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Sample records for alternative fuel option

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment Options to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  2. Accelerators and alternative nuclear fuel management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of special accelerators suggests the po tential for new directions in nuclear energy systems evolution. Such directions point towards a more acceptable form of nuclear energy by reason of the consequent accessibility of enhanced fuel management choices. Essential and specifically directed research and development activity needs to be under taken in order to clarify and resolve a number of technical issues

  3. Fuel alternatives for oil sands development - the nuclear option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Donnelly, J K

    1996-12-31

    Currently natural gas is the fuel of choice in all oil sand developments. Alberta sources of hydrocarbon based fuels are large but limited. Canadian nuclear technology was studied as a possible alternative for providing steam for the deep commercial in situ oil sand projects which were initiated over ten years ago. Because the in situ technology of that time required steam at pressures in excess of 10 MPa, the nuclear option required the development of new reactor technology, or the use of steam compressors, which was not economical. The current SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology requires steam at pressures of less than 5 MPa, which is in the reach of existing Canadian nuclear technology. The cost of supplying steam for a SAGD in situ project using a CANDU 3 nuclear reactor was developed. The study indicates that for gas prices in excess of $2.50 per gigajoule, replacing natural gas fuel with a nuclear reactor is economically feasible for in situ projects in excess of 123 thousand barrels per day. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  4. Fuel alternatives for oil sands development - the nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, D.; Donnelly, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Currently natural gas is the fuel of choice in all oil sand developments. Alberta sources of hydrocarbon based fuels are large but limited. Canadian nuclear technology was studied as a possible alternative for providing steam for the deep commercial in situ oil sand projects which were initiated over ten years ago. Because the in situ technology of that time required steam at pressures in excess of 10 MPa, the nuclear option required the development of new reactor technology, or the use of steam compressors, which was not economical. The current SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology requires steam at pressures of less than 5 MPa, which is in the reach of existing Canadian nuclear technology. The cost of supplying steam for a SAGD in situ project using a CANDU 3 nuclear reactor was developed. The study indicates that for gas prices in excess of $2.50 per gigajoule, replacing natural gas fuel with a nuclear reactor is economically feasible for in situ projects in excess of 123 thousand barrels per day. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  5. New options for conversion of vegetable oils to alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A.; Kara, H. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Biodiesel from transesterification of vegetable oils is an excellent alternative fuel. There is, however, a need to develop a direct process for conversion of vegetable oils into gasoline-competitive biodiesel and other petroleum products. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of vegetable oil. Compared to No. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oils are much more viscous, whereas methyl esters of vegetable oils are slightly more viscous. The methyl esters are more volatile than those of the vegetable oils. Conversion of vegetable oils to useful fuels involves the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of the oils into lower molecular products. Pyrolysis produces more biogasoline than biodiesel fuel. Soap pyrolysis products of vegetable oils can be used as alternative diesel engine fuel. The soaps obtained from the vegetable oils can be pyrolyzed into hydrocarbon-rich products. Zinc chloride catalyst contributed greatly to high amounts of hydrocarbons in the liquid product. The yield of ZnCl2 catalytic conversion of the soybean oil reached the maximum 79.9% at 660 K. (author)

  6. Automobiles and global warming: Alternative fuels and other options for carbon dioxide emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    Automobiles are a source of considerable pollution at the global level, including a significant fraction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Alternative fuels have received some attention as potential options to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles. This article discusses the feasibility and desirability (from a technical as well as a broader environmental perspective) of the large-scale production and use of alternative fuels as a strategy to mitigate automotive carbon dioxide emissions. Other options such as improving vehicle efficiency and switching to more efficient modes of passenger transportation are also discussed. These latter options offer an effective and immediate way to tackle the greenhouse and other pollutant emission from automobiles, especially as the limitations of currently available alternative fuels and the technological and other constraints for potential future alternatives are revealed

  7. Alternative fuel cycle options: performance characteristics and impact on nuclear power growth potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.; Rudolph, R.R.; Deen, J.R.; King, M.J.

    1977-09-01

    The fuel utilization characteristics for LWR, SSCR, CANDU and LMFBR reactor concepts are quantified for various fuel cycle options, including once-through cycles, thorium cycles, and denatured cycles. The implications of various alternative reactor deployment strategies on the long-term nuclear power growth potential are then quantified in terms of the maximum nuclear capacity that can be achieved and the growth pattern over time, subject to the constraint of a fixed uranium-resource base. The overall objective of this study is to shed light on any large differences in the long-term potential that exist between various alternative reactor/fuel cycle deployment strategies

  8. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  9. Alternative energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    It is accepted that coal will continue to play the major role in the supply of energy to the country for the remainder of the century. In this paper, however, emphasis has been directed to those options which could supplement coal in an economic and technically sound manner. The general conclusion is that certain forms of solar energy hold the most promise and it is in this direction that research, development and implementation programmes should be directed. Tidal energy, fusion energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy and fuel cells are also discussed as alternative energy options

  10. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

  11. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE`s commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path.

  12. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 1, Regulatory options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. Volume 1 of this two-volume report describes the regulatory options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

  13. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  14. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  15. Final report, Task 2: alternative waste management options, Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Of the alternatives considered for disposal of the high-level waste in tanks 8D2 and 8D4, the following process is recommended: homogenization of the contents of tank 8D2, centrifugation of the sludge and supernate, mixing of the 8D4 acid waste with the centrifuged sludge, and converting the mixture to a borosilicate glass using the Hanford spray calciner/in-can melter

  16. Assessment of alternative fuel and powertrain transit bus options using real-world operations data: Life-cycle fuel and emissions modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yanzhi; Gbologah, Franklin E.; Lee, Dong-Yeon; Liu, Haobing; Rodgers, Michael O.; Guensler, Randall L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a practical fuel and emissions modeling tool for alternative fuel buses. • The model assesses well-to-wheels emissions impacts of bus fleet decisions. • Mode-based approach is used to account for duty cycles and local conditions. • A case study using real-world operations data from Atlanta, GA is presented. • Impacts of alternative bus options depend on operating and geographic features. - Abstract: Hybrid and electric powertrains and alternative fuels (e.g., compressed natural gas (CNG), biodiesel, or hydrogen) can often reduce energy consumption and emissions from transit bus operations relative to conventional diesel. However, the magnitude of these energy and emissions savings can vary significantly, due to local conditions and transit operating characteristics. This paper introduces the transit Fuel and Emissions Calculator (FEC), a mode-based life-cycle emissions modeling tool for transit bus and rail technologies that compares the performance of multiple alternative fuels and powertrains across a range of operational characteristics and conditions. The purpose of the FEC is to provide a practical, yet technically sophisticated tool for regulatory agencies and policy analysts in assessing transit fleet options. The FEC’s modal modeling approach estimates emissions as a function of engine load, which in turn is a function of transit service parameters, including duty cycle (idling and speed-acceleration profile), road grade, and passenger loading. This approach allows for customized assessments that account for local conditions. Direct emissions estimates are derived from the scaled tractive power (STP) operating mode bins and emissions factors employed in the U.S. EPA’s MOVES (MOtor Vehicle Emissions Simulator) model. Life-cycle emissions estimates are calculated using emissions factors from the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model. The case study presented in this paper

  17. How alternative are alternative fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Tiziana; Danielis, Romeo

    1998-01-01

    Could alternative fuel vehicles contribute to a substantial reduction of air pollution? Is there a market for alternative fuel vehicles? Could a market be created via a pollution tax? The article answers these questions on the basis of the available estimates.

  18. Nuclear spent fuel management. Experience and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel can be stored safely for long periods at relatively low cost, but some form of permanent disposal will eventually be necessary. This report examines the options for spent fuel management, explores the future prospects for each stage of the back-end of the fuel cycle and provides a thorough review of past experience and the technical status of the alternatives. Current policies and practices in twelve OECD countries are surveyed

  19. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Michael James; Bean, Thomas E.; Brower, Jeffrey O.; Luke, Dale E.; Patterson, M. W.; Robb, Alan K.; Sindelar, Robert; Smith, Rebecca E.; Tonc, Vincent F.; Tripp, Julia L.; Winston, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center's (INTEC's) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  20. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Michael James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bean, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luke, Dale E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patterson, M. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, Alan K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonc, Vincent F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripp, Julia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center’s (INTEC’s) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  1. Alternative Fuel Guidelines for Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The Volpe Center documented the increased use of alternative fuels on vehicles owned and operated by federal land management agencies. For each alternative fuel type, the Volpe Center documented the availability of vehicles, fueling mechanisms and pr...

  2. Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passerini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an appropriate form of the fuel is irradiated through a nuclear reactor only once before it is disposed of as waste. The discharged fuel contains materials that can be suitable for use as fuel. Thus, different types of fuel recycling technologies may be introduced in order to more fully utilize the energy potential of the fuel, or reduce the environmental impacts and proliferation concerns about the discarded fuel materials. Nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis is applied in this paper to attain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of fuel cycle alternatives. Through the use of the nuclear fuel cycle analysis code CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis, the impact of a number of recycling technologies and the associated fuel cycle options is explored in the context of the U.S. energy scenario over 100 years. Particular focus is given to the quantification of Uranium utilization, the amount of Transuranic Material (TRU generated and the economics of the different options compared to the base-line case, the OTC option. It is concluded that LWRs and the OTC are likely to dominate the nuclear energy supply system for the period considered due to limitations on availability of TRU to initiate recycling technologies. While the introduction of U-235 initiated fast reactors can accelerate their penetration of the nuclear energy system, their higher capital cost may lead to continued preference for the LWR-OTC cycle.

  3. CANDU fuel cycle options in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P. G.; Fehrenbach, P. J.; Meneley, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    There are many reasons for countries embarking on a CANDU R program to start with the natural uranium fuel cycle. Simplicity of fuel design, ease of fabrication, and ready availability of natural uranium all help to localize the technology and to reduce reliance on foreign technology. Nonetheless, at some point, the incentives for using natural uranium fuel may be outweighed by the advantages of alternate fuel cycles. The excellent neutron economy, on-line refuelling, and simple fuel-bundle design provide an unsurpassed degree of fuel-cycle flexibility in CANDU reactors. The easiest first step in CANDU fuel-cycle evolution may be the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), including recovered uranium from reprocessed LWR spent fuel. Relatively low enrichment (up to 1.2%) will result in a two- to three-fold reduction in the quantity of spent fuel per unit energy production, reductions in fuel-cycle costs, and greater flexibility in the design of new reactors. The CANFLEX (CANDU FLEXible) fuel bundle would be the optimal fuel carrier. A country that has both CANDU and PWR reactors can exploit the natural synergism between these two reactor types to minimize overall waste production, and maximize energy derived from the fuel. This synergism can be exploited through several different fuel cycles. A high burnup CANDU MOX fuel design could be used to utilize plutonium from conventional reprocessing or more advanced reprocessing options (such as co-processing). DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel In CANDU) represents a recycle option that has a higher degree of proliferation resistance than dose conventional reprocessing, since it uses only dry processes for converting spent PWR fuel into CANDU fuel, without separating the plutonium. Good progress is being made in the current KAERI, AECL, and U. S. Department of State program in demonstrating the technical feasibility of DUPIC. In the longer term, CANDU reactors offer even more dramatic synergistic fuel cycles with PWR or

  4. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2010-10-01

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure fueling stations by location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about ethanol fueling infrastructure; codes, standards, and safety; and ethanol equipment options. Maps & Data E85 Fueling Station

  6. Fuel options for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H 2 ) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H 2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is

  7. Alternative Cancer Treatments: 10 Options to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative cancer treatments: 10 options to consider Alternative cancer treatments can't cure your cancer, but they may provide some ... that may help them, including complementary and alternative cancer treatments. If cancer makes you feel as if you ...

  8. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on

  10. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached

  11. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  12. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This diffuse subject involves value judgments that are political as well as technical, and is best understood in that context. The four questions raised here, however, are mostly from the technical viewpoints: (1) what are alternative nuclear fuel cycles; (2) what generalizations are possible about their characteristics; (3) what are the major practical considerations; and (4) what is the present situation and what can be said about the outlook for the future

  13. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This report analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP-8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0, 50, and 100 percent. The data show that SPK fuel (an FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  14. Commercial aviation alternative fuels initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    This presentation looks at alternative fuels to enhance environmental stability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality benefits (e.g., SOx and PM), fuel supply stability, and fuel price stability.

  15. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  16. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  17. Alternate-Fuel Vehicles and Their Application in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Chip

    1991-01-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming increasingly attractive from environmental, energy independence, and economic perspectives. Addresses the following topics: (1) federal and state legislation; (2) alternative fuels and their attributes; (3) practical experience with alternative-fuel vehicles in pupil transportation; and (4) options for school…

  18. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  19. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  20. Prospects for alternative Fusion Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glancy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author has worked on three different magnetic confinement concepts for alternate fusion fueled reactors: tokamaks; tanden mirrors, and reversed field pinches. The focus of this article is on prospects for alternate fusion fuels as the author sees them relative to the other choices: increased numbers of coal plants, fission reactors, renewables, and D-T fusion. Discussion is limited on the consideration of alternate fusion fuels to the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel cycle. Reasons for seeking an alternate energy source are cost, a more secure fuel supply, environmental impact and safety. The technical risks associated with development of fusion are examined briefly

  1. 75 FR 26165 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra-Low Sulfur... refiners, importers, distributors, and retailers of highway diesel fuel the option to use an alternative affirmative defense if the Agency finds highway diesel fuel samples above the specified sulfur standard at...

  2. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windstars; 14) and the use of alternative fuel vehicles at the Olympics. Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol and their economic and environmental benefits. This report is designed to share the experiences and National Academy of Engineering suggested that 'DOE might have its greatest impact by leading the private

  4. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  5. Acquisitions and Real Options : The Greenfield Alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouthers, Keith D.; Dikova, Desislava

    P>Although acquisitions are a popular way to enter new markets, empirical evidence tends to indicate few benefits accrue to acquiring firms. This might be the case because firms use acquisitions when they should be employing an alternative mode of expansion. Applying real options theory to this

  6. Alternative entrepreneurial options: a policy mitigation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on alternative entrepreneurial options as a mitigation strategy against climate change among part-time farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Some farmers abandoned farming in the face of reoccurring adverse weather conditions to other livelihood sustaining activities. The objectives were to examine the ...

  7. The DUPIC alternative for backend fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Yang, M.S.; Park, H.S.; Boczar, P.; Sullivan, J.; Gadsby, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The DUPIC fuel cycle was conceived as an alternative to the conventional fuel cycle backed options, with a view to multiple benefits expectable from burning spent PWR fuel again in CANDU reactors. It is based on the basic idea that the bulk of spent PWR fuel can be directly refabricated into a reusable fuel for CANDU of which high efficiency in neutron utilization would exhaustively burn the fissile remnants in the spent PWR fuel to a level below that of natural uranium. Such ''burn again'' strategy of the DUPIC fuel cycle implies that the spent PWR fuel will become CANDU fuel of higher burnup with relevant benefits such as spent PWR fuel disposition, saving of natural uranium fuel, etc. A salient feature of the DUPIC fuel cycle is neither the fissile content nor the bulk radioactivity is separated from the DUPIC mass flow which must be contained and shielded all along the cycle. This feature can be considered as a factor of proliferation resistance by deterrence against access to sensitive materials. It means also the requirement for remote systems technologies for DUPIC fuel operation. The conflicting aspects between better safeguardability and harder engineering problems of the radioactive fuel operation may be the important reason why the decades' old concept, since INFCE, of ''hot'' fuel cycle has not been pursued with much progress. In this context, the DUPIC fuel cycle could be a live example for development of proliferation resistant fuel cycle. As the DUPIC fuel cycle looks for synergism of fuel linkage from PWR to CANDU (or in broader sense LWR to HWR), Korea occupies a best position for DUPIC exercise with her unique strategy of reactor mix of both reactor types. But the DUPIC benefits can be extended to global bonus, expectable from successful development of the technology. (author)

  8. Part 5. Fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.; Amundson, P.I.; Goin, R.W.; Webster, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the FBR fuel cycle study that supported US contributions to the INFCE are presented. Fuel cycle technology is reviewed from both generic and historical standpoints. Technology requirements are developed within the framework of three deployment scenarios: the reference international, the secured area, and the integral cycle. Reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling, transportation, and safeguards are discussed for each deployment scenario. Fuel cycle modifications designed to increase proliferation defenses are described and assessed for effectiveness and technology feasibility. The present status of fuel cycle technology is reviewed and key issues that require resolution are identified

  9. Alternative Fuels (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    feedstock for HRJ, plant cost for F-T) Courtesy AFRL, Dr. Tim Edwards Unclassified • Agricultural crop oils (canola, jatropha, soy, palm , etc...Fuels Focus  Various conversion processes  Upgraded to meet fuel specs Diverse energy sources Petroleum Crude Oil Petroleum based Single Fuel in the...data and resources – Conduct gap analysis – synfuel efforts, expand to biofuels, ID potential joint efforts – Increase visibility outside SCP world

  10. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  11. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  12. Discussion paper: direction for Canada's alternate fuels program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    There is a growing need to accelerate the consideration of alternate fuels for use in Canadian vehicle transportation. At the present time various governments and corporations are initiating alternate fuel programs involving ethanol, methanol, CNG, propane, etc. There is a bewildering array of perspectives as to which fuel or fuels will best serve Canada's needs in the future. In response to the 'Discussion Paper on Liquid Fuels Options, 1980', by the Federal Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ford of Canada has prepared this perspective on each of the alternate fuels from the company's vantage point as a vehicle manufacturer.

  13. Guide to alternative fuel vehicle incentives and laws: September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, C.; O' Connor, K.

    1998-12-22

    This guide provides information in support of the National Clean Cities Program, which will assist one in becoming better informed about the choices and options surrounding the use of alternative fuels and the purchase of alternative fuel vehicles. The information printed in this guide is current as of September 15, 1998. For recent additions or more up-to-date information, check the Alternative Fuels Data Center Web site at http://www.afdc.doe.gov

  14. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 6, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-03-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on Alternate Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) in India, alternative fuels for emergency preparedness, and testing of propane vehicles by UPS. Also an interview of author Jeremy Rifkin on how alternative fuels provide pathways to hydrogen.

  15. Burnable poison option for DUPIC fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Cupta, H. P.

    1996-08-01

    The mechanisms of positive coolant void reactivity of CANDU natural uranium and DUPIC fuel have been studied. The design study of DUPIC fuel was performed using the burnable poison material in the center pin to reduce the coolant void reactivity. The amount of burnable poison was determined such that the prompt inverse period of DUPIC fuel upon full coolant voiding is the same as that of natural uranium fuel at equilibrium burnup. A parametric study on various burnable poisons has shown that natural dysprosium has more merit over other materials because it uniformly controls the void reactivity throughout the burnup with reasonable amount of poison. Additional studies on the option of using scattering or absorber material in the center pin position and the option using variable fuel density were performed. In any case of option using variable fuel density were performed. In any case of options to reduce the void reactivity, it was found that either the discharge burnup and/or the relative linear pin power are sacrificed. A preliminary study was performed for the evaluation of reference DUPIC fuel performance especially represented by Stress Corrosion Cracking(SCC) parameters which is mainly influenced by the refueling operations. For the reference 2-bundle shift refueling scheme, the predicted ramped power and power increment of the reference DUPIC fuel are below the SCC thresholds of CANDU natural uranium fuel. For a 4-bundle shift refueling scheme, the envelopes of element ramped power and power increment upon refueling are 8% and 44% higher than those of a 2-bundle shift refueling scheme on the average, respectively, but still have margins to the failure thresholds of natural uranium fuel. 23 tabs., 25 figs., 20 refs. (Author)

  16. Spent fuel storage options: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Bale, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The delayed decisions on nuclear fuel reprocessing strategies in the USA and other countries have forced the development of new long-term irradiated fuel storage techniques, to allow a larger volume of fuel to be held on the nuclear station site after removal from the reactor. The nuclear power industry has responded to the challenge by developing several viable options for long-term onsite storage, which can be employed individually or in tandem. They are: densification of storage in the existing spent fuel pool; building another fuel pool facility at the plant site; onsite cask park, and on site vault clusters. Desirable attributes of a storage option are: Safety: minimise the number of fuel handling steps; Economy: minimise total installed, and O and M cost; Security: protection from anti-nuclear protesters; Site adaptability: available site space, earthquake characteristics of the region and so on; Non-intrusiveness: minimise required modifications to existing plant systems; Modularisation: afford the option to adapt a modular approach for staged capital outlays; and Maturity: extent of industry experience with the technology. A critical appraisal is made of each of the four aforementioned storage options in the light of these criteria. (2 figures, 1 table, 4 references) (Author)

  17. Alternative disposal options for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Three alternative concepts are proposed for the final disposal of stored and retrieved buried transuranic waste. These proposed options answer criticisms of the existing U.S. Department of Energy strategy of directly disposing of stored transuranic waste in deep, geological salt formations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The first option involves enhanced stabilization of stored waste by thermal treatment followed by convoy transportation and internment in the existing WIPP facility. This concept could also be extended to retrieved buried waste with proper permitting. The second option involves in-state, in situ internment using an encapsulating lens around the waste. This concept applies only to previously buried transuranic waste. The third option involves sending stored and retrieved waste to the Nevada Test Site and configuring the waste around a thermonuclear device from the U.S. or Russian arsenal in a specially designed underground chamber. The thermonuclear explosion would transmute plutonium and disassociate hazardous materials while entombing the waste in a national sacrifice area

  18. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  1. CANDU fuel cycle options in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.; Fehrenbach, P.J.; Meneley, D.A.

    1996-04-01

    The easiest first step in CANDU fuel-cycle evolution may be the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), including recovered uranium from reprocessed LWR spent fuel. Relatively low enrichment (up to 1.2%) will result in a twoto three-fold reduction in the quantity of spent fuel per unit energy production, reductions in fuel-cycle costs, and greater flexibility in the design of new reactors. The CANFLEX (CANDU FLEXible) fuel bundle would be the optimal fuel carrier. A country that has both CANDU and PWR reactors can exploit the natural synergism between these two reactor types to minimize overall waste production, and maximize energy derived from the fuel. This synergism can be exploited through several different fuel cycles. A high burnup CANDU MOX fuel design could be used to utilize plutonium from conventional reprocessing or more advanced reprocessing options (such as co-processing). DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel In CANDU) represents a recycle option that has a higher degree of proliferation resistance than does conventional reprocessing, since it uses only dry processes for converting spent PWR fuel into CANDU fuel, without separating the plutonium. Good progress is being made in the current KAERI, AECL, and U.S. Department of State program in demonstrating the technical feasibility of DUPIC. In the longer term, CANDU reactors offer even more dramatic synergistic fuel cycles with PWR or FBR reactors. If the objective of a national fuel-cycle program is the minimization of actinide waste or destruction of long-lived fission products, then studies have shown the superiority of CANDU reactors in meeting this objective. Long-term energy security can be assured either through the thorium cycle or through a CANDU 1 FBR system, in which the FBR would be operated as a 'fuel factory,' providing the fissile material to power a number of lower-cost, high efficiency CANDU reactors. In summary, the CANDU reactor's simple fuel design, high neutron economy, and on

  2. Implications of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The United States is re-examining alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies, and doubtful attempts are being made to justify the economics of the 'throw-away' fuel cycle. At an international forum on 'An acceptable nuclear energy future for the world' at Fort Lauderdale, Karl Cohen of General Electric and a leading authority on this topic put the implications into perspective. Extracts from his address are presented

  3. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-01-01

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains

  4. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  5. 77 FR 19278 - Informational Meeting on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Informational Meeting on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options AGENCY: Office of Fuel... activities leading to a comprehensive evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycle options in 2013. At this... fuel cycle options developed for the evaluation and screening provides a comprehensive representation...

  6. Assessment of Used Nuclear Fuel Inventory Relative to Disposition Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, John C.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Mueller, Don; Gehin, Jess C.; Worrall, Andrew; Taiwo, Temitope; Nutt, Mark; Williamson, Mark A.; Todosow, Mike; Wigeland, Roald; Halsey, William; Omberg, Ronald; Swift, Peter; Carter, Joe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of the current inventory [∼70,150 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) as of 2011] of U.S.-discharged used nuclear fuel (UNF) to support decisions regarding fuel cycle strategies and research, development and demonstration (RD and D) needs. The assessment considered discharged UNF from commercial nuclear electricity generation and defense and research programs and determined that the current UNF inventory can be divided into the following three categories: 1. Disposal - excess material that is not needed for other purposes; 2. Research - material needed for RD and D purposes to support waste management (e.g., UNF storage, transportation, and disposal) and development of alternative fuel cycles (e.g., separations and advanced fuels/reactors); and 3. Recycle/Recovery - material with inherent and/or strategic value. A set of key assumptions and attributes relative to the disposition options was used to categorize the current UNF inventory. Based on consideration of RD and D needs, time frames and material needs for deployment of alternative fuel cycles, characteristics of the current UNF inventory, and possible uses to support national security interests, it was determined that the vast majority of the category, without the need for retrieval for reuse or research purposes. Access to the material in the Research and Recycle/Recovery categories should be retained to support RD and D needs and national security interests. This assessment does not assume any decision about future fuel cycle options or preclude any potential options, including those with potential recycling of commercial UNF, since the ∼2,000 MTHM that is generated annually could provide the feedstock needed for deployment of alternative fuel cycles.

  7. Alternative Fuel for Marine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) is participating in the U.S. Navy's ongoing efforts to test alternative fuels for marine use by demonstrating their applicability on commercial vessels. In support of this effort, the Navy provided neat hydrot...

  8. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the nuclear fuel cycle. It is divided into three parts. The first part, called Front-End, covers all activities connected with fuel procurement and fabrication. The middle part of the cycle includes fuel reload design activities and the operation of the fuel in the reactor. Back-End comprises all activities ensuring safe separation of spent fuel and radioactive waste from the environment. The individual stages of the fuel cycle are strongly interrelated. Overall economic optimization is very difficult. Generally, NPV is used for an economic evaluation in the nuclear fuel cycle. However the high volatility of uranium prices in the Front-End, and the large uncertainty of both economic and technical parameters in the Back-End, make the use of NPV difficult. The real option method is able to evaluate the value added by flexibility of decision making by a company under conditions of uncertainty. The possibility of applying this method to the nuclear fuel cycle evaluation is studied. 

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  10. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Station in Arkansas Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in

  12. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-23

    This special issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the Fifth National Clean Cities Conference held in Louisville, Kentucky. The momentum for the program is stronger than ever and the coalitions are working to propel the alternative fuel industry forward.

  13. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  14. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    , and transport. Maps & Data U.S. Biodiesel Production, Exports, and Consumption U.S. Biodiesel Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    (nameplate, MW) 1,430 Source: BioFuels Atlas from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Case Studies Video Alternative Fuels Save Money in Indy April 1, 2012 More Case Studies Videos Text Version More Indiana Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Indiana Beverage Company Invests in Alternative Fuels Indiana Beverage

  17. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about biodiesel fueling infrastructure codes Case Studies California Ramps Up Biofuels Infrastructure Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in Upstate

  19. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.R.; Serra, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

  1. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog: FY16 Improvements and Additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2016 fiscal year.

  2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog FY15 Improvements and Additions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2015 fiscal year.

  3. The environment and the use of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okken, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    The contribution of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) to the ANWB symposium on alternative fuels and techniques concerns the necessity to use alternatives to reduce CO 2 emissions, the importance of system integration, and a discussion of the strong and weak points with regard to the introduction of the fuel alternatives in the Netherlands. First attention is paid to the greenhouse effect (CO 2 emissions) of the use of fuels. Options to reduce CO 2 emission from automobiles are mentioned. Than several alternative fuels and accompanying techniques, and their impact on the CO 2 emission, are discussed: diesel, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), methanol, ethanol, rapeseed, electricity, and hydrogen. The possibilities to reduce CO 2 emission in the Netherlands can be calculated by means of the Energy and Materials Scenarios (EMS). For several aspects assessments are given for the above-mentioned alternatives: availability of technology, ease of fuel storage, risk of use, impact on the city climate, full fuel cycle CO 2 emission, costs, and reserves. These aspects can be considered as valid for most of the industrialized countries. For the Netherlands two other aspects have been assessed: the interest of the oil industry in the introduction of alternative fuels, the availability of the alternatives in the Netherlands. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 10 refs

  4. Alternative fossil-based transportation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    "Alternative fuels derived from oil sands and from coal liquefaction can cost-effectively diversify fuel supplies, but neither type significantly reduces U.S. carbon-dioxide emissions enough to arrest long-term climate change".

  5. Are We There Yet? Alternative Fuels for School Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dennis; Carter, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    America's annual oil consumption continues to increase and is projected to continue the upward spiral into the foreseeable future. Alternative-fuel options are available that are not only cheaper in some cases on an energy-equivalent basis but are also more environmentally friendly. Education leaders need to be concerned with both these facts.…

  6. Isoprenoid based alternative diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taek Soon; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-08-18

    Fuel compositions are provided comprising a hydrogenation product of a monocyclic sesquiterpene (e.g., hydrogenated bisabolene) and a fuel additive. Methods of making and using the fuel compositions are also disclosed. ##STR00001##

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    /2018 Biodiesel and Green Diesel Definitions updated 4/9/2018 Data Download Fueling Stations 706 stations in Virginia with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 9 Compressed unit sold per GGE per unit sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.47/gallon $2.25/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel-Blended Diesel Documentation Requirement Data Download Fueling Stations 149 stations in Maine with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 2 1 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 0 2 Electric ://www.youtube.com/embed/jHftlruFR40 Video thumbnail for Maine's Only Biodiesel Manufacturer Powers Fleets in the

  9. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Related Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    marketing zero-emission proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation and power generation production and use. Energy Management Institute The Energy Management Institute publishes the Alternative

  11. Alternative Fuel News, Volume 4, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficker, C.

    2000-11-14

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News focuses on transit buses and refuse haulers. Many transit agencies and waste management companies are investigating alternatives to traditional diesel buses and refuse haulers.

  12. Ontario Select Committee on Alternative Fuel Sources : Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galt, D.

    2002-06-01

    On June 28, 2001, the Ontario Legislative Assembly appointed the Select Committee an Alternative Fuel Sources, comprised of representatives of all parties, with a broad mandate to investigate, report and offer recommendations with regard to the various options to support the development and application of environmentally sustainable alternatives to the fossil fuel sources already existing. The members of the Committee elected to conduct extensive public hearings, conduct site visits, attend relevant conferences, do some background research to examine a vast number of alternative fuel and energy sources that could be of relevance to the province of Ontario. A discussion paper (interim report) was issued by the Committee in November 2001, and the present document represents the final report, containing 141 recommendations touching 20 topics. The information contained in the report is expected to assist in the development and outline of policy and programs designed to specifically support alternative fuels and energy sources and applicable technologies. Policy issues were discussed in Part A of the report, along with the appropriate recommendations. The recommendations on specific alternative fuels and energy sources were included in Part B of the report. It is believed that the dependence of Ontario on traditional petroleum-based fuels and energy sources can be reduced through aggressive action on alternative fuels and energy. The benefits of such action would be felt in the area of air quality, with social, and economic benefits as well. 3 tabs

  13. The Socio-economics and Alternative Livelihood Options of Fishers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Socio-economics and Alternative Livelihood Options of Fishers of Lake Victoria, ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Most fishers were males aged 29-38yrs while women were involved in processing and marketing.

  14. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  15. Alternate aircraft fuels prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses NASA studies of the potentials of coal-derived aviation fuels, specifically synthetic aviation kerosene, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen. Topics include areas of fuel production, air terminal requirements for aircraft fueling (for liquid hydrogen only), and the performance characteristics of aircraft designed to utilize alternate fuels. Energy requirements associated with the production of each of the three selected fuels are determined, and fuel prices are estimated. Subsonic commercial air transports using liquid hydrogen fuel have been analyzed, and their performance and the performance of aircraft which use commercial aviation kerosene are compared. Environmental and safety issues are considered.

