtained through an online choice experiment among Dutch lease car drivers. Results show that under current tax regulations the average lease car driver is indifferent between the conventional technology, flexifuel and the hybrid car, while negative preferences exist for the plug-in hybrid, the electric and the fuel cell car. When current tax regulations would be abolished, strong negative preferences would result for all AFCs, and especially for the electric and fuel cell car. Increases in driving range, reductions in refuelling time, and reductions in additional detour time for reaching an appropriate fuel station, increase AFV preferences substantially. On average the gap between conventional technologies and AFVs remains large, however. We also find that there is considerable heterogeneity in preferences of lease car drivers, and that various market segments and potential early adopters can be identified. In this respect the most interesting finding is that preferences for electric and fuel cell cars decrease substantially, and willingness to pay for driving range increases substantially, when annual mileage increases. Annual mileage also has a substantial impact on sensitivity to monthly costs. We therefore use simulations to assess market shares of electric and fuel cell cars for different annual mileage categories. We find that people with a relatively low annual mileage are more likely to adopt than people with a relatively high annual mileage, regardless of driving range and monthly costs. For the fuel cell car we find similar results, although when driving range is high and cost differences are large, lease car

  16. Using SPL (Spent Pot-Lining) as an Alternative Fuel in Metallurgical Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Mostaghel, Sina; Ray, Shamik; Chattopadyay, Kinnor

    2016-09-01

    Replacing coke (coal) in a metallurgical furnace with other alternative fuels is beneficial for process economics and environmental friendliness. Coal injection is a common practice in blast furnace ironmaking, and spent pot-lining (SPL) was conceptualized as an alternative to coal. SPL is a resourceful waste from primary Aluminum production, with high carbon value. Equilibrium thermodynamics was used to calculate the energy content of SPL, and the compositional changes during SPL combustion. In order to capture the kinetics and mass transfer aspects, a blast furnace tuyere region CFD model was developed. The results of SPL combustion were compared with standard PCI coals, which are commonly used in blast furnaces. The CFD model was validated with experimental results for standard high volatile coals.

  17. Alternative systems for fuel gas boosters for small gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Henry B.

    1992-04-01

    The study was done to investigate alternative technologies for fuel gas boosters for gas turbine engines under 5 MW output. The goal was to identify concepts which would significantly reduce the overall life cycle cost of these boosters. In a broad review of alternative systems, centrifugal compressors were found to be most promising. Electrically driven centrifugals, either direct drive or gear driven, were found to be quite limited in speed. Therefore they require many stages for these applications, and no cost advantage was indicated. Considerable promise was indicated for centrifugals driven by bleed air from the engine compressor, using turbocompressor units which are conversions of existing turbochargers for internal combustion engines. A first cost advantage of 30 to 80 percent was indicated for applications with an annual market size of at least ten units. Considerable savings in installation and maintenance costs are expected in addition.

  18. Using SPL (Spent Pot-Lining) as an Alternative Fuel in Metallurgical Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Mostaghel, Sina; Ray, Shamik; Chattopadyay, Kinnor

    2016-05-01

    Replacing coke (coal) in a metallurgical furnace with other alternative fuels is beneficial for process economics and environmental friendliness. Coal injection is a common practice in blast furnace ironmaking, and spent pot-lining (SPL) was conceptualized as an alternative to coal. SPL is a resourceful waste from primary Aluminum production, with high carbon value. Equilibrium thermodynamics was used to calculate the energy content of SPL, and the compositional changes during SPL combustion. In order to capture the kinetics and mass transfer aspects, a blast furnace tuyere region CFD model was developed. The results of SPL combustion were compared with standard PCI coals, which are commonly used in blast furnaces. The CFD model was validated with experimental results for standard high volatile coals.

  19. Combustion instability and active control: Alternative fuels, augmentors, and modeling heat release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sammy Ace

    Experimental and analytical studies were conducted to explore thermo-acoustic coupling during the onset of combustion instability in various air-breathing combustor configurations. These include a laboratory-scale 200-kW dump combustor and a 100-kW augmentor featuring a v-gutter flame holder. They were used to simulate main combustion chambers and afterburners in aero engines, respectively. The three primary themes of this work includes: 1) modeling heat release fluctuations for stability analysis, 2) conducting active combustion control with alternative fuels, and 3) demonstrating practical active control for augmentor instability suppression. The phenomenon of combustion instabilities remains an unsolved problem in propulsion engines, mainly because of the difficulty in predicting the fluctuating component of heat release without extensive testing. A hybrid model was developed to describe both the temporal and spatial variations in dynamic heat release, using a separation of variables approach that requires only a limited amount of experimental data. The use of sinusoidal basis functions further reduced the amount of data required. When the mean heat release behavior is known, the only experimental data needed for detailed stability analysis is one instantaneous picture of heat release at the peak pressure phase. This model was successfully tested in the dump combustor experiments, reproducing the correct sign of the overall Rayleigh index as well as the remarkably accurate spatial distribution pattern of fluctuating heat release. Active combustion control was explored for fuel-flexible combustor operation using twelve different jet fuels including bio-synthetic and Fischer-Tropsch types. Analysis done using an actuated spray combustion model revealed that the combustion response times of these fuels were similar. Combined with experimental spray characterizations, this suggested that controller performance should remain effective with various alternative fuels

  20. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  1. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  2. Residue Derived Fuels as an Alternative Fuel for the Hellenic Power Generation Sector and their Potential for Emissions ReductionConstantinos S. Psomopoulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos S. Psomopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Landfill Directive (1999/31 EC promotes more environmental friendly waste management options, by reducing the amount of wastes and more specific of biodegradable wastes, disposed of in landfills. The EU member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment process for municipal solid waste and non-hazardous industrial wastes to comply with the abovementioned Directive's targets on landfill diversion, and produce waste derived fuels such as refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel. Waste derived fuels present high calorific values depending on their synthesis and are being used both in dedicated waste-to-energy plants and as fuel substitutes in industrial processes. In this paper the refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel production and utilisation options in European Union are presented, and the possibilities in Greece based on the waste production and National Plan for Waste Management of the Ministry of Environment is attempted. The existing and ongoing studies on co-combustion and co-gasification with brown coal support the use of refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel as fuel on Hellenic Power Sector, adopting in the existing lignite power plants adequate Air Pollution Control systems. If the co-combustion or co-gasification of these alternative fuels is adopted from the Hellenic Power Sector a reduction on emissions is expected that cannot be neglected.

  3. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J.C., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Gorman, B.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Marshall, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forming fluid selection criteria developed for TRISO kernel production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ten candidates selected for further study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density, viscosity, and surface tension measured for first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Settling velocity and heat transfer rates calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fluids recommended for kernel production testing. - Abstract: Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of {approx}10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 Degree-Sign C and 80 Degree-Sign C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory

  4. Well-to-wheels life-cycle analysis of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A well-to-wheels life cycle analysis on total energy consumptions and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions for alternative fuels and accompanying vehicle technologies has been carried out for the base year 2010 and projected to 2020 based on data gathered and estimates developed for China. The fuels considered include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, liquid fuels from coal conversion, methanol, bio-ethanol and biodiesel, electricity and hydrogen. Use of liquid fuels including methanol and Fischer–Tropsch derived from coal will significantly increase GHG emissions relative to use of conventional gasoline. Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit because of the present highly inefficient agricultural practice and plant processing in China. Electrification of vehicles via hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle technologies offers a progressively improved prospect for the reduction of energy consumption and GHG emission. However, the long-term carbon emission reduction is assured only when the needed electricity is generated by zero- or low-carbon sources, which means that carbon capture and storage is a necessity for fossil-based feedstocks. A PHEV that runs on zero- or low-carbon electricity and cellulosic ethanol may be one of the most attractive fuel-vehicle options in a carbon-constrained world. - Highlights: ► Data and estimates unique to China are used in this analysis. ► Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit in China. ► Use of methanol derived from coal will incur even more carbon disbenefit. ► Plug-in-hybrid with cellulosic ethanol and clean electricity may be a viable option.

  5. Scoping studies of the alternative options for defueling, packaging, shipping, and disposing of the TMI-2 spent fuel core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portion of this fuel will be shipped to nuclear facilities to perform detailed physical examinations. Removal of this fuel from the TMI-2 core is also a significant step in the eventual cleanup of this facility. The report presents a scoping study of the technical operations required for defueling and canning. The TMI fuel when canned could be stored in the spent fuel storage pool. After a period of on-site storage, it is expected that the bulk of the fuel will be shipped off-site for either storage or reprocessing. Evaluation is made of the technical, economic, and institutional factors associated with alternate approaches to disposition of this fuel. Recommendations are presented concerning future generic development tasks needed for the defueling, packaging, on-site shipping of this fuel

  6. Scoping studies of the alternative options for defueling, packaging, shipping, and disposing of the TMI-2 spent fuel core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert T.

    1980-09-01

    A portion of this fuel will be shipped to nuclear facilities to perform detailed physical examinations. Removal of this fuel from the TMI-2 core is also a significant step in the eventual cleanup of this facility. The report presents a scoping study of the technical operations required for defueling and canning. The TMI fuel when canned could be stored in the spent fuel storage pool. After a period of on-site storage, it is expected that the bulk of the fuel will be shipped off-site for either storage or reprocessing. Evaluation is made of the technical, economic, and institutional factors associated with alternate approaches to disposition of this fuel. Recommendations are presented concerning future generic development tasks needed for the defueling, packaging, on-site shipping of this fuel.

  7. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Quarterly status report number 2, 1 January--31 March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit. Results are discussed for the following tasks: liquid phase hydrodynamic run; catalyst activation with CO; new processes for DME (dehydration catalyst screening runs, and experiments using Robinson-Mahoney basket internal and pelletized catalysts); new fuels from DME; and new processes for alcohols and oxygenated fuel additives.