  16. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  17. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171); David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  18. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  19. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, K.; Riley, C.; Raye, M.

    1998-11-30

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the accomplishments of the Clean Cities coalitions during the past 5 years. Now Clean Cities advocates in city after city across the US are building stations and driving alternative fuel vehicles, in addition to enhancing public awareness.

  20. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  1. Sulphur release from alternative fuel firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The cement industry has long been dependent on the use of fossil fuels, although a recent trend in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels has arisen. 1, 2 However, when unconverted or partly converted alternative fuels are admitted directly in the rotary kiln inlet, the volatiles released...... from the fuels may react with sulphates present in the hot meal to form SO 2 . Here Maria del Mar Cortada Mut and associates describe pilot and industrial scale experiments focusing on the factors that affect SO 2 release in the cement kiln inlet....

  2. Army Alternative Ground Fuels Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    Jet Fuel-Like Product Lignocellulose corn stover forest waste switchgrass sugarcane Fermentation Genetically Engineered Microbes Jet...Fuel-Like Product Bio-Crude Pyrolysis Dehydration Hydroprocessing Synthetic Biology Pyrolysis Alcohol Oligomerization Conventional

  3. Enabling alternate fuels for commercial aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Daggett, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...

  4. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-05-20

    What's in store for alternative Fuels and advanced technology vehicles in the new millennium? The Clean Cities Coalitions now operate more than 240,000 alternative fuel vehicles in both public and private sectors and have access to more than 4,000 alternative refueling stations. DOE recently announced the selection of 15 proposals that will receive just under $1.7 million in financial assistance to help expand DOE's information dissemination and public outreach efforts for alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies.

  5. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    There are different interpretations of the term 'alternative fuels', depending on the part of the world in which the definition is used. In this report, alternative fuels mainly stand for fuels that can replace gasoline and diesel oil and at the same time contribute to lowered emissions with impact on health, environment and climate. The use of alternative vehicle fuels has increased during the last 30 years. However, the increase has developed slowly and today the use is very limited, compared to the use of conventional fuels. Although, the use in some special applications, often in rather small geographical areas, can be somewhat larger. The main interest for alternative fuels has for a long time been driven by supply security issues and the possibility to reduce emissions with a negative impact on health and environment. However, the development of reformulated gasoline and low sulphur diesel oil has contributed to substantially decreased emissions from these fuels without using any alternative fuel. This has reduced the environmental impact driving force for the introduction of alternative fuels. In line with the increased interest for climate effects and the connections between these effects and the emission of greenhouse gases, and then primarily carbon dioxide, the interest for biomass based alternative fuels has increased during the 1990s. Even though one of the driving forces for alternative fuels is small today, alternative fuels are more commonly accepted than ever before. The European Commission has for example in May 2003 agreed on a directive for the promotion of the use of bio fuels. In the directive there are goals for the coming 7 years that will increase the use of alternative fuels in Europe rather dramatically, from below 1 percent now up to almost 6 percent of the total vehicle fuel consumption in 2010. The increased use of alternative fuels in Europe and the rest of the world will create a need for a common interpretation of what we

  6. Societal lifecycle costs of cars with alternative fuels/engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, Joan M.; Williams, Robert H.; Larson, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    Effectively addressing concerns about air pollution (especially health impacts of small-particle air pollution), climate change, and oil supply insecurity will probably require radical changes in automotive engine/fuel technologies in directions that offer both the potential for achieving near-zero emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases and a diversification of the transport fuel system away from its present exclusive dependence on petroleum. The basis for comparing alternative automotive engine/fuel options in evolving toward these goals in the present analysis is the 'societal lifecycle cost' of transportation, including the vehicle first cost (assuming large-scale mass production), fuel costs (assuming a fully developed fuel infrastructure), externality costs for oil supply security, and damage costs for emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases calculated over the full fuel cycle. Several engine/fuel options are considered--including current gasoline internal combustion engines and a variety of advanced lightweight vehicles: internal combustion engine vehicles fueled with gasoline or hydrogen; internal combustion engine/hybrid electric vehicles fueled with gasoline, compressed natural gas, Diesel, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or hydrogen; and fuel cell vehicles fueled with gasoline, methanol or hydrogen (from natural gas, coal or wind power). To account for large uncertainties inherent in the analysis (for example in environmental damage costs, in oil supply security costs and in projected mass-produced costs of future vehicles), lifecycle costs are estimated for a range of possible future conditions. Under base-case conditions, several advanced options have roughly comparable lifecycle costs that are lower than for today's conventional gasoline internal combustion engine cars, when environmental and oil supply insecurity externalities are counted--including advanced gasoline internal combustion engine cars, internal combustion engine

  7. Exchange program. Alternative options for purchase of environmentally friendly vehicles in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader Olsson, Amy [Inregia AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Elam, N. [Atrax Energi AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    The city of Stockholm has decided to exchange 300 of its gasoline-driven vehicles for vehicles which emit fewer hazardous pollutants. A vehicle exchange program is being developed based on analyses which describe the driving patterns of Stockholm's vehicles, alternative fuel technology status, and financing alternatives. This report comprises the first two analyses, that of Stockholm's fleet driving patterns and alternative fuel technology options. The report has four major sections: * a technical analysis of the status of certain fuels and vehicles, including prognoses of availability in Sweden and the future development potential of each. (electric, biogas, ethanol, RME), * a driving study, which identifies those vehicles currently in Stockholm's fleet which could be exchanged for alternatively-fueled vehicles, * an analysis of five purchase package alternatives, and * a location analysis, which describes the accessibility of vehicles in each alternative to alternative fuel refueling facilities in Stockholm. Given current prices and availability of the alternative fuels and vehicles studied, we recommend a high share of electric and biogas vehicles for purchases during 1997. The cost-effectiveness of different vehicle types in their reduction of various hazardous pollutants, may however change dramatically as prices and availability of vehicles changes and the market for alternative fuels develops. Accessibility to alternative fuel refueling facilities is adequate in Stockholm, though not always ideal. To improve the accessibility of biogas vehicles further, we suggest a third biogas refueling facility in the city's northeastern area (Ropsten, Vaertahamnen). If MFO chooses to purchase a significant number of diesel passenger vehicles to be driven on RME; we propose that a facility in the northeastern area would improve accessibility more than another facility in southern Stockholm.

  8. MOX fuel use as a back-end option: Trends, main issues and impacts on fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Choi, J.-S.; Shani, R.; Durpel, L. van den; Bertel, E.; Sartori, E.

    2000-01-01

    In the past decades while the FBIULWR fuel cycle concept was zealously being developed, MOX-fuel use in thermal reactors was taken as an alternative back-end policy option. However, the plutonium recycling with LWRs has evolved to industrial level, gaining high maturity through the incubative period while FBR deployment was envisaged. Today, MOX-fuel use in LWRs makes integral part of the fuel cycle for those countries relying on the recycling policy. Developments to improve the fuel cycle performance, including the minimisation of remaining wastes, and the reactor engineering aspects owing to MOX-fuel use, are continued. This paper jointly presented by IAEA and OECD/NEA brings an integrated overview on MOX use as a back-end policy, covering MOX fuel utilisation, fuel performance and technology, economics, licensing, MOX fuel trends in the coming decades. (author)

  9. Radiological aspects of postfission waste management for light-water reactor fuel cycle options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipler, D B; Nelson, I C [Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States)

    1978-12-01

    A generic environmental impact statement on the management of radioactive postfission wastes from various light-water reactor fuel cycles in the United States has been prepared. The environmental analysis for post-fission waste management includes an examination of radiological impacts related to different waste treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal options at the process level. Effects addressed include effluents from plants, and radiological impacts from facility operation (routine and accidents), and decommissioning. Environmental effects are combined for fuel reprocessing plants, mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants, and waste repositories. Radiological effects are also aggregated for several fuel cycle options over the period 1980 and 2050. Fuel cycles analyzed are (1) once-through cycle in which spent reactor fuel is cooled in water basins for at least 6-1/2 years and then disposed of in deep geologic repositories; (2) spent fuel reprocessing in which uranium only and uranium and plutonium is recycled and solidified high level waste, fuel residues, and non-high-level transuranic wastes are disposed of in deep geologic repositories; and (3) deferred cycle that calls for storage of spent fuel at Federal spent fuel storage facilities until the year 2000 at which time a decision is made whether to dispose of spent fuel as a waste or to reprocess the fuel to recover uranium and plutonium. Key environmental issues for decision-making related to waste management alternatives and fuel cycle options are highlighted. (author)

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 3 0 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 1 2 Electric Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.79/gallon $2.54/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE Biodiesel (B99-B100) $2.47

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Missouri with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 2 Compressed Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Feb. 5, 2016 https://youtube.com/embed/p4pVRgoWyZw Video thumbnail for AT&T Fleet Reaches

  12. Alternative Fuels for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    federal subsidies have promoted produc- tion and use of biodiesel, which is not a hydrocarbon but rather a fatty acid methyl ester ( FAME ) unsuitable for... methyl ester ( FAME ). FAME and blends of FAME with petroleum-derived fuels are currently banned from use in all deployable, tactical DoD military...fatty acid methyl ester FT Fischer-Tropsch FY fiscal year ISBL inside battery limit Navy Fuels Team Naval Fuels and Lubricants Cross-Functional Team

  13. Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research ? Autoignition Metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoberg, Carl Magnus Goran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vuilleumier, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Improved engine efficiency is required to comply with future fuel economy standards. Alternative fuels have the potential to enable more efficient engines while addressing concerns about energy security. This project contributes to the science base needed by industry to develop highly efficient direct injection spark igniton (DISI) engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Here, the emphasis is on quantifying autoignition behavior for a range of spark-ignited engine conditions, including directly injected boosted conditions. The efficiency of stoichiometrically operated spark ignition engines is often limited by fuel-oxidizer end-gas autoignition, which can result in engine knock. A fuel’s knock resistance is assessed empirically by the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) tests. By clarifying how these two tests relate to the autoignition behavior of conventional and alternative fuel formulations, fuel design guidelines for enhanced engine efficiency can be developed.

  14. Comparison of spent nuclear fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, C.L.; Caldwell, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the process an results of a trade study of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)management alternatives. The purpose of the trade study was to provide: (1) a summary of various SNF management alternatives, (2) an objective comparison of the various alternatives to facilitate the decision making process, and (3) documentation of trade study rational and the basis for decisions

  15. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative vehicle fuel rating. 309.10... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Duties of Importers, Producers, and Refiners of Non-Liquid Alternative Vehicle Fuels (other Than...

  16. Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

  17. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clean Cities Program at DOE

    1999-10-29

    The alternative fuel industry is heating up. It is a very exciting time to be in the energy business, especially when it comes to transportation. Celebrating of the milestone 75th Clean Cities coalition and kick off of the new Federal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) USER Program is occurring in cities across the country. Clean Energy for the 21st Century and the events that are happening during Energy Awareness Month are covered in this issue. Spotlighted are niche markets; several airports across the country are successfully incorporating alternative fuels into their daily routines.

  18. Fuel management options to extend the IRIS reactor cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Franceschini, F.

    2004-01-01

    To optimize plant operation, reduce scheduled maintenance outage, and increase capacity factor, IRIS is designed to enable extended cycles of up to four years. However, due to the enrichment licensing limitation (less than 5% enriched uranium oxide) there is a tradeoff between the achievable cycle length and fuel utilization, i.e., the average fuel discharge burnup. The longest individual cycle may be achieved with the single-batch straight burn, but at the expense of a lower burnup. Considering the IRIS basic performance requirements, a cycle length in the range of three to four years is deemed desirable. This paper examines different fuel management options, i.e., the influence of the required cycle length on the corresponding reloading strategy, including a two-batch and a three-batch reloading. A reference two-batch core design has been developed for the first cycle, as well as for the transition cycles leading to equilibrium. Main core performance parameters are evaluated. This core design provides the framework for the safety analyses needed to prepare the IRIS safety evaluations. Alternate designs are also considered.(author)

  19. Uranium Resource Availability Analysis of Four Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Ko, W. I.

    2013-01-01

    Making the national policy regarding nuclear fuel cycle option, the policy should be established in ways that nuclear power generation can be maintained through the evaluation on the basis of the following aspects. To establish the national policy regarding nuclear fuel cycle option, that must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suited for the country, and the evaluation work for that should be proceeded. Like all the policy decision, however, a certain nuclear fuel cycle option cannot be superior in all aspects of sustain ability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies, which make the comparison of the fuel cycle options very complicated. For such a purpose, this paper set up four different fuel cycle of nuclear power generation considering 2nd Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan(CNEPP), and analyzed material flow and features in steady state of all four of the fuel cycle options. As a result of an analysis on material flow of each nuclear fuel cycle, it was analyzed that Pyro-SFR recycling is most effective on U resource availability among four fuel cycle option. As shown in Figure 3, OT cycle required the most amount of U and Pyro-SFR recycle consumed the least amount of U. DUPIC recycling, PWR-MOX recycling, and Pyro-SFR recycling fuel cycle appeared to consumed 8.2%, 12.4%, 39.6% decreased amount of uranium respectively compared to OT cycle. Considering spent fuel can be recycled as potential energy resources, U and TRU taken up to be 96% is efficiently used. That is, application period of limited uranium natural resources can be extended, and it brings a great influence on stable use of nuclear energy

  20. Spent fuel management options for research reactors in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    Research reactors (RRs) have been operated in Latin America since the late 1950s, and a total of 23 RRs have been built in the region. At the time of writing (November 2005), 18 RRs are in operation, 4 have been shut down and 1 has been decommissioned. The number of operating RRs in Latin America represents around 6% of the existing operational RRs worldwide and around 21% of the RRs operating in developing countries. Common to all RRs in the region is a consistent record of safe and successful operation. With the purpose of carrying out a collaborative study of different aspects of the management of spent fuel from RRs, some countries from the region proposed to the IAEA in 2000 the organization of a Regional Project. The project (IAEA TC Regional Project RLA/4/018) that was approved for the biennium 2001-2002 and extended for 2003-2004 included the participation of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru. The main objectives of this project were: (a) to define the basic conditions for a regional strategy for managing spent fuel that will provide solutions compatible with the economic and technological realities of the countries involved; and (b) to determine what is needed for the temporary wet and dry storage of spent fuel from the research reactors in the countries of the Latin American region that participated in the project. This TECDOC is based on the results of TC Regional Project RLA/4/018. This project was successful in identifying and assessing a number of viable alternatives for RRSF management in the Latin American region. Options for operational and interim storage, spent fuel conditioning and final disposal have been carefully considered. This report presents the views of Latin American experts on RR spent fuel management and will be useful as reference material for the Latin American RR community, decision making authorities in the region and the public in general

  1. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  2. Alternative fuels for multiple-hearth furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracket, B D; Lawson, T U

    1980-04-01

    Results are described of a feasibility study on the use of refuse-derived fuel, shredded paper, wood waste, coal, and waste oil in multiple-hearth furnaces at the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre in Australia. An assessment of waste fuel availability and characteristics is given, and a summary is made of the technical and economic aspects of using these alternative fuels and of minimizing furnace fuel requirements by reducing sludge moisture. The recommended method of reducing fuel oil consumption in the furnace is shown to be sludge drying, using process exhaust heat in a rotary dryer.

  3. Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

  4. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  5. Alternative jet fuel scenario analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This analysis presents a bottom up projection of the potential production of alternative aviation (jet) fuels in North America (United States, Canada, and Mexico) and the European Union in the next decade. The analysis is based on available pla...

  6. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 7, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on recent additions to the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Station Locator database, biodiesel buying co-ops, and developing the CNG infrastructure in Bangladesh. Also a memo from CIVITAS 2003.

  7. Test report : alternative fuels propulsion durability evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    This document, prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (Honeywell), contains the final : test report (public version) for the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation : Administration (USDOT/FAA) Alternative Fuels Propulsion Engine Dur...

  8. Identification and evaluation of alternative radioactive waste categorisation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; Smith, G.M.; Stenhouse, M.J.; Watkins, B.M.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of the research described in this report was to consider the options for future UK radioactive waste categorisation, to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option and, as a result, to identify any which might be viable practical alternatives to the current arrangements. The review process included meetings with large and small waste producers, a wider consultation exercise using a questionnaire, a presentation to RWMAC, and discussion with representatives of the UK regulators. These consultations provided the basis for the formulation and evaluation of a number of alternative waste categorisation schemes. (UK)

  9. Alternative motor fuels today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.

    2004-01-01

    Today, petroleum products account for 97% of the energy consumed in road transport. The purpose of replacing these products with alternative energies is to reduce oil dependence as well as greenhouse gas emissions. The high price of oil has promoted the use of 'conventional' alternative motor fuels (biofuels, LPG, NGV) and also renewed interest in syn-fuels (GTL, CTL, BTL) that have already given rise to industrial and pilot projects. (author)

  10. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-01-06

    In this issue of the Alternative Fuel News, the authors remember what happened just 25 years ago (the energy crisis of 1973) and reiterate that foreign oil dependence is still a national issue. Highlighted are some the successes in the Clean Cities Program and the alternative fuels industry. Also featured is the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition (NGVC) and the United States Postal Service (USPS) delivers with AFVs.

  11. Considerations Regarding ROK Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Chaim; Forrest, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss spent fuel management options in the Republic of Korea (ROK) from two interrelated perspectives: Centralized dry cask storage and spent fuel pyroprocessing and burning in sodium fast reactors (SFRs). We argue that the ROK will run out of space for at-reactors spent fuel storage by about the year 2030 and will thus need to transition centralized dry cask storage. Pyroprocessing plant capacity, even if approved and successfully licensed and constructed by that time, will not suffice to handle all the spent fuel discharged annually. Hence centralized dry cask storage will be required even if the pyroprocessing option is successfully developed by 2030. Pyroprocessing is but an enabling technology on the path leading to fissile material recycling and burning in future SFRs. In this regard we discuss two SFR options under development in the U. S.: the Super Prism and the Travelling Wave Reactor (TWR). We note that the U. S. is further along in reactor development than the ROK. The ROK though has acquired more experience, recently in investigating fuel recycling options for SFRs. We thus call for two complementary joint R and D project to be conducted by U. S. and ROK scientists. One leading to the development of a demonstration centralized away-from-reactors spent fuel storage facility. The other involve further R and D on a combined SFR-fuel cycle complex based on the reactor and fuel cycle options discussed in the paper

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A wide variety of hybrid electric vehicle models is currently available. Although HEVs are often -go traffic), further improving fuel economy. Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using Hybrid Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric

  13. Radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotte, H.; Lazo, T.; Mundigl, S.

    2000-01-01

    An important technical study on radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options, recently completed by the NEA, is intended to facilitate informed international discussions on the nuclear fuel cycle. The study compares the radiological impacts on the public and on nuclear workers resulting from two approaches to handling spent fuel from nuclear power plants: - the reprocessing option, that includes the recycling of spent uranium fuel, the reuse of the separated plutonium in MOX fuel, and the direct disposal of spent MOX fuel; and the once-through option, with no reprocessing of spent fuel, and its direct disposal. Based on the detailed research of a group of 18 internationally recognised experts, under NEA sponsorship, the report concludes that: The radiological impacts of both the reprocessing and the non-reprocessing fuel cycles studied are small, well below any regulatory dose limits for the public and for workers, and insignificantly low as compared with exposures caused by natural radiation. The difference in the radiological impacts of the two fuel cycles studied does not provide a compelling argument in favour of one option or the other. The study also points out that other factors, such as resource utilisation efficiency, energy security, and social and economic considerations would tend to carry more weight than radiological impacts in decision-making processes. (authors)

  14. Liquid fuels from alternative feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew, S

    1984-01-01

    The problem of fuels and feedstocks is not technological but political and financial. Methanol is discussed as the lowest cost gasoline substitute to produce. There are two possibilities included for production of methanol: from coal or lignite - either in the US or in Europe, or from natural gas. Biologically produced fuels and feedstocks have the advantage of being renewable. The use of agricultural feedstocks are discussed but only sugar, starch and cellulose are suitable. In the microbiological field, only the metabolic waste product ethanol is cheap enough for use.

  15. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  16. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  17. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  18. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  19. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  20. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    refueling infrastructure. Waste-to-Fuel: A Case Study of Converting Food Waste to Renewable Natural Gas as a 5,300 PEVs on the road by the end of 2019. This analysis finds that while consumer demand for fast vehicles), a minimum level of fast charging coverage across the city is required to ease consumer range

  2. Alternative Fuels and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The main report of the project on Transportation Fuels based on Renewable Energy. The report contains a review of potential technologies for electric, hybrid and hydrogen propulsion in the Danish transport sector, including an assessment of their development status. In addition, the energy...

  3. Distillate Fuel Trends: International Supply Variations and Alternate Fuel Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    fuel in NATO countries will have some amount of FAME present. There is some work being done on hydrocarbon alternatives but the regulatory structure ... synthesis or hydrotreatment – Requirements and test methods.” According to the specification, paraffinic diesel fuel does not meet the current requirements...or international specification for triglyceride based fuel oils (straight vegetable oil / raw vegetable oil). The same holds true for alcohol-based

  4. Exploring the options for alternative means of livelihood for blind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To explore the readiness of and the options for alternative means of livelihood for Blind Street beggars in Sokoto, Nigeria, with a view to achieving the millennium development goals. Materials and Methods: A cross.sectional study was conducted in a Local Government Area (LGA), in Sokoto State overa 6 weeks period ...

  5. Fuel cells - An option for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielstich, W.

    1984-01-01

    The direct conversion of the energy of a fuel into electrical energy in fuel cells avoids the losses inseparable from the indirect conversion via heat and mechanical energy. The idea to use this concept of energy conversion for the application in power stations would offer the following advantages: a slightly better total energy efficiency; no environmental problems; and flexibility in size according to the construction in the battery stacks. The use of acid and alkaline H 2 /O 2 fuel cells in the U.S. space program has demonstrated the high energy per weight data possible with a fuel cell device including tankage. Therefore, the application of fuel cells in electric vehicles seems to be suitable at least from the technical point of view. Kordesch has converted an Austin A-40 to electric propulsion by replacing the gasoline engine by an 8-kW truck motor powered by a 6-kW alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell/4-kW lead-acid hybrid system. Two severe handicaps that occurred were the use of gas cylinders for the storage of the hydrogen and the voluminous CO 2 scrubber to prevent carbonization of the alkaline electrolyte. The direct conversion of a liquid fuel like methanol would be advantageous

  6. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  7. The DUPIC alternative for backend fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Choi, J.W.; Park, H.S.; Boczar, P.; Sullivan, J.; Gadsby, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    From the early nineties, a research programme, called DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU) has been undertaken in an international exercise involving Korea, Canada, the U.S. and later the IAEA. The basic idea of this fuel cycle alternative is that the spent fuel from LWR contains enough fissile remnant to be burnt again in CANDUs thanks to its excellent neutron economy. A systematic R and D plan has now gained a full momentum to verify experimentally the DUPIC fuel cycle concept. 4 refs

  8. Integrated model of Korean spent fuel and high level waste disposal options - 16091

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yongsoo; Miller, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated model developed by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to simulate options for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and reprocessing products in South Korea. A companion paper (Hwang and Miller, 2009) describes a systems-level model of Korean options for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management in the 21. century. The model addresses alternative design concepts for disposal of SNF of different types (Candu, PWR), high level waste, and fission products arising from a variety of alternative fuel cycle back ends. It uses the GoldSim software to simulate the engineered system, near-field and far-field geosphere, and biosphere, resulting in long-term dose predictions for a variety of receptor groups. The model's results allow direct comparison of alternative repository design concepts, and identification of key parameter uncertainties and contributors to receptor doses. (authors)

  9. Safeguards aspects for future fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Gerstler, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the future, more flexible fuel management strategies will be realized in light-water reactor power stations. The incentives for this development are based on considerations related to safe and economic plant operation, e.g. improved fuel strategies can save fuel resources and waste management efforts. A further important aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle deals with recycling strategies. At the back-end of the fuel cycle, the direct final disposal of spent fuel will have to be assessed as an alternative to recycling strategies. These major development fields will also have consequences for international safeguards. In particular, reactor fuel strategies may involve higher burn-up, conditioning of spent fuel directly in the power plant, gadolinium-poisoned fuel and different levels of enrichment. These strategies will have an impact on inspection activities, especially on the applicability of NDA techniques. The inspection frequency could also be affected in recycling strategies using MOX fuel. There may be problems with NDA methods if reprocessed feed is used in enrichment plants. On the other hand, the direct final disposal of spent fuel will raise safeguards problems regarding design verification, long-term safeguarding and the very feasibility of inaccessible nuclear material

  10. Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.; Piet, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository. There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected

  11. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5) Fossil

  12. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  13. Baseline energy forecasts and analysis of alternative strategies for airline fuel conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of fuel conservation strategies, baseline forecasts of airline activity and energy consumption to 1990 were developed. Alternative policy options to reduce fuel consumption were identified and analyzed for three baseline levels of aviation activity within the framework of an aviation activity/energy consumption model. By combining the identified policy options, a strategy was developed to provide incentives for airline fuel conservation. Strategies and policy options were evaluated in terms of their impact on airline fuel conservation and the functioning of the airline industry as well as the associated social, environmental, and economic costs. (GRA)

  14. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: James Madison University Teaches Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative Fuels Sept. 16, 2017 Photo of a truck Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26 Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Transports Mail Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  16. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  17. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Institute of Energy, Gebze, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel [Marmara University Faculty of Engineering, Goztepe, 81040 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-03-09

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies. (author)

  18. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati; Ozdogan, Sibel

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100 kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies.

  19. Alternative fuels: how real? how soon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertzakian, P.

    2003-01-01

    Nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) are looking for politically stable sources of oil in response to the ever growing demand for fuel. World oil consumption has reached 76.5 MMB/d and demand is expected to be 80 MMB/d by 2005. More restrictive environmental policies are resulting in improved conversion efficiency of oil dependent supply chains and the switching to alternative fuels. The adoption of new fuels however, depends on many factors such as the economic advantage, technological superiority, and convenience. The dominant electrical supply chains at the moment are nuclear, coal, hydropower, hydrocarbons, and renewable energy alternatives such as wind, solar and hydrogen fuels. The paper presented graphs illustrating adoption patterns for various fuels over the past century and presented a potential adoption pattern for fuel cell vehicles. Also included in this presentation were graphs depicting how price can drive supply chain demand and allow other fuels to gain market share. The impact of fuel substitution, efficiency and price effects was mentioned along with the impact of recent policy changes on vehicle fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions. The role of government incentives to promote alternative fuel sales was also discussed along with a broad assessment of renewable supply chains. It was noted that most new fuels are linked to hydrocarbons. For example, hydrogen generation through water electrolysis requires petroleum generated electricity or the steam reforming of natural gas. Ethanol processes also require hydrocarbon consumption indirectly. It was noted that the average efficiencies of coal and natural gas plants has increased in the past decade and the incumbent price trends in electricity in the United States have decreased for fuels such as oil, gas, coal and nuclear energy. With ongoing innovation in the internal combustion engine in the past 30 years, the incumbents have also improved with

  20. The feasibility study I on the blanket fuel options for the ATW/HYPER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Bong Sang; Park, Won Seok; Meyer, M.K; Hayes, S.L

    2001-01-01

    The choice of a blanket fuel cycle technology and the fuel type for HYPER/ATW are important to develop an ADS with better economics, performance and safety. Even though several fuel types have been considered as an alternative of the blanket fuels for HYPER/ATW, the metal alloy and the dispersion fuels were selected as the candidate fuels for ADS, and the technical feasibilities for both fuels are evaluated in this report. General performance characteristics, fabrication abilities, technical aspects, safety aspects, economics, and non-proliferation aspects for each fuel type are reviewed and evaluated. And some technological problems are addressed in this report, focused on the development strategy, the roadmaps, and the flexibility to meet the missions and specific designs. This study has been performed at the first stage of conceptual design. Since it is under the lack of physical properties for each fuel material, no an attempt is made to select the best fuel option, but the more better fuel options are recommended.

  1. The feasibility study I on the blanket fuel options for the ATW/HYPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Bong Sang; Park, Won Seok; Meyer, M.K; Hayes, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    The choice of a blanket fuel cycle technology and the fuel type for HYPER/ATW are important to develop an ADS with better economics, performance and safety. Even though several fuel types have been considered as an alternative of the blanket fuels for HYPER/ATW, the metal alloy and the dispersion fuels were selected as the candidate fuels for ADS, and the technical feasibilities for both fuels are evaluated in this report. General performance characteristics, fabrication abilities, technical aspects, safety aspects, economics, and non-proliferation aspects for each fuel type are reviewed and evaluated. And some technological problems are addressed in this report, focused on the development strategy, the roadmaps, and the flexibility to meet the missions and specific designs. This study has been performed at the first stage of conceptual design. Since it is under the lack of physical properties for each fuel material, no an attempt is made to select the best fuel option, but the more better fuel options are recommended

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueling Stations Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on

  3. Closing the fuel cycle: A superior option for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Purushotham, D.S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1999-01-01

    The closed fuel cycle option with reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium (U and Pu) for power generation allows better utilization of the uranium resources. On its part, plutonium is a unique energy source. During the initial years of nuclear fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium for power generation was perceived by many countries to be among the best of long term strategies for the management of spent fuel. But, over the years, some of the countries have taken a position that once-through fuel cycle is both economical and proliferation-resistant. However, such perceptions do vary as a function of economic growth and energy security of a given country. This paper deals with techno-economic perspectives of reprocessing and recycling in the Indian nuclear power programme. Experience of developing Mixed Oxide UO 2 -PuO 2 (MOX) fuel and its actual use in a power reactor (BWR) is presented. The paper further deals with the use of MOX in PHWRs in the future and current thinking, in the Indian context, in respect of advanced fuel cycles for the future. From environmental safety considerations, the separation of long-lived isotopes and minor actinides from high level waste (HLW) would enhance the acceptability of reprocessing and recycle option. The separated actinides are suitable for recycling with MOX fuel. However, the advanced fuel cycles with such recycling of Uranium and transuranium elements call for additional sophisticated fuel cycle activities which are yet to be mastered. India is interested in both uranium and thorium fuel cycles. This paper describes the current status of the Indian nuclear power scenario with reference to the program on reactors, reprocessing and radioactive waste management, plutonium recycle options, thorium-U233 fuel cycle studies and investigations on partitioning of actinides from Purex HLW as relevant to PHWR spent fuels. (author)

  4. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anna E.; Saxena, Nikita T.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize alternative fueling for military and commercial use, the industry has set forth guidelines that must be met by each fuel. These aviation fueling requirements are outlined in MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 Annex (2011) standards, and are classified as "drop-in" fuel replacements. This report provides combustor performance data for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100, relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Data were taken at various nominal inlet conditions: 75 psia (0.52 MPa) at 500 degF (533 K), 125 psia (0.86 MPa) at 625 degF (603 K), 175 psia (1.21 MPa) at 725 degF (658 K), and 225 psia (1.55 MPa) at 790 degF (694 K). Combustor performance analysis assessments were made for the change in flame temperatures, combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, and exhaust plane temperatures at 3, 4, and 5 percent combustor pressure drop (DP) for fuel:air ratios (F/A) ranging from 0.010 to 0.025. Significant general trends show lower liner temperatures and higher flame and combustor outlet temperatures with increases in FT fueling relative to JP-8+100 fueling. The latter affects both turbine efficiency and blade and vane lives.

  5. Review of alternative fuels data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the interaction of fuel physical and chemical properties with combustion characteristics and indicators, a ranking of the importance of various fuel properties with respect to the combustion process was established. This ranking was used to define a suite of specific experiments whose objective is the development of an alternative fuels design data base. Combustion characteristics and indicators examined include droplet and spray formation, droplet vaporization and burning, ignition and flame stabilization, flame temperature, laminar flame speed, combustion completion, soot emissions, NOx and SOx emissions, and the fuels' thermal and oxidative stability and fouling and corrosion characteristics. Key fuel property data is found to include composition, thermochemical data, chemical kinetic rate information, and certain physical properties.

  6. Stability of orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis: options and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Bethany; Perciaccante, Vincent J; Cunningham, Larry L

    2007-08-01

    Relapse in orthognathic surgery is multifactorial and can be attributed to posttreatment growth, condylar changes, lack of rigid fixation, and muscle pull and function. Consideration of these factors can aide the surgeon in the decision-making process with regards to treatment options and alternatives. This article reviews the stability of various orthognathic movements using traditional osteotomies and fixation, and compares them to what is currently in the literature regarding distraction osteogenesis.

  7. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  8. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  9. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  10. Alternative Fuel News: May 2000 Special Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.; Ficker, C.

    2000-05-03

    In this special issue of Alternative Fuel News, the authors summarize DOE's current position on the local government and private fleet rulemaking that has been under consideration. The authors also look at the new area of focus, niche markets. Your participation and input are invited as the authors craft new directions for the nation's transportation future.

  11. Pulse Detonation Assessment for Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanafi Azami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The higher thermodynamic efficiency inherent in a detonation combustion based engine has already led to considerable interest in the development of wave rotor, pulse detonation, and rotating detonation engine configurations as alternative technologies offering improved performance for the next generation of aerospace propulsion systems, but it is now important to consider their emissions also. To assess both performance and emissions, this paper focuses on the feasibility of using alternative fuels in detonation combustion. Thus, the standard aviation fuels Jet-A, Acetylene, Jatropha Bio-synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene, Camelina Bio-synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene, Algal Biofuel, and Microalgae Biofuel are all asessed under detonation combustion conditions. An analytical model accounting for the Rankine-Hugoniot Equation, Rayleigh Line Equation, and Zel’dovich–von Neumann–Doering model, and taking into account single step chemistry and thermophysical properties for a stoichiometric mixture, is applied to a simple detonation tube test case configuration. The computed pressure rise and detonation velocity are shown to be in good agreement with published literature. Additional computations examine the effects of initial pressure, temperature, and mass flux on the physical properties of the flow. The results indicate that alternative fuels require higher initial mass flux and temperature to detonate. The benefits of alternative fuels appear significant.

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  14. Alternative transport fuels: supply, consumption and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Road-based passenger and freight transport almost exclusively uses petroleum/hydrocarbon fuels in the fluid form. These fuels will probably continue to be major transport fuels well into the 21st century. As such there is need to prolong their use which can be done through: (1) conservation of fuel by increasing efficiency of internal combustion engines, and (2) conversion of natural gas, coal and peat, and biomass into alternate fuels such as ethanol, methanol, CNG, LNG, LPG, low heat-content (producer) gas and vegetable oils. Research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities in supply, consumption and conservation of these alternate fuels are identified and ranked in the context of situation prevailing in Brazil. Author has assigned the highest priority for research in the impact of pricing, economic, fiscal and trade policies, capital allocation criteria and institutional and legislative framework. It has also been emphasised that an integrated or systems approach is mandatory to achieve net energy gains in transport sector. (M.G.B.). 33 refs., 11 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  16. ENVI Model Development for Korean Nuclear Spent Fuel Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sunyoung; Jeong, Yon Hong; Han, Jae-Jun; Lee, Aeri; Hwang, Yong-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel will be operated from 2051. This paper presents the ENVI code developed by GoldSim Software to simulate options for managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in South Korea. The ENVI is a simulator to allow decision-makers to assist to evaluate the performance for spent nuclear fuel management. The multiple options for managing the spent nuclear fuel including the storage and transportation are investigated into interim storage, permanent disposal in geological repositories and overseas and domestic reprocessing. The ENVI code uses the GoldSim software to simulate the logistics of the associated activities. The result by the ENVI model not only produces the total cost to compare among the multiple options but also predict the sizes and timings of different facilities required. In order to decide the policy for spent nuclear management this purpose of this paper is to draw the optimum management plan to solve the nuclear spent fuel issue in the economical aspects. This paper is focused on the development of the ENVI's logic and calculations to simulate four options(No Reprocessing, Overseas Reprocessing, Domestic Reprocessing, and Overseas and Domestic Reprocessing) for managing the spent nuclear fuel in South Korea. The time history of the spent nuclear fuel produced from both the existing and future NPP's can be predicted, based on the Goldsim software made available very user friendly model. The simulation result will be used to suggest the strategic plans for the spent nuclear fuel management.

  17. ENVI Model Development for Korean Nuclear Spent Fuel Options Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sunyoung; Jeong, Yon Hong; Han, Jae-Jun; Lee, Aeri; Hwang, Yong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel will be operated from 2051. This paper presents the ENVI code developed by GoldSim Software to simulate options for managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in South Korea. The ENVI is a simulator to allow decision-makers to assist to evaluate the performance for spent nuclear fuel management. The multiple options for managing the spent nuclear fuel including the storage and transportation are investigated into interim storage, permanent disposal in geological repositories and overseas and domestic reprocessing. The ENVI code uses the GoldSim software to simulate the logistics of the associated activities. The result by the ENVI model not only produces the total cost to compare among the multiple options but also predict the sizes and timings of different facilities required. In order to decide the policy for spent nuclear management this purpose of this paper is to draw the optimum management plan to solve the nuclear spent fuel issue in the economical aspects. This paper is focused on the development of the ENVI's logic and calculations to simulate four options(No Reprocessing, Overseas Reprocessing, Domestic Reprocessing, and Overseas and Domestic Reprocessing) for managing the spent nuclear fuel in South Korea. The time history of the spent nuclear fuel produced from both the existing and future NPP's can be predicted, based on the Goldsim software made available very user friendly model. The simulation result will be used to suggest the strategic plans for the spent nuclear fuel management

  18. An analysis of international nuclear fuel supply options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J'tia Patrice

    As the global demand for energy grows, many nations are considering developing or increasing nuclear capacity as a viable, long-term power source. To assess the possible expansion of nuclear power and the intricate relationships---which cover the range of economics, security, and material supply and demand---between established and aspirant nuclear generating entities requires models and system analysis tools that integrate all aspects of the nuclear enterprise. Computational tools and methods now exist across diverse research areas, such as operations research and nuclear engineering, to develop such a tool. This dissertation aims to develop methodologies and employ and expand on existing sources to develop a multipurpose tool to analyze international nuclear fuel supply options. The dissertation is comprised of two distinct components: the development of the Material, Economics, and Proliferation Assessment Tool (MEPAT), and analysis of fuel cycle scenarios using the tool. Development of MEPAT is aimed for unrestricted distribution and therefore uses publicly available and open-source codes in its development when possible. MEPAT is built using the Powersim Studio platform that is widely used in systems analysis. MEPAT development is divided into three modules focusing on: material movement; nonproliferation; and economics. The material movement module tracks material quantity in each process of the fuel cycle and in each nuclear program with respect to ownership, location and composition. The material movement module builds on techniques employed by fuel cycle models such as the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) for the analysis of domestic fuel cycle. Material movement parameters such as lending and reactor preference, as well as fuel cycle parameters such as process times and material factors are user-specified through a Microsoft Excel(c) data spreadsheet

  19. An Integrated Fuel Depletion Calculator for Fuel Cycle Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Erich [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Scopatz, Anthony [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Bright-lite is a reactor modeling software developed at the University of Texas Austin to expand upon the work done with the Bright [1] reactor modeling software. Originally, bright-lite was designed to function as a standalone reactor modeling software. However, this aim was refocused t couple bright-lite with the Cyclus fuel cycle simulator [2] to make it a module for the fuel cycle simulator.

  20. Influence of fuel costs on seawater desalination options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methnani, Mabrouk

    2007-01-01

    Reference estimates of seawater desalination costs for recent mega projects are all quoted in the range of US$0.50/m 3 . This however does not reflect the recent trends of escalating fossil fuel costs. In order to analyze the effect of these trends, a recently updated version of the IAEA Desalination Economic Evaluation Program, DEEP-3, has been used to compare fossil and nuclear seawater desalination options, under varied fuel cost and interest rate scenarios. Results presented for a gas combined-cycle and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor design, show clear cost advantages for the latter, for both Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) and Reverse Osmosis (RO). Water production cost estimates for the Brayton cycle nuclear option are hardly affected by fuel costs, while combined cycle seawater desalination costs show an increase of more than 40% when fuel costs are doubled. For all cases run, the nuclear desalination costs are lower and if the current trend in fossil fuel prices continues as predicted by pessimist scenarios and the carbon tax carried by greenhouse emissions is enforced in the future, the cost advantage for nuclear desalination will be even more pronounced. Increasing the interest rate from 5 to 8% has a smaller effect than fuel cost variations. It translates into a water cost increase in the range of 10-20%, with the nuclear option being the more sensitive. (author)

  1. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J.

    2017-10-02

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  2. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonzales, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  3. Hydrogen as alternative clean fuel: Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1995-03-01

    In analogy to biofuel production from biomasses, the electrolytic conversion of other renewable energies into hydrogen as an alternative clean fuel is considered. This solution allows the intermittent renewable energy sources, as photovoltaics and wind energy, to enhance their development and enlarge the role into conventional fuel market. A rough economic analysis of hydrogen production line shows the costs, added by electrolysis and storage stages, can be recovered by properly accounting for social and environmental costs due to whole cycle of conventional fuels, from production to use. So, in a perspective of attaining the economic competitiveness of renewable energy, the hydrogen, arising from intermittent renewable energy sources, will be able to compete in the energy market with conventional fuels, making sure that their substitution will occur in a significant amount and the corresponding environment

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  5. Proceedings of the 1991 Windsor workshop on alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A workshop was held to exchange information among engine and vehicle manufacturers, fuel suppliers, research organizations, and academic and regulatory bodies on various aspects of alternative transportation fuels development. Papers were presented on alternative fuels policies and programs, zero-emission vehicles, emission control technologies, field evaluations of alternative fuel systems, and heavy duty alternate-fuel engines. Separate abstracts have been prepared for nine papers from this workshop

  6. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  7. Options for the interim storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromar, M.; Kurincic, B.

    1995-01-01

    Different concepts for the interim storage of spent fuel arising from operation of a NPP are discussed. We considered at reactor as well as away from reactor storage options. Included are enhancements of existing storage capabilities and construction of a new wet or dry storage facility. (author)

  8. Baseline energy forecasts and analysis of alternative strategies for airline fuel conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify measures to reduce airline fuel consumption and to evaluate the impact of these alternatives on fuel consumption through 1990. To evaluate the impact of fuel conservation strategies, baseline forecasts of airline activity and energy consumption to 1990 were developed. Alternative policy options to reduce fuel consumption were identified and analyzed for three baseline levels of aviation activity within the framework of an aviation activity/energy consumption model. By combining the identified policy options, a strategy was developed to provide incentives for airline fuel conservation. Strategies and policy options were evaluated in terms of their impact on airline fuel conservation and the functioning of the airline industry as well as the associated social, environmental, and economic costs. The need for strategies to conserve airline fuel is based on air transportation's dependence upon petroleum; the current lack of alternative energy sources; the potential for disruption of air service due to crises in fuel availability such as experienced during the OPEC oil embargo; and the overall national goal of energy independence through energy conservation in all consuming sectors. The transition from the current situation to that described by strategies and policy options may require difficult adjustments by the airline industry in the short term. In the long term, however, conservation strategies can enhance the health of the airline industry as well as its fuel efficiency.

  9. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables

  10. Spent fuel storage - dry storage options and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akins, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear energy power generation facilities will require the ability to store the spent nuclear fuel for a long period until the host countries develop reprocessing or disposal options. Plants have storage pools which are closely associated with the operating units. These are excellent for short term storage, but require active maintenance and operations support which are not desirable for the long term. Over the past 25 years, dry storage options have been developed and implemented throughout the world. In recent years, protection against terrorist attack has become an increasing source of design objectives for these facilities, as well as the main nuclear plant. This paper explores the current design options of dry storage cask systems and examines some of the current design issues for above ground , in-ground, or below-ground storage of spent fuel in dry casks. (author)

  11. Life cycle assessment of automobile/fuel options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B

    2003-12-01

    We examine the possibilities for a "greener" car that would use less material and fuel, be less polluting, and would have a well-managed end-of-life. Light-duty vehicles are fundamental to our economy and will continue to be for the indefinite future. Any redesign to make these vehicles greener requires consumer acceptance. Consumer desires for large, powerful vehicles have been the major stumbling block in achieving a "green car". The other major barrier is inherent contradictions among social goals such as fuel economy, safety, low emissions of pollutants, and low emissions of greenhouse gases, which has led to conflicting regulations such as emissions regulations blocking sales of direct injection diesels in California, which would save fuel. In evaluating fuel/vehicle options with the potential to improve the greenness of cars [diesel (direct injection) and ethanol in internal combustion engines, battery-powered, gasoline hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cells], we find no option dominates the others on all dimensions. The principles of green design developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A) and the use of a life cycle approach provide insights on the key sustainability issues associated with the various options.

  12. Mass Flow Data Comparison for Comprehensive Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.; Wigeland, R.A.; Dixon, B.W.; Gehin, J.C.; Todosow, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the key objectives stated in the United States Department of Energy, Nuclear Energy R and D road-map is the development of sustainable nuclear fuel cycles that improve natural resource utilisation and provide adequate capability and capacity to manage wastes produced by the fuel cycle. In order to inform this objective, an evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycle options has been conducted. As part of that effort, the entire fuel cycle options space was represented by 40 Evaluation Groups (EGs), and mass flow information for each of the EGs was provided by using an Analysis Example (AE). In this paper, the mass flow data of the 40 AEs are compared to inform on trends in the natural resource utilisation and nuclear waste generation. For the AEs that need enriched uranium support, the natural uranium required is high and the natural resource utilisation is generally lower than 2% regardless of the fuel cycle strategy (i.e., once-through, limited recycle, or continuous recycle). However, the utilisation could be improved by avoiding enriched uranium fuel support. The natural resource utilisation increases to more than 80% by recycling the nuclear fuel continuously without enriched uranium support. The combined mass of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW), i.e., SNF+HLW mass, is lower by using a continuous recycle option compared to a once-through fuel cycle option, because SNF mass is converted to mass of recycled products and only fission products and other process losses need to be disposed. The combined disposed mass of depleted uranium (DU), recovered uranium (RU) and thorium (RTh), i.e. DU+RU+RTh mass, has a similar trend to the uranium utilisation. For the AEs that need enriched uranium fuel, the DU and RU are the major fraction by mass of the DU+RU+RTh, which are two orders of magnitude higher in mass compared to those for the AEs that do not need enriched uranium fuel. (authors)

  13. Fuel cycle options for light water reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecking, D.; Mester, W.

    1999-01-01

    In Germany 19 nuclear power plants with an electrical output of 22 GWe are in operation. Annually about 450 t of spent fuel are unloaded from the reactors. Currently most of the spent fuel elements are shipped to France and the United Kingdom for reprocessing according to contracts which have been signed since the late 70es. By the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1994 the previous priority for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel was substituted by a legal equivalency of the reprocessing and direct disposal option. As a consequence some utilities take into consideration the direct disposal of their spent fuel for economical reasons. The separated plutonium will be recycled as MOX fuel in light water reactors. About 30 tons of fissile plutonium will be available to German utilities for recycling by the year 2000. Twelve German reactors are already licensed for the use of MOX fuel, five others have applied for MOX use. Eight reactors are currently using MOX fuel or used it in the past. The spent fuel elements which shall be disposed of without reprocessing will be stored in two interim dry storage facilities at Gorleben and Ahaus. The storage capacities are 3800 and 4200 tHM, respectively. The Gorleben salt dome is currently investigated to prove its suitability as a repository for high level radioactive waste, either in a vitrified form or as conditioned spent fuel. The future development of the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management depends on the future role of nuclear energy in Germany. According to estimations of the German utilities no additional nuclear power plants are needed in the near future. Around the middle of the next decade it will have to be decided whether existing plants should be substituted by new ones. For the foreseeable time German utilities are interested in a highly flexible approach to the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management keeping open both spent fuel management options: the closed fuel cycle and direct disposal of

  14. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  15. Panorama 2009 - aviation and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Several key priorities have been targeted for development in the aviation industry: diversifying energy resources, keeping consumption levels under control and reducing polluting emissions to improve air quality. Like the road transport sector, the air transport sector is mounting a determined effort to reduce the level of its greenhouse gas emissions. Among the various solutions under consideration, alternative fuels are attracting particular attention. However, not all alternative solutions can be exploited, because of the constraints specific to the use of aircraft. A precise assessment should be made of all possible solutions to determine which ones should take preference

  16. A study on the alternative option for nuclear policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Cho, D. K.; Jeon, K. S.; Park, S. W.; Hahn, D. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Lee, K. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Since a decision-making by intuitive judgement under uncertain future conditions can not select an optimum alternative, reaching an agreement for alternatives between experts requires a development of several scientific opinion collection methodologies and performing these methodologies. Therefore, opinion collection for all points related to the nuclear energy, public hearing induction related researches and the acts, procedure, etc. performed in developed countries such as U.S, U.K, France, etc. are reviewed and analyzed in this research. And after the analysis of domestic spent nuclear fuel management plan, Task Force Team composed of experts in several related areas is organized to suggest strategies and directions which are necessary for making a national policy. Beside, Task Force Team selects an optimum technical alternative by the analysis and comparison in depth between these technical alternatives to establish the policy direction. They also established the procedures such as opinion collecting, etc. through policy conference and forum and suggested the technical data related nuclear policy which supports the nuclear policy conference. Results from this research are expected to decrease the trial and error that has been occurred in the present policy-making procedure such as radioactive waste repository related procedure and contribute for socio-cultural stability. Moreover, opinion collection plan for developing a nuclear policy alternative is expected to contribute for making a nuclear policy in the nuclear policy conference so that the nuclear technology will be enhanced more.

  17. A study on the alternative option for nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Cho, D. K.; Jeon, K. S.; Park, S. W.; Hahn, D. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Lee, K. S.

    2008-02-01

    Since a decision-making by intuitive judgement under uncertain future conditions can not select an optimum alternative, reaching an agreement for alternatives between experts requires a development of several scientific opinion collection methodologies and performing these methodologies. Therefore, opinion collection for all points related to the nuclear energy, public hearing induction related researches and the acts, procedure, etc. performed in developed countries such as U.S, U.K, France, etc. are reviewed and analyzed in this research. And after the analysis of domestic spent nuclear fuel management plan, Task Force Team composed of experts in several related areas is organized to suggest strategies and directions which are necessary for making a national policy. Beside, Task Force Team selects an optimum technical alternative by the analysis and comparison in depth between these technical alternatives to establish the policy direction. They also established the procedures such as opinion collecting, etc. through policy conference and forum and suggested the technical data related nuclear policy which supports the nuclear policy conference. Results from this research are expected to decrease the trial and error that has been occurred in the present policy-making procedure such as radioactive waste repository related procedure and contribute for socio-cultural stability. Moreover, opinion collection plan for developing a nuclear policy alternative is expected to contribute for making a nuclear policy in the nuclear policy conference so that the nuclear technology will be enhanced more

  18. Alternative Fuel News: Vol. 3, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    2000-01-10

    This final issue of the Alternative Fuel News (AFN) for the 20th century provides updates on specific Clean Cities Program progress and provide a glimpse of what is in store for the future. A national nonprofit organization has been part of the Clean Cities vision for some time, and now it is a reality as National Clean Cities, Inc. (NCC). While Clean Cities coalitions have had some success in securing local private foundation funds for alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) projects in their regions, now with the help of NCC, they can tap into the dollars available from large, national foundations. The Clean Cities Game Plan 2000, which is the highlight of the cover story, outlines the strategy for the next year.

  19. Nuclear fuel: the thinking man's alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, N.

    1989-01-01

    'Nuclear Fuel ' The Thinking Man's Alternative' is the title of the 55th Melchett Lecture given by Neville Chamberlain, Chief Executive of British Nuclear Fuels plc. This article is based on the address, the essence of which is that the case for nuclear power should be based upon an appreciation of the totality and sophistication of man's handling of his energy needs - not on a glib catch-phase or on a simple political dogma or on an economic argument. Arguments in favour of nuclear power were discussed. The conclusion was that nuclear energy is the thinking man's alternative because only thinking man could have and can develop it; secondly, only thinking men should be authorized to exploit and control it; thirdly, a thinking person will appreciate that, properly thought out and controlled, it must be the most important source of future energy for the benefit of mankind. (author)

  20. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume II. BNFP: utilization alternatives, evaluations, and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Descriptions and status of the Barnwell separations facility and related fuel cycle facilities are given. Alternative uses other than reprocessing, evaluation of uses for reprocessing alternatives, resource utilization and its relationship to U.S. security objectives, and evaluation of ownership-management options are discussed

  1. Tradeoffs in fuel cycle performance for most promising options - 15346

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiwo, T.; Kim, T.K.; Feng, B.; Stauff, N.; Hoffman, E.; Ganda, F.; Todosow, M.; Brown, N.; Raitses, G.; Gehin, J.; Powers, J.; Youinou, G.; Hiruta, H.; Wigeland, R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent Evaluation and Screening (E/S) study of nuclear fuel cycle options was conducted by grouping all potential options into 40 Evaluation Groups (EGs) based on similarities in fundamental physics characteristics and fuel cycle performance. Through a rigorous evaluation process considering benefit and challenge metrics, 4 of these EGs were identified by the E/S study as 'most promising'. All 4 involve continuous recycle of U/Pu or U/TRU with natural uranium feed in fast critical reactors. However, these most promising EGs also include fuel cycle groups with variations on feed materials, neutron spectra, and reactor criticality. Therefore, the impacts of the addition of natural thorium fuel feed to a system that originally only used natural uranium fuel feed, using an intermediate spectrum instead of a fast spectrum, and using externally-driven systems versus critical reactors were evaluated. It was found that adding thorium to the natural uranium feed mixture leads to lower burnup, higher mass flows, and degrades fuel cycle benefit metrics (waste management, resource utilization, etc.) for fuel cycles that continuously recycle U/Pu or U/TRU. Adding thorium results in fissions of 233 U instead of just 239 Pu and in turn results in a lower average number of neutrons produced per absorption (η) for the fast reactor system. For continuous recycling systems, the lower η results in lower excess reactivity and subsequently lower achievable fuel burnup. This in turn leads to higher mass flows (fabrication, reprocessing, disposal, etc.) to produce a given amount of energy and subsequent lower metrics performance. The investigated fuel cycle options with intermediate spectrum reactors also exhibited degraded performance in the benefit metrics compared to fast spectrum reactors. Similarly, this is due to lower η values as the spectrum softens. The best externally-driven systems exhibited similar performance as fast critical reactors in terms of mass flows

  2. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-03-17

    The cover story in this issue of the Alternative Fuel News highlights the niche market principle; the places in which AFVs would best fit. This year's SEP funding is expected to be the springboard needed for the development of niche projects. The Clean Cities Program, by matching those needs and attributes in niches, can dramatically increase the attractiveness of AFVs and make an impact on those high-mileage, high-use fleets.

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-01-01

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment

  5. Near-term feasibility of alternative jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This technical report documents the results of a joint study by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RAND Corporation on alternative fuels for commercial aviation. The study compared potential alternative jet fuels on the basis of ...

  6. A nuclear fuel cycle system dynamic model for spent fuel storage options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinton, Samuel; Kazimi, Mujid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Used nuclear fuel management requires a dynamic system analysis study due to its socio-technical complexity. • Economic comparison of local, regional, and national storage options is limited due to the public financial information. • Local and regional options of used nuclear fuel management are found to be the most economic means of storage. - Abstract: The options for used nuclear fuel storage location and affected parameters such as economic liabilities are currently a focus of several high level studies. A variety of nuclear fuel cycle system analysis models are available for such a task. The application of nuclear fuel cycle system dynamics models for waste management options is important to life-cycle impact assessment. The recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Committee on America’s Nuclear Future led to increased focus on long periods of spent fuel storage [1]. This motivated further investigation of the location dependency of used nuclear fuel in the parameters of economics, environmental impact, and proliferation risk. Through a review of available literature and interactions with each of the programs available, comparisons of post-reactor fuel storage and handling options will be evaluated based on the aforementioned parameters and a consensus of preferred system metrics and boundary conditions will be provided. Specifically, three options of local, regional, and national storage were studied. The preliminary product of this research is the creation of a system dynamics tool known as the Waste Management Module (WMM) which provides an easy to use interface for education on fuel cycle waste management economic impacts. Initial results of baseline cases point to positive benefits of regional storage locations with local regional storage options continuing to offer the lowest cost

  7. Fuel Cells: Power System Option for Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneeth, M.; Mohanty, Surajeet

    2012-07-01

    Fuel Cells are direct energy conversion devices and, thereby, they deliver electrical energy at very high efficiency levels. Hydrogen and Oxygen gases are electrochemically processed, producing clean electric power with water as the only by product. A typical, Fuel Cell based power system involve a Electrochemical power converter, gas storage and management systems, thermal management systems and relevant control units. While there exists different types of Fuel cells, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are considered as the most suitable one for portable applications. Generally, Fuel Cells are considered as the primary power system option in space missions requiring high power ( > 5kW) and long durations and also where water is a consumable, such as manned missions. This is primarily due to the advantage that fuel cell based power systems offer, in terms of specific energy. Fuel cells have the potential to attain specific energy > 500Wh/kg, specific power >500W/kg, energy density > 400Whr/L and also power density > 200 W/L. This apart, a fuel cell system operate totally independent of sun light, whereas as battery based system is fully dependent on the same. This uniqueness provides added flexibility and capabilities to the missions and modularity for power system. High power requiring missions involving reusable launch vehicles, manned missions etc are expected to be richly benefited from this. Another potential application of Fuel Cell would be interplanetary exploration. Unpredictable and dusty atmospheres of heavenly bodies limits sun light significantly and there fuel cells of different types, eg, Bio-Fuel Cells, PEMFC, DMFCs would be able to work effectively. Manned or unmanned lunar out post would require continuous power even during extra long lunar nights and high power levels are expected. Regenerative Fuel Cells, a combination of Fuel Cells and Electrolysers, are identified as strong candidate. While application of Fuel Cells in high power

  8. The nuclear energy option an alternative for the 90s

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Bernard L

    1990-01-01

    University of Pittsburgh physicist Cohen provides accessible, scientifically sound risk analyses of the energy options that he believes must be exercised in the next 10 years. This update of his work on public energy policy stands opposed to the stack of recent greenhouse effect-oriented titles by proposing more nuclear power plants (including fuel reprocessing plants) as statistically the safest, most environmentally sound solution. Cohen advances the debate on energy policy for all sides by first quantifying the human health costs of coal- and oil-generated electricity, and by debunking solar technology's deus ex machina role. In this context, Cohen looks at issues surrounding nuclear power since Three Mile Island, such as the "unsolved problem" of nuclear waste disposal and the "China Syndrome." Media people especially are urged to re-examine "nuclear hysteria" (no one ever writes about " deadly natural gas," Cohen notes), and even anti-nuclear activists will find the study's appendices and notes a sourceb...

  9. Tracking costs of alternatively fueled buses in Florida : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to address rising fuel costs and environmental concerns, many transit agencies across Florida have introduced alternative fuel technologies to their traditional diesel-powered fleets. Fuel types include biodiesel, compressed natural gas,...

  10. The high temperature reactor and its fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    The status of the HTR system in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as the consecutive steps and the probable cost of further development are presented. The considerations are based on a recycling Th/highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel cycle which has been chosen as the main line of the German HTR R and D efforts. Alternative fuel cycles such as medium-enriched uranium (MEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) are discussed as well

  11. Investigation into fuel pin reshuffling options in PWR in-core fuel management for enhancement of efficient use of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daing, Aung Tharn, E-mail: atdaing@khu.ac.kr; Kim, Myung Hyun, E-mail: mhkim@khu.ac.kr

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • This paper discusses an alternative option, fuel pin reshuffling for maximization of cycle energy production. • The prediction results of isotopic compositions of each burnt pin are verified. • The operating performance is analyzed at equilibrium core with fuel pin reshuffling. • The possibility of reuse of spent fuel pins for reduction of fresh fuel assemblies is investigated. - Abstract: An alternative way to enhance efficient use of nuclear fuel is investigated through fuel pin reshuffling options within PWR fuel assembly (FA). In modeling FA with reshuffled pins, as prerequisite, the single pin calculation method is proposed to estimate the isotopic compositions of each pin of burnt FA in the core-wide environment. Subsequently, such estimation has been verified by comparing with the neutronic performance of the reference design. Two scenarios are concerned, i.e., first scenario was targeted on the improvement of the uniform flux spatial distribution and on the enhancement of neutron economy by simply reshuffling the existing fuel pins in once-burnt fuel assemblies, and second one was focused on reduction of fresh fuel loading and discharged fuel assemblies with more economic incentives by reusing some available spent fuel pins still carrying enough reactivity that are mechanically sound ascertained. In scenario-1, the operating time was merely somewhat increased for few minutes when treating eight FAs by keeping enough safety margins. The scenario-2 was proved to reduce four fresh FAs loading without largely losing any targeted parameters from the safety aspect despite loss of 14 effective full power days for operation at reference plant full rated power.

  12. Evaluation of plate type fuel options for small power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrzejewski, Claudio de Sa

    2005-01-01

    Plate type fuels are generally used in research reactor. The utilization of this kind of configuration improves significantly the overall performance fuel. The conception of new fuels for small power reactors based in plate-type configuration needs a complete review of the safety criteria originally used to conduce power and research reactor projects. In this work, a group of safety criteria is established for the utilization of plate-type fuels in small power reactors taking into consideration the characteristics of power and research reactors. The performance characteristics of fuel elements are strongly supported by its materials properties and the adopted configuration for its fissile particles. The present work makes an orientated bibliographic investigation searching the best material properties (structural materials and fuel compounds) related to the performance fuel. Looking for good parafermionic characteristics and manufacturing exequibility associated to existing facilities in national research centres, this work proposes several alternatives of plate type fuels, considering its utilization in small power reactors: dispersions of UO 2 in stainless steel, of UO 2 in zircaloy, and of U-Mo alloy in zircaloy, and monolithic plates of U-Mo cladded with zircaloy. Given the strong dependency of radiation damage with temperature increase, the safety criteria related to heat transfer were verified for all the alternatives, namely the DNBR; coolant temperature lower than saturation temperature; peak meat temperature to avoid swelling; peak fuel temperature to avoid meat-matrix reaction. It was found that all alternatives meet the safety criteria including the 0.5 mm monolithic U-Mo plate cladded with zircaloy. (author)

  13. Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-28

    The Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps report, published by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) provides an overview of the current state of alternative aviation fuels, based upon findings from recent peer-reviewed studies, scientific working groups, and BETO stakeholder input provided during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop.

  14. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 85 and 86 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and...-0299; FRL-9149-9] RIN 2060-AP64 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions AGENCY... streamline the process by which manufacturers of clean alternative fuel conversion systems may demonstrate...

  15. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.21 Lack of alternate fuel supply. (a) Eligibility. Section 211(a)(1) of the Act provides for...