  8. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH3. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using solid

  9. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH{sub 3}. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using

  10. Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2013-10-01

    People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver

  11. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  12. Environmental potential of the alternative automotive fuels biogas, ethanol, methanol, natural gas, rape oil methyl ester, and dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the project was to estimate the future emission levels when using alternative fuels, as a contribution to the Committee for Evaluation of Alternative Automotive Fuels (organized by the Swedish Ministry of Environment). The method used for the project was to use the today's knowledge about the emission levels and the emission control technology as a base for the estimation of what additional potential there is to decrease the emissions by coming development of vehicles and the emission control technology. The results of the analysis and the estimations show that there exist a positive development for all types of vehicles and alternative fuels. However, there will be a difference between the different fuel alternatives depending on chemical and physical differences between the different fuels. There will also be a difference in the possibilities of the different fuels to capture a market which will have certain impact on the willingness and the economic possibilities for the car manufacturers to invest in the development needed to reach low emission levels. 124 refs

  13. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 1: gaseous and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Prem; Rye, Lucas; Williams, Paul I; Christie, Simon; Uryga-Bugajska, Ilona; Wilson, Christopher W; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Blakey, Simon; Coe, Hugh; Raper, David; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Growing concern over emissions from increased airport operations has resulted in a need to assess the impact of aviation related activities on local air quality in and around airports, and to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. One such strategy being investigated is the use of alternative fuels in aircraft engines and auxiliary power units (APUs) as a means to diversify fuel supplies and reduce emissions. This paper summarizes the results of a study to characterize the emissions of an APU, a small gas turbine engine, burning conventional Jet A-1, a fully synthetic jet fuel, and other alternative fuels with varying compositions. Gas phase emissions were measured at the engine exit plane while PM emissions were recorded at the exit plane as well as 10 m downstream of the engine. Five percent reduction in NO(x) emissions and 5-10% reduction in CO emissions were observed for the alternative fuels. Significant reductions in PM emissions at the engine exit plane were achieved with the alternative fuels. However, as the exhaust plume expanded and cooled, organic species were found to condense on the PM. This increase in organic PM elevated the PM mass but had little impact on PM number. PMID:22913288

  14. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 1: gaseous and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Prem; Rye, Lucas; Williams, Paul I; Christie, Simon; Uryga-Bugajska, Ilona; Wilson, Christopher W; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Blakey, Simon; Coe, Hugh; Raper, David; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Growing concern over emissions from increased airport operations has resulted in a need to assess the impact of aviation related activities on local air quality in and around airports, and to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. One such strategy being investigated is the use of alternative fuels in aircraft engines and auxiliary power units (APUs) as a means to diversify fuel supplies and reduce emissions. This paper summarizes the results of a study to characterize the emissions of an APU, a small gas turbine engine, burning conventional Jet A-1, a fully synthetic jet fuel, and other alternative fuels with varying compositions. Gas phase emissions were measured at the engine exit plane while PM emissions were recorded at the exit plane as well as 10 m downstream of the engine. Five percent reduction in NO(x) emissions and 5-10% reduction in CO emissions were observed for the alternative fuels. Significant reductions in PM emissions at the engine exit plane were achieved with the alternative fuels. However, as the exhaust plume expanded and cooled, organic species were found to condense on the PM. This increase in organic PM elevated the PM mass but had little impact on PM number.

  15. Linking Pattern Formation and Alternative Stable States: Ecohydrologic Thresholds and Critical Transitions in the Everglades Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, J. B.; Ross, M. S.; Sah, J. P.; Isherwood, E.; Cohen, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial patterning occurs in a variety of ecosystems, and is important for the functional properties of landscapes; for testing spatial models of ecological processes; and as an indicator of landscape condition and resilience. Theory suggests that regular patterns arise from coupled local- and landscape-scale feedbacks that can also create multiple stable landscape states. In the Florida Everglades, hydrologic modification has degraded much of the historically-extensive ridge-slough landscape, a patterned peatland mosaic with distinct, flow-parallel patches. However, in the Everglades and in general, the hypothesis that patterned landscapes have homogeneous alternative states has little direct empirical support. Here we use microtopographic and vegetative heterogeneity, and their relation to hydrologic conditions, to infer the existence of multiple landscape equilibria and identify the hydrologic thresholds for critical transitions between these states. Dual relationships between elevation variance and water depth, and bi-modal distributions of both elevation variance and plant community distinctness, are consistent with generic predictions of multiple states, and covariation between these measures suggests that microtopography is the leading indicator of landscape degradation. Furthermore, a simple ecohydrologic multiple-state model correctly predicts the hydrologic thresholds for persistence of distinct ridges and sloughs. Predicted ridge-slough elevation differences and their relation to water depth are much greater than observed in the contemporary Everglades, but correspond closely with historical observations of pre-drainage conditions. These multiple lines of evidence represent the broadest and most direct support for the link between regular spatial pattern and landscape-scale alternative states in any ecosystem, and suggest that other patterned landscapes could undergo sudden collapse in response to changing environmental conditions. Hydrologic thresholds

  16. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Fact sheets on technology elements and system calculations for technology tracks; Teknologivurdering af alternative drivmidler til transportsektoren. Fakta-ark for teknologi-elementer og systemberegninger for teknologi-spor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. This appendix presents key fact sheets which substantiate the analysis presented in the report 'Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector'. (BA)

  17. Impacts of alternative fuels in aviation on microphysical aerosol properties and predicted ice nuclei concentration at aircraft cruise altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzierl, B.; D'Ascoli, E.; Sauer, D. N.; Kim, J.; Scheibe, M.; Schlager, H.; Moore, R.; Anderson, B. E.; Ullrich, R.; Mohler, O.; Hoose, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades air traffic has been substantially growing affecting air quality and climate. According to the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), in the next few years world passenger and freight traffic is expected to increase annually by 6-7% and 4-5%, respectively. One possibility to reduce aviation impacts on the atmosphere and climate might be the replacement of fossil fuels by alternative fuels. However, so far the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions from aircraft engines and their ability to form contrails remain uncertain. To study the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions and the formation of contrails, the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) field experiment was conducted in California. In May 2014, the DLR Falcon 20 and the NASA HU-25 jet aircraft were instrumented with an extended aerosol and trace gas payload probing different types of fuels including JP-8 and JP-8 blended with HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids) while the NASA DC8 aircraft acted as the source aircraft for ACCESS-2. Emission measurements were taken in the DC8 exhaust plumes at aircraft cruise level between 9-12 km altitude and at distances between 50 m and 20 km behind the DC8 engines. Here, we will present results from the ACCESS-2 aerosol measurements which show a 30-60% reduction of the non-volatile (mainly black carbon) particle number concentration in the aircraft exhaust for the HEFA-blend compared to conventional JP-8 fuel. Size-resolved particle emission indices show the largest reductions for larger particle sizes suggesting that the HEFA blend contains fewer and smaller black carbon particles. We will combine the airborne measurements with a parameterization of deposition nucleation developed during a number of ice nucleation experiments at the AIDA chamber in Karlsruhe and discuss the impact of alternative fuels on the abundance of potential ice nuclei at cruise conditions.

  18. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  19. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  20. The transition to hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and infrastructure requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, R.N.; Berry, G.D.; Ramback, G.D.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-03-20

    Hydrogen fuel, used in an internal combustion engine optimized for maximum efficiency and as part of a hybrid-electric vehicle, will give excellent performance and range with emissions below one-tenth the ultra-low emission vehicle standards being considered in California as Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicles. These vehicles can also be manufactured with increased but not excessive cost. Hydrogen-fueled engines have demonstrated indicated efficiencies of more than 50% under lean operation. Combining optimized engines and other advanced components, the overall vehicle efficiency should approach 40%, compared with 13% for a conventional vehicle in the urban driving cycle. The optimized engine-generator unit is the mechanical equivalent of the fuel cell but at a cost competitive with today`s engines. The increased efficiency of hybrid-electric vehicles now makes hydrogen fuel competitive with today`s conventional vehicles. Conservative analysis of the infrastructure options to support a transition to a hydrogen-fueled light-duty fleet indicates that hydrogen may be utilized at a total cost comparable to the 3.1 cents/km U.S. vehicle operators pay today while using conventional automobiles. Both on-site production by electrolysis or reforming of natural gas and liquid hydrogen distribution offer the possibility of a smooth transition by taking advantage of existing large-scale energy infrastructures. Eventually, renewable sources of electricity and scalable methods of making hydrogen will have lower costs than today. With a hybrid-electric propulsion system, the infrastructure to supply hydrogen and the vehicles to use it can be developed today and thus be in place when fuel cells become economical for vehicle use.

  1. Spray and atomization of diesel fuel and its alternatives from a single-hole injector using a common rail fuel injection system

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, PinChia

    2013-01-01

    Fuel spray and atomization characteristics play an important role in the performance of internal combustion engines. As the reserves of petroleum fuel are expected to be depleted within a few decades, finding alternative fuels that are economically viable and sustainable to replace the petroleum fuel has attracted much research attention. In this work, the spray and atomization characteristics were investigated for commercial No. 2 diesel fuel, biodiesel (FAME) derived from waste cooking oil (B100), 20% biodiesel blended diesel fuel (B20), renewable diesel fuel produced in house, and civil aircraft jet fuel (Jet-A). Droplet diameters and particle size distributions were measured by a laser diffraction particle analyzing system and the spray tip penetrations and cone angles were acquired using a high speed imaging technique. All experiments were conducted by employing a common-rail high-pressure fuel injection system with a single-hole nozzle under room temperature and pressure. The experimental results showed that biodiesel and jet fuel had different features compared with diesel. Longer spray tip penetration and larger droplet diameters were observed for B100. The smaller droplet size of the Jet-A were believed to be caused by its relatively lower viscosity and surface tension. B20 showed similar characteristics to diesel but with slightly larger droplet sizes and shorter tip penetration. Renewable diesel fuel showed closer droplet size and spray penetration to Jet-A with both smaller than diesel. As a result, optimizing the trade-off between spray volume and droplet size for different fuels remains a great challenge. However, high-pressure injection helps to optimize the trade-off of spray volume and droplet sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that the smallest droplets were within a region near the injector nozzle tip and grew larger along the axial and radial direction. The variation of droplet diameters became smaller with increasing injection pressure.