  16. Proceedings of the 1996 Windsor workshop on alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document contains information which was presented at the 1996 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels. Topics include: international links; industry topics and infrastructure issues; propane; engine developments; the cleanliness of alternative fuels; heavy duty alternative fuel engines; California zev commercialization efforts; and in-use experience.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and Ethanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and Ethanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and Ethanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

  2. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, R.; Findling, B.; Klein-Vielhauer, S.; Nieke, E.; Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1991-01-01

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Alternative Measuring Approaches in Gamma Scanning on Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihm Kvenangen, Karen

    2007-06-15

    In the future, the demand for energy is predicted to grow and more countries plan to utilize nuclear energy as their source of electric energy. This gives rise to many important issues connected to nuclear energy, such as finding methods that can verify that the spent nuclear fuel has been handled safely and used in ordinary power producing cycles as stated by the operators. Gamma ray spectroscopy is one method used for identification and verification of spent nuclear fuel. In the specific gamma ray spectroscopy method called gamma scanning the gamma radiation from the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134 and Eu-154 are measured in a spent fuel assembly. From the results, conclusions can be drawn about the fuels characteristics. This degree project examines the possibilities of using alternative measuring approaches when using the gamma scanning method. The focus is on examining how to increase the quality of the measured data. How to decrease the measuring time as compared with the present measuring strategy, has also been investigated. The main part of the study comprises computer simulations of gamma scanning measurements. The simulations have been validated with actual measurements on spent nuclear fuel at the central interim storage, Clab. The results show that concerning the quality of the measuring data the conventional strategy is preferable, but with other starting positions and with a more optimized equipment. When focusing on the time aspect, the helical measuring strategy can be an option, but this needs further investigation.

  4. Alternative Measuring Approaches in Gamma Scanning on Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihm Kvenangen, Karen

    2007-06-01

    In the future, the demand for energy is predicted to grow and more countries plan to utilize nuclear energy as their source of electric energy. This gives rise to many important issues connected to nuclear energy, such as finding methods that can verify that the spent nuclear fuel has been handled safely and used in ordinary power producing cycles as stated by the operators. Gamma ray spectroscopy is one method used for identification and verification of spent nuclear fuel. In the specific gamma ray spectroscopy method called gamma scanning the gamma radiation from the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134 and Eu-154 are measured in a spent fuel assembly. From the results, conclusions can be drawn about the fuels characteristics. This degree project examines the possibilities of using alternative measuring approaches when using the gamma scanning method. The focus is on examining how to increase the quality of the measured data. How to decrease the measuring time as compared with the present measuring strategy, has also been investigated. The main part of the study comprises computer simulations of gamma scanning measurements. The simulations have been validated with actual measurements on spent nuclear fuel at the central interim storage, Clab. The results show that concerning the quality of the measuring data the conventional strategy is preferable, but with other starting positions and with a more optimized equipment. When focusing on the time aspect, the helical measuring strategy can be an option, but this needs further investigation

  5. Pakistan energy consumption scenario and some alternate energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Pakistan with its energy-deficient resources is highly dependent on import-oriented energy affected the economy because of repeated energy price hike on international horizon. The energy consumption pattern in Pakistan comprises about two-third in commercial energy and one-third in non-commercial forms. Most of the country's energy requirements are met by oil, gas hydro power, coal, nuclear energy and thermal power. Pakistan meets it's commercial energy requirements indigenously up to 64%. The balance of deficit of 35-40% is met through import. The consumption of various agro-residues and wood as fuel also plays a vital role. The analysis shows that emphasis needs to be placed on new and renewable resources of energy besides adopting technologies for energy conservation. Renewable energy depends on energy income and constitutes the development process. The are several renewable energy options such as biogas technology, micro-hydro power generation, direct solar energy and biomass energy conservation etc. By improving the conservation techniques as designs of solar converters, pre treating the biomass fuel, increasing the effectiveness of carbonization and pyrolysis increases the energy production. (A.B.)

  6. Device for the alternative option of temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargus, Jan; Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Novak, Martin; Cubik, Jakub; Cvejn, Daniel; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has good optical properties, and its composition offers the possibility of use in many applications (industry, security device, medicine applications and etc.). We focused on the alternative option of temperature measurement in this article. Our approach is based on measuring changes of chromaticity correlated temperature corresponding to changes in temperature. Described device uses an optical fiber with a defined layer of PDMS and luminophore and we assume that it can find use also in the field of security. The article describes the process of making the prototype of the device and its verification based on laboratory results. The measured temperature depends mainly on the type of optical fiber and the measured temperature range is determined by the thermal resistance of used optical fiber. Using a calibration measurement can determine the value of temperature with an accuracy of +/- 2,5 %.

  7. MHR fuel cycle options for future sustainability of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Alan; Venneri, Francesco; Rodriguez, Carmelo; Fikani, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The future sustainability of the nuclear option is not significantly tied to the level of resources. For example, current high quality uranium reserves (∼3.34x10 6 tons) are enough for more than 55 years at present consumption rates (IAEA estimate). Doubling of the present uranium ore price (∼$26/kg) could create about a tenfold increase in resources, providing more than 550 years of supply at present rates (World Nuclear Association estimate). There are also thorium reserves which are estimated to be about three times those of uranium, and would allow for a significant increase in annual consumption levels. The key to a sustainable nuclear future is really tied to the political and technical problems of long term waste disposal, and the perceived risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. Thus fuel cycle options for a sustainable nuclear future must address and solve these issues. High temperature, Gas-Cooled, Graphite Moderated, reactors (MHRs) have nuclear and operational characteristics to provide multiple fuel cycle options to solve these issues. Three fuel cycles for the MHD are described in this paper, and their capabilities for meeting a sustainable nuclear future in terms of nuclear waste minimization and destruction, and reduction of proliferation risk, are discussed. (author)

  8. Overview of alternate-fuel fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Alternate fuels (AFs) such as Cat-D, D- 3 He and p- 11 B offer the potential advantages of elimination of tritium breeding and reduced energy release in neutrons. An adequate energy balance appears exceedingly difficult to achieve with proton-based fuels such as p- 11 B. Thus Cat-D, which can ignite at temperatures in the range of 30 to 40 keV, represents the logical near-term candidate. An attractive variation which adds flexibility would be to develop semi-catalyzed-D plants for synfuel production with simultaneous generation of 3 He for use in D- 3 He satellite electrical power plants. These approaches and problems are discussed

  9. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    In the cement industry there is an increasing environmental and financial motivation for substituting conventional fossil fuels with alternative fuels, being biomass or waste derived fuels. However, the introduction of alternative fuels may influence emissions, cement product quality, process...... stability, and process efficiency. Alternative fuel substitution in the calciner unit has reached close to 100% at many cement plants and to further increase the use of alternative fuels rotary kiln substitution must be enhanced. At present, limited systematic knowledge of the alternative fuel combustion...... properties and the influence on the flame formation is available. In this project a scientific approach to increase the fundamental understanding of alternative fuel conversion in the rotary kiln burner is employed through literature studies, experimental combustion characterisation studies, combustion...

  10. Economic Analysis of Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W.; Gao, F.

    2012-01-01

    An economic analysis has been performed to compare four nuclear fuel cycle options: a once-through cycle (OT), DUPIC recycling, thermal recycling using MOX fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR-MOX), and sodium fast reactor recycling employing pyro processing (Pyro-SFR). This comparison was made to suggest an economic competitive fuel cycle for the Republic of Korea. The fuel cycle cost (FCC) has been calculated based on the equilibrium material flows integrated with the unit cost of the fuel cycle components. The levelized fuel cycle costs (LFCC) have been derived in terms of mills/kWh for a fair comparison among the FCCs, and the results are as follows: OT 7.35 mills/kWh, DUPIC 9.06 mills/kWh, PUREX-MOX 8.94 mills/kWh, and Pyro-SFR 7.70 mills/kWh. Due to unavoidable uncertainties, a cost range has been applied to each unit cost, and an uncertainty study has been performed accordingly. A sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to obtain the break-even uranium price (215$/kgU) for the Pyro-SFR against the OT, which demonstrates that the deployment of the Pyro-SFR may be economical in the foreseeable future. The influence of pyro techniques on the LFCC has also been studied to determine at which level the potential advantages of Pyro-SFR can be realized.

  11. Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent W. Dixon; Steven J. Piet

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository (63,000 MTiHM commercial, 7,000 MT non-commercial). There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected. The first step in understanding the need for different spent fuel management approaches is to understand the size of potential spent fuel inventories. A full range of potential futures for domestic commercial nuclear energy is considered. These energy futures are as follows: 1. Existing License Completion - Based on existing spent fuel inventories plus extrapolation of future plant-by-plant discharges until the end of each operating license, including known license extensions. 2. Extended License Completion - Based on existing spent fuel inventories plus a plant-by-plant extrapolation of future discharges assuming on all operating plants having one 20-year extension. 3. Continuing Level Energy Generation - Based on extension of the current ∼100 GWe installed commercial base and average spent fuel discharge of 2100 MT/yr through the year 2100. 4. Continuing Market Share Generation - Based on a 1.8% compounded growth of the electricity market through the year 2100, matched by growing nuclear capacity and associated spent fuel discharge. 5. Growing Market Share Generation - Extension of current nuclear capacity and associated spent fuel discharge through 2100 with 3.2% growth representing 1.5% market growth (all energy, not just electricity) and 1.7% share growth. Share growth results in

  12. Impact of minor actinide recycling on sustainable fuel cycle options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidet, F.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The recent Evaluation and Screening study chartered by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has identified four fuel cycle options as being the most promising. Among these four options, the two single-stage fuel cycles rely on a fast reactor and are differing in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The two other fuel cycles are two-stage and rely on both fast and thermal reactors. They also differ in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The current study assesses the impact of recycling minor actinides on the reactor core design, its performance characteristics, and the characteristics of the recycled material and waste material. The recycling of minor actinides is found not to affect the reactor core performance, as long as the same cycle length, core layout and specific power are being used. One notable difference is that the required transuranics (TRU) content is slightly increased when minor actinides are recycled. The mass flows are mostly unchanged given a same specific power and cycle length. Although the material mass flows and reactor performance characteristics are hardly affected by recycling minor actinides, some differences are observed in the waste characteristics between the two fuel cycles considered. The absence of minor actinides in the waste results in a different buildup of decay products, and in somewhat different behaviors depending on the characteristic and time frame considered. Recycling of minor actinides is found to result in a reduction of the waste characteristics ranging from 10% to 90%. These results are consistent with previous studies in this domain and depending on the time frame considered, packaging conditions, repository site, repository strategy, the differences observed in the waste characteristics could be beneficial and help improve

  13. Assessing alternative options for allocating oil revenue in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhordar, Zahra A.; Saboohi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on medium-term effects of alternative windfall management strategies for a resource abundant country where the resource revenues are expected to last over a prolonged period. In particular, the trade-off between spending and saving is analyzed within the framework of a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The model is further validated against historical data available for 2001–2010. The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously in the model based on a function that reflects the changes in factor productivity. The results suggest that saving oil revenues, whether in an oil fund or through physical investment in domestic sectors, leads to a higher economic growth. However, physical investment is superior in the short to medium term based on the resultant GDP while creating an oil fund might be more beneficial in the post oil era. - Highlights: • A recursive dynamic general equilibrium model is applied for Iran. • The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously. • Alternative revenue allocation options are investigated. • Physical investment of oil windfalls leads to higher economic growth in medium run. • Financial investment of oil revenues leads to higher economic growth in long run

  14. Fuel Transfer Cask; Procedure Option and Radiation Protection during Transferring the Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Khairul Ariff Mustafa; Nurhayati Ramli; Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim; Mohd Fazli Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) has been operating almost 30 years. Many components are ageing. Nuclear Malaysia has taken an initiative to manage this ageing problem to prolong the life of the reactor. Hence, reactor upgrading project already commence started with the reactor console. To upgrade the core, all the fuel must be taken out from the core. A conceptual design of fuel transfer cask already done. This paper will discuss about the option of safe working procedure for transferring the fuel to the spent fuel pool for temporary. Hence, radiation protection for operator should be considered during the process. (author)

  15. California's experience with alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.

    1993-01-01

    California is often referred to as a nation-state, and in many aspects fits that description. The state represents the seventh largest economy in the world. Most of California does not have to worry about fuel to heat homes in the winter. What we do worry about is fuel for our motor vehicles, approximately 24 million of them. In fact, California accounts for ten percent of new vehicle sales in the United States each year, much of it used in the transportation sector. The state is the third largest consumer of gasoline in the world, only exceeded by the United States as a whole and the former Soviet Union. California is also a leader in air pollution. Of the nine worst ozone areas in the country cited in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, two areas the Los Angeles Basin and San Diego are located in California. Five of California's cities made the top 20 smoggiest cities in the United States. In reality, all of California's major metropolitan areas have air quality problems. This paper will discuss the beginnings of California's investigations of alternative fuels use in vehicles; the results of the state's demonstration programs; and future plans to improve California's air quality and energy security in the mobile sector

  16. 77 FR 36423 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... delivered to the following address: Federal Trade Commission, Office of the Secretary, Room H-113 (Annex N... cell, advanced lean burn, and hybrid motor vehicles) that were added to the definition of ``alternative... legislation (i.e., lean burn, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles). No comments opposed this approach. Edison...

  17. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... additional credits for the use of biodiesel in blends of 20 percent biodiesel or greater and have provided an... discussion in Part II.A), the original program based upon AFV acquisitions and biodiesel use became known as... example, B20 (a 20 percent blend of biodiesel with 80 percent petroleum diesel) is not an alternative fuel...

  18. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas production due to its favorable composition of lower molecular weight compounds. This paper presents a study for a 250 kW net electrical power PEM fuel cell system utilizing a partial oxidation in one case study and steam reformers in the second. This study has shown that steam-reforming process is the most competitive fuel processing option in terms of fuel processing efficiency. Partial oxidation process has proved to posses the lowest fuel processing efficiency. Among the options studied, the highest fuel processing efficiency is achieved with natural gas steam reforming system.

  19. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this

  20. Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project: Recommended path forward. Volume 2: Alternatives and path forward evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has completed an evaluation of four alternatives for expediting the removal of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins and stabilizing and placing the fuel into interim storage. Four alternatives were compared: (1) Containerizing fuel in the K Basins, transporting fuel to a facility for stabilization, and interim storage of stabilized fuel in a dry storage facility (DSF); (2) Containerizing fuel in the K Basins, transporting fuel to a wet temporary staging facility, moving fuel to a facility for stabilization, and transporting stabilized fuel to an interim DSF; (3) Containerizing fuel in the K Basins in multi-canister overpacks, transporting fuel directly to a stabilization facility for passivation in the overpack, and interim storage of stabilized fuel in a DSF; (4) Packaging fuel for transport overseas and shipping fuel to a foreign reprocessing facility for reprocessing with eventual return of U, Pu and vitrified high level waste. The comparative evaluation consisted of a multi-attribute utility decision analysis, a public, worker and environmental health risk assessment, and a programmatic risk evaluation. The evaluation concluded that the best Path Forward combines the following concepts: Removal of K Basin fuel and sludge is uncoupled from the operation of a stabilization facility; A storage capability is provided to act as a lag storage or staging operation for overpack fuel containers as they are removed from the K Basins; Metal fuel drying and passivation should be maintained as the fuel stabilization process with the option of further refinements as more information becomes available; and The near term NEPA strategy should focus on expeditious removal of fuel and sludge from K Basins and placing overpacked fuel in temporary storage

  1. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  3. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 4, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficker, C.

    2000-09-08

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News discusses Executive Order 13149 which is designed to not only increase the use of alternative fuel by federal agencies but also to increase the use of fuel efficient vehicles in the federal fleet. Also highlighted is the 6th National Clean Cities Conference and Expo held in San Diego, May 7-10, 2000, which attracted nearly 1,000 people for three action-packed days of alternative fuel activities. The work to develop a market for alternative fuels is more important than ever.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction from fossil fuels: options and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    If levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are to be stabilized over the next 50 years, net emissions from the use of fossil fuels have to be reduced. One concept worth exploring is the removal of carbon dioxide from plant flue gases and disposing of it in a manner that sequesters it from the atmosphere. A number of technologies, which are either commercially available or under development, promise to make this concept viable. The question of where to dispose of the carbon dioxide removed is not the limiting factor, given the potential for use in enhanced hydrocarbon production as well as other geological disposal options. In the longer term, fossil fuel use will significantly decline, but these extraction and sequestration technologies can provide the time for the transition to take place in a manner which causes least impact to the economies of the world. (author)

  5. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  6. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 5, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-11-01

    A quarterly magazine with articles on alternative fuel school buses, the market growth of biodiesel fuel, National AFV Day 2002, model year 2002 alternative fuel passenger cars and light trucks, the Michelin Challenge Bibendum road rally, and advanced technology vehicles at Robins Air Force Base, the Top Ten Clean Cities coalitions for 2000, and AFVs on college campuses.

  7. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  8. Alternative Fuels in Transportation : Workforce needs and opportunities in support of reducing reliance on petroleum fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    An overreliance on foreign oil and the negative impacts of using petroleum fuels on the worlds climate have prompted energy policies that support the diversification of transport fuels and aggressive work to transition to non-petroleum options. Th...

  9. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-15

    March 2003 the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor fuels (IEA/AMF) decided to continue annex XXVII 'Standardization of alternative fuels' with a second phase. The purpose of the second phase was to go further in the contacts with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as well as the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and their technical committees, to better understand their needs and to investigate how IEA/AMF could contribute to their work. It was also scheduled to put forward proposals on how IEA/AMF could cooperate with CEN and ISO and their technical committees (TC: s), primarily ISO/TC 28 'Petroleum Products and Lubricants' and CEN/TC 19 'Petroleum Products, Lubricants and Related Products'. The main part of the work in IEA/AMF annex XXVII phase two has focused on personal contacts within CEN/TC 19 and ISO/TC 28, but also on data and information collection from websites and written information. Together with the analysis of this information, the internal organization of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and ISO/TC 28 and of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and CEN/TC 19 have also been discussed and analysed.

  10. Addressing fuel recycling in solid oxide fuel cell systems fed by alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    An innovative study on anode recirculation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with alternative fuels is carried out and investigated. Alternative fuels under study are ammonia, pure hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, DME and biogas from biomass gasification. It is shown that the amount of anode off......%. Furthermore, it is founded that for the case with methanol, ethanol and DME then at high utilization factors, low anode recirculation is recommended while at low utilization factors, high anode recirculation is recommended. If the plant is fed by biogas from biomass gasification then for each utilization...

  11. Used fuel rail shock and vibration testing options analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-25

    The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges

  12. Information for Consumers about Alternative Fuel Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here are some factors to be aware of if you are considering fuel conversion, including background information on fuel conversion, instructions for demonstrating compliance, and other related information.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 2 8 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 10 23 Electric 84 67 Ethanol Boasts 200-Plus Flex Fuel Vehicles May 24, 2013 Video thumbnail for Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama May 1, 2012 More Case Studies Videos Text Version More Alabama Videos

  14. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: How Do They Really Measure Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    similar to that of comparable gasoline vehicles. The publication is available in .pdf format through DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center home page on the World Wide Web. For a hard copy, call the National Alternative

  15. PWR Core II blanket fuel disposition recommendation of storage option study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dana, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    After review of the options available for current storage of T Plant Fuel the recommended option is wet storage without the use of chillers. A test has been completed that verifies the maximum temperature reached is below the industrial standard for storage of spent fuel. This option will be the least costly and still maintain the fuel in a safe environment. The options that were evaluated included dry storage with and without chillers, and wet storage with and without chillers. Due to the low decay heat of the Shippingport Core II Blanket fuel assemblies the fuel pool temperature will not exceed 100 deg. F

  16. The use of thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    The use of thorium as an alternative or supplementary nuclear fuel is examined and compared with uranium. A description of various reactor types and their suitability to thorium fuel, and a description of various aspects of the fuel cycle from mining to waste disposal, are included. Comments are made on the safety and economics of each aspect of the fuel cycle and the extension of the lifetime of nuclear fuel

  17. Alternative Fabrication of Recycling Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2015-01-01

    Metal fuels such as U-Zr/U-Pu-Zr alloys have been considered as a nuclear fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. In order to develop innovative fabrication method of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, modified casting under inert atmosphere has been applied for metal fuel slugs for SFR. Alternative fabrication method of fuel slugs has been introduced to develop an improved fabrication process of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements. In this study, metal fuel slugs for SFR have been fabricated by modified casting method, and characterized to evaluate the feasibility of the alternative fabrication method. In order to prevent evaporation of volatile elements such as Am and improve quality of fuel slugs, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied in KAERI. U-10Zr-5Mn fuel slug containing volatile surrogate element Mn was soundly cast by modified injection casting under modest pressure. Evaporation of Mn during alternative casting could not be detected by chemical analysis. Mn element was most recovered with prevention of evaporation by alternative casting. Modified injection casting has been selected as an alternative fabrication method in KAERI, considering evaporation prevention, and proven benefits of high productivity, high yield, and good remote control

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of alternative transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cornu, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of the commonly proposed alternative transport fuels were ranked according to both the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions and the production costs incurred between the recovery of the prime resource and the fuel's end use by the Australian transport fleet. An examination of the emissions of each greenhouse gas at each production stage confirmed the common presumption that the low levels of secondary greenhouse gas emissions involved contribute little to the overall greenhouse impact of a fuel's production and use. From a greenhouse point of view the transport fuels studied could be reasonable well ranked by considering their carbon dioxide emissions alone. A possible exception may apply in the case of the compressed natural gas option, which may need to separate consideration of the effect of fugitive emissions of methane from gas distribution systems. An assumption involved in reaching this result was that nitrous oxide emissions, on which there was inadequate hard data, would not form more than 1% of the total nitrogen oxide emissions. At such an emission level it could contribute up to 5% of a fuel's total greenhouse impact. It is concluded that apart from some small niche opportunities, there is no Australian alternative transport fuel option whose production cost and greenhouse impact makes it one which policy should favour over other fuels. It is stressed that this is no more than a preliminary scouting study of generic options, which addresses only greenhouse issues. 17 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  19. Impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordelier, Stan; Cavedon, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    OECD/NEA has performed a study on the impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies with 33 experts from 12 member countries, 1 non-member country and 2 international organizations. The study extends a series of previous ones on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) issues, focusing on the performance assessments for repositories of high-level waste (HLW) arising from advanced fuel cycles. This study covers a broader spectrum than previous studies, from present industrial practice to fully closed cycles via partially closed cycles (in terms of transuranic elements); 9 fuel cycle schemes and 4 variants. Elements of fuel cycles are considered primarily as sources of waste, the internal mass flows of each scheme being kept for the sake of mass conservation. The compositions, activities and heat loads of all waste flows are also tracked. Their impact is finally assessed on the waste repository concepts. The study result confirms the findings from the previous NEA studies on P and T on maximal reduction of the waste source term and maximal use of uranium resources. In advanced fuel cycle schemes the activity of the waste is reduced by burning first plutonium and then minor actinides and also the uranium consumption is reduced, as the fraction of fast reactors in the park is increased to 100%. The result of the repository performance assessments, analysing the effect of different HLW isotopic composition on repository performance and on repository capacity, shows that the maximum dose released to biosphere at any time in normal conditions remains, for all schemes and for all the repository concepts examined, well below accepted radiation protection thresholds. The major impact is on the detailed concept of the repositories, through heat load and waste volume. Advanced fuel cycles could allow a repository to cover waste produced from 5 to 20 times more electricity generation than PWR once-through cycle. Given the flexibility of the advanced fuel

  20. R and D for back-end options for irradiated research reactor fuel in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecher, H.; Curtius, H.; Fachinger, J.

    2001-01-01

    Out of 11.5 t of irradiated fuel arising from German research reactors until the end of this decade, 3.9 t are intended to be returned to the USA, and 2.3 t are expected to be recycled for reuse of uranium. The remaining 5.3 t, as well as the fuel irradiated after the year 2010, will have to follow the domestic back-end option of extended dry interim storage in Castor-type casks, followed by disposal in a deep geological repository. R and D is going on in the Research Centre Juelich to investigate the long-term behaviour of U-Al based fuel in a salt repository. First results from leaching experiments show I) a fast dissolution of the fuel with mobilization of its radionuclide inventory, and 2) the following formation of amorphous Al-Mg-hydroxide phases. Long-lived actinides from the fuel were shown to be fixed in these phases and hence immobilized. Future R and D will be to investigate the nature and stability of these phases for long-term safety assessments. Investigations will have to be extended to cover alternative disposal sites (granite clay) as well as different (e.g. silicon based) fuels. (author)

  1. Health and safety of competing fuel options for fuel cells in the road transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, E.; Short, S.; Stutt, E.; Wickramatillake, H.; Harrison, P.

    2000-07-01

    This report presents a critical analysis of the health and safety issues surrounding competing transport fuel options, including those for possible future fuel-cell powered vehicles. The fuels considered in this report are gasoline (unleaded and reformulated), diesel, hydrogen (H{sub 2}), methanol, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The analysis presented here is based on available information in peer-reviewed, published papers and other sources such as government department or research laboratory reports and websites. An overall evaluation of the fuels in terms of their toxicity and health effects, environmental fate, and fire and explosion safety aspects is presented. The report is based on current knowledge and makes no assumptions as to how fuels may change in the future if they are to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The report identifies the hazards of the fuels but does not estimate the risks likely to be associated with their eventual use in fuel-cell vehicles. The focus is on the fuels themselves and not their exhaust or reaction products. sNo assessment has been made of the environmental effects data for the fuels. Broad environmental considerations such as ozone forming potential and also global warming are not considered. Basic information on environmental fate is included to provide an understanding of migratory pathways, environmental compartmentalisation and potential routes of human exposure. Other factors such as economics, government incentives or disincentives and public attitudes may have a bearing on which of the fuels are considered most appropriate for future fuel-cell vehicles; these factors are not considered in any detail in this report. (Author)

  2. 4 CFR 21.10 - Express options, flexible alternative procedures, accelerated schedules, summary decisions, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alternative procedures to promptly and fairly resolve a protest, including alternative dispute resolution... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Express options, flexible alternative procedures... alternative procedures, accelerated schedules, summary decisions, and status and other conferences. (a) At the...

  3. CANFLEX-RU fuel development programs as one option of advanced fuel cycles in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Sim, Ki-Seob; Chung, Jang Hwan

    1999-01-01

    As one of the possible fuel cycles in Korea, RU (Recycled Uranium) fuel offers a very attractive alternative to the use of NU (Natural Uranium) and SEU in the CANDU reactors, because Korea is a unique country having both PWR and CANDU reactors. Korea can therefore exploit the natural synergism between the two reactor types to minimise overall waste production, and maximise energy derived from the fuel, by burning the spent fuel from its PWR reactors in CANDU reactors. Potential benefits can be derived from a number of stages in the fuel cycle: no enrichment required, no enrichment tails, direct conversion to UO 2 lower sensitivity to 234 U and 236 U absorption in the CANDU reactor, expected lower cost relative to NU and SEU. These benefits all fit well with the PWR-CANDU fuel cycle synergy. RU arising from the reprocessing of European and Japanese oxide spent fuel by 2000 is projected to be approaching 25,000 te. The use of RU fuel in a CANDU-6 reactor should result in no serious radiological difficulties and no requirements for special precautions and should not require any new technologies for the fuel fabrication and handling. A KAERI's feasibility shows that the use of the CANFLEX bundle as the carrier for RU will be compatible with the reactor design, current safety and operational requirements, and there will be no significant fuel performance difference from the CANDU 37-element NU fuel bundle. Compared with the 37-element NU bundle, the RU fuel has significantly improved fuel cycle economics derived from increased burnups, a large reduction in fuel requirements and spent fuel arisings and the potential lower cost for RU material. There is the potential for annual fuel cost savings to be in the range of one-third to two-thirds, with enhanced operating margins using RU in the CANFLEX bundle design. These benefits provide the rationale for justifying R and D effort on the use of RU fuel for advanced fuel cycles in the CANDU reactors of Korea. The RU fuel

  4. 46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or...) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.650 Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete the...

  5. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options... MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.650 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete your underwater...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    and 49 U.S. Code 47136a) Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV) and Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Manufacturing Loan Program website and the Alternative Fuel Infrastructure fact sheet. (Reference 42 U.S. Code vehicles and infrastructure. Projects supported with CMAQ funds must demonstrate emissions reductions, be

  8. Preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsoever, F.J. van; Hagen, P.; Willems, M

    2013-01-01

    Using a choice model, we estimate the preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments. The analysis shows that local governments are willing to pay between 25% and 50% extra for an alternative fuel vehicle without a serious loss of utility. Further, local emissions are an

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    for Solar Power Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicles in Vermont Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refuse Vehicles Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse

  13. Gas detection for alternate-fuel vehicle facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Steve

    2003-05-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles' safety is driven by local, state, and federal regulations in which fleet owners in key metropolitan [table: see text] areas convert much of their fleet to cleaner-burning fuels. Various alternative fuels are available to meet this requirement, each with its own advantages and requirements. This conversion to alternative fuels leads to special requirements for safety monitoring in the maintenance facilities and refueling stations. A comprehensive gas and flame monitoring system needs to meet the needs of both the user and the local fire marshal.

  14. Simulating the Use of Alternative Fuels in a Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Chin, Jeffrey Chevoor; Liu, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The interest in alternative fuels for aviation has created a need to evaluate their effect on engine performance. The use of dynamic turbofan engine simulations enables the comparative modeling of the performance of these fuels on a realistic test bed in terms of dynamic response and control compared to traditional fuels. The analysis of overall engine performance and response characteristics can lead to a determination of the practicality of using specific alternative fuels in commercial aircraft. This paper describes a procedure to model the use of alternative fuels in a large commercial turbofan engine, and quantifies their effects on engine and vehicle performance. In addition, the modeling effort notionally demonstrates that engine performance may be maintained by modifying engine control system software parameters to account for the alternative fuel.

  15. Analysis of Technology Options to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of Idling Trucks; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Vyas, A.

    2000-01-01

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000-3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter

  16. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  17. Alternative transportation fuels in the USA: government hydrogen vehicle programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The linkage between natural gas-based transportation and hydrogen-based transportation strategies, two clean burning gaseous fuels, provides a strong policy rationale for increased government sponsorship of hydrogen vehicle research and demonstration programs. Existing federal and state government hydrogen vehicle projects are discussed in this paper: research at the NREL, alternate-fueled buses, Renewable Hydrogen for the State of Hawaii program, New York state alternative transportation fuels program, Colorado program. 9 refs

  18. Modelling of spray evaporation and penetration for alternative fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Azami, M. H.; Savill, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this work is on the modelling of evaporation and spray penetration for alternative fuels. The extension model approach is presented and validated for alternative fuels, namely, Kerosene (KE), Ethanol (ETH), Methanol (MTH), Microalgae biofuel (MA), Jatropha biofuel (JA), and Camelina biofuel (CA). The results for atomization and spray penetration are shown in a time variant condition. Comparisons have been made to visualize the transient behaviour of these fuels. The vapour pressu...

  19. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  20. NPP fuel cycle and assessment of possible options for long-term fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.; Lebedev, V.M.; Davidenko, N.N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some results of the analysis of the possible options for Russian NPPs fuel supply. In the classical consideration these are four fuel cycles: uranium cycle based on natural uranium, this cycle has several economical advantages with the use of CANDU type reactors with a heavy-water moderator; uranium cycle based on enriched uranium, it is a basis for the current and future nuclear power; uranium-thorium fuel cycle with capabilities which are very promising but unfortunately difficult to implement in practice; plutonium-uranium cycle, in terms of its potential capabilities it is an excellent option, but it is extremely difficult to implement it in practice due to a high activity and toxicity of nuclear materials under recycle. The nuclear power of Russia is currently aimed at using the cheapest fuel resources, that is first of all, uranium reprocessed from industrial reactor fuel and slag-heaps accumulated on the past in isotope-separation plant sites. These resources are enough for the Russian large-scale nuclear power to be developed [ru

  1. Status and outlook for biofuels, other alternative fuels and new vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N -O; Aakko-Saksa, P; Sipilae, K

    2008-03-15

    The report presents an outlook for alternative motor fuels and new vehicles. The time period covered extends up to 2030. The International Energy Agency and the U.S. Energy Information Administration predict that the world energy demand will increase by over 50% from now to 2030, if policies remain unchanged. Most of the growth in demand for energy in general, as well as for transport fuels, will take place in non-OECD countries. Gasoline and diesel are projected to remain the dominant automotive fuels until 2030. Vehicle technology and high quality fuels will eventually solve the problem of harmful exhaust emissions. However, the problem with CO{sub 2} still remains, and much attention will be given to increase efficiency. Hybrid technology is one option to reduce fuel consumption. Diesel engines are fuel efficient, but have high emissions compared with advanced gasoline engines. New combustion systems combining the best qualities of gasoline and diesel engines promise low emissions as well as high efficiency. The scenarios for alternative fuels vary a lot. By 2030, alternative fuels could represent a 10- 30% share of transport fuels, depending on policies. Ambitious goals for biofuels in transport have been set. As advanced biofuels are still in their infancy, it seems probable that traditional biofuels will also be used in 2030. Ethanol is the fastest growing biofuel. Currently the sustainability of biofuels is discussed extensively. Synthetic fuels promise excellent end-use properties, reduced emissions, and if produced from biomass, also reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. The report presents an analysis of technology options to meet the requirements for energy security, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, reduced local emissions as well as sustainability in general in the long run. In the short term, energy savings will be the main measure for CO{sub 2} reductions in transport, fuel switches will have a secondary role. (orig.)

  2. Treatment alternatives for non-fuel-bearing hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Clark, L.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    This evaluation compared four alternatives for the treatment or processing of non-fuel bearing hardware (NFBH) to reduce its volume and prepare it for disposal. These treatment alternatives are: shredding; shredding and low pressure compaction; shredding and supercompaction; and melting. These alternatives are compared on the basis of system costs, waste form characteristics, and process considerations. The study recommends that melting and supercompaction alternatives be further considered and that additional testing be conducted for these two alternatives

  3. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 0 0 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 1 0 Electric 8 0 Coast Region National Average per unit sold per GGE per unit sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $3.01/gallon $2.74/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE Biodiesel (B99-B100) $3.61/gallon $3.57/GGE $3.48/gallon $3.45/GGE

  5. Social Cost Assessment for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ji-eun; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper will investigate the vast array of economic factors to estimate the true cost of the nuclear power. There are many studies addressing the external costs of energy production. However, it is only since the 1990s that the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production has been studied in detail. Each investigation has identified their own set of external costs and developed formulas and models using a variety of statistical techniques. The objective of this research is to broaden the scope of the parameters currently consider by adding new areas and expanding on the types of situations considered. Previously the approach to evaluating the external cost of nuclear power did not include various fuel cycle options and influencing parameters. Cost has always been a very important factor in decision-making, in particular for policy choices evaluating the alternative energy sources and electricity generation technologies. Assessment of external costs in support of decision-making should reflect timely consideration of important country specific policy objective. PWR-MOX and FR-Pyro are the best fuel cycle in parameter of environment impacts, but OT or OT-ER is proper than FR-Pyro in human beings. Using the OT fuel cycle is better than FR-Pyro to reduce the conflict cost. When energy supply is deficient, FR-Pyro fuel cycle stands longer than other fuel cycles. Proliferation resistance is shown as 'high' in all fuel cycles, so there are no difference between fuel cycles. When the severe accident occurs, FR-Pyro cycle is economical than other OT based fuel cycles.

  6. DoD use of Domestically-Produced Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-10

    85 $21,927 Electric $171 Hydrogen $3 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) $4 Liquefied Petroleum Gas ( LPG ) $14 Total $25,053 Data source: GSA’s FAST Data...919 407 5,802 GAS PH 13 77 94 10 10 204 HYD DE 5 5 LNG BI 1 1 LPG BI 47 47 LPG DE 1 1 Conventional DSL DE 867 16,174 16,028 5,698 2,508 41,275...includes information on the status of: (1) use and potential use of domestically-produced alternative fuels including but not limited to, natural gas

  7. Methanol supply issues for alternative fuels demonstration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, J.M.; Koyama, K.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper surveys issues affecting the supply of fuel-grade methanol for the California Energy Commission's alternative fuels demonstration programs and operations by other public agencies such as transit and school districts. Establishing stable and reasonably priced sources of methanol (in particular) and of alternative fuels generally is essential to their demonstration and commercialization. Development both of vehicle technologies and of fuel supply and distribution are complementary and must proceed in parallel. However, the sequence of scaling up supply and distribution is not necessarily smooth; achievement of volume thresholds in demand and through-put of alternative fuels are marked by different kinds of challenges. Four basic conditions should be met in establishing a fuel supply: (1) it must be price competitive with petroleum-based fuels, at least when accounting for environmental and performance benefits; (2) bulk supply must meet volumes required at each phase; necessitating resilience among suppliers and a means of designating priority for high value users; (3) distribution systems must be reliable, comporting with end users' operational schedules; (4) volatility in prices to the end user for the fuel must be minimal. Current and projected fuel volumes appear to be insufficient to induce necessary economies of scale in production and distribution for fuel use. Despite their benefits, existing programs will suffer absent measures to secure economical fuel supplies. One solution is to develop sources that are dedicated to fuel markets and located within the end-use region

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    vehicles. Hydrogen car image Key Components of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Car Battery (auxiliary): In an Using Hydrogen? Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work Using Hydrogen? to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work Using Hydrogen? on Facebook Tweet about

  9. An evaluation of the alternative transport fuel policies for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Ridvan; Ulusoy, Yahya; Tekin, Yuecel; Suermen, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The search for alternative fuels and new fuel resources is a top priority for Turkey, as is the case in the majority of countries throughout the world. The fuel policies pursued by governmental or civil authorities are of key importance in the success of alternative fuel use, especially for widespread and efficient use. Following the 1973 petroleum crisis, many users in Turkey, especially in transportation sector, searched for alternative fuels and forms of transportation. Gasoline engines were replaced with diesel engines between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s. In addition, natural gas was introduced to the Turkish market for heating in the early 1990s. Liquid petroleum gas was put into use in the mid-1990s, and bio-diesel was introduced into the market for transportation in 2003. However, after long periods of indifference governmental action, guidance and fuel policies were so weak that they did not make sense. Entrepreneurs and users experienced great economical losses and lost confidence in future attempts to search for other possible alternatives. In the present study, we will look at the history of alternative fuel use in the recent past and investigate the alternative engine fuel potential of Turkey, as well as introduce possible future policies based on experience.

  10. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  11. Preliminary ecotoxicity assessment of new generation alternative fuels in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gunther; Dolecal, Renee E; Colvin, Marienne A; George, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    The United States Navy (USN) is currently demonstrating the viability of environmentally sustainable alternative fuels to power its fleet comprised of aircraft and ships. As with any fuel used in a maritime setting, there is potential for introduction into the environment through transport, storage, and spills. However, while alternative fuels are often presumed to be eco-friendly relative to conventional petroleum-based fuels, their environmental fate and effects on marine environments are essentially unknown. Here, standard laboratory-based toxicity experiments were conducted for two alternative fuels, jet fuel derived from Camelina sativa (wild flax) seeds (HRJ5) and diesel fuel derived from algae (HRD76), and two conventional counterparts, jet fuel (JP5) and ship diesel (F76). Initial toxicity tests performed on water-accommodated fractions (WAF) from neat fuels partitioned into seawater, using four standard marine species in acute and chronic/sublethal tests, indicate that the alternative fuels are significantly less toxic to marine organisms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Parametric analyses of single-zone thorium-fueled molten salt reactor fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.J.; Worrall, A.; Gehin, J.C.; Harrison, T.J.; Sunny, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of fuel cycle options based on thorium-fueled Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) have been performed in support of fuel cycle screening and evaluation activities for the United States Department of Energy. The MSR options considered are based on thermal spectrum MSRs with 3 different separations levels: full recycling, limited recycling, and 'once-through' operation without active separations. A single-fluid, single-zone 2250 MWth (1000 MWe) MSR concept consisting of a fuel-bearing molten salt with graphite moderator and reflectors was used as the basis for this study. Radiation transport and isotopic depletion calculations were performed using SCALE 6.1 with ENDF/B-VII nuclear data. New methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) enables MSR analysis using SCALE, modeling material feed and removal by taking user-specified parameters and performing multiple SCALE/TRITON simulations to determine the resulting equilibrium operating conditions. Parametric analyses examined the sensitivity of the performance of a thorium MSR to variations in the separations efficiency for protactinium and fission products. Results indicate that self-sustained operation is possible with full or limited recycling but once-through operation would require an external neutron source. (authors)

  13. Potentials and limitations of alternative fuels for diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Radinko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in the world has increased continuously. The most important primary energy source is oil. The supply of automotive fuels today is based almost entirely on oil, and the demand for liquid transportation fuels worldwide will rise significantly in the next fifty years. Growing energy consumption and decreasing fossil resources are reasons for increasing prices of fossil fuel. Besides limited availability, contribution to greenhouse effect and pollutant emission represent another problem of fossil fuel. Both of these problems can be overcome by increased application of renewable biofuels. Therefore, great effort is made to supplement the primary energy sources by including renewable energies. There are alternative fuels 1st and 2nd generation. Some of them show high potential for reduction of engine out emission. But there are economical and technical barriers when such fuels are applied. This paper shows both advantage and disadvantage of alternative fuels, especially when used for diesel engines.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    established infrastructure. Therefore, fueling vehicles with propane is one way to diversify U.S . transportation fuels and increase the nation's energy security in the process. Vehicle and Infrastructure Safety Administration, the National Fire Protection Association (Code 58), and state agencies like the

  15. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Forecasts : Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Federal and state fuel taxes account for the largest share of the Texas State Highway Fund at 48 percent and 29 percent, respectively, in Fiscal Year 2015. These taxes are levied on a per-gallon basis, meaning that as vehicles get more fuel efficient...

  16. Alternative and sustainable fuelling options for 2-wheeled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, P.; Al-Abdeli, Y.M.; Karri, V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided details of an experiment in which a small, single cylinder, 4-stroke motorcycle was converted to use hydrogen as its fuel. Emissions from the motorcycle's exhaust system were then compared with emissions from both gasoline and hydrogen engines. The thermal efficiencies and performance of the vehicles were also compared and evaluated. Design modifications included the use of port-mounted gaseous fuel injectors and a manifold assembled above the intake valves. The ignition system for the engine was based on a module that used a single pulse generator mounted at one end of the crankshaft to measure engine speed. A dedicated engine management system (EMS) was used to control the fuel injectors and the ignition timing. Thermal efficiencies were derived by dividing the ratio between power output from the engine and the power output associated with the mass flow rate of fuel consumed. Maximum exhaust emission quantities were compared at 2 different speeds. Results of the study showed that the hydrogen engine had a 30 to 50 per cent reduction in power compared to the gasoline engine. The thermal efficiency of the gasoline engine was between 50 to 65 per cent higher than the hydrogen engine at 30 km per hour. However, the hydrogen engine produced no traceable amounts of carbon monoxide (CO). It was concluded that further testing is needed to examine the mixture stoichiometry and the effects of additional engine tuning on the hydrogen engine. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  17. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  18. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  19. Fuels and alternative propulsion in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The transportation sector is one of the first responsible of the air pollution in Germany. The kyoto protocol and the european directive led the german Government to set about some measures. To encourage the petroleum industry to develop classical fuels/biofuels mixing, the government exempted from taxes until 2020 the biofuels part. The Government decided also financial incentives for diesel vehicles equipped with particles filters. Among the different fuels, the document presents the advantages and disadvantages of the hydrogen fuels and the hybrid motors. (A.L.B.)

  20. The option study of air shipment of DUPIC fuel elements to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Koo, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    KAERI developed a DUPIC nuclear fuel with the refabrication of spent PWR fuel discharged from domestic nuclear power plant by a dry process at M6 hot-cell in IMEF. To verify the performance of DUPIC nuclear fuel, irradiation test at operating conditions of commercially operating power plant is essential. Since the HANARO research reactor of KAERI does not have Fuel Test Loop(FTL) for irradiating nuclear fuel under high temperature and high pressure conditions, DUPIC fuel cannot be irradiated in the FTL of HANARO until about 2008. In the 13-th PRM among Korea, Canada, USA and IAEA, AECL proposed that KAERI fabricated DUPIC fuel can be irradiated in the FTL of the NRU research reactor without charge of neutrons. The transportation quantity of DUPIC fuel to Canada is 10 elements(about 6 kg). This transportation package is classified as the 7-th class according to 'recommendation on the transport of dangerous goods' made by the United Nations. Air shipment was investigated as a promising option because it is generally understood that air shipment is more appropriate than ship shipment for transportation of small quantity of nuclear materials from the perspectives of cost and transportation period. In case of air shipment, the IATA regulations have been more intensified since the July of 2001. To make matters worse, it becomes more difficult to get the ratification of corresponding authorities due to 9.11 terror. It was found that at present there is no proper air transportation cask for DUPIC fuel. So, air transportation is considered to be impossible. An alternative of using the exemption limit of fissile material was reviewed. Its results showed that in case of going via USA territory, approvals from US DOT should be needed. The approvals include shipping and cask approvals on technical cask testing. Furthermore, since passes through territories of Japan and Russia have to be done in case of using a regular air cargo from Korea to Canada, approvals from Russia and

  1. Health effects attributable to coal and nuclear fuel cycle alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchy, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Estimates of mortality and morbidity are presented based on present-day knowledge of health effects resulting from current component designs and operations of the fuel cycles, and anticipated emission rates and occupational exposure for the various fuel cycle facilities expected to go into operation in approximately the 1975-1985 period. It was concluded that, although there are large uncertainties in the estimates of potential health effects, the coal fuel cycle alternative has a greater health impact on man than the uranium fuel cycle. However, the increased risk of health effects for either fuel cycle represents a very small incremental risk to the average individual in the public

  2. Alternate aircraft fuels: Prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.

  3. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 7, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-08-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on Supplemental Environmental Projects, AFVs for 2004, and a European clean transportation initiative called CIVITAS. Also an interview with Boone Pickens about natural gas fueling for vehicles.

  4. Intelligent Engine Systems: Alternate Fuels Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Dilip

    2008-01-01

    The performance and gaseous emissions were measured for a well-stirred reactor operating under lean conditions for two fuels: JP8 and a synthetic Fisher-Tropsch fuel over a range of equivalence ratios from 0.6 down to the lean blowout. The lean blowout characteristics were determined in LBO experiments at loading parameter values from 0.7 to 1.4. The lean blowout characteristics were then explored under higher loading conditions by simulating higher altitude operation with the use of nitrogen as a dilution gas for the air stream. The experiments showed that: (1) The lean blowout characteristics for the two fuels were close under both low loading and high loading conditions. (2) The combustion temperatures and observed combustion efficiencies were similar for the two fuels. (3) The gaseous emissions were similar for the two fuels and the differences in the H2O and CO2 emissions appear to be directly relatable to the C/H ratio for the fuels.

  5. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  6. Tracking costs of alternatively fueled buses in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    The goal of the current project is to establish a recording and reporting mechanism for collecting field data on the performance and costs of alternatively fueled public transit vehicles operating in Florida in order to assist policy makers with thei...

  7. Ongoing evaluation of alternatively fueled buses : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this project is to continue collecting and reporting data on the performance and costs of alternatively fueled public transit vehicles in Florida in a consistent manner. Over the course of this project, researchers sent repeated data requ...

  8. Alternative Fuel Transportation Optimization Tool : Description, Methodology, and Demonstration Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes an Alternative Fuel Transportation Optimization Tool (AFTOT), developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe) in support of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)....

  9. Alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles : issues in Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-13

    Alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles are seen by proponents as integral to improving urban air quality, decreasing dependence on foreign oil, and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, major barriers especially economics curre...

  10. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: What Do the Drivers Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    survey of AFV fleet managers. Both the driver and the fleet manager reports are available in .pdf format through DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center home page on the World Wide Web . For a hard copy, call the

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative fuels and motive designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This project was funded by the Federal Railroad Administration to better understand the potential cost and benefits of using alternative fuels for U.S. freight and passenger locomotive operations. The framework for a decision model was developed by T...

  12. Advanced fuel cycles options for LWRs and IMF benchmark definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breza, J.; Darilek, P.; Necas, V.

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, different advanced nuclear fuel cycles including thorium-based fuel and inert-matrix fuel are examined under light water reactor conditions, especially VVER-440, and compared. Two investigated thorium based fuels include one solely plutonium-thorium based fuel and the second one plutonium-thorium based fuel with initial uranium content. Both of them are used to carry and burn or transmute plutonium created in the classical UOX cycle. The inert-matrix fuel consist of plutonium and minor actinides separated from spent UOX fuel fixed in Yttria-stabilised zirconia matrix. The article shows analysed fuel cycles and their short description. The conclusion is concentrated on the rate of Pu transmutation and Pu with minor actinides cumulating in the spent advanced thorium fuel and its comparison to UOX open fuel cycle. Definition of IMF benchmark based on presented scenario is given. (authors)

  13. Review of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives including certain features pertaining to weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Rosenstroch, B.

    1978-01-01

    Largely as a result of concerns over nuclear weapon proliferation, the U.S. program to develop and commercialize the plutonium-fueled breeder reactor has been slowed down; interest in alternative fuel cycles has increased. The report offers an informal review of the various nuclear fuel cycle options including some aspects relevant to weapon proliferation, although no complete review of the latter subject is attempted. Basic principles governing breeding, reactor safety, and efficient utilization of fission energy resources (thorium and uranium) are discussed. The controversial problems of weapon proliferation and its relation to fuel reprocessing (which is essential for efficient fuel cycles) are reviewed and a number of proposed approaches to reducing proliferation risks are noted. Some representative specific reactor concepts are described, with emphasis on their development status, their potentials for resource utilization, and their implications for proliferation

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle. Which way forward for multilateral approaches? An international expert group examines options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellaud, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    For several years now, the debate on the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been dominated by individuals and countries that violate rules of good behaviour - as sellers or acquirers of clandestine nuclear technology. As a result, the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) has been declared to be 'inadequate' by some, 'full of loopholes' by others. Two basic approaches have been put forward to tighten up the NPT; both seek to ensure that the nuclear non-proliferation regime maintains its authority and credibility in the face of these very real challenges. One calls for non-nuclear weapon States to accept a partial denial of technology through a reinterpretation of the NPT's provisions governing the rights of access to nuclear technologies. The unwillingness of most non-nuclear-weapon States to accept additional restrictions under the NPT makes this approach difficult. The other approach would apply multinational alternatives to the national operation of uranium-enrichment and plutonium-separation technologies, and to the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this perspective, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei proposed in 2003 to revisit the concept of multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA) that was intensively discussed several decades ago. Several such approaches were adopted at that time in Europe, which became the true homeland of MNAs. Nonetheless, MNAs have failed so far to materialise outside Europe due to different political and economic perceptions. In June 2004, the Director General appointed an international group of experts to consider possible multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. The overall purpose was to assess MNAs in the framework of a double objective: strengthening the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and making the peaceful uses of nuclear energy more economical and attractive. In the report submitted to the Director General in February 2005, the Group identified a number of options - options

  15. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  16. Consolidated fuel reprocessing programme: Analysis of various options for the breeder fuel cycle in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradley, J.G.; Burch, W.D.; Yook, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has established a programme to develop innovative liquid metal reactor (LMR) designs to assist in developing future U.S. reactor strategy. The paper describes studies in progress to examine various fuel cycle strategies that relate to the reactor strategy. Three potential fuel cycle options that focus on supporting an initial 1300 MW(e) reactor station have been defined: (1) Completion and utilization of the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test/Secure Automated Fabrication (BRET/SAF) in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford, Washington; (2) a co-located fuel cycle facility; and (3) delayed closure of the fuel cycle for five to ten years. The BRET, designed as a development facility, has sufficient capacity to service the needs of an initial module at an LMR station. It appears feasible to increase this capacity and to utilize SAF in the FMEF to accommodate the projected output (up to 35 MtHM/year) from the 1300 MW(e) liquid-metal concepts under study. Plans developed within the United States Consolidated Management Office for an initial reactor project have envisioned that cost savings could be realized by delaying the closure of the fuel cycle as long as supplies of plutonium could be obtained relatively inexpensively. This might prove to be only five to ten years, but even that period might be long enough for the fuel cycle costs to be spread over more than one reactor rather than loaded on the initial project. This concept is being explored as is the question of the future coupling of a light water reactor reprocessing industry for plutonium supply to breeder recycle

  17. Tracking costs of alternatively fueled buses in Florida - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this project is to continue collecting and reporting the data on the performance and costs of alternatively fueled public transit vehicles in the state in a consistent manner in order to keep the Bus Fuels Fleet Evaluation Tool (BuFFeT) c...

  18. Expectation dynamics: Ups and downs of alternative fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konrad, Kornelia Elke

    2016-01-01

    The transport sector must undergo radical changes if it is to reduce its carbon emissions, calling for alternative vehicles and fuel types. Researchers now analyse the expectation cycles for different fuel technologies and draw lessons for the role of US policy in supporting them.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Transportation Data for

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Rhode Island with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 3 3 More Rhode Island Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 https://www.youtube.com/embed

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fleet Application for School Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propane Buses Jan. 26, 2016 Video thumbnail for Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets Biodiesel thumbnail for Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama May 1, 2012 Video School Transportation Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for New Hampshire Cleans up with Biodiesel Buses

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Transportation Data for

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Washington with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 8 33 Compressed Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Essential Baking Company Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks Seattle Bakery

  2. Completion of Population of and Quality Assurance on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, Matthew Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    An Evaluation and Screening team supporting the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Office of the United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy is conducting an evaluation and screening of a comprehensive set of fuel cycle options. These options have been assigned to one of 40 evaluation groups, each of which has a representative fuel cycle option [Todosow 2013]. A Fuel Cycle Data Package System Datasheet has been prepared for each representative fuel cycle option to ensure that the technical information used in the evaluation is high-quality and traceable [Kim, et al., 2013]. The information contained in the Fuel Cycle Data Packages has been entered into the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog at Sandia National Laboratories so that it is accessible by the evaluation and screening team and other interested parties. In addition, an independent team at Savannah River National Laboratory has verified that the information has been entered into the catalog correctly. This report documents that the 40 representative fuel cycle options have been entered into the Catalog, and that the data entered into the catalog for the 40 representative options has been entered correctly.

  3. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  4. Effect of Alternative Fuels on SCR Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarzi, Simin

    2012-01-01

    In the time line of world industrial age, the most important era begins in the late 18th century when the use of fossil fuels was growing intensively. This approach has continued and developed up to the 20th century. Besides, this trend has had side effects like polluting environment. Air pollution is one of the critical issues nowadays that stems from using hydrocarbon fuels. One type of the problematic compounds in polluting air is nitrogen oxides that can be produced in combustion process ...

  5. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 6, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-07-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on auctions of used alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), Royalty Enterprises of Ohio, and introducing AFVs in neglected urban areas. Plus Ford's new CNG school bus and electric buses in Connecticut.

  6. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This proposed rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... A. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A...

  7. Comparison of spent fuel management fee collection alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.; Engel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Five alternative methods for recovering the costs of spent fuel management were evaluated. These alternatives consist of collecting the fee for various components of spent fuel management cost (AFR basin storage, transportation from AFR basin to the repository, packaging, repository, R and D, and government overhead) at times ranging from generation of power to delivery of the spent fuel to the government. The five fee collection mechanisms were analyzed to determine how well they serve the interests of the public and the electricity ratepayer

  8. Estimates of Canadian fuel fabrication costs for alternative fuel cycles and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahnik, C.

    1979-04-01

    Unit fuel fabrication costs are estimated for alternate fuel cycles and systems that may be of interest in Ontario Hydro's strategy analyses. A method is proposed for deriving the unit fuel fabrication price to be paid by a Canadian utility as a function of time (i.e. the price that reflects the changing demand/supply situation in the particular scenario considered). (auth)

  9. Alternative fuels for the French fast breeder reactors programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, H.; Bernard, H.; Mansard, B.

    1989-01-01

    French fast breeder reactors use mixed oxide as reference fuel. A great deal of experience has been gained in the behaviour and manufacture of oxide fuel, which has proved to be the most suitable fuel for future commercial breeder reactors. However, France is maintaining long-term alternative fuels programme, in order to be in a position to satisfy eventually new future reactor design and operational requirements. Initially, the CEA in France developed a carbide-based, sodium-bonded fuel designed for a high specific power. The new objective of the alternative fuels programme is to define a fuel which could replace the oxide without requiring any significant changes to the operating conditions, fuel cycle processes or facilities. The current program concentrates on a nitride-based, helium-bonded fuel, bearing in mind the carbide solution. The paper describes the main characteristics required, the manufacturing process as developed, the inspection methods, and the results obtained. Present indications are that the industrial manufacture of mixed nitride is feasible and that production costs for nitride and oxide fuels would be not significantly different. (author) 8 refs., 2 figs

  10. Alternative Fuel Fleet Vehicle Evaluations | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    delivery, transit, and freight vehicles. Although biodiesel is the most commonly used alternative fuel in Diesel and Biodiesel Renewable diesel is a conventional petroleum diesel substitute produced from alternative to conventional diesel and does not require any vehicle modifications. Biodiesel is an oxygenated

  11. Thorium Fuel Options for Sustained Transuranic Burning in Pressurized Water Reactors - 12381

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Fariz Abdul; Lee, John C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Franceschini, Fausto; Wenner, Michael [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As described in companion papers, Westinghouse is proposing the adoption of a thorium-based fuel cycle to burn the transuranics (TRU) contained in the current Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) and transition towards a less radio-toxic high level waste. A combination of both light water reactors (LWR) and fast reactors (FR) is envisaged for the task, with the emphasis initially posed on their TRU burning capability and eventually to their self-sufficiency. Given the many technical challenges and development times related to the deployment of TRU burners fast reactors, an interim solution making best use of the current resources to initiate burning the legacy TRU inventory while developing and testing some technologies of later use is desirable. In this perspective, a portion of the LWR fleet can be used to start burning the legacy TRUs using Th-based fuels compatible with the current plants and operational features. This analysis focuses on a typical 4-loop PWR, with 17x17 fuel assembly design and TRUs (or Pu) admixed with Th (similar to U-MOX fuel, but with Th instead of U). Global calculations of the core were represented with unit assembly simulations using the Linear Reactivity Model (LRM). Several assembly configurations have been developed to offer two options that can be attractive during the TRU transmutation campaign: maximization of the TRU transmutation rate and capability for TRU multi-recycling, to extend the option of TRU recycling in LWR until the FR is available. Homogeneous as well as heterogeneous assembly configurations have been developed with various recycling schemes (Pu recycle, TRU recycle, TRU and in-bred U recycle etc.). Oxide as well as nitride fuels have been examined. This enabled an assessment of the potential for burning and multi-recycling TRU in a Th-based fuel PWR to compare against other more typical alternatives (U-MOX and variations thereof). Results will be shown indicating that Th-based PWR fuel is a promising option to multi-recycle and

  12. Skewed Epigenetics: An Alternative Therapeutic Option for Diabetes Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Togliatto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes patients. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and a lack of efficient antioxidant machinery, a result of hyperglycaemia, mainly contribute to this problem. Although advances in therapy have significantly reduced both morbidity and mortality in diabetic individuals, diabetes-associated vascular complications are still one of the most challenging health problems worldwide. New healing options are urgently needed as current therapeutics are failing to improve long-term outcomes. Particular effort has recently been devoted to understanding the functional relationship between chromatin structure regulation and the persistent change in gene expression which is driven by hyperglycaemia and which accounts for long-lasting diabetic complications. A detailed investigation into epigenetic chromatin modifications in type 2 diabetes is underway. This will be particularly useful in the design of mechanism-based therapeutics which interfere with long-lasting activating epigenetics and improve patient outcomes. We herein provide an overview of the most relevant mechanisms that account for hyperglycaemia-induced changes in chromatin structure; the most relevant mechanism is called “metabolic memory.”

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Fueling and Driving Options Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle batteries can be charged by an outside sized hybrid electric vehicle. If the vehicle is driven a shorter distance than its all-electric range drives the wheels almost all of the time, but the vehicle can switch to work like a parallel hybrid at

  14. Development of alternative fuel for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, P.E.; Ferreira, R.A.N.; Ferraz, W.B.; Lameiras, F.S.; Santos, A.; Assis, G. de; Doerr, W.O.; Wehner, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of alternative fuel cycles in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) such as Th/U and Th/Pu cycles can permit a better utilization of uranium reserves without the necessity of developing new power reactor concepts. The development of the technology of alternative fuels for PWR is one of the objectives of the 'Program on Thorium Utilization in Pressurized Water Reactors' carried out jointly by Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS), through its Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) and by German institutions, the Julich Nuclear Research Center (KFA), the Kraftwerk Union A.G. (KWU) and NUKEM GmbH. This paper summarizes the results so far obtained in the fuel technology. The development of a fabrication process for PWR fuel pellets from gel-microspheres is reported as well as the design, the specification, and the fabrication of prototype fuel rods for irradiation tests. (Author) [pt

  15. Alternative fuels in fire debris analysis: biodiesel basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Eric; Byron, Doug

    2007-03-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming more prominent on the market today and, soon, fire debris analysts will start seeing them in liquid samples or in fire debris samples. Biodiesel fuel is one of the most common alternative fuels and is now readily available in many parts of the United States and around the world. This article introduces biodiesel to fire debris analysts. Biodiesel fuel is manufactured from vegetable oils and/or animal oils/fats. It is composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and is sold pure or as a blend with diesel fuel. When present in fire debris samples, it is recommended to extract the debris using passive headspace concentration on activated charcoal, possibly followed by a solvent extraction. The gas chromatographic analysis of the extract is first carried out with the same program as for regular ignitable liquid residues, and second with a program adapted to the analysis of FAMEs.

  16. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here

  17. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  18. Tiger Teams Technical Assistance: Reliable, Universal Open Architecture for Card Access to Dispense Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    Report discusses the dilemma of incorporating consistent, convenient, universal card access (or ''pay-at-the-pump'') systems into alternative fueling stations across the country. The state of California continues to be in the forefront of implementing alternative fuels for transportation applications. Aggressive efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in California have highlighted the need to provide adequate fueling stations and develop appropriate, user-friendly means to purchase fuel at the pump. Since these fuels are not typically provided by petroleum companies at conventional fueling stations, and acceptance of cash is often not an option, a payment method must be developed that is consistent with the way individual AFV operators are accustomed to purchasing automotive fuels--with a credit card. At the same time, large fleets like the California Department of General Services must be able to use a single fuel card that offers comprehensive fleet management services. The Gas Technology Institute's Infrastructure Working Group (IWG) and its stakeholders have identified the lack of a common card reader system as a hurdle to wider deployment of AFVs in California and the United States. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Clean Cities Program, the IWG has outlined a multi-phased strategy to systematically address the barriers to develop a more ''open'' architecture that's similar to the way gasoline and diesel are currently dispensed. Under the auspices of the IWG, survey results were gathered (circa 1999) from certain fuel providers, as a means to more carefully study card reader issues and their potential solutions. Pilot programs featuring card reader systems capable of accepting wider payment options have been attempted in several regions of the United States with mixed success. In early 2001, DOE joined the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the

  19. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    González_Espasandín, Oscar; Leo Mena, Teresa de Jesus; Navarro Arevalo, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order t...

  20. The Science of Emissions from Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    University of Washington. Katta, V. R, Newman -Lehman, T., Seshadri K., and Roquemore, W. M., “Lean blowout limits for JP-8 and their parent components...homolysis reaction to form the m-xylyl and hydrogen radicals was replaced with a Troe- style fall-off rate expression. An additional modification to...present in each system. In addition to modifications made to the m-xylene parent fuel reaction set, additional modifications were made to the

  1. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Stratton, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hileman, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Malwitz, A. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Balasubramanian, S. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  2. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  3. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  4. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  5. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar González-Espasandín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC, their fuels (hydrogen and methanol, and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  6. Exploring Alternative Fuels in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, John F.; Stewardson, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative energy sources have become increasingly important as the production of domestic oil has declined and dependence on foreign oil has increased. Historically, there have been four time periods during which the United States was in fact crippled by oil shortages. These time periods include: (1) the early 1900s; (2) World War II; (3) the…

  7. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  8. Alternative fuel news: Official publication of the clean cities network and the alternative fuels data center, Vol. 4, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    2000-03-27

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News contains information on the upcoming Clean Cities Conference to be held May 7--10, 2000 in San Diego, California. Highlighted in this issue is the success of the Clean Cities Program in creating clean corridors that permit fleets that serve multiple cities to purchase AFVs with confidence, knowing that fueling convenience and supply will not be a problem. Also look for articles on electric vehicles, transit buses; state and fuel provider enforcement; the Salt Lake and Greater Long Island Clean Cities coalitions, HEVs and fuel cells are a big hit at auto shows; DOE awards alternative fuel grants to 33 National Parks; and the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) Section 506 report.