  2. Cracking and hydrocracking of triglycerides for renewable liquid fuels: alternative processes to transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frety, Roger; Rocha, Maria da Graca C. da; Brandao, Soraia T., E-mail: frety@unifacs.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pontes, Luiz A.M; Padilha, Jose F. [Universidade de Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil); Borges, Luiz E.P.; Gonzalez, Wilma A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The most used industrial processes for the production of liquid fuels like diesel type are based on the methanolysis and ethanolysis of various oil reactants, such as palm, soybean and rapeseed oils, in the presence of homogeneous base catalysts. However, thermal and catalytic transformations of vegetable oils using available reactors and industrial processes are possible alternatives and deserve attention. In fact, three industrial processes are operating and new projects are announced. The present work analyses the experimental studies performed up to now by Brazilian researchers in the field of cracking, catalytic cracking and hydrocracking of pure or modified vegetable oils. From the published results, some research areas for the near future are suggested. (author)

  3. High surface area graphite as alternative support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Folgado, M.A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Daza, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie, 2 Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    The suitability of a high surface area graphite (HSAG) as proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalyst support has been evaluated and compared with that of the most popular carbon black: the Vulcan XC72. It has been observed that Pt is arranged on the graphite surface resulting in different structures which depend on the catalysts synthesis conditions. The influence that the metal particle size and the metal-support interaction exert on the catalysts degradation rate is analyzed. Temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) under oxygen containing streams has been shown to be a useful method to assess the resistance of PEMFC catalysts to carbon corrosion. The synthesized Pt/HSAG catalysts have been evaluated in single cell tests in the cathode catalytic layer. The obtained results show that HSAG can be a promising alternative to the traditionally used Vulcan XC72 carbon black when suitable catalysts synthesis conditions are used. (author)

  4. An empirical analysis on the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles: The case of natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) has been regarded as one of the most important strategies to address the issues of energy dependence, air quality, and, more recently, climate change. Despite decades of effort, we still face daunting challenges to promote wider acceptance of AFVs by the general public. More empirical analyses are needed to understand the technology adoption process associated with different market structures, the effectiveness of regulations and incentives, and the density of infrastructure adequate to reach sustainable commercial application. This paper compares the adoption of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in eight countries: Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Italy, New Zealand, Pakistan, and the US. It examines the major policies aimed at promoting the use of NGVs, instruments for implementing those policies and targeting likely stakeholders, and a range of factors that influence the adoption of NGVs. The findings in this paper should be applicable to other AFVs

  5. Hanford spent nuclear fuel project recommended path forward, volume III: Alternatives and path forward evaluation supporting documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulton, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Volume I of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project - Recommended Path Forward constitutes an aggressive series of projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to safely retrieve, package, transport, process, and store K Basins fuel and sludge. Volume II provided a comparative evaluation of four Alternatives for the Path Forward and an evaluation for the Recommended Path Forward. Although Volume II contained extensive appendices, six supporting documents have been compiled in Volume III to provide additional background for Volume II.

  6. The effect of alternative fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner on production capacity and improvement with oxygen enrichment.

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W. K. Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model based on a mass and energy balance for the combustion in a cement rotary kiln was developed. The model was used to investigate the impact of replacing about 45 % of the primary coal energy by different alternative fuels. Refuse derived fuel, waste wood, solid hazardous waste and liquid hazardous waste were used in the modeling. The results showed that in order to keep the kiln temperature unchanged, and thereby maintain the required clinker quality, the production capa...

  7. Accurate High-Temperature Reaction Networks for Alternative Fuels: Butanol Isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geem, K. M.; Pyl, S. P.; Marin, G. B.; Harper, M. R.; Green, W. H.

    2010-11-03

    Oxygenated hydrocarbons, particularly alcohol compounds, are being studied extensively as alternatives and additives to conventional fuels due to their propensity of decreasing soot formation and improving the octane number of gasoline. However, oxygenated fuels also increase the production of toxic byproducts, such as formaldehyde. To gain a better understanding of the oxygenated functional group’s influence on combustion properties—e.g., ignition delay at temperatures above the negative temperature coefficient regime, and the rate of benzene production, which is the common precursor to soot formation—a detailed pressure-dependent reaction network for n-butanol, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol consisting of 281 species and 3608 reactions is presented. The reaction network is validated against shock tube ignition delays and doped methane flame concentration profiles reported previously in the literature, in addition to newly acquired pyrolysis data. Good agreement between simulated and experimental data is achieved in all cases. Flux and sensitivity analyses for each set of experiments have been performed, and high-pressure-limit reaction rate coefficients for important pathways, e.g., the dehydration reactions of the butanol isomers, have been computed using statistical mechanics and quantum chemistry. The different alcohol decomposition pathways, i.e., the pathways from primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols, are discussed. Furthermore, comparisons between ethanol and n-butanol, two primary alcohols, are presented, as they relate to ignition delay.

  8. A greener shade of competition : IPPSO submission to (Ontario) Select Committee on Alternative Fuel Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All members of the Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario (IPPSO) are in agreement that the electric power system must be made more competitive. IPPSO members are power producers, some using alternative fuels, and others using more conventional fuels. IPPSO is set to support improvements within the context of the current market design to make the Ontario electricity market open. In the opinion of the IPPSO, government intervention in the market should be limited to those issues that the market is incapable of addressing or correcting by itself. Making the electricity market truly competitive is bound to level the playing field by recognizing externalized costs. Environmental costs require significant measures in order to internalize them, and this could be accomplished through the implementation of the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). The whole concept of RPS was explained, and the issues affecting it were discussed. The question of the scope of the RPS was brought up. It was noted that RPS resulted from a consultation process with affected stakeholders and a number of ministries. It took into account the experience gained during the last ten years by several experts who were responsible for the implementation of similar mechanisms in other jurisdictions

  9. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 1. Summary: alternatives for the back of the LWR fuel cycle types and properties of LWR fuel cycle wastes projections of waste quantities; selected glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume I of the five-volume report contains executive and technical summaries of the entire report, background information of the LWR fuel cycle alternatives, descriptions of waste types, and projections of waste quantities. Overview characterizations of alternative LWR fuel cycle modes are also included. (JGB)

  10. Liquid phase fluid dynamic (methanol) run in the LaPorte alternative fuels development unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharat L. Bhatt

    1997-05-01

    A fluid dynamic study was successfully completed in a bubble column at DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Significant fluid dynamic information was gathered at pilot scale during three weeks of Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOJP) operations in June 1995. In addition to the usual nuclear density and temperature measurements, unique differential pressure data were collected using Sandia's high-speed data acquisition system to gain insight on flow regime characteristics and bubble size distribution. Statistical analysis of the fluctuations in the pressure data suggests that the column was being operated in the churn turbulent regime at most of the velocities considered. Dynamic gas disengagement experiments showed a different behavior than seen in low-pressure, cold-flow work. Operation with a superficial gas velocity of 1.2 ft/sec was achieved during this run, with stable fluid dynamics and catalyst performance. Improvements included for catalyst activation in the design of the Clean Coal III LPMEOH{trademark} plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, were also confirmed. In addition, an alternate catalyst was demonstrated for LPMEOH{trademark}.

  11. Oxidative dissolution of spent nuclear fuel in aqueous alkaline solutions - An alternative to the Purex process?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runde, Wolfgang; Peper, Shane; Brodnax, Lia; Crooks, William; Zehnder, Ralph; Jarvinen, Gordon

    2004-07-01

    As an alternative to acidic reprocessing of spent nuclear, oxidative dissolution of UO{sub 2} into aqueous alkaline solutions and subsequent separation of fission products is considered. The efficacy of such a method is limited by the kinetics of the UO{sub 2} dissolution and the capacity of alkaline solutions for dissolved U(VI) species. We performed a series of dissolution studies on UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in aqueous alkaline solutions applying various oxidants. Among the oxidative agents commonly used to transform low-valence actinides into their higher oxidation states, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has proven to be the most effective in basic media. Consequently, we investigated the dissolution of UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in NaOH-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions and determined the dissolution kinetics as a function of peroxide and hydroxide (carbonate) concentrations. Methods to remove fission products, e.g., Cs, Sr, Ba and Zr, from alkaline solutions will be evaluated based upon their decontamination factors. We will discuss the feasibility of using chemically oxidizing alkaline solutions as an alternative spent nuclear fuel reprocessing method based on results from experimental quantitative investigations. (authors)

  12. Federal Alternative Fuel Program Light Duty Vehicle Operations. Second annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This annual report to Congress details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations as required by Section 400AA(b)(1)(B) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, Public Law 100-494. In 1992, the Federal alternative fuel vehicle fleet expanded significantly, from the 65 M85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) vehicles acquired in 1991 to an anticipated total of 3,267 light duty vehicles. Operating data are being collected from slightly over 20 percent, or 666, of these vehicles. The 601 additional vehicles that were added to the data collection program in 1992 include 75 compressed natural gas Dodge full-size (8-passenger) vans, 25 E85 (85 percent denatured ethanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) Chevrolet Lumina sedans, 250 M85 Dodge Spirit sedans (planned to begin operation in fiscal year 1993), and 251 compressed natural gas Chevrolet C-20 pickup trucks. Figure ES-1 illustrates the locations where the Federal light duty alternative fuel vehicles that are participating in the data collection program are operating. The primary criteria for placement of vehicles will continue to include air quality attainment status and the availability of an alternative fuel infrastructure to support the vehicles. This report details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations, from October 1991 through September 1992.

  13. Droplet entrainment and deposition rate models for determination of boiling transition in BWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droplet entrainment and deposition rates are of vital importance for mechanistic determination of critical power and location of boiling transition in a BWR fuel assembly. Data from high-pressure, high-temperature steam-water adiabatic experiments conducted in very tall test sections are used to develop a combination of equilibrium entrainment-deposition rate. Application of this combination to the heated tests conducted in a shorter test section of typical height of a BWR fuel assembly shows that correct split of total liquid in form of the film and droplets at the onset of annular-mist flow regime is also important to obtain good prediction of film flow rates/entrainment fraction. The improved model is then applied to simulate critical power tests in annulus and rod bundles. (author)

  14. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  15. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  16. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO(sub 2)), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NOx emissions from transportation may increase. The conclusions are: (1) It is essential to consider the entire fuel cycle in assessing the benefits, or disadvantages, of an alternative fuel option, i.e., feedstock and fuel production, in addition to vehicle operation; (2) Many improvements to the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle and engine combination will also reduce emissions by reducing fuel use, e.g., engine efficiency, reduced weight, drag and tire friction, and regenerative braking; (3) In reducing emissions it will be important to install the infrastructure to provide the improved fuels, support the maintenance of advanced vehicles, and provide emissions testing of both local vehicles and those from out of state; (4) Public transit systems using lower emission vehicles can play an important role in reducing emissions per passenger mile by carrying passengers more efficiently, particularly in congested areas. However, analysis is required for each situation; (5) Any reduction in emissions will be welcome, but the problems of air pollution in our region will not be solved by a few modest improvements. Substantial reductions in emissions of key pollutants are required both in East Tennessee and in

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of the Pratt and Whitney alternate design SSME fuel turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, K. R.; Beach, T. A.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The three dimensional viscous time-mean flow in the Pratt and Whitney alternate design space shuttle main engine fuel turbine is simulated using the average passage Navier-Stokes equations. The migration of secondary flows generated by upstream blade rows and their effect on the performance of downstream blade rows is studied. The present simulation confirms that the flow in this two stage turbine is highly three dimensional and dominated by the tip leakage flow. The tip leakage vortex generated by the first blade persists through the second blade and adversely affects its performance. The greatest mixing of the inlet total temperature distortion occurs in the second vane and is due to the large leakage vortex generated by the upstream rotor. It is assumed that the predominant spanwise mixing mechanism in this low aspect ratio turbine is the radial transport due to the deterministically unsteady vortical flow generated by upstream blade rows. A by-product of the analysis is accurate pressure and heat loads for all blade rows under the influence of neighboring blade rows. These aero loads are useful for advanced structural analysis of the vanes and blades.