  9. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic

  10. Alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors: are they useful. are they necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses reactors, fuel cycles, and fuel production concepts other than those considered conventional in the nuclear community. An attempt is made to look for improvements with the aim of providing cheaper and more durable energy systems, and to contribute toward a solution of the threat of weapons material diversion and weapons proliferation problems. Topics considered include breeding, alternate breeder cycles, alternative reprocessing schemes, symbiotic reactor systems, an interim strategy, and other sources of nuclear fuel. It is determined that the reprocessing of spent fuel is an important safeguard measure in itself

  11. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-12-01

    A DOE/PETC funded study was conducted to examine the use of a liquid phase mixed alcohol synthesis (LPMAS) plant to produce gasoline blending ethers. The LPMAS plant was integrated into three utilization scenarios: a coal fed IGCC power plant, a petroleum refinery using coke as a gasification feedstock, and a standalone natural gas fed partial oxidation plant. The objective of the study was to establish targets for the development of catalysts for the LPMAS reaction. In the IGCC scenario, syngas conversions need only be moderate because unconverted syngas is utilized by the combined cycle system. A once through LPMAS plant achieving syngas conversions in the range of 38--49% was found to be suitable. At a gas hourly space velocity of 5,000 sL/Kg-hr and a methanol:isobutanol selectivity ratio of 1.03, the target catalyst productivity ranges from 370 to 460 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the petroleum refinery scenario, high conversions ({approximately}95%) are required to avoid overloading the refinery fuel system with low Btu content unconverted syngas. To achieve these high conversions with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas, a recycle system was required (because of the limit imposed by methanol equilibrium), steam was injected into the LPMAS reactor, and CO{sub 2} was removed from the recycle loop. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 265 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the standalone LPMAS scenario, essentially complete conversions are required to achieve a fuel balanced plant. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 285 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. The economics of this scenario are highly dependent on the cost of the natural gas feedstock and the location of the plant. For all three case scenarios, the economics of a LPMAS plant is marginal at current ether market prices. Large improvements over demonstrated catalyst productivity and alcohol selectivity are required.

  12. Impact of the use of alternative fuels on clinker reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano-González, K.; Reyes-Valdez, A.; Chowaniec, O.

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels in the cement industry has increased its relevance in the past decades due to their ecological and economic benefits. In concert with the efforts to increase its use, several studies have focused on their potential impact with respect to clinker reactivity and how they could affect the expected physical and mechanical properties. This work studied the effects of five alternative fuels on the reactivity of eight industrial clinker samples, considering several analytical techniques. Differences were identified among the clinker samples after replacing the alternative fuels, mainly with simultaneous eliminations, as in samples S4, S5 and S8. The modifications were related to the polymorph, size and reactivity of tricalcium silicate and to the clinker profile during the hydration process, due to the SO3 consumption rate. These changes were expressed in the higher compressive strengths in comparison with the original reference clinker. [es

  13. Combustion of alternative fuels in vortex trapped combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghenai, Chaouki; Zbeeb, Khaled; Janajreh, Isam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the combustion of alternative fuels in trapped vortex combustor (TVC). ► We test syngas and hydrogen/hydrocarbon mixture fuels. ► We examine the change in combustion performance and emissions of TVC combustor. ► Increasing the hydrogen content of the fuel will increase the temperature and NO x emissions. ► A high combustor efficiency is obtained for fuels with different compositions and LHV. - Abstract: Trapped vortex combustor represents an efficient and compact combustor for flame stability. Combustion stability is achieved through the use of cavities in which recirculation zones of hot products generated by the direct injection of fuel and air are created and acting as a continuous source of ignition for the incoming main fuel–air stream. Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis was performed in this study to test the combustion performance and emissions from the vortex trapped combustor when natural gas fuel (methane) is replaced with renewable and alternative fuels such as hydrogen and synthetic gas (syngas). The flame temperature, the flow field, and species concentrations inside the Vortex Trapped Combustor were obtained. The results show that hydrogen enriched hydrocarbon fuels combustion will result in more energy, higher temperature (14% increase when methane is replaced with hydrogen fuels) and NO x emissions, and lower CO 2 emissions (50% decrease when methane is replaced with methane/hydrogen mixture with 75% hydrogen fraction). The NO x emission increases when the fraction of hydrogen increases for methane/hydrogen fuel mixture. The results also show that the flame for methane combustion fuel is located in the primary vortex region but it is shifted to the secondary vortex region for hydrogen combustion.

  14. Development of alternative materials for BWR fuel springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Y.; Osato, T.; Yamazaki, K.

    2002-01-01

    Major sources of radioactivity introduced into reactor water of BWR were estimated fuel crud and in-core materials (especially, fuel springs). Fuel springs are used for fixation of fuel cladding tubes with spacer grid. Those are small parts (total length is only within 25 mm) and so many numbers are loaded simultaneously and then total surfaces area are calculated up to about 200 m 2 . Fuel springs are located under high radiation field and high oxidative environment. Conventional fuel spring is made of alloy-X750 which is one of nickel-based alloy and is reported to show relatively higher corrosion release rate. 58 Co and 60 Co will be released directly into reactor water from intensely radio-activated fuel springs surface and increase radioactivity concentrations in primary coolant. Corrosion release control from fuel springs is an important technical item and a development of alternative material instead of alloy-X750 for fuel spring is a key subject to achieve ultra low man-rem exposure BWR plant. In present work, alloy-X718 which started usage for PWR fuel springs and stainless steel type 316L which has many mechanical property data are picked up for alternative materials and compared their corrosion behaviors with conventional material. Corrosion experiment was conducted under vapor-water two phases flow which is simulated fuel cladding surface boiling condition. After exposure, corrosion film formed under corrosion test was analyzed in detail and corrosion film amount and corrosion release amount are estimated among three materials. (authors)

  15. Options Study Documenting the Fast Reactor Fuels Innovative Design Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-07-01

    This document provides presentation and general analysis of innovative design concepts submitted to the FCRD Advanced Fuels Campaign by nine national laboratory teams as part of the Innovative Transmutation Fuels Concepts Call for Proposals issued on October 15, 2009 (Appendix A). Twenty one whitepapers were received and evaluated by an independent technical review committee.

  16. Neutronics Study on LEU Nuclear Thermal Rocket Fuel Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venneri, Paolo; Kim, Yong Hee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Howe, Steven [CSNR, Idaho (United States)

    2014-10-15

    This has resulted in a non-trivial simplification of the tasks needed to develop such an engine and the quick initial development of the concept. There are, however, a series of key core-design choices that are currently under scrutiny in the field that have to be resolved in order for the LEU-NTR to be fully developed. The most important of these is the choice of fuel: carbide composite or tungsten cermet. This study presents a first comparison of the two fuel types specifically in the neutronic application to the LEU-NTR, keeping in mind the unique neutronic environment and the system requirements of the system. The scope of the study itself is limited to a neutronics study of the two fuels and only a cursory overview of the material properties of the fuels themselves... The results of this study have led to two major conclusions. First of all is that the carbide composite fuel is, from a neutronics standpoint, a much better fuel. It has a low absorption cross-section, is inherently a strong moderator, is able to achieve a higher reactivity using smaller amounts of fissile material, and can potentially enable a smaller reactor. Second is that despite its neutronic difficulties (high absorption, inferior moderating abilities, and lower k-infinity values) the tungsten cermet fuel is still able to perform satisfactorily in an LEU-NTR, largely due to its ability to have an extremely high fuel loading.

  17. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Harsha, P.T.

    1978-09-11

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resouces. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternate fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are to develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternate fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and to provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. Efforts this past year have been to evaluate experimental procedures for studying alternate fuel combustion effects and to determine current analytical capabilities for prediction of these effects. Jet Stirred Combustor studies during this period have produced new insights into soot formation in strongly backmixed systems and have provided much information for comparison with analytical predictions. The analytical effort included new applications of quasi-global modeling techniques as well as comparison of prediction with the experimental results generated.

  18. Residue Derived Fuels as an Alternative Fuel for the Hellenic Power Generation Sector and their Potential for Emissions ReductionConstantinos S. Psomopoulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos S. Psomopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Landfill Directive (1999/31 EC promotes more environmental friendly waste management options, by reducing the amount of wastes and more specific of biodegradable wastes, disposed of in landfills. The EU member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment process for municipal solid waste and non-hazardous industrial wastes to comply with the abovementioned Directive's targets on landfill diversion, and produce waste derived fuels such as refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel. Waste derived fuels present high calorific values depending on their synthesis and are being used both in dedicated waste-to-energy plants and as fuel substitutes in industrial processes. In this paper the refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel production and utilisation options in European Union are presented, and the possibilities in Greece based on the waste production and National Plan for Waste Management of the Ministry of Environment is attempted. The existing and ongoing studies on co-combustion and co-gasification with brown coal support the use of refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel as fuel on Hellenic Power Sector, adopting in the existing lignite power plants adequate Air Pollution Control systems. If the co-combustion or co-gasification of these alternative fuels is adopted from the Hellenic Power Sector a reduction on emissions is expected that cannot be neglected.

  19. Assessment of Energy Performance and Emission Control Using Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry through a Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement manufacturing is one of the most energy intensive processes and is accountable for substantial pollutant emissions. Increasing energy costs compel stakeholders and researchers to search for alternative options to improve energy performance and reduce CO2 emissions. Alternative fuels offer a realistic solution towards the reduction of the usage of fossil fuels and the mitigation of pollutant emissions. This paper developed a process model of a precalciner kiln system in the cement industry using Aspen Plus software to simulate the effect of five alternative fuels on pollutant emissions and energy performance. The alternatives fuels used were tyre, municipal solid waste (MSW, meat and bone meal (MBM, plastic waste and sugarcane bagasse. The model was developed on the basis of energy and mass balance of the system and was validated against data from a reference cement plant. This study also investigated the effect of these alternative fuels on the quality of the clinker. The results indicated that up to a 4.4% reduction in CO2 emissions and up to a 6.4% reduction in thermal energy requirement could be achieved using these alternative fuels with 20% mix in coal. It was also found that the alternative fuels had minimum influence on the clinker quality except in the case of MSW. Overall, MBM was found to be a better option as it is capable on reducing energy requirement and CO2 emissions more than others. The outcomes of the study offer better understanding of the effects of solid alternative fuels to achieve higher energy performance and on mitigating pollutant emissions in cement industry.

  20. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MaClean, H.L.; Lave, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency

  1. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  2. Alternative fuel cycles and non-proliferation aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, G.

    1980-10-01

    The most important physical characteristics of the U/Pu and the Th/U fuel cycles and the technical data of the most significant converter reactors operating with Th/U fuel are outlined in the report. Near breeders as well as breeders with a thermal neutron spectrum are briefly discussed, and the potential of breeders with fast neutron spectra in the Th/U fuel is outlined. The essential criteria for the comparison of the alternative fuel cycles with the reference Pu/U cycle are the consumption of natural uranium, the numbers of U-233 producing and U-233 consuming converter reactors and the amounts of fission material transported and handled within the fuel cycle (reprocessing, refabrication). Although the alternative U/Th fuel cycles are feasible with some advantages and some disadvantages as compared to the reference U/Pu cycle, not much experience has so far been gathered with pilot plants of the fuel cycle. The respective status in reprocessing, refabrication and waste disposal is briefly discussed. Finally, a comparison of the risk potential inherent in secular storage is presented and questions of resistance to proliferation and of safeguards of the U/Th cycle are discussed

  3. Importance of hydrogen fuels as sustainable alternative energy for domestic and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifan, H.R.; Banan, N.; Davari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy demand is increasing continuously due to rapid growth in population and industrialization development. As a result greenhouse gases especially CO 2 produced by the combustion of fossil fuels cause depletion of fossil fuels and deterioration of environmental conditions worldwide. The goal of global energy sustainability implies the replacement of all fossil fuels by renewable energy sources . Hydrogen fuel is one of the sustainable energy sources can be available by conversion of biomass into biological hydrogen gas and ethanol. Rate of biomass generation in domestic wastes in Iranian culture is high. Therefore there is suitable potential for hydrogen generation in rural and urban areas of Iran. On the other hand energy extraction from these fossil fuels causes pollution and diseases. Globally, hydrogen is already produced in significant quantities (around 5 billion cubic metres per annum). It is mainly used to produce ammonia for fertiliser (about 50%), for oil refining (37%), methanol production (8%) and in the chemical and metallurgical industries (4%). On the other hand, increase in emissions rates of greenhouse gases, i.e., CO 2 present a threat to the world climate. Also new legislation of Iran has been approved the higher costs of conventional fuels for consuming in vehicles for reduction of greenhouse gases reduction as environmental policies. Demand is rising in all cities of Iran for cleaner fuels such as mixed fuels and natural gas, but unfortunately they are exporting to foreign countries or the required technologies are not available and economically option. Nuclear industries in Iran are also small and expanding only slowly. So importance of alternative energies as hydrogen powers are increasing daily. Presently both major consumers of domestic and industrial such as plants and manufacturers are using fossil fuels for their process that consequently contribute to the global warming and climate change. This paper reviews these options, with

  4. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali [Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Aydin, Kadir [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2008-04-15

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  5. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Ali; Guerue, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran; Aydin, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  6. TAFV Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Choice Model Documentation; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    A model for predicting choice of alternative fuel and among alternative vehicle technologies for light-duty motor vehicles is derived. The nested multinomial logit (NML) mathematical framework is used. Calibration of the model is based on information in the existing literature and deduction based on assuming a small number of key parameters, such as the value of time and discount rates. A spreadsheet model has been developed for calibration and preliminary testing of the model

  7. Final Report on Two-Stage Fast Spectrum Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Sik; Lin, C. S.; Hader, J. S.; Park, T. K.; Deng, P.; Yang, G.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, T. K.; Stauff, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the performance characteristics of two ''two-stage'' fast spectrum fuel cycle options proposed to enhance uranium resource utilization and to reduce nuclear waste generation. One is a two-stage fast spectrum fuel cycle option of continuous recycle of plutonium (Pu) in a fast reactor (FR) and subsequent burning of minor actinides (MAs) in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The first stage is a sodium-cooled FR fuel cycle starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel; at the equilibrium cycle, the FR is operated using the recovered Pu and natural uranium without supporting LEU. Pu and uranium (U) are co-extracted from the discharged fuel and recycled in the first stage, and the recovered MAs are sent to the second stage. The second stage is a sodium-cooled ADS in which MAs are burned in an inert matrix fuel form. The discharged fuel of ADS is reprocessed, and all the recovered heavy metals (HMs) are recycled into the ADS. The other is a two-stage FR/ADS fuel cycle option with MA targets loaded in the FR. The recovered MAs are not directly sent to ADS, but partially incinerated in the FR in order to reduce the amount of MAs to be sent to the ADS. This is a heterogeneous recycling option of transuranic (TRU) elements

  8. Final Report on Two-Stage Fast Spectrum Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lin, C. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hader, J. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Park, T. K. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Deng, P. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Yang, G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jung, Y. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stauff, N. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-30

    This report presents the performance characteristics of two “two-stage” fast spectrum fuel cycle options proposed to enhance uranium resource utilization and to reduce nuclear waste generation. One is a two-stage fast spectrum fuel cycle option of continuous recycle of plutonium (Pu) in a fast reactor (FR) and subsequent burning of minor actinides (MAs) in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The first stage is a sodium-cooled FR fuel cycle starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel; at the equilibrium cycle, the FR is operated using the recovered Pu and natural uranium without supporting LEU. Pu and uranium (U) are co-extracted from the discharged fuel and recycled in the first stage, and the recovered MAs are sent to the second stage. The second stage is a sodium-cooled ADS in which MAs are burned in an inert matrix fuel form. The discharged fuel of ADS is reprocessed, and all the recovered heavy metals (HMs) are recycled into the ADS. The other is a two-stage FR/ADS fuel cycle option with MA targets loaded in the FR. The recovered MAs are not directly sent to ADS, but partially incinerated in the FR in order to reduce the amount of MAs to be sent to the ADS. This is a heterogeneous recycling option of transuranic (TRU) elements

  9. Long-term alternatives for nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.; Vieno, T.

    1981-07-01

    Several technical alternatives have been proposed to the nuclear spent fuel management but the practical experience on any of these is small or totally lacking. Since the management method is also connected with the composition of fresh fuel, the comparison of the alternatives must include the whole fuel cycle of a nuclear power plant. In the planning of the nuclear fuel cycle over a time range of several decades a consideration must be given, in addition, to the potential of the new reactor types with increased efficiency of uranium utilization. For analyses and mutual comparisons of the fuel cycle alternatives a number of computer models have been designed and implemented at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Given the estimated boundary conditions the models can be used to study the impact of different goals and requirements on the fuel cycle decisions. Further, they facilitate cost predictions and display information on the role of the intrinsic uncertainties in the decision-making. The conclusions of the study are tied to the questions of price and availability of uranium. Hence, for instance, the benefits from the reprocessing of spent fuel might prove to be small when compared to the costs required, especially as the current reprocessing contracts do not allow the custemer to dismiss the duty of building the final disposal facilities for high level radioactive waste. For a few decades the final decisions can be postponed by extending the interim storage period. Farther in the future the decisions in the nuclear fuel cycle arrangements will more link to the introduction of the fast breeder reactors. (author)

  10. Tarapur's nuclear fuel uncertainty and India's policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Indo-US agreement over the turnkey Project of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) signed in 1963 is being reintepreted by the American Government from 'non-proliferation' aspect, particularly after the Pokharan peaceful nuclear explosion in 1974. With the ratification of the new Non-Proliferation Act by the American Congress, the supply of enriched uranium fuel for the TAPS has become uncertain, as India is not prepared to accept comprehensive safeguards on all domestic nuclear facilities. If the contractual obligations for fuel supply and transport of spent fuel back to U.S. are not fulfilled, it is pointed out, that India will have to start reprocessing spent fuel and recycle plutonium. (K.M.)

  11. Options for treating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel for repository disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Bond, W.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Glass, R.W.; Harrington, F.E.; Micheals, G.E.; Notz, K.J.; Wymer, R.G.

    1992-02-01

    This report describes the options that can reasonably be considered for disposal of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel in a repository. The options include whole-block disposal, disposal with removal of graphite (either mechanically or by burning), and reprocessing of spent fuel to separate the fuel and fission products. The report summarizes what is known about the options without extensively projecting or analyzing actual performance of waste forms in a repository. The report also summarizes the processes involved in convert spent HTGR fuel into the various waste forms and projects relative schedules and costs for deployment of the various options. Fort St. Vrain Reactor fuel, which utilizes highly-enriched {sup 235}U (plus thorium) and is contained in a prismatic graphite block geometry, was used as the baseline for evaluation, but the major conclusions would not be significantly different for low- or medium-enriched {sup 235}U (without thorium) or for the German pebble-bed fuel. Future US HTGRs will be based on the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fuel form. The whole block appears to be a satisfactory waste form for disposal in a repository and may perform better than light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. From the standpoint of process cost and schedule (not considering repository cost or value of fuel that might be recycled), the options are ranked as follows in order of increased cost and longer schedule to perform the option: (1) whole block, (2a) physical separation, (2b) chemical separation, and (3) complete chemical processing.

  12. Options for treating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel for repository disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotts, A.L.; Bond, W.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Glass, R.W.; Harrington, F.E.; Micheals, G.E.; Notz, K.J.; Wymer, R.G.

    1992-02-01

    This report describes the options that can reasonably be considered for disposal of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel in a repository. The options include whole-block disposal, disposal with removal of graphite (either mechanically or by burning), and reprocessing of spent fuel to separate the fuel and fission products. The report summarizes what is known about the options without extensively projecting or analyzing actual performance of waste forms in a repository. The report also summarizes the processes involved in convert spent HTGR fuel into the various waste forms and projects relative schedules and costs for deployment of the various options. Fort St. Vrain Reactor fuel, which utilizes highly-enriched 235 U (plus thorium) and is contained in a prismatic graphite block geometry, was used as the baseline for evaluation, but the major conclusions would not be significantly different for low- or medium-enriched 235 U (without thorium) or for the German pebble-bed fuel. Future US HTGRs will be based on the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fuel form. The whole block appears to be a satisfactory waste form for disposal in a repository and may perform better than light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. From the standpoint of process cost and schedule (not considering repository cost or value of fuel that might be recycled), the options are ranked as follows in order of increased cost and longer schedule to perform the option: (1) whole block, (2a) physical separation, (2b) chemical separation, and (3) complete chemical processing

  13. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A. Executive Order 12866...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    resources linked below help project developers and code officials prepare and review code-compliant projects , storage, and infrastructure. The following charts show the SDOs responsible for these alternative fuel codes and standards. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart Electric Vehicle and

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mammoth Cave National Park Uses Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative Fuels Sept. 16, 2017 Photo of a truck Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26 Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Transports Mail Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Transportation Data for

    Science.gov (United States)

    to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles Recent Additions and Updates Biodiesel Blend Mandate Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 4 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 8 3 Electric 59 4 Ethanol (E85 GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.60/gallon $2.37/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE Biodiesel (B99-B100) $2.49/gallon

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone National Park Commits to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative Fuels Sept. 16, 2017 Photo of a truck Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26 Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Transports Mail Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmartWay Transport Partnership is a market-based public-private collaboration between the U.S operate vehicle fleets, the public, and other interested entities about the benefits of biodiesel use Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center

  20. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  1. Spent-fuel storage: a private sector option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.A.; Ross, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    The investigation was performed to delineate the legal and financial considerations for establishing private sector support for the planning and development of an independent spent-fuel storage facility (ISFSF). The preferred institutional structure was found to be one in which a not-for-profit corporation contracts with a limited partnership to handle the spent fuel. The limited partnership acquires the necessary land and constructs the ISFSF facility and then leases the facility to the not-for-profit corporation, which acquires spent-fuel rods from the utilities. The DOE must agree to purchase the spent-fuel rods at the expiration of term and warrant continued operation of the facility if policy changes at the federal level force the removal of the rods prior to completion of the contracted storage cycle. The DOE planning base estimate of spent-fuel storage requirements indicates a market potential adequate to support 10,000 MTU or more of spent-fuel storage prior to the time a government repository is available to accept spent fuel around the turn of the century. The estimated construction cost of a 5000-MTU water basin facility is $552 million. The total capital requirements to finance such a facility are estimated to be $695 million, based on an assumed capital structure of 70 percent debt and 30 percent equity. The estimated total levelized cost of storage, including operating costs, for the assumed 17-year life of the facility is $223 per kilogram of uranium. This is equivalent to a slightly less than one mill per kilowatt-hour increase in nuclear fuel costs at the nuclear power station that was the source of the spent fuel. In conclusion, within the context of the new Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the study points to both the need for and the advantages of private sector support for one or more ISFSFs and establishes a workable mechanism for the recovery of the costs of owning and operating such facilities. 3 figures, 4 tables

  2. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  3. A Life-Cycle Comparison of Alternative Automobile Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B; Lankey, Rebecca; Joshi, Satish

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C 2 H 5 OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable

  4. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  5. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  6. Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

    1997-11-01

    To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

  7. Analysis of alternative light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Boegel, A.J.; Jenquin, U.P.; Kottwitz, D.A.; Lewallen, M.A.; Merrill, E.T.; Nolan, A.M.

    1979-12-01

    Nine alternative LWR fuel cycles are analyzed in terms of the isotopic content of the fuel material, the relative amounts of primary and recycled material, the uranium and thorium requirements, the fuel cycle costs and the fraction of energy which must be generated at secured sites. The fuel materials include low-enriched uranium (LEU), plutonium-uranium (MOX), highly-enriched uranium-thorium (HEU-Th), denatured uranium-thorium (DU-Th) and plutonium-thorium (Pu-Th). The analysis is based on tracing the material requirements of a generic pressurized water reactor (PWR) for a 30-year period at constant annual energy output. During this time period all the created fissile material is recycled unless its reactivity worth is less than 0.2% uranium enrichment plant tails

  8. Power generation costs for alternate reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, G.R.; Delene, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The total electric generating costs at the power plant busbar are estimated for various nuclear reactor fuel cycles which may be considered for power generation in the future. The reactor systems include pressurized water reactors (PWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), light-water pre-breeder and breeder reactors (LWPR, LWBR), and a fast mixed spectrum reactor (FMSR). Fuel cycles include once-through, uranium-only recycle, and full recycle of the uranium and plutonium in the spent fuel assemblies. The U 3 O 8 price for economic transition from once-through LWR fuel cycles to both PWR recycle and LMFBR systems is estimated. Electric power generation costs were determined both for a reference set of unit cost parameters and for a range of uncertainty in these parameters. In addition, cost sensitivity parameters are provided so that independent estimations can be made for alternate cost assumptions

  9. Fuel cells - an option for decentralized power supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterer, H.

    1995-01-01

    Development efforts worldwide are made on industrial-scale power stations with high-temperature fuel cells fuelled with coal gas and with off-gases of up to 1000 C, which will improve the high efficiency of the plant even further. As reported at a conference of the VDI-Gesellschaft Energietechnik, it with still take several decades until these base load power station will be in operation. On the other hand, heating power stations with low-temperature fuel cells in the range up to 200 kW have been tested successfully worldwide. (orig.) [de

  10. 40 CFR 80.552 - What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners? 80.552 Section 80.552 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions § 80.552 What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  11. Modern approach to the problem of fossil gas fuels replacement by alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroka, Boris [Gas Institute, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    New scientific and engineering fundamentals of fuels substitution have been developed instead of obsolete methodology “Interchangeability of Fuel Gases” developed in USA and existing from the middle of XX{sup th} century. To perform the complex prediction of total or partial substitution of given flow rate of natural gas NG for alternative gases AG the following parameters are to be predicted: plant utilization efficiencies – regarding fuel and energy utilization, the last in form of heat Ș{sub H} and exergy Ș{sub eff} efficiencies, saving or overexpenditure of the NG flow rate in the gas mixture with AG, specific fuel consumption b f and specific issue of harmful substances C{sub t} – pollutants in the combustion products (C{sub NO{sub x}} ) and greenhouse gases (C {sub CO{sub 2}} ). Certification of alternative gas fuels and fuel mixtures as a commodity products is carried out in frame of our approach with necessary set of characteristics, similar to those accepted in the world practice. Key words: alternative fuel, fuel replacement (substitution), natural gas, process gases, theoretical combustion temperature, thermodynamic equilibrium computations, total enthalpy.

  12. Current options for the back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue Ion

    2000-01-01

    Two strategic issues facing the nuclear industry are the claimed risks of (a) weapons proliferation, and (b) environmental contamination; both affect the choice between open and closed fuel cycles. The choice for plutonium lies between supposedly permanent disposal and bumming/utilisation as a fuel. Disposal while never irretrievable could create an economically decisive obstacle to constructive use of material of great value for future global energy. Utilisation in energy supply will both restrict access to separated stockpiles and allow the inventory size to be managed with efficient use of this energy resource. Recycling recovers valuable materials for further use and allows the spent fuel stockpile to be managed. However, risk of diversion to weapon proliferation depends not on the extent of plutonium stocks but on access to a minute proportion of them, and would not be directly altered by any foreseeable increase or reduction in the well managed inventory. A key issue is to decide how in future to recover from the fuel cycle the accessible stock required to sustain it. The fear of environmental contamination is principally based on increasingly disputed health risks from radiation well below the variation in natural levels. Neither this nor the proliferation issue appears to justify insisting on the once through cycle and so wasting a finite resource that will almost certainly be needed in the coming decades. (author)

  13. Part I. Alternative fuel-cycle and deployment strategies: their influence on long-term energy supply and resource usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Rudolph, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    This report examines the implications of alternative fast breeder fuel cycles and deployment strategies on long-term energy supply and uranium resource utilization. An international-aggregate treatment for nuclear energy demand and resource base assumptions was adopted where specific assumptions were necessary for system analyses, but the primary emphasis was placed on understanding the general relationships between energy demand, uranium resource and breeder deployment option. The fast breeder deployment options studied include the reference Pu/U cycle as well as alternative cycles with varying degrees of thorium utilization

  14. Reprocessing of research reactor fuel the Dounreay option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, P.

    1997-08-01

    Reprocessing is a proven process for the treatment of spent U/Al Research Reactor fuel. At Dounreay 12679 elements have been reprocessed during the past 30 years. For reactors converting to LEU fuel the uranium recovered in reprocessing can be blended down to less than 20% U{sub 235}, enrichment and be fabricated into new elements. For reactors already converted to LEU it is technically possible to reprocess spent silicide fuel to reduce the U{sub 235} burden and present to a repository only stable conditioned waste. The main waste stream from reprocessing which contains the Fission products is collected in underground storage tanks where it is kept for a period of at least five years before being converted to a stable solid form for return to the country of origin for subsequent storage/disposal. Discharges to the environment from reprocessing are low and are limited to the radioactive gases contained in the spent fuel and a low level liquid waste steam. Both of these discharges are independently monitored, and controlled within strict discharge limits set by the UK Government`s Scottish Office. Transportation of spent fuel to Dounreay has been undertaken using many routes from mainland Europe and has utilised over the past few years both chartered and scheduled vessel services. Several different transport containers have been handled and are currently licensed in the UK. This paper provides a short history of MTR reprocessing at Dounreay, and provides information to show reprocessing can satisfy the needs of MTR operators, showing that reprocessing is a valuable asset in non-proliferation terms, offers a complete solution and is environmentally acceptable.

  15. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for a Test or Demonstration Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hayes, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Walters, L. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document explores startup fuel options for a proposed test/demonstration fast reactor. The fuel options considered are the metallic fuels U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr and the ceramic fuels UO2 and UO2-PuO2 (MOX). Attributes of the candidate fuel choices considered were feedstock availability, fabrication feasibility, rough order of magnitude cost and schedule, and the existing irradiation performance database. The reactor-grade plutonium bearing fuels (U-Pu-Zr and MOX) were eliminated from consideration as the initial startup fuels because the availability and isotopics of domestic plutonium feedstock is uncertain. There are international sources of reactor grade plutonium feedstock but isotopics and availability are also uncertain. Weapons grade plutonium is the only possible source of Pu feedstock in sufficient quantities needed to fuel a startup core. Currently, the available U.S. source of (excess) weapons-grade plutonium is designated for irradiation in commercial light water reactors (LWR) to a level that would preclude diversion. Weapons-grade plutonium also contains a significant concentration of gallium. Gallium presents a potential issue for both the fabrication of MOX fuel as well as possible performance issues for metallic fuel. Also, the construction of a fuel fabrication line for plutonium fuels, with or without a line to remove gallium, is expected to be considerably more expensive than for uranium fuels. In the case of U-Pu-Zr, a relatively small number of fuel pins have been irradiated to high burnup, and in no case has a full assembly been irradiated to high burnup without disassembly and re-constitution. For MOX fuel, the irradiation database from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is extensive. If a significant source of either weapons-grade or reactor-grade Pu became available (i.e., from an international source), a startup core based on Pu could be reconsidered.

  16. Proposal of guidelines for selecting optimum options in packagings and transportation systems of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, T.; Abe, H.; Fukuda, S.