  18. Saline catholytes as alternatives to phosphate buffers in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2013-03-01

    Highly saline solutions were examined as alternatives to chemical buffers in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The performance of two-chamber MFCs with different concentrations of saline solutions in the cathode chamber was compared to those with a buffered catholyte (50mM PBS). The use of a NaCl catholyte improved the CE to 43-60% (28% with no membrane) due to a reduction in oxygen transfer into the anolyte. The saline catholyte also reduced the membrane and solution resistance to 23Ω (41Ω without a membrane). The maximum power density of 491mW/m2 (240mM NaCl) was only 17% less than the MFC with 50mM PBS. The decrease in power output with highest salinity was due to reduced proton transfer due to the ion exchange membrane, and pH changes in the two solutions. These results show that MFC performance can be improved by using a saline catholyte without pH control. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Muttamara, S.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of exhaust emissions from various vehicles. The effects of ethanol content fuels on emissions were tested by three types of vehicles: cars with no catalytic converter installation, cars with three-way catalytic converter and cars with dual-bed catalytic converter. The test result showed wide variations in the average emission rates with different mileages, fuel types and catalytic converters (benzene: 3.33-56.48 mg/km, toluene: 8.62-124.66 mg/km, m-xylene: 2.97-51.65 mg/km, formaldehyde: 20.82-477.57 mg/km and acetaldehyde: 9.46-219.86 mg/km). There was a modest reduction in emission rate of benzene, toluene and m-xylene in cars using E10 and E15 fuels. Use of ethanol fuels, however, leads to increased formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission rates. Our analysis revealed that alternative fuels and technologies give significant reduction in toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission—particularly car with dual-bed catalytic converter using E10 fuel.

  20. Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development - An Application on Alternative Fuels in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Cobb, D.A.; Worhach, P.; Jacobson, J.J.; Berrett, S.

    2000-12-30

    The Demonstration of Decision Support Tools for Sustainable Development project integrated the Bechtel/Nexant Industrial Materials Exchange Planner and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory System Dynamic models, demonstrating their capabilities on alternative fuel applications in the Greater Yellowstone-Teton Park system. The combined model, called the Dynamic Industrial Material Exchange, was used on selected test cases in the Greater Yellow Teton Parks region to evaluate economic, environmental, and social implications of alternative fuel applications, and identifying primary and secondary industries. The test cases included looking at compressed natural gas applications in Teton National Park and Jackson, Wyoming, and studying ethanol use in Yellowstone National Park and gateway cities in Montana. With further development, the system could be used to assist decision-makers (local government, planners, vehicle purchasers, and fuel suppliers) in selecting alternative fuels, vehicles, and developing AF infrastructures. The system could become a regional AF market assessment tool that could help decision-makers understand the behavior of the AF market and conditions in which the market would grow. Based on this high level market assessment, investors and decision-makers would become more knowledgeable of the AF market opportunity before developing detailed plans and preparing financial analysis.

  1. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas. Quarterly status report No. 6, January 1--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.M.

    1992-05-19

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products` laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively ``benign`` system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE`s program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

  2. Cost Probability Analysis of China's Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese government has already determined to develop the closed nuclear fuel cycle, its long-term roadmap of spent fuel management has not been decided yet. Currently, it seems that China's booming economy gives abundant financial assurance to develop nuclear programs in full play according to its near-term national plans. However, the viability and sustainability of nuclear power always depends critically on its economics. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a well focused cost-benefit and objective analysis of China's ongoing nuclear power programs with the future prospects. In this study, we conduct a comparative analysis of electricity generation cost in four reference nuclear fuel cycle transition scenarios by 2050. Direct disposal is assumed to produce the cheapest LCT as low as 62.688 mills/kWh compared to the other options. However, after performing a relative uncertainty study, the results show that the capital cost of reactor is the key cost component which leads to the cost gap

  3. Transition from ignition to flame spread over thick fuels in a simulated microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangfeng; Lu, Zhanbin

    Ignition of solid fuels and subsequent transition to flame spread is of fundamental interest and practical importance for spacecraft fire safety. Most previous reseach on microgravity flame spread has involved purely opposed or purely concurrent flow, i.e. ignition occurs at one end of the fuel sample. In this study, a narrow channel apparatus is employed to investigate the phenomenon of flame spread over a thermally thick PMMA sheet in narrow gaps that essentially suppress buoyancy and produce a low-gravity flame spread environment. The ignition is initiated in the middle of the sample, and the focus is to determine the effects of atmosphere oxygen concentration and flow velocity on flame spread behavior in microgravity. Experimental results show that a single flame propagates upstream when oxygen concentration and flow velocity are relatively low. As oxygen and flow velocity are increased to levels high enough, however, the flame may propagate upstream and also downstream. Based on oxygen side diffusion, oxygen shadowing, and fuel depletion effect, the various observed flame behaviors are explained.

  4. Cost Probability Analysis of China's Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, R. X. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, W. I.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Chinese government has already determined to develop the closed nuclear fuel cycle, its long-term roadmap of spent fuel management has not been decided yet. Currently, it seems that China's booming economy gives abundant financial assurance to develop nuclear programs in full play according to its near-term national plans. However, the viability and sustainability of nuclear power always depends critically on its economics. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a well focused cost-benefit and objective analysis of China's ongoing nuclear power programs with the future prospects. In this study, we conduct a comparative analysis of electricity generation cost in four reference nuclear fuel cycle transition scenarios by 2050. Direct disposal is assumed to produce the cheapest LCT as low as 62.688 mills/kWh compared to the other options. However, after performing a relative uncertainty study, the results show that the capital cost of reactor is the key cost component which leads to the cost gap.

  5. High temperature phase transitions in nuclear fuels of the fourth generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the behaviour of nuclear materials in extreme conditions is of prime importance for the analysis of the operation limits of nuclear fuels, and prediction of possible nuclear reactor accidents, relevant to the general objectives of nuclear safety research. The main purpose of this thesis is the study of high temperature phase transitions in nuclear materials, with special attention to the candidate fuel materials for the reactors of the 4. Generation. In this framework, material properties need to be investigated at temperatures higher than 2500 K, where equilibrium conditions are difficult to obtain. Laser heating combined with fast pyrometer is the method used at the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC - ITU). It is associated to a novel process used to determine phase transitions, based on the detection, via a suited low-power (mW) probe laser, of changes in surface reflectivity that may accompany solid/liquid phase transitions. Fast thermal cycles, from a few ms up to the second, under almost container-free conditions and control atmosphere narrow the problem of vaporisation and sample interactions usually meet with traditional method. This new experimental approach has led to very interesting results. It confirmed earlier research for material systems known to be stable at high temperature (such as U-C) and allowed a refinement of the corresponding phase diagrams. But it was also feasible to apply this method to materials highly reactive, thus original results are presented on PuO2, NpO2, UO2-PuO2 and Pu-C systems. (author)

  6. Life cycle analysis and choice of natural gas-based automotive alternative fuels in Chongqing Municipality,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui; LI Guangyi; ZHANG Zongyi; REN Yulong; HAN Weijian

    2007-01-01

    Road transport produces significant amounts of emissions by using crude oil as the primary energy source.A reduction of emissions can be achieved by implementing alternative fuel chains.The objective of this study is to carry out an economic,environmental and energy (EEE) life cycle study on natural gas-based automotive fuels with conventional gasoline in an abundant region of China.A set of indices of four fuels/vehicle systems on the basis of life cycle are assessed in terms of impact of EEE,in which natural gas produces compressed natural gas (CNG),methanol,dimethylether (DME) and Fischer Tropsch diesel (FTD).The study included fuel production,vehicle production,vehicle operation,infrastructure and vehicle end of life as a system for each fuel/vehicle system.A generic gasoline fueled car is used as a baseline.Data have been reviewed and modified based on the best knowledge available to Chongqing local sources.Results indicated that when we could not change electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles into commercial vehicles on a large scale,direct use of CNG in a dedicated or bi-fuel vehicle is an economical choice for the region which is most energy efficient and more environmental friendly.The study can be used to support decisions on how natural gas resources can best be utilized as a fuel/energy resource for automobiles,and what issues need to be resolved in Chongqing.The models and approaches for this study can be applied to other regions of China as long as all the assumptions are well defined and modified to find a substitute automotive energy source and establish an energy policy in a specific region.

  7. Alternative anode materials for methane oxidation in solid oxide fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sfeir, Joseph; Grätzel, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that are able to directly convert chemical energy to electrical energy, without any Carnot limitation. Hence, their energy efficiencies are relatively high. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are operated at high temperatures and in principle can run on various fuels such as natural gas and hydrogen. As natural gas is sought to become one of the main fuels of the next decades, its direct feed to a SOFC is desirable as th...

  8. Getting one step closer to deduction: Introducing an alternative paradigm for transitive inference

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, BC; Howells, D

    2008-01-01

    Transitive inference is claimed to be “deductive”. Yet every group/species ever reported apparently uses it. We asked 58 adults to solve five-term transitive tasks, requiring neither training nor premise learning. A computer-based procedure ensured all premises were continually visible. Response accuracy and RT (non-discriminative nRT) were measured as is typically done. We also measured RT confined to correct responses (cRT). Overall, very few typical transitive phenomena emerged. The symbol...

  9. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 2: volatile and semivolatile particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul I; Allan, James D; Lobo, Prem; Coe, Hugh; Christie, Simon; Wilson, Christopher; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip; Raper, David; Rye, Lucas

    2012-10-01

    The work characterizes the changes in volatile and semivolatile PM emissions from a gas turbine engine resulting from burning alternative fuels, specifically gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL), a blend of Jet A-1 and GTL, biodiesel, and diesel, to the standard Jet A-1. The data presented here, compares the mass spectral fingerprints of the different fuels as measured by the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. There were three sample points, two at the exhaust exit plane with dilution added at different locations and another probe located 10 m downstream. For emissions measured at the downstream probe when the engine was operating at high power, all fuels produced chemically similar organic PM, dominated by C(x)H(y) fragments, suggesting the presence of long chain alkanes. The second largest contribution came from C(x)H(y)O(z) fragments, possibly from carbonyls or alcohols. For the nondiesel fuels, the highest loadings of organic PM were from the downstream probe at high power. Conversely, the diesel based fuels produced more organic material at low power from one of the exit plane probes. Differences in the composition of the PM for certain fuels were observed as the engine power decreased to idle and the measurements were made closer to the exit plane.