    1983-01-01

    Type and size of spent fuel shipping packagings and packaging transport ships in spent fuel transport system would have been determined separately in response to technical requirements etc. of reactor sites and reprocessing plants. However, since more and more spent fuel will be generated from world's nuclear power plants and will be transported much frequently to reprocessing plants or storage facilities, the current spent fuel transport system will have to be necessarily reexamined from the operational and economical aspects or an optimum transport system may have to be newly determined in the near future. In the literature, a variety of options are found, particularly of spent fuel packagings. This paper listed and classified options of spent fuel packagings and packaging transport ships in the transportation systems of spent fuel on the basis of literature surveys. These options were discussed from viewpoints of designers and users and compared in terms of transport efficiency. Finally, one way to determine an optimum transport system of spent fuel was indicated considering the total transport system in the light of safety, operational efficiency and economy

  17. National Option of China's Nuclear Energy Systems for Spent Fuel Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, R.X. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, W. I.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Along with safety concerns, these long standing environmental challenges are the major factors influencing the public acceptance of nuclear power. Although nuclear power plays an important role in reducing carbon emissions from energy generation, this could not fully prove it as a sustainable energy source unless we find a consensus approach to treat the nuclear wastes. There are currently no countries that have completed a whole nuclear fuel cycle, and the relative comparison of the reprocessing spent fuel options versus direct disposal option is always a controversial issue. Without exception, nowadays, China is implementing many R and D projects on spent fuel management to find a long-term solution for nuclear fuel cycle system transition, such as deep geological repositories for High Level Waste (HLW), Pu Reduction by Solvent Extraction (PUREX) technology, and fast reactor recycling Mixed U-Pu Oxide (MOX) fuels, etc. This paper integrates the current nation's projects of back-end fuel cycle, analyzes the consequences of potential successes, failures and delays in the project development to future nuclear fuel cycle transition up to 2100. We compared the dynamic results of four scenarios and then assessed relative impact on spent fuel management. The result revealed that the fuel cycle transition of reprocessing and recycling of spent fuel would bring advantages to overall nuclear systems by reducing high level waste inventory, saving natural uranium resources, and reducing plutonium management risk.

  18. Commercializing an alternate transportation fuel: lessons learned from NGV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    An alternate transportation fuel, compressed natural gas, was adopted in Canada in the mid-1980s due to the unique conditions present at the time. The factors that had an impact on the limited acceptance of the fuel, keeping its rate of adoption below the critical point were examined in this paper. It was revealed that a lack of infrastructure to support converted vehicles was the deciding factor. Existing refueling stations failed to become profitable, preventing further investment in refueling facilities and resulting in depressed sales of converted vehicles. Excessive parts markup by conversion dealers was another major hurdle, as was exaggerated claims for environmental and economic benefits. In addition, promotional programs were poorly designed. In the late 1980s, the relative values of oil and natural gas shifted, lowering the momentum from sales of conversions. The consequence was major players leaving the market and natural gas remained on the fringe in both Canada and the United States. Different alternate transportation fuels, including electricity and hydrogen, are being favored by new technologies and driving forces. The growth to commercial viability for those fuels will likely be influenced by some of the factors that played a role in the fate of natural gas as a transportation fuel. 4 refs., 1 fig

  19. Effect of different fuel options on performance of high-temperature PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authayanun, Suthida; Saebea, Dang; Patcharavorachot, Yaneeporn; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) have received substantial attention due to their high CO (carbon monoxide) tolerance and simplified water management. The hydrogen and CO fractions affect the HT-PEMFC performance and different fuel sources for hydrogen production result in different product gas compositions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the theoretical performance of HT-PEMFCs fueled by the reformate gas derived from various fuel options (i.e., methane, methanol, ethanol, and glycerol). Effects of fuel types and CO poisoning on the HT-PEMFC performance are analyzed. Furthermore, the necessity of a water-gas shift (WGS) reactor as a CO removal unit for pretreating the reformate gas is investigated for each fuel type. The methane steam reforming shows the highest possibility of CO formation, whereas the methanol steam reforming produces the lowest quantity of CO in the reformate gas. The methane fuel processing gives the maximum fraction of hydrogen (≈0.79) when the WGS reactor is included. The most suitable fuel is the one with the lowest CO poisoning effect and the maximum fuel cell performance. It is found that the HT-PEMFC system fueled by methanol without the WGS reactor and methane with WGS reactor shows the highest system efficiency (≈50%). - Highlights: • Performance of HT-PEMFC run on different fuel options is theoretically investigated. • Glycerol, methanol, ethanol and methane are hydrogen sources for the HT-PEMFC system. • Effect of CO poisoning on the HT-PEMFC performance is taken into account. • The suitable fuel for HT-PEMFC system is identified regarding the system efficiency

  20. The California Multimedia Risk Assessment Protocol for Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, T.; Ginn, T. R.; McKone, T. E.; Rice, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Any new fuel in California requires approval by the state agencies overseeing human and environmental health. In order to provide a systematic evaluation of new fuel impacts, California now requires a multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for fuel approval. The fuel MMRA involves all relevant state agencies including: the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), the Office of Environmental Health Hazards Assessment (OEHHA), and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) overseen by the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA). The lead agency for MMRAs is the CARB. The original law requiring a multimedia assessment is California Health and Safety Code 43830.8. In addition, the low carbon fuel standard (LCFS), the Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), and the Verified Diesel Emission Control Strategy (VDECS) have provisions that can require a multimedia assessment. In this presentation, I give an overview of the California multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for new fuels that has been recently developed and applied to several alternative fuels. The objective of the California MMRA is to assess risk of potential impacts of new fuels to multiple environmental media including: air, water, and soil. Attainment of this objective involves many challenges, including varying levels of uncertainty, relative comparison of incommensurate risk factors, and differing levels of priority assigned to risk factors. The MMRA is based on a strategy of relative risk assessment and flexible accommodation of distinct and diverse fuel formulations. The approach is tiered by design, in order to allow for sequentially more sophisticated investigations as knowledge gaps are identified and re-prioritized by the ongoing research. The assessment also involves peer review in order to provide coupling between risk assessment and stakeholder investment, as well as constructive or confrontational feedback. The multimedia assessment

  1. Sweet Sorghum Alternative Fuel and Feed Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, Donald C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Dept.; Kaltenbach, C. Colin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-07-30

    The University of Arizona undertook a “pilot” project to grow sweet sorghum on a field scale (rather than a plot scale), produce juice from the sweet sorghum, deliver the juice to a bio-refinery and process it to fuel-grade ethanol. We also evaluated the bagasse for suitability as a livestock feed and as a fuel. In addition to these objectives we evaluated methods of juice preservation, ligno-cellulosic conversion of the bagasse to fermentable sugars and alternative methods of juice extraction.

  2. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. The areas covered were: (1) development of a theoretical expression for the rotating ring disk electrode technique; (2) determination of the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; (3) determination of oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoreomethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) which was considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and (4) the measurement of transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures.

  3. Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Division of URS

    2008-07-01

    This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.

  4. New options to fuel plate for MTR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The main datas of fuel elements and the new materials for good performance of the MTR reactor are described. A study to verify the possibility of introduction a new element on the alloy is presented. After verification the stages of nucleus fabrication with dispersion cermets of uranium oxide is gave a special emphasis to cermet fabrication of uranium-aluminium alloys. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altiparmak, D.; Keskin, A.; Koca, A. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Technical Education Faculty; Guru, M. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Engineering and Architectural Faculty

    2007-01-15

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load conditions. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO{sub x} emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke capacity did not vary significantly. (author)

  6. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

    2007-01-01

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly.

  7. Alternative fuel cycle evaluation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.; Closs, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    In compliance with a 1979 governmental decision, Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center managed the research and development (R and D) program ''Alternative Entsorgung,'' which had two major goals: (a) development of technical concepts for direct disposal of spent fuel and (b) comparison of the traditional back end of the nuclear fuel cycle based on fuel reprocessing with direct disposal. With respect to radiological safety, this comparison revealed that direct disposal scores better than the reprocessing path, but the difference is judged minor when compared to doses from natural radiation background. From the standpoint of cost, direct disposal proves more economical by a margin of 30% even though the reference system of direct disposal was not cost optimized. Finally, some unresolved but not unresolvable issues exist with regard to safeguarding a repository for spent fuel. In its decision in January 1985, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany stated that the results of the R and D program indicated that the legal requirement to ensure Entsorgung were better fulfilled by fuel reprocessing than by direct disposal of spent fuel

  8. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, A.L. [ed.] [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Gonzalez, V.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  9. U.S. weapons-useable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.L.; Gonzalez, V.L.

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective

  10. Optimization of alternative options for SO2 emissions control in the Mexican electrical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islas, Jorge; Grande, Genice

    2007-01-01

    This article develops a least-cost optimization model in terms of the projected SO 2 abatement costs of nine selected options for SO 2 emissions control in the 10 most polluting power plants of the Mexican electrical sector (MES)-including SO 2 scrubbing technologies, fuel oil hydrotreating desulphurization and fuel substitutions. The model not only finds the optimal combination of SO 2 control options and generating units at 10% reduction intervals referred to the total SO 2 emissions but also meets the restriction imposed in the NOM-085-ECOL-1994 (Mexican Official Norm) for allowable emission levels within critical zones. Similarly, two schemes are studied and analysed in this model: the first case considers the economical benefits derived from the substitution of fuel oil by imported low sulphur content coal in the Petacalco power plant and; the second case does not considered such economical benefits. Finally, results are obtained for these two cases in terms of the corresponding costs-investment, O and M, fuel-, abatement costs and the SO 2 emissions reduction

  11. Graphite fuels combustion off-gas treatment options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.J.; Lords, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    Scenarios for burning bulk graphite and for burning crushed fuel particles from graphite spent nuclear fuels have been considered. Particulates can be removed with sintered metal filters. Subsequent cooling would then condense semi-volatile fission products into or onto a particulate. These particulates would be trapped by a second sintered metal filter or downstream packed bed. A packed bed scrub column can be used to eliminate most of the iodine-129 and tritium. A molecular sieve bed is proposed to collect the residual 129 I and other tramp radionuclides downstream (Ruthenium, etc.). Krypton-85 can be recovered, if need be, either by cryogenics or by the KALC process (Krypton Adsorption in Liquid Carbon dioxide). Likewise carbon-14 in the form of carbon dioxide could be collected with a caustic or lime scrub solution and incorporated into a grout. Sulfur dioxide present will be well below regulatory concern level of 4.0 tons per year and most of it would be removed by the scrubber. Carbon monoxide emissions will depend on the choice of burner and start-up conditions. Should the system exceed the regulatory concern level, a catalytic converter in the final packed bed will be provided. Radon and its daughters have sufficiently short half-lives (less than two minutes). If necessary, an additional holdup bed can be added before the final HEPA filters or additional volume can be added to the molecular sieve bed to limit radon emissions. The calculated total effective dose equivalent at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory boundary from a single release of all the 3 , 14 C, 85 Kr, and 129 I in the total fuel mass if 0.43 mrem/year

  12. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Some alternatives to the mixed oxide fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Eschbach, E.A.; Goldsmith, S.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Widrig, R.D.

    1977-02-01

    While on initial examination each of the six fuel cycle concepts (tandem cycle, extended burnup, fuel rejuvenation, coprocessing, partial reprocessing, and thorium) described in the report may have some potential for improving safeguards, none of the six appears to have any other major or compelling advantages over the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle. Compared to the MOX cycle, all but coprocessing appear to have major disadvantages, including severe cost penalties. Three of the concepts-tandem, extended burnup, and rejuvenation--share the basic problems of the throwaway cycle (GESMO Alternative 6): without reprocessing, high-level waste volumes and costs are substantially increased, and overall uranium utilization decreases for three reasons. First, the parasitic fission products left in the fuel absorb neutrons in later irradiation steps reducing the overall neutronic efficiencies of these cycles. Second, discarded fuel still has sufficient fissile values to warrant recycle. Third, perhaps most important, the plutonium needed for breeder start-up will not be available; without the breeder, uranium utilization would drop by about a factor of sixty. Two of the concepts--coprocessing and partial reprocessing--involve variations of the basic MOX fuel cycle's chemical reprocessing step to make plutonium diversion potentially more difficult. These concepts could be used with the MOX fuel cycle or in conjunction with the tandem, extended burnup and rejuvenation concepts to eliminate some of the problems with those cycles. But in so doing, the basic impetus for those cycles--elimination of reprocessing for safeguards purposes--no longer exists. Of all the concepts considered, only coprocessing--and particularly the ''master blend'' version--appears to have sufficient promise to warrant a more detailed study. The master blend concept could possibly make plutonium diversion more difficult with minimal impact on the reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication operations

  14. Nuclear power and the possibility of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, P.

    1979-01-01

    Concern about the societal implications, potential risks and the possibility of nuclear weapons proliferation has slowed down the growth of nuclear energy. Assuming a further moderate growth of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany several fuel cycle and reactor strategies can the followed without exhausting the nuclear the resources before the year 2100. The uranium demand of various reactor strategies with LWR's FBR's and HTR's is compared for two demand cases in the FRG. While recycling of spent fuel seems necessary in any case, it is shown that the Th/U cycle can provide a realistic alternative to the U/Pu cycle. The parallel introduction of both cycles appears as the best solution, as it reduces the overall risks and leads to minimum uranium demand. The risk of nuclear proliferation does not vary considerably with the fuel cycle applied; it can, however, be reduced to acceptable levels by safeguards methods and institutional means. (orig.) [de

  15. Alternative Fuels in Epilepsy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tesfaye W; Tan, Kah Ni; McDonald, Tanya S; Borges, Karin

    2017-06-01

    This review summarises the recent findings on metabolic treatments for epilepsy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in honour of Professor Ursula Sonnewald. The metabolic impairments in rodent models of these disorders as well as affected patients are being discussed. In both epilepsy and ALS, there are defects in glucose uptake and reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycling, at least in part due to reduced amounts of C4 TCA cycle intermediates. In addition there are impairments in glycolysis in ALS. A reduction in glucose uptake can be addressed by providing the brain with alternative fuels, such as ketones or medium-chain triglycerides. As anaplerotic fuels, such as the triglyceride of heptanoate, triheptanoin, refill the TCA cycle C4/C5 intermediate pool that is deficient, they are ideal to boost TCA cycling and thus the oxidative metabolism of all fuels.

  16. 78 FR 23832 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... will have the discretion to use the old FTC label if it chooses to omit such information from the EPA... inaccurate and misleading marketing claims. The Commission may consider these and other advertising issues as part of its ongoing review of its ``Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles,'' 16...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ten Ways You Can Implement Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    heavy-duty vehicle with a Clean Cities decal affixed to it. Connect with Clean Cities If you're looking Energy's Clean Cities program has nearly 100 local coalitions of fleets, fuel providers, businesses Honolulu to Houston to Hartford. Tap into an unbeatable source of transportation know-how and networking by

  18. Criteria for proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Pickett, Susan; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand the concept of nuclear proliferation resistance, this paper examines the technical definitions of proliferation resistance. Although nuclear proliferation resistance is often included as one of the major goals of advanced reactor research and development, the criteria for nuclear proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles is not defined clearly. The implied meaning of proliferation resistance was compared in proposals regarding the nuclear fuel cycle. Discrepancies amongst the proposals regarding the technical definition of proliferation resistance is found. While all these proposals indicate proliferation resistance, few clearly spell out exactly what criteria they are measuring themselves against. However we found there are also common feature in many proposals. They are; (1) Reduction of Pu, (2) Less separated Weapon Usable Materials, (3) Fewer steps, (4) Barrier for Weapon Usable Materials. Recognizing that there are numerous political and infrastructure measures that may also be taken to guard against proliferation risks, we have focused here on the definition of proliferation resistance in terms of technical characteristics. Another important conclusion is that in many proposals proliferation resistance is only one of the important criteria such as energy security, economical efficiency, and safety. (author)

  19. Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-01-01

    Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

  20. Tamanu oil. An alternative fuel for variable compression ratio engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Mohan T. [SASTRA Univ., Thanjavur, Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kandasamy, Murugumohan Kumar K. [Pavendar Bharathidasan College of Engineering and Technology, Trichy, Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oils and also from waste fats. Biodiesel is a monoalkyl- ester of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feedstock such as vegetable oils by transesterification process. The esterified cotton seed oil, pungam oil, rice bran oil, and tamanu oil are chosen as the alternative fuels. Among these oils, tamanu oil is considered for the first time as an alternative fuel. An experiment is conducted to obtain the operating characteristics of the variable compression ratio (VCR) engine run by chosen esterified oils, and the results are compared with esterified tamanu oil. From the comparison of results, it is inferred that the engine performance is improved with significant reduction in emissions for the chosen oils without any engine modification. The effective compression ratio can be fixed based on the experimental results obtained in the engine since the findings of the present research work infer that the biodiesel obtained from tamanu oil is a promising alternative fuel for direct-injection four-stroke VCR engine. (orig.)

  1. Augmented lagrange hopfield network for economic dispatch with multiple fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieu, Vo Ngoc; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Polprasert, Jirawadee

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with multiple fuel options. The proposed ALHN method is a continuous Hopfield neural network with its energy function based on augmented Lagrangian function. The advantages of ALHN over the conventional Hopfield neural network are easier use, more general applications, faster convergence, better optimal solution, and larger scale of problem implementation. The method solves the problem by directly searching the most suitable fuel among the available fuels of each unit and finding the optimal solution for the problem based on minimization of the energy function of the continuous Hopfield neural network. The proposed method is tested on systems up to 100 units and the obtained results are compared to those from other methods in the literature. The results have shown that the proposed method is efficient for solving the ED problem with multiple fuel options and favorable for implementation in large scale problems.

  2. 46 CFR 71.50-27 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program options: Divers or underwater remotely operated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program options...-27 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program options: Divers or underwater remotely operated vehicle... operations; (2) Provide permanent hull markings, a temporary grid system of wires or cables spaced not more...

  3. Performance and fuel cycle cost analysis of one Janus 30 conceptual design for several fuel element design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurdin, Martias [Research Centre for Nuclear Techniques, National Atomic Energy Agency (Indonesia); Matos, J E; Freese, K E [RERTR Program, Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

    1983-09-01

    The performance and fuel cycle costs for a 25 MW, JANUS 30 reactor conceptual design by INTERATOM, Federal Republic of Germany, for BATAN, Republic of Indonesia have been studied using 19.75% enriched uranium in four fuel element design options. All of these fuel element designs have either been proposed by INTERATOM for various reactors or are currently in use with 93% enriched uranium in reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany. Aluminide, oxide, and silicide fuels were studied for selected designs using the range of uranium densities that are either currently qualified or are being developed and demonstrated internationally. These uranium densities include 1.7-2.3 g/cm{sup 3} in aluminide fuel, 1.7-3.2 g/cm{sup 3} in oxide fuel, and 2.9-6.8 g/cm{sup 3} in silicide fuel. As of November 1982) both the aluminide and the oxide fuels with about 1.7 g U/cm{sup 3} are considered to be fully-proven for licensing purposes. Irradiation screening and proof testing of fuels with uranium densities greater than 1.7 g/cm{sup 3} are currently in progress, and these tests need to be completed in order to obtain licensing authorization for routine reactor use. To assess the long-term fuel adaptation strategy as well as the present fuel acceptance, reactor performance and annual fuel cycle costs were computed for seventeen cases based on a representative end-of-cycle excess reactivity and duty factor. In addition, a study was made to provide data for evaluating the trade-off between the increased safety associated with thicker cladding and the economic penalty due to increased fuel consumption. (author)

  4. Mitigating environmental pollution and impacts from fossil fuels: The role of alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.; Cheng, S.Y.; Li, J.B.; Huang, Y.F. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    In order to meet the rising global demand for energy, rapid development of conventional fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) have been experienced by many nations, bringing dramatic economic benefit and prosperity to fossil-fuel industries as well as well being of human society. However, various fossil-fuel related activities emit huge quantities of gaseous, liquid, and solid waste materials, posing a variety of impacts, risks, and liabilities to the environment. Therefore, on the one hand, control measures are desired for effectively managing pollution issues; on the other hand, it becomes extremely critical to invest efforts in finding promising alternative energy sources as solutions to the possible energy shortage crisis in future. This article focuses on both aspects through: (1) a discussion of waste materials generated from fossil-fuel industries and waste management measures; and (2) an exploration of some well-recognized alternative fuels in terms of their nature, availability, production, handling, environmental performances, and current and future applications. The conclusion restates the urgency of finding replaceable long-term alternatives to the conventional fuels.

  5. Liquid alternative diesel fuels with high hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancsok, Jenoe; Varga, Zoltan; Eller, Zoltan; Poelczmann, Gyoergy [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon Processing; Kasza, Tamas [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    Mobility is a keystone of the sustainable development. In the operation of the vehicles as the tools of mobility internal combustion engines, so thus Diesel engines will play a remarkable role in the next decades. Beside fossil fuels - used for power these engines - liquid alternative fuels have higher and higher importance, because of their known advantages. During the presentation the categorization possibilities based on the chronology of their development and application will be presented. The importance of fuels with high hydrogen content will be reviewed. Research and development activity in the field of such kind of fuels will be presented. During this developed catalytic systems and main performance properties of the product will be presented which were obtained in case of biogasoils produced by special hydrocracking of natural triglycerides and in case of necessity followed by isomerization; furthermore in case of synthetic biogasoils obtained by the isomerization hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins produced from biomass based synthesis gas. Excellent combustion properties (cetane number > 65-75), good cold flow properties and reduced harmful material emission due to the high hydrogen content (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}) are highlighted. Finally production possibilities of linear and branched paraffins based on lignocelluloses are briefly reviewed. Summarizing it was concluded that liquid hydrocarbons with high isoparaffin content are the most suitable fuels regarding availability, economical and environmental aspects, namely the sustainable development. (orig.)

  6. Effects of SO2 emission regulations and fuel prices on levellized energy costs for industrial steam generation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdogan, Sibel; Arikol, Mahir

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the impacts of SO 2 emission regulations and fuel prices on levellized energy costs of industrial steam generation options. A computer model called INDUSTEAM has been utilized. The steam-supply options comprise conventional grate-firing, bubbling and circulating fluidized beds, fuel-oil, and natural-gas-fired systems. Fuels of different SO 2 pollution potential have been evaluated assuming six environmental scenarios and varying fuel prices. A capacity range of 10-90 MW th is covered. (author)

  7. Analysis of fuel options for the breakeven core configuration of the Advanced Recycling Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauff, N.E.; Klim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Fiorina, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Franceschini, F. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC., Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A trade-off study is performed to determine the impacts of various fuel forms on the core design and core physics characteristics of the sodium-cooled Toshiba- Westinghouse Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR). The fuel forms include oxide, nitride, and metallic forms of U and Th. The ARR core configuration is redesigned with driver and blanket regions in order to achieve breakeven fissile breeding performance with the various fuel types. State-of-the-art core physics tools are used for the analyses. In addition, a quasi-static reactivity balance approach is used for a preliminary comparison of the inherent safety performances of the various fuel options. Thorium-fueled cores exhibit lower breeding ratios and require larger blankets compared to the U-fueled cores, which is detrimental to core compactness and increases reprocessing and manufacturing requirements. The Th cores also exhibit higher reactivity swings through each cycle, which penalizes reactivity control and increases the number of control rods required. On the other hand, using Th leads to drastic reductions in void and coolant expansion coefficients of reactivity, with the potential for enhancing inherent core safety. Among the U-fueled ARR cores, metallic and nitride fuels result in higher breeding ratios due to their higher heavy metal densities. On the other hand, oxide fuels provide a softer spectrum, which increases the Doppler effect and reduces the positive sodium void worth. A lower fuel temperature is obtained with the metallic and nitride fuels due to their higher thermal conductivities and compatibility with sodium bonds. This is especially beneficial from an inherent safety point of view since it facilitates the reactor cool-down during loss of power removal transients. The advantages in terms of inherent safety of nitride and metallic fuels are maintained when using Th fuel. However, there is a lower relative increase in heavy metal density and in breeding ratio going from oxide to metallic

  8. Issues for Storing Plant-Based Alternative Fuels in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    of aerobic metabolites that exacerbated subsequent corrosion processes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS biodiesel , alternative fuel, seawater, corrosion, carbon...2013 Accepted 17 December 2013 Available online 24 December 2013 Keywords: Biodiesel Alternative fuel Seawater Corrosion Carbon steel...high energy density transportation fuels 13). The feasibility of producing large quantities of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and lipid-based fuels

  9. 77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ...-road or non-road vehicle. \\2\\ The definition of the term ``low-speed electric vehicle,'' as used... alternative fuel used in Federal fleet motor vehicles. This report also would include the alternative fuel...-- (1) a motor vehicle that operates solely on alternative fuel; or (2) a low-speed electric vehicle. (g...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center : Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do

  16. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets AGENCY: Office of...-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets... regulations for a statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel...

  17. Fuel options for the fuel cell vehicle: hydrogen, methanol or gasoline?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles can be powered directly by hydrogen or, with an onboard chemical processor, other liquid fuels such as gasoline or methanol. Most analysts agree that hydrogen is the preferred fuel in terms of reducing vehicle complexity, but one common perception is that the cost of a hydrogen infrastructure would be excessive. According to this conventional wisdom, the automobile industry must therefore develop complex onboard fuel processors to convert methanol, ethanol or gasoline to hydrogen. We show here, however, that the total fuel infrastructure cost to society including onboard fuel processors may be less for hydrogen than for either gasoline or methanol, the primary initial candidates currently under consideration for fuel cell vehicles. We also present the local air pollution and greenhouse gas advantages of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to those powered by gasoline or methanol. (Author)

  18. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yousri M.A. Welaya; Mohamed M. El Gohary; Nader R. Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM) generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas productio...

  19. Core design options for high conversion BWRs operating in Th–233U fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnik, Y.; Shwageraus, E.; Elias, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • BWR core operating in a closed self-sustainable Th– 233 U fuel cycle. • Seed blanket optimization that includes assembly size array and axial dimensions. • Fully coupled MC with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules. • Thermal-hydraulic analysis includes MCPR observation. -- Abstract: Several options of fuel assembly design are investigated for a BWR core operating in a closed self-sustainable Th– 233 U fuel cycle. The designs rely on an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure consisting of a single axial fissile zone “sandwiched” between two fertile blanket zones, in order to improve fertile to fissile conversion ratio. The main objective of the study was to identify the most promising assembly design parameters, dimensions of fissile and fertile zones, for achieving net breeding of 233 U. The design challenge, in this respect, is that the fuel breeding potential is at odds with axial power peaking and the core minimum critical power ratio (CPR), hence limiting the maximum achievable core power rating. Calculations were performed with the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupled with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules. A single 3-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries was modeled applying simplified restrictions on the maximum centerline fuel temperature and the CPR. It was found that axially heterogeneous fuel assembly design with a single fissile zone can potentially achieve net breeding, while matching conventional BWR core power rating under certain restrictions to the core loading pattern design

  20. Annex 34 : task 1 : analysis of biodiesel options : biomass-derived diesel fuels : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Aakko-Saksa, P; Nylund, N O [TransEnergy Consulting Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    Biofuels are derived from woody biomass, non-woody biomass, and organic wastes. The properties of vegetable oil feedstocks can have profound effects on the properties of the finished biodiesel product. However, all biodiesel fuels have beneficial effects on engine emissions. This report discussed the use of biodiesel fuels as replacements for part of the diesel fuel consumed throughout the world. Biodiesel fuels currently being produced from fatty acid esters today were reviewed, as well as some of the more advanced diesel replacement fuels. The report was produced as part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement Annex 34, and was divided into 14 sections: (1) an introduction, (2) biodiesel and biomass, (3) an explanation of biodiesel, (4) properties of finished biodiesel fuels, (5) exhaust emissions of finished biodiesel fuels and blends, (6) life-cycle emissions and energy, (7) international biodiesel (FAME) technical standards and specifications, (8) growth in production and use of biodiesel fuels, (9) biofuel refineries, (10) process technology, (11) development and status of biorefineries, (12) comparison of options to produce biobased diesel fuels, (13) barriers and gaps in knowledge, and (14) references. 113 refs., 37 tabs., 74 figs.

  1. Enhanced CANDU6: Reactor and fuel cycle options - Natural uranium and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovanes, M.; Chan, P. S. W.; Mao, J.; Alderson, N.; Hopwood, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Enhanced CANDU 6 R (ECo R ) is the updated version of the well established CANDU 6 family of units incorporating improved safety characteristics designed to meet or exceed Generation III nuclear power plant expectations. The EC6 retains the excellent neutron economy and fuel cycle flexibility that are inherent in the CANDU reactor design. The reference design is based on natural uranium fuel, but the EC6 is also able to utilize additional fuel options, including the use of Recovered Uranium (RU) and Thorium based fuels, without requiring major hardware upgrades to the existing control and safety systems. This paper outlines the major changes in the EC6 core design from the existing C6 design that significantly enhance the safety characteristics and operating efficiency of the reactor. The use of RU fuel as a transparent replacement fuel for the standard 37-el NU fuel, and several RU based advanced fuel designs that give significant improvements in fuel burnup and inherent safety characteristics are also discussed in the paper. In addition, the suitability of the EC6 to use MOX and related Pu-based fuels will also be discussed. (authors)

  2. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teagan, W P; Bentley, J; Barnett, B [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-03-15

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R and D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under $150/kW in stationary applications and $30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories. (orig.)

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  5. Evaluation Framework for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Shang Chang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Road transport accounts for 72.06% of total transport CO2, which is considered a cause of climate change. At present, the use of alternative fuels has become a pressing issue and a significant number of automakers and scholars have devoted themselves to the study and subsequent development of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs. The evaluation of AFVs should consider not only air pollution reduction and fuel efficiency but also AFV sustainability. In general, the field of sustainable development is subdivided into three areas: economic, environmental, and social. On the basis of the sustainable development perspective, this study presents an evaluation framework for AFVs by using the DEMATEL-based analytical network process. The results reveal that the five most important criteria are price, added value, user acceptance, reduction of hazardous substances, and dematerialization. Price is the most important criterion because it can improve the popularity of AFVs and affect other criteria, including user acceptance. Additional, the energy usage criterion is expected to significantly affect the sustainable development of AFVs. These results should be seriously considered by automakers and governments in developing AFVs.

  6. 75 FR 26121 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... standard at retail facilities. This alternative defense consists of a comprehensive program of quality... without change and may be made available online at http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal..., import, sell, store or transport ULSD highway diesel fuel to meet the standards specified in the diesel...

  7. Recycling and transmutation of spent fuel as a sustainable option for the nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the option of recycling and transmutation of radioactive waste against Once-through Fuel Cycle (OTC) based on uranium feed under the perspective of sustainability. We use a qualitative analysis to compare OTC with closed fuel cycles based on studies already performed such as the Red Impact Project and the comparative study on accelerator driven systems and fast reactors for advanced fuel cycles performed by the Nuclear Energy Agency. The results show that recycling and transmutation fuel cycles are more attractive than the OTC from the point of view of sustainability. The main conclusion is that the decision about the construction of a deep geological repository for spent fuel disposal must be reevaluated. (author)

  8. Alternative bipolar plates design and manufacturing for PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chang Chuan; Norhamidi Muhamad; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates is one of the important components in fuel cell stack, it comprise up to 80% of the stack volume. Traditionally, these plates have been fabricated from graphite, owing to its chemical nobility, and high electrical and thermal conductivity; but these plates are brittle and relatively thick. Therefore increasing the stack volume and size. Alternatives to graphite are carbon-carbon composite, carbon-polymer composite and metal (aluminum, stainless steel, titanium and nickel based alloy). The use of coated and uncoated metal bipolar plates has received attention recently due to the simplicity of plate manufacturing. The thin nature of the metal substrate allows for smaller stack design with reduced weight. Lightweight coated metals as alternative to graphite plate is being developed. Beside the traditional method of machining and slurry molding, metal foam for bipolar plates fabrication seems to be a good alternative. The plates will be produced with titanium powder by Powder Metallurgy method using space holders technique to produce the meal foam flow-field. This work intends to facilitate the materials and manufacturing process requirements to produce cost effective foamed bipolar plates for fuel cell

  9. Environmental impact of alternative fuel on Tehran air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebtekar, T.