  10. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 2: volatile and semivolatile particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul I; Allan, James D; Lobo, Prem; Coe, Hugh; Christie, Simon; Wilson, Christopher; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip; Raper, David; Rye, Lucas

    2012-10-01

    The work characterizes the changes in volatile and semivolatile PM emissions from a gas turbine engine resulting from burning alternative fuels, specifically gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL), a blend of Jet A-1 and GTL, biodiesel, and diesel, to the standard Jet A-1. The data presented here, compares the mass spectral fingerprints of the different fuels as measured by the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. There were three sample points, two at the exhaust exit plane with dilution added at different locations and another probe located 10 m downstream. For emissions measured at the downstream probe when the engine was operating at high power, all fuels produced chemically similar organic PM, dominated by C(x)H(y) fragments, suggesting the presence of long chain alkanes. The second largest contribution came from C(x)H(y)O(z) fragments, possibly from carbonyls or alcohols. For the nondiesel fuels, the highest loadings of organic PM were from the downstream probe at high power. Conversely, the diesel based fuels produced more organic material at low power from one of the exit plane probes. Differences in the composition of the PM for certain fuels were observed as the engine power decreased to idle and the measurements were made closer to the exit plane. PMID:22913312

  11. Storing the Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Casks Licensed for a Century as an Alternative to Recycling Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milincic, Radovan

    2010-02-01

    Management of spent nuclear power reactor fuels is one of the most urgent problems in nuclear technology. Yearly production of new spent fuel is in the range of thousands of tons, topping a couple of hundred thousand tons of spent fuel already. This material is extremely radioactive and currently there is no adequate international policy, control or management regarding it. I propose here an intermediate term solution to this problem, which will be technologically and economically sustainable: interim spent-fuel storage as an alternative to reprocessing. The reprocessing inherently increases the net amount of the plutonium, which can be used for production of nuclear arms. Moreover, it is an expensive process with the net effect of producing different type of radioactive waste. In particular, the development of a dry cask for nuclear waste storage on site and transport, licensed for a period of hundred years would provide a significantly less expensive solution in the recent future, giving a needed relief to crowded spent-fuel storage pools. Currently in the U.S, NRC licenses existing storage casks for 20 years; and licenses for some of the dry cask storage facilities in the U.S. are about to expire. The extended life dry casks will provide sufficient intermediate period toward a more efficient and/or technologically advanced solution for spent fuel. )

  12. Cleaner alternative liquid fuels derived from the hydrodesulfurization of waste tire pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) could be applied for waste tire pyrolysis oil (WTPO). • HDS of WTPO catalyzed by NiMo catalyst reached a sulfur removal of 87.8%. • High catalyst content, H2 pressure, temperature and time increased level of HDS. • HDS improved color and slightly increased heating value and saturation of WTPO. - Abstract: Waste tires are attractive sources for alternative energy due to their long hydrocarbon chains with a high heating value. However, the condensed (volatile portion) pyrolysis oil derived from waste tires contains a relatively large level of sulfur compounds (1.15 wt%), which is not appropriate for use in combustion engines. Therefore, this research aimed to improve the waste tire pyrolysis oil (WTPO) via hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyzed by molybdenum (Mo), nickel–Mo (NiMo) or cobalt–Mo supported on alumina (γ-Al2O3). The maximum % sulfur removal (87.8%) was achieved when the reaction was performed at 250 °C for 30 min using a 2 wt% NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst loading based on the WTPO content and 20 bar initial hydrogen pressure. The amount of sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil was determined using gas chromatography spectroscopy equipped with a flame photometric detector (GC–FPD). The HDS of the WTPO was effective to reduce the sulfurous compounds, especially thiophene and its derivatives. The results from the simulated distillation gas chromatography (GC–SIMDIS) showed that the hydrodesulfurized WTPO (HDS-WTPO) was mainly composed of a light naphtha fraction (ca. 69%). The heating value of the HDS-WTPO (44 MJ/kg) was similar to those for commercial diesel (45 MJ/kg) and gasoline (gasohol) fuels (47 MJ/kg)

  13. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  14. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biogas Utilization as an Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merry Indahsari Devi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the feasibility and economic analysis of biogas energy as a supply for the diesel engine generator. The techno-economic analysis was performed by using three parameters which are Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, and Payback Period (PP as the feasibility indicators of the biogas power plant project. Calculation of substitution was obtained from the comparison between data of diesel engine using diesel fuel and dual-fuel with biogas. Economic calculations include the substitution percentage of diesel fuel by biogas for dual-fuel. Meanwhile, the calculation of savings was based on the ratio of energy content between diesel fuel and biogas. The eventual outcome is determined using economic comparison between the use of diesel fuel and dual-fuel mode. Feasibility shows that the pilot plant of 1 to 6 kWh using diesel fuel and dual-fuel are not feasible while techno-economic parameter analysis shows that NPV<0, IRRfuel is still not.

  15. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  16. Terminology used for renewable liquid and gaseous fuels based on the conversion of electricity: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    As the transport sector transitions away from fossil fuels and renewable fuels shift into focus, it is important that the terminology around renewable fuels is clarified. A number of terms such as synthetic fuel and electrofuel are used to describe both renewable and alternative fuels. The aim of...

  17. Analysis of climatic conditions and preliminary assessment of alternative cooling strategies for houses in California transition climate zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-07-01

    This is a preliminary scoping study done as part of the {open_quotes}Alternatives to Compressive Cooling in California Transition Climates{close_quotes} project, which has the goal of demonstrating that houses in the transitional areas between the coast and the Central Valley of California do not require air-conditioning if they are properly designed and operated. The first part of this report analyzes the climate conditions within the transitional areas, with emphasis on design rather than seasonal conditions. Transitional climates are found to be milder but more variable than those further inland. The design temperatures under the most stringent design criteria, e.g. 0.1 % annual, are similar to those in the Valley, but significantly lower under more relaxed design criteria, e.g., 2% annual frequency. Transition climates also have large day-night temperature swings, indicating significant potential for night cooling, and wet-bulb depressions in excess of 25 F, indicating good potential for evaporative cooling. The second part of the report is a preliminary assessment using DOE-2 computer simulations of the effectiveness of alternative cooling and control strategies in improving indoor comfort conditions in two conventional Title-24 houses modeled in various transition climate locations. The cooling measures studied include increased insulation, light colors, low-emissivity glazing, window overhangs, and exposed floor slab. The control strategies studied include natural and mechanical ventilation, and direct and two-stage evaporative cooling. The results indicate the cooling strategies all have limited effectiveness, and need to be combined to produce significant improvements in indoor comfort. Natural and forced ventilation provide similar improvements in indoor conditions, but during peak cooling periods, these will still be above the comfort zone. Two-stage evaporative coolers can maintain indoor comfort at all hours, but not so direct evaporative coolers.

  18. Development status of metallic, dispersion and non-oxide advanced and alternative fuels for power and research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current thermal power reactors use less than 1% of the energy contained in uranium. Long term perspectives aiming at a better economical extraction of the potential supplied by uranium motivated the development of new reactor types and, of course, new fuel concepts. Most of them dated from the sixties including liquid metal cooled fast (FR) and high temperature gas cooled (HTGR) reactors. Unfortunately, these impulses slowed down during the last twenty years; nuclear energy had to face political and consensus problems, in particular in the United States of America and in Europe, resulting from the consequences of the TMI and Chernobyl accidents. Good economical results obtained by the thermal power reactors also contributed to this process. During the last twenty years mainly France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation have maintained a relatively high level of technological development with appropriate financial items, in particular, in fuel research for the above mentioned reactor types. China and South Africa are now progressing in development of FR/HTGR and HTGR technologies, respectively. The purpose of this report is not only to summarise knowledge accumulated in the fuel research since the beginning of the sixties. This subject has been well covered in literature up to the end of the eighties. This report rather concentrates on the 'advanced fuels 'for the current different types of reactors including metallic, carbide and nitride fuels for fast reactors, so-called 'cold' fuels and fuels to burn excessive ex-weapons plutonium in thermal power reactors, alternative fuels for small size and research reactors. Emphasis has been put on the aspects of fabrication and irradiation behaviour of these fuels; available basic data concerning essential properties that help to understand the phenomena have been mentioned as well. This report brings complementary information to the earlier published monographs and concerns developments carried out after the early

  19. KHD combustion chamber. Flexible use of alternative fuels in the cement plant; KHD Brennkammer. Flexibler Einsatz von alternativen Brennstoffen im Zementwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, Heiko [Humboldt Wedag GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In many parts of the world, the use of alternative fuels is a recognized measure for reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions that result from burning primary fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Alternative or secondary fuels are the terms used for combustible residues from industrial and commercial manufacturing processes, agricultural production, and sorted municipal refuse. Due to the wide range of possible sources of alternative fuels, there is very great variation in their energy content, ash, moisture content, particle size, form, density etc., so there is no patent solution for their use in a cement plant. For proper operation of the rotary kiln, it is particularly important to use alternative fuel qualities that have good heat value and reactivity in order to achieve a stable, hot sintering zone and to completely burnout the highest possible amount of the fuel while it is suspended in the air stream. Combustion in the calciner places fewer demands on the properties of the alternative fuels than combustion in the rotary kiln burner does. This means that the calciner is the ideal combustion point for the usage of alternative fuels. To enable maximum possible flexibility for the combustion of widely differing alternative fuels in the calciner, KHD Humboldt Wedag offers the option of installing a combustion chamber in the modular PYROCLON calciner system. Due to the operating characteristics of this combustion chamber, which are described in the following sections of this article, even alternative fuels with low heat values and a low degree of preparation can be safely and completely burnt. (orig.)

  20. Experimental study on spray characteristics of alternate jet fuels using Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels have gained global attention due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. The chemical and physical properties of GTL jet fuels are different from conventional jet fuels owing to the difference in their production methodology. It is important to study the spray characteristics of GTL jet fuels as the change of physical properties can affect atomization, mixing, evaporation and combustion process, ultimately affecting emission process. In this work, spray characteristics of two GTL synthetic jet fuels are studied using a pressure-swirl nozzle at different injection pressures and atmospheric ambient condition. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size and velocity are compared with those of regular Jet A-1 fuel at several axial and radial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. Experimental results show that although the GTL fuels have different physical properties such as viscosity, density, and surface tension, among each other the resultant change in the spray characteristics is insignificant. Furthermore, the presented results show that GTL fuel spray characteristics exhibit close similarity to those of Jet A-1 fuel. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  1. Alternative Fuel for reheating furnace with aiming at CO2 mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Harlin, Kim; Sandell, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper is researching different kinds of biomass based fuels and contains a case study of a reheating furnace, furnace 301, at SSAB. The purpose was to find out which type of bio fuel was best suited for the furnace application. An experiment at KTH in Sweden was observed to better understand the process of creating a gas fuel from pellets and a mass balance was done to show the difference between using a new kind of bio mass based fuel and the current use of liquid petroleum gas. Results...