    1995-01-01

    Seventy percent of the air pollution in the city of Tehran stems from mobile sources, and in comparison with other major cities of the world, Iran's capital experiences one of the most polluted metropolitan areas. There exists a surplus of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the Persian Gulf and Iranian market, in addition, Iran possesses the second largest reservoir of natural gas in the world. These alternative energy resources create a favorable potential fuel for city of Tehran. Experiments carried out in Tehran indicate that in converting the taxis from gasoline to a dual fuel (LPG/gasoline) car or to a dual fuel natural gas vehicle (NGV) reduce all major pollutants (CO, HC, NOX, Pb) substantially. Following the author's recommendation, the number of LPG dispensing units in gas stations are increasing and the number of dual fuel taxis amount to several thousands in the metropolitan area. The conversion of diesel buses in the Tehran Public Transportation Corporation to natural gas (NGV) has been recommended by the author and vast experimental works are underway at the present time

  10. Look at potential options for the fast reactor fuel cycle in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and plans for the fast reactor fuel cycle in the United States, presents some options that are under consideration, and describes how these options are being evaluated at the present time. The United States will undertake some far-reaching examinations of the entire breeder program strategy in the coming year, and the outcome of these reviews cannot be predicted today. In other papers at this conference you have heard various perspectives from both government and industry representatives. The proposed studies to examine the associated fuel cycle strategies as they relate to the overall emerging breeder strategy are described. The present status of and recent developments in the fuel cycle R and D programs will also be summarized and updated in order to present an overall picture of the United States situation

  11. Radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Given its potential significance for public health and the environment, the impact of radioactive releases during important steps of nuclear energy production must be considered when selecting among different fuel cycles. With this in mind, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has undertaken a comparative study to the radiological impacts of two main fuel cycle options : one with and one without reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The study compares the respective impacts of the two options based on generic models and assumptions as well as actual data. It concludes that the difference between them is not significant. A wealth of recent data assembled and evaluated by an international expert team is provided in annex. (authors)

  12. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  13. Well-to-wheels life-cycle analysis of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wei; Han Weijian; Chock, David; Chai Qinhu; Zhang Aling

    2012-01-01

    A well-to-wheels life cycle analysis on total energy consumptions and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions for alternative fuels and accompanying vehicle technologies has been carried out for the base year 2010 and projected to 2020 based on data gathered and estimates developed for China. The fuels considered include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, liquid fuels from coal conversion, methanol, bio-ethanol and biodiesel, electricity and hydrogen. Use of liquid fuels including methanol and Fischer–Tropsch derived from coal will significantly increase GHG emissions relative to use of conventional gasoline. Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit because of the present highly inefficient agricultural practice and plant processing in China. Electrification of vehicles via hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle technologies offers a progressively improved prospect for the reduction of energy consumption and GHG emission. However, the long-term carbon emission reduction is assured only when the needed electricity is generated by zero- or low-carbon sources, which means that carbon capture and storage is a necessity for fossil-based feedstocks. A PHEV that runs on zero- or low-carbon electricity and cellulosic ethanol may be one of the most attractive fuel-vehicle options in a carbon-constrained world. - Highlights: ► Data and estimates unique to China are used in this analysis. ► Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit in China. ► Use of methanol derived from coal will incur even more carbon disbenefit. ► Plug-in-hybrid with cellulosic ethanol and clean electricity may be a viable option.

  14. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of offgas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option

  15. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas, systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of off gas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option.

  16. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Options for incinerators, cement kilns... Technology (MACT) Standards § 270.235 Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns... incinerator, cement kiln, lightweight aggregate kiln, solid fuel boiler, liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric...

  17. Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-01-01

    Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean Air Act Amendments

  18. The generation of denatured reactor plutonium by different options of the fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, C.H.M.; Kessler, G. [Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Denatured (proliferation resistant) reactor plutonium can be generated in a number of different fuel cycle options. First denatured reactor plutonium can be obtained if, instead of low enriched U-235 PWR fuel, re-enriched U-235/U-236 from reprocessed uranium is used (fuel type A). Also the envisaged existing 2,500 t of reactor plutonium (being generated world wide up to the year 2010), mostly stored in intermediate fuel storage facilities at present, could be converted during a transition phase into denatured reactor plutonium by the options fuel type B and D. Denatured reactor plutonium could have the same safeguards standard as present low enriched (<20% U-235) LWR fuel. It could be incinerated by recycling once or twice in PWRs and subsequently by multi-recycling in FRs (CAPRA type or IFRs). Once denatured, such reactor plutonium could remain denatured during multiple recycling. In a PWR, e.g., denatured reactor plutonium could be destroyed at a rate of about 250 kg/GWey. While denatured reactor plutonium could be recycled and incinerated under relieved IAEA safeguards, neptunium would still have to be monitored by the IAEA in future for all cases in which considerable amounts of neptunium are produced. (orig.)

  19. Transport and supply logistics of biomass fuels: Vol. 1. Supply chain options for biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J; Browne, M; Palmer, H; Hunter, A; Boyd, J

    1996-10-01

    The study which forms part of a wider project funded by the Department of Trade and Industry, looks at the feasibility of generating electricity from biomass-fuelled power stations. Emphasis is placed on supply availabilty and transport consideration for biomass fuels such as wood wastes from forestry, short rotation coppice products, straw, miscanthus (an energy crop) and farm animal slurries. The study details the elements of the supply chain for each fuel from harvesting to delivery at the power station. The delivered cost of each fuel, the environmental impact of the biomass fuel supply and other relevant non-technical issues are addressed. (UK)

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell)–Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated. Simulations of the proposed system were conducted using different fuels, which should facilitate the use of a variety of fuels depending on availability. Here, the results for natural gas (NG), ammonia, di-methyl ether (DME), methanol and ethanol are presented and analyzed. The system behavior is further investigated by comparing the effects of key factors, such as the utilization factor and the operating conditions under which these fuels are used. Moreover, the effect of using a methanator on the plant efficiency is also studied. The combined system improves the overall electrical efficiency relative to that of a stand-alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the combined SOFC and Stirling configuration, the overall power production was increased by approximately 10% compared to that of a stand-alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of approximately 60% are achieved, which is remarkable for such small plant sizes. Additionally, heat is also produced to heat the family home when necessary. - Highlights: • Integrating a solid oxide fuel with a Stirling engine • Design of multi-fuel hybrid plants • Plants running on alternative fuels; natural gas, methanol, ethanol, DME and ammonia • Thermodynamic analysis of hybrid SOFC–Stirling engine plants

  1. Castor oil biodiesel and its blends as alternative fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Paula; Nizri, Shahar; Wiesman, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    Intensive production and commercialization of biodiesel from edible-grade sources have raised some critical environmental concerns. In order to mitigate these environmental consequences, alternative oilseeds are being investigated as biodiesel feedstocks. Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the most promising non-edible oil crops, due to its high annual seed production and yield, and since it can be grown on marginal land and in semi-arid climate. Still, few studies are available regarding its fuel-related properties in its pure form or as a blend with petrodiesel, many of which are due to its extremely high content of ricinoleic acid. In this study, the specifications in ASTM D6751 and D7467 which are related to the fatty acid composition of pure castor methyl esters (B100) and its blend with petrodiesel in a 10% vol ratio (B10) were investigated. Kinematic viscosity and distillation temperature of B100 (15.17 mm 2 s -1 and 398.7 o C respectively) were the only two properties which did not meet the appropriate standard limits. In contrast, B10 met all the specifications. Still, ASTM D7467 requires that the pure biodiesel meets the requirements of ASTM D6751. This can limit the use of a wide range of feedstocks, including castor, as alternative fuel, especially due to the fact that in practice vehicles normally use low level blends of biodiesel and petrodiesel. These issues are discussed in depth in the present study. -- Highlights: → CaME can be used as a biodiesel alternative feedstock when blended in petrodiesel. → Due to the high levels of ricinoleic acid maximum blending level is limited to 10%. → Today, CaME blends are not a viable alternative feedstock. → ASTM D7467 requires that pure biodiesel must meet all the appropriate limits.

  2. Novel approaches to the creation of alternative motor fuels from renewable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Олександрівна Гайдай

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the method of obtaining aliphatic alcohols as components of alternative fuels by catalytic processing of synthesis gas under the conditions of mechanochemical activation of the catalyst without using high pressure.It is established that the introduction of hydrocarbon spherical clusters (onions in the alternative fuel changes physical, chemical and chemmotological characteristics of fuel due to the effect of structure formation. The results of comparative studies of the performance properties of hydrocarbon and alternative fuels are displayed

  3. Fuel Options for Vehicles in Korea and Role of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, almost all vehicles in Korea are powered by gasoline or diesel and they are emitting about 25% of nationwide total carbon dioxide emission. With jetting up price of oil and concerns about global warming by use of fossil fuel, transition to the hydrogen economy gains more and more interest. As alternatives to the current fossil powered vehicles, hybrid, hydrogen, electricity powered vehicles are considered. In short term we will reduce dependence upon fossil fuel by using hybrid cars. However, in the long term, we have to escape from the dependence on fossil fuel. In this context, nuclear-driven hydrogen or electricity powered cars are the alternatives. In this study, we estimated the operation cost of cars powered by hydrogen and electricity from nuclear power and studied about the major blocks on the way to independence from fossil fuels. In the analysis, we put the capital cost of car aside

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced

  5. Advisable alternative fuels for Mexico; Combustibles alternativos convenientes para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Gonzalez, Jorge Luis [ICA Fluor (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The alternative fuels are born with the goal of not damaging the environment; biodiesel, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, methanol, natural gas, LP gas, are the main alternative fuels. However, the biodiesel and bioetanol are the only completely renewable ones, this makes them ideal to be developed in Mexico, since the agricultural sector could be fortified, the technological independence be favored, improve the conservation of the oil resources and by all means not to affect the environment. On the other hand, also efficient cultivation techniques should be developed to guarantee the economy of the process. [Spanish] Los combustibles alternativos nacen con la meta de no danar el medio ambiente; el biodiesel, electricidad, etanol, hidrogeno, metanol, gas natural, gas LP, son los principales combustibles alternativos. No obstante, el biodiesel y el bioetanol son los unicos completamente renovables, esto los hace ideales para desarrollarse en Mexico, ya que se podria fortalecer el sector agricola, favorecer la independencia tecnologica, mejorar la administracion de los recursos petroleros y por supuesto no afectar al medio ambiente. Por otro lado tambien se tendrian que desarrollar tecnicas de cultivo eficientes para garantizar la economia del proceso.

  6. Options for Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste for Countries Developing New Nuclear Power Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    start a nuclear power programme. The IAEA has published guidance on particular elements of radioactive waste and spent fuel management, such as establishing nuclear technical and regulatory infrastructure, relevant financing schemes, national policy and strategies, multinational approaches and other aspects linked to building nuclear power plants. The present publication is intended to provide a concise summary of key issues related to the development of a sound radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management system. It is designed to brief countries with small or newly established nuclear power programmes about the challenges of, and to describe current and potential alternatives for, managing spent fuel and radioactive waste arising during operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The publication deals primarily with current technical options, but also considers possible future developments and discusses relevant legal, political, technical and safety issues. It identifies the role of, and potential actions to be adopted by, the international community, including the IAEA, in order to support the responsible introduction of nuclear power in interested countries

  7. Potential External (non-DOE) Constraints on U.S. Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet

    2012-07-01

    The DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program will be conducting a screening of fuel cycle options in FY2013 to help focus fuel cycle R&D activities. As part of this screening, performance criteria and go/no-go criteria are being identified. To help ensure that these criteria are consistent with current policy, an effort was initiated to identify the status and basis of potentially relevant regulations, laws, and policies that have been established external to DOE. As such regulations, laws, and policies may be beyond DOE’s control to change, they may constrain the screening criteria and internally-developed policy. This report contains a historical survey and analysis of publically available domestic documents that could pertain to external constraints on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. “External” is defined as public documents outside DOE. This effort did not include survey and analysis of constraints established internal to DOE.

  8. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  9. Status of the back-end optional advanced research reactor fuel development in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Yoon-Sang; Lee, Don-Bae; Oh, Seuk-Jin; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Chae, Hee-Taek; Park, Jong-Man; Sohn Dong-Seong

    2003-01-01

    U-Mo fuel development has been carried out for a reactor upgrade of HANARO and the back-end option in Korea. The 2nd irradiation test of the U-Mo dispersion rod fuels is underway in HANARO in order to find the optimum uranium loading density and to investigate the applicability of the monolithic U-Mo ring fuel as well as other parameters such as particle size and cladding surface-treatment. The optical observation using an immersion camera showed that the cladding surfaces of the two U 3 Si and U-Mo fuels with a high power rate changed in to the darker color, which is not as severe as those of the driving fuels in HANARO. Presumably it would be acceptable. The other fuels were observed as maintaining their initial good conditions. In connection with monolithic U-Mo fuel development, some achievements such as preliminary U-Mo tube production by a continuous casting process and a successful U-Mo foil production using a roll casting process have been obtained. In addition, some investigation on the surface-treatment of multilayer coating and Zr sputtering coating has showed the possibility of eliminating the problem of a temperature rise due to the corrosion layer formation having quite a low conductivity. The next irradiation test will aim mainly at the qualification of the U-Mo dispersion fuel for HANARO around the end of next year. In the 3rd irradiation fuel bundle, some fuels related to the basic investigation tests for the monolithic U-Mo fuel and surface-treatment for anticorrosion will be loaded. (author)

  10. Model development for quantitative evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il

    2000-02-01

    an entire fuel cycle, in which proliferation can arise by various possible paths or by diversion of special nuclear material from different facilities such as the enrichment facility, MOX(Mixed Oxied) or DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU reactor) fuel fabrication facilities, and transportation containers. Finally, by combining the series circuit with the parallel one, the proliferation resistance index of an entire fuel cycle can be constructed as a combination of resistances in series and parallel, which represent a specific path/facility and different path/facility, respectively. As a sample study, this model was applied to the Korean nuclear fuel cycle alternatives such as the DUPIC, the direct disposal and the reprocessing fuel cycles. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. it has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle(from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity. For the cost risk for the nuclear fuel cycle, a probabilistic approach, Monte Carlo simulation technique, was suggested. For probabilistic distribution of input data needed for the simulation, a three-point estimate approach was used to incorporate subjective expert opinions into the probabilistic distribution function of the nuclear fuel cycle component costs. From the fuel cycle cost analysis, it was found that the Monte Carlo simulation, using of the Latin

  11. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and

  12. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion – viable alternative options for terrestrial weed management – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Saha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of terrestrial weed is of great concern for the scientific community as these weeds cause adverse effect in different ecosystems like forest, agriculture and urban. The widespread of these weeds by their adaptive capability and morphological advancement is difficult to control. Parthenium hysterophorous, Lantana camara, Saccharum spontaneum, Ageratum conyzoides are the weeds that spread all over the world. There are various management practices employed for the control of this weeds. But all of these practices have some drawbacks those are neither environment friendly nor economical. In this paper a review has been done to evaluate various alternative management practices for these terrestrial weeds and to analyze their feasibility. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion can be viable alternative option which is cost effective as well. There are few studies regarding vermicomposting and anaerobic digestions of terrestrial weeds are done.

  13. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  14. Solid fuel block as an alternate fuel for cooking and barbecuing: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monikankana; Mukunda, H.S.; Sridhar, G.

    2009-01-01

    A large part of the rural people of developing countries use traditional biomass stoves to meet their cooking and heating energy demands. These stoves possess very low thermal efficiency; besides, most of them cannot handle agricultural wastes. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternate cooking contrivance which is simple, efficient and can handle a range of biomass including agricultural wastes. In this reported work, a highly densified solid fuel block using a range of low cost agro residues has been developed to meet the cooking and heating needs. A strategy was adopted to determine the best suitable raw materials, which was optimized in terms of cost and performance. Several experiments were conducted using solid fuel block which was manufactured using various raw materials in different proportions; it was found that fuel block composed of 40% biomass, 40% charcoal powder, 15% binder and 5% oxidizer fulfilled the requirement. Based on this finding, fuel blocks of two different configurations viz. cylindrical shape with single and multi-holes (3, 6, 9 and 13) were constructed and its performance was evaluated. For instance, the 13 hole solid fuel block met the requirement of domestic cooking; the mean thermal power was 1.6 kW th with a burn time of 1.5 h. Furthermore, the maximum thermal efficiency recorded for this particular design was 58%. Whereas, the power level of single hole solid fuel block was found to be lower but adequate for barbecue cooking application

  15. A Choice Experiment on Alternative Fuel Vehicle Preferences of Private Car Owners in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, A.; Koetse, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of an online stated choice experiment on preferences of Dutch private car owners for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and their characteristics. Results show that negative preferences for alternative fuel vehicles are large, especially for the electric and fuel cell car,

  16. 46 CFR 58.50-15 - Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate material for construction of independent fuel...) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Independent Fuel Tanks § 58.50-15 Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks. (a) Materials other than those specifically...

  17. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance—Part A: Combustor Performance and Part B: Combustor Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Shouse, D. T.; Neuroth, C.; Hendricks, R. C.; Lynch, A.; Frayne, C. W.; Stutrud, J. S.; Corporan, E.; Hankins, Capt. T.

    2012-01-01

    Alternate aviation fuels for military or commercial use are required to satisfy MIL-DTL-83133F or ASTM D 7566 standards, respectively, and are classified as “drop-in’’ fuel replacements. To satisfy legacy issues, blends to 50% alternate fuel with petroleum fuels are acceptable. Adherence to alternate fuels and fuel blends requires “smart fueling systems’’ or advanced fuel-flexible systems, including combustors and engines, without significant sacrifice in performance or emissions requirements...

  18. Spent fuel from RA reactor inspection of state and options for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aden, V.G.; Bulkin, S. Yu.; Sokolov, A. V.; Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z.

    2001-01-01

    About five thousand spent fuel elements from RA reactor have been stored for over 30 years in sealed aluminum barrels in the spent fuel storage pool. This way of storage does not provide complete information about the state of spent fuel elements or the medium inside the barrels, like pressure or radioactivity. The technology has been developed and the equipment has been manufactured to inspect the state of the spent fuel and to reduce eventual internal pressure inside the aluminum barrels. The realization of this technology was started in 1999 but due to political and financial difficulties was not completed. In September the year 2000 the work was restarted. Two different ways of RA reactor spent fuel elements preparation for transportation or long-term storage are considered: 'all fuel elements canning without leak-tightness testing' and 'all fuel elements leak-tightness testing'. It is believed that the first option offers several distinct advantages, which can be summarized as: greater reliability in the course of transportation or dry storage. Higher safety for workers. Lower expenditures for non-standard equipment manufacturing. Shorter duration of work. (author)

  19. Fuel particles in the Chernobyl cooling pond: current state and prediction for remediation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgakov, A.; Konoplev, A.; Smith, J.; Laptev, G.; Voitsekhovich, O.

    2009-01-01

    During the coming years, a management and remediation strategy for the Chernobyl cooling pond (CP) will be implemented. Remediation options include a controlled reduction in surface water level of the cooling pond and stabilisation of exposed sediments. In terrestrial soils, fuel particles deposited during the Chernobyl accident have now almost completely disintegrated. However, in the CP sediments the majority of 90 Sr activity is still in the form of fuel particles. Due to the low dissolved oxygen concentration and high pH, dissolution of fuel particles in the CP sediments is significantly slower than in soils. After the planned cessation of water pumping from the Pripyat River to the Pond, significant areas of sediments will be drained and exposed to the air. This will significantly enhance the dissolution rate and, correspondingly, the mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides will increase with time. The rate of acidification of exposed bottom sediments was predicted on the basis of acidification of similar soils after liming. Using empirical equations relating the fuel particle dissolution rate to soil and sediment pH allowed prediction of fuel particle dissolution and 90 Sr mobilisation for different remediation scenarios. It is shown that in exposed sediments, fuel particles will be almost completely dissolved in 15-25 years, while in parts of the cooling pond which remain flooded, fuel particle dissolution will take about a century

  20. Evaluation of fuel cycle options for plutonium utilization: 1977 study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardue, W.M.; Madia, W.J.; Pobereskin, M.; Tripplett, M.B.; Waddell, J.D.

    1977-05-01

    This is the third in a series of three reports on the analysis of plutonium recycle. Analyses are based upon an October, 1976, middle case ERDA forecast of nuclear growth which predicts 510 GWe of nuclear capacity in the year 2000. Four fuel cycle options were reviewed, ranging from no LWR recycle of uranium of plutonium to recycle options both with and without breeder reactors. A special effort was devoted to the review of various estimates of the costs of reprocessing nuclear fuels, with a resulting value of $190/kg of heavy metal (deflated 1975 dollars). The associated range is estimated to $125/kg to $250/kg. Sensitivity analysis of reprocessing costs, uranium consumption, average generation costs, and total discounted costs of electricity indicate that the long-term economic advantages of plutonium recycle are quite conclusive. Nuclear scenarios which project low growth rates and which delay the start of recycle and introduction of a breeder reactor postpone the apparent economic advantages

  1. Freeze-dried spermatozoa: An alternative biobanking option for endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Debora Agata; Palazzese, Luca; Iuso, Domenico; Martino, Giuseppe; Loi, Pasqualino

    2018-03-01

    In addition to the iconic wild species, such as the pandas and Siberian tigers, an ever-increasing number of domestic species are also threatened with extinction. Biobanking of spermatozoa could preserve genetic heritages of extinct species, and maintain biodiversity of existing species. Because lyophilized spermatozoa retain fertilizing capacity, the aim was to assess whether freeze-dried spermatozoa are an alternative option to save endangered sheep breeds. To achieve this objective, semen was collected from an Italian endangered sheep breed (Pagliarola), and a biobank of cryopreserved and freeze-dried spermatozoa was established, and evaluated using IVF (for frozen spermatozoa) and ICSI procedures (for frozen and freeze-dried spermatozoa). As expected, the fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved Pagliarola's spermatozoa was comparable to commercial semen stocks. To evaluate the activating capability of freeze-dried spermatozoa, 108 MII sheep oocytes were subjected to ICSI, and allocated to two groups: 56 oocytes were activated by incubation with ionomycin (ICSI-FDSa) and 52 were not activated (ICSI-FDSna). Pronuclear formation (2PN) was investigated at 14-16 h after ICSI in fixed presumptive zygotes. Only artificially activated oocytes developed into blastocysts after ICSI. In the present study, freeze-dried ram spermatozoa induced blastocyst development following ICSI at a relatively high proportion, providing evidence that sperm lyophilization is an alternative, low cost storage option for biodiversity preservation of domestic species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance: Part A: Combustor Performance Part B: Combustor Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouse, D. T.; Neuroth, C.; Henricks, R. C.; Lynch, A.; Frayne, C.; Stutrud, J. S.; Corporan, E.; Hankins, T.

    2010-01-01

    Alternate aviation fuels for military or commercial use are required to satisfy MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 (2010) standards, respectively, and are classified as drop-in fuel replacements. To satisfy legacy issues, blends to 50% alternate fuel with petroleum fuels are certified individually on the basis of feedstock. Adherence to alternate fuels and fuel blends requires smart fueling systems or advanced fuel-flexible systems, including combustors and engines without significant sacrifice in performance or emissions requirements. This paper provides preliminary performance (Part A) and emissions and particulates (Part B) combustor sector data for synthetic-parafinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type fuel and blends with JP-8+100 relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling.

  3. Emissions from Petrol Engine Fueled Gasoline–Ethanol–Methanol (GEM Ternary mixture as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Saravana Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demands of petroleum fuels due to the rapid development automotive society coupled with the environmental pollution issues have inspired the efforts on exploring alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Bioethanol obtained from biomass and bioenergy crops has been proclaimed as one of the feasible alternative to gasoline. In this study, the effect of gasoline–ethanol–methanol (GEM ternary blend on the emission characteristics of petrol engine was studied. Three different fuel blends, namely, E0 (gasoline, G75E21M4 (75% gasoline, 21% hydrous ethanol and 4% methanol and E25 (25% anhydrous ethanol and 75% gasoline were tested in a 1.3-l K3-VE spark-ignition engine. The results indicate that, when G75E21M4 fuel blend was used, a significant drop in CO, CO2, NOx and HC emissions by about 42%, 15%, 7% and 5.2% compared to E0, respectively. Moreover, the emission results for G75E21M4 are marginally lower than E25 whereas; HC emission was slightly higher than E25.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversions Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buses Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  8. Evaluation of retention and disposal options for tritium in fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, W.R.; Hampson, D.C.; Larkin, D.J.; Skolrud, J.O.; Benjamin, R.W.

    1982-08-01

    Five options were evaluated as means of retaining tritium released from light-water reactor or fast breeder reactor fuel during the head-end steps of a typical Purex reprocessing scheme. Cost estimates for these options were compared with a base case in which no retention of tritium within the facility was obtained. Costs were also estimated for a variety of disposal methods of the retained tritium. The disposal costs were combined with the retention costs to yield total costs (capital plus operating) for retention and disposal of tritium under the conditions envisioned. The above costs were converted to an annual basis and to a dollars per curie retained basis. This then was used to estimate the cost in dollars per man-rem saved by retaining the tritium. Only the options that used the least expensive disposal costs could approach the $1000/man-rem cost used as a guide by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  9. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  10. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  11. Does habitual behavior affect the choice of alternative fuel vehicles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeri, Eva; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Because of the recent improvements in the electrification process of cars, several types of alternative fuel vehicles are appearing in the car market. However, these new engine technologies are not easily penetrating the market around the world and the conventional ones are still the leaders....... A vast literature has explored the reasons for such low market penetration, due mainly to car's features. Using a hybrid choice model approach, in this research we study if, and to which extent, habitual car use influences individual propensity to buy a specific type of engine technology. We found...... of a conventional one. The importance of taking into account this latent construct is demonstrated also with the results of the simulated elasticity measures. In fact, the exclusion of latent habitual effect significantly underestimates the elasticity of diesel and hybrid cars and overestimates the elasticity...

  12. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  13. Evaluation of alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsita, Katerina G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered in this paper: internal combustion engine (ICE) and its combination with petroleum and 1st and 2nd generation biofuels blends, fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles. The evaluation of alternative fuel modes is performed according to cost and policy aspects. In order to evaluate each alternative fuel, one base scenario and ten alternative scenarios with different weight factors selection per criterion are presented. After deciding the alternative fuels’ scoring against each criterion and the criteria weights, their synthesis gives the overall score and ranking for all ten alternative scenarios. It is concluded that ICE blended with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector. - Highlights: ► Alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector have been evaluated. ► The method of the AHP was used. ► Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered. ► The evaluation is performed according to cost and policy aspects. ► The ICE with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable fuels.

  14. Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as an Alternative Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), and Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used in buses. At present, there do not exist co...

  15. Ethanol Research : Alternative Fuels & Life-Cycle Engineering Program : November 29, 2006 to November 28, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    This report presents the results of the successful ethanol fuel demonstration program conducted from September 2007 to September 2010. This project was a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Alternative Fuels and Life Cycle Engineering...

  16. The application of systems engineering principles to the prioritization of sustainable nuclear fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Robert R.; Singh, Bhupinder P.; MacKinnon, Robert J.; David Sevougian, S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the implementation of the principles of systems engineering in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program to provide a framework for achieving its long-term mission of demonstrating and deploying sustainable nuclear fuel cycle options. A fuel cycle “screening” methodology is introduced that provides a systematic, objective, and traceable method for evaluating and categorizing nuclear fuel cycles according to their performance in meeting sustainability objectives. The goal of the systems engineering approach is to transparently define and justify the research and development (R and D) necessary to deploy sustainable fuel cycle technologies for a given set of national policy objectives. The approach provides a path for more efficient use of limited R and D resources and facilitates dialog among a variety of stakeholder groups interested in U.S. energy policy. Furthermore, the use of systems engineering principles will allow the FCT Program to more rapidly adapt to future policy changes, including any decisions based on recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future. Specifically, if the relative importance of policy objectives changes, the FCT Program will have a structured process to rapidly determine how this impacts potential fuel cycle performance and the prioritization of needed R and D for associated technologies. - Highlights: ► Systems engineering principles applied in U.S. DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Technology Program. ► Use of decision analysis methods for determining promising nuclear fuel cycles. ► A new screening methodology to help communicate and prioritize U.S. DOE R and D needs. ► Fuel cycles categorized by performance/risk in meeting FCT Program objectives. ► Systems engineering allows DOE-NE to more rapidly adapt to future policy changes

  17. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineered barriers alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Crosthwaite, J.L.; Gray, M.N.

    1994-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves emplacing the waste in a vault excavated at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The solid waste would be isolated from the biosphere by a multibarrier system consisting of engineered barriers, including long-lived containers and clay and cement-based sealing materials, and the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation. The technical feasibility of this concept and its impact on the environment and human health are being documented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which will be submitted for review under the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. This report, one of nine EIS primary references, describes the various alternative designs and materials for engineered barriers that have been considered during the development of the Canadian disposal concept and summarizes engineered barrier concepts being evaluated in other countries. The basis for the selection of a reference engineered barrier system for the EIS is presented. This reference system involves placing used CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) fuel bundles in titanium containers, which would then be emplaced in boreholes drilled in the floor of disposal rooms. Clay-based sealing materials would be used to fill both the space between the containers and the rock and the remaining excavations. In the section on waste forms, the properties of both used-fuel bundles and solidified high-level wastes, which would be produced by treating wastes resulting from the reprocessing of used fuel, are discussed. Methods of solidifying the wastes and the chemical durability of the solidified waste under disposal conditions are reviewed. Various alternative container designs are reviewed, ranging from preliminary conceptual designs to designs that have received extensive prototype testing. Results of structural performance, welding and inspection studies are also summarized. The corrosion of

  18. Alternative Fuel Research in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has recently constructed an Alternative Fuels Laboratory which is solely being used to perform Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reactor studies, novel catalyst development and thermal stability experiments. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst screening experiments while focusing on reducing energy inputs, reducing CO2 emissions and increasing product yields within the F-T process. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which reacts syn-gas (a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), over the surface of a catalyst material which is then converted into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions1. These hydrocarbons can then be further processed into higher quality liquid fuels such as gasoline and diesel. The experiments performed in this laboratory will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics to focus on newly formulated catalysts, improved process conditions and enhanced catalyst activation methods. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor used solely for cobalt catalyst activation.

  19. Conversion and standardization of university reactor fuels using low-enrichment uranium - Options and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.R.; Matos, J.E.; Young, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel used in twenty United States university reactors can be viewed as contributing to the risk of theft or diversion of weapons-useable material. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued a policy statement expressing its concern and has published a proposed rule on limiting the use of HEU in NRC-licensed non-power reactors. The fuel options, functional impacts, licensing, and scheduling of conversion and standardization of these reactor fuels to use of low-enrichment uranium (LEU) have been assessed. The university reactors span a wide range in form and function, from medium-power intense neutron sources where HEU fuel may be required, to low-power training and research facilities where HEU fuel is unnecessary. Conversion provides an opportunity to standardize university reactor fuels and improve reactor utilization in some cases. The entire program is estimated to cost about $10 million and to last about five years. Planning for conversion and standardization is facilitated by the U.S. Department of Energy. (author)

  20. Conversion and standardization of university reactor fuels using low-enrichment uranium - options and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.R.; Matos, J.E.; Young, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel used in twenty United States university reactors can be viewed as contributing to the risk of theft or diversion of weapons-useable material. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued a policy statement expressing its concern and has published a proposed rule on limiting the use of HEU in NRC-licensed non-power reactors. The fuel options, functional impacts, licensing, and scheduling of conversion and standardization of these reactor fuels to use of low-enrichment uranium (LEU) have been assessed. The university reactors span a wide range in form and function, from medium-power intense neutron sources where HEU fuel may be required, to low-power training and research facilities where HEU fuel is unnecessary. Conversion provides an opportunity to standardize university reactor fuels and improve reactor utilization in some cases. The entire program is estimated to cost about $10 million and to last about five years. Planning for conversion and standardization is facilitated by the US Department of Energy. 20 refs., 1 tab