  2. ENIAK. Development of a non-motor injector coking test facility for alternative fuels; ENIAK. Entwicklung eines nichtmotorischen Injektorverkokungspruefstands fuer alternative Kraftstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hajo; Schloss, Heide vom; Yang, Zhi; Grote, Melanie [OWI Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Gruppe Anwendungstechnik

    2013-10-01

    Poor Biodiesel quality, contamination with copper and zinc as well as undesired reactions between (several) additives and biodiesel components are known causes for nozzle fouling. Therefore, among other things, all additives have to pass a no-harm test. The standard fouling tests are two engine tests: the XUD9-test (CEC F-23-01) and the DW-10-test (CEC DF 98-08). The XUD9 is a cost efficient, fast and proven testing method. It uses, however, an obsolete indirect injection diesel engine. The newer DW10 test is complex, costly and designed for high stress. This reduces the engine life and leads to a fuel consumption of approximately 1,000 l per test, both contributing to the high costs of the test. The main goal of the project ENIAK is the development, assembly, commissioning, and evaluation of a non-engine fuel injector test. It uses four complete common rail systems. The injection takes place in four self-designed reactors instead of an engine, and the fuel is not combusted, but re-condensed and pumped in a circle. If the test method proves to be as reliable as expected, it can be used as an alternative test method for injector fouling with low requirements regarding infrastructure on the testing site and sample volume. The project is funded by the the federal ministry of consumer protection, food and agriculture via FNR (''Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'', Agency for Renewable Resources). (orig.)

  3. Technical Approach and Plan for Transitioning Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the approach and process in which the 100-K Area Facilities are to be deactivated and transitioned over to the Environmental Restoration Program after spent nuclear fuel has been removed from the K Basins. It describes the Transition Project's scope and objectives, work breakdown structure, activity planning, estimated cost, and schedule. This report will be utilized as a planning document for project management and control and to communicate details of project content and integration

  4. Technical Approach and Plan for Transitioning Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-10-06

    This document describes the approach and process in which the 100-K Area Facilities are to be deactivated and transitioned over to the Environmental Restoration Program after spent nuclear fuel has been removed from the K Basins. It describes the Transition Project's scope and objectives, work breakdown structure, activity planning, estimated cost, and schedule. This report will be utilized as a planning document for project management and control and to communicate details of project content and integration.

  5. Life cycle cost analysis to examine the economical feasibility of hydrogen as an alternative fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji-Yong; Yoo, Moosang; Cha, Kyounghoon; Hur, Tak [Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Konkuk University, 1, Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul (Korea); Lim, Tae Won [Research and Development Division, Hyundai Motors Company and Kia Motors Corporation (Korea)

    2009-05-15

    This study uses a life cycle costing (LCC) methodology to identify when hydrogen can become economically feasible compared to the conventional fuels and which energy policy is the most effective at fostering the penetration of hydrogen in the competitive fuel market. The target hydrogen pathways in this study are H{sub 2} via natural gas steam reforming (NG SR), H{sub 2} via naphtha steam reforming (Naphtha SR), H{sub 2} via liquefied petroleum gas steam reforming (LPG SR), and H{sub 2} via water electrolysis (WE). In addition, the conventional fuels (gasoline, diesel) are also included for the comparison with the H{sub 2} pathways. The life cycle costs of the target fuels are computed and several key factors are examined to identify the economical feasibilities of the target systems: fuel cell vehicle (FCV) price, social cost of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and regulated air emissions (CO, VOC, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, PM), fuel efficiency of FCV, capital costs of H{sub 2} equipments at a H{sub 2} fueling station. The life cycle costs of a H{sub 2} pathway also depend on the production capacity. Although, at present, all H{sub 2} pathways are more cost efficient than the conventional fuels in the fuel utilization stage, the H{sub 2} pathways have lack competitiveness against the conventional fuels in the life cycle (well to wheel) costs due to the high price of FCV. From future scenario analyses in 2015, all H{sub 2} pathways are expected to have lower life cycle costs than the conventional fuels as a transportation fuel. It is evident that the FCV price is the most important factor for encouraging the hydrogen economy and FCVs. Unless the FCV price is below US $62,320, it is necessary for the institution to subsidize the FCV price by any amount over US $62,320 in order to inject H{sub 2} into the market of transportation fuel. The incentive or taxes on GHGs and regulated air emissions are also expected to effectively encourage the diffusion of H{sub 2} and FCV

  6. Techno-economic analysis of fuel cell auxiliary power units as alternative to idling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Semant; Chen, Hsieh-Yeh; Schwank, Johannes

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APUs), with emphasis on applications in the trucking industry and the military. The APU system is intended to reduce the need for discretionary idling of diesel engines or gas turbines. The analysis considers the options for on-board fuel processing of diesel and compares the two leading fuel cell contenders for automotive APU applications: proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell. As options for on-board diesel reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are considered. Finally, using estimated and projected efficiency data, fuel consumption patterns, capital investment, and operating costs of fuel-cell APUs, an economic evaluation of diesel-based APUs is presented, with emphasis on break-even periods as a function of fuel cost, investment cost, idling time, and idling efficiency. The analysis shows that within the range of parameters studied, there are many conditions where deployment of an SOFC-based APU is economically viable. Our analysis indicates that at an APU system cost of 100 kW -1, the economic break-even period is within 1 year for almost the entire range of conditions. At 500 kW -1 investment cost, a 2-year break-even period is possible except for the lowest end of the fuel consumption range considered. However, if the APU investment cost is 3000 kW -1, break-even would only be possible at the highest fuel consumption scenarios. For Abram tanks, even at typical land delivered fuel costs, a 2-year break-even period is possible for APU investment costs as high as 1100 kW -1.

  7. Comparison of Global Sizing Velocimetry and Phase Doppler Anemometry measurements of alternative jet fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Reza; Kannaiyan, Kumaran

    2013-11-01

    Atomization plays a crucial precursor role in liquid fuel combustion that directly affects the evaporation, mixing, and emission levels. Laser diagnostic techniques are often used to study the spray characteristics of liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to compare the spray measurements of Gas-to Liquid (GTL) jet fuels obtained using Global Sizing Velocimetry (GSV) and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques at global and local levels, respectively. The chemical and physical properties of GTL fuels are different from conventional jet fuels, owing to the difference in their production methodology. In this work, the experimental facility, the measurement techniques, and spray characteristics of two different GTL fuels are discussed and compared with those of Jet A-1 fuel. Results clearly demonstrate that although the global measurement gives an overall picture of the spray, fine details are obtained only through local measurements and complement in gaining more inferences into the spray characteristics. The results also show a close similarity in spray characteristics between GTL and Jet A-1 fuels. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  8. Life-Cycle Analyses of Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Natural Gas-Based Alternative Vehicle Fuels in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunmin Ou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsinghua life-cycle analysis model (TLCAM has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for natural gas- (NG- based alternative vehicle fuels in China. The results show that (1 compress NG- and liquid NG-powered vehicles have similar well-to-wheels (WTW fossil energy uses to conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, but differences emerge with the distance of NG transportation. Additionally, thanks to NG having a lower carbon content than petroleum, CNG- and LNG-powered vehicles emit 10–20% and 5–10% less GHGs than gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, respectively; (2 gas-to-liquid- (GTL- powered vehicles involve approximately 50% more WTW fossil energy uses than conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, primarily because of the low efficiency of GTL production. Nevertheless, since NG has a lower carbon content than petroleum, GTL-powered vehicles emit approximately 30% more GHGs than conventional-fuel vehicles; (3 The carbon emission intensity of the LNG energy chain is highly sensitive to the efficiency of NG liquefaction and the form of energy used in that process.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances of jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates GHG emissions and energy balances (i.e. net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and net energy ratio (NER)) of jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel in Tanzania by using life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 tonne (t) of combusted jatropha biodiesel. The findings of the study prove wrong the notion that biofuels are carbon neutral, thus can mitigate climate change. A net GHG equivalent emission of about 848 kg t−1 was observed. The processes which account significantly to GHG emissions are the end use of biodiesel (about 82%) followed by farming of jatropha for about 13%. Sensitivity analysis indicates that replacing diesel with biodiesel in irrigation of jatropha farms decreases the net GHG emissions by 7.7% while avoiding irrigation may reduce net GHG emissions by 12%. About 22.0 GJ of energy is consumed to produce 1 t of biodiesel. Biodiesel conversion found to be a major energy consuming process (about 64.7%) followed by jatropha farming for about 30.4% of total energy. The NEV is 19.2 GJ t−1, indicating significant energy gain of jatropha biodiesel. The NREV is 23.1 GJ t−1 while NER is 2.3; the two values indicate that large amount of fossil energy is used to produce biodiesel. The results of the study are meant to inform stakeholders and policy makers in the bioenergy sector. -- Highlights: • Production and use of jatropha biodiesel in Tanzania result into positive net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. • The net GHG emission is highly influenced by end use of biodiesel in a diesel engine followed by soil N2O emissions during farming of Jatropha. • Jatropha biodiesel results into significant net energy gain; however its production requires large quantity of fossil energy input. • Biodiesel conversion found to be a major energy consuming process followed by jatropha farming. • The results of the study are meant to inform stakeholders and policy makers in the

  10. Alternatives to conventional diesel fuel-some potential implications of California's TAC decision on diesel particulate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J. J.; Rote, D. M.; Saricks, C. L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-08-10

    Limitations on the use of petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to provisions of the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies. (1) Increased penetration of natural gas and greater gasoline use in the transportation fuels market, to the extent that some compression-ignition (CI) applications revert to spark-ignition (SI) engines. (2) New specifications requiring diesel fuel reformulation based on exhaust products of individual diesel fuel constituents. Each of these alternatives results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles, and gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, compression-ignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not evaluated.

  11. Quantifying variability in life cycle greenhouse gas inventories of alternative middle distillate transportation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Russell W; Wong, Hsin Min; Hileman, James I

    2011-05-15

    The presence of variability in life cycle analysis (LCA) is inherent due to both inexact LCA procedures and variation of numerical inputs. Variability in LCA needs to be clearly distinguished from uncertainty. This paper uses specific examples from the production of diesel and jet fuels from 14 different feedstocks to demonstrate general trends in the types and magnitudes of variability present in life cycle greenhouse gas (LC-GHG) inventories of middle distillate fuels. Sources of variability have been categorized as pathway specific, coproduct usage and allocation, and land use change. The results of this research demonstrate that subjective choices such as coproduct usage and allocation methodology can be more important sources of variability in the LC-GHG inventory of a fuel option than the process and energy use of fuel production. Through the application of a consistent analysis methodology across all fuel options, the influence of these subjective biases is minimized, and the LC-GHG inventories for each feedstock-to-fuel option can be effectively compared and discussed. By considering the types and magnitudes of variability across multiple fuel pathways, it is evident that LCA results should be presented as a range instead of a point value. The policy implications of this are discussed.

  12. Characterization of Lean Misfire Limits of Mixture Alternative Gaseous Fuels Used for Spark Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing on gaseous fuels as clean, economical and abundant fuels encourages the search for optimum conditions of gas-fueled internal combustion engines. This paper presents the experimental results on the lean operational limits of Recardo E6 engine using gasoline, LPG, NG and hydrogen as fuels. The first appearance of almost motoring cycle was used to define the engine lean limit after the fuel flow was reduced gradually. The effects of compression ratio, engine speed and spark timing on the engine operational limits are presented and discussed in detailed. Increasing compression ratio (CR extend the lean limits, this appears obviously with hydrogen, which has a wide range of equivalence ratios, while for hydrocarbon fuel octane number affect gasoline, so it can' t work above CR=9:1, and for LPG it reaches CR=12:1, NG reaches CR=15:1 at lean limit operation. Movement from low speeds to medium speeds extended lean misfire limits, while moving from medium to high speeds contracted the lean misfiring limits. NOx, CO and UBHC concentrations increased with CR increase for all fuels, while CO2 concentrations reduced with this increment. NOx concentration increased for medium speeds and reduced for high speeds, but the resulted concentrations were inconcedrable for these lean limits. CO and CO2 increased with engine speed increase, while UBHC reduced with this increment. The hydrogen engine runs with zero CO, CO2 and UNHC concentrations, and altra low levels of NOx concentrations at studied lean misfire limits

  13. Fuels and alternative propulsion in Germany; Les carburants et propulsion alternatifs en Allemagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-15

    The transportation sector is one of the first responsible of the air pollution in Germany. The kyoto protocol and the european directive led the german Government to set about some measures. To encourage the petroleum industry to develop classical fuels/biofuels mixing, the government exempted from taxes until 2020 the biofuels part. The Government decided also financial incentives for diesel vehicles equipped with particles filters. Among the different fuels, the document presents the advantages and disadvantages of the hydrogen fuels and the hybrid motors. (A.L.B.)

  14. The Thermochemical Degradation of Hot Section Materials for Gas Turbine Engines in Alternative-Fuel Combustion Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Timothy

    Gas turbine engines remain an integral part of providing the world's propulsion and power generation needs. The continued use of gas turbines requires increased temperature operation to reach higher efficiencies and the implementation of alternative fuels for a lower net-carbon footprint. This necessitates evaluation of the material coatings used to shield the hot section components of gas turbines in these new extreme environments in order to understand how material degradation mechanisms change. Recently, the US Navy has sought to reduce its use of fossil fuels by implementing a blended hydroprocessed renewable diesel (HRD) derived from algae in its fleet. To evaluate the material degradation in this alternative environment, metal alloys are exposed in a simulated combustion environment using this blended fuel or the traditional diesel-like fuel. Evaluation of the metal alloys showed the development of thick, porous scales with a large depletion of aluminum for the blend fuel test. A mechanism linking an increased solubility of the scale to the blend fuel test environment will be discussed. For power generation applications, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants can provide electricity with 45% efficiency and full carbon capture by using a synthetic gas (syngas) derived from coal, biomass, or another carbon feedstock. However, the combustion of syngas is known to cause high water vapor content levels in the exhaust stream with unknown material consequences. To evaluate the effect of increased humidity, air-plasma sprayed (APS), yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is thermally aged in an environment with and without humidity. An enhanced destabilization of the parent phase by humid aging is revealed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Microstructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning-TEM (STEM) indicate an enhanced coarsening of the domain structure of the YSZ in the humid environment. The enhanced

  15. The oxidative stability of rapeseed oil methyl and ethyl esters - environment friendly alternative fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidative stability of rapeseed oil and bio diesel fuel RME and REE, produced from it, has been determined. The addition of antioxidant BHT essentially prolongs the utility term of oil and its esters. (authors)

  16. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

  17. The role of CAFE standards and alternative-fuel vehicle production credits in U.S. biofuels markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact of CAFE standards and alternative-fuel vehicle production incentives on the biofuel market and mandate, in particular. The study develops a structural model of the domestic light-duty vehicle sector, as well as reduced-form versions of domestic gasoline, diesel, and biofuel markets. The results suggest that holding CAFE standards at the 2010 level could facilitate U.S. ethanol market expansion, making it easier to meet the mandate. Alternative-fuel vehicle production incentives appear to have small effects. However, there is uncertainty about the level of automaker response to those incentives, and analysis indicates the model is fairly sensitive to the assumed level of response. - Highlights: • CAFE standards are estimated to have a moderate impact on RFS compliance costs. • Flex-fuel vehicle production incentives are estimated to have much less impact. • Level of auto manufacturer response to production incentives is uncertain. • Analysis suggests results are fairly sensitive to level of manufacturer response

  18. Network Effects in Alternative Fuel Adoption: Empirical Analysis of the Market for Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Scott K. Shriver

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance of network effects in the demand for ethanol-compatible vehicles and the supply of ethanol fuel retailers. An indirect network effect, or positive feedback loop, arises in this context due to spatially-dependent complementarities in the availability of ethanol fuel and the installed base of ethanol-compatible vehicles. Marketers and social planners are interested in whether these effects exist, and if so, how policy might accelerate adoption of the ethan...

  19. Hydrogen Scenario Analysis Summary Report: Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL; James, Brian [Directed Technologies, Inc.; Perez, Julie [Directed Technologies, Inc.; Melendez, Margo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Unnasch, Stefan [Life Cycle Associates; Rutherford, Daniel [TIAX, LLC; Hooks, Matthew [TIAX, LLC

    2008-03-01

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself. The transition to hydrogen-powered transportation faces imposing economic barriers. The challenges include developing and refining a new and different power-train technology, building a supporting fuel infrastructure, creating a market for new and unfamiliar vehicles, and achieving economies of scale in vehicle production while providing an attractive selection of vehicle makes and models for car-buyers. The upfront costs will be high and could persist for a decade or more, delaying profitability until an adequate number of vehicles can be produced and moved into consumer markets. However, the potential rewards to the economy, environment, and national security are immense. Such a profound market transformation will require careful planning and strong, consistent policy incentives. Section 811 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 2005, Public Law 109-59 (U.S. House, 2005), calls for a report from the Secretary of Energy on measures to support the transition to a hydrogen economy. The report was to specifically address production and deployment of hydrogen-fueled vehicles and the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure needed to support those vehicles. In addition, the 2004 report of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, 2004), The Hydrogen Economy, contained two recommendations for analyses to be conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to strengthen hydrogen energy transition and infrastructure planning for the hydrogen economy. In response to the EPACT requirement and NAS recommendations, DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and

  20. Fabrication and characterization of MOX fuels with high plutonium content using alternative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) in Karlsruhe is part of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. Its particular aims are (i) to perform nuclear R and D in support of EU policies, (ii) to further enhance the Institute's role as a recognized centre of European basic actinide research, (iii) to contribute to an effective nuclear safeguards system in Europe and elsewhere, and (iv) to strengthen the position of the European industry by evaluating and testing the potential for technological and medical applications of transuranium elements. In particular, ITU is actively engaged in the performance of the R and D programmes ''Safety of Nuclear Fuels'' (development of advanced fuels able to sustain safely high burnup operation) and ''Mitigation of Long Lived Actinides and Fission Products''. Within the framework of these projects, ITU is participating in several international research groups on plutonium incineration (CAPRA) or Partitioning and Transmutation (EFTTRA). Development of advanced LWR MOX fuels is also being pursued in close collaboration with the nuclear fuel cycle industry. This paper describes the fabrication methods developed for MOX (and other Pu-bearing compounds) at the Nuclear Technology Department of ITU. Results obtained from fabrication of MOX fuel at very high Pu content are presented and discussed. Finally, examples of MOX fuel fabrication (LWR representative, with high Pu content) leading to large grain formation are presented. (author)

  1. World Urbanization Prospects: an alternative to the UN model of projection compatible with the mobility transition theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bocquier

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to critically examine the United Nations projections on urbanisation. Both the estimates of current trends based on national data and the method of projection are evaluated. The theory of mobility transition is used as an alternative hypothesis. Projections are proposed using a polynomial model and compared to the UN projections, which are based on a linear model. The conclusion is that UN projections may overestimate the urban population for the year 2030 by almost one billion, or 19% in relative term. The overestimation would be particularly more pronounced for developing countries and may exceed 30% in Africa, India and Oceania.

  2. Lessons of the Past. Development of an alternative fuel infrastructure. The case of LPG/CNG in the Netherlands and other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of an alternative transport fuel always bears a challenge that is often referred to as a 'chicken and egg' problem: while people will only become interested in and start switching to a new fuel if sufficient refuelling stations are available, industry will only start investing in the development of a refuelling infrastructure if the market is sufficiently developed and existing stations are economically viable. Governments have a variety of, for example, fiscal or regulatory measures at hand to facilitate and support the introduction of an alternative transport fuel. This report describes and analyses the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or compressed natural gas (CNG) in the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Canada and Argentina. In particular, the report pays attention to the development of station coverage and vehicle numbers for these alternative fuels. Drivers and barriers to the introduction of LPG or CNG, such as fuel price developments, supporting policy instruments or a lack thereof were identified. Main focus are the Netherlands where LPG was introduced in the mid-1950s. A comparison of developments in the Netherlands with the other four countries reveals that well concerted efforts by policy makers and industry supporting a parallel development of vehicle uptake and refuelling station availability may lead to the firm establishment of an alternative fuel market. The report concludes with lessons learned for the introduction of hydrogen as an alternative transport fuel.

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIV, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM PART III--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR/ALTERNATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) INJECTION TIMING CONTROLS, (2) GOVERNOR, (3) FUEL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE TIPS, (4) THE CHARGING SYSTEM, (5) REGULATING THE GENERATOR/ALTERNATOR, AND (6) CHARGING SYSTEM SERVICE…

  4. Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS-2) Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of approx.2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground tests.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  6. Prediction of Emissions from Biodiesel Fueled Transit Buses Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisek Mudgal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of freight transportation and passenger cars has led to air pollution, green house gas emissions (especially CO2 and fuel supply concerns. Research has been carried out on biodiesel which is shown to generate lower emissions. However, the amount of emissions generated is not well understood which entails more vigorous data collection and development of emissions models. A comprehensive data collection plan was developed and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and PM10 from biodiesel fueled transit buses were collected using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS. Linear models were developed and tested for each emission. However, the models could not capture the emissions spikes well resulting in very low R2 values. Artificial neural networks (ANNs based models were then employed on this data because of their ability to handle nonlinearity and not requiring assumptions on the input data as needed by statistical models. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the input parameters, number of hidden layers, learning rate and learning algorithm to arrive at an optimum ANN architecture. The optimal architecture for this study was found to be two hidden layers with 50 hidden nodes for each of NOx, HC, CO, and PM and one hidden layer for CO2. The emissions were predicted using best-performance ANN models for each emission. Scatter-plots of observed versus predicted values showed R2 of 0.96, 0.94, 0.82, 0.98 and 0.78 for NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and PM emissions, respectively. Histogram on prediction error showed low frequency for large errors.

  7. Use of citric acid esters as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Georg; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany); Schieder, Doris [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Straubing (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Chemie Biogener Rohstoffe

    2013-06-01

    Common fuels for (adapted) diesel engines are fossil diesel fuel, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME or biodiesel) or vegetable oils. Furthermore the citric acid esters tributylcitrate (TBC) and triethylcitrate (TEC) are expected to be a possible diesel substitute. Their use as fuel was applied for a patent in Germany in 2010. According to the patent applicant the advantages are low soot combustion, independence of energy imports due to the possibility of local production and a broad raw material base. Their fuel properties have been analysed in the laboratory and compared with the relevant fuel standards. Only some of the determined values are meeting the specifications, but on the other hand few rapeseed oil characteristics (e. g. oxidation stability and viscosity) can be improved if the citric acid esters are used as a blend component. The operating and emission behaviour of a vegetable oil compatible CHP unit fuelled with various rapeseed oil and TBC blends were investigated and a trouble free and soot emission reduced engine operation due to the high molecularly bound oxygen content was observed. Long term test runs are necessary for an entire technical validation. (orig.)

  8. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  9. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

  10. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes Tarabet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v% at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  11. Characteristics of Waste Plastics Pyrolytic Oil and Its Applications as Alternative Fuel on Four Cylinder Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Nugroho Pratama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastics recycling using pyrolysis method is not only able to decrease a number of environment pollutant but also able to produce economical and high quality hydrocarbon products. Two experiments were conducted to completely study Waste Plastic Pyrolytic Oil (WPPO characteristics and its applications.  First experiment investigated oil characteristics derived from pyrolysis process in two stages batch reactors: pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactor, at maximum temperature 500oC and 450oC respectively. Waste Polyethylene (PE, Polypropylene (PP, Polystyrene (PS, Polyethylene Terepthalate (PET and others were used as raw material. Nitrogen flow rate at 0.8 l/minutes was used to increase oil weight percentage. Indonesian natural zeolite was used as catalyst. Then, second experiment was carried out on Diesel Engine Test Bed (DETB used blending of WPPO and Biodiesel fuel with a volume ratio of 1:9. This experiment was specifically conducted to study how much potency of blending of WPPO and biodiesel in diesel engine. The result of first experiment showed that the highest weight percentage of WPPO derived from mixture of PE waste (50%wt, PP waste (40%wt and PS waste (10%wt is 45.13%wt. The more weight percentage of PE in feedstock effected on the less weight percentage of WPPO, the more percentage of C12-C20 content in WPPO and the higher calorific value of WPPO. Characteristics of WPPO such as, Specific Gravity, Flash point, Pour Point, Kinematic Viscosity, Calorific value and percentage of C12-C20 showed interesting result that WPPO could be developed as alternative fuel on diesel fuel blending due to the proximity of their characteristics. Performance of diesel engine using blending of WPPO and biodiesel on second experiment gave good result so the WPPO will have great potency to be valuable alternative liquid fuel in future, especially on stationary diesel engine and transportation engine application.

  12. Evaluation of Metals (Al, Fe, Zn) in Alternative Fuels by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in Two Electrode Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yon Kyun [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwnagyang (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Geun Woong; Kim, Hee San [Hongik University, Chochiwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Many kinds of alternative fuels such as biodiesel, ethanol, methanol, and natural gas have been developed in order to overcome the limited deposits in fossil fuels. In some cases, the alternative fuels have been reported to cause degrade materials. The corrosion rates of metals were measured by immersion test, a kind of time consuming test because low conductivity of these fuels was not allowed to employ electrochemical tests. With twin two-electrode cell newly designed for the study, however, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test was successfully applied to evaluation of the corrosion resistance (R{sub p}) of zinc, iron, aluminum, and its alloys in an oxidized biodiesel and gasoline/ethanol solutions and the corrosion resistance from EIS was compared with the corrosion rate from immersion test. In biodiesel, R{sub p} increased in the order of zinc, iron, and aluminum, which agreed with the corrosion resistance measured from immersion test. In addition, on aluminum showing the best corrosion resistance (R{sub p}), the effect of magnesium as an alloying element was evaluated in gasoline/ethanol solutions as well as the oxidized biodiesel. R{sub p} increased with addition of magnesium in gasoline/ethanol solutions containing chloride and the oxidized biodiesel. In the mean while, in gasoline/ethanol solutions containing formic acid, Al-Mg alloy added 1% magnesium had the highest R{sub p} and the further addition of magnesium decreased R{sub p}. It can be explained with the fact that the addition of more than 1% magnesium increases the passive current density of Al-Mg alloys.

  13. Introduction of MKZP (Min Ku Zirconium Process) as an alternative to pyroprocessing for used nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new process to co-recover uranium and transuranic nuclides from used nuclear fuels was introduced, which was named 'MKZP' (Min Ku Zirconium Process), as an alternative of widely known pyroprocessing. Instead of an electrochemical reduction of the pyroprocessing, the MKZP employs Zr and ZrCl4 as reactants to chemically convert U3O8 into UCl3, which leads to a significant advantage in total number of processes. An addition of fresh zirconium can be minimized by employing cladding hull waste as a source of zirconium tetrachloride through a chlorination process. (author)

  14. A feasibility study of using Biomethane as an alternative fuel for taxis in the Reykjavík capital area

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes Arnórsson

    2011-01-01

    Price of gasoline at the dispenser in Iceland has never been higher than today. This paper investigates the economic feasibility of using biomethane as an alternative fuel for the taxi fleet in the Reykjavík capital area. Cases of different groups of taxis were set up on the basis of existing data of the fleet and the financial feasibility evaluated. The cases were divided into separate groups based on the emission classes and various scenarios and sensitivity analysis applied. The research l...

  15. Determining the range of variation of convective heat transfer coefficient during the combustion of alternative kinds of gaseous fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr I. Brunetkin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the reason of complication of usage of alternative fuel gases on the installed equipment — the organization of effective process of their combustion. As one of the parameters affecting the dynamic characteristics of the control object, the coefficient of convective heat transfer is considered. The effect of changes of physical characteristics of heat and rate of combustion products arising from the use of various combustible gases on it is determined. It is found that the main cause of the change of heat transfer coefficient is the presence of flammable gases of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the mixture.

  16. The Commodity Terms of Trade, Unit Roots, and Nonlinear Alternatives: A Smooth Transition Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Barry K. Goodwin; Holt, Matthew T.; Prestemon, Jeffery P.

    2008-01-01

    Market price dynamics for North American oriented strand board markets are examined. Specifically, the role of transactions costs are examined vis–`a–vis the law of one price. Weekly data for the January 3rd, 1995 through April 14th, 2006 period are used in the analysis. Nonlinearities induced by unobservable transactions costs are modeled by estimating smooth transition autoregressions (STARs). Results indicate that nonlinearity is an important feature of these markets and that the parity re...

  17. Contract law as an alternative possibility for investments in transition economies

    OpenAIRE

    Krasniqi, Armand

    2010-01-01

    Each country which has gone through or is in the process of transition and social-economic transformation, in normal circumstances has its rational objectives to create the conditions for active participation in initial or advanced operations of the international business. Depending on the level of development and international business environment they adopt and execute specific investing strategies. Every responsible government has its duty to evaluate the importance and cost of investm...

  18. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  19. Spectral hardening as a viable alternative to disc truncation in black hole state transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Salvesen, Greg; Reis, Rubens C; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2013-01-01

    Constraining the accretion flow geometry of black hole binaries in outburst is complicated by the inability of simplified multi-colour disc models to distinguish between changes in the inner disc radius and alterations to the emergent spectrum, parameterised by the phenomenological colour correction factor, f_col. We analyse Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the low mass Galactic black hole X-ray binary, GX 339-4, taken over seven epochs when the source was experiencing a state transition. The accretion disc component is isolated using a pipeline resulting in robust detections for disc luminosities, 0.001 < L_disc / L_Edd < 0.5. Assuming that the inner disc remains situated at the innermost stable circular orbit over the course of a state transition, we measure the relative degree of change in f_col required to explain the spectral evolution of the disc component. A variable f_col that increases by a factor of ~ 2.0 - 3.5 as the source transitions from the high/soft state to the low/hard state...

  20. Alternate use of containment spray pumps for shutdown cooling and spent fuel pool cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes plant modifications at the PWR-type nuclear plant to cross-connect containment spray pumps (CSP's) with shutdown cooling pumps (low pressure safety injection pumps or LPSIP's) to facilitate plant shutdown and/or spent fuel pool (SFP) cooling by the containment spray pumps. The alignment of the containment spray pumps in this fashion will facilitate the maintenance of the shutdown cooling system and spent fuel pool cooling components during plant cooldown operations, when all or part of the reactor fuel is still in the reactor. Without this betterment, selected system maintenance can be performed only when all the reactor fuel has been off-loaded from the reactor to the spent fuel pool. The off-loading of all fuel significantly extends the refueling outage, and is therefore very expensive. The system modifications to accomplish this task have been designed at the Southern California Edison's (SCE's) nuclear generating stations at San Onofre, California (SONGS). While these modifications are still subject to the approval by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the merit of this plant betterment is evident, as it would result in substantial savings to the utility. Due to the similarity of PWR plant designs, the modifications described in this paper and resultant cost savings may be applicable to many existing PWR plants in the USA and elsewhere. This paper also relates to the importance of backup systems with respect to plant operation and maintenance. This design philosophy is applicable not just to the nuclear PWR type plants but also to the BWR and other plants in